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Sample records for surrounding environmental tobacco

  1. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  2. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  3. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  4. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  5. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  6. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  8. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  9. Exposure to and risk awareness of environmental tobacco smoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many students in higher institutions tend to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. This work was designed to survey the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and awareness of the dangers associated with it among undergraduates of university of Ilorin. Method: It was a cross-sectional study ...

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among casino dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutan, Chandran; West, Christine; Mueller, Charles; Bernert, John T; Bernard, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    This study quantified casino dealers' occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We measured casino dealers' exposure to ETS components by analyzing full-shift air and preshift and postshift urine samples. Casino dealers were exposed to nicotine, 4-vinyl pyridine, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, solanesol, and respirable suspended particulates. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in urine increased significantly during an 8-hour work shift both with and without adjustment for creatinine clearance. Creatinine-unadjusted cotinine significantly increased during the 8-hour shift, but creatinine-adjusted cotinine did not increase significantly. Casino dealers at the three casinos were exposed to airborne ETS components and absorbed an ETS-specific component into their bodies, as demonstrated by detectable levels of urinary NNAL. The casinos should ban smoking on their premises and offer employee smoking cessation programs.

  11. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside or outside the home among school-going adolescents in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: Data from the Kampala Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2002 was used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of self reported exposure to ...

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke and childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Jin Song

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has become an important worldwide public health issue. Children are particularly vulnerable to ETS because they are still developing. ETS exposure causes a wide range of adverse health effects on childhood asthma. There is convincing evidence that ETS exposure is causally associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, increased severity of asthma and worsening asthma control in children who already have the disease, even though a causal relationship with asthma onset is not yet established for asthma incidence. Mechanisms underlying these adverse effects of ETS are not clearly elucidated but e studies on this issue suggest that genetic susceptibility, impaired lung function, and augmented airway inflammation and remodeling may be involved. Children with asthma are just as likely to be exposed to ETS as children in general and there is no risk-free level of exposure. Therefore, providing a smoke-free environment may be of particular importance to the asthmatic children exposed to ETS who have adverse asthma outcomes, as well as to children with genetic susceptibility who are at increased risk of developing asthma upon exposure to ETS in early childhood.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  14. Methodology of testing environmental samples from the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropikova, S.; Pastuchova, D.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are described of environmental sample investigation in the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits, namely monitoring ground water, surface water, sediments, water flows and catchments, vegetation and soil. Methods of sample preparation, and methods of radionuclides determination in mixtures are also discussed, as are spot activity measurement methods. (author)

  15. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

  16. Study on the Environmental Tritium in Surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah - Bandung Landfill Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satrio; Syafalni; Evarista Ristin

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of environmental tritium distribution in surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah landfill areas has been carried out. The aim of this investigation was to know tritium concentration in surrounding of both landfill areas. Normally, tritium concentration in the nature is around 0-5 TU. The results of this investigation showed that the tritium concentration in both shallow groundwater of both landfill areas were still in the range of its normal limit, whereas tritium concentration in stream along both landfill areas and leached water showed higher value. Tritium concentration in deep groundwater of Bantar Gebang landfill showed about the zero value, it means is the normal condition. (author)

  17. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  18. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  19. Environmental health impacts of tobacco farming: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Natacha; Almeida, Guilherme E G; Abdallah, Jumanne M; Novotny, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    To review the literature on environmental health impacts of tobacco farming and to summarise the findings and research gaps in this field. A standard literature search was performed using multiple electronic databases for identification of peer-reviewed articles. The internet and organisational databases were also used to find other types of documents (eg, books and reports). The reference lists of identified relevant documents were reviewed to find additional sources. The selected studies documented many negative environmental impacts of tobacco production at the local level, often linking them with associated social and health problems. The common agricultural practices related to tobacco farming, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, lead to deforestation and soil degradation. Agrochemical pollution and deforestation in turn lead to ecological disruptions that cause a loss of ecosystem services, including land resources, biodiversity and food sources, which negatively impact human health. Multinational tobacco companies' policies and practices contribute to environmental problems related to tobacco leaf production. Development and implementation of interventions against the negative environmental impacts of tobacco production worldwide are necessary to protect the health of farmers, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Transitioning these farmers out of tobacco production is ultimately the resolution to this environmental health problem. In order to inform policy, however, further research is needed to better quantify the health impacts of tobacco farming and evaluate the potential alternative livelihoods that may be possible for tobacco farmers globally.

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  2. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R H; Li, Mu; Xu, Xiaochao; Gu, Yaming

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether cigarette smoking in Chinese urban areas was respectively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising and smoking bans in households, workplaces, and public places. Participants were 4735 urban residents aged 15 years and older, who were identified through multi-stage quota-sampling conducted in six Chinese cities. Data were collected on individual sociodemographics and smoking status, and regional tobacco control measures. The sample was characterized in terms of smoking prevalence, and multilevel logistic models were employed to analyze the association between smoking and tobacco advertising and environmental smoking restrictions, respectively. Smoking prevalence was 30%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that smoking was positively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising, and negatively associated with workplace and household smoking bans. The association of smoking with both tobacco advertising and environmental smoking bans further justifies implementation of comprehensive smoking interventions and tobacco control programs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  4. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...

  5. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  6. Smoking behaviours and attitudes toward tobacco control among assistant environmental health officer trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K

    2013-12-01

    Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  8. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  9. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and sensitisation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannerö, E; Wickman, M; van Hage, M; Bergström, A; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L

    2008-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases the risk of respiratory illness in children but data are inconclusive regarding the risk of IgE sensitisation. To elucidate whether exposure to smoking prenatally and/or postnatally is related to IgE sensitisation in children at 4 years of age. As part of a prospective birth cohort study (BAMSE), a total of 4089 families with children answered questionnaires when the child was 2 months, 1, 2 and 4 years old on environmental factors and symptoms of allergic disease. Blood collected at age 4 years from 2614 children was analysed for IgE antibodies to common inhalant and food allergens. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression with adjustments for potential confounders. There was no evident association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of IgE sensitisation. In contrast, a dose-response effect was found for exposure to ETS from parental smoking during the first few months of life and IgE sensitisation. There was an increased risk of sensitisation to inhalant and/or food allergens (OR(adj) 1.28 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.62)) among children exposed to ETS at 2 months of age. The risk appeared particularly elevated for indoor inhalant allergens, such as cat (OR(adj) 1.96 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.99)) and for food allergens (OR(adj) 1.46 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.93)). The IgE sensitising effect of ETS seemed to be confined to infants of parents without allergic diseases and to ETS exposure during early infancy. Our data indicate that exposure in early infancy to ETS increases the risk of IgE sensitisation to indoor inhalant and food allergens.

  10. Environmental monitoring in the surroundings of nuclear power plants of Argentina during 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Lopez, F.O.; Bruno, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    During 1996 and 1997, the environmental monitoring program in the surroundings of nuclear power plants Atucha 1 (CNA-1) and Embalse (CNE) was performed. For the selection of the sample points, sample type and frequency, recommendations were taken into account, as well as the major pathways of exposure to man. The results of the measurements were, in general, below the lower limit of detection and the doses for each critical group were, in the case of CNA I, below 4.9 E-3 mSv during 1996 and below 4.5 E-3 mSv during 1997, and for CNE, below 7.7 E-3 mSv during 1996 and below 9.4 mSv during 1997. All of these values are well below the dose limits established by todays norms (1mSv/year). (author) [es

  11. Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters play unique trophic roles in brain development. Accordingly, drugs and environmental toxicants that promote or interfere with neurotransmitter function evoke neurodevelopmental abnormalities by disrupting the timing or intensity of neurotrophic actions. The current review discusses three exposure scenarios involving acetylcholine systems: nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF). All three have long-term, adverse effects on specific processes involved in brain cell replication and differentiation, synaptic development and function, and ultimately behavioral performance. Many of these effects can be traced to the sequence of cellular events surrounding the trophic role of acetylcholine acting on its specific cellular receptors and associated signaling cascades. However, for chlorpyrifos, additional noncholinergic mechanisms appear to be critical in establishing the period of developmental vulnerability, the sites and type of neural damage, and the eventual outcome. New findings indicate that developmental neurotoxicity extends to late phases of brain maturation including adolescence. Novel in vitro and in vivo exposure models are being developed to uncover heretofore unsuspected mechanisms and targets for developmental neurotoxicants

  12. Environmental radiation measurements at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and surrounding villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebell, P.; Hutter, A.R.

    1996-07-01

    Two scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory served as scientific experts to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Mission to Kazakhstan: Strengthening Radiation and Nuclear Safety Infrastructures in Countries of the former USSR, Special Task - Preassessment of the radiological situation in the Semipalatinsk and western areas of Kazakhstan. The former Soviet Union's largest nuclear test site was located near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, and following Kazakhstan's independence, the IAEA committed to studying the environmental contamination and the resulting radiation exposure risk to the population due to 346 underground, 87 atmospheric and 26 surface nuclear detonations performed at the site between 1949 and 1989. As part of an 11-member team, environmental radiation measurements were performed during 2 weeks in July 1994. Approximately 30 sites were visited both within the boundaries of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site as well as in and around surrounding villages. Specifically, the objectives of the EML team were to apply independent methods and equipment to assess potential current radiation exposures to the population. Towards this end, the EML scientists collected in-situ gamma-ray spectra, performed external gamma dose rate measurements using pressurized ionization chambers, and collected soil samples in order to estimate the inventory and to determine the depth distribution of radionuclides of interest. With the exception of an area near an open-quotes atomic lakeclose quotes and a 1 km 2 area encompassing ground zero, all the areas visited by the team had external dose rates that were within typical environmental levels. The measurements taken within a 15 km radius of ground zero had elevated levels of 137 Cs as well as the activation products 152 Eu and 60 Co, The dose rate within a 1 km radius of ground zero ranged from 500 to 30000 nGy h -1

  13. ABNORMAL MICROFAUNAL SHELLS AS EARLY WARNING INDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES SURROUNDING BERAU DELTA, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresna Tri Dewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 sediment samples from surrounding Berau Delta, East Kalimantan have been used for microfaunal study. It is found some abnormal shells of ostracoda, foraminifera and other forms with darkish shells (black, dark green and dark brown. These forms were analyzed using SEM-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX or EDS to know their chemical composition. The result shows that these abnormal forms composed of CaO, SiO2, C, FeO, Al2O3, K2O, and small amount of Na2O and Cl. They may derive from different sources: CaO and MgO from neutralized component during the environmental management to handle the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD. The other components may derive from coal ash during combustion process or other activities. From this result, the small amount (less than 5% of abnormal shells may be used as early warning indicator of environmental changes in the study area.

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phoenix, K.A.

    1997-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant

  15. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  16. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand

  17. The Fastest Humans on Earth: Environmental Surroundings and Family Influences That Spark Talent Development in Olympic Speed Skaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott Schacht, Carol L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative research study addressed this question: What influence did early environmental surroundings and family have on the talent development of a cohort of American speed skaters who each competed in four Olympic Games during the 1980s and 1990s? The skaters were Bonnie Blair, Dave Cruikshank, and Dan Jansen. Independent interviews with…

  18. Biological and environmental risk factors of children exposed or not to environmental tobacco pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Stenzel de Pina Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the biological and environmental risk facotrs of children exposed or not to environmental tobacco pollution (ETP. A cross-sectional study with 670 children of both sexes, aged between eight and 12 years, from schools located in Anápolis (GO. We used an adapted questionnaire directed to parents/guardians. The parents of children of the non-exposed to ETP group (NETP were more educated. The group of children exposed to ETP (EETP had a higher history of respiratory disease. The EETP resides with a smoker, commonly fathers, who smoke up to 20 cigarretes a day. The EETP lived in houses with fewer windows, less air circulation and more registries of mold. The EETP presents more respiratory diseases and unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. Therefore, there is a need for more care for the exposure and the environment where they live. Health professionals and educators should promote protection, education and stimulate the abandonment of parent smoking.

  19. Deregulation of Gene Expression Induced by Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Pregnancy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votavová, H.; Dostálová-Merkerová, M.; Krejčík, Z.; Fejglová, K.; Vašíková, A.; Pastorková, Anna; Tabashidze, Nana; Topinka, Jan; Balascak, I.; Šrám, Radim; Brdička, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 9 (2012), s. 1073-1082 ISSN 1462-2203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : environmental tobacco smoke * cord blood * microarray Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.477, year: 2012

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children in two districts of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Miroslav; Milcová, Alena; Binková, Blanka; Kotěšovec, F.; Nožička, J.; Topinka, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 211, 3-4 (2008), s. 318-325 ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA MŽP 1C/5/6/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : children * mothers * environmental tobacco smoke Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.158, year: 2008

  1. Environmental exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke and selected socio-economic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kalinowski

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. Study results indicate the problem of exposure of pregnant women to smoke. Studied socio-economic factors affect the degree of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. There is a need to implement systematic activities in the field of social education about the influence of tobacco smoke on intrauterine development of the fetus. For this purpose it would be useful to develop a health program for women of child-bearing age with focus on the most vulnerable social groups of women. It is also necessary to provide people actively smoking from pregnant women, in particular of home environment, with health education.

  2. An environmental pollution study of Indian metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Chutke, N.L.; Ambulkar, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The process of urbanization and industrialization during last two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin. (author) 26 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. Solid waste disposed in the surrounding of Caetés Ecological Station - PE: opportunity of environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Megumi Nishiwaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several human activities have affected the integrity and balance of conservation unit, compromising the efficiency of the preservation of biodiversity, natural resources and cultural. This work aims to study the solid waste irregular disposition in the surrounding of Caetés Ecological Station (PE and the impacts on site, as well as presenting a proposal of environmental education program involving the local community. The problem has been identified through visiting areas, resulting in primary data, which were crossed with secondary data about solid waste and its negative effects, as well as on environmental education in communities. The environmental education program developed consists in lectures, dynamics, workshops, partnerships with local schools and training. The community mobilization expected in the program will rescue of the history of the Caetés Ecological Station.

  4. Falls among elderly and its relation with their health problems and surrounding environmental factors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman A Alshammari

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Falls among the elderly are common. Significantly, if the health of the individuals is impaired, and there are contiguous environmental risk factors, these elements combine to play a part in the occurrence of such falls. There is, therefore, a need to design and develop a health awareness program to prevent such problems in the elderly.

  5. [Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (2005-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Malvar, Alberto; Jesús García, María; Seoane, Bernardo; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a valuable index to assess the impact of the laws for tobacco control. The objective of this work is to analyse variations in the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (Spain) between 2005, before the Law 28/2005, and 2011, after the law 42/2010. Data were obtained from five population-based independent cross-sectional studies, telephone surveys, developed in Galicia between 2005 and 2011 among population aged 16 to 74 (n=34.419). Self-reported exposure among population aged between 16 and 74 was analysed by setting and tobacco consumption by prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure decreased dramatically in Galicia between 2005 and 2011. In 2005, before the Law 28/2005, 95% of the population reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke compared to 28% in 2011, after the Law 42/2010. Decrease was greater in workplaces in 2006 and in leisure time venues in 2011. After an initial decrease in 2006, exposure at home remains unchanged. An important reduction in self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke occurred in Galicia in the period 2005-2011, specially after the introduction of Laws 28/2005 and 42/2010. Nevertheless, one in four of the population aged 16 to 74 remained exposed in 2011. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke is just as damaging to DNA as mainstream smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, E; Stone, K; Carter, K M; Pryor, W A

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of tar isolated from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nick DNA in mammalian cells. Solutions of ETS tar behave similarly to aqueous solutions of cigarette tar from mainstream smoke. Both solutions contain the tar semiquinone radical, and this radical associates with the DNA in viable rat alveolar macrophages. Solutions of tar from ETS cause single-strand DNA breaks in rat thymocytes in proportion to the amount of tar present, until a plateau is reached....

  7. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul; Wisuda Suvitayavat; Vanida Sangalangkarn; Yuko Nawa; Kiyoshi Kikuchi; Koichi Kawahara; Tawee Saiwichai; Somphong Narkpinit; Pratap Singhasivanon; Ikuro Maruyama; Salunya Tancharoen

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-tre...

  8. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Balmes John; Eisner Mark D; Katz Patricia P; Trupin Laura; Yelin Edward H; Blanc Paul D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing...

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke and low birth weight: a hazard in the workplace?

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, D P; Nguyen, R H

    1999-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) increases infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. One well-established risk factor is maternal smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has recently been focused on as another potential risk factor. In this article, we review epidemiologic literature on the effects of ETS on LBW and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), the cause of LBW related to maternal smoking. As we consider the feasibility of modifying women's exposure, we focus our discussion on wo...

  10. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  11. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking waiters: measurement of expired carbon monoxide levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a health risk that is of concern to patrons and of particular concern to employees of restaurants and bars. OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke exposure (using expired carbon monoxide levels in non-smoking waiters before and after a normal day's shift and to compare pre-exposure levels with non-smoking medical students. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Restaurants with more than 50 tables or 100 places in São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 100 non-smoking restaurant waiters and 100 non-smoking medical students in São Paulo, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Levels of expired carbon monoxide, measured with a Smokerlyser (Bedfont EC 50 Scientific, before and after a normal day's work. RESULTS: Waiters' pre-exposure expired carbon monoxide levels were similar to those of medical students, but after a mean of 9 hours exposure in the workplace, median levels more than doubled (2.0 ppm vs. 5.0 ppm, P <0.001. Post-exposure carbon monoxide levels were correlated with the number of tables available for smokers (Kendall's tau = 0.2, P <0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is the most likely explanation for the increase in carbon monoxide levels among these non-smoking waiters. These findings can be used to inform the ongoing public health debate on passive smoking.

  13. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke and occupational irritants increase the risk of chronic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Piirilä, Päivi; Haahtela, Tari; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Pallasaho, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis cause a lot of symptoms in everyday life. To decrease the burden more information of the preventable risk factors is needed. We assessed prevalence and risk factors for chronic nasal symptoms, exploring the effects of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, exposure to occupational irritants, and their combinations. In 2016, a postal survey was conducted among a random population sample of 8000 adults in Helsinki, Finland with a 50.5% response rate. Smoking was associated with a significant increase in occurrence of chronic rhinitis (longstanding nasal congestion or runny nose), but not with self-reported or physician diagnosed allergic rhinitis. The highest prevalence estimates of nasal symptoms, 55.1% for chronic rhinitis, 49.1% for nasal congestion, and 40.7% for runny nose, were found among smokers with occupational exposure to gases, fumes or dusts.Besides active smoking, also exposure to environmental tobacco smoke combined with occupational exposure increased the risk of nasal symptoms. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and occupational irritants are significant risk factors for nasal symptoms with an additive pattern. The findings suggest that these factors should be systematically inquired in patients with nasal symptoms for appropriate preventive measures. (192 words).

  14. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the respiratory health of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, N.D.; Dede, C.

    2010-01-01

    Infections of the respiratory tract are the most common acute illness of childhood. Apart from the morbidity (and occasional mortality) attributable to respiratory infections, they also represent risk factors for asthma and possibly other chronic respiratory effects in later life. Children's exposure to harmful substances of tobacco smoke begins at prenatal period, if pregnant woman smokes after the delivery, it continues postnatally to be paced. Children are especially sensitive to the respiratory effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. ETS exposure is an significant and avoidable risk factor for respiratory diseases among children. ETS is a wide-spread environmental pollutant that has been long linked with respiratory problems. In children of all ages ETS exposure has been found to be associated with increased respiratory symptoms such as wheeze and cough. The role ETS plays in the development of atopy is of great interest, as atopy is closely related to the development of childhood asthma. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is preventable. This review discusses primarily on impact of ETS on during the fetal period and infancy and childhood.This paper reviews of several articles between year 1992- 2009 obtained from the internet; Pubmed and Medline. (author)

  15. Environmental impacts of Sheba tannery (Ethiopia effluents on the surrounding water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraha Gebrekidan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The levels of hexavalent chromium from direct and treated Sheba tannery effluents, downstream river and spring water samples and upstream river water samples were determined spectrophotometrically by the s-diphenylcarbazide method at 540 nm. Temporal and representative samples were collected from the untreated tannery effluent (S1, sedimentation pond (S2, chromium oxidation pond (S3, downstream river (S4, downstream spring (S5 and 5 kms upstream river (S6. The mean levels of hexavalent chromium in S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 were 10.54, 9.15, 7.82, 0.58, 0.54 and 0.015 mg/L, respectively. The levels of hexavalent chromium in the downstream river and spring water samples exceed the World Health Organization (WHO permissible limit of total chromium in drinking waters (0.05 mg/L as opposed to the levels in the upstream waters. The increased concentrations of Cr(VI in the water samples indicate the possible environmental pollution of the downstream water bodies by the Sheba tannery effluents. In view of the toxicity and related environmental hazards, the levels of hexavalent chromium from the Sheba tannery effluents must be reduced to a permissible limit before discharging into the down stream waters being used for domestic purposes by the nearby communities.

  16. Environmental surveillance of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding environs during 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the Oak Ridge Reservation are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, identify undesirable trends, provide information for the public, and contribute to general environmental knowledge. Regional stations located at distances of up to 140 km (90 miles) from the ORR provide a basis for determining conditions beyond the range of potential influence of the three Oak Ridge installations. Stations within the Reservation, around the perimeters and within each plant site, and in residential and community areas document conditions in areas occupied and visited by the public and potentially affected by the Oak Ridge operations. In all, during 1985 some 115,000 analyses of environmental samples were completed as part of the Reservation-wide and regional monitoring program. Included were approxiately 61,000 air, 41,000 surface water, 8090 groundwater, 2400 wastewater, 80 fish, 231 soil, 132 grass, 36 pine needle, 360 sediment, and 80 external gamma analyses

  17. Environmental surveillance of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding environs during 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-04-01

    Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the Oak Ridge Reservation are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, identify undesirable trends, provide information for the public, and contribute to general environmental knowledge. Regional stations located at distances of up to 140 km (90 miles) from the ORR provide a basis for determining conditions beyond the range of potential influence of the three Oak Ridge installations. Stations within the Reservation, around the perimeters and within each plant site, and in residential and community areas document conditions in areas occupied and visited by the public and potentially affected by the Oak Ridge operations. In all, during 1985 some 115,000 analyses of environmental samples were completed as part of the Reservation-wide and regional monitoring program. Included were approxiately 61,000 air, 41,000 surface water, 8090 groundwater, 2400 wastewater, 80 fish, 231 soil, 132 grass, 36 pine needle, 360 sediment, and 80 external gamma analyses.

  18. [Interrelations between plant communities and environmental factors of wetlands and surrounding lands in mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruifeng; Zhou, Huarong; Qian, Yibing; Zhang, Jianjun

    2006-06-01

    A total of 16 quadrants of wetlands and surrounding lands in the mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River were surveyed, and the data about the characteristics of plant communities and environmental factors were collected and counted. By using PCA (principal component analysis) ordination and regression procedure, the distribution patterns of plant communities and the relationships between the characteristics of plant community structure and environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of the plant communities was closely related to soil moisture, salt, and nutrient contents. The accumulative contribution rate of soil moisture and salt contents in the first principal component accounted for 35.70%, and that of soil nutrient content in the second principal component reached 25.97%. There were 4 types of habitats for the plant community distribution, i. e., fenny--light salt--medium nutrient, moist--medium salt--medium nutrient, mesophytic--medium salt--low nutrient, and medium xerophytic-heavy salt--low nutrient. Along these habitats, swamp vegetation, meadow vegetation, riparian sparse forest, halophytic desert, and salinized shrub were distributed. In the wetlands and surrounding lands of mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River, the ecological dominance of the plant communities was markedly and unitary-linearly correlated with the compound gradient of soil moisture and salt contents. The relationships between species diversity, ecological dominance, and compound gradient of soil moisture and salt contents were significantly accorded to binary-linear regression model.

  19. Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, G.A.; Sufi, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

  20. Evidence for Environmental Contamination in Residential Neighborhoods Surrounding the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Warrick

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous chemicals and munitions. As the years progressed, many Memphis citizens have grown to believe that the activities and chemical stockpile located at this site have negatively affected the health environment of their residents. There is anecdotal evidence and documentation of numerous cancers and other illnesses in those local territories, and specifically, at the Memphis Depot site. Currently, this depot is closed and in remediation by the local government. Particularly, citizens of the Rozelle community have started a campaign to investigate any signs of exposure pathways to noted health risks. The HUEJP was contacted and asked to investigate the community concerns. Obliging to the request, we aimed to sample at three drainage sites and a residential site, talk to local citizens, and gain any additional information that would be helpful in relieving anxiety in the Rozelle community. Soil, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic anions, and heavy metals. These data show that for the four sites sampled, the highest concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were located either within a residential area or in an area with a direct transport pathway to the community. Atomic absorption analysis revealed detectable amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium metals at all sites with direct transport pathways into the residential community, with chromium concentrations being far in excess of the EPA standard limits.

  1. Environmental assessment of the area surrounding Dam Rio Verde - Parana/Brazil. An overview of environmental geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Carrijo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Sessegolo, Gisele; Passos, Everton

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a brief essay on the situation in which the environment of the dam of the Rio Verde Basin-Parana, from the vision of environmental geomorphology. The area is located between the cities of Campo Magro and Campo Largo, Paraná plateau in the first part of theAlto Iguaçu basin. This study aims to raise the concepts relating to environmental geomorphology, to identify the anthropogenic impacts caused in the reservoir areas, identify the environmental compartments found around the dam and characterize the geologic and physiographic region. It was found that the area has intense anthropogenic influence, as urban growth is present in areas and wavy and rough terrain, subject to mass movements and floods. Besides these aspects, the use of land for agriculture contributes to fragility of the area.

  2. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps

  3. Environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding environs during 1986: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Wiehle, W.E.; Valentine, B.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report provides monitoring data for the installation and surrounding environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; provides detailed information about the installation; provides detailed information on input and assumption used in all calculations; integrates monitoring data and related studies in one document to pull together, highlight, and summarize the information contained in many documents; provides trend analyses, where possible, to indicate increases and decreases in environmental conditions; and provides general information on the plant site and quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE reservation and PORTS are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, identify trends, provide information for the public, and contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and the environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 68 refs., 203 figs., 112 tabs

  4. Female non-smokers' environmental tobacco smoking exposure by public transportation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Park, Jin-Soo; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Yeji; Lim, Sinye; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze environmental tobacco smoking exposure in female nonsmokers by public transportation mode using representative data of Koreans. Data from the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012-2014) were analyzed. Urine cotinine was analyzed by public transport behavior, secondhand smoke exposure, socioeconomic factors, and health-related factors. Participants were 1322 adult females; those with the top 75% urine cotinine concentrations were assigned to the high exposure group. A logistic regression analysis was performed considering appropriate weights and stratification according to the sample design of the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey. The geometric mean of urine cotinine concentrations differed according to public transportation modes: subway (1.66 μg/g creatinine) bus (1.77 μg/g creatinine), and taxi (1.94 μg/g creatinine). The odds ratio [OR] was calculated for the high exposure group. The OR of the taxi (2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-5.69) was statistically significantly higher than the subway value (reference), and marginally significant after adjusted with life style, sociodemographic factors and involuntary smoking frequency (2.42, 95% confidence interval, 0.97-6.04). The odds ratio of passengers who mainly used taxis was marginally significantly higher than those of passengers who used subways and buses after adjusted with life style and sociodemographic factors. Implementation of supplementary measures and further studies on exposure to environmental tobacco smoking in taxis are warranted.

  5. Analysis of environmental-social changes in the surrounding area of KWB Turow in the historical context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesłik, Tobiasz; Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Opencast mining of large-area lignite deposits impacts the environment, and the health and life of people living in the vicinity of the conducted mining activity. Therefore, the attempt was made to develop a methodology for identification of environmental and social changes in the Bogatynia municipality (south-western Poland), resulting from functioning of Turow lignite mine within its area. During the study of changes occurring over the years, the development of mining pit was noticed, as well as the transformations of this area and impact of the mining plant on the selected elements of environment and surrounding areas. Analogue and digital data were used for the preparation of cartographic compilations, the usefulness of which was analyzed in accordance with the guidelines contained in the standard [1]. The conducted cartographic studies allowed to learn the history of the mine together with identification of changes taking place in the municipality Bogatynia. The obtained results show the form and condition of the objects in the analyzed year, allowing for the interpretation of changes that occurred in the surrounding areas of the Turow mine. Due to the conducted activity of the mine and Turow power plant, both negative and positive aspects were noted in connection with the carrying out of mining activity in the Bogatynia municipality.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE

    2005-01-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-12-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise.

  8. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125 I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

  9. SOILS AND GEOENVIRONMENTS OF THE NATIONAL PARK OF VIRUÁ AND SURROUNDING, RORAIMA: INTEGRATED VISION OF THE LANDSCAPE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Araujo Furtado de Mendonça

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989287The Viruá National Park (PARNA Viruá occupies 227.011ha, in the region of the low ‘Branco’ river, in Roraima state. This area includes an extensive mosaic of complex seasonally flooded forested and non-forested environments. The present work had as general objective to characterize the pedology aspects and the geo-environmental units of the Park and surroundings, in an integrated vision of the landscape and, additionally, estimate the carbon stocks in the soils and geo-environments. We described and collected 29 soil profiles in the main vegetation types of Campinaranas and Forests of PARNA Viruá and surroundings. The main soil classes are: Espodossolo Humilúvico, Neossolo Quartzarênico, Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Litólicos, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho, Cambissolo Háplico, Cambissolo Flúvico, Gleissolo Háplico and Plintossolo Háplico. The soils present spatial distribution marked by abrupt limits and close association with the vegetation type. We identified three pedo-environments: (1 sandy soils of the Campinaranas; (2 soils associated with the inselbergs and adjacencies; and (3 alluvial soils. We mapped and described 18 geoenvironmental units in PARNA Viruá National Park. The main geo-environments are: i Sandy plains and Paleodunes with grassy and arborous Campinarana on ‘Neossolos Quartzarênicos hidromórficos’ and ‘Espodossolos’; and Floodplains and; ii Terraces with Igapó Forest on sandy hydromorphic soils, occupying 24.6% and 20.1% of the studied area, respectively. In terms of total soil carbon stocks, the geo-environments of the sandy complexes of Campinaranas and associations stand out, with 9450.9 Gg C. The great extension and representativeness of the sandy areas of Campinaranas characterize PARNA Viruá PArk as an important conservation unit for protection Amazonian sandy soil systems. The areas under the domain of ‘Espodossolos’ possess the

  10. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, A.M.; EL Baroudy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  11. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoking, mutagen sensitivity, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z F; Morgenstern, H; Spitz, M R; Tashkin, D P; Yu, G P; Hsu, T C; Schantz, S P

    2000-10-01

    Although active tobacco smoking has been considered a major risk factor for head and neck cancer, few studies have evaluated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and its interaction with mutagen sensitivity on the risk of head and neck cancer. We investigated the relationship between ETS and head and neck cancer in a case-control study of 173 previously untreated cases with pathologically confirmed diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and 176 cancer-free controls at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1992 and 1994. A structured questionnaire was used to collect ETS exposure and other covariates including a history of active tobacco smoking and alcohol use. ETS measures include a history of ETS exposure at home and at workplace. The associations between passive smoking and head and neck cancer were analyzed by Mantel-Haenszel methods and logistic regression models. Additive and multiplicative models were used to evaluate effect modifications between ETS and mutagen sensitivity. The crude odds ratio (OR) for ETS exposure was 2.8 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.3-6.0]. Controlling for age, sex, race, education, alcohol consumption, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and marijuana use, the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was increased with ETS (adjusted OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.9-6.8). Dose-response relationships were observed for the degree of ETS exposure; the adjusted ORs were 2.1 (95% CI, 0.7-6.1) for those with moderate exposure and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-11.5) for individuals with heavy exposure (P for trend = 0.025), in comparison with those who never had ETS exposures. These associations and the dose-response relationships were still present when the analysis was restricted to nonactive smoking cases and controls (crude OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.6-8.4). Crude odds ratios were 1.8 for those with moderate ETS exposure and 4.3 for individuals with heavy ETS exposure among nonsmoking cases and controls (P for trend = 0.008). More

  14. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  15. [Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health.

  16. Reducing domestic exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a review of attitudes and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E; Courage, C; Rushton, L

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews research on attitudes and behaviours towards environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), with a special focus on child health and the indoor environment. Research needs and ways forward to encourage reductions in domestic ETS levels are discussed. Published material was identified through online literature searches (Medline, Toxline, Cancerlit, Biosis, Embase, Enviroline, Sociological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Academic Index and Psychinfo). The literature search strategy employed search terms such as "passive smoking" or "environmental tobacco smoke" with "attitude" or "awareness" and other synonyms. Additional publications were identified by citation chasing and expert advice. Focusing on the UK, studies that provided survey-derived data about attitudes and behaviours in relation to ETS exposure in the indoor environment were selected for review. Published studies from other countries were also included when they provided information pertinent to this review. Most people are aware of the health risks associated with ETS exposure, and there is a high level of support for smoking restrictions in public places to protect non-smokers from ETS. However, although there is concern among both non-smoking and smoking parents about children and second-hand smoke, many people allow children to be exposed to ETS in the home. The review suggests that traditional health promotion campaigns have had only limited success in encouraging ETS risk reduction measures in the home. Because ETS is a public health priority, particularly in relation to child health, the barriers to the uptake of such measures need to be explored in detail to inform the future promotion of reductions in domestic levels of ETS.

  17. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Intelligence at 8–11 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

  18. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  20. Genes and pathways underlying susceptibility to impaired lung function in the context of environmental tobacco smoke exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Jong (Kim); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M. Imboden (Medea); L. Lahousse (Lies); A. Hofman (Albert); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); N.M. Probst-Hensch (Nicole M.); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); H.M. Boezen (Marike)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies aiming to assess genetic susceptibility for impaired lung function levels upon exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) have thus far focused on candidate-genes selected based on a-priori knowledge of potentially relevant biological pathways, such as glutathione

  1. Rock Magnetic Characterization of fine Particles from car Engines, Break pads and Tobacco: An Environmental Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Bervera, E.; Lopez, V. A.; Gerstnecker, K.; Swilley, B.

    2017-12-01

    Today, it is very well known that small magnetic particles are very harmful to the health of humans. For the first time we have conducted an environmental pilot study of fine magnetic particles on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, of particulate matter (pm) 60, pm=10, and pm= 2.5. In order to do a rock magnetic characterization we have preformed low field susceptibility versus temperature (k-T) experiments to determine the Curie points of small particles collected from exhaust pipes, as well as from brake pads of 4 different types of car engines using octane ratings of 85, 87 and 92. The Curie point determinations are very well defined and range from 292 °C through 393 °C to 660 °C. In addition, we have conducted magnetic granulometry experiments on raw tobacco, burnt ashes as well as on car engines and brake pads in question. The results of the experiments show ferro- and ferrimagnetic hysteresis loops with magnetic grain sizes ranging from superparamagnetic-multidomain (SP_MD), multi-domain (MD) and pseudo-single domain (PSD) shown on the modified Day et al. diagram of Dunlop (2002). Thus far, the results we have obtained from this pilot study are in agreement with other studies conducted from cigarette ashes from Bulgaria (Jordanova et al., 2005). Our results could be correlated to the traffic-related PM in Rome, Italy where the SP fraction mainly occurs as coating of MD particles that originated by localized stress in the oxidized outer shell surrounding the unoxidized core of magnetite like grains as published by Sagnotti and Winkler (2012).

  2. Self-Reported Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Avoidance Compared with Cotinine Confirmed Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Pregnant Women and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gregory Gavarkovs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS presents substantial health risks for pregnant women and newborn infants. Measurements of ETS include invasive and expensive biochemical tests, as well as less invasive and lower-cost, self-reported exposure and avoidance measures. Better understanding of self-report measures will help to select ETS assessments for evaluation. Methods: This analysis was conducted within the context of a tailored video intervention to reduce tobacco smoking and ETS exposure during pregnancy and after delivery in the control group sample of 147 nonsmoking women. Measurements of salivary cotinine concentration, self-reported ETS exposure, and avoidance behaviors were captured at 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum. Results: Salivary cotinine concentration was significantly related to ETS avoidance among pregnant nonsmokers at 32 weeks’ gestation, but not ETS exposure. At 6 months postpartum, both the reported ETS exposure of the infant and maternal avoidance behaviors to reduce her infant’s exposure were associated with the infant’s salivary cotinine concentration. At 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum, avoidance behaviors decreased as exposure increased. Discussion: This study suggests that for nonsmoking women during pregnancy, reports of tobacco smoke avoidance are more valid than reports of exposure. After delivery, self-reported ETS exposure or avoidance are associated with each other and the biochemical measurement of salivary cotinine. These results provide researchers and clinicians with evidence to support the inclusion of avoidance behaviors in the selection of ETS measures.

  3. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Kleinjan, M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; DiFranza, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to

  4. Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jansen, P.G.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Ambient systems are networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments and supporting people in their activities. These systems will create a Smart Surrounding for people to facilitate and enrich daily life and increase productivity at work. Such systems will be quite different from

  5. Characterization of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental tobacco smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Fais Fadzil; Norhayati Mohd Tahir

    2007-01-01

    A study has been conducted to investigate the distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). ETS is the smoke that is present in the ambient air due to smoking of tobacco. Types of cigarettes (C1R1 and C6R1) were chosen based on a result of a simple survey carried out to determine the consumer choice of cigarette brand. In analyzing the ETS, volunteers were asked to smoke each brand of cigarette in a closed room and the ETS was then collected using the high Volume Air Sampler fitted with a glass fiber filter. Smoke samples from the glass fiber filter were then extracted using Ultrasonic Agitation and fractionated into aliphatic and aromatic fraction using silica-alumina column. Identification and quantification was done using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Results indicated the presence of n-alkanes in ETS, ranging from C 13 to C 36 with an odd to even carbon number predominance with Carbon Preference Index(CPI) values ranging from 3.34 to 4.90. Total identified resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons (TIRAH) concentration found in ETS ranged from 590 μg m -3 to 591 μg m -3 with the percentage of plant wax n-alkanes ranging from 61% to 64% of the TIRAH found in ETS samples. In source apportionment, CPI > 1 and high percentage of plant wax n-alkanes has generally been associated with the contribution of terrestrial plant source, thus this result indicates that even after curing process and smoking of tobacco, the overall signature of the source of n-alkanes is still preserved. Amount of PAHs detected in all ETS samples ranged from 11.7 ng m -3 to 56.1 ng m -3 . Results also indicated the presence of medium to high molecular weight PAHs with dominant presence of benzo(g, h, i)perylene compound. This result seems to support the contention that smoking process involves a high temperature burning with an oxygen deficient zone in the cigarette itself. Although the concentrations were low, the

  6. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The data of 7,801 adults aged 19 years and over collected during the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Information on smoking habits and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was obtained by self-reports using a standardized questionnaire. Risks of environmental tobacco smoke exposure conferred by sociodemographic variables and behavioral risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression methods. Results Overall, 36.1% of nonsmokers (defined as those not currently smoking and 50.1% of current smokers were found to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke either at work or at home. Among the nonsmokers, women were more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 5.22, 95%CI, 4.08-6.67. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between education level and the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (OR = 1.73, 95%CI, 1.38-2.17 for those with a high school education; OR = 2.30, 95%CI, 1.68-3.16 for those with a middle school education; and OR = 2.58, 95%CI, 1.85-3.59 for those with less than an elementary school education vs. those with a college education or more. In addition, those with office, sales service, or manual labor jobs were found to be at significantly higher risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work than those with professional, administrative, or managerial jobs. Also, the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace was significantly higher for alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (OR = 1.23, 95%CI, 1.07-1.47. After adjusting

  7. Does maternal environmental tobacco smoke interact with social-demographics and environmental factors on congenital heart defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Nie, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jimei; Guo, Xiaoling; Ou, Yanqiu; Chen, Guanchun; Mai, Jinzhuang; Gong, Wei; Wu, Yong; Gao, Xiangmin; Qu, Yanji; Bell, Erin M; Lin, Shao; Zhuang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a major cause of death in infancy and childhood. Major risk factors for most CHDs, particularly those resulting from the combination of environmental exposures with social determinants and behaviors, are still unknown. This study evaluated the main effect of maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and its interaction with social-demographics and environmental factors on CHDs in China. A population-based, matched case-control study of 9452 live-born infants and stillborn fetuses was conducted using the Guangdong Registry of Congenital Heart Disease data (2004-2014). The CHDs were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia tomography/catheterization. Controls were randomly chosen from singleton newborns without any malformation, born in the same hospital as the cases and 1:1 matched by infant sex, time of conception, and parental residence (same city and town to ensure sufficient geographical distribution for analyses). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on demographics, behavior patterns, maternal disease/medication, and environmental exposures. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ETS exposure on CHDs while controlling for all risk factors. Interactive effects were evaluated using a multivariate delta method for maternal demographics, behavior, and environmental exposures on the ETS-CHD relationship. Mothers exposed to ETS during the first trimester of pregnancy were more likely to have infants with CHD than mothers who did not (aOR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.25-1.66). We also observed a significant dose-response relationship when mothers were exposed to ETS and an increasing number of risk factors and CHDs. There were greater than additive interactions for maternal ETS and migrant status, low household income and paternal alcohol consumption on CHDs. Maternal low education also modified the ETS

  8. Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, Żaneta; Kiełbratowska, Bogumiła; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-11-01

    Tobacco smoking constitutes a significant source of indoor air pollution. Various chemical compounds that are emitted during tobacco smoking can have a direct cytotoxic effect on spermatozoa by damaging DNA. There is some evidence that tobacco smoking in men could affect male fertility. The goals of this study were to find relationships between thiocyanates (as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure) and other inorganic ions in human semen samples and present the effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure combined with ion chromatography technique for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples collected from heavy, moderate, and passive smokers, as well as nonsmoking individuals.

  9. How many deaths will it take? A death from asthma associated with work-related environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Martha; Chester, Debra; Hanna, Elizabeth A; Rosenman, Kenneth D

    2008-02-01

    Despite epidemiologic, experimental and observational data on the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and adverse health effects, bar and restaurant workers remain exposed to ETS in the majority of states and countries. Three public health surveillance systems were used to identify and conduct a follow-up investigation of a reported acute asthma death of a young waitress in a bar. The waitress collapsed at the bar where she worked and was declared dead shortly thereafter. Evaluation of the circumstances of her death and her medical history concluded that her death was from acute asthma due to environmental tobacco smoke at work. This is the first reported acute asthma death associated with work-related ETS. Recent studies of asthma among bar and restaurant workers before and after smoking bans support this association. This death dramatizes the need to enact legal protections for workers in the hospitality industry from secondhand smoke.

  10. Organic vapor phase composition of sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke from cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has received considerable attention because of its contribution to indoor air pollution. While some studies have attempted to estimate the exposure of humans to ETS constituents by extrapolating from information gleaned from investigations of sidestream smoke (SS), few studies have reported a direct comparison between the composition of SS and that of ETS. In the study reported here, the authors describe the relative compositional similarities and differences between the vapor phase of SS and that of ETS. SS was generated under different conditions. Both a new laminar flow chamber, which prevents significant alteration of the near-cigarette environment, and a modified Neurath chamber were used for SS generation. ETS samples were collected from an office environment. Vapor phase samples were collected on multi-media resin sorbent traps and analyzed using thermal desorption gas/liquid chromatography employing flame ionization, nitrogen-specific, and mass selective detection. Influences on the compositional profiles by the manner in which the SS is generated are described, as well as the differences between SS and ETS composition resulting from phase transition

  11. Community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about environmental tobacco smoke in homes and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff; Greenbank, Susan; McDowell, Michelle; Mahoney, Catherine; Mazerolle, Paul; Occhipinti, Stefano; Steginga, Suzanne

    2008-08-01

    to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in cars and homes in Queensland. 1,026 randomly selected Queensland residents (84% response) participated in a computer assisted telephone survey to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about ETS in cars and homes; and attitudes towards restrictions on smoking in a range of contexts. Most respondents are aware of the negative health effects of ETS and have smoking bans in their cars (75.8%) and homes (76.8%), however bans are less prevalent for smokers (cars: 37.9%; homes: 51%; p=0.000). For cars/homes, most smokers who did not have smoking bans would not smoke at all around pregnant women (67.7%/53.7%); fewer would refrain for childrennon-smoking adults (31.3%/17.9%); and children 13-17 years (30.9%/21.2%). Parent smokers are less likely to not smoke at all around children>or=2 years (p=0.000) compared to non-parent smokers. Most respondents support car/ home smoking bans for children

  12. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

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    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  13. Distribution of exposure concentrations and doses for constituents of environmental tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; James, A.C. [A.C. James and Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dourson, M.L.; Felter, S.P. [TERA (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, the authors describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions for the workplace exposure. Next, they present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, they derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).

  14. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612) answered a questionnaire during 12th to 16th gestational week about their exposure to ETS at home and outside the home. Pregnant nonsmokers exposed to ETS both at home and outside the home gave birth to children with a birth weight of 78.9 g (95% CI -143.7 to -14.1) (P=0.02) lower than the weight of children born to women unexposed to ETS. There was no significant reduction in birth weight among women exposed to ETS at home only or outside the home only. A nonsignificant dose-response association was seen between increasing daily exposure to ETS and reduction in birth weight. Nonsmoking pregnant women who were exposed to ETS at home as well as outside the home gave birth to children with a 79 g reduction in birth weight compared to children of unexposed women. The fact that exposure to ETS has an effect on the birth weight is regarded as essential. The authors recommend that pregnant women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking.

  15. Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke in relation to asthma severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy A A Comhair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has adverse effects on the health of asthmatics, however the harmful consequences of ETS in relation to asthma severity are unknown.In a multicenter study of severe asthma, we assessed the impact of ETS exposure on morbidity, health care utilization and lung functions; and activity of systemic superoxide dismutase (SOD, a potential oxidative target of ETS that is negatively associated with asthma severity.From 2002-2006, 654 asthmatics (non-severe 366, severe 288 were enrolled, among whom 109 non-severe and 67 severe asthmatics were routinely exposed to ETS as ascertained by history and validated by urine cotinine levels. ETS-exposure was associated with lower quality of life scores; greater rescue inhaler use; lower lung function; greater bronchodilator responsiveness; and greater risk for emergency room visits, hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. ETS-exposure was associated with lower levels of serum SOD activity, particularly in asthmatic women of African heritage.ETS-exposure of asthmatic individuals is associated with worse lung function, higher acuity of exacerbations, more health care utilization, and greater bronchial hyperreactivity. The association of diminished systemic SOD activity to ETS exposure provides for the first time a specific oxidant mechanism by which ETS may adversely affect patients with asthma.

  16. Annoyance from environmental tobacco smoke and support for no-smoking policies at eight large Dutch workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Willemsen, M. C.; de Vries, H.; Genders, R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect descriptive data on annoyance from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), attitudes toward smoking at the workplace, and support for a no-smoking policy. DESIGN: Survey of eight large companies in four sectors of Dutch industry. SUBJECTS: A representative sample of smoking and non-smoking employees (n = 1480). RESULTS: Thirty- five per cent of non-smoking employees felt it was "annoying" to "very annoying" when their colleagues smoked during worktime, and 78% thought a...

  17. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Schierl, Rudolf; Diemer, Juergen; Koch, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Fromme, Hermann; Nowak, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important sources for indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce. Therefore the aim of our study was to quantify Ce and La concentrations in indoor air with high ETS load. Methods: In two subsequent investigations Ce, La and cadmium (Cd) in 3 smokers' (11 samples) and 7 non-smokers' (28 samples) households as well as in 28 hospitality venues in Southern Germany were analysed. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted continuously for seven days in every season in the smokers' and non-smokers' residences, and for 4 h during the main visiting hours in the hospitality venues (restaurants, pubs, and discotheques). Results: In terms of residences median levels of Cd were 0.1 ng/m 3 for non-smokers' and 0.8 ng/m 3 for smokers' households. Median concentrations of Ce were 0.4 ng/m 3 and 9.6 ng/m 3 , and median concentrations of La were 0.2 ng/m 3 and 5.9 ng/m 3 for non-smokers' and for smokers' households, respectively. In the different types of hospitality venues median levels ranged from 2.6 to 9.7 ng/m 3 for Cd, from 18.5 to 50.0 ng/m 3 for Ce and from 10.6 to 23.0 ng/m 3 for La with highest median levels in discotheques. Conclusions: The high concentrations of Ce and La found in ETS enriched indoor air of smokers' households and hospitality venues are an important finding as Ce and La are associated with adverse health effects and data on this issue are scarce. Further research on their toxicological, human and public health consequences is urgently required. - Highlights: ► We quantified cer, lanthanum and cadmium concentrations in indoor air. ► Cer and lanthanum concentrations were high in tobacco smoke enriched locations. ► Both elements can be considered as good markers for indoor air quality.

  18. The role of environmental tobacco exposure and Helicobacter pylori infection in the risk of chronic tonsillitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li’e

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a chronic infectious pathogen with high prevalence. This study investigated the interaction between environmental tobacco exposure and H. pylori infection on the incidence of chronic tonsillitis in Chinese children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study performed in an outpatient clinic in China. METHODS: Pediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis were enrolled. H. pylori infection was determined according to the presence of H. pylori CagA IgG antibodies. Serum cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure were determined for all participants. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in H. pylori infection between the children with chronic tonsillitis and children free of disease, but there was a significant difference in ETS between the two groups (P = 0.011. We next studied the association between ETS and chronic tonsillitis based on H. pylori infection status. In the patients with H. pylori infection, there was a significant difference in ETS distribution between the chronic tonsillitis and control groups (P = 0.022. Taking the participants without ETS as the reference, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those with high ETS had higher susceptibility to chronic tonsillitis (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.67-3.25; adjusted P < 0.001. However, among those without H. pylori infection, ETS did not predispose towards chronic tonsillitis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that tobacco exposure should be a putative mediator risk factor to chronic tonsillitis among children with H. pylori infection.

  19. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD. Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. Results Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21. The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84. The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure. Conclusion ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke and low birth weight: a hazard in the workplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, D P; Nguyen, R H

    1999-12-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) increases infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. One well-established risk factor is maternal smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has recently been focused on as another potential risk factor. In this article, we review epidemiologic literature on the effects of ETS on LBW and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), the cause of LBW related to maternal smoking. As we consider the feasibility of modifying women's exposure, we focus our discussion on workplace exposure to ETS. The workplace is particularly important to consider because women of child-bearing age are present in the workplace in greater numbers now than ever before. In addition, certain subgroups of working women may be particularly at risk from the effects of ETS on pregnancy because they work in environments with higher exposure or they are more susceptible to its effects. We conclude that there is consistent evidence to relate maternal ETS exposure to an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and that this association may be generalized to the work environment. In studies with positive findings, infants exposed to ETS antenatally were 1.5-4 times more likely to be born with LBW, but few studies examined LBW. Most studies looked at measures of IUGR. ETS was associated with reductions in birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) ranging from 25 to 90 g. Infants born to women exposed to ETS were generally 2-4 times more likely to be born small-for-gestational age. ETS exposure in the workplace can and should be minimized to protect pregnant women from its adverse effects.

  1. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  2. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and respiratory morbidity in school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Constant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco smoke is a risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and a major public health problem. Prenatal maternal smoking and post-natal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS lead to dose-dependent decrease in lung function and respiratory morbidity. Influence of different socioeconomic indicators and ETS in the home has also been suggested. Methods: Data on 313 children (52 % male from 4 public schools in Lisbon was analyzed [1st (46 % and 4th graders]. ETS assessment and respiratory symptoms were based on a self-answered questionnaire. All children performed standard spirometry in the school setting and 54 % were acceptable according to ATS/ERS criteria. Descriptive and bivariate analysis of the most relevant variables was done, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted to the variables with clinical/statistical relevance. Results: ETS in the home was found in 41 % (maternal smoking during pregnancy 18 %, smoking mother 32 %, smoking father 38 %. Smoking fathers had lower education and less qualified occupation. Cough was more frequent in children with a smoking mother (adjusted OR = 2.1; 95 %CI, 1.1–4 and wheezing in children with maternal smoking during pregnancy and smoking parents. All differences were significant (p < 0.05. No association was found between parental education and cough/wheeze or ETS and respiratory infections/asthma/decreased spirometric values. Conclusions: Children in Lisbon are frequently exposed to ETS which results in significant respiratory morbidity. Targeted interventions must have social conditions in consideration. In this study, field spirometry was not helpful in early detection of lung function disability in children associated with ETS. Resumo: Introdução: A exposição ao fumo do tabaco (EFT é factor de risco para Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crónica e um problema major de saúde pública. A EFT pré e/ou pós-natal determina

  4. Technical report on dismantling of incinerator building of JNC with strict environmental assessments especially for the contamination of surroundings of incinerator by Dioxin's in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Masanori; Ohmori, Koji; Nomura, Takeshi; Numano, Tatuo; Usui, Kazuya; Irinouchi, Shigenori

    2003-03-01

    Building of incinerator for general waste located at Tokai of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC in short) were dismantled form April 2002 to March 2003 under environmental control According to the regulation entitled 'Outline for the prevention of exposure of Dioxin's to operators engaged in dismantling of waste incinerator' issued on June 01, 2000 by Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan, the regulation requests proper protection methodology to dismantling the incinerator and surroundings contaminated by Dioxin's. This report consists of Environmental assessment under Japanese law and regulations and Procedure of actual dismantling of incinerator building with law-abiding stand point. 1. Environmental assessment; Survey of several laws and regulations concerning on the Dioxin's and actual site assessment to analyze the content of Dioxin's for surroundings of incinerator building. Ground design of dismantling procedures, waste management for disposed during dismantling and scheduling for dismantling of building. 2. Dismantling procedures; Prior to dismantling operation, contamination map by Dioxin's were established then restricted areas were determined. Protection methodology to dioxin's exposure for operators were selected and started dismantling operation after getting permission from the Labor Standards Bureau of Ibaraki Prefecture. Dismantling operations were carried out with respect o above mentioned regulations to prevent the operators exposure to Dioxin's if they are exists in soil or surroundings of building. Finally, dismantling operations were completed without accidents and confirmed no-exposure of Dioxin's to operators of dismantling. Waste generated during dismantling were recycled using specialized recycling companies in Ibaraki prefecture. Dismantling operation of incinerator was first experience at Ibaraki Prefecture, so the officials of Labor Standards Bureau were carried out on-the-spot inspection and have no claim from

  5. Insights into the gut microbiota of freshwater shrimp and its associations with the surrounding microbiota and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanting; Duan, Cuilan; Zhang, Xuxiang; Chen, Huangen; Ren, Hongqiang; Yin, Ying; Ye, Lin

    2018-04-23

    The gut microbiota of aquatic animals plays a crucial role in host health through nutrient acquisition and outcompetition of pathogens. In this study, based on the high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we examined the bacterial communities in the gut of freshwater shrimp ( Macrobrachium nipponense ) and in their living environments (sediment and pond water) and analyzed the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the shrimp gut bacterial communities. High bacterial heterogeneity was observed in the freshwater shrimp gut samples, and the result indicated that both the surrounding bacterial community and water quality factors (particularly dissolved oxygen and temperature) could affect the shrimp gut bacterial community. Despite the observed heterogeneity, 57 genera, constituting 38~99% of the total genera in each of the 40 shrimp gut samples, were identified as the main bacterial population in the gut of M. nipponense . In addition, a high diversity and abundance of lactic acid bacteria (26 genera), which could play significant roles in the digestion process in shrimp, were observed in the shrimp gut samples. Overall, this study provides insights into the gut bacterial communities of freshwater shrimp and basic information for shrimp farming regarding the application of probiotics and disease prevention.

  6. Holocene history and environmental reconstruction of a Hercynian mire and surrounding mountain landscape based on multiple proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudová, Lydie; Hájková, Petra; Opravilová, Věra; Hájek, Michal

    2014-07-01

    We discovered the first peat section covering the entire Holocene in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains, representing an island of unique alpine vegetation whose history may display transitional features between the Hercynian and Carpathian regions. We analysed pollen, plant macrofossils (more abundant in bottom layers), testate amoebae (more abundant in upper layers), peat stratigraphy and chemistry. We found that the landscape development indeed differed from other Hercynian mountains located westward. This is represented by Pinus cembra and Larix during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, the early expansion of spruce around 10,450 cal yr BP, and survival of Larix during the climatic optimum. The early Holocene climatic fluctuations are traced in our profile by species compositions of both the mire and surrounding forests. The mire started to develop as a calcium-rich percolation fen with some species recently considered to be postglacial relicts (Meesia triquetra, Betula nana), shifted into ombrotrophy around 7450 cal yr BP by autogenic succession and changed into a pauperised, nutrient-enriched spruce woodland due to modern forestry activities. We therefore concluded that its recent vegetation is not a product of natural processes. From a methodological viewpoint we demonstrated how using multiple biotic proxies and extensive training sets in transfer functions may overcome taphonomic problems.

  7. Perinatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Enhances Susceptibility to Viral and Secondary Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn A. Claude

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS leads to increased incidence of infections of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether perinatal exposure to ETS increases the incidence, morbidity and severity of respiratory influenza infection and whether a secondary bacterial challenge at the peak of a pre-existing viral infection creates an enhanced host-pathogen susceptibility to an opportunistic infection. Timed-pregnant female Balb/c mice were exposed to either ETS for 6 h/day, 7 d/week beginning on gestation day 14 and continuing with the neonates to 6 weeks of age. Control animals were exposed to filtered air (FA. At the end of exposure, mice were intranasally inoculated with a murine-adapted influenza A. One week later, an intranasal inoculation of S. aureus bacteria was administered. The respective treatment groups were: bacteria only, virus only or virus+bacteria for both FA and ETS-exposed animals for a total of six treatment groups. Animal behavior and body weights were documented daily following infection. Mice were necropsied 1-day post-bacterial infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell analysis demonstrated perinatal exposure to ETS, compared to FA, leads to delayed but enhanced clinical symptoms and enhanced total cell influx into the lungs associated with viral infection followed by bacterial challenge. Viral infection significantly increases the number of neutrophils entering the lungs following bacterial challenge with either FA or ETS exposure, while the influx of lymphocytes and monocytes is significantly enhanced only by perinatal ETS exposure. There is a significant increase in peribronchiolar inflammation following viral infection in pups exposed to ETS compared with pups exposed to FA, but no change is noted in the degree of lung injury between FA and ETS-exposed animals following bacterial challenge. The data suggests perinatal exposure to ETS

  8. Urban Afforestation: Environmental Perception from the Surrounding Residentes of the Seedling Nersey of Teresina North, Piauí

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    Sunamita Lima da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need of urban afforestation is an evident reality in a tropical country with continental dimensions like Brazil. Due its geographic position. Based on that, this article analysed the afforestation project located in two place of seedling-nurseries distribution in north area through the “Teresina Mais Verde” program. In front of that scene, it aimed to analyze how is the owner view on environmental education. The search was accomplished from qualitative analysis records in two steps: bibliographic review and individual interview with the interested in acquiring the seedlings. The main reached results showed that the initiative is good.  Though the question is not only produce seedlings and delivery them to the population. There was a lack of specific strategy to reach the main aim.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  11. Effects of ambient air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health of non-smoking women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C M; Hu, Z G; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J; Peters, J

    1999-10-01

    Two-thirds of complaints received by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in 1988 were related to poor air quality. In July 1990 legislation was implemented to reduce fuel sulphur levels. The intervention led to a reduction in respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness of primary school children. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in respiratory health between non-smoking women living in the more polluted district (Kwai Tsing) and those living in the less polluted district (Southern); to assess the impact of the government air quality intervention; and to study the effect of environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health in non-smoking women in both districts. A total of 3405 non-smoking women, aged 36.5 years (standard deviation = 3.0), from two districts with good and poor air quality respectively before the intervention were followed yearly from 1989 to 1991. Binary latent variable modelling was used to summarize the six respiratory symptoms and to estimate the effects of risk factors. In 1989, living in the polluted district was associated with poor respiratory health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.17, P 0.241) in the more polluted compared with the less polluted district for poor respiratory health. In 1989, the effects on poor respiratory health for exposure to two or more categories of smokers relative to none in the home (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.83, P living in polluted relative to less polluted district (95% CI of the two effects overlapping each other). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and outdoor air pollution had independent adverse effects on respiratory health of non-smoking women and improvement in air quality had produced some but non-significant benefits.

  12. The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Results: Of the study population 151 (27% women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73% self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%, the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%, the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%, and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%. Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.

  13. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  14. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of

  15. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to three years of age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, R. J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Dostál, Miroslav; Keller, J. A.; Nožička, J.; Kotěšovec, F.; Dejmek, Jan; Loomis, D.; Šrám, Radim

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2006), s. 1126-1132 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : ETS-environmental tobacco smoke * respiratory diseases * children health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.861, year: 2006

  16. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyama K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazuaki Suyama, Ryo Kozu, Takako Tanaka, Yuji Ishimatsu, Terumitsu Sawai Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan Background: The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband’s smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Participants and methods: Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015–December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants, and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. Results: A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70% among Group A (7.5% was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p<0.01 and Group B (0.8%, p<0.01. The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4% was also higher than that in the control group (p<0.05 and Group B (p<0.05. ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48–8.42 remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate’s smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Conclusion: Nonsmoking

  17. Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates in human saliva samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2008-11-15

    Environmental tobacco smoke is a major factor influencing the indoor air quality. Various toxic compounds emitted during tobacco smoking into the environment have a significant influence on the chemical composition of human biological fluids. The thiocyanate concentration in saliva is a biochemical measure, frequently used as an objective indicator of tobacco consumption. The goal of this study was to find significant relationships between salivary thiocyanates and other inorganic ions, which are constituents of natural saliva (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), PO(4)(3-)) and to present the effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure combined with ion chromatography technique for the determination of inorganic ions in human saliva samples collected from passive, moderate and heavy smokers.

  18. A ventilação e a fumaça ambiental de cigarros Ventilation and environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fonseca Seelig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A fumaça ambiental de cigarros (FAC é uma das principais contribuintes para o aumento da concentração e da exposição a partículas em ambientes fechados. É comprovado que muitos de seus compostos químicos são tóxicos ou cancerígenos e que sua inalação pode causar vários danos à saúde. Embora, salvo em áreas especificadas, proibido por lei, o fumo em recintos coletivos é comum no Brasil e, na maioria dos casos, as áreas destinadas a ele, quando existentes, não são devidamente isoladas, prejudicando os não-fumantes. A indústria do tabaco e a da hospitalidade vendem a ventilação como a solução desse problema, mas estudos indicam que ela não o é. Este artigo aborda a problemática da exposição à FAC por seus aspectos ligados à saúde e à poluição.Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is a major contributor to indoor air concentrations and exposure to particles. It's known that many of its chemical compounds are toxic or carcinogens and its inhalation may cause many health injuries. Although, except in specified areas, forbidden by law, smoking in collective places is a common activity in Brazil, and, in most of the cases, specified areas, when existing, are not propriety isolated, injuring nonsmokers. Tobacco and hospitality industries maintain ventilation as a solution for this problem, but studies indicate that it is not the appropriate solution. This article approaches the ETS exposure problem through health and pollution implications.

  19. Exposure of Nonsmoking and smoking women to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Birthweight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejmek, Jan; Solanský, I.; Peterková, Kateřina; Šrám, Radim

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2001), s. - ISSN 1044-3983. [Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology /13./. 02.09.2001-05.09.2001, Garmisch-Partenkirchen] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Keywords : air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  20. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  1. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2013-06-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of ETS. We examined the occurrence of psycho-behavioural symptoms, designed to assess nicotine addiction and nicotine withdrawal, in a sample of 778 never-smoking children aged 9-12 years using cross-sectional survey data collected in 15 Dutch primary schools. In the present study, 6% of never-smoking children reported symptoms of craving, 8% reported cue-triggered wanting to smoke, and 20% reported subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In never-smoking children, a higher number of smokers in the child's social environment was associated with more symptoms of cue-triggered wanting to smoke and more subjective symptoms in response to ETS. Never-smoking children and children who had initiated smoking were equally likely to report subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In conclusion, environmental smoking is associated with self-reported psycho-behavioural symptoms in never-smoking children. Future research needs to investigate whether symptoms in children exposed to ETS are physiologically based or whether they reflect other characteristics which predispose youth for smoking initiation in the future.

  2. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and EGFR and ALK alterations in never smokers' lung cancer. Results from the LCRINS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Durán, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Kelsey, Karl T; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abdulkader, Ihab; Provencio, Mariano; Abal-Arca, José; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Vidal-García, Iria; Amenedo, Margarita; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Guzmán-Taveras, Rosirys; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2017-12-28

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a main risk factor of lung cancer in never smokers. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations and ALK translocations are more frequent in never smokers' lung cancer than in ever-smokers. We performed a multicenter case-control study to assess if ETS exposure is associated with the presence of EGFR mutations and its types and if ALK translocations were related with ETS exposure. All patients were never smokers and had confirmed lung cancer diagnosis. ETS exposure during childhood showed a negative association on the probability of EGRF mutation though not significant. Exposure during adulthood, at home or at workplace, did not show any association with EGFR mutation. The mutation type L858R seemed the most associated with a lower probability of EGFR alterations for ETS exposure at home in adult life. There is no apparent association between ETS exposure and ALK translocation. These results might suggest that ETS exposure during childhood or at home in adult life could influence the EGFR mutations profile in lung cancer in never smokers, reducing the probability of presenting EFGR mutation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Rules in Homes among Socially-Disadvantaged Populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milcarz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed in the Piotrkowski District were used, which was part of the “Reducing Social Inequalities in Health” program. Overall, 19.4% of the respondents declared exposure to ETS at home. In the non-smokers group, 15.5%, including 6.6% males and 18.3% females, were exposed to ETS in their place of residence (p < 0.0001. Complete smoke-free rules were adopted by 22.1% of the study participants. Two factors, smoker status and lack of ETS-associated health risk awareness, were found to be significantly associated with no adoption of total smoking bans at home. Socially-disadvantaged non-smokers, especially females from rural areas in Poland, still constitute a large population exposed to ETS in their homes—a challenge from the perspective of public health. Focused efforts are required to address social norms around exposing others to ETS.

  4. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Rules in Homes among Socially-Disadvantaged Populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarz, Katarzyna; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2017-04-21

    This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed in the Piotrkowski District were used, which was part of the "Reducing Social Inequalities in Health" program. Overall, 19.4% of the respondents declared exposure to ETS at home. In the non-smokers group, 15.5%, including 6.6% males and 18.3% females, were exposed to ETS in their place of residence ( p smoker status and lack of ETS-associated health risk awareness, were found to be significantly associated with no adoption of total smoking bans at home. Socially-disadvantaged non-smokers, especially females from rural areas in Poland, still constitute a large population exposed to ETS in their homes-a challenge from the perspective of public health. Focused efforts are required to address social norms around exposing others to ETS.

  5. Does the workplace-smoking ban eliminate differences in risk for environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Tan, Frans E S; Willemsen, Marc C; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein

    2009-10-01

    A workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands was introduced on January 1, 2004. Before the ban male and low educated employees were at higher risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Effective implementation of the ban should result not only in an overall decline of exposure, but also in the disappearance of systematic differences in exposure between subgroups of employees. Data from a Dutch continuous Internet survey were used. From July 2003 through June 2005, 200 respondents were randomly selected each week. The sample consisted of 11,291 non-smoking, working respondents, aged 16-65 years. ETS exposure decreased among all employees and among subgroups at higher risk before the ban. However, also after the ban, males and low educated employees were still most likely to be exposed to ETS. The workplace-smoking ban was effective in reducing ETS exposure among employees. However, after the ban still 52.2% of non-smoking workers reported to be exposed. We did not find the expected stronger effect among employees who were at higher risk. Both before and after implementation of the ban, males and lower educated employees were about two times more likely to be exposed to ETS.

  6. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden--before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Matz; Boëthius, Göran; Axelsson, Sara; Montgomery, Scott M

    2008-08-01

    This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation. A total of 37 volunteers working in bingo halls and casinos (gaming workers) and 54 bars and restaurant employees (other workers) in nine Swedish communities participated in the study. Altogether 71 of 91 persons (14 daily smokers and 57 nonsmokers) participated in both the pre-ban baseline survey and the follow-up 12 months after the ban. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory and sensory symptoms, and attitudes towards the ban were recorded, and spirometry was carried out. The frequency of reported respiratory and sensory symptoms was approximately halved among the nonsmokers in both occupational groups after the introduction of the ban. Initially 87% had exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that was over the nicotine cut-off level chosen to identify possible health risk ( <0.5 microg/m3) while, after the ban, it was only 22%, a relative risk of 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.41). The risk decreased in both occupational groups, but gaming workers experienced the highest pre-ban exposure levels. Attitudes towards the legislation were largely positive, particularly after the ban. However, there was no notable change in lung function, and there was no notable reduction in the number of cigarettes consumed by smokers. The introduction of smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work, particularly among gaming workers.

  7. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Kazuaki; Kozu, Ryo; Tanaka, Takako; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Sawai, Terumitsu

    2018-01-01

    The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband's smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015-December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants), and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others) and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1 ]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70%) among Group A (7.5%) was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p <0.01) and Group B (0.8%, p <0.01). The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4%) was also higher than that in the control group ( p <0.05) and Group B ( p <0.05). ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-8.42) remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate's smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Nonsmoking women who were exposed to ETS from their husband had the lowest FEV 1 /FVC, and a higher proportion of them had airway obstruction when compared to nonsmoking women who experienced ETS from housemates other than their husbands. The findings suggest that tobacco control in

  8. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.

  9. Tobacco and Pregnancy: Overview of exposures and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This opening paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms...

  10. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  11. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized.

  12. The environmental profile of a community’s health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Gilmore, Anna B; Sims, Michelle; Mony, Prem K; Koon, Teo; Yusoff, Khalid; Lear, Scott A; Seron, Pamela; Ismail, Noorhassim; Calik, K Burcu Tumerdem; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Kruger, Annamarie; Swidan, Hany; Gupta, Rajeev; Igumbor, Ehimario; Afridi, Asad; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Mohan, V; Mohan, Deepa; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Poirier, Paul; Orlandini, Andres; Li, Wei; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Methods Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Findings Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15–1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17–5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23–5.17, respectively). Of the 11 842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24–76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Conclusion Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities. PMID:26668437

  13. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Chaves after the implementation of the law 37/2007. A cross-sectional study in two healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradela, C; Pérez-Ríos, M; Ruano-Ravina, A; Barros-Dios, J M

    2013-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is currently the main indoor pollutant and causes a high morbility and mortality. A partial restriction came into force in Portugal, in 2008, law 37/2007, trying to control, define and regulate smoke-free environments. To assess exposure and perceived impact of the law 37/2007 on exposure to ETS among adults attending to the two health care facilities of Chaves (Portugal). A cross-sectional survey on tobacco consumption and exposure to ETS was undertaken in Chaves (Northern Portugal) between November 2009 and February 2010. All the patients, over 17, attending to any of the Chaves Primary Care Facilities were interviewed. Patient enrolment was done on a rolling basis covering all days of the week. A face to face interview was carried out and a carbon monoxide was measured. Prevalence and means are shown with 95% confidence intervals. 287 patients participated in the survey, 56% were males and the mean age was 54 years. Smoking prevalence was 23,6%, significantly higher in males (31% vs 17%). 46,2% reported exposure tobacco smoke elsewhere (53% in males vs. 40% in females). Smokers declared to be more exposed to ETS than non-smokers. 16.2% of the population declared to be exposed at home, 14% at work and 33% at leisure places. The highest decrease in perception of passive exposure was found for restaurants (95%). In nightclubs 68% of the participants stated that exposure has remained unchanged. The tobacco control law offered protection against tobacco smoke in several closed public spaces. However, a significant proportion of the population remains exposed. This study highlights the ineffectiveness of a partial ban. A comprehensive law is, therefore, required in Portugal. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women on oxidative stress in the antral follicle and assisted reproduction outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein Nasr; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2013-08-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and may alter the human reproduction by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in both active and passive smokers. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on oxidative stress in the follicular fluid and the assisted reproduction outcomes. An observational prospective study was carried out on 236 infertile women, who underwent assisted reproduction cycles. The ETS exposure was assessed using self-reported ETS exposure and the cotinine level in follicular fluid. To evaluate the OS in follicular fluid (FF) malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The number of retrieved oocytes, rate of metaphase II stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were considered as the assisted reproduction outcomes. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index, duration, and etiology of infertility; P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The MDA and TAC levels in FF were not related to the self-report number of the weekly ETS exposure and cotinine levels in FF. Also, the number of retrieved oocytes, MII stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were not related to the cotinine level and weekly ETS exposure. However, in women whose cotinine levels in FF were lower and equal/above 3.5 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes was higher (12.63 ± .71 vs. 9.28 ± 1.11, P = 0.01). The relationship between the MDA level and cleavage rate (Beta = -18.5, confidence interval-34.9 and-2.1, P assisted reproduction success by influencing the number of available oocytes. Although, the OS in a follicular environment affect the ability of oocytes to reach the specific cleavage stages at appropriate time intervals, it does not mediate poor-assisted reproduction outcomes due to ETS exposure.

  15. Changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure over a 20-year period: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Barbara J; Thomson, Andrew G; Lennon, Lucy T; Feyerabend, Colin; Doig, Mira; McMeekin, Laura; Wannamethee, S Goya; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    Aims To examine long-term changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in British men between 1978 and 2000, using serum cotinine. Design Prospective cohort: British Regional Heart Study. Setting General practices in 24 towns in England, Wales and Scotland. Participants Non-smoking men: 2125 studied at baseline [questionnaire (Q1): 1978–80, aged 40–59 years], 3046 studied 20 years later (Q20: 1998–2000, aged 60–79 years) and 1208 studied at both times. Non-smokers were men reporting no current smoking with cotinine < 15 ng/ml at Q1 and/or Q20. Measurements Serum cotinine to assess ETS exposure. Findings In cross-sectional analysis, geometric mean cotinine level declined from 1.36 ng/ml [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 1.42] at Q1 to 0.19 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.18, 0.19) at Q20. The prevalence of cotinine levels ≤ 0.7 ng/ml [associated with low coronary heart disease (CHD) risk] rose from 27.1% at Q1 to 83.3% at Q20. Manual social class and northern region of residence were associated with higher mean cotinine levels both at Q1 and Q20; older age was associated with lower cotinine level at Q20 only. Among 1208 persistent non-smokers, cotinine fell by 1.47 ng/ml (95% CI: 1.37, 1.57), 86% decline. Absolute falls in cotinine were greater in manual occupational groups, in the Midlands and Scotland compared to southern England, although percentage decline was very similar across groups. Conclusions A marked decline in ETS exposure occurred in Britain between 1978 and 2000, which is likely to have reduced ETS-related disease risks appreciably before the introduction of legislation banning smoking in public places. PMID:19207361

  16. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women on oxidative stress in the antral follicle and assisted reproduction outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein Nasr; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and may alter the human reproduction by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in both active and passive smokers. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on oxidative stress in the follicular fluid and the assisted reproduction outcomes. Materials and Methods: An observational prospective study was carried out on 236 infertile women, who underwent assisted reproduction cycles. The ETS exposure was assessed using self-reported ETS exposure and the cotinine level in follicular fluid. To evaluate the OS in follicular fluid (FF) malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The number of retrieved oocytes, rate of metaphase II stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were considered as the assisted reproduction outcomes. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index, duration, and etiology of infertility; P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The MDA and TAC levels in FF were not related to the self-report number of the weekly ETS exposure and cotinine levels in FF. Also, the number of retrieved oocytes, MII stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were not related to the cotinine level and weekly ETS exposure. However, in women whose cotinine levels in FF were lower and equal/above 3.5 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes was higher (12.63 ± .71 vs. 9.28 ± 1.11, P = 0.01). The relationship between the MDA level and cleavage rate (Beta = −18.5, confidence interval-34.9 and-2.1, P reproduction success by influencing the number of available oocytes. Although, the OS in a follicular environment affect the ability of oocytes to reach the specific cleavage stages at appropriate time intervals, it does not mediate poor-assisted reproduction outcomes due to ETS exposure. PMID:24379845

  17. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lighters—anything that you connect with your smoking habit. Get rid of all old chewing tobacco containers ... nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking or using chewing tobacco. Some people gain weight ...

  18. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds

  20. Analytical solutions to compartmental indoor air quality models with application to environmental tobacco smoke concentrations measured in a house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R; Klepeis, Neil E; Switzer, Paul

    2003-08-01

    This paper derives the analytical solutions to multi-compartment indoor air quality models for predicting indoor air pollutant concentrations in the home and evaluates the solutions using experimental measurements in the rooms of a single-story residence. The model uses Laplace transform methods to solve the mass balance equations for two interconnected compartments, obtaining analytical solutions that can be applied without a computer. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) sources such as the cigarette typically emit pollutants for relatively short times (7-11 min) and are represented mathematically by a "rectangular" source emission time function, or approximated by a short-duration source called an "impulse" time function. Other time-varying indoor sources also can be represented by Laplace transforms. The two-compartment model is more complicated than the single-compartment model and has more parameters, including the cigarette or combustion source emission rate as a function of time, room volumes, compartmental air change rates, and interzonal air flow factors expressed as dimensionless ratios. This paper provides analytical solutions for the impulse, step (Heaviside), and rectangular source emission time functions. It evaluates the indoor model in an unoccupied two-bedroom home using cigars and cigarettes as sources with continuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), respirable suspended particles (RSP), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH). Fine particle mass concentrations (RSP or PM3.5) are measured using real-time monitors. In our experiments, simultaneous measurements of concentrations at three heights in a bedroom confirm an important assumption of the model-spatial uniformity of mixing. The parameter values of the two-compartment model were obtained using a "grid search" optimization method, and the predicted solutions agreed well with the measured concentration time series in the rooms of the home. The door and window positions in

  1. Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labour practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry websites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990 s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimise their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labour and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labour costs because of child labour and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco-related deforestation in the top 12 tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labour and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies' practices at the farm level.

  2. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoking, and passive smoking. Secondhand smoke contains at least 250 toxic ... in tea bag-like pouches or sachets. No matter what it's called, smokeless tobacco is addictive and ...

  3. Environmental investigations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, McCracken County, Kentucky. Volume 1 - Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report details the results of four studies into environmental and cultural resources on and near the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) located in Western Kentucky in McCracken County, approximately 10 miles west of Paducah, KY. The area investigated includes the PGDP facility proper, additional area owned by DOE under use permit to the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA), area owned by the Commonwealth of Kentucky that is administered by the WKWMA, area owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Metropolis Lake State Nature preserve and some privately held land. DOE requested the assistance and support of the US Army Engineer District, Nashville (CEORN) in conducting various environmental investigations of the area. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) provided technical support to the CEORN for environmental investigations of (1) wetland resources, (2) threatened or endangered species and habitats, and (3) cultural resources. A floodplain investigation was conducted by CEORN

  4. Project for environmental recovery of the Taquari stream in the surroundings of OSBRA Pipeline; Projeto de recuperacao ambiental do corrego Taquari no entorno do duto OSBRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos A.R.; Maia, Jacob S; Magalhaes, Milton P; Nunes, Roberta V [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camargo, Renato F [R. Camargo Ambiental, Americana, SP (Brazil); Ruas, Tereza C.B.G. [Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Assistencia Tecnica Integral (CATI)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO the Project of Environmental Recovery of Taquari Stream (which runs close to Osbra pipeline) to the end of reducing the effect of flooding of the areas adjoining the water body. The discussion encompasses the following themes: pipeline interference with water bodies during construction; relationship with stakeholders; impact of agricultural activities on water bodies; conflicts upon establishment of legal reserves and protection of Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  5. Trends in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing around College Campuses: Opportunities for Enhanced Tobacco Control Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Song, Eunyoung Y.; King, Jessica L.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Reboussin, Beth; Debinski, Beata; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Colleges have implemented policies to limit tobacco use on-campus; however, the off-campus environment is often overlooked in tobacco control efforts. We assessed availability, marketing, and promotion of cigarettes, snus, and traditional smokeless tobacco (SLT) in a sample of communities surrounding 11 college campuses in North…

  6. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... past 30 days. † Any tobacco product includes cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (including chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvable tobacco), tobacco pipes, bidis, hookah, and electronic cigarettes. § Where percentages are missing, sample sizes were ...

  7. How the redox state of tobacco 'Bel-W3' is modified in response to ozone and other environmental factors in a sub-tropical area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ana P.L.; Dafre, Marcelle; Rinaldi, Mirian C.S. [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.b [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This study intended to determine whether the redox state in plants of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' fluctuates in response to the environmental factors in a sub-tropical area contaminated by ozone (Sao Paulo, SE - Brazil) and which environmental factors are related to this fluctuation, discussing their biomonitoring efficiency. We comparatively evaluated the indicators of redox state (ascorbic acid, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and leaf injury in 17 field experiments performed in 2008. The redox state was explained by the combined effects of chronic levels of O{sub 3} and meteorological variables 4-6 days prior to the plant sampling. Moderate leaf injury was observed in most cases. The redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O{sub 3}. Its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. - Research highlights: Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' is potentially a bioindicator of O{sub 3} in the sub-tropics. However, it is unknown if its redox state would affect its bioindicator performance under sub-tropical environmental conditions. This study revealed that the redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O{sub 3}. Therefore, its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. However, the bioindicator efficiency N. tabacum 'Bel-W3' for biomonitoring O{sub 3} should be regionally modeled in the sub-tropics, based on both its redox state and on the flux of O{sub 3} through stomata, in response to the varying micro-meteorological conditions that govern both physiological processes. - The bioindicator efficiency of tobacco plants is not

  8. How the redox state of tobacco 'Bel-W3' is modified in response to ozone and other environmental factors in a sub-tropical area?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Ana P.L.; Dafre, Marcelle; Rinaldi, Mirian C.S.; Domingos, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This study intended to determine whether the redox state in plants of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' fluctuates in response to the environmental factors in a sub-tropical area contaminated by ozone (Sao Paulo, SE - Brazil) and which environmental factors are related to this fluctuation, discussing their biomonitoring efficiency. We comparatively evaluated the indicators of redox state (ascorbic acid, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and leaf injury in 17 field experiments performed in 2008. The redox state was explained by the combined effects of chronic levels of O 3 and meteorological variables 4-6 days prior to the plant sampling. Moderate leaf injury was observed in most cases. The redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O 3 . Its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. - Research highlights: → Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' is potentially a bioindicator of O 3 in the sub-tropics. → However, it is unknown if its redox state would affect its bioindicator performance under sub-tropical environmental conditions. → This study revealed that the redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O 3 . → Therefore, its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. → However, the bioindicator efficiency N. tabacum 'Bel-W3' for biomonitoring O 3 should be regionally modeled in the sub-tropics, based on both its redox state and on the flux of O 3 through stomata, in response to the varying micro-meteorological conditions that govern both physiological processes. - The bioindicator efficiency of tobacco plants is not restrained under chronic doses of O 3 in

  9. Work for the improvement of the contractual operations of the cooperative sector with the integral company and of tobacco of Pinar del Rio. The environmental dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Fernández Lorenzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article approaches the related to different actions for the improvement of the contractual operations of the Cooperative Sector with the Integral Company and of Tobacco of Pinar del Río, incorporating the environmental dimension, the same one will allow to be solutions and answers to those problems that it presents the Cooperative Sector with the state company in this matter.  In the investigation the theoretical foundations were approached on the contractual operations, the cooperative sector in Cuba, as well as the relationships - cooperative.  He was carried out a diagnosis of the current situation of the contractual operations of the cooperative sector belonging to the Integral Company and of Tobacco Pinar del Rio, as well as the characterization of this state company, besides analyzing the base legislative of the contracts opening the way to the presented proposal.     The implementation of the proposed plan of actions had great importance since it contributes to the obtaining of positive results of the administration of the commercialization, whenever the delivery is guaranteed in date of the hired production, as well as the quality of the same one and with the required quantity.

  10. [Hospitality workers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke before and after implementation of smoking ban in public places: a review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure induces serious negative health consequences, of which the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory symptoms and poor pregnancy outcomes appear to be most important. Taking into account those health consequences of ETS exposure most countries have introduced legislation to ban or restrict smoking in public places. In this paper the effectiveness of the introduced legislation was analyzed with regard to the protection of hospitality workers from ETS exposure in the workplace. The analysis of 12 papers published after 2000 covered the year of publication, type of legislation, study population, hospitality venue (pub, bar, restaurant, disco) and type of markers or self-reported perception of exposure to ETS. The analysis indicates that the legislation to ban smoking in hospitality venues protects workers from ETS exposure when the venues are 100% tobacco smoke free. The reduction of the cotinine level in biological samples after the implementation of smoke free law was 57-89%, comparing to the biomarker level in the samples taken before the new law was introduced. About 90% of reduction in nicotine and PM levels was also noted. In addition, the positive self perception reported by workers proved the effectiveness of new legislation protecting them from ETS exposure.

  11. Assessing the environmental fate of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the region surrounding the Zhuoshui River of Taiwan based on an Equilibrium Constant fugacity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Kieran; Doherty, Rory; Robinson, Jill; Chiang, Wen-Son; Kao Kao, Ruey-Chy

    2015-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of flame retardants that have been in use since the 1970s. They are included in the list of hazardous substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because they are extremely hazardous to the environment and human health. PBDEs have been extensively used in industry and manufacturing in Taiwan, thus its citizens are at high risk of exposure to these chemicals. An assessment of the environmental fate of these compounds in the Zhuoshui river and Changhua County regions of western Taiwan, and also including the adjacent area of the Taiwan Strait, was conducted for three high risk congeners, BDE-47, -99 and -209, to obtain information regarding the partitioning, advection, transfer and long range transport potential of the PBDEs in order to identify the level of risk posed by the pollutants in this region. The results indicate that large amounts of PBDEs presently reside in all model compartments - air, soil, water, and sediment - with particularly high levels found in air and especially in sediment. The high levels found in sediment, particularly for BDE-209, are significant, since there is the threat of these pollutants entering the food chain, either directly through benthic feeding, or through resuspension and subsequent feeding in the pelagic region of the water column which is a distinct possibility in the strong currents found within the Taiwan Strait. Another important result is that a substantial portion of emissions leave the model domain directly through advection, particularly for BDE-47 (58%) and BDE-209 (75%), thus posing a risk to adjacent communities. Model results were generally in reasonable agreement with available measured concentrations. In air, model concentrations are in reasonably good agreement with available measured values. For both BDE-47 and -99, model concentrations are a factor of 2-3 higher and BDE-209 within the range of measured values. In soil, model results are somewhat

  12. Artificial neural network based model to calculate the environmental variables of the tobacco drying process; Modelo basado en redes neuronales artificiales para el cálculo de parámetros ambientales en el proceso de curado del tabaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Martínez-Martínez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network (ANN based model for environmental variables related to the tobacco drying process. A fitting ANN was used to estimate and predict temperature and relative humidity inside the tobacco dryer: the estimation consists of calculating the value of these variables in different locations of the dryer and the prediction consists of forecasting the value of these variables with different time horizons. The proposed model has been validated with temperature and relative humidity data obtained from a real tobacco dryer using a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. On the one hand, an error under 2% was achieved, obtaining temperature as a function of temperature and relative humidity in other locations in the estimation task. Besides, an error around 1.5 times lower than the one obtained with an interpolation method was achieved in the prediction task when the temperature inside the tobacco mass was predicted with time horizons over 2.5 hours as a function of its present and past values. These results show that ANN-based models can be used to improve the tobacco drying process because with these types of models the value of environmental variables can be predicted in the near future and can be estimated in other locations with low errors.

  13. Household-level and surrounding peri-domestic environmental characteristics associated with malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus along an urban-rural continuum in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Nicole F; Kadangwe, Chifundo; Mzilahowa, Themba; Bauleni, Andy; Mathanga, Don P; Duster, Chifundo; Walker, Edward D; Wilson, Mark L

    2018-06-08

    Malaria is increasing in some recently urbanized areas that historically were considered lower risk. Understanding what drives urban transmission is hampered by inconsistencies in how "urban" contexts are defined. A dichotomized "urban-rural" approach, based on political boundaries may misclassify environments or fail to capture local drivers of risk. Small-scale agriculture in urban or peri-urban settings has been shown to be a major risk determinant. Household-level Anopheles abundance patterns in and around Malawi's commercial capital of Blantyre (~ 1.9 M pop.) were analysed. Clusters (N = 64) of five houses each located at 2.5 km intervals along eight transects radiating out from Blantyre city centre were sampled during rainy and dry seasons of 2015 and 2016. Mosquito densities were measured inside houses using aspirators to sample resting mosquitoes, and un-baited CDC light traps to sample host seeking mosquitoes. Of 38,895 mosquitoes captured, 91% were female and 87% were Culex spp. Anopheles females (N = 5058) were primarily captured in light traps (97%). Anopheles abundance was greater during rainy seasons. Anopheles funestus was more abundant than Anopheles arabiensis, but both were found on all transects, and had similar associations with environmental risk factors. Anopheles funestus and An. arabiensis females significantly increased with distance from the urban centre, but this trend was not consistent across all transects. Presence of small-scale agriculture was predictive of greater Anopheles spp. abundance, even after controlling for urbanicity, number of nets per person, number of under-5-year olds, years of education, and season. This study revealed how small-scale agriculture along a rural-to-urban transition was associated with An. arabiensis and An. funestus indoor abundances, and that indoor Anopheles density can be high within Blantyre city limits, particularly where agriculture is present. Typical rural areas with lower house

  14. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  15. [3-nitrotyrosine determination as nitrosative stress marker and health attitudes of medical students considering exposure to environmental tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumska, Magdalena; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Tyrpień, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    Negative attitudes in health such as cigarette smoking and imbalanced diet play important role in pathogenesis of various diseases. Cigarette smoking constitutes one of the main sources of exposure to cancerogenic and procancerogenic xenobiotics among adults as well as among young people. Many studies have proven that cigarettes smokers more frequently follow less varied diet in comparison to non-smokers. Despite increasing knowledge of Poles regarding harmful effects of cigarettes smoking and numerous antinicotine campaigns, still high number of women and men smoke and the smoking percentage among young people remains high and has not decreased in the recent years. The ongoing research shows that free radicals -the man cause of exposure to oxidative stress- play the seminal role in pathogenesis of civilisation diseases and physiological cell aging processes. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species present in cigarette smoke due to induced toxic compounds formation, are closely connected with observed increased risk of cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and arteriosclerosis incidents. Malondialdehyde is one of the most studied product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress. However, 3-nitrotyrosine is one of the most promising biomarkers regarding changes caused by oxidative stress in living organisms. The presence of 3-nitrotyrosine was observed in many diseases such as coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes. The aim of the study was the evaluation of free radical processes increase related to tobacco smoke exposure and chosen diet habits by determination of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma samples collected from the group of medicine students. In our investigation we used an author's questionnaire which served to estimate the exposure to tobacco smoke among medicine students. It took also into account the knowledge of the exposure to other xenobiotics and unhealthy habits/behaviours. The investigated group included 150 students of 1

  16. Developmental and environmental regulation of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase promoter in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérouart, D; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1994-03-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) play a key role in the cellular defense against reactive oxygen species. To study the transcriptional regulation at the cellular level, the promoter of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytosolic gene encoding Cu/ZnSOD (SODCc) was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (gusA) and analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants. The promoter was highly active in vascular bundles of leaves and stems, where it is confined to phloem cells. In flowers, GUS activity was detected in ovules and pollen grains, in pigmented tissues of petals, and in vascular tissue of ovaries and anthers. In response to treatment with the superoxide-generating herbicide paraquat, very strong GUS staining was observed in photosynthetically active cells of leaves and in some epidermal root cells of seedlings. The expression of the SODCc-gusA was also induced in seedlings after heat shock and chilling and after treatment with sulfhydryl antioxidants such as reduced glutathione and cysteine. It is postulated that SODCc expression is directly linked to a cell-specific production of excess superoxide radicals in the cytosol.

  17. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Performance Don’t get trapped. Nicotine in cigarettes, cigars, and spit tobacco is addictive. Nicotine narrows your ...

  18. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

  19. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  20. PROCESS CONTROL STORAGE SMOKELESS TOBACCO (SNUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Don

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aim during smokeless tobacco product (snus storage is keeping its quantitative and qualitative properties. Another significant factor is its biological safety due to its oral way of consumption. The main factors affecting quality during storage are: temperature, relative humidity, air composition, ventilation rate, surrounding products and package. Snus consumption is growing, but till present it was slightly spread in Russia and as a result little studied, thus studying process of its storage is an actual question. The aims of the research were: studying terms and methods of storage that provide constant product’s quality. Samples with different composition were taken for carrying research. Quality evaluation was carried according to standard for tobacco branch methods and to new methods developed in the laboratory of technologies for manufacturing tobacco products. Products were stored at lowered and room temperatures. It is discovered that snus with herbs added can be stored at room temperature and humidity not more than three months. Snus with coffee added can be stored not more than four months without changing its taste. Adding honey to this product slightly decreases its score by sensory evaluation, but remains it possible for consumption. Sensory testing score after storage at lowered temperature has remained unchanged. Optimal terms of storage were found. For room temperature they are: temperature 17-25 °C, relative air humidity 65 – 75 %, for lowered temperature – 5 °C and relative air humidity 50 -60 %. It was discovered that composition of snus and environmental parameters affect its storage duration.

  1. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is farmed in more than 125 countries and the problems associated with this ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is one of the world's leading institutions in the generation and application of new ... assumptions about the relative safety ... In Kenya, researchers at Maseno University work.

  2. Employee's perceived exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, passive smoking risk beliefs and attitudes towards smoking: a case study in a university setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, M J; De Irala, J; Canga, N

    2006-02-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace smoking policies, few studies have focused on the implementation of such policies in university settings. Smoking in the workplace is still very common in many countries, including Spain. While the law is about to change and more non-smoking policies are to be implemented, it is not clear what kind of restrictions Spanish workers would find acceptable. This study investigated perceived exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), passive smoking risks beliefs and attitudes towards smoking at the University of Navarra (Spain). A questionnaire was sent by E-mail to 641 randomly selected employees and a response rate of 70.4% was obtained. The survey results suggest that 27.3% of the university employees were smokers and 26.6% were exposed to ETS on a daily basis. The majority of respondents (81.7%) supported a restrictive non-smoking policy. Acceptance among active smokers was significantly lower (59.2 versus 89.3%). Smoking prohibition with the provision of smoking areas was the most favored option (46.9%). Results suggest that employees are ready to restrict smoking in the university, but there was not enough support for a total ban. Employers considering adopting a ban on smoking should be encouraged to conduct a similar survey to identify potential barriers to policy implementation.

  3. Perinatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is associated with changes in DNA methylation that precede the adult onset of lung disease in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elizabeth; Brown, Traci A; Pinkerton, Kent E; Postma, Britten; Malany, Keegan; Yang, Mihi; Kim, Yang Jee; Hamilton, Raymond F; Holian, Andrij; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2017-08-01

    Prenatal and early-life environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure can induce epigenetic alterations associated with inflammation and respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to address the long-term epigenetic consequences of perinatal ETS exposure on latent respiratory disease risk, which are still largely unknown. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to prenatal and early-life ETS; offspring lung pathology, global DNA, and gene-specific methylation were measured at two adult ages. Significant alterations in global DNA methylation and promoter methylation of IFN-γ and Thy-1 were found in ETS-exposed offspring at 10-12 and 20 weeks of age. These sustained epigenetic alterations preceded the onset of significant pulmonary pathologies observed at 20 weeks of age. This study suggests that perinatal ETS exposure induces persistent epigenetic alterations in global DNA, as well as IFN-γ and Thy-1 promoter methylation that precede the adult onset of fibrotic lung pathology. These epigenetic findings could represent potential biomarkers of latent respiratory disease risk.

  4. The Relationship between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease and the Potential Modifying Effect of Diet in a Prospective Cohort among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rajkumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available American Indians experience high rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has been linked to CVD, possibly due to pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. We examined the relationship between self-reported exposure to ETS and fatal and nonfatal CVD incidence using Cox proportional hazards models among 1843 non-smoking American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study. We also evaluated potential modifying effects of several dietary nutrients high in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties with ETS exposure on fatal and nonfatal CVD by creating interaction terms between ETS exposure and the dietary variable. Participants exposed to ETS had a higher hazard (hazard ratio: 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.44 for developing CVD compared to persons not exposed. Interaction analyses suggested stronger effects of ETS on CVD incidence among those consuming diets lower in vitamin E as compared to those consuming higher amounts, particularly on the additive scale. Additional research is recommended to clarify whether public health prevention strategies should simultaneously target reductions in ETS exposures and improvements in diets that may exceed the expected benefits of targeting these risk factors separately.

  5. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic and environmental tobacco smoke, nutrient intake, and oxidative stress in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takuya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Kei; Mizoi, Miho; Adachi, Shu-Ichi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya; Li, Yun-Shan; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    The association between oxidative stress and exposure to environmental chemicals was assessed in a group of Japanese preschool children. The concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and cotinine in spot urine samples, collected from 134 children (3-6 yrs) from a kindergarten in Kanagawa, Japan, were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress or exposure to environmental chemicals. For 76 subjects of the 134, intakes of anti-oxidant nutrients (vitamins A, C, and E, manganese, copper, zinc and selenium (Se)) were estimated from a food consumption survey carried out 2-4 weeks after urine sampling and by urine analysis (Se). The median (min-max) creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary biomarkers were 4.45 (1.98-12.3), 0.127 (0.04-2.41), 4.78 (1.18-12.7), and 0.62 (iAs+MMA, and cotinine, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using 8-OHdG concentration as a dependent variable and urinary biomarkers of exposure and Se intake, intakes of vitamins and biological attributes of the subjects as independent variables. To explain 8-OHdG concentrations, intake of vitamin A and age were significant variables with negative coefficients, while 1-OHP concentration had a positive coefficient. These results indicated that oxidative stress of children is affected by chemical exposure at environmental levels, by nutrient intake and by physiological factors in a complex manner. On the other hand, unstable statistical results due to sub-grouping of subject, based on the availability of food consumption data, were found: the present results should further be validated by future studies with suitable research design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual, social and environmental determinants of smokeless tobacco and betel quid use amongst adolescents of Karachi: a school-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2017-11-28

    With 600 million people using betel quid (BQ) globally, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use being more wide-spread; the duo is an uphill public health concern in South Asian countries. SLT and/or BQ use increases the risk for morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. Because SLT and/or BQ use is initiated during adolescence, it renders this group more vulnerable; and particular attention is needed to curb SLT and/or BQ use to reduce related disease burden. We aimed to observe the differential individual, social and environmental features amongst SLT and/or BQ users to determine the key influencers of its use in adolescents. This study was a cross-sectional survey of 2140 adolescents from secondary schools of Karachi, Pakistan. The main outcome measure was SLT and/or BQ use based on their consumption in the past 30 days. Univariate and multivariate regression binary logistic analyses were employed while reporting results in both crude form and adjusted odds ratio (after adjusting for all remaining individual, social and environmental level variables) with 95% confidence level. A p-value of co-education schools. Students whose peers (OR = 6.79, 95% CI 4.67-9.87, p-value co-education, parents and peers use, lack of knowledge based sessions on harmful health effects of SLT and/or BQ, and easy availability of the product from hawkers outside school all contribute towards enhanced risk of SLT and/or BQ use in adolescents.

  7. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts.

  8. Time-resolved analysis of the emission of sidestream smoke (SSS) from cigarettes during smoking by photo ionisation/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOFMS): towards a better description of environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, T; Mitschke, S; Adam, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the chemical composition of sidestream smoke (SSS) emissions of cigarettes are characterised using a laser-based single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometer. SSS is generated from various cigarette types (2R4F research cigarette; Burley, Oriental and Virginia single-tobacco-type cigarettes) smoked on a single-port smoking machine and collected using a so-called fishtail chimney device. Using this setup, a puff-resolved quantification of several SSS components was performed. Investigations of the dynamics of SSS emissions show that concentration profiles of various substances can be categorised into several groups, either depending on the occurrence of a puff or uninfluenced by the changes in the burning zone during puffing. The SSS emissions occurring directly after a puff strongly resemble the composition of mainstream smoke (MSS). In the smouldering phase, clear differences between MSS and SSS are observed. The changed chemical profiles of SSS and MSS might be also of importance on environmental tobacco smoke which is largely determined by SSS. Additionally, the chemical composition of the SSS is strongly affected by the tobacco type. Hence, the higher nitrogen content of Burley tobacco leads to the detection of increased amounts of nitrogen-containing substances in SSS.

  9. The economics of tobacco in Lebanon: an estimation of the social costs of tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Naamani, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Assess the socioeconomic costs of smoking in Lebanon and understand the tobacco market and identify the winners and losers from the Lebanese tobacco trade. We take a close look at the market for tobacco and related markets to identify the main stakeholders and estimate the direct costs and benefits of tobacco. We also estimate lower bounds for the costs of tobacco, in terms of lost productivity, the cost of medical treatment, lost production due to premature death, and environmental damage. The paucity of data means our cost estimates are conservative lower bounds and we explicitly list the effects that we are unable to include. We identify the main actors in the tobacco trade: the Régie (the state-owned monopoly which regulates the tobacco trade), tobacco farmers, international tobacco companies, local distributors, retailers, consumers, and advertising firms. We identify as proximate actors the Ministries of Finance and Health, employers, and patients of smoking-related illnesses. In 2008, tobacco trade in Lebanon led to a total social cost of $326.7 million (1.1% of GDP). Low price tags on imported cigarettes not only increase smoking prevalence, but they also result in a net economic loss. Lebanese policymakers should consider the overall deficit from tobacco trade and implement the guidelines presented in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to at once increase government revenue and reduce government outlays, and save the labor market and the environment substantial costs.

  10. PERUBAHAN FISIK KERUANGAN DAN SOSIAL EKONOMI MASYARAKAT DI KAWASAN SEKITAR TEMPAT PEMBUANGAN AKHIR SAMPAH BANTARGEBANG KOTA BEKASI (Physical Environmental and Social Economic Changing in Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping Site Area Surrounding Bekasi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kesuma

    2003-07-01

    Physical change was marked by the increasing number of built area, i.e., the growing areas for garbage collectors housings, stalls, local inhabitants housings, increasing length and width of road, and decreasing quality of ground water, air, and solid fertility. The changes of social condition were marked by the increasing population, economic activities or job opportunities, low rate of participation in all levels of education, decreasing degree of health, and disturbed environmental comfort, all of which reduce people’s welfare. The income increase of income, hob opportunities, and business activities which marked the improvement of economic condition. the research concluded that Bantargebang dumping site brought more negative than positive impacts to the surrounding environment and society in the research location.

  11. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.  Created: 10/28/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 10/28/2010.

  12. Youth access to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, N A

    1999-01-01

    To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?

  13. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and respiratory tract infections in pre-school children – a cross-sectional study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Bielska

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the 3-year-old children who had lower respiratory tract infections required antibiotics and hospitalization. Living in a home where no tobacco rules were established may cause an increase of respiratory tract infections.

  14. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, M D; Bitton, A; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated. Searches of previously secret tobacco industry documents, primarily the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and British American Tobacco collections. Additional information was collected through discussions with editors of DSM-III, and library and general internet searches. The tobacco companies regarded the inclusion of tobacco dependence as a diagnosis in DSM-III as an adverse event. It worked to influence the content of the DSM-III and its impact following publication. These efforts included public statements and private lobbying of DSM-III editors and high ranking APA officers by prominent US psychiatrists with undisclosed ties to the tobacco industry. Following publication of DSM-III, tobacco companies contracted with two US professors of psychiatry to organise a conference and publish a monograph detailing controversies surrounding DSM-III. The tobacco industry and its allies lobbied to narrow the definition of tobacco dependence in serial revisions of DSM-III. Following publication of DSM-III, the industry took steps to try to mitigate its impact. These actions mirror industry tactics to influence medical research and policy in various contexts worldwide. Such tactics slow the spread of a professional and public understanding of smoking and health that otherwise would reduce smoking, smoking induced disease, and tobacco company profits.

  15. Current challenges in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, K

    2004-10-01

    Tobacco is the world's biggest preventable killer, but the circumstances of its history, the power and influence of its commerce and the nature of addiction make it a very difficult public health issue. Determinants of smoking are both individual and environmental. Genetics and environment influence to varying degrees all of the steps in a smoker's career. Persistence of use, degree of addiction to nicotine and difficulty in stopping are influenced by inherited traits and nicotine susceptibility, whereas the social environment and the individual's cognitions are the key factors in starting smoking and successfully stopping smoking. The tools available to tobacco control include influencing the social and cultural norms concerning tobacco; legislative and regulatory measures to protect the population and to limit tobacco industry marketing tactics, now encapsulated in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; and programmes to enhance the chance of not starting and successfully stopping. Strategies for tobacco control must work at both societal and individual levels, and directions are being taken that include genetic, pharmacological, behavioural, socio-cultural and international approaches.

  16. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... 2004 [accessed 2015 Aug 17]. National Cancer Institute. Cigars: Health Effects and Trends [ PDF –2.93 MB] . ...

  17. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  18. A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke preventive care provision by child health services in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Justine B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the need for a reduction in levels of childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS being a recognised public health goal, the delivery of ETS preventive care in child health service settings remains a largely unstudied area. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ETS preventive care in child health services; differences in the provision of care by type of service; the prevalence of strategies to support such care; and the association between care support strategies and care provision. Method One-hundred and fifty-one (83% child health service managers within New South Wales, Australia completed a questionnaire in 2002 regarding the: assessment of parental smoking and child ETS exposure; the provision of parental smoking cessation and ETS-exposure reduction advice; and strategies used to support the provision of such care. Child health services were categorised based on their size and case-mix, and a chi-square analysis was performed to compare the prevalence of ETS risk assessment and ETS prevention advice between service types. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the existence of care support strategies and the provision of ETS risk assessment and ETS exposure prevention advice. Results A significant proportion of services reported that they did not assess parental smoking status (26%, and reported that they did not assess the ETS exposure (78% of any child. Forty four percent of services reported that they did not provide smoking cessation advice and 20% reported they did not provide ETS exposure prevention advice. Community based child and family health services reported a greater prevalence of ETS preventive care compared to other hospital based units. Less than half of the services reported having strategies to support the provision of ETS preventive care. The existence of such support strategies was associated with greater odds of care provision

  19. Demarketing of Tobacco Products and Consumers Behavior Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jacennik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Demarketing of tobacco products includes methods aimed at changing the consumer behavior and the marketing environment. The main strategies consist of price manipulation, anti-smoking advertising, regulations restricting or banning tobacco advertising, limitations of distribution or consumption of tobacco products, and warning messages on packages and advertisements. These measures influence either directly or indirectly the following psychosocial and environmental variables: health beliefs, social attractiveness of smoking, accessibility of tobacco products and associated behaviors. The article presents a review of international research on the demarketing of tobacco and its effects for the formation and change of health behavior.

  20. Tobacco use among students in Bihar (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra N; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh

    2004-01-01

    Determination of the prevalence and attitudes toward tobacco use was assessed among 13-15 years school students in Bihar (India). Schools having grade 8-10 in Bihar. A two stage cluster sample design was used. SUDAAN and the C-sample procedure in Epi-Info was used for statistical analysis. Of the 2636 respondents, 71.8% (76.5% boys, 57.2% girls) were ever tobacco users; of them 48.9% had used tobacco before 10 years of age. Current use was reported by 58.9% (Boys 61.4%, Girls 51.2%); smokeless tobacco by 55.6% (Boys 57.6%, Girls 49.2%); and smoking by 19.4% (23.0% boys, 7.8% girls). Nearly one third (29%) students were exposed to ETS inside their homes and nearly half (48%) outside their homes. Almost all students reported watching cigarette and gutka advertisements in almost all kinds of media and events. Tobacco use by parents and friends, knowledge on harmful effects of chewing tobacco, smoking and environmental smoke, and attitudes on tobacco use by others were strongly associated with student tobacco use. Current tobacco use was reported significantly more by students who received pocket money/or were earning than by students who did not receive any pocket money/or did not earn (p value for trend <0.0001). Over half of current users (56%) bought their tobacco products from stores; of these, over 3/4th (77.2%) of them despite their age, had no difficulty in procuring these products. Teaching in schools regarding harmful effects of tobacco use was non-existent (3%). This urgently requires a comprehensive prevention program in schools and the community especially targeted towards girls.

  1. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  2. Tobacco, e-cigarettes, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A; Hecht, Stephen S

    2017-04-01

    The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular, and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life, such as obesity, behavioral problems, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies.

  3. Tobacco, E-Cigarettes and Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the review The availability of the Children’s Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Findings Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life such as obesity, behavioral problems and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. While e-cigarettes appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Summary Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies. PMID:28059903

  4. Smokeless Tobacco - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.

  5. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and their transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part I: Bulky DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topinka, J.; Milcova, A.; Libalova, H.; Novakova, Z.; Rossner, P.; Balascak, I.; Sram, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    32 P-postlabelling and PAH-ELISA using the antiserum no. 29 were employed to analyze DNA adducts in venous and umbilical cord blood and the placenta of 79 mothers giving birth to 80 living babies in Prague (Czech Republic). Ambient air exposure was measured by stationary measurements of basic air pollutants (PM2.5, c-PAHs) during the entire pregnancy. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by questionnaire data and by plasma cotinine levels. The total DNA adduct levels in the lymphocytes of mothers and newborns were elevated by 30-40% (p 8 nucleotides vs. 0.15 ± 0.06 adducts/10 8 nucleotides) with newborns indicated a 30-40% increase of adducts in mothers. Almost equal PAH-DNA adduct levels were detected by anti-BPDE-DNA ELISA in the placenta of tobacco smoke-exposed and -unexposed mothers. Our results suggest a protective effect of the placental barrier against the genotoxic effect of some tobacco smoke components between the circulation of mother and child. We found a correlation between adduct levels in the blood of mothers and newborns.

  6. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  7. Smokeless Tobacco: Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t start. If you do use them, quit. Addiction to Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine, which ... Smoking and Health E-mail: tobaccoinfo@cdc.gov Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO Media Inquiries: Contact CDC’s ...

  8. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  9. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in smokeless tobacco include polonium–210 (a radioactive element found in tobacco fertilizer) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... study of the 40 most widely used popular brands of moist snuff showed that the amount of ...

  10. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  11. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Harm reduction in U.S. tobacco control: Constructions in textual news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    U.S. tobacco control has long emphasized abstinence, yet quitting smoking is hard and cessation rates low. Tobacco harm reduction alternatives espouse substituting cigarettes with safer nicotine and tobacco products. Policy shifts embracing tobacco harm reduction have increased media attention, yet it remains controversial. Discourse theory posits language as fluid, and socially constructed meaning as neither absolute nor neutral, elevating certain views over others while depicting "discursive struggle" between them. While an abstinence-based framework dominates tobacco policy, discourse theory suggests constructions of nicotine and tobacco use can change, for example by positioning tobacco harm reduction more favorably. Textual discourse analysis was used to explore constructions of tobacco harm reduction in 478 (308 original) U.S. textual news media articles spanning 1996-2014. Using keyword database sampling, retrieved articles were analyzed first as discrete recording units and then to identify emergent thematic content. Constructions of tobacco harm reduction shifted over this time, revealing tension among industry and policy interests through competing definitions of tobacco harm reduction, depictions of its underlying science, and accounts of regulatory matters including tobacco industry support for harm reduction and desired marketing and taxation legislation. Heightened salience surrounding tobacco harm reduction and electronic cigarettes suggests their greater acceptance in U.S. tobacco control. Various media depictions construct harm reduction as a temporary means to cessation, and conflict with other constructions of it that place no subjective value on continued "safer" tobacco/nicotine use. Constructions of science largely obscure claims of the veracity of tobacco harm reduction, with conflict surrounding appropriate public health benchmarks for tobacco policy and health risks of nicotine use. Taxation policies and e-cigarette pricing relative to

  13. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Until recently, the Chinese tobacco industry has been run as a state-owned monopoly. It is reported ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India.

  14. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  17. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  18. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This PSA helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged cigarettes and smokeless tobacco.  Created: 10/28/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 10/28/2010.

  19. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  20. The pediatric resident training on tobacco project: baseline findings from the Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher keith; Pyle, Sara; Moore, Glenisha; Meshberg, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    Pediatricians have an important and unique role to play in the anti-tobacco arena. They may prevent relapse to smoking in women who stopped smoking during pregnancy, encourage parents to protect infants and young children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prevent the onset of smoking in children and adolescents, and help patients and parents who smoke or use other forms of tobacco to quit. Unfortunately, few pediatricians intervene on tobacco use or ETS, and few pediatric residency training programs prepare residents to address tobacco. The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a 4-year randomized prospective study of the effectiveness of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco in patients and parents. In this paper, we present findings from the Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey. Fifteen pediatric residency training programs participated in the Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project, and they were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions. The Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey was administered to 1770 participants, a minimum of 100 from each site. The Parent/Guardian Survey was designed to describe the population under study. It addressed demographic information, family tobacco use, rules concerning smoking in the home and elsewhere, smoking behavior and beliefs, and parent/guardian reports of resident intervention on tobacco. Data analyses described the population served by Continuity Clinics associated with the pediatric residency training programs and determined the degree to which residents addressed tobacco in parents/guardians. The parents/guardians were primarily low-income African American and Hispanic females. Approximately 20% reported that they smoked cigarettes, and about 60% prohibited smoking in their home. Seventy percent of the parents reported that the resident asked about cigarette smoking, and about half indicated that the resident talked with them about ETS. However, only

  1. Ornitocenosis of the Sursky pond and its close the surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacko, J.; Ambrus, B.; Fupso, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the qualitative-quantitative research of fishpond bird community of the Sursky and its surroundings as well as on analysis of seasonal population dynamics of the avifauna as well as on placing the determined species into environmental groups and guilds. Another object is the comparison of our results with recent work focused on research of bird communities on this site.

  2. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  3. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  5. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Avey, Jaedon P; Trinidad, Susan B; Beans, Julie A; Robinson, Renee F

    2015-01-01

    American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes.

  6. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  7. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  8. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  9. Talking to Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans about tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Joseph, Anne M; Polusny, Melissa A; Chlebeck, Bernadette; Brock, Betsy; Gulden, Ashley; Fu, Steven S

    2011-07-01

    Our goal in this study was to examine beliefs and attitudes about tobacco use in the newest generation of combat veterans, those who served in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]). We held 5 focus groups (n = 17) with Minnesota Army National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from combat deployment in support of OEF/OIF. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We found that it is common to use tobacco in the combat zone for stress and anger management and boredom relief. Tobacco was also a tool for staying alert, a way to socialize, and provided a chance to take breaks. Participants recognized the culture of tobacco use in the military. Stress, nicotine dependence, the tobacco environment at drill activities, and perceived inaccessibility of cessation tools perpetuated use at home and served as a barrier to cessation. Repeatedly, participants cited tobacco policies (such as increased taxes and smoke-free workspaces) as motivators for quitting. There are specific circumstances common to combat zones that promote tobacco use. Results suggest that environmental changes that address the prominence of tobacco in military culture, the acceptance of nonsmoking breaks, and cessation programs that address stress issues and make cessation aids available may be effective in reducing tobacco use.

  10. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  11. Quit history, intentions to quit, and reasons for considering quitting among tobacco users in India: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Wave 1 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, G G; Pednekar, M S; Gupta, P C; Sansone, G C; Quah, A C K; Bansal-Travers, M; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010 revealed that more than one-third (35%) of adults in India use tobacco in some form: 21% use smokeless tobacco, 9% smoke, and 5% are mixed users (they smoke and use smokeless tobacco), and the quit rate is very low. In an effort to decrease prevalence of tobacco use, it is thus important to understand the factors that are related to intention to quit among Indian tobacco users. Research has shown consistently that intention to quit is a strong predictor of future quitting. The present study reports the factors encouraging quitting tobacco products in India. Cross-sectional data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Survey conducted in four cities and surrounding rural areas (i.e. Mumbai [Maharashtra], Patna [Bihar], Indore [Madhya Pradesh], and Kolkata [West Bengal]) between August 2010 and December 2011 were analyzed. A total of 8051 tobacco users (15+ years) were randomly sampled from 8586 households: 1255 smokers, 5991 smokeless users, and 805 mixed (smoke and smokeless) users. Validated, standardized questions were asked about current tobacco use, intention to quit, and factors encouraging quitting. Overall, 19.6% of tobacco users intended to quit. Smokers had less intention to quit as compared to smokeless tobacco users whereas mixed users had more intention to quit (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.12-1.97) compared to smokeless tobacco users. Highly educated people were more likely to report intention to quit (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.09-3.02) compared to less educated. Advice by doctors to quit tobacco had a strong impact on intention to quit (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.29-2.15). Tobacco users who were exposed to antitobacco messages at work places (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.23-2.46), at restaurants (OR = 1.65, CI = 1.12-2.43), bars (OR = 1.81, CI = 1.07-3.06), on public transportation (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.49-3.08) and on tobacco packages (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.29-2.14) also

  12. Controversies surrounding Human Papilloma Virus infection, head & neck vs oral cancer, implications for prophylaxis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Campisi, G.; Giovannelli, L.

    2009-01-01

    Head & Neck Cancer (HNC) represents the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and it is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors, i.e., tobacco smoking and/or the alcohol consumption. Recently, substantial evidence has been mounting that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is playing an increasing important role in oral cancer. Because of the attention and clamor surrounding oral HPV infection and related cancers, as well as the use of HPV prophylactic vaccines, in this in...

  13. Adolescents' perceptions of flavored tobacco products, including E-cigarettes: A qualitative study to inform FDA tobacco education efforts through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, D R; Fiellin, L E; Pendergrass, T; Miller, Erica; Pentz, M A; Hieftje, K

    2018-07-01

    Flavored tobacco products have been shown to appeal to youth, however tobacco control strategies have traditionally not focused on these products. To inform the adaptation of an existing videogame to focus on the prevention of flavored tobacco product use, this study explored adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, and social norms surrounding these products, including flavored e-cigarettes. We conducted and analyzed transcripts from seven focus groups with 11-17-year-old adolescents (n = 33) from after-school programs in CT and CA in 2016. Participants discussed flavored tobacco product beliefs and experiences, and how these compared to traditional cigarettes. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed that participants could name flavors in tobacco products, even though few discussed first-hand experience with the products. Most groups perceived that flavored tobacco product and flavored e-cigarette use facilitated peer approval and acceptance. All groups discussed how youth could easily access flavored tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Flavoring was a salient aspect of e-cigarette advertisements; however the groups did not recall exposure to other types of flavored tobacco product counter-marketing. These data can help inform the development of tobacco control strategies, novel interventions (such as videogames), and future FDA efforts to prevent adolescent tobacco product use through education and risk communication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The economics of tobacco use in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an independent survey of tobacco use in Jordan following the methods and template of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Using data collected on cigarette use and cigarette prices, we estimated the price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan. We used a 2-part model of cigarette demand. In the first part, we estimate the impact of prices on the decision to smoke while controlling for individual demographic and environmental characteristics. Conditional on smoking, we then estimate the effect of price on the number of cigarettes smoked. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan was estimated to be -0.6. Smoking among women was found to be relatively unresponsive to price (elasticity of -0.01), whereas smoking among men was much more responsive to price (elasticity of -0.81). The price elasticity estimates suggest that significant increases in tobacco taxes are likely to be effective in reducing smoking in Jordan, particularly smoking among men.

  15. Trends in point-of-sale tobacco marketing around college campuses: Opportunities for enhanced tobacco control efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Sutfin, Erin L; Song, Eunyoung Y; King, Jessica L; Egan, Kathleen L; Reboussin, Beth; Debinski, Beata; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Colleges have implemented policies to limit tobacco use on-campus; however, the off-campus environment is often overlooked in tobacco control efforts. We assessed availability, marketing, and promotion of cigarettes, snus, and traditional smokeless tobacco (SLT) in a sample of communities surrounding 11 college campuses in North Carolina and Virginia. Between January-March of 2011, 2012 and 2013, 481 tobacco-selling retailers, including convenience stores, pharmacies and supermarkets, located near campuses were assessed. Trained observers completed annual point-of-sale assessments. The percentage of stores selling (81.4% to 58.6%; p < .0001) and advertising snus (80.1% to 53.11%; p < .0001) significantly decreased over time. Convenience stores increased promotions of cigarettes (65.4% to 72.8%; p = 0.04) and SLT (3.1% to 23.3%; p = 0.02). Off-campus environments have abundant tobacco availability and marketing. Colleges should collaborate with state and local tobacco control advocates to address tobacco promotion near campuses to potentially decrease product appeal and access among young adults.

  16. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  17. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  18. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  19. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigar use have generally declined, sharp increases in e-cigarette and hookah tobacco use among teens in previous ... dangers of using electronic nicotine delivery systems, like e-cigarettes. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly ...

  20. Tobacco Control in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manufactured tobacco production in Cameroon (tons) ... Africa has a responsibility to resist the carrot of industrial temptation. ...... parliamentary systems, unitary versus federal designs and the relative development and influence of the judicial ...

  1. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smokers appear less attractive and prematurely old. 5 Women have been extensively targeted by tobacco marketing. These ads are dominated by themes associating cigarettes with social desirability, independence, weight control and having fun. Like most other ...

  2. Prevalence and predictors of home and automobile smoking bans and child environmental tobacco smoke exposure: a cross-sectional study of U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic women with young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegler Michelle C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure on child health are well documented. Because young children's primary exposure to ETS occurs in homes and automobiles, voluntary smoking restrictions can substantially reduce exposure. We assessed the prevalence of home and automobile smoking bans among U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanics in the southwestern United States, and examined the influence of mother's country of birth and smoking practices on voluntary smoking bans and on child ETS exposure. Methods U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 through 12 years were systematically sampled from health clinics in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In-person interviews were conducted with 269 mothers (75.4% response rate to obtain information on main study outcomes (complete versus no/partial home and automobile smoking bans; child room and automobile ETS exposure and risk factors (mother's country of birth, maternal and household smoking behaviors. Data were analyzed with chi square tests and logistic regression models. Results Three-fourths (74–77% of U.S.-born and 90–95% of Mexico-born mothers reported complete automobile and home smoking bans. In multivariate analyses, mother's U.S nativity, mother's current smoking, and presence of other adult smokers in the home were associated with significantly increased odds of not having a complete home or automobile smoking ban. Mother's smoking was associated with child ETS exposure both indoors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.31 and in automobiles (OR = 2.97. Children of U.S.-born mothers had increased odds of exposure to ETS indoors (OR = 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–7.69, but not in automobiles. Having complete smoking bans was associated with substantially reduced odds of child ETS exposure both indoors (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.04–0.27 and in automobiles (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36. Conclusion This study of Hispanic mothers in the southwestern U

  3. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  4. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

  6. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  7. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  8. The Relation Between Residential Property and its Surroundings and Day- and Night-Time Residential Burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  9. Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laporte Ronald E

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%, oral tobacco(13.5%, hukka (12% and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%. Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01 and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001. Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

  10. Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ali Yawar; Iqbal, Azhar; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Laporte, Ronald E; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Nishtar, Sania

    2008-01-01

    Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women) used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%), oral tobacco(13.5%), hukka (12%) and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%). Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01) and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001). Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed. PMID:18254981

  11. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  12. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  13. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 sept. 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  14. Association Between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and the Occurrence of EGFR Mutations and ALK Rearrangements in Never-smokers With Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: Analyses From a Prospective Multinational ETS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Ross A; Kubo, Akihito; Ando, Masahiko; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2017-09-01

    Molecular studies have demonstrated actionable driver oncogene alterations are more frequent in never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The etiology of these driver oncogenes in patients with NSCLC remains unknown, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a potential cause in these cases. We assembled clinical and genetic information for never-smoker patients with NSCLC accrued in Japan, Korea, Singapore, and the United States. To determine an association between cumulative ETS and activating EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements, the Mantel extension test was used. Multivariate analysis on activating EGFR and ALK gene rearrangements was performed using the generalized linear mixed model with nations as a random effect. From July 2007 to December 2012, 498 never-smokers with pathologically proven NSCLC were registered and tested for the association between ETS and EGFR and ALK status. EGFR mutations were more frequent in the ever-ETS cohort (58.4%) compared with the never-ETS cohort (39.6%), and the incidence of EGFR mutations was significantly associated with the increment of cumulative ETS (cETS) in female never-smokers (P = .033), whereas the incidence of ALK rearrangements was not significantly different between the ever-ETS and never-ETS cohorts. Odds ratio for EGFR mutations for each 10-year increment in cETS was 1.091 and 0.89 for female and male never-smokers (P = .031 and P = .263, respectively). Increased ETS exposure was closely associated with EGFR mutations in female never-smokers with NSCLC in the expanded multinational cohort. However, the association of ETS and ALK rearrangements in never-smokers with NSCLC was not significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender. ... is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. ... are necessary in the society it should not be mistaken for gender inequality.

  16. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-07-01

    To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT's Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level.

  17. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND...

  18. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  19. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  20. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  1. Polonium-210 in food and tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S K [Sudan Academy of Science, Atomic Energy Research Coordination Council, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this study is concerned with the radioactivity in food and tobacco, derived mainly from {sup 210}Po which contribute to the radiation dose received through diet and smoking. This subject was covered under four chapters. Chapter one deals with historical background of polonium-210 and its behavior in living system. Sources of polonium-210 in food and tobacco are explained in the second chapter. Relevant issues such as separation and measurement of polonium-210 covered in subsequent chapter. Chapter four reviewed recent studies on polonium-210. It was found that the main source of this radionuclide is the phosphatic fertilizers that used in food and tobacco cultivation. These fertilizers contain the decay products of {sup 238}U series of which {sup 210}Po is known to be very important from environmental point of view. Many studies conducted showed that the committed effective dose derived mainly from {sup 210} Po due to the consumption of food, particularly sea food is significant, furthermore {sup 210}Po in tobacco is known to be the main cause of many diseases such as lung cancer.(Author)

  2. Polonium-210 in food and tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.K.

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study is concerned with the radioactivity in food and tobacco, derived mainly from 210 Po which contribute to the radiation dose received through diet and smoking. This subject was covered under four chapters. Chapter one deals with historical background of polonium-210 and its behavior in living system. Sources of polonium-210 in food and tobacco are explained in the second chapter. Relevant issues such as separation and measurement of polonium-210 covered in subsequent chapter. Chapter four reviewed recent studies on polonium-210. It was found that the main source of this radionuclide is the phosphatic fertilizers that used in food and tobacco cultivation. These fertilizers contain the decay products of 238 U series of which 210 Po is known to be very important from environmental point of view. Many studies conducted showed that the committed effective dose derived mainly from 210 Po due to the consumption of food, particularly sea food is significant, furthermore 210 Po in tobacco is known to be the main cause of many diseases such as lung cancer.(Author)

  3. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  4. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  5. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  6. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  7. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  8. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  9. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  10. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke and other parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, J.; Stoikidou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The levels of bulky DNA adducts were measured by (32)P-post-labelling in lymphocytes of 194 non-smoking students living in the city of Athens and the region of Halkida, Greece, once in the winter and again in the following summer. Personal exposures to particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydroc...... with an enhancement of adduct levels and the effect was strengthened when only individuals unexposed to ETS were taken into consideration. No significant effects were observed for other dietary parameters or factors reflecting exposure to air pollution....... surroundings with a minimal burden of urban air pollution. The remaining Halkida subjects had intermediate levels, while Athens subjects showed the lowest levels. This trend, which was observed over both monitoring seasons, consistently paralleled the variation in three markers of exposure to environmental......) positive correlations were observed between DNA adducts and (i) measured personal exposures to chrysene or benzo[a]pyrene, (ii) time of declared ETS exposure and (iii) chrysene/benzo[g,h,i] perylene ratios. These correlations suggest that, for a group suffering minimal exposure to urban air pollution...

  11. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka; Jaedon P. Avey; Susan B. Trinidad; Julie A. Beans; Renee F. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Background. American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae.Methods. This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in so...

  12. Evaluating the use of renewable fuel sources to heat flue-cured tobacco barns

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert T

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating the use of renewable fuel sources to heat flue-cured tobacco barns Robert Taylor Brown ABSTRACT The curing of flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is an energy intensive process and represents a significant portion of the overall cost of production. Given the goal of the industry to reduce the environmental footprint of tobacco production and the energy demand of curing, attention has been directed to explore options for the use of renewable fuels for heating to...

  13. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions......: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  14. Gender differences in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E

    1991-01-01

    Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.

  15. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  16. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  17. Editorial input for the right price: tobacco industry support for a sheet metal indoor air quality manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard; Balbach, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Following legal action in the 1990s, internal tobacco industry documents became public, allowing unprecedented insight into the industry's relationships with outside organizations. During the 1980s and 1990s, the National Energy Management Institute (NEMI), established by the Sheet Metal Workers International Association and the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association, (SMACNA) received tobacco industry funding to establish an indoor air quality services program. But the arrangement also required NEMI to serve as an advocate for industry efforts to defeat indoor smoking bans by arguing that ventilation was a more appropriate solution to environmental tobacco smoke. Drawing on tobacco industry documents, this paper describes a striking example of the ethical compromises that accompanied NEMI's collaboration with the tobacco industry, highlighting the solicitation of tobacco industry financial support for a SMACNA indoor air quality manual in exchange for sanitizing references to the health impact of environmental tobacco smoke prior to publication.

  18. Consumption and production waste: another externality of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, T E; Zhao, F

    1999-01-01

    To describe the waste produced by and environmental implications of individual cigarette consumption (filter tips, packages, and cartons) and tobacco manufacturing. All available articles and reports published since 1970 related to cigarette consumption and production waste were reviewed. Global cigarette consumption data were used to estimate cigarette butt and packaging waste quantities. Data from the Center for Marine Conservation's International Coastal Cleanup Project were used to describe some environmental impacts of tobacco-related trash. Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Toxics Release Inventory and reported global cigarette consumption totals were used to estimate waste production from cigarette manufacturing. In 1995, an estimated 5.535 trillion cigarettes (27,675 million cartons and 276,753 million packages) were sold by the tobacco industry globally. Some of the wastes from these products were properly deposited, but a large amount of tobacco consumption waste ends up in the environment. Some is recovered during environmental clean-up days. For the past eight years (1990-1997), cigarette butts have been the leading item found during the International Coastal Cleanup Project; they accounted for 19.1% of all items collected in 1997. The tobacco manufacturing process produces liquid, solid, and airborne waste. Among those wastes, some materials, including nicotine, are designated by the EPA as Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) chemicals. These are possible environmental health hazards. In 1995, the global tobacco industry produced an estimated 2262 million kilograms of manufacturing waste and 209 million kilograms of chemical waste. In addition, total nicotine waste produced in the manufacture of reduced nicotine cigarettes was estimated at 300 million kilograms. Laws against littering relative to cigarette butts could be better enforced. Additional taxes might be levied on cigarette products that would then be directed to

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco smoke, and epigenetic remodeling in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, E. C.; Hew, K. M.; Nygaard, U. C.; Nadeau, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental determinants including aerosolized pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco smoke have been associated with exacerbation and increased incidence of asthma. The influence of aerosolized pollutants on the development of immune dysfunction in asthmatics has been suggested to be mediated through epigenetic remodeling. Genome accessibility and transcription are regulated primarily through DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA transcript silencing. Epigenetic remodeling has been shown in studies to be associated with Th2 polarization and associated cytokine and chemokine regulation in the development of asthma. This review will present evidence for the contribution of the aerosolized pollutants PAH and environmental tobacco smoke to epigenetic remodeling in asthma. PMID:24760221

  20. Estimación de la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco: revisión de cuestionarios utilizados en España Estimation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure: review of questionnaires used in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Nebot

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En los últimos años, las encuestas de salud y los estudios epidemiológicos sobre el tabaquismo han incorporado preguntas sobre la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco, aunque no existe un cuestionario estandarizado. Métodos: Entre enero y mayo de 2008 se revisaron las encuestas que contenían preguntas sobre exposición a tabaquismo pasivo realizadas en España desde las administraciones públicas, las sociedades científicas y organismos de investigación. Se han revisado los literales, que se han clasificado según tipo de estudio, población diana, ámbito geográfico y lugar de exposición. Resultados: Se identificaron 27 encuestas que incluían tabaquismo pasivo. La mayoría correspondían a encuestas de salud (81,5% e iban dirigidas a población general (70,4%. El ámbito geográfico más común era el autonómico (48,1% y el lugar de exposición más común el hogar (88,9%. Discusión: Los resultados muestran una enorme variabilidad en las preguntas utilizadas. Es necesario homogeneizar las preguntas sobre exposición al tabaquismo pasivo si queremos comparar los resultados.Introduccion: In the last few years, health surveys and epidemiological studies on smoking have introduced questions on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure. However, a standardized questionnaire is lacking. Methods: Between January and May 2008, we reviewed surveys containing items on ETS exposure carried out in Spain by public administrations, scientific societies and research institutes. The wording of the questions was reviewed and classified according to the study type, target population, geographical setting and place of exposure. Results: We identified 27 surveys that included questions on passive smoking. Most were health surveys (81.5% and were aimed at the general population (70.4%. The most frequent geographical setting consisted of autonomous regions (48.1% and the most common place of exposure was the home (88.9% Discussion: The

  1. Public policy for the control of tobacco-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, M F; Rigotti, N A

    1992-03-01

    Public policies concerning tobacco shape the environment of the smoker and nonsmoker alike. These policies use diverse means to achieve the common goal of reducing tobacco use and its attendant health consequences. Educational interventions such as warning labels, school curricula, and public service announcements serve to inform the public about the hazards of tobacco smoke. These are countered by the pervasive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry, despite a ban on tobacco advertising on radio and television. Further restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion have been proposed and await action. Cigarette excise taxes and smoker-nonsmoker insurance premium differentials discourage smoking by making it more costly to purchase cigarettes. Conversely, health insurance reimbursement for smoking cessation programs could reduce the cost of giving up the habit and might encourage cessation. Restricting or banning smoking in public places and workplaces decreases a smoker's opportunities to smoke, further inhibiting this behavior. Reducing the availability of cigarettes to children and adolescents may help to prevent them from starting to smoke. The environment of the smoker is conditioned by this pastiche of influences. Physicians who become involved in tobacco-control issues have the opportunity to alter the environmental influences on their patients. This is likely to be synergistic with physicians' efforts inside the office to encourage individual smokers to quit. As a first step toward advocacy outside the office, physicians can help to create a smoke-free health-care facility in their own institution. Beyond that, advocacy groups or the voluntary health organizations (e.g., American Lung Association) provide avenues for physicians to take a stand on community issues relevant to tobacco control. Physicians who take these steps to alter the environment of smokers beyond the office are likely to magnify the effect of their work with individual

  2. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  3. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  4. Childhood Suicide and Myths Surrounding It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Dorothea B.

    1994-01-01

    Dispels five misconceptions surrounding the suicide of children: that children under the age of six do not commit suicide; that suicide in latency years is extremely rare; that psychodynamically and developmentally true depression is not possible in childhood; that child cannot understand finality of death; and that children are cognitively and…

  5. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  6. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  7. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  8. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  9. Analyzing diversification possibilities on specialized tobacco farms in Argentina using a bio-economic farm model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez, M.D.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is the non-food crop with the largest acreage in the world. Tobacco is criticized because it causes health problems to its consumers and because production causes environmental damage such as soil degradation, deforestation and water pollution. Diversification has been

  10. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  11. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    β-SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman ... Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its .... intensity implies very low graphite content in thin film. In.

  12. Tobacco and the Movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-01-01

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  13. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  15. Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported noticing marketing on campus. There was strong support for smoke-free restrictions on campus, including restaurants and bars (82%), and for prohibitions on campus marketing. The presence of campus policies was associated with reduced exposure to marketing and increased policy support. There is strong support among students to remove tobacco marketing from campus and to introduce comprehensive smoke-free restrictions.

  16. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between...

  17. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  18. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  19. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  20. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  1. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Shirane

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs' efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness.TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy.There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small

  3. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  4. Geographical information systems as a tool for monitoring tobacco industry advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, C I; Connolly, G N; Kafatos, A G

    2009-06-01

    Although the use of a geographical information systems (GIS) approach is usually applied to epidemiological disease outbreaks and environmental exposure mapping, it has significant potential as a tobacco control research tool in monitoring point-of-purchase (POP) tobacco advertising. An ecological study design approach was applied so as to primarily evaluate and interpret the spatial density and intensity of POP and tobacco industry advertisements within advertisements per POP (range 0-25) were noted, and 80% of them were below child height. The GIS protocol identified that kiosks, that were excepted from the Greek ban on tobacco advertising, in comparison to other POP, were found not only to be closer and visible from the school gates (44.1% vs 10.8%, padvertisements (8 (5) vs 5 (3), padvertising on a large population-based scale and implies its use as a standardised method for monitoring tobacco industry strategies and tobacco control efforts.

  5. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  8. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  9. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  10. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  11. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    This paper describes a new method for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions in tobacco and tobacco additives by ... The HPLC system consisted of a Waters 2690 Alliance separation ..... 1 Z.H. Shi and C.G. Fu, Talanta, 1997, 44, 593. ... 5 Q.F. Hu, G.Y. Yang, J.Y. Yin and Y. Yao, Talanta, 2002, 57, 751.

  12. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Liz Maria; Cavalcante, Tânia Maria; Casado, Letícia; Fernandes, Elaine Masson; Warren, Charles Wick; Peruga, Armando; Jones, Nathan R; Curi Hallal, Ana Luiza; Asma, Samira; Lee, Juliette

    2008-09-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Brazil was developed to provide data on youth tobacco use to the National Tobacco Control Program. The GYTS uses a standardized methodology for constructing sampling frames, selecting schools and classes, preparing questionnaires, carrying out field procedures, and processing data. The GYTS questionnaire is self-administered and includes questions about: initiation; prevalence; susceptibility; knowledge and attitudes; environmental tobacco smoke; cessation; media and advertising. SUDDAN and Epi-Info Software were used for analysis. Weighted analysis was used in order to obtain percentages and 95% confidence intervals. Twenty-three studies were carried out between 2002 and 2005 in Brazilian capitals: 2002 (9); 2003 (4); 2004 (2) and 2005 (9). The total number of students was 22832. The prevalence rate among the cities varied from 6.2% (João Pessoa, 2002) to 17.7% (Porto Alegre, 2002). The tobacco use prevalence rates in 18 Brazilian cities show significant heterogeneity among the macro regions. Data in this report can be used to evaluate the efforts already done and also as baseline for evaluation of new steps for tobacco control in Brazil regarding the goals of the WHO FCTC.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with tobacco use among adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EO Owolabi

    environmental tobacco smoke, either at home or in the workplace. Results: Of ... and 22.6 ± 8.0 years for men and women, respectively. ... (80%) of smokers are now found.9–11 ... Over the past 20 years, a modest reduction in the prevalence of.

  14. Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Physical Activity among Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy four percent (74%) and 69% of the non-smoking respondents were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home and workplace respectively. The study further revealed that 15%, 23% and 87% of the total respondents reported no work-, transport- or recreational- related physical activity respectively; and ...

  15. Gender, women, and the tobacco epidemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samet, Jonathan M; Yoon, Soon-Young

    2010-01-01

    .... The publication also addresses national economic policy with regard to tobacco control, international treaties, and strategies for tobacco-free mobilization at the regional and international levels...

  16. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  17. La medición de la nicotina como marcador aéreo del humo ambiental de tabaco Nicotine measurement as an airborne marker of environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nebot

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Numerosos estudios científicos han demostrado la asociación del humo ambiental de tabaco (HAT con múltiples riesgos para la salud. Sin embargo, la medición de la exposición a este humo ha sido poco precisa hasta hace pocos años. En este artículo se revisan diversos estudios que han utilizado la nicotina como marcador aéreo del HAT. Métodos: Se revisan los diferentes métodos utilizados en la medición de la exposición al HAT, con especial énfasis en el uso de la nicotina como marcador aéreo de su presencia, comparando sus características con las de los demás marcadores y analizando los resultados encontrados en diferentes estudios en los que se ha medido la concentración de nicotina en muestras de aire en espacios públicos y en el medio laboral. Resultados: La nicotina reúne las características deseables de los marcadores del HAT, y los resultados de diversos estudios en los que se ha utilizado muestran un amplio rango de valores. Así, en cafeterías y restaurantes la concentración de nicotina oscila entre 0,52 y 47,86 μg/m³, mientras que en los lugares de trabajo sin restricciones relativas al tabaco, las concentraciones varían entre 3,4 y 14 μg/m³, y en aquellos con prohibición total de fumar, la concentración oscila entre 0,09 y 0,7 μg/m³. Los lugares de ocio nocturno son los lugares donde las concentraciones son más elevadas, llegando a alcanzar valores que superan los 65 μg/m³. Discusión: El uso de la nicotina como marcador aéreo permite medir de manera objetiva la exposición al HAT. Los valores obtenidos en los estudios que utilizan este marcador muestran que en los lugares con restricciones o prohibiciones relativas al consumo de tabaco la exposición al HAT es mucho menor que en los en los que no hay ningún tipo de regulación.Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and different types of health risk. Despite this evidence

  18. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  19. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  20. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  1. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  2. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

  3. Perceived social and media influences on tobacco use among Samoan youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Freeman, Becky; Tanielu, Helen

    2014-10-23

    Tobacco use among young Pacific populations continues to undermine efforts to reduce the escalating rates of non-communicable disease in the region. Reducing tobacco use to less than 5 percent by 2025 is now a World Health Organisation (WHO) mandated target for the Pacific region. Yet, little is known about the drivers to uptake of tobacco use among young people in the Pacific. Family and peers are expected to be important in this process, but similarly, tobacco marketing may also play an important role. The tobacco industry has been highly adaptive to the changing media environment across the Pacific Islands. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the social cultural and media drivers to tobacco uptake and use among young Samoans to contribute to the design of effective tobacco control intervention. We examined high school students (aged 16 and 17 years) perceptions of tobacco use in their community, access and use of media channels and the extent to which they are cognizant of both pro and anti-tobacco imagery across a range of media. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis of the interview data identified common and divergent beliefs, attitudes and behaviours surrounding tobacco use and the influence of the media. Family is critically important for representing normative tobacco use in Samoa. The use of media, in particular digital media, was found to be conditioned by parental views on the use of media in the home. Media access remains highly regulated within more traditional households. Loyalty to traditional cultural practices (Fa'a Samoa) underpinned views on the limited influence of media on social norms around tobacco use. Parents were thought to have the greatest influence on youth smoking. Tobacco use was viewed as a personal, or family issue, and not a problem that was amendable to change at a societal level. In order to develop effective and culturally relevant tobacco control policies, the

  4. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  5. Tobacco industry use of flavourings to promote smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    While fruit, candy and alcohol characterising flavours are not allowed in cigarettes in the USA, other flavoured tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco (ST) continue to be sold. We investigated tobacco manufacturers' use of flavoured additives in ST products, the target audience(s) for flavoured products, and marketing strategies promoting products by emphasising their flavour. Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents triangulated with data from national newspaper articles, trade press and internet. Internally, flavoured products have been consistently associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users. Internal studies confirmed that candy-like sweeter milder flavours (eg, mint, fruit) could increase appeal to starters by evoking a perception of mildness, blinding the strong tobacco taste and unpleasant mouth feel; or by modifying nicotine delivery by affecting product pH. Similar to cigarettes, flavoured ST is likely to encourage novices to start using tobacco, and regulations limiting or eliminating flavours in cigarettes should be extended to include flavoured ST products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of tobacco under water deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. Rabara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the limiting environmental factors that affect crop production. Understanding the molecular basis of how plants respond to this water deficit stress is key to developing drought tolerant crops. In this study we generated time course-based transcriptome profiles of tobacco plants under water deficit conditions using microarray technology. In this paper, we describe in detail the experimental procedures and analyses performed in our study. The data set we generated (available in the NCBI/GEO database under GSE67434 has been analysed to identify genes that are involved in the regulation of tobacco's responses to drought.

  8. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  9. Natural occurring radioactivity in Palmyra and its surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shwekani, R.; Raja, G.; Hushari, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Issa, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this work, the natural radiation background has been carried out for Palmyra city and its surroundings area. The study has covered gamma radiation measurements, indoor radon gas concentration and radionuclides levels in environmental samples (soil, water, plat). The results showed that indoor radon gas concentrations and radiation exposure rates are within the background levels. Also, the results showed that there is no artificial radiation in the area and there is no correlation between the natural radiation levels and the reported cancer cases. Therefore, the reported cancer cases in this area may be due to non-radiation cases, which must be investigated, or they are within the natural levels in Syria unless accurate statistics proves the opposite. (author)

  10. Evaluation of LLNL BSL-3 Maximum Credible Event Potential Consequence to the General Population and Surrounding Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-16

    The purpose of this evaluation is to establish reproducibility of the analysis and consequence results to the general population and surrounding environment in the LLNL Biosafety Level 3 Facility Environmental Assessment (LLNL 2008).

  11. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  14. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Towards Semantic Understanding of Surrounding Vehicular Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of multiple low-cost visual sensors to obtain a surround view of the ego-vehicle for semantic understanding. A multi-perspective view will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies (NDS), by automating the task of data reduction of the observed sequences...... into events. A user-centric vision-based framework is presented using a vehicle detector and tracker in each separate perspective. Multi-perspective trajectories are estimated and analyzed to extract 14 different events, including potential dangerous behaviors such as overtakes and cut-ins. The system...... is tested on ten sequences of real-world data collected on U. S. highways. The results show the potential use of multiple low-cost visual sensors for semantic understanding around the ego-vehicle....

  19. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa); Centre for Theoretical Physics, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2018-02-15

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r{sub h} < r{sub c} allowing the black hole to become thermodynamically stable. (orig.)

  20. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r_h

  1. Tobacco and health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V; Chaturvedi, P

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

  2. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  3. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  4. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type of...

  5. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...] Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products...-8900. Contact Person: Karen Templeton-Somers, Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and...

  6. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: American Indian (AI and Alaska Native (AN communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. Methods: This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Results: Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Conclusion: Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes.

  7. Evaluating a tobacco leaf humidification system involving nebulisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Enrique Cerquera Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A tobacco leaf humidifying system involving nebulisation was designned, implemented and evaluated; it had a system for monitoring and recording environmental conditions thereby producing an environment having more homogeneous relative humidity, ensuring better water use, better control of relative humidity and better control in managing cured tobacco leaf moisture content, thereby leading to a consequent improvement in final product quality. 55% to 75% relative humidity and 4 to 6 hour working ranges were obtained to en- sure leaf humidification reached 16% humidity on a wet basis. Two new designs are proposed for the conditioning stage regarding this conditioning chamber’s operational management, based on the results and field observations, which would allow better leaf management, thereby avoiding the risk of losses due to manipulation and over-humidification. This work strengthens research in the field of tobacco pos- tharvest technology, complementing other research projects which have been carried out in Colombia.

  8. Assessment of tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 4: Characterisation of indoor air quality and odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Mark; McAughey, John; Prasad, Krishna; Mavropoulou, Eleni; Proctor, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    The tobacco heating product THP1.0, which heats but does not burn tobacco, was tested as part of a modified-risk tobacco product assessment framework for its impacts on indoor air quality and residual tobacco smoke odour. THP1.0 heats the tobacco to less than 240 °C ± 5 °C during puffs. An environmentally controlled room was used to simulate ventilation conditions corresponding to residential, office and hospitality environments. An analysis of known tobacco smoke constituents, included CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 , nicotine, glycerol, 3-ethenyl pyridine, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, eight volatile organic compounds, four carbonyls, four tobacco-specific nitrosamines and total aerosol particulate matter. Significant emissions reductions in comparison to conventional cigarettes were measured for THP1.0. Levels of nicotine, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and particulate matter emitted from THP1.0 exceeded ambient air measurements, but were more than 90% reduced relative to cigarette smoke emissions within the laboratory conditions defined Residual tobacco smoke odour was assessed by trained sensory panels after exposure of cloth, hair and skin to both mainstream and environmental emissions from the test products. Residual tobacco smoke odour was significantly lower from THP1.0 than from a conventional cigarette. These data show that using THP1.0 has the potential to result in considerably reduced environmental emissions that affect indoor air quality relative to conventional cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factor associated with tobacco use among the adult population in Sarawak, Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of tobacco in any form is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality. The World Health Organization recommends that it should be monitored regularly.  This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among the rural adult population in Sarawak and factors associated with it.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the adult population in Sarawak. Data were collected from ten villages in Kota Samarahan and Kuching Division by face to face interview using modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Non-probability sampling method was adopted to select the villages. All the households of the villages were visited and an adult member was selected randomly from each house irrespective of the sex. After missing value imputation, 1000 data were analysed using statistical software SPSS 19.0 version.Results: Analysis showed that 30.9% of the respondents were current tobacco users and 11% were past tobacco users. The mean age (SD at starting tobacco was 18.1 (6.48 years. The frequency of tobacco use was 14 times per day.  Hierarchical Logistic regression analysis revealed that age with male sex (OR=1. 064, 95% CI: 1.052, 1.076, secondary education (OR=-2.712; 95% CI: 1.122, 6.555, higher secondary and above (OR=3. 571; 95% CI: 1.641,7.774, occupation as business (OR=3. 152; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.735 and environmental exposure such as smoking at working place (OR=2. 754;95% CI: 1.895,4.002, coffee house (OR=2. 274;95% CI: 1.32,3.919 and at home (OR=1. 827;95% CI: 1.242,2.687 appeared to be  important predictors of tobacco use (p<0.05.Conclusion: A large proportion of males use tobacco products. Though tobacco use was negligible among females, but they would be potential users. Environmental exposure to tobacco appeared to be important predictors. Tobacco control campaigns should target banning of tobacco use in closed and open areas and also to intensify the monitoring of all forms

  10. Noncoding RNA Profiles in Tobacco- and Alcohol-Associated Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra Soares do Amaral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco and alcohol are the leading environmental risk factors in the development of human diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and liver injury. Despite the copious amount of research on this topic, by 2030, 8.3 million deaths are projected to occur worldwide due to tobacco use. The expression of noncoding RNAs, primarily microRNAs (miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, is modulated by tobacco and alcohol consumption. Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes can modulate the expression of miRNAs and lncRNAs through various signaling pathways, such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammatory pathways—primarily interleukin 6 (IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, which seems to play a major role in the development of diseases associated with these risk factors. Since they may be predictive and prognostic biomarkers, they can be used both as predictors of the response to therapy and as a targeted therapy. Further, circulating miRNAs might be valuable noninvasive tools that can be used to examine diseases that are related to the use of tobacco and alcohol. This review discusses the function of noncoding RNAs in cancer and other human tobacco- and alcohol-associated diseases.

  11. Extended Producer Responsibility and Product Stewardship for Tobacco Product Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Collins, Susan; Cunningham, Shea; Stigler, Paula; Novotny, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews several environmental principles, including Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), Product Stewardship (PS), the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), and the Precautionary Principle, as they may apply to tobacco product waste (TPW). The review addresses specific criteria that apply in deciding whether a particular toxic product should adhere to these principles; presents three case studies of similar approaches to other toxic and/or environmentally harmful products; and describes 10 possible interventions or policy actions that may help prevent, reduce, and mitigate the effects of TPW. EPR promotes total lifecycle environmental improvements, placing economic, physical, and informational responsibilities onto the tobacco industry, while PS complements EPR, but with responsibility shared by all parties involved in the tobacco product lifecycle. Both principles focus on toxic source reduction, post-consumer take-back, and final disposal of consumer products. These principles when applied to TPW have the potential to substantially decrease the environmental and public health harms of cigarette butts and other TPW throughout the world. TPW is the most commonly littered item picked up during environmental, urban, and coastal cleanups globally.

  12. Tobacco tax and the illicit trade in tobacco products in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Ali; U, Veng Ian

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the size of illegal tobacco trade and consumption and assess the impact of tobacco tax on the illicit tobacco market in New Zealand (NZ). Data on the import and seizure of legal and illegal tobacco in NZ was obtained from NZ Customs. Previous literature was used to calculate interception rates of illegal tobacco being smuggled and grown in NZ. Annual tobacco returns figures, obtained via the NZ Ministry of Health, were analysed to assess the market dynamics of legal tobacco products. This study found that illicit tobacco constituted 1.8-3.9% of total national tobacco consumption in NZ in 2013. This represents a minor increase compared to previous estimates from 2007-09, suggesting that tax increases enacted by the NZ Government since 2010 have had a minimal impact on encouraging the use and procurement of illicit tobacco. The results highlight a slight rise in small-scale tobacco smuggling through ports and mail centres. However, tobacco returns figures show that current tobacco tax policy has forced manufacturers to focus on the production of cheap legal tobacco products, directly competing with and undercutting the demand for illicit tobacco products. At the same time, locally grown illicit tobacco continues to remain a small, isolated problem and, with recent cuts in duty free tobacco allowance, it is expected that overall illicit tobacco will remain a very small proportion of total tobacco consumption in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pakistan Philippines Thailand Turkey Vietnam Europe/Eurasia Poland Russian Federation Ukraine Latin America Brazil Mexico WHAT WE ... KIDS. SAVING LIVES. BECAUSE TOBACCO HAS KILLED ENOUGH learn more sign up donate sign up donate IN ...

  14. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  15. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  16. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  17. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  18. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  19. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bedah AM

    2011-11-01

    increased the odds of smoking by students.Conclusion: The common use of tobacco in school populations needs to be addressed by, among other tobacco control measures, a strict ban on cigarette selling to minors and intensive regular tobacco control campaigns involving health and religious messages.Keywords: tobacco use, secondhand tobacco smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, intermediate school boys, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Saudi Arabia 

  20. Comparison of Socioeconomic Factors between Surrounding and Non-Surrounding Areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway before and after Its Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s highest railway, and the longest highland railway, the Qinghai–Tibet Railway (QTR has been paid considerable attention by researchers. However, most attention has been paid to the ecological and environmental issues affecting it, and sustainable ecological, social, and economic development-related studies of the QTR are rare. In this study, by analyzing the passenger traffic, freight traffic, passenger-kilometers, and freight-kilometers of the QTR for the period 1982–2013 and the transport structure of the Tibetan Plateau (TP for 1990–2013, the evolutionary process of the transport system in the TP following the construction of the QTR has been revealed. Subsequently, by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP, population, industrial structure, and urbanization level at the county and 1 km scales between surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the QTR, the differences in socioeconomic performance before and after its construction were detected. The results show that (1 in the TP, the highway-dominated transport system will break up and an integrated and sustainable transport system will form; (2 at the county scale, the annual growth rates of GDP of counties surrounding the QTR were greater than those of non-surrounding counties for the period 2000–2010. At the 1 km scale, following the opening of the completed line, the GDP of surrounding areas had a greater growth rate than before; (3 analysis at the county and 1 km scales indicated that population was not aggregated into the surrounding areas of the QTR in the period 2000–2010; (4 in terms of industrial structure, the proportion of primary industry decreased continuously, while the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries increased overall in the period 1984–2012. The QTR had no obvious impact on changes in the urbanization level of its surrounding areas.

  1. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues.

  2. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W.; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues. PMID:26180986

  3. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). The view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses. Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This panorama combines right-eye and left-eye views presented as cylindrical-perspective projections with geometric seam correction.

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Aoudia, A.; Pontevivo, A.; Chimera, G.; Raykova, R.

    2003-02-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea, likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria. (author)

  8. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  9. INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING THE HELIOPAUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution, in the limit of very low plasma β-ratio, for the distortion of the interstellar magnetic field surrounding the heliopause. The solution is obtained using a line dipole method that is the integration of point dipole along a semi-infinite line; it represents the magnetic field caused by the presence of the heliopause. The solution allows the variation of the undisturbed magnetic field at any inclination angle. The heliosphere is considered as having blunt-nosed geometry on the upwind side and it asymptotically approaches a cylindrical geometry having an open exit for the continuous outflow of the solar wind on the downwind side. The heliopause is treated as a magnetohydrodynamic tangential discontinuity; the interstellar magnetic field lines at the boundary are tangential to the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field is substantially distorted due to the presence of the heliopause. The solution shows the draping of the field lines around the heliopause. The magnetic field strength varies substantially near the surface of the heliopause. The effect on the magnetic field due to the presence of the heliopause penetrates very deep into the interstellar space; the depth of penetration is of the same order of magnitude as the scale length of the heliosphere.

  10. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  11. The analysis of creep characteristics of the surrounding rock of the carbonaceous rock tunnel based on Singh-Mitchell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhui; Mi, Decai; Ye, Qiongyao; Deng, Shengqiang; Zeng, Fuquan; Zeng, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Carbonaceous rock has the characteristics of easy disintegration, softening, swelling and environmental sensitivity, which belongs to soft surrounding rock, and the deformation during excavation and long-term stability of the surrounding rock of carbonaceous rock tunnel are common problems in the construction of carbonaceous rock tunnel. According to the above, the Monitor and measure the displacement, temperature and osmotic pressure of the surrounding carbonaceous rock of the tunnel of Guangxi Hebai highway. Then it based on the obtaining data to study the creep mechanism of surrounding rock using Singh-Mitchell model and predict the deformation of surrounding rock before the tunnel is operation. The results show that the Singh-Mitchell creep model can effectively analyse and predict the deformation development law of surrounding rock of tunnel without considering temperature and osmotic pressure, it can provide reference for the construction of carbonaceous rock tunnel and the measures to prevent and reinforce it..

  12. China: the tipping point in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco control in China, the world's largest producer and consumer of tobacco, began in the 1980s with the first national prevalence survey and a conference on tobacco held in Tianjin. Since then, there have been dozens of research papers, partial restrictions on smoking and tobacco advertising, public education campaigns, and the ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but progress has been slow. The state-owned tobacco industry remains a major obstacle to tobacco control. In the last few years, tobacco control efforts have accelerated beyond expectations. The triggering event was the publication on tobacco by the Chinese Central Party School, the ideological think tank of the Communist Party, followed by a spate of activity: directives to government officials; regulations issued by the Ministry of Education, the People's Liberation Army and the Healthy City Standards; tobacco clauses in national advertising and philanthropy laws; the creation of a Smoke-free Beijing; an increase in tobacco taxation; and a national smoke-free law currently in draft. There is a crucial need for China to build upon these recent developments, in accepting the economic research evidence of the debit of tobacco to the economy; in implementing robust, comprehensive legislation; in increasing cigarette price through taxation and, most challenging of all, to tackle the power and influence of the state tobacco monopoly over tobacco control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women farmers concerning tobacco agriculture in a municipality in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Marcelo Moreno Dos; Oliveira, Ana Paula Natividade de; Turci, Silvana Rubano Barretto; Dantas, Renato Maciel; Silva, Valéria Dos Santos Pinto da; Gross, Cátia; Jensen, Teresinha; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-09-21

    The study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women farmers working in tobacco production concerning the social, environmental, and health impacts of this economic activity. Focus groups were used in this qualitative study, and themes were explored until reaching saturation. The study was conducted in a municipality (county) in southern Brazil in 2013 and included 64 women farmers. The discussions revealed participants' familiarity with health problems associated with workloads in tobacco production: green tobacco sickness, pesticide poisoning, musculoskeletal disorders, and others. The discussions also revealed a concern with the negative impacts of tobacco agriculture on the environment. They also revealed apprehension concerning decisions on switching to alternatives for sustainable agricultural production, emphasizing that on-going and systematic government support would be necessary for such a transition. Women farmers identified various factors that contribute to the persistence of tobacco farming: small holdings for cultivation, lack of guarantees for marketing crops, and indebtedness to tobacco companies. The study showed that an integrated approach is needed to deal with tobacco farmers' problems, considering a balance between farmers' beliefs and government decisions. This approach, in keeping with the recommendations of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, may help strengthen policies and measures to promote health and sustainable local development.

  15. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12–16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. PMID:21730099

  16. [Early use of tobacco by students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbi Hereter, J R; Nebot Adell, M; Comin Bertran, E; Murillo Fort, C

    1990-01-01

    We present the results concerning smoking prevalence and related factors from a wider cross sectional survey of a representative sample of 5th and 8th grade schoolchildren (10-11 and 13-14 years old respectively) in the city of Barcelona, Spain. The survey was done in the 1986-87 school year. During this period of life there is an increase in the presence of smoking in the social environment and a rise in use of tobacco by schoolchildren, paralleled by a modification of their personal attitudes, radically opposed to smoking in the younger ages. The construction of a model to separate smokers and non smokers on the basis of predictive variables is attempted through discriminant analysis. Results suggest the most important factors are socioeconomic (lower socioeconomic status, higher amounts of pocket money), environmental (having siblings or friends who smoke), attitudinal (agreeing with certain sentences such as "smoking makes you feel good", "smoking is not as harmful as they say", "smokers are not more interesting persons", "I like the smell of tobacco" and "I'll probably smoke in the future") and related to other health associated behaviors (lower physical activity levels, having got drunk). These data will help in the design of school health programs addressing smoking prevention and provide baseline information for their evaluation.

  17. The millennium development goals and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Neil E

    2010-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals were proposed by the UN Secretary-General in 2001. They are goals with measurable targets to be achieved by 2015 or earlier. The Goals were distilled from the 2000 United Nations Millennium Declaration, a sweeping statement of development values, principles, objectives and proposed actions. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a demonstrable translation of some of the ideas in the Millennium Declaration into reality. With 165(i) Parties, the FCTC does more than just improve global tobacco control: * The FCTC contributes to achievement of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and benefits from success in implementation of the Goals in other sectors. * The treaty itself is a demonstration of strengthened international and national rule of law, central tenets of the Millennium Declaration. * The FCTC expands international law into the health sector and provides better balance of international law among economic, environmental, social and health sectors. The Millennium Declaration calls for a more equitable distribution of the benefits of globalization, and the FCTC delivers this result. * The FCTC provides a model for addressing other unsolved global problems through greater use of international law. Alcohol control and dietary improvements including greater control of empty calories in manufactured foods are examples of problems that may benefit from greater governance by international law. Were that to come to pass, those new treaties would also improve implementation of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals.

  18. Environmental determinants of smoking behaviors: The role of policy and environmental interventions in preventing smoking initiation and supporting cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, William A; Krasny, Sarah E

    2013-12-01

    Tobacco control strategies have contributed to substantial declines in smoking in the United States. However, smoking still remains the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature deaths in the country. Despite the continuing challenges of implementing tobacco control strategies and the pervasive influence of the tobacco industry to undermine such strategies, there are now unprecedented opportunities to prevent smoking initiation, facilitate cessation, and protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent literature discussing key strategies that have proven effective in tobacco control including regulations on sales and marketing of tobacco products, taxation, and smoke-free legislation. We focused on these three tobacco control strategies because of their potential to positively influence the environment of both minors and adults regardless of their smoking status. Although research has identified significant individual and social predictors of tobacco use, environmental influences are also important risk factors for tobacco use.

  19. Chewing Tobacco: Not a Safe Alternative to Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Quit smoking Get the facts about chewing tobacco and other forms of smokeless tobacco. They' ... than you might think. By Mayo Clinic Staff Chewing tobacco and other smokeless tobacco products may be ...

  20. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  1. The landscape of tobacco control in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Paracandola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use prevalence in Africa is projected to rise over the next 15 years without stronger tobacco control measures. However, little research details the scope of tobacco control research being conducted in Africa. A systematic literature review was conducted to better understand the landscape of tobacco control efforts in Africa. Methods A literature search of tobacco research conducted in all African countries from 1996 to 2016 was performed in PubMed, Embase, and African Index Medicus. Published abstracts meeting the inclusion criteria of focusing on nicotine or tobacco product(s and having been conducted in one or more African countries were selected for full coding and analysis. The authors coded on study characteristics such as type of research, tobacco product, and country. Three coders double-coded 5% of the articles reviewed to ensure agreement. Results This review found 645 relevant articles, in French and English, representing 52 African countries. South Africa was the focus of the greatest proportion of these published tobacco control research articles (23%, followed by Nigeria (17%, Egypt (13%, and Tunisia (12%. Reporting the prevalence of tobacco use was the focus of 51% of these articles. Other areas of research included the potential determinants of tobacco use (28%; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco products or policies (26%; and biological consequences of tobacco use (25%. Most studies (63% discussed cigarettes, and 15% studied smokeless tobacco. Youth-targeted studies comprised 25% of all research in Africa. Publications per year increased between 1996 and 2015, quadrupling in number by 2015. Conclusions A comprehensive review of the literature provides a baseline understanding of the tobacco control landscape and the increased attention countries are showing to tobacco and tobacco control. This research may inform opportunities for further research and for strengthening networks and thereby the

  2. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  3. Chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesaenen, E.; Manninen, P.K.G.; Himberg, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, V.

    1990-01-01

    The chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke in both the particulate and gaseous phases were studied by neutron activation analysis. Eleven popular brands of western filter cigarettes were tested. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide concentrations were measured in the gaseous phase in two leading brands in Finland. The results suggest that the mainstream smoke from one cigarette conveys into the lungs about 150 μg chlorine and about 5 μg bromine. Probably most of the chlorine and bromine is in the form of organic compounds and the main components are methyl chloride and methyl bromide. (author) 14 refs.; 1 tab

  4. Tobacco control and gender in Southeast Asia. Part I: Malaysia and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-09-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study discusses issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analyses developments in Malaysia and the Philippines. Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries, gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking, and in Malaysia and the Philippines was highly significant in cigarette promotion. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made in Part II.

  5. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.

  6. Salivary cotinine levels as a biomarker for green tobacco sickness in dry tobacco production among Thai traditional tobacco farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeon, Thanusin; Siriwong, Wattasit; Maldonado-Pérez, Héctor Luis; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dry Thai traditional tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) production involves a unique process: (a) picking tobacco leaves, (b) curing tobacco leaves, (c) removing stems of tobacco leaves, cutting leaves and putting on a bamboo rack, (d) drying in the sun, reversing a rack, spraying a tobacco extract to adjust the tobacco's color, storing dried tobacco and packaging. These processes may lead to adverse health effects caused by dermal absorption of nicotine such as Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between GTS resulting from dry Thai traditional tobacco production and salivary cotinine levels among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan Province, Thailand. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 20 tobacco farmers and 20 non-tobacco farmers in Praputtabath Sub-District and Phatow Sub-District. The participants were randomly selected and interviewed using in person questionnaires with bi-weekly follow-up for 14 weeks. During each contact, the cotinine concentration was measured by NicAlert(TM) Saliva strip tests (NCTS). Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation (Spearman's rho) was used to examine the relationship between the variables at both 0.01 and 0.05 significant probability levels. This study indicated that GTS from dry tobacco production has the potential to be considered a common occupational disease. This study demonstrated the usefulness of salivary cotinine level measurements by NCTS. The levels were well correlated with farmers who were employed in the dry Thai tobacco production industry. Salivary cotinine levels were also significantly correlated with the prevalence of GTS in the group of tobacco farmers at any given time within a crop season. However, the production process of dry Thai traditional tobacco is different from that evaluated in our previous studies where GTS and salivary cotinine level were correlated in workers working in humid conditions. The long-term effects of such exposure

  7. Sustainable production of valuable compound 3-succinoyl-pyridine by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida using the tobacco waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2015-11-17

    Treatment of solid and liquid tobacco wastes with high nicotine content remains a longstanding challenge. Here, we explored an environmentally friendly approach to replace tobacco waste disposal with resource recovery by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida. The biosynthesis of 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP), a precursor in the production of hypotensive agents, from the tobacco waste was developed using whole cells of the engineered Pseudomonas strain, S16dspm. Under optimal conditions in fed-batch biotransformation, the final concentrations of product SP reached 9.8 g/L and 8.9 g/L from aqueous nicotine solution and crude suspension of the tobacco waste, respectively. In addition, the crystal compound SP produced from aqueous nicotine of the tobacco waste in batch biotransformation was of high purity and its isolation yield on nicotine was 54.2%. This study shows a promising route for processing environmental wastes as raw materials in order to produce valuable compounds.

  8. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  9. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. IDRC is ...

  10. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  11. Cutting down tobacco | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... ill health and birth defects from handling agricultural chemicals and tobacco leaf. ... The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ... being pulled from school to work, women going sleepless to run curing kilns, ...

  12. Teens and tobacco: a dramatization: final report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This project was developed as an educational tool to increase awareness of tobacco related issues such as lifestyle choices, health risks, advertising, saying no, cessation, second hand smoke and smokeless tobacco...

  13. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  14. Potential of MuS1 Transgenic Tobacco for Phytoremediation of the Urban Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Urban soils are prone to contamination by trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoremediation is one of the attractive remediation methods for soils contaminated with trace elements due to its non-destructive and environmentally-friendly characteristic. Scientists have tried to find hyper-accumulator plants in nature or to develop transgenic plant through genetic engineering. This study was carried out to identify a potential of MuS1 transgenic tobacco for phytoremediation of the urban soils contaminated with Cd. MuS1 is known as a multiple stress related gene with several lines. The previous study using RT-PCR showed that the expression of MuS1 gene in tobacco plant induced tolerance to Cd stress. For this study, MuS1 transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco (control) were cultivated in a hydroponic system treated with Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200μM Cd) for 3 weeks. At harvest, both tobacco and nutrient solution were collected and were analyzed for Cd. Effect of Cd treatment on morphological change of the tobacco leaves was also observed by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The tolerance of MuS1 transgenic tobacco to Cd stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco at all Cd levels. Especially, wild-type tobacco showed chlorosis and withering with 200μM Cd treatment, whereas MuS1 transgenic tobacco gradually recovered from Cd damage. Wild-type tobacco accumulated more Cd (4.65mg per plant) than MuS1 transgenic tobacco (2.37mg per plant) with 200μM Cd treatment. Cd translocation rate from root to leaves was 81.8 % for wild-type tobacco compared to 37.1 % for MuS1 transgenic tobacco. Result of VP-SEM showed that the number of trichome in the leaves for wild-type tobacco increased in comparison with that for untreated samples after 3 weeks, while that for MuS1 transgenic tobacco was not changed by Cd treatment. Results showed that the mechanism of the recovery of the MuS1 tobacco plant was not by high level of Cd uptake and accumulation

  15. Estimation of radioactivity in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nain, Mahabir; Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, R.P.; Chakarvarti, S.K.; Kant, K.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cigarette smoke and cancer has long been established. Smokers are ten times at greater risk of developing lung cancer than that of non-smokers. Tobacco fields and plants also have higher concentration of uranium and consequently large contents of 210 Po and 210 Pb belonging to uranium and radium decay series. These radio-nuclides have long association with tobacco plants. 210 Pb and 210 Po, decay products of the uranium series get dissolved in water and are first transported into plants and subsequently to the human being. Also, the uptake of radionuclides into roots from the soils and phosphate fertilizers along with direct deposition of 210 Pb by rainfall represents the principal mechanism of incorporation of 210 Pb and 210 Po into the tobacco plants. Uranium present in soil enters the plants through roots and gets distributed in various parts of the tobacco plants. This phenomenon may cause high intake of uranium and its radioactive decay products leading to harmful effects in human being. In the present work, Gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector of high-resolution gamma spectrometry system) has been used at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi, for the measurement of activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in some tobacco samples. The alpha radioactivity of the leaves of the tobacco plants was measured using plastic track detectors LR-115 Type-Il manufactured by Kodak. Measurement of track densities (track cm -2 day -1 ) shows variation on the upper face and the bottom face of the leaves for the plants. The track density due to alpha particles is higher at bottom face as compared to top face of the leaves. (author)

  16. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  17. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  18. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  19. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  20. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  2. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  3. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  4. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  5. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the

  6. The Tobacco Industry and Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Bialous, Stella A; Glantz, Stanton

    2018-05-01

    The manufacture, use, and marketing of tobacco present a serious threat to children's right to health. This makes the Convention on the Rights of the Child a potentially powerful tobacco-control tool and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), which oversees the convention's implementation, a potential leader in tobacco control. UNICEF actively supported tobacco control initiatives in the late 1990s, but since the early 2000s UNICEF's role in tobacco control has been minimal. Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents library, an online collection of previously secret tobacco industry documents, we sought to uncover information on the tobacco industry's ties with UNICEF. We found that from 1997 to 2000, when UNICEF was actively promoting tobacco control to support children's rights, the tobacco industry saw children's rights and UNICEF as potentially powerful threats to business that needed to be closely monitored and neutralized. The industry then positioned itself as a partner with UNICEF on youth smoking prevention initiatives as a way to avoid meaningful tobacco control measures that could save children's lives. After UNICEF's corporate engagement guidelines were loosened in 2003, tobacco companies successfully engaged with UNICEF directly and via front groups, including the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. This was part of an overall tobacco industry strategy to improve its corporate image, infiltrate the United Nations, and weaken global tobacco-control efforts. As part of its mission to protect children's rights, UNICEF should end all partnerships with the tobacco industry and its front groups. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. What can offer us reclaimed landscape surrounding future lake Medard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrajnohova-Gillarova, H.; Kazmierski, T.; Martis, M. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Pecharova, E. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); South-Bohemian Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Soon after closing down a mine, the landscape that had been systematically disturbed by mining, should start to serve people from neighbouring towns and villages. This study characterized the Medard site located in the western part of the Czech Republic. The future Lake Medard includes the area of the former Medard-Libik Mine. Medard was an opencast brown coal mine, where mining finished in 2000 and reclamation plans involve its flooding until the year 2013. Forestry reclamation was also in progress. This paper presented a survey that was designed to help determine what the reclaimed landscape surrounding the future Lake Medard could offer. The paper provided background information on Medard Lake and outlined the methodology and results of the study. The methodology involved use of recent orthophotomaps, a study of the future lake Medard and data from the field survey. The study examined the long-term impacts on the social and environmental situation in the area. It was concluded that, once the reclamations are finished, there should be natural trails with information and educational infrastructure so that visitors to the area can learn about the places of interest. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  8. [Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  9. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  10. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates ... Meanwhile, existing studies on the impact of tobacco taxes are based on ... Associação de Controle do Tabagismo, Promoção da Saúde e dos Direitos Humanos.

  11. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3069...

  13. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2308...

  16. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt determination...

  17. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  18. Zambia Tobacco Control Campaign | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  19. Tobacco Industry Political Activity and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Washington: 1996-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Meredith L. BA; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    • After making substantial progress on tobacco control in the mid-1990s, the tobacco industry has stifled tobacco control activities in Washington through a mixture of campaign contributions and legal challenges. • Political campaign contributions have remained steadily high throughout the 1990s. Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, the Tobacco Institute, Lorillard, Brown & Williamson, and the Smokeless Tobacco Council contributed $362,298 to campaigns in 1996 through 2000 election cycles: $1...

  20. Tobacco Industry Dominating National Tobacco Policy Making in Argentina, 1966-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...

  1. Tobacco Industry and Sustainability: A Case of Indonesia Cigaretes Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marveys Wilfred Ayomi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The following report is conducted to analyse global tobacco industry and evaluate the initiatives taken by the industry to promote sustainable business development. The purpose of the overall assessment of tobacco industry and sustainability is to determine the level of commitment that the industry gives to undertake issues addressed in sustainability. The elements discussed in this report outlined several key issues including the general outlook of the current industry operation as well as in the long run, damages caused by the industry activity affecting social, health and environmental conditions and Industry’s actions prior to sustainability. The discussion of tobacco industry actions in particular further examines sustainable initiatives implemented in economic, social, health and environment sectors. Close evaluation is carried out prior to each sector analyzing the commitmentof the industry to justify how devoted it is to bring about sustainable business practices. The second part of the discussion draws a practical analysis by comparing the nine principles of Epstein’ssustainability performance and the success of HM Sampoerna Tbk PT (One of Indonesia’s largest tobacco companies sustainability performance. This report however bears a set of limitations and drawbacks such as a lack of deeper evaluation on the industry's initiatives in all sectors but particularly the environment aspect as well as its in sufficiency of data collection

  2. Radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guang; Wen Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact of mineral exploitation on the surrounding environment has become a public concern. This paper presents the radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation. Based on the project description and detailed investigations of surrounding environment, systematic radiation environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts are assessed during both construction and operation phase. The environmental protection measures have also been proposed. The related conclusion and measures can play an active role in copper exploitation and environmental protection. (authors)

  3. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. After reviewing the existing scholarly literature on tobacco and deforestation, we analysed industry sources of public information to understand how the industry framed deforestation, its key causes, and policy responses. To analyse industry strategies between the 1970s and early 2000s to shape understanding of deforestation caused by tobacco farming and curing, the Truth Tobacco Documents Library was systematically searched. The above sources were compiled and triangulated, thematically and chronologically, to derive a narrative of how the industry has framed the problem of, and solutions to, tobacco-attributable deforestation. The industry sought to undermine responses to tobacco-attributable deforestation by emphasising the economic benefits of production in LMICs, blaming alternative causes, and claiming successful forestation efforts. To support these tactics, the industry lobbied at the national and international levels, commissioned research, and colluded through front groups. There was a lack of effective action to address tobacco-attributable deforestation, and indeed an escalation of the problem, during this period. The findings suggest the need for independent data on the varied environmental impacts of the tobacco industry, awareness of how the industry seeks to work with environmental researchers and groups to

  4. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-12-01

    To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer-reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak "share of voice" in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries.

  5. Water extracts from winery by-products as tobacco defense inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouaret, Razik; Goujon, Eric; Trivella, Aurélien; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Mery-Bernardon, Aude; Goupil, Pascale

    2014-10-01

    Water extracts from winery by-products exhibited significant plant defense inducer properties. Experiments were conducted on three marc extracts containing various amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins. Infiltration of red, white and seed grape marc extracts into tobacco leaves induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining. The infiltration zones and the surrounding areas revealed accumulation of autofluorescent compounds under UV light. Leaf infiltration of the three winery by-product extracts induced defense gene expression. The antimicrobial PR1, β-1,3-glucanase PR2, and chitinase PR3 target genes were upregulated locally in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatments. The osmotin PR5 transcripts accumulated as well in red marc extract treated-tobacco leaves. Overall, the winery by-product extracts elicited an array of plant defense responses making the grape residues a potential use of high value compounds.

  6. What we fund Tobacco control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Appraisal of the perceived economic value of the tobacco industry to ... Mechanisms for prioritising health in trade negotiations and other ... Population health and poverty ... Research projects that address multiple NCD risk factors .... In general, the process for soliciting, reviewing and awarding grants follows this timeline.

  7. Classification and Quality Evaluation of Tobacco Leaves Based on Image Processing and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xinhong

    2011-01-01

    Most of classification, quality evaluation or grading of the flue-cured tobacco leaves are manually operated, which relies on the judgmental experience of experts, and inevitably limited by personal, physical and environmental factors. The classification and the quality evaluation are therefore subjective and experientially based. In this paper, an automatic classification method of tobacco leaves based on the digital image processing and the fuzzy sets theory is presented. A grading system based on image processing techniques was developed for automatically inspecting and grading flue-cured tobacco leaves. This system uses machine vision for the extraction and analysis of color, size, shape and surface texture. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation provides a high level of confidence in decision making based on the fuzzy logic. The neural network is used to estimate and forecast the membership function of the features of tobacco leaves in the fuzzy sets. The experimental results of the two-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) show that the accuracy rate of classification is about 94% for the trained tobacco leaves, and the accuracy rate of the non-trained tobacco leaves is about 72%. We believe that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is a viable way for the automatic classification and quality evaluation of the tobacco leaves. PMID:22163744

  8. Engagement With Online Tobacco Marketing and Associations With Tobacco Product Use Among U.S. Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Pierce, John P; Choi, Kelvin; Portnoy, David B; Margolis, Katherine A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Moore, Rhonda J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Sargent, James

    2017-07-01

    Youth who engage with online tobacco marketing may be more susceptible to tobacco use than unengaged youth. This study examines online engagement with tobacco marketing and its association with tobacco use patterns. Cross-sectional analysis of youths aged 12-17 years who participated in wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (N = 13,651). Engagement with tobacco marketing was based on 10 survey items including signing up for email alerts about tobacco products in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of online engagement with tobacco marketing and susceptibility to use any tobacco product among never-tobacco users, ever having tried tobacco, and past 30-day tobacco use. An estimated 2.94 million U.S. youth (12%) engaged with ≥ one forms of online tobacco marketing. Compared with no engagement, the odds of susceptibility to the use of any tobacco product among never-tobacco users was independently associated with the level of online engagement: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.76) for one form of engagement and AOR = 2.37 (95% CI, 1.53-3.68) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The odds of ever having tried tobacco were also independently associated with the level of online engagement: AOR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) for one form of engagement and AOR = 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16-2.03) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The level of online engagement was not independently associated with past 30-day tobacco use. Online engagement with tobacco marketing may represent an important risk factor for the onset of tobacco use in youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  10. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  11. Computer simulation of the interplay between fractal structures and surrounding heterogeneous multifractal distributions. Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Martin, Miguel Angel; Reyes Castro, Miguel E.; Taguas Coejo, Fco. Javier

    2014-01-01

    In a large number of physical, biological and environmental processes interfaces with high irregular geometry appear separating media (phases) in which the heterogeneity of constituents is present. In this work the quantification of the interplay between irregular structures and surrounding heterogeneous distributions in the plane is made For a geometric set image and a mass distribution (measure) image supported in image, being image, the mass image gives account of the interplay between th...

  12. Combustible Tobacco and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Working Adults-United States, 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine tobacco use among working adults at least 18 years of age. The 2012 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 105,779) was used to estimate prevalences for cigarette smoking, other combustible tobacco use, and smokeless tobacco use and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for any tobacco product use among working adults at least 18 years of age, by industry and occupation. Of the estimated 144 million currently employed adults, 17% were cigarette smokers, 7.0% other noncigarette combustible tobacco users, and 3.4% smokeless tobacco users. Odds of using tobacco varied by sociodemographic characteristics and by industry and occupations. Disparities in tobacco use exist among working adults. Continued implementation of proven interventions to prevent and reduce all forms of tobacco use among U.S. workers is warranted, particularly among those workers with a higher burden of use.

  13. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability ...

  14. Investigation of the readout electronics of DELPHI surround muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khovanskij, N.; Krumshtejn, Z.; Ol'shevskij, A.; Sadovskij, A.; Sedykh, Yu.; Molnar, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomsa, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of the readout electronics of the DELPHI surround muon chambers with various AMPLEX chips (AMPLEX 16 and AMPLEX-SICAL) are presented. This electronics is studied in a cosmic rays test of the real surround muon chamber model. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Analysis of methylated patterns and quality-related genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junna; Jia, Yanlong; Lv, Zhuangwei; Sun, Chuanfei; Gao, Lijie; Yan, Xiaoxiao; Cui, Liusu; Tang, Zongxiang; Yan, Benju

    2014-08-01

    Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism was used in this study to investigate epigenetic information of four tobacco cultivars: Yunyan 85, NC89, K326, and Yunyan 87. The DNA fragments with methylated information were cloned by reamplified PCR and sequenced. The results of Blast alignments showed that the genes with methylation information included chitinase, nitrate reductase, chloroplast DNA, mitochondrial DNA, ornithine decarboxylase, ribulose carboxylase, and promoter sequences. Homologous comparison in three cloned gene sequences (nitrate reductase, ornithine decarboxylase, and ribulose decarboxylase) indicated that geographic factors had significant influence on the whole genome methylation. Introns also contained different information in different tobacco cultivars. These findings suggest that synthetic mechanisms for tobacco aromatic components could be affected by different environmental factors leading to variation of noncoding regions in the genome, which finally results in different fragrance and taste in different tobacco cultivars.

  16. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  17. Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.

  18. Overview of the issues surrounding thermal discharges in the Des Plaines River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    This review effort was undertaken to clarify and, if possible, quantify the issues surrounding the thermal input into the lower Des Plaines River from the Commonwealth Edison Joliet Electrical Generation Facility. The central issue is whether or not a reduction of the thermal discharge from the facility would produce beneficial environmental effects. This issue is clouded due to the fact of a number of environmental problems. These problems include: the river water quality, sediment quality, and barge traffic impacts. These variables, coupled with the uncertain future stream volume and conflicting data, prevent any simplistic conclusions from being drawn. Thus, any short-term study can only result in an overview of the situation.

  19. Experiences of High School Students about the Predictors of Tobacco Use: a Directed Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tobacco use is one of the most important risk factors that increases the burden of diseases worldwide. Based on the increasing speed of tobacco use, the aim of the present study was to explain the experiences of high school students about the determiners of use and non-use of tobacco (cigarettes and hookah based on the theory of protection motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative study based on content analysis that has been carried out for five months from 22, November of 2014 to 20, April of 2015 on male high schools in Noshahr. Data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews from 21 male high school students of whom 7 smoked cigarettes, 7 used hookah and 7 of them did not use any type of tobacco. Data analysis was carried out through the use of directed qualitative content analysis. Results: Data analysis led to the extraction of 99 primary codes that were categorized into 9 predetermined levels of protection motivation theory including perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity, fear, perceived self-efficacy, response expense, efficiency of the perceived answer, external perceived reward, internal perceived reward, protection motivation. The findings of the study showed that the most important predictors for the use of tobacco were the structures of response expense and high perceived rewards and the most important predictors for non-use of tobacco were perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity and high self-efficacy of students. Conclusions: the findings of the present study showed that the pressure from peers, being present in a group using tobacco and the absence of alternative recreational activities are among the most important factors of using tobacco. So, it is suggested that planners of the health department take the comprehensive interventions to improve effective individual and environmental factors of using tobacco so that they could reduce smoking cigarettes

  20. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Tamone, Amelie [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Varela, Jesus, E-mail: elena.ricciardelli@epfl.ch [Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Plaza San Juan 1, E-44001 Teruel (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R {sub void}, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3 σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  1. Multiple streams approach to tobacco control policymaking in a tobacco-growing state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Dadkar, Sumati; Veeranki, Sreenivas P; He, Yi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-08-01

    Smokefree policies (SFPs) have diffused throughout the US and worldwide. However, the development of SFPs in the difficult policy environment of tobacco-producing states and economies worldwide has not been well-explored. In 2007, Tennessee, the third largest tobacco producer in the US, enacted the Non-Smoker Protection Act (NSPA). This study utilizes the multiple streams model to provide understanding of why and how this policy was developed by triangulating interviews with key stakeholders and legislative debates with archival documents. In June 2006, the Governor unexpectedly announced support for SFP, which created a window of opportunity for policy change. The Campaign for Healthy and Responsible Tennessee, a health coalition, seized this opportunity and worked with the administration and the Tennessee Restaurant Association to negotiate a comprehensive SFP, however, a weaker bill was used by the legislative leadership to develop the NSPA. Although the Governor and the Tennessee Restaurant Association's support generated an environment for 100% SFP, health groups did not fully capitalize on this environmental change and settled for a weak policy with several exemptions. This study suggests the importance for proponents of policy change to understand changes in their environment and be willing and able to capitalize on these changes.

  2. Public support in England for raising the price of cigarettes to fund tobacco control activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; West, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces consumption, with a global price elasticity of approximately -0.4. In the UK where the cost of cigarettes is already relatively high, there is an issue surrounding public acceptance of further price rises ahead of the inflation rate. Previous research suggests that price increases may be supported where funds are dedicated to tobacco control. This study assessed public support in England for such a policy. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in England between August 2008 and January 2009. A representative sample of 8736 respondents aged 16+, of whom 1900 (22%) were cigarette smokers at the time of the survey, was recruited. The primary outcome measure was support for a 20p (4%) price increase on a pack of cigarettes with proceeds going to fund tobacco control activities. 6216 participants (71%), including half (47%) of current cigarette smokers, indicated that they would support a 20p price increase if funds were dedicated to tobacco control activities. Levels of support among smokers were similar across the social gradient and gender. Younger smokers were more likely to support the increase. Smokers who smoked 0-10 cigarettes per day were more supportive of the increase than heavier smokers. There is broad public support for raising the cost of cigarettes with funds being used for tobacco control activities. The absence of a social gradient among smokers concurs with other research showing that more disadvantaged smokers are as engaged with tobacco control objectives as more affluent smokers.

  3. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-05-17

    Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.

  4. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  5. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  6. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  7. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  8. Compliance with point-of-sale tobacco control policies and student tobacco use in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Pednekar, Mangesh S; McCarthy, William J; Resnicow, Ken; Pimple, Sharmila A; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Mishra, Gauravi A; Gupta, Prakash C

    2018-05-09

    We measured how student tobacco use and psychological risk factors (intention to use and perceived ease of access to tobacco products) were associated with tobacco vendor compliance with India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act provisions regulating the point-of-sale (POS) environment. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of high school students (n=1373) and tobacco vendors (n=436) in school-adjacent communities (n=26) in Mumbai, India. We used in-class self-administered questionnaires of high school students, face-to-face interviews with tobacco vendors and compliance checks of tobacco POS environments. Logistic regression models with adjustments for clustering were used to measure associations between student tobacco use, psychological risk factors and tobacco POS compliance. Compliance with POS laws was low overall and was associated with lower risk of student current tobacco use (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.91) and current smokeless tobacco use (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.77), when controlling for student-level and community-level tobacco use risk factors. Compliance was not associated with student intention to use tobacco (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.18) and perceived ease of access to tobacco (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.00). Improving vendor compliance with tobacco POS laws may reduce student tobacco use. Future studies should test strategies to improve compliance with tobacco POS laws, particularly in low-income and middle-income country settings like urban India. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Nuclear analysis of Jordanian tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, K. A.; Saleh, N. S.

    The concentration of trace and minor elements in six different Jordanian and two foreign brands of cigarette tobacco and wrapping paper were determined using combined X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Rutherford backscatteing (RBS) analysis techniques. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the trapped elements on the filter and their transference with smoke. The toxic effects of some elements have been briefly discussed.

  10. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Introduction to tobacco control supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Admini...

  12. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed by...

  13. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco shall...

  14. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  15. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  16. 12-Digit Watershed Boundary Data 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States (NAT_HYDROLOGY.HUC12_NRCS_REG2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) downloaded from...

  17. Methodology assessment of the total beta activity in tobacco and tobacco products and certain results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, A.; Srentz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alpha and beta radionuclides in tobacco and tobacco products is a frequently discussed issue. However, any information in publications about them and their presence in tobacco products is too scarce. World Health care Organization monitors the influence of tobacco smoking on human health. In 2003, a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was accepted with the aim to protect human health, which was signed by 179 countries, including Bulgaria. The first debates on the presence of radionuclides in tobacco products are raised in Moscow in 2014. These were instigated by data on the findings of polonium-210, reported by USA and Russia. The aim of the report is to outline a methodology to detect the presence of beta-active radionuclides in tobacco and its products. Keywords: beta activity, geiger counter, samples with infinite thickness, tobacco samples

  18. Global teens and tobacco: a review of the globalization of the tobacco epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, Bethany; Lando, Harry; Klein, Jonathan; Winickoff, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, the burden of suffering to children caused by tobacco does not just originate from exposure to tobacco smoke or smoking, but includes exposure to tobacco-friendly media, poverty associated with money spent on tobacco, increased incidence of tobacco-related fires, and the harms related to child labor in tobacco cultivation. Despite global efforts through human rights acts, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the MPOWER report, tobacco use continues to accelerate in most countries. While the efforts that have been taken, such as smoking bans in public, are worthy actions, not enough is being done to protect children and teens. More can be done at the policy level, by individuals, and by health care providers. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Tobacco Use Management System: Analyzing Tobacco Control From a Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Coghill, Ken; Zhang, Jian Ying

    2010-01-01

    We use systems thinking to develop a strategic framework for analyzing the tobacco problem and we suggest solutions. Humans are vulnerable to nicotine addiction, and the most marketable form of nicotine delivery is the most harmful. A tobacco use management system has evolved out of governments’ attempts to regulate tobacco marketing and use and to support services that provide information about tobacco's harms and discourage its use. Our analysis identified 5 systemic problems that constrain progress toward the elimination of tobacco-related harm. We argue that this goal would be more readily achieved if the regulatory subsystem had dynamic power to regulate tobacco products and the tobacco industry as well as a responsive process for resourcing tobacco use control activities. PMID:20466970

  20. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.

  1. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  2. Approaches to tobacco control: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M Lober; Lowe, J B

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco production, distribution, and use are international issues with significant health and economic implications. This paper provides an overview of the effective approaches to tobacco control including decreasing demand for tobacco products through taxation, consumer education, research, bans on advertising and promotion, warning labels, and restrictions on public smoking. The effectiveness of reducing the supply of tobacco products through prohibition, restrictions on youth access, crop substitution, trade restrictions, and control of smuggling, will also be discussed. Decreasing smoking, particularly among young people, by preventing or delaying initiation, preventing regular use, and increasing cessation through behavioural approaches for all ages is reviewed. Cessation methods including pharmacological approaches, 'quitlines', Internet programmes, and the targeting of specific populations are discussed. Internet availability of tobacco products and sustainability of current efforts are presented as continuing challenges to tobacco control.

  3. A behavioral economics perspective on tobacco taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2010-04-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally.

  4. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  5. Promoting Life Skills and Preventing Tobacco Use among Low-Income Mumbai Youth: Effects of Salaam Bombay Foundation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Glorian; Gupta, Prakash C.; Nagler, Eve; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-01-01

    Background In response to India's growing tobacco epidemic, strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use among Indian youth, particularly among those who are economically disadvantaged. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based life-skills tobacco control program for youth of low socio-economic status in Mumbai and the surrounding state of Maharashtra. We hypothesized that compared to youth in control schools, youth exposed to the program would have greater knowledge of effects of tobacco use; be more likely to take action to prevent others from using tobacco; demonstrate more positive life skills and attitudes; and be less likely to report tobacco use. Methods/Findings Using a quasi-experimental design, we assessed program effectiveness by comparing 8th and 9th grade students in intervention schools to 8th grade students in comparable schools that did not receive the program. Across all schools, 1851 students completed a survey that assessed core program components in early 2010. The program consisted of activities focused on building awareness about the hazards of tobacco, developing life skills, and advocacy development. The primary outcome measure was self-reported tobacco use in the last 30 days. Findings indicate that 4.1% of 8th grade intervention students (OR = 0.51) and 3.6% of 9th grade intervention students (OR = 0.33) reported using tobacco at least once in the last 30 days, compared to 8.7% of students in the control schools. Intervention group students were also significantly more knowledgeable about tobacco and related legislation, reported more efforts to prevent tobacco use among others, and reported stronger life skills and self-efficacy than students in control schools. Limitations to the study include schools not being randomly assigned to condition and tobacco use being measured by self-report. Conclusions This program represents an effective model of school-based tobacco use prevention that low

  6. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  7. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  8. Contamination of nebulisers and surrounding air at the bedside of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An air sampler was used to collect air samples from the surrounding bedside environment. .... individualised resealable plastic bags and stored upside down in a cooler .... conventional and mesh technology nebulisers used at home by adults.

  9. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  10. Tobacco Industry Political Activity and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Pennsylvania: 1979-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Monardi, Fred M. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1997-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a major political and legal force in Pennsylvania through campaign contributions, lobbying and litigation. The tobacco industry has become a major source of campaign contributions to legislative candidates, state constitutional office candidates, and political party committees. In the 1979-1980 election cycle, the tobacco industry contributed $3,600 to candidates and parties. In 1995-1996, the tobacco industry contributed $65,850 to candidates and parties. ...

  11. Military exceptionalism or tobacco exceptionalism: How civilian health leaders' beliefs may impede military tobacco control efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, EA; Malone, RE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific kn...

  12. Monitoring program of surrounding of the NPP SE-EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobis, L.; Kostial, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper dealt with monitoring program of radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, which has the aim: (1) to ensure the control of influence of work of the NPP Bohunice on the environment in their surrounding; (2) to ensure the back-ground for regular brief of control and supervisory organs about condition of the environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice; (3) to maintain the expected technical level of control of the NPP Bohunice and to exploit optimally the technical means; (4) to solicit permanently the data about the radioactivity of environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice for forming of files of the data; (5) to exploit purposefully the technical equipment, technical workers and to maintain their in permanent emergency and technical eligibility for the case of the breakdown; (6) to obtain permanently the files of the values for qualification of the reference levels. This program of monitoring includes the radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, in the time of normal work of power-station's blocks, inclusively of all types of trouble-shooting and repairer works in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, up to distance 20 km from power-station. The monitoring includes: outlets from the NPP Bohunice, monitoring of radiation characteristics in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, (aerosols, fall-outs, soil), the links of food chains: (grass and fodder, milk, agriculture products), hydrosphere in surrounding (surface waters, drink water, bores of radiation control in complex of the NPP Bohunice, components of the hydrosphere), measurement of radiation from external sources (measurement of the dose rates, measurement of the doses [sk

  13. Chromatic induction from surrounding stimuli under perceptual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Koji; Kuriki, Ichiro; Tokunaga, Rumi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of colors can be affected by their spatiotemporal context. The shift in color appearance according to the surrounding colors is called color induction or chromatic induction; in particular, the shift in opponent color of the surround is called chromatic contrast. To investigate whether chromatic induction occurs even when the chromatic surround is imperceptible, we measured chromatic induction during interocular suppression. A multicolor or uniform color field was presented as the surround stimulus, and a colored continuous flash suppression (CFS) stimulus was presented to the dominant eye of each subject. The subjects were asked to report the appearance of the test field only when the stationary surround stimulus is invisible by interocular suppression with CFS. The resulting shifts in color appearance due to chromatic induction were significant even under the conditions of interocular suppression for all surround stimuli. The magnitude of chromatic induction differed with the surround conditions, and this difference was preserved regardless of the viewing conditions. The chromatic induction effect was reduced by CFS, in proportion to the magnitude of chromatic induction under natural (i.e., no-CFS) viewing conditions. According to an analysis with linear model fitting, we revealed the presence of at least two kinds of subprocesses for chromatic induction that reside at higher and lower levels than the site of interocular suppression. One mechanism yields different degrees of chromatic induction based on the complexity of the surround, which is unaffected by interocular suppression, while the other mechanism changes its output with interocular suppression acting as a gain control. Our results imply that the total chromatic induction effect is achieved via a linear summation of outputs from mechanisms that reside at different levels of visual processing.

  14. Current tobacco use and its associated factors among adults in Georgia: findings from Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors STEPS Survey Georgia 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Maglaklelidze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco surveys of past decades show that tobacco use prevalence is high in Georgia; According to nationwide Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDC Risk Factors STEPS Survey 2010 30% of adult population are current tobacco users. Another Nationwide Tobacco Survey 2014 reported 28% of tobacco use prevalence among Georgian adults. However, there has been relatively little progress in systematic study of the factors associated with this high tobacco use. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and its associated sociodemographic, behavioral and environmental factors in Georgia. Methods The current study in Georgia was a population-based STEPS survey of adults aged 18-69. A multi-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for that age range in Georgia. The. A total of 5554 adults participated in the survey. The overall response rate was 75.7%. We assessed sociodemographics, behavioral and other health-related factors. Results The prevalence of current overall tobacco use was 31.1% (95 % CI: 29.0-33.1 which comprised of smoked tobacco use, smoked cigarettes and use of smokeless tobacco, 31.0% (95% 28.9-33.0 smoked tobacco, 29.9 (95% CI: 27.9-32.0 smoked cigarettes and 0.3 (95% CI: 0.0-0.6 use of smokeless tobacco. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher in men 57.1% (95% CI: 53.7-60.4 compared to women 7.1% (95% CI: 5.9-8.4, especially in younger age groups and with other substance abuse history (predominantly alcohol. Conclusions Despite of some efforts in the field of tobacco control, tobacco use (particularly smoking was high in Georgia. Males, younger age groups, and population with addictions to other substances (especially alcohol should be the primary target of behavioral interventions; The stricter implementation of tobacco control measures, including comprehensive ban of tobacco marketing and smoking in public places, improved health warnings on tobacco packages and anti-tobacco

  15. Assessment of the Tobacco Dependence Screener Among Smokeless Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Nasir; Beebe, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    Variants of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) are widely used to study dependence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. However, there is a need for a dependence measure which is based on the clinical definition of dependence and is easy to administer. The Tobacco Dependence Screener (TDS), a self-administered 10-item scale, is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and ICD-10 definitions of dependence. It is commonly used as a tobacco dependence screening tool in cigarette smoking studies but it has not been evaluated for dependence in ST users. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the TDS as a measure of tobacco dependence among ST users. Data collected from a community-based sample of exclusive ST users living in Oklahoma (n = 95) was used for this study. TDS was adapted to be used for ST dependence as the references for smoking were changed to ST use. Concurrent validity and reliability of TDS were evaluated. Salivary cotinine concentration was used as a criterion variable. Overall accuracy of the TDS was assessed by receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve and optimal cutoff scores for dependence diagnosis were evaluated. There was no floor or ceiling effect in TDS score (mean = 5.42, SD = 2.61). Concurrent validity of TDS as evaluated by comparing it with FTND-ST was affirmative. Study findings showed significant association between TDS and salivary cotinine concentration. The internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha indicated that TDS had acceptable reliability (α = 0.765). TDS was negatively correlated with time to first chew/dip and positively correlated with frequency (number of chews per day) and years of ST use. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that at an optimal cutoff score of TDS 5+, ST users classified as dependent had significantly higher cotinine concentration and FTND-ST scores. TDS demonstrated acceptable reliability and

  16. Improving the delivery of global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, Asaf; Green, Carol; Colbert, James

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco control must remain a critical global health priority given the growing burden of tobacco-induced disease in the developing world. Insights from the emerging field of global health delivery suggest that tobacco control could be improved through a systematic, granular analysis of the processes through which it is promoted, implemented, and combated. Using this framework, a critical bottleneck to the delivery of proven health promotion emerges in the role that the tobacco industry plays in promoting tobacco use and blocking effective tobacco-control policies. This "corporate bottleneck" can also be understood as a root cause of massive disease and suffering upon vulnerable populations worldwide, for the goal of maximizing corporate profit. Naming, understanding, and responding to this corporate bottleneck is crucial to the success of tobacco-control policies. Three case studies of tobacco-control policy--South Africa, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and Uruguay--are presented to explore and understand the implications of this analysis. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  17. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  18. Advertising and promotion of smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V L

    1989-01-01

    This paper is focused on the approaches used to advertise and promote smokeless tobacco products during the early to mid-1980s. These included traditional motifs that featured rugged-looking masculine models in sporting and outdoor settings as well as an expanded white-collar appeal. Smokeless tobacco was not affected by the ban on broadcast advertising of cigarettes that went into effect in 1971, and, until 1986, both print and broadcast media were used to advertise it. Promotional activities ranged from sponsorship of sporting events to offers for clothing bearing smokeless tobacco product logos. Despite the claims of manufacturers that advertising and promotional efforts were not targeted to youth, smokeless tobacco companies sponsored tobacco-spitting contests with teenage participants, a college marketing program, and college scholarships. In efforts that appeared designed to bolster their public image in the face of growing concern over the consequences of smokeless tobacco use by young people, companies like U.S. Tobacco Company contributed to major social programs, including, ironically, alcohol- and drug-abuse prevention programs. Spurred by public health groups, federal legislation was passed in 1986 that banned television and radio advertising of smokeless tobacco products and required manufacturers to include warning labels on their products on the potential health hazards of smokeless tobacco use.

  19. Young adolescents, tobacco advertising, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Yolanda; González, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and tobacco advertising. The subjects of the double-stratified cluster sample were 1910 students at the same grade level in 33 schools; 86.6% were 13 or 14 years old, and 51.2% were boys. We generated measures for attitudes to tobacco advertising from replies to seven questions with ordinal scales by an analysis of categorical principal components. To relate attitude to tobacco advertising and the profiles of these adolescents, we used multiple regression and logistic regression models. Attitudes to tobacco advertising are related to some home and school factors, but most significantly to tobacco and alcohol consumption, to amount of time at home without adults, and to peer influence. It is possible to draw up profiles of the students most vulnerable to tobacco advertising, and to cluster them in two groups, the "vitalists" and the "credulous." The effect of cigarette ads is different between these groups. This study can help to orientate smoking prevention.

  20. 78 FR 38555 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY... administration and enforcement of importer permits over the past decade, TTB believes that it can gain... minimum manufacturing and marking requirements for tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and...

  1. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  2. Tobacco Content in Video Games: Categorization of Tobacco Typologies and Gamer Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-11-15

    Tobacco content has been identified in popular video games played by adolescents. To date, there are no established instruments for categorizing tobacco content. We describe development and demonstrate the use of an instrument to categorize types of tobacco content. Interviews were conducted with 61 participants: 20 adolescents (mean age 17.7), and 41 adults (mean age 23.9), who discussed favorite games and recalled tobacco content. All games mentioned were examined for tobacco content by watching movies of game play on YouTube, examining individual game Wiki sites, and reviewing content descriptors provided by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), Common Sense Media and the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). A typology of tobacco content was created and correlated with gamer recall of tobacco content. Participants together mentioned 366 games, of which 152 were unique. Tobacco content was verified in 39.5% (60/152) of games. Six categories of content were identified, including "no tobacco content." Of games containing tobacco, 88% (53/60) contained at least two categories of content. Games with more categories were associated with greater gamer recall of tobacco content. Tobacco content is present in video games and consciously recalled by players, with higher accuracy of recall associated with games featuring multiple types of tobacco content and more engaging, player-active content. Playing video games is now a daily part of most adolescents' lives. Tobacco content is present in many popular games. Currently there are no published instruments to assist in categorizing tobacco content in video games. This study describes a systematic approach to categorizing tobacco content in video games and demonstrates that games featuring more categories of tobacco content are associated with more accurate gamer recall of the presence of tobacco content when compared with games with fewer categories of content. Understanding the extent of such content will be essential

  3. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David; Raisamo, Susanna; Wiium, Nora

    2012-08-15

    In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%). In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths' future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  4. Peers, tobacco advertising, and secondhand smoke exposure influences smoking initiation in diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Carolyn C; Ye, Cong; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; MacPherson, Laura; Kanamori, Mariano; Zhang, Guangyu; Chen, Lu; Fiedler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Identify demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with smoking initiation in a large, racially and ethnically diverse sample of underage youth participating in the 2006 Maryland Youth Tobacco Survey. Cross-sectional, multistage, probability sample survey. Schools (308 middle and high schools) in Maryland. Subjects were 12- to 17-year-old adolescents participating in a school-based survey. New smokers and nonsmokers were included in the analysis (n  =  57,072). Social and media influence, secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco product use, and demographic information including age, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for clustering. Hispanic and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander youth were most likely and Asian and Black youth were least likely to be new smokers. Smoking initiation was positively associated with higher age, living with a current smoker, secondhand smoke exposure, exposure to advertisements for tobacco products, having more friends that smoke, tobacco products offered by friends, risk perceptions, and use of other tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco and cigars. Multivariate logistic regression results suggested that composite measures of peer influence, advertising exposure, and secondhand smoke exposure were independently associated with smoking initiation. Media, peer influence, and secondhand smoke exposure were the most important factors influencing smoking initiation and were common to all racial/ethnic groups in this study. Interventions combining targeted public awareness, education, and media campaigns directed at parents/guardians should be investigated.

  5. Clearing the air: the evolution of organized labor's role in tobacco control in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Jennifer; Campbell, Richard; Levenstein, Charles; Balbach, Edith

    2008-01-01

    As efforts to make U.S. worksites smoke-free took shape in the 1980s, the tobacco industry sought to defeat them by forming alliances with organized labor. The alliance between the tobacco industry and organized labor was based on framing the regulation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a threat to jobs, an example of management unilateralism, and an issue that divided smoking and nonsmoking union members. The dynamics of organized labor and tobacco control began to change in the late 1980s with attempts to ban smoking on airlines and in the hospitality industry. Flight attendants, bar and restaurant workers, and casino dealers-all subject to ETS in their work environments-confronted ETS as an occupational health issue. Against the backdrop of increasing awareness of the hazards of ETS, and the acceptance of tobacco control policy, this framing changed the basis of organized labor's role in tobacco control. Because service workers share the workplace with the general public, their occupational health issues are also public health issues. This fact presents new opportunities for coalition building to protect the health of service workers and the public alike.

  6. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... manufacture, preproduction design validation (including a process to assess the performance of a tobacco... about the manufacturing practices and processes unique to your facility and regulated tobacco products... process, package, label, and distribute different types of regulated tobacco products (cigarettes...

  7. Teens and Tobacco (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and most tobacco product use begins during adolescence. In this podcast, Dr. Andrea Gentzke discusses ways to keep young people from using tobacco products.

  8. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  9. [The effect of increasing tobacco tax on tobacco sales in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuri; Nakamura, Masakazu

    2013-09-01

    Since the special tobacco tax was established in 1998, the tobacco tax and price of tobacco have increased thrice, in 2003, 2006, and 2010, respectively. We evaluated the effect of increases in tax on the consumption and sales of tobacco in Japan using the annual data on the number of tobacco products sold and the total sales from Japan Tobacco, Inc. We applied the number of tobacco products sold and the total sales per year to a joinpoint regression model to examine the trends in the data. This model could help identify the year in which a decrease or increase was apparent from the data. In addition, we examined the effect of each tax increase while also considering other factors that may have caused a decrease in the levels of tobacco consumption using the method proposed by Hirano et al. According to the joinpoint regression analysis, the number of tobacco products sold started decreasing in 1998, and the trends of decrease accelerated to 5% per year, from 2005. Owing to the tax increase, tobacco sales reduced by -2.4%, -2.9%, and -10.1% (corrected for the effect of the Tohoku Great Earthquake), and price elasticity was estimated as -0.30, -0.27, and -0.28 (corrected) in 2003, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The effect of tobacco tax increase on the decrease in tobacco sales was greatest in 2010, while the price elasticity remained almost the same as it was during the previous tax increase. The sharp hike in tobacco tax in 2010 decreased the number of tobacco products sold, while the price elasticity in 2010 was similar to that in 2003 and 2006. Our findings suggest that further increase in tobacco tax is needed to reduce the damage caused by smoking in the people of Japan.

  10. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  11. The plight of tobacco farming under hegemony of transnational tobacco companies in Turkey: repercussions and remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efza Evrengil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The shift from State oversight to contractual farming mandated by law in 2002 as a structural adjustment conditionality has had destructive impact on Turkish tobacco agriculture: Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs gained control by being able to impose unilateral conditions; tobacco farmers were forced to face three options: prices below subsistence, migration, or turning to illicit market. A heated debate about illicit domestic tobacco market recently surfaced in news media. Methods (a Literature review, (b trend analysis of Turkish leaf tobacco output and trade as compared among 12 major tobacco growing countries, using official data (2003-2016, FAOstat (1961-2014, UNdata (1989-2015, (c review of relevant news coverage (2016 - June 2017. Results Over the last 25 years, Turkey was worst hit among the 12 countries: Leaf tobacco output dropped sharpest by 78%, and trade balance was drastically reversed. Between 2003-2016, cigarettes manufactured rose by 32.2%, leaf tobacco imports by 46.6%, whereas number of tobacco farmers declined by 82.4%, domestic output by 39.4%, and exports by 53.6%. Domestic tobacco used in cigarettes decreased from 42.1% to 13.3%. Tobacco agriculture vanished in certain regions or reduced to supplementary source of income undertaken by elderly and children. Domestic tobacco lobby seeks legalization, lower tax rates, and quotas for compulsory use of domestic tobacco in manufacturing. TTCs fervently oppose these positions and demand severe countermeasures. Conclusions TTCs ability to source leaf tobacco at lowest possible prices through their affiliates from around the world under liberalized trade and contractual farming regimes greatly harms agricultural activities realized by income and employment generating small family holdings, and thus national economies. In Turkey, TTC hegemony devastated farmers' livelihoods, caused market imbalance and duality, and disrupted regulations and taxation. Agriculture

  12. Talking about tobacco on Twitter is associated with tobacco product use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Urman, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Majmundar, Anuja; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2018-06-10

    Tobacco-related content appears on social media in the form of advertising and messages by individuals. However, little is known about associations between posting social media messages and tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults. Self-reports of tobacco product use were obtained from the Children's Health Study of young adults in Southern California. Among the 1486 respondents in the most recent wave of the cohort (2016-2017), 284 provided tobacco product use data and their Twitter user names to access publicly available Twitter account data (mean age = 20.1 yrs. (SD = 0.6), 54% female, 49% Hispanic). We obtained the tweets that those respondents posted on Twitter, searched the tweets for 14 nicotine- and tobacco-related keywords, and coded these statements as positive or negative/neutral. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether respondents who posted positive tobacco-related tweets were more likely to report tobacco product use, relative to those who did not post any positive tobacco-related tweets. Respondents who posted any positive messages about tobacco had significantly higher odds of reporting past month use of cigarettes (OR = 3.15, 95% CI = 1.36, 7.30) and any tobacco product (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.16, 5.01), relative to respondents who did not post about tobacco. This is the first study to establish an empirical link between adolescents' and young adults' tobacco-related Twitter activity and their tobacco product use. Health communications about the risks of tobacco use could target adolescents who post positive messages about tobacco products on Twitter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  14. The fight against tobacco in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1994-02-01

    The battle to reduce the tobacco epidemic is not being won; the epidemic is merely being transferred from rich to poor countries. Tobacco-related mortality will rise from the present annual global toll of 3 million to over 10 million by the year 2025. Currently, most of these deaths are in developed countries but 7 out of the 10 million deaths will occur in developing countries by 2025. Developing countries cannot afford this increase, either in terms of human health or in economic costs, such as medical and health care costs, costs of lost productivity, costs of fires or costs of the misuse of land used to grow tobacco. As many of the tobacco-related illnesses, such as lung cancer or emphysema, are incurable even with expensive technology, the key to tobacco control lies in prevention. The essential elements of a national tobacco control policy are the same for all countries throughout the world--the only differences lie in fine tuning to a country's current situation. While indigenous production and consumption of tobacco remain a problem, of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns and the use of political and commercial pressures to open up markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This includes specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The changing marketing of smokeless tobacco in magazine advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laurel E; Pederson, Linda L; Stryker, Jo Ellen

    2011-07-01

    Concerns about secondhand smoke, increasing indoor smoking bans, and health concerns regarding cigarettes are contributing to the development of new smokeless tobacco (ST) products by the tobacco industry and the repositioning of traditional ST products. The objective of this research was to systematically document the changing advertising strategies and themes of the ST industry. Using descriptive content analysis, this study analyzed 17 nationally circulated magazines for ST advertisements (ads) from 1998-1999 and 2005-2006, recording both magazine and advertisement characteristics (e.g., themes, selling proposition, people portrayed, and setting/surroundings.) Ninety-five unique ads were found during the two time periods-occurring with total frequency of 290 ad placements in 816 issues. One hundred ninety-one ads were found in the 2005-2006 sample, while 99 were found in the 1998-1999 magazines. Significant differences in ST ads were identified between time periods and magazine types. A greater percentage of ads were found in the latter time period, and the average number of ads per issue increased (0.24 in 1998-1999 and 0.49 in 2005-2006, p advertise in men's magazines with themes appealing to men and "traditional" ST users, the ST industry appears to be simultaneously changing its message placement and content in order to include readers of general adult magazines who may not currently use ST.

  16. Dehydrins Impart Protection against Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tanmoy; Upadhyaya, Gouranga; Basak, Chandra; Das, Arup; Chakraborty, Chandrima; Ray, Sudipta

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stresses generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be detrimental to the plants when produced in an uncontrolled way. However, the plants ameliorate such stresses by synthesizing antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ROS. Additionally, the dehydrins were also able to protect the inactivation of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase against hydroxyl radicals (OH ⋅ ) generated during Fenton's reaction. SbDhn1 and SbDhn2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were able to protect against oxidative damage. Transgenic tobacco lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency along with high chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and proline. However, the malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower in transgenic lines. Experimental evidence demonstrates the protective effect of dehydrins on electron transport chain in isolated chloroplast upon methyl viologen (MV) treatment. The transgenic tobacco plants showed significantly lower superoxide radical generation () upon MV treatment. The accumulation of the H 2 O 2 was also lower in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, in the transgenic plants the expression of ROS scavenging enzymes was higher compared to non-transformed (NT) or vector transformed (VT) plants. Taken together these data, during oxidative stress dehydrins function by scavenging the () directly and also by rendering protection to the enzymes responsible for the dismutation of () thereby significantly reducing the amount of hydrogen peroxides formed. Increase in proline content along with other antioxidants might also play a significant role in stress amelioration. Dehydrins thus function co-operatively with other protective mechanisms under oxidative stress conditions rendering protection in stress environment.

  17. 76 FR 52913 - Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... products'' as ``cigars, cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, and roll-your-own tobacco.'' Each of..., and all electronic or mailed comments TTB has received or will receive in response to [[Page 52915...

  18. Surrounding land cover types as predictors of palustrine wetland vegetation quality in conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Gara, Brian; Schumacher, William

    2018-01-01

    The loss of wetland habitats and their often-unique biological communities is a major environmental concern. We examined vegetation data obtained from 380 wetlands sampled in a statistical survey of wetlands in the USA. Our goal was to identify which surrounding land cover types best predict two indices of vegetation quality in wetlands at the regional scale. We considered palustrine wetlands in four regions (Coastal Plains, North Central East, Interior Plains, and West) in which the dominant vegetation was emergent, forested, or scrub-shrub. For each wetland, we calculated weighted proportions of eight land cover types surrounding the area in which vegetation was assessed, in four zones radiating from the edge of the assessment area to 2 km. Using Akaike's Information Criterion, we determined the best 1-, 2- and 3-predictor models of the two indices, using the weighted proportions of the land cover types as potential predictors. Mean values of the two indices were generally higher in the North Central East and Coastal Plains than the other regions for forested and emergent wetlands. In nearly all cases, the best predictors of the indices were not the dominant surrounding land cover types. Overall, proportions of forest (positive effect) and agriculture (negative effect) surrounding the assessment area were the best predictors of the two indices. One or both of these variables were included as predictors in 65 of the 72 models supported by the data. Wetlands surrounding the assessment area had a positive effect on the indices, and ranked third (33%) among the predictors included in supported models. Development had a negative effect on the indices and was included in only 28% of supported models. These results can be used to develop regional management plans for wetlands, such as creating forest buffers around wetlands, or to conserve zones between wetlands to increase habitat connectivity.

  19. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through ...

  20. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Nearly Half Of Small Employers Using Tobacco Surcharges Do Not Provide Tobacco Cessation Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Bains, Jaskaran; Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Cook, Benjamin Lê

    2018-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed employer plans in the small-group marketplace to charge tobacco users up to 50 percent more for premiums-known as tobacco surcharges-but only if the employer offered a tobacco cessation program and the employee in question failed to participate in it. Using 2016 survey data collected by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust on 278 employers eligible for Small Business Health Options Program, we examined the prevalence of tobacco surcharges and tobacco cessation programs in the small-group market under this policy and found that 16.2 percent of small employers used tobacco surcharges. Overall, 47 percent of employers used tobacco surcharges but failed to offer tobacco cessation counseling. Wellness program prevalence was lower in states that allowed tobacco surcharges, and 10.8 percent of employers in these states were noncompliant with the ACA by charging tobacco users higher premiums without offering cessation programs. Efforts should be undertaken to improve the monitoring and enforcement of ACA tobacco rating rules.

  2. Japan Tobacco International: To 'be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade

    2017-03-01

    Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  3. Tobacco Use and Associated Factors in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Ebrahimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Many studies indicate that one of the leading preventable causes of premature death, disease and disability around the world is Tobacco use. Unfortunately, adolescents and young adults of colleges are often targeted of marketing by the tobacco industry. The aim of this study was to assess the relative frequency of tobacco use and associated factors in medical students. Methods This cross-sectional study has done among medical students in 2014 - 2015. Totally, 284 students from 4 levels (basic, extern, intern and residents were selected by random sampling from each category. We used a checklist for collecting demographic information that was distributed among participants by a trained interviewer. SPSS-11.5 software was used for data analysis andsignificance level was considered < 0.05. Results Among 284 medical students, 17 (6% smoked cigarette and 3 (1.05% used illicit substance. All of the users were male, 15 (88% of which were single. 1 (1.4 % of the basic level students, 6 (6.9 % of the externs, 9 (14.8 % of the Interns and 1(1.6 % of the residents used cigarette but the differences among these groups were not significant (P = 0.36. Generally, 13 (76.5% of the users resided in dormitory and the others lived in parental home, which shows a significant difference among these groups (P = 0.01.The logistic regression indicated stage level was positively associated with cigarette use (P < 0.007. Conclusions In this study, we evaluated how several environmental factors may influence illicit substance and tobacco use. We found an association between living in a dormitory and smoking cigarette, so it is an important factor to be considered in program planning for new students who entered into this environment.

  4. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  5. Instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Das, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 27 tobacco samples was submitted to INAA. Bowen's Kale was analyzed with the samples. The resulting data for 21 elements in tobacco were processed by a cluster programme. This combination proves to be a convenient tool for discrimination within one group of samples. (author)

  6. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE BY TOBACCO PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...

  7. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  8. From Tobacco to Food Production : Consolidation, Dissemination ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An earlier IDRC-supported project, 103435 From Tobacco to Food Production : Constraints and Transition Strategies (Bangladesh), provided a detailed understanding of the constraints tobacco farmers face and ... How are public health actors working with the food and drinks industry to prevent diet-related disease? A new ...

  9. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals ... the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC)—are partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that. ... Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China) ... Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam.

  10. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of mindfulness training in fostering tobacco cessation among undergraduates in a Nigerian university. It also observed the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the causal link between mindfulness training and tobacco cessation. Participants were 57 students randomly assigned to ...

  12. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... ... tobacco use, the social nature of the activity, and the relatively recent innovation of flavouring the tobacco. ... Clean air for ourselves and our children ... They cultivated media contacts, leading to numerous newspaper articles, ... An awareness-raising video documents the economic problems associated ...

  13. Quadratic tracer dynamical models tobacco growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jiyi; Hua Cuncai; Wang Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the non-uniformly transferring process of some tracer dosages, we assume that the absorption of some tracer by tobacco is a quadratic function of the tracer quantity of the tracer in the case of fast absorption, whereas the exclusion of the tracer from tobacco is a linear function of the tracer quantity in the case of slow exclusion, after the tracer is introduced into tobacco once at zero time. A single-compartment quadratic dynamical model of Logistic type is established for the leaves of tobacco. Then, a two-compartment quadratic dynamical model is established for leaves and calms of the tobacco. Qualitative analysis of the models shows that the tracer applied to the leaves of the tobacco is excluded finally; however, the tracer stays at the tobacco for finite time. Two methods are also given for computing the parameters in the models. Finally, the results of the models are verified by the 32 P experiment for the absorption of tobacco. (authors)

  14. California's tobacco tax initiative: the development and passage of Proposition 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, M P; Glantz, S A

    1996-01-01

    In this case study, we describe and analyze the development and passage of California's tobacco tax initiative, Proposition 99, the Tobacco Tax and Health Promotion Act of 1988. We gathered information from published reports, public documents, personal correspondence, internal memorandums, polling data, and interviews with representatives from organizations that participated in the Proposition 99 campaign. Proposition 99 passed as a result of the efforts of a coalition of voluntary health agencies, medical organizations, and environmental groups. They organized a long-term effort by conducting essential polling, planning strategies, gaining media exposure, developing a coalition, and running a successful campaign to enact the tax by shifting the venue from legislative to initiative politics. To build the coalition that was needed to pass Proposition 99, public health proponents enlisted the help of medical organizations in exchange for additional revenue to be allocated to medical services. By shifting the venue from the legislature to the general public, advocates capitalized on public concern about tobacco and for youth and took advantage of the tobacco industry's low credibility. The passage of Proposition 99, despite a massive campaign against it by the tobacco industry, represents a milestone in the tobacco control and public health fields. From its passage in 1988 through 1993, tobacco use in California declined by 27 percent, which is three times faster than the United States average. As a result, Proposition 99 has served as a national model for other states and the federal government. Although allocation of tobacco tax revenues specifically to health education and prevention was a primary goal during the development and passage of Proposition 99, when the venue shifted back to the legislature for implementation, medical organizations successfully advocated illegal diversions of Proposition 99 tobacco control and research funds to medical services

  15. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama; Daniel Kadobera; Sheila Ndyanabangi; Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi; Shannon Gravely; Lindsay Robertson; David Guwatudde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Word Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to asses...

  16. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    Background The Word Health Organization?s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess pra...

  17. Impact of anti-tobacco warning labels on behaviour of tobacco users in one of the cities of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, V R; Dave, V R; Sonaliya, K N

    2013-06-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable deaths, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. Tobacco control must be given the high priority by scaling up tobacco control measures. In India under Control of Tobacco Product Act, it is mandatory to keep the warning labels over all kind of tobacco products in order to minimise the use of tobacco. Review of the knowledge regarding warning labels printed on tobacco products among its users and to evaluate the impact of them on addicting behaviour. A Cross Sectional study was carried out among the group of people using tobacco in any form. Total 776 tobacco users were enrolled in the study. Mean age of tobacco user was 41.4 years. Out of total 776 tobacco users, 561 (72.3%) had ever noticed warning signals over the tobacco products. Among those who have noticed warning labels, 64.4 % became aware about health effects and 66% have thought to quit tobacco. Tobacco users of young age group (15-45) were more aware regarding warning labels. Females were less aware. As level of education increases number of tobacco users who tried to quit or reduced the daily quantity of tobacco intake were also increases. Positive impact of warning labels has been seen among the tobacco users who have noticed them. Not all the tobacco users were aware regarding the presence of warning labels as per the findings of present study.

  18. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    -depth understanding of the mechanism regulating blood flow and perfusion is necessary if we are to come up with new ideas for intervention and treatment. Method: From fresh born placentas stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end...... and was left untouched in the other end. Then using wire myography they were investigated in terms of contractility and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results: Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue...... compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries with surrounding tissue, when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi...

  19. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...... and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results. Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries...... with surrounding tissue when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion. The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi arteries' sensitivity and force development in a suppressive way. This implicates a new aspect of blood flow regulation...

  20. Surrounding rock stress analysis of underground high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Wang Guangdi

    2006-01-01

    During decay of nuclear waste, enormous energy was released, which results in temperature change of surrounding rock of depository. Thermal stress was produced because thermal expansion of rock was controlled. Internal structure of surrounding rock was damaged and strength of rock was weakened. So, variation of stress was a dynamic process with the variation of temperature. BeiShan region of Gansu province was determined to be the depository field in the future, it is essential to make research on granite in this region. In the process of experiment, basic physical parameters of granite were analyzed preliminary with MTS. Long range temperature and stress filed was simulated considering the damage effect of surrounding rock, and rules of temperature and stress was achieved. (authors)