WorldWideScience

Sample records for surplus superfund site

  1. Environmental contaminants in fish and mussels from Meddybemps Lake, the Dennys River, and East Machias River - Eastern Surplus Superfund Site, Meddybemps, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1946 to the early 1980s, the 3-acre Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine, was used for the disposal and storage of surplus military equipment and...

  2. Superfund Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a number of individual data sets related to site-specific information for Superfund, which is governed under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  3. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  4. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  5. Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A set of site boundaries for each site in EPA Region 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) on EPA's Superfund National...

  6. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  7. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Non-NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Non-NPL Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a...

  8. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  9. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  10. Savannah River Site Surplus Facilities Available for Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.M.; Owens, M.B.; Lentz, D.W.

    1995-09-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide a current, centralized list of Savannah River Site facilities, which are surplus and available for reuse. These surplus facilities may be made available for other DOE site missions, commercial economic development reuse, or other governmental reuse. SRS procedures also require that before new construction can be approved, available surplus facilities are screened for possible reuse in lieu of the proposed new construction.

  11. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites) Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  12. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  13. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  14. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoff, A.H. [US Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States). Region IX; Costan, G.P.; Montgomery, M.S.; White, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws.

  15. Field analytical support during Superfund site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, W.L.; Catherman, D.R. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    ERM-FAST{reg_sign} Services has provided cost-effective and critical field analytical support for a wide variety of investigatory and remedial projects over the past four years. Two recent projects involving soils remediation at Superfund sites exemplify the power of real time field analytical support in reducing time and expense during a project`s remedial phase. ERM-FAST on-site analytical facilities were able to meet, in a real time scenario, all data quality objectives (DQOs), all regulatory agency requirements, and satisfied the client`s needs. ERM-FAST made this possible through the development of unique analytical strategies, the proper selection of analytical technologies, and by streamlining the analytical methodologies. Both of these remedial efforts offer illustrations of the effectiveness of field analysis for vastly differing site contaminants. This case study focuses on the use of portable Gas Chromatography (GC) instrumentation as a tool for providing analytical support during a CERCLA site remediation program. The project discussed provides an example of how low cost portable analytical instrumentation can be utilized in a field setting to meet analytical DQOs consistent with CERCLA compliance and to meet the requirements for remedial activity cost control. Substantial savings were realized both by reducing total project analytical cost, and by efficient and effective process and schedule management.

  16. 78 FR 13056 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...)(1) concerning the Factory H Superfund Site in Meriden, Connecticut (``Site'') with the following... refer to the Factory H Superfund Site, U.S. EPA Docket No. CERCLA-01-2012-0112. FOR FURTHER...

  17. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The settlement is not an amendment, but a new... name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

  18. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  19. 75 FR 53694 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site located in Davie, Broward County, Florida for publication..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0729 or Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund...

  20. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road Drum Superfund...

  1. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Superfund National Priority List Sites as part of the CIMC web service. Superfund is a program administered by the EPA to locate,...

  2. Remediation System Evaluation, Havertown PCP Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Havertown PCP site is located in Havertown, Haverford Township, Delaware County, in southeastern Pennsylvania. The site contamination was first discovered in 1962 when the Pennsylvania State Department of Health became aware of contaminants in ...

  3. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the...

  4. 75 FR 81269 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina for publication. DATES... your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-1053 or Site name Ward...

  5. 78 FR 14543 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement at the Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake... EPA Region 4 contact Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ward...

  6. Remediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund SiteRemediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company, Portland Plant, Superfund Site is located adjacent tothe Willamette River in Portland, Oregon and addresses contamination of soil, groundwater, and riversediments stemming from creosoting operations...

  7. Remediation System Evaluation, Streamlined Remediation System Evaluation (RSE-Lite), Circuitron Corporation Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Circuitron Corporation Superfund Site is located at 82 Milbar Boulevard, East Farmingdale, Suffolk County, New York. The site is situated on a 1-acre lot in an industrial/commercial area that is surrounded by similar small manufacturers...

  8. Remediation of the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E Scott; Metheny, Maura A

    2002-01-01

    Remediation of ground water and soil contamination at the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts, uses technologies that reflect differences in hydrogeologic settings, concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and costs of treatment. The poorly permeable glacial materials that overlie fractured bedrock at the W.R. Grace property necessitate use of closely spaced recovery wells. Contaminated ground water is treated with hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet (UV) oxidation. At UniFirst, a deep well completed in fractured bedrock removes contaminated ground water, which is treated by hydrogen peroxide, UV oxidation, and granular activated carbon (GAC). The remediation system at Wildwood integrates air sparging, soil-vapor extraction, and ground water pumping. Air stripping and GAC are used to treat contaminated water; GAC is used to treat contaminated air. New England Plastics (NEP) uses air sparging and soil-vapor extraction to remove VOCs from the unsaturated zone and shallow ground water. Contaminated air and water are treated using separate GAC systems. After nine years of operation at W.R. Grace and UniFirst, 30 and 786 kg, respectively, of VOCs have been removed. In three years of operation, 866 kg of VOCs have been removed at Wildwood. In 15 months of operation, 36 kg of VOCs were removed at NEP. Characterization work continues at the Olympia Nominee Trust, Whitney Barrel, Murphy Waste Oil, and Aberjona Auto Parts properties. Risk assessments are being finalized that address heavy metals in the floodplain sediments along the Aberjona River that are mobilized from the Industri-Plex Superfund Site located a few miles upstream.

  9. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  10. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013) Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  11. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  12. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Federal facilities that are also Superfund sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Federal facilities are properties owned by the federal government. This data layer provides access to Federal facilities that are Superfund sites as part of the CIMC...

  13. Preliminary estimate of natural resource damage : Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary estimate of natural resource damages associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous materials at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site...

  14. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites as part of the CIMC web service. EPA works with DoD to facilitate the reuse...

  15. EPA, 12 Private Entities Agree to Remove Contamination and Conduct Study at Metro Container Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILADELPHIA (October 21, 2015) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 12 private entities have agreed to settle on actions that will lead to increased environmental protection at the Metro Container Superfund Site in Trainer, Delaware Co.,

  16. Report: Remedial Project Manager Turnover at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2001-M-000015, June 15, 2001. We determined that EPA Region III did not have formal procedures in place to mitigate continuity problems caused by turnover of EPA personnel in the Superfund program.

  17. Air-water exchange of PAHs and OPAHs at a superfund mega-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Blair Paulik, L; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-12-15

    Chemical fate is a concern at environmentally contaminated sites, but characterizing that fate can be difficult. Identifying and quantifying the movement of chemicals at the air-water interface are important steps in characterizing chemical fate. Superfund sites are often suspected sources of air pollution due to legacy sediment and water contamination. A quantitative assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) diffusive flux in a river system that contains a Superfund Mega-site, and passes through residential, urban and agricultural land, has not been reported before. Here, passive sampling devices (PSDs) were used to measure 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) in air and water. From these concentrations the magnitude and direction of contaminant flux between these two compartments was calculated. The magnitude of PAH flux was greater at sites near or within the Superfund Mega-site than outside of the Superfund Mega-site. The largest net individual PAH deposition at a single site was naphthalene at a rate of -14,200 (±5780) (ng/m(2))/day. The estimated one-year total flux of phenanthrene was -7.9×10(5) (ng/m(2))/year. Human health risk associated with inhalation of vapor phase PAHs and dermal exposure to PAHs in water were assessed by calculating benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations. Excess lifetime cancer risk estimates show potential increased risk associated with exposure to PAHs at sites within and in close proximity to the Superfund Mega-site. Specifically, estimated excess lifetime cancer risk associated with dermal exposure and inhalation of PAHs was above 1 in 1 million within the Superfund Mega-site. The predominant depositional flux profile observed in this study suggests that the river water in this Superfund site is largely a sink for airborne PAHs, rather than a source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN: Superfund Program Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains GPS-located Superfund Program facility locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of...

  19. 76 FR 24479 - In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... AGENCY In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to... with PWPO provided a covenant not to sue for response costs at the Taylor Lumber and Treating Site... should reference the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site in Sheridan, Oregon, EPA Docket No....

  20. 78 FR 47317 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Herbert N. Francis concerning the Ore Knob Mine... comments by site name ``Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site'' by one of the following methods:...

  1. Spatial disparity in the distribution of superfund sites in South Carolina: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Jiang, Chengsheng; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith; Wilson, Sacoby

    2013-11-06

    According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Superfund is a federal government program implemented to clean up uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Twenty-six sites in South Carolina (SC) have been included on the National Priorities List (NPL), which has serious human health and environmental implications. The purpose of this study was to assess spatial disparities in the distribution of Superfund sites in SC. The 2000 US census tract and block level data were used to generate population characteristics, which included race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), education, home ownership, and home built before 1950. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to map Superfund facilities and develop choropleth maps based on the aforementioned sociodemographic variables. Spatial methods, including mean and median distance analysis, buffer analysis, and spatial approximation were employed to characterize burden disparities. Regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the number of Superfund facilities and population characteristics. Spatial coincidence results showed that of the 29.5% of Blacks living in SC, 55.9% live in Superfund host census tracts. Among all populations in SC living below poverty (14.2%), 57.2% were located in Superfund host census tracts. Buffer analyses results (0.5mi, 1.0mi, 5.0mi, 0.5km, 1.0km, and 5.0km) showed a higher percentage of Whites compared to Blacks hosting a Superfund facility. Conversely, a slightly higher percentage of Blacks hosted (30.2%) a Superfund facility than those not hosting (28.8%) while their White counterparts had more equivalent values (66.7% and 67.8%, respectively). Regression analyses in the reduced model (Adj. R2 = 0.038) only explained a small percentage of the variance. In addition, the mean distance for percent of Blacks in the 90th percentile for Superfund facilities was 0.48mi. Burden disparities exist in the distribution of Superfund facilities in SC at the block and

  2. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-08-17

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site.

  3. 75 FR 68788 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Jefferson, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Doc No: 2010-28260] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0893, FRL-9223-8] Ore... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the Ore..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0893 or Site name Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site by one of...

  4. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum...

  5. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road...

  6. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perhac, R.M. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  7. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  8. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  9. Biomonitoring for metal contamination near two Superfund sites in Woburn, Massachusetts, using phytochelatins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, James E.; Hemond, Harold F

    2004-09-01

    Characterizing the spatial extent of groundwater metal contamination traditionally requires installing sampling wells, an expensive and time-consuming process in urban areas. Moreover, extrapolating biotic effects from metal concentrations alone is problematic, making ecological risk assessment difficult. Our study is the first to examine the use of phytochelatin measurements in tree leaves for delimiting biological metal stress in shallow, metal-contaminated groundwater systems. Three tree species (Rhamnus frangula, Acer platanoides, and Betula populifolia) growing above the shallow groundwater aquifer of the Aberjona River watershed in Woburn, Massachusetts, display a pattern of phytochelatin production consistent with known sources of metal contamination and groundwater flow direction near the Industri-Plex Superfund site. Results also suggest the existence of a second area of contaminated groundwater and elevated metal stress near the Wells G and H Superfund site downstream, in agreement with a recent EPA ecological risk assessment. Possible contamination pathways at this site are discussed.

  10. Report: Independent Ground Water Sampling Generally Confirms EPA’s Data at Wheeler Pit Superfund Site in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0218, September 8, 2010. With minimal exceptions, our independent sampling results at the Wheeler Pit Superfund Site were consistent with the sampling results that EPA Region 5 has obtained historically.

  11. Issuance of Final Guidance: Ecological Risk Assessment and Risk Management Principles for Superfund Sites, October 7, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to help Superfund risk managers make ecological risk management decisions that are based on sound science, consistent across Regions, and present a characterization of site risks that is transparent to the public.

  12. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R. [SUNY, Oswego, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Aquatic assessment of the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Vershire, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Argue, Denise M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    The Ely Mine, which operated from 1821 to 1905, and its area of downstream impact constitute the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site. The site was placed on the National Priorities List in 2001. The mine comprises underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, roast beds associated with the smelting operation, and slag piles resulting from the smelting. The mine site is drained by Ely Brook, which includes several tributaries, one of which drains a series of six ponds. Ely Brook empties into Schoolhouse Brook, which flows 3.3 kilometers and joins the Ompompanoosuc River.

  14. Geophysical logging at the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of borehole geophysical logs data was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center in the vicinity of the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina, during January through March 2016. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, borehole geophysical log and image data collection, which included the delineation of more than 150 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 3 open borehole wells.

  15. Surface geophysics and porewater evaluation at the Lower Darby Creek Area Superfund Site, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles W.; Degnan, James R.; Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 3, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is participating in an ongoing study to aid in the identification of subsurface heterogeneities that may act as preferential pathways for contaminant transport in and around the Lower Darby Creek Area (LDCA) Superfund Site, Philadelphia Pa. Lower Darby Creek, which flows into the Delaware River, borders the western part of the former landfill site. In 2013, the USGS conducted surface geophysics measurements and stream porewater sampling to provide additional data for EPA’s site characterization. This report contains data collected from field measurements of direct current (DC) resistivity, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, and stream porewater specific conductance (SC).

  16. Continued geophysical logging near the GMH Electronics National Priorities List Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-01-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center collected borehole geophysical logs and images and continuous water-level data near the GMH Electronics National Priorities List Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during December 2012 through July 2015. Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center at the site involved the collection of borehole geophysical log data in 15 wells, in addition to surface geologic mapping and passive diffusion bag sampling. In a continued effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in developing a conceptual groundwater model to assess current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, more than 900 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 10 open borehole wells were delineated and continuous water-level data information from 14 monitoring wells within close proximity of the initially drilled boreholes was collected to observe any induced water-level fluctuations during drilling operations

  17. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION IN HOMES NEAR THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE USING BASEMENT AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of an investigation conducted to assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion at 15 homes and one commercial building near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut. Methods were developed to sample sub-slab ...

  18. Mining-related sediment and soil contamination in a large Superfund site: Characterization, habitat implications, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Historical mining activity (1850–1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  19. Mining-Related Sediment and Soil Contamination in a Large Superfund Site: Characterization, Habitat Implications, and Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K E; Drake, K D

    2016-10-01

    Historical mining activity (1850-1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  20. Mining-Related Sediment and Soil Contamination in a Large Superfund Site: Characterization, Habitat Implications, and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K. E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-10-01

    Historical mining activity (1850-1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  2. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  3. Fishing a superfund site: Dissonance and risk perception of environmental hazards by fishermen in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. (Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Risk perception studies show that individuals tend to underestimate significant risks, overestimate negligible ones, and distrust authorities. They also rely on a variety of strategies or heuristics to reach decisions regarding their risk-taking behavior. The authors report on a survey of fishermen and crabbers engaged in recreational and substance fishing in a Puerto Rican estuary (near Humacao), which has been declared a Superfund site because of suspected contamination by mercury, and at ecologically similar control sites. Nearly everyone interviewed at the Humacao site was aware of the mercury contamination, but either denied its importance, believed the contamination was restricted to a distant part of the estuary, or assumed that the estuary would be closed by the authorities if the threat was real. All site-users consumed the fish and crabs they caught. At Humacao, the average catch was 7 fish per fishermen (mostly tilapia, Tilapia mossambica, and tarpon, Megalops atlantica) and 13 crabs per crabber (all blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus). On average, the site-users returned to the lagoons about 3-4 times per month. At control sites, fewer fish were eaten. The worst case consumption of tarpon, a species which concentrated mercury at Eastern Puerto Rico, provided an exposure exceeding the EPA reference dose, whereas consumption of one tarpon per week did not entail excess exposure. Fortunately, few individuals caught tarpon exclusively. Unlike counterparts in the northeastern United States, they trusted authorities and indicated that they would have heeded warnings of mercury contamination posted where they fished.

  4. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites, StateCERCLIS-This data set contains potential EPA Superfund sites. These locations represent sites, not contaminated areas., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as...

  5. Integrating Monitoring and Genetic Methods To Infer Historical Risks of PCBs and DDE to Common and Roseate Terns Nesting Near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site (Massachusetts, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common and roseate terns are migratory piscivorous seabirds with major breeding colonies within feeding range of thepolychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated New Bedford Harbor (NBH, MA, USA) Superfund site. Our longitudinal study shows that before PCB discharges into NBH cease...

  6. Evaluation of Exposure to Radon Levels in Relation to Climatic Conditions at a Superfund Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Elaine Alice

    1995-11-01

    Workers at a Superfund site have expressed concern that they may be exposed to elevated levels of radon gas, especially when meteorology is suitable. The site, formally a uranium processing site, stores the world's largest quantity of Ra-226 in two concrete silos. A layer of bentonite foam was placed over the contents of the silos in 1991 as a means to reduce the amount of radon emissions. Hourly real-time outdoor and indoor site radon data covering an entire year was statistically evaluated in relation to meteorological data covering the same time period. The hourly data was found to be lognormally distributed. Radon levels were highest during the early morning hours and during the summer months. Both outdoor and indoor concentrations were found to significantly vary with temporal and climatic factors, namely wind direction and relative humidity. Radon levels in the work areas were not found to be statistically different from off-site levels. Only radon levels in the vicinity of the storage silos, which is an exclusion zone, were significantly higher than levels off-site. Hence, the protective bentonite covering seems to be effective in reducing radon emissions. Two methods were used to calculate a hypothetical dose, based upon the annual average concentrations of radon in the work areas onsite, the BEIR IV method and the NCRP method, respectively. The BEIR IV method, which accounts for the activity ratio of radon and its daughter products, resulted in a slightly higher dose than the NCRP method. As expected, based on the mean concentrations, the hypothetical annual exposures from radon in the work areas of the site were below recommended exposure limits.

  7. Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Gary A.; Blanchet, Richard J.; Linder, Greg L.; Palawski, Don; Brumbaugh, William G.; Canfield, Tim J.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ingersoll, Chris G.; Farag, Aïda M.; DalSoglio, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork River (CFR) and the benthic and terrestrial habitats further downstream in Milltown Reservoir. The risk characterization component of the process integrated results from a triad of information sources: (a) chemistry studies of environmental media to identify and quantify exposures of terrestrial and aquatic organisms to site-related contaminants; (b) ecological or population studies of terrestrial vegetation, birds, benthic communities, and fish; and (c) in situ and laboratory toxicity studies with terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and plants, small mammals, amphibians, and fish exposed to contaminated surface water, sediments, wetland soils, and food sources. Trophic transfer studies were performed on waterfowl, mammals, and predatory birds using field measurement data on metals concentrations in environmental media and lower trophic food sources. Studies with sediment exposures were incorporated into the Sediment Quality Triad approach to evaluate risks to benthic ecology. Overall results of the wetland and terrestrial studies suggested that acute adverse biological effects were largely absent from the wetland; however, adverse effects to reproductive, growth, and physiological end points of various terrestrial and aquatic species were related to metals exposures in more highly contaminated depositional areas. Feeding studies with contaminated diet collected from the upper CFR indicated that trout are at high risk from elevated metals concentrations in surface water, sediment, and aquatic invertebrates. Integration of chemical analyses with toxicological and ecological

  8. Evaluation of geophysical logs, phase I, for Crossley Farms Superfund Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one wells were drilled at Crossley Farms Superfund Site between December 15, 1987, and May 1, 1988, to define and monitor the horizontal and vertical distribution of ground-water contamination emanating from a suspected contaminant source area (Blackhead Hill). Eight well clusters were drilled on or near the Crossley Site and three well clusters were drilled at locations hydrologically down gradient from the site. Depths of wells range from 21 to 299 feet below land surface. These wells were installed in saprolite in shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock aquifer. Borehole-geophysical and video logging were conducted between April 24, 1997, and May 8, 1997, to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical flow, borehole depth, and casing integrity in each well. This data and interpretation will be used to determine the location of the well intake for the existing open-hole wells, which will be retrofitted to isolate and monitor water-producing zones and prevent further cross-contamination within each open borehole, and identify wells that may need rehabilitation or replacement. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluidresistivity logs indicated possible fluid-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller?s notes, all wells will be constructed so that water-level fluctuations can be monitored and discrete water samples collected from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones in each well. Geophysical logs were run on seven bedrock and two deep bedrock wells. Gamma logs were run on 10 bedrock wells. Twenty-two wells were inspected visually with the borehole video camera for casing integrity.

  9. Detection of environmentally persistent free radicals at a superfund wood treating site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Gehling, William; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cook, Robert; Dellinger, Barry

    2011-08-01

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have previously been observed in association with combustion-generated particles and airborne PM(2.5) (particulate matter, d 2.5um). The purpose of this study was to determine if similar radicals were present in soils and sediments at Superfund sites. The site was a former wood treating facility containing pentachlorophenol (PCP) as a major contaminant. Both contaminated and noncontaminated (just outside the contaminated area) soil samples were collected. The samples were subjected to the conventional humic substances (HS) extraction procedure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the EPFR concentrations and determine their structure for each sample fraction. Analyses revealed a ∼30× higher EPFR concentration in the PCP contaminated soils (20.2 × 10(17) spins/g) than in the noncontaminated soil (0.7 × 10(17) spins/g). Almost 90% of the EPFR signal originated from the minerals/clays/humins fraction. GC-MS analyses revealed ∼6500 ppm of PCP in the contaminated soil samples and none detected in the background samples. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) analyses revealed ∼7× higher concentrations of redox-active transition metals, in the contaminated soils than the noncontaminated soil. Vapor phase and liquid phase dosing of the clays/minerals/humins fraction of the soil with PCP resulted in an EPR signal identical to that observed in the contaminated soil, strongly suggesting the observed EPFR is pentachlorophenoxyl radical. Chemisorption and electron transfer from PCP to transition metals and other electron sinks in the soil are proposed to be responsible for EPFR formation.

  10. Geochemical Characteristics of TP3 Mine Wastes at the Elizabeth Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.; Muzik, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Remediation of the Elizabeth mine Superfund site in the Vermont copper belt poses challenges for balancing environmental restoration goals with issues of historic preservation while adopting cost-effective strategies for site cleanup and long-term maintenance. The waste-rock pile known as TP3, at the headwaters of Copperas Brook, is especially noteworthy in this regard because it is the worst source of surface- and ground-water contamination identified to date, while also being the area of greatest historical significance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of the historic mine-waste piles known as TP3 at the Elizabeth mine Superfund site near South Strafford, Orange County, VT. TP3 is a 12.3-acre (49,780 m2) subarea of the Elizabeth mine site. It is a focus area for historic preservation because it encompasses an early 19th century copperas works as well as waste from late 19th- and 20th century copper mining (Kierstead, 2001). Surface runoff and seeps from TP3 form the headwaters of Copperas Brook. The stream flows down a valley onto flotation tailings from 20th century copper mining operations and enters the West Branch of the Ompompanoosuc River approximately 1 kilometer downstream from the mine site. Shallow drinking water wells down gradient from TP3 exceed drinking water standards for copper and cadmium (Hathaway and others, 2001). The Elizabeth mine was listed as a Superfund site in 2001, mainly because of impacts of acid-mine drainage on the Ompompanoosuc River.

  11. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites, Point or polygon geo-location of federally designated superfund sites in Wisconsin. Usually geolocated via on screen digitizing against DOPs (could be geo-located via GPS). Source year of DOPs vary, Published in unknown, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Wisconsin DNR - Bureau of Remediation and Redevelopment.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  12. Using a triad approach in the assessment of hazardous waste site leaching from a Superfund site to an adjacent stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppanen, C.J. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology; Blanner, P.M.; Allan, R.S.; Maier, K.J. [Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States); Benson, W.H. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A triad approach was used in the evaluation of sediment in the Wolf River adjacent to the North Hollywood Dump, a federally listed Superfund site. Chemical analyses were done for 18 organochlorine pesticides, 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 10 metals. Sediment toxicity was evaluated with freshwater invertebrates. Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. Benthic macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance were assessed with a family-level biotic index. Mean Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in sediments collected in the spring. Both spring and fall sediments exhibited toxicity downstream from, adjacent to, and upstream from the dump, with toxicity significantly higher in fall sediments; however, a consistent trend was not observed. Toxicity was typically greater in the fall, and metal concentrations were typically higher in spring sediments, suggesting that metals were not responsible for the toxicity. Sediment-associated organochlorine pesticide and PCB congener concentrations were all below detectable limits, suggesting that these potential contaminants are not contributing to the observed toxicity. No differences were found in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure, which was composed of predominantly pollution-tolerant families, among seasons or river reaches, which appear to be limited by the physical characteristics of the river. Sediments in urban reaches of the Wolf River appear to be degraded; the North Hollywood Dump cannot be isolated as a source of toxicity in this study. In situ testing, sediment toxicity identification and evaluation testing, acid-volatile sulfide analyses, or artificial substrate work would be appropriate to follow.

  13. EPA Proposes to Remove Most of Fulton, Oswego County, New York Site from Superfund List

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y) After cleaning up more than 10,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil and approximately 9 million gallons of contaminated groundwater, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to remove a portion of the Fulton Terminals Superfund

  14. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MO 2010 Permitted Hazardous Waste Sites - Areas(SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a polygon data set depicting locations of facilities' property boundaries. The data set contains sites permitted to treat, store or dispose of hazardous...

  15. EPA Finalizes Plan to Address Contaminated Groundwater at Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund Site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, N.J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has finalized a plan to clean up contaminated groundwater at the Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, New Jersey. The site includes the former Milford P

  16. Analysis of geophysical logs, at North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), collected borehole geophysical log data in 34 industrial, commercial, and public supply wells and 28 monitor wells at the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, in Lansdale, Pa., from August 22, 1995, through August 29, 1997. The wells range in depth from 50 to 1,027 feet below land surface and are drilled in Triassic-age shales and siltstones of the Brunswick Group and Lockatong Formation. The geophysical log data were collected to help describe the hydrogeologic framework in the area and to provide guidance in the reconstruction of the 28 monitor wells drilled during summer 1997. At the time of logging, all wells had open-hole construction. The geophysical logs, caliper, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature, and borehole video logs were used to determine the vertical distribution of water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to determine vertical borehole flow under pumping and nonpumping conditions. The most productive fractures generally could be determined from heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions. Vertical borehole flow was measured under nonpumping conditions in most wells that had more than one water-bearing fracture. Upward flow was measured in 35 wells and probably is a result of natural head differences between fractures in the local ground-water-flow system. Downward flow was measured in 11 wells and commonly indicated differences in hydraulic heads of the fractures caused by nearby pumping. Both upward and downward flow was measured in three wells. No flow was detected in eight wells. Natural-gamma-ray logs were used to estimate the attitude of bedding. Thin shale marker beds, shown as spikes of elevated radioactivity in the natural-gamma logs of some wells throughout the area, enable the determination of bedding-plane orientation from three-point correlations. Generally, the marker beds in

  17. Superfund Query

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Superfund Query allows users to retrieve data from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) database.

  18. SURPLUS DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On top of yuan revaluation and a huge trade surplus, the Chinese Government must also address ballooning forex reserves At the end of 2005, China's foreign exchange surplus totaled $818.87 billion, a leap of $208.9 billion over the previous year and an amount that is expected to have topped Japan's to become the world's largest.

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Stringfellow Superfund Site in Riverside, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Van Geet, O.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on the Stringfellow Superfund Site in Riverside, California. The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.13/kWh and incentives offered by Southern California Edison under the California Solar Initiative. According to the assessment, a government-owned, ground-mounted PV system represents a technically and economically feasible option. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  20. In situ field screening for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with a portable spectrofluorometer at a Superfund site near Jackson, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amick, E.N.; Pollard, J.E. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Engelmann, W.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.; Vo-Dinh, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Advanced Monitoring Development Group

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada (EMSL-LV) is currently evaluating the use of scanning ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) fluorescence as a field screening technology. A prototype field-portable spectrofluorometer capable of excitation, emission, and synchronous scans has been developed and was field tested at the American Creosote Works Superfund site. The UV-vis fluorescence spectra of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were clearly seen in the synchronous spectra of soil samples extracted on site. Split soil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and by immunoassay methods. Although a comparison of results with these other methods has not been completed, the synchronous fluorescence method shows promise in that analytical results have the potential to provide compound- or class-selective results and can be immediately available on-site at a reasonable cost.

  1. Geophysical logging and thermal imaging near the Hemphill Road TCE National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-03-27

    Borehole geophysical logs and thermal imaging data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey near the Hemphill Road TCE (trichloroethylene) National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina, during August 2014 through February 2015. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, surface geological mapping and borehole geophysical log and thermal imaging data collection, which included the delineation of more than 600 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations), was completed in five open borehole wells and two private supply bedrock wells. In addition, areas of possible groundwater discharge within a nearby creek downgradient of the study site were determined based on temperature differences between the stream and bank seepage using thermal imagery.

  2. Calculating the Diffusive Flux of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Sediments and the Water Column on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site using Polymeric Passive Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive samplers were used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Measured concentrations in the porewater and water column at...

  3. Passive Sampling to Measure Baseline Dissolved Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Pre-calibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were...

  4. DOJ News Release: New York Man Ordered to Pay Over $400,000 in Restitution and Fines for Role in Kickback Scheme at New Jersey Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – An Amherst, New York, man was ordered to pay over $400,000 in restitution and fines and placed on five years’ probation for his role in a kickback scheme at the Federal Creosote and Diamond Alkali Superfund sites in New Jersey.

  5. Occurences and Fate of DDT Principal Isomers/Metabolites, DDA, and o,p'-DDD Enantiomers in Fish, Sediment and Water at a DDT-Impacted Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the 1950s and 60s, discharges from a DDT manufacturing plant contaminated a tributary system of the Tennessee River near Huntsville, Alabama, USA. Regulatory action resulted in declaring the area a Superfund site which required remediation and extensive monitoring. Monitoring ...

  6. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  7. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  8. COMPARISON OF GEOPROBE PRT AND AMS GVP SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS WITH DEDICATED VAPOR PROBES IN SANDY SOILS AT THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut to compare results of soil-gas sampling using dedicated vapor probes, a truck-mounted direct-push technique - the Geoprobe Post-Run-Tubing (PRT) system, and a hand-held rotary hammer technique - the A...

  9. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn

    2000-09-05

    This report, PNNL-11911 Rev. 1, was published in July 2000 and replaces PNNL-11911, which was published in September 1998. The revision corrects tissue concentration units that were reported as dry weight but were actually wet weight, and updates conclusions based on the correct reporting units. Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to pre-remediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieldrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.65 ng/L to 18.1 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 0.65 ng/L to 103 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal of 0.59 ng/L. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found in Lauritzen Canal, and the lowest levels were from the Richmond Inner Harbor Channel water. Unusual amounts of detritus in the water column at the time of sampling, particularly in Lauritzen Canal, could have contributed to the elevated pesticide concentrations and poor analytical precision.

  10. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R.; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, includes the Eureka, Union, and Smith mines along with areas of downstream aquatic ecosystem impairment. The site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004. The mines, which operated from about 1847 to 1919, contain underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, and some flotation tailings. The mine site is drained to the northeast by Pike Hill Brook, which includes several wetland areas, and to the southeast by an unnamed tributary that flows to the south and enters Cookville Brook. Both brooks eventually drain into the Waits River, which flows into the Connecticut River. The aquatic ecosystem at the site was assessed using a variety of approaches that investigated surface-water quality, sediment quality, and various ecological indicators of stream-ecosystem health. The degradation of surface-water quality is caused by elevated concentrations of copper, and to a lesser extent cadmium, with localized effects caused by aluminum, iron, and zinc. Copper concentrations in surface waters reached or exceeded the USEPA national recommended chronic water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in all of the Pike Hill Brook sampling locations except for the location farthest downstream, in half of the locations sampled in the tributary to Cookville Brook, and in about half of the locations in one wetland area located in Pike Hill Brook. Most of these same locations also contained concentrations of cadmium that exceeded the chronic water-quality criteria. In contrast, surface waters at background sampling locations were below these criteria for copper and cadmium. Comparison of hardness-based and Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)-based criteria for copper yields similar results with respect to the extent or number of stations impaired for surface waters in the affected area. However, the BLM

  11. Geophysical logging and geologic mapping data in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Clark, Timothy W.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping, the collection of borehole geophysical logs and images, and passive diffusion bag sampling were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey North Carolina Water Science Center in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during March through October 2011. The study purpose was to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants. Data compilation efforts included geologic mapping of more than 250 features, including rock type and secondary joints, delineation of more than 1,300 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 15 open borehole wells, and the collection of passive diffusion-bag samples from 42 fracture zones at various depths in the 15 wells.

  12. Geophysical logging and thermal imaging at the Hemphill Road TCE NPL Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of borehole geophysical logs and thermal imaging data was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center in the vicinity of the Hemphill Road TCE National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina, during August 2014 through February 2015. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, surface geological mapping and borehole geophysical log and image data collection, which included the delineation of more than 600 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) was conducted in 5 open borehole wells and 2 private supply bedrock wells. In addition, areas of potential groundwater discharge within a down-gradient, nearby creek were determined using thermal imagery to calculate temperature differences between the stream and bank seepage.

  13. Investigation of total and hexavalent chromium in filtered and unfiltered groundwater samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-01-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  14. Influence of a chlor-alkali superfund site on mercury bioaccumulation in periphyton and low-trophic level fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Kate L.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Chalmers, Ann T.; Broadley, Hannah J.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Brian P.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2015-01-01

    In Berlin, New Hampshire, USA, the Androscoggin River flows adjacent to a former chlor-alkali facility that is a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site and source of mercury (Hg) to the river. The present study was conducted to determine the fate and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) to lower trophic-level taxa in the river. Surface sediment directly adjacent to the source showed significantly elevated MeHg (10–40× increase, mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 20.1 ± 24.8 ng g–1 dry wt) and total mercury (THg; 10–30× increase, mean ± SD: 2045 ± 2669 ng g–1 dry wt) compared with all other reaches, with sediment THg and MeHg from downstream reaches elevated (3–7× on average) relative to the reference (THg mean ± SD: 33.5 ± 9.33 ng g–1 dry wt; MeHg mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.21 ng g–1 dry wt). Water column THg concentrations adjacent to the point source for both particulate (0.23 ng L–1) and dissolved (0.76 ng L–1) fractions were 5-fold higher than at the reference sites, and 2-fold to 5-fold higher than downstream. Methylmercury production potential of periphyton material was highest (2–9 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt) adjacent to the Superfund site; other reaches were close to or below reporting limits (0. 1 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt). Total Hg and MeHg bioaccumulation in fauna was variable across sites and taxa, with no clear spatial patterns downstream of the contamination source. Crayfish, mayflies, and shiners showed a weak positive relationship with porewater MeHg concentration.

  15. Surface-Water Hydrology and Quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of surface water in and around the Pike Hill Brook watershed, in Corinth, Vermont, was studied from October 2004 to December 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Pike Hill was mined intermittently for copper from 1847 to 1919 and the site is known to be contributing trace elements and acidity to Pike Hill Brook and an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook. The site has been listed as a Superfund site since 2004. Streamflow, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured continuously and monthly at three sites on Pike Hill Brook to determine the variation in these parameters over an annual cycle. Synoptic water-quality sampling was done at 10 stream sites in October 2004, April 2005, and June 2005 and at 13 stream sites in August 2005 to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality. Samples for analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate populations were collected at 11 stream sites in August 2005. Water samples were analyzed for 5 major ions and 32 trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements at sites in the Pike Hill Brook watershed exceeded USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria acute and chronic toxicity standards for aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of copper exceeded the chronic criteria in an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook in one sample. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc decreased with distance from a site directly downstream from the mine (site 1), as a result of dilution and through sorption and precipitation of the trace elements. Maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were observed during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, cadmium, copper, and zinc, and instantaneous loads of calcium and aluminum were

  16. Surface-Water Hydrology and Quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of surface water in and around the Pike Hill Brook watershed, in Corinth, Vermont, was studied from October 2004 to December 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Pike Hill was mined intermittently for copper from 1847 to 1919 and the site is known to be contributing trace elements and acidity to Pike Hill Brook and an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook. The site has been listed as a Superfund site since 2004. Streamflow, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured continuously and monthly at three sites on Pike Hill Brook to determine the variation in these parameters over an annual cycle. Synoptic water-quality sampling was done at 10 stream sites in October 2004, April 2005, and June 2005 and at 13 stream sites in August 2005 to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality. Samples for analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate populations were collected at 11 stream sites in August 2005. Water samples were analyzed for 5 major ions and 32 trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements at sites in the Pike Hill Brook watershed exceeded USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria acute and chronic toxicity standards for aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of copper exceeded the chronic criteria in an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook in one sample. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc decreased with distance from a site directly downstream from the mine (site 1), as a result of dilution and through sorption and precipitation of the trace elements. Maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were observed during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, cadmium, copper, and zinc, and instantaneous loads of calcium and aluminum were

  17. Evaluation of borehole geophysical and video logs, at Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, D.J.; Conger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1996 and November 2000, geophysical logging was conducted in 27 open borehole wells in and adjacent to the Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pa., to determine casing depth and depths of water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, and zones of vertical borehole flow. The wells range in depth from 57 to 319 feet below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so that the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, fluid-temperature, and video logs. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, and fluid-resistivity logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy.

  18. The electro-thermal dynamic stripping process for the remediation of a creosote-contaminated superfund site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northington, C.D. [WRS Infrastructure and Environment, Tampa, FL (United States); McGee, B.C.W. [McMillan-McGee Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Pump-and-treat is a conventional soil and groundwater contaminant removal method that depends on factors such as the chemical nature of the contaminant, subsurface heterogeneity, sorption of contaminants to subsurface materials, difficulties in characterizing the subsurface, and system design. The cleanup of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is further complicated by the uncertain contaminant fate due to the tendency of DNAPLs to migrate downward, where they become difficult to locate and where they become immobile residual globules and a long-term source of ground water contamination. This paper presents the results of a pilot scale study in which an in-situ thermal decontamination technology was tested. The technology known as the Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process{sup TM} (ET-DS), was developed for a creosote-contaminated Superfund site to show the effectiveness of full-scale implementation of this method over the currently used pump-and- treat system to address contamination in the source zone. The pilot study follows similar methods used by reservoir engineers in the evaluation of thermal recovery methods for the recovery of bitumen and heavy oil. ET-DS was field test in the oil sands in order to use some operating data from the pilot to design oil sand specific ET-DS.

  19. SUPERFUND CLEANUPS AND INFANT HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Moretti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989–2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000– 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site before cleanup is associated with a 20 to 25% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies. PMID:25152535

  20. Relating Magnetic Parameters to Heavy Metal Concentrations and Environmental Factors at Formosa Mine Superfund Site, Douglas County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in the field of environmental magnetism have led to exciting new applications for this field. Magnetic minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and tend to have an affinity for heavy metals. Hence, it has been demonstrated that magnetic properties are often significantly related to concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants. As a result, magnetic techniques have been used as proxy for determining hot spots of several types of pollution produced from a diversity of anthropogenic sources. Magnetic measurements are non-destructive and relatively inexpensive compared to geochemical analyses. The utility of environmental magnetic methods varies widely depending on biological, chemical and physical processes that create and transform soils and sediments. Applications in the direction of mapping heavy metals have been studied and shown to be quite useful in countries such as China and India but to date, little research has been done in the US. As such, there is need to expand the scope of research to a wider range of soil types and land uses, especially within the US. This study investigates the application of environmental magnetic techniques to mapping of heavy metal concentrations at the Formosa Mine Superfund Site, an abandoned mine about 25 miles southwest of Roseburg, OR. The soils and sediment at this site are derived from pyrite-rich bedrock which is weak in terms of magnetic susceptibility. Using hotspot analysis, correlation and cluster analyses, interactions between metals and magnetic parameters are investigated in relation to environmental factors such as proximity to seeps and adits. Preliminary results suggest significant correlation of magnetic susceptibility with certain heavy metals, signifying that magnetic methods may be useful in mapping heavy metal hotspots at this site. Further analysis examines the relation of various land use differences in magnetic signatures obtained throughout the Cow Creek watershed.

  1. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  2. Pilot demonstration for containment using in situ soil mixing techniques at a chemical disposal superfund site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlinski, S.J.; Kingham, N.W.; Semenak, R. [Kiber Environmental Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Kiber Environmental Services, Inc. (Kiber), under contract to McLaren-Hart Corporation and the site PRP group, performed technical oversight and on-site sampling and analyses at the confidential site located in Texas. The site consists of 15,000 cubic meters (20,000 cubic yards) of contaminated materials that were to be solidified on-site. The contaminants included heavy metals, PAHs, oil and grease, and volatile organics. Groundwater is less than 1 meter from the surface. Kiber was retained after several unsuccessful efforts to find on-site containment methods that effectively solidified the waste pits while achieving the performance goals. The PRP group then contracted with Kiber to perform the treatability and pilot oversight studies. The full-scale pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con. Pilot-scale treatment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ solidification treatment at achieving the site specific performance criteria, including an unconfined compressive strength of greater than 170 kPa (25 psi) and a permeability of less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/sec. Technical oversight and on-site sampling and analysis were provided to evaluate pilot-scale application of the selected technology and verify treatment effectiveness. The project was divided into several subtasks. First, laboratory treatability testing was conducted to verify that performance specifications were achievable using the proposed reagent formulations. Next, a pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con using a Manotowoc 4000 crane equipped with a 1.5-meter diameter auger to evaluate shallow soil mixing. The final task included a comparative study between the performance of test specimens collected using wet sampling techniques versus in situ post-treatment coring.

  3. Niagara falls storage site: Annual site environmental report, Lewiston, New York, Calendar Year 1988: Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The monitoring program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in this report, this hypothetical individual receives an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 6 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. This exposure is less than a person receives during two round-trip flights from New York to Los Angeles (because of the greater amounts of cosmic radiation at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the NFSS that results from radioactive materials present at the site is indistinguishable from the dose that the same population receives from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1988 monitoring show that the NFSS is in compliance with applicable DOE radiation protection standards. 17 refs., 31 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Environmental Factor{trademark} system: Superfund site information from five EPA databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Environmental Factor puts today`s technology to work to provide a better, more cost-efficient and time-saving way to access EPA information on hazardous waste sites. Environmental consultants, insurers, and reinsurers, corporate risk assessors and companies actively involved in the generation, transport, storage or cleanup of hazardous waste materials can use its user-friendly information retrieval system to gain rapid access to vital information in immediately-usable form. Search, retrieve, and export information in real time. No more waiting for the mail or overnight delivery services to deliver hard copies of voluminous listings and individual site reports. More than 200,000 pages of EPA hazardous waste site information are contained in 5 related databases: (1) Site data from the National Priority List (NPL) and CERCLIS databases, Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) and Records of Decision (RODs) summaries; (2) Complete PRP information; (3) EPA Records of Decision (Full Text); (4) entire Civil Enforcement Docket; and (5) Glossary of EPA terms, abbreviations and acronyms. Environmental Factor`s powerful database management engine gives even the most inexperienced computer user extensive search capabilities, including wildcard, phonetic and direct cross reference searches across multiple databases.

  5. Passive Treatment And Monitoring At The Standard Mine Superfund Site, Crested Butte, CO (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the 2008 ASMR conference, data from the initial two months of operation of a U.S. EPA pilot biochemical reactor (BCR) was reported. The BCR was designed and constructed in August, 2007 to treat mining influenced water (MIW) emanating from an adit at a remote site in southern ...

  6. Passive Treatment And Monitoring At The Standard Mine Superfund Site, Crested Butte, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the 2008 ASMR conference, data from the initial two months of operation of a U.S. EPA pilot biochemical reactor (BCR) was reported. The BCR was designed and constructed in August, 2007 to treat mining influenced water (MIW) emanating from an adit at a remote site in southern ...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION AND FATE OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE WYCKOFF/EAGLE HARBOR SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle Harbor is a shallow marine embayment of Bainbridge Island, WA and formerly the site of the Wyckoff wood-treatment facility. The facility became operational in the early 1900s and used large quantities of creosote in its wood-treating processes. Creosote percolated through t...

  8. Cyclodiene insecticide, DDE, DDT, arsenic, and mercury contamination of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) foraging at a Colorado Superfund site

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Everette, A.L.; Ellison, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) National Wildlife Area, near Denver, Colorado, is a Superfund site contaminated by past military and industrial uses, including pesticide manufacturing. From an ecosystem standpoint, the most critical contaminants at RMA are certain cyclodiene insecticides and metabolites, p,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDT, arsenic, and mercury. Bats are important ecosystem components that can be impacted by persistent contaminants because of their position in the food chain and their potential longevity and thus duration of exposure. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were captured (n = 51) while foraging at RMA in the summers of 1997 and 1998 for determination of concentrations of contaminants of concern in carcasses, brains, and stomach contents. Adult females (n = 15) were also tracked by radiotelemetry to determine locations of nearest maternity roosts for sampling of guano for contaminant analysis and inspection for potential contaminant-induced mortality. Bats captured while foraging at RMA had measurable quantities of dieldrin and DDE in masticated insect samples from stomach contents and significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, DDE, DDT, and mercury (juveniles) in carcasses than big brown bats (n = 26) sampled at a reference area 80 km to the north. Concentrations of dieldrin and DDE in brains of bats captured while foraging at RMA were also greater than in bats from the reference area, but not high enough to suggest mortality. Maximum concentrations of DDE, DDT, and cyclodienes in brains of big brown bats were found in adult males from RMA. Guano from the two closest known roosts had significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, DDE, and mercury than guano from two roosts at the reference area. Dieldrin concentrations in carcasses of bats from RMA were highest in juveniles, followed by adult males and adult females. DDE concentrations in carcasses were lowest in adult females at both sites and highest in adult males at RMA. No contaminant

  9. Radon in Soil Gas Above Bedrock Fracture Sets at the Shepley’s Hill Superfund Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Giles; T.L. McLing; M.V. Carpenter; C.J. Smith; W. Brandon

    2012-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently provided technical support for ongoing environmental remediation activities at the Shepley’s Hill remediation site near Devens, MA (Figure 1). The technical support was requested as follow-on work to an initial screening level radiation survey conducted in 2008. The purpose of the original study was to assess the efficacy of the INL-developed Backpack Sodium Iodide System (BaSIS) for detecting elevated areas of natural radioactivity due to the decay of radon-222 gases emanating from the underlying fracture sets. Although the results from the initial study were mixed, the BaSIS radiation surveys did confirm that exposed bedrock outcrops have higher natural radioactivity than the surficial soils, thus a high potential for detecting elevated levels of radon and/or radon daughter products. (INL 2009) The short count times associated with the BaSIS measurements limited the ability of the system to respond to elevated levels of radioactivity from a subsurface source, in this instance radon gas emanating from fracture sets. Thus, it was postulated that a different methodology be employed to directly detect the radon in the soil gases. The CR-39 particle track detectors were investigated through an extensive literature and technology search. The relatively long deployment or “detection” time of several days, as well as the sensitivity of the measurement and robustness of the detectors made the CR-39 technology promising for deployment at the Shepley’s Hill site.

  10. EPA Encourages the Public to Provide Input on Plan to Address Contaminated Groundwater at Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund Site in Milford and Alexandria Township, New Jersey, Public Meeting to Take Place May 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a plan to clean up contaminated groundwater at the Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund site in Milford and Alexandria Township, New Jersey. The site includes the 86-acre historic former M

  11. Selected Water- and Sediment-Quality, Aquatic Biology, and Mine-Waste Data from the Ely Copper Mine Superfund Site, Vershire, VT, 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Denise M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hathaway, Edward; Coles, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The data contained in this report are a compilation of selected water- and sediment-quality, aquatic biology, and mine-waste data collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site in Vershire, VT, from August 1998 through May 2007. The Ely Copper Mine Superfund site is in eastern, central Vermont (fig. 1) within the Vermont Copper Belt (Hammarstrom and others, 2001). The Ely Copper Mine site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2001. Previous investigations conducted at the site documented that the mine is contributing metals and highly acidic waters to local streams (Hammarstrom and others, 2001; Holmes and others, 2002; Piatak and others, 2003, 2004, and 2006). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USEPA, compiled selected data from previous investigations into uniform datasets that will be used to help characterize the extent of contamination at the mine. The data may be used to determine the magnitude of biological impacts from the contamination and in the development of remediation activities. This report contains analytical data for samples collected from 98 stream locations, 6 pond locations, 21 surface-water seeps, and 29 mine-waste locations. The 98 stream locations are within 3 streams and their tributaries. Ely Brook flows directly through the Ely Copper Mine then into Schoolhouse Brook (fig. 2), which joins the Ompompanoosuc River (fig. 1). The six pond locations are along Ely Brook Tributary 2 (fig. 2). The surface-water seeps and mine-waste locations are near the headwaters of Ely Brook (fig. 2 and fig. 3). The datasets 'Site_Directory' and 'Coordinates' contain specific information about each of the sample locations including stream name, number of meters from the mouth of stream, geographic coordinates, types of samples collected (matrix of sample), and the figure on which the sample location is depicted. Data have been collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site by the

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Intel Santa Clara III Superfund site, Santa Clara, CA. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-20

    The Intel (Santa Clara III) site includes a plant that performs quality control testing of chemicals and electrical testing of semiconductors in Santa Clara, Santa Clara County, California. The site is in a predominantly industrial area, and overlies a major ground regional source of ground water, the Santa Clara Valley ground water basin. In 1982, the State conducted a leak detection program, which identified VOC contamination in an onsite shallow aquifer. Possible sources for the contamination may include the accidental dumping of solvents into an acid neutralization tank, accidental spills near an above-ground solvent storage facility, and cleaning of solvent-contaminated pipes during plant construction. It has been determined that no onsite source is presently contributing to ground water contamination. Since 1985, Intel has been pumping and treating ground water using granular activated carbon as an Initial Remedial Measure (IRM). The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses a final solution for restoring ground water to its beneficial use. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including TCE.

  13. Arsenic species in weathering mine tailings and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada City, CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS site, a historic "Mother Lode" gold mine. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to assess variance within water chemistry, solids chemistry, and XAFS spectral datasets. Linear combination, least-squares fits constrained in part by PCA results were then used to quantify arsenic speciation in XAFS spectra of tailings and biogenic solids. Results The highest dissolved arsenic concentrations were found in Lost Lake porewater and in a groundwater-fed pond in the tailings deposition area. Iron, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, specific conductivity, and As were the major variables in the water chemistry PCA. Arsenic was, on average, 14 times more concentrated in biologically-produced iron (hydroxide than in mine tailings. Phosphorous, manganese, calcium, aluminum, and As were the major variables in the solids chemistry PCA. Linear combination fits to XAFS spectra indicate that arsenopyrite (FeAsS, the dominant form of As in ore material, remains abundant (average: 65% in minimally-weathered ore samples and water-saturated tailings at the bottom of Lost Lake. However, tailings that underwent drying and wetting cycles contain an average of only 30% arsenopyrite. The predominant products of arsenopyrite weathering were identified by XAFS to be As-bearing Fe (hydroxide and arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe(AsO43O3•3H2O. Existence of the former species is not in question, but the presence of the latter species was not confirmed by additional measurements, so its identification is

  14. Geophysical log analysis of selected test and residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site, East Fishkill, Dutchess County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed geophysical logs from 20 test wells and 23 residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site in East Fishkill, New York, from 2006 through 2010 as part of an Interagency Agreement to provide hydrogeologic technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2. The geophysical logs collected include caliper, gamma, acoustic and optical televiewer, deviation, electromagnetic-induction, magnetic-susceptibility, fluid-property, and flow under ambient and pumped conditions. The geophysical logs were analyzed along with single-well aquifer test data and drilling logs to characterize the lithology, fabric, fractures, and flow zones penetrated by the wells. The results of the geophysical log analysis were used as part of the hydrogeologic characterization of the site and in the design of discrete-zone monitoring installations in the test wells and selected residential wells.

  15. Real-Time and Delayed Analysis of Tree and Shrub Cores as Indicators of Subsurface Volatile Organic Compound Contamination, Durham Meadows Superfund Site, Durham, Connecticut, August 29, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Willey, Richard E.; Clifford, Scott; Murphy, James J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined volatile organic compound concentrations in cores from trees and shrubs for use as indicators of vadose-zone contamination or potential vapor intrusion by volatile organic compounds into buildings at the Durham Meadows Superfund Site, Durham, Connecticut. The study used both (1) real-time tree- and shrub-core analysis, which involved field heating the core samples for 5 to 10 minutes prior to field analysis, and (2) delayed analysis, which involved allowing the gases in the cores to equilibrate with the headspace gas in the sample vials unheated for 1 to 2 days prior to analysis. General correspondence was found between the two approaches, indicating that preheating and field analysis of vegetation cores is a viable approach to real-time monitoring of subsurface volatile organic compounds. In most cases, volatile organic compounds in cores from trees and shrubs at the Merriam Manufacturing Company property showed a general correspondence to the distribution of volatile organic compounds detected in a soil-gas survey, despite the fact that most of the soil-gas survey data in close proximity to the relevant trees were collected about 3 years prior to the tree-core collection. Most of the trees cored at the Durham Meadows Superfund Site, outside of the Merriam Manufacturing Company property, contained no volatile organic compounds and were in areas where indoor air sampling and soil-gas sampling showed little or no volatile organic compound concentrations. An exception was tree DM11, which contained barely detectable concentrations of trichloroethene near a house where previous investigations found low concentrations of trichloroethene (0.13 to 1.2 parts per billion by volume) in indoor air and 7.7 micrograms per liter of trichloroethene in the ground water. The barely detectable concentration of trichloroethene in tree DM11 and the lack of volatile organic compound detection in nearby tree DM10 (adjacent to the well having 7.7 micrograms of

  16. A review of the Texas, USA San Jacinto Superfund site and the deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the San Jacinto River and Houston Ship Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa; Aggarwal, Juhi; Iken, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The San Jacinto River (SJR) waste pits that lie just under the 1-10 overpass in eastern Harris County east of Houston, Texas, USA, were created in the 1960s as dumping grounds for paper mill waste. The deposition of this waste led to accumulation of highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCCDDs/PCDFs) over the course of several decades. After abandonment, the waste material eventually became submerged under the waters of the SJR, resulting in widespread environmental contamination that currently constitutes a significant health concern for eastern Harris County communities. The original waste pits were rediscovered in 2005, and the San Jacinto waste site is now a designated EPA superfund site. The objective of this review then is to discuss the history and current state of containment around the San Jacinto waste pits and analyze spatial and temporal trends in the PCDD/PCDF deposition through the SJR system from the data available. We will discuss the current exposure and health risks represented by the Superfund site and the SJR system itself, as well as the discovery of liver, kidney, brain (glioma), and retinoblastoma cancer clusters in eastern Harris County across multiple census tracts that border the Superfund site. We will also cover the two primary management options, containment versus removal of the waste from the Superfund and provide recommendations for increased monitoring of existing concentrations of polychlorinated waste in the SJR and its nearby associated communities.

  17. TREATABILITY STUDY REPORT OF GREEN MOUNTAIN LABORATORIES, INC.'S BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, TREATMENT OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS, AT BEEDE WASTE OIL/CASH ENERGY SUPERFUND SITE, PLAISTOW, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, Green Mountain Laboratories, Inc. (GML) and the USEPA agreed to carry out a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) project to evaluate the effectiveness of GML's Bioremediation Process for the treatment of PCB contaminated soils at the Beede Waste Oil/Cash Ene...

  18. Decommissioning of eight surplus production reactors at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Addendum (Final Environmental Impact Statement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The first section of this volume summarizes the content of the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and this Addendum, which together constitute the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) prepared on the decommissioning of eight surplus plutonium production reactors at Hanford. The FEIS consists of two volumes. The first volume is the DEIS as written. The second volume (this Addendum) consists of a summary; Chapter 9, which contains comments on the DEIS and provides DOE`s responses to the comments; Appendix F, which provides additional health effects information; Appendix K, which contains costs of decommissioning in 1990 dollars; Appendix L, which contains additional graphite leaching data; Appendix M, which contains a discussion of accident scenarios; Appendix N, which contains errata; and Appendix 0, which contains reproductions of the letters, transcripts, and exhibits that constitute the record for the public comment period.

  19. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in Marine Waters and Sediment Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn

    2000-09-06

    This report, PNNL-1 3059 Rev. 1, was published in July 2000 and replaces PNNL-1 3059 which is dated October 1999. The revision corrects tissue concentration units that were reported as dry weight but were actually wet weight, and updates conclusions based on the correct reporting units. Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathom Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissue s) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieldrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 ng/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both DDT and dieldrin were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. PCBS were not detected in water samples in 1999.

  20. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  1. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  2. PCBs and DDE in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from an estuarine PCB superfund site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Saro; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise M.; Pruell, Richard J.; Rocha, Kenneth J.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Cantwell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess contaminant bioaccumulation from estuarine breeding grounds into these aerial insectivores. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated estuary, the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site (NBH, Massachusetts, USA), and a reference salt marsh, Fox Hill (FH, Jamestown, Rhode Island, USA). Sediments, eggs, and nestlings were compared on a ng g−1 wet weight basis for total PCBs and DDE (1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene), metabolite of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). NBH samples contained high concentrations of PCBs compared to FH for sediment (36,500 and 0.2), eggs (11,200 and 323), and nestlings (16,800 and 26). PCB homologue patterns linked tree swallow contamination to NBH sediment. NBH samples were also contaminated with DDE compared to FH for sediment (207 and 0.9) and nestlings (235 and 30) but not for eggs (526 and 488), suggesting both NBH and nonbreeding ground sources for DDE. The relationships between sediment and tree swallow egg and nestling PCBs were similar to those reported for freshwater sites. Like some highly contaminated freshwater sites, NBH PCB bioaccumulation had little apparent effect on reproductive success.

  3. Identification of potential water-bearing zones by the use of borehole geophysics in the vicinity of Keystone Sanitation Superfund Site, Adams County, Pennsylvania and Carroll County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.

    1997-01-01

    Between April 23, 1996, and June 21, 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency contracted Haliburton-NUS, Inc., to drill four clusters of three monitoring wells near the Keystone Sanitation Superfund Site. The purpose of the wells is to allow monitoring and sampling of shallow, intermediate, and deep waterbearing zones for the purpose of determining the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from the Keystone Site. Twelve monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 50 to 397.9 feet below land surface, were drilled in the vicinity of the Keystone Site. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical logging and determined, with geophysical logs and other available data, the ideal intervals to be screened in each well. Geophysical logs were run on four intermediate and four deep wells, and a caliper log only was run on shallow well CL-AD-173 (HN-1S). Interpretation of geophysical logs and existing data determined the placement of screens within each borehole.

  4. Evaluation of geophysical logs and slug tests, phase II, at AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, R.W.; Goode, D.J.; Sloto, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Between September 1997 and October 1998, nine monitor wells were drilled at the AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site in Chester County, Pa., to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging and borehole television surveys in these boreholes to identify water-producing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each borehole. Caliper logs and borehole television surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulseflowmeter measurements verified these locations. The borehole television surveys indicated that locally, the rocks of the Conestoga Limestone and Ledger Dolomite that underlie the site strike generally from northeast-southwest to east-west and dip steeply to the southeast and south approximately 63? to 76?. Slug tests were conducted at six boreholes to estimate transmissivity. Transmissivity from slug tests ranged from 21 feet squared per day in borehole CH-5669 to greater than 12,000 feet squared per day in boreholes CH-5665 and CH-5667. After interpretation of geophysical logs, borehole television surveys, and driller's logs, all boreholes were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more water-producing zones in each borehole.

  5. POST-REMEDIATION BIOMONITORING OF PESTICIDES AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENT NEAR THE UNITED HECKATHORN SUPERFUND SITE, RICHMOND, CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-06

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and dieldrin concentrations in mussel tissues were lower than measured levels from preremediation surveys and also lower than Year 1 levels from post-remediation biomonitoring. Sediment analyses showed the presence of elevated DDT, dieldrin, PCB aroclor 1254, and very high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Lauritzen Channel.

  6. Radiochemical Analyses of the Filter Cake, Granular Activated Carbon, and Treated Ground Water from the DTSC Stringfellow Superfund Site Pretreatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, B K; McConachie, W; Fischer, R; Sutton, M; Szechenyi, S

    2005-09-16

    The Department of Toxic Substance Control (DTSC) requested that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) evaluate the treatment process currently employed at the Department's Stringfellow Superfund Site Pretreatment Plant (PTP) site to determine if wastes originating from the site were properly managed with regards to their radioactivity. In order to evaluate the current management strategy, LLNL suggested that DTSC characterize the effluents from the waste treatment system for radionuclide content. A sampling plan was developed; samples were collected and analyzed for radioactive constituents. Following is brief summary of those results and what implications for waste characterization may be made. (1) The sampling and analysis provides strong evidence that the radionuclides present are Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). (2) The greatest source of radioactivity in the samples was naturally occurring uranium. The sample results indicate that the uranium concentration in the filter cake is higher than the Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) samples. (11 -14 and 2-6 ppm respectively). (3) No radiologic background for geologic materials has been established for the Stringfellow site, and comprehensive testing of the process stream has not been conducted. Without site-specific testing of geologic materials and waste process streams, it is not possible to conclude if filter cake and spent GAC samples contain radioactivity concentrated above natural background levels, or if radionuclides are being concentrated by the waste treatment process. Recommendation: The regulation of Technologically Enhanced, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (T-NORM) is complex. Since the results of this study do not conclusively demonstrate that natural radioactive materials have not been concentrated by the treatment process it is recommended that the DTSC consult with the Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiological Health Branch to determine if any further

  7. Microbial Diversity and Metal Speciation Changes in Mine Tailings Following Compost-Assisted Direct Planting: A Four-Year Superfund Site Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, R. M.; Gil-Loaiza, J.; Honeker, L. K.; Hottenstein, J. D.; Valentin-Vargas, A.; Jennings, L. L.; Hammond, C.; Neilson, J. W.; Root, R. A.; Chorover, J.

    2015-12-01

    EPA estimates that future mine tailings remediation costs will exceed US $50 billion using present technologies based on constructing an inert or biological cap on the tailings. Both approaches require large amounts of capping materials that can be difficult and expensive to obtain especially for sites several thousand hectares in size. An alternative technology is direct planting into tailings. However, direct planting alone is not feasible for many legacy sites due to extreme acidity and high metal content which prevent plant germination and growth. Therefore the process must be "assisted" through the addition of amendments such as compost. Here we present results from the first four years of a field study at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site demonstrating the feasibility of compost-assisted direct planting. Parameters measured during the field study included: canopy cover, pH, nutrient content, plant metal uptake, metal(loid) speciation, mineral analysis, microbiome analysis, and plant root-metal-microbe interactions. Integrated analysis of these parameters suggests that even in this "worst-case scenario" mine tailings site (pH 2.5; As and Pb each exceeding 2 g kg-1), we have created a sustainable system. In this system, phyto-catalyzed stabilization of inorganic contaminants in the root zone is driven by plant root exudates and the associated rhizosphere microbial community. The results of this research will be put into context of a larger topic- that of ecological engineering of mine tailings sites - a technique being proposed to prevent creation of acidic conditions and metal(loid) mobilization in the first place.

  8. Evaluation of geophysical logs and video surveys in boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Between February 1998 and April 1998, geophysical logs were collected in nine boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pa. Video surveys were conducted on four of the nine boreholes. The boreholes range in depth from 320 to 508 feet below land surface, are completed open holes, have ambient vertical flow of water, and penetrate a series of interbedded siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate units. The purpose of collecting geophysical-log data was to help determine horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources and to aid in the placement of permanent borehole packers. The primary contaminants were derived from paint waste that included pigment sludges and wash solvents. The chlorinated volatile organic compounds probably originated from the wash solvents. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-resistivity and fluid-temperature logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's logs, permanent multiple-packer systems were installed in each borehole to obtain depth specific water samples from one or more water-bearing fractures in each borehole.

  9. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  10. Occurrences and fate of DDT principal isomers/metabolites, DDA, and o,p'-DDD enantiomers in fish, sediment and water at a DDT-impacted Superfund site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, A W; Cyterski, M; Roberts, K D; Burdette, D; Williamson, J; Avants, J K

    2014-11-01

    In the 1950s and 60s, discharges from a DDT manufacturing plant contaminated a tributary system of the Tennessee River near Huntsville, Alabama, USA. Regulatory action resulted in declaring the area a Superfund site which required remediation and extensive monitoring. Monitoring data collected from 1988, after remediation, through 2011 showed annual decreases approximating first-order decay in concentrations of total DDT and its six principal congeners (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE) in filets from three species of fish. As of 2013, these concentrations met the regulatory requirements of 5 mg/kg or less total DDT for each fish tested. The enantiomer fractions (EF) of chiral o,p'-DDD in smallmouth buffalo and channel catfish were always below 0.5, indicating preferential decay of the (+)-enantiomer of this congener; this EF did not change significantly over 15 years. The often-neglected DDT metabolite p,p'-DDA was found at a concentration of about 20 μg/l in the ecosystem water.

  11. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  12. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  13. Surplus Value & Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa,Masayasu

    1993-01-01

    Introduction 1. Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 1.1. Use-Value and Exchange-Value 1.2. Surplus-Value 1.3. Variable Capital and Constant Capital 2. Implications of Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 2.1. First Implication-Exploitation 2.2. Second Implication-Deviation of Price from Value 2.3. Third Implication-Capitalist Corporation 3. Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution 3.1. The Effect of Capital Accumulation 3.2. Fall in the Rate of Profit 4. Conclusion 

  14. Transcriptomic assessment of resistance to effects of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR agonist in embryos of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus from a marine Superfund site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franks Diana G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus have evolved resistance to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and other halogenated and nonhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that act through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR-dependent signaling pathway. The resistance is accompanied by reduced sensitivity to induction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A, a widely used biomarker of aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and effect, but whether the reduced sensitivity is specific to CYP1A or reflects a genome-wide reduction in responsiveness to all AHR-mediated changes in gene expression is unknown. We compared gene expression profiles and the response to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126 exposure in embryos (5 and 10 dpf and larvae (15 dpf from F. heteroclitus populations inhabiting the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts (NBH Superfund site (PCB-resistant and a reference site, Scorton Creek, Massachusetts (SC; PCB-sensitive. Results Analysis using a 7,000-gene cDNA array revealed striking differences in responsiveness to PCB-126 between the populations; the differences occur at all three stages examined. There was a sizeable set of PCB-responsive genes in the sensitive SC population, a much smaller set of PCB-responsive genes in NBH fish, and few similarities in PCB-responsive genes between the two populations. Most of the array results were confirmed, and additional PCB-regulated genes identified, by RNA-Seq (deep pyrosequencing. Conclusions The results suggest that NBH fish possess a gene regulatory defect that is not specific to one target gene such as CYP1A but rather lies in a regulatory pathway that controls the transcriptional response of multiple genes to PCB exposure. The results are consistent with genome-wide disruption of AHR-dependent signaling in NBH fish.

  15. Benefits of a Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China has growing surplus in its trade and capital accounts, which have prompted warnings and criticism from both domestic and foreign economists. Some think this represents an imbalance in international payments and suggest China speed up the appreciation of the yuan to adjust that imbalance. But Qu Hongbin, Chief China Economist for HSBC, and Ma Xiaoping, an economic analyst, argue that the double-surplus issue should be viewed from a broader perspective. In their article in The Economic Observer, they...

  16. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

  17. Changes in Groundwater Flow and Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations at the Fischer and Porter Superfund Site, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The 38-acre Fischer and Porter Company Superfund Site is in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa. Historically, as part of the manufacturing process, trichloroethylene (TCE) degreasers were used for parts cleaning. In 1979, the Bucks County Health Department detected TCE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water from the Fischer and Porter on-site supply wells and nearby public-supply wells. The Fischer and Porter Site was designated as a Superfund Site and placed on the National Priorities List in September 1983. A 1984 Record of Decision for the site required the Fischer and Porter Company to pump and treat groundwater contaminated by VOCs from three on-site wells at a combined rate of 75 gallons per minute to contain groundwater contamination on the property. Additionally, the Record of Decision recognized the need for treatment of the water from two nearby privately owned supply wells operated by the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association. In 2004, the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association sold its water distribution system, and both wells were taken out of service. The report describes changes in groundwater levels and contaminant concentrations and migration caused by the shutdown of the Warminster Heights supply wells and presents a delineation of the off-site groundwater-contamination plume. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted this study (2006-09) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The Fischer and Porter Site and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Stockton Formation of Late Triassic age. The rocks are chiefly interbedded arkosic sandstone and siltstone. The Stockton aquifer system is comprised of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. A three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model was developed for the site on the basis of rock cores and borehole geophysical logs. The model was simplified by combining individual lithologic

  18. Post-remediation biomonitoring of pesticides and other contaminants in marine waters and sediment near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn

    2000-05-26

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieidrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 rig/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. Tissue samples from biomonitoring organisms (mussels) provide an indication of the longer-term integrated exposure to contaminants in the water column, which overcomes the limitations of grab samples of water. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and

  19. NPL Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  20. NPL Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  1. NPL Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  2. Guidance for performing site inspections under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This guidance presents EPA`s site inspection (SI) strategy. The strategy discusses procedural guidelines to investigate potential Superfund (CERCLA) sites for evaluation pursuant to the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), revised in accordance with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The HRS is the primary means by which EPA evaluates sites for superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL).

  3. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  4. Water-quality trends and constituent-transport analysis for selected sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site in the upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, water years 1996–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2016-07-20

    During the extended history of mining in the upper Clark Fork Basin in Montana, large amounts of waste materials enriched with metallic contaminants (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) and the metalloid trace element arsenic were generated from mining operations near Butte and milling and smelting operations near Anaconda. Extensive deposition of mining wastes in the Silver Bow Creek and Clark Fork channels and flood plains had substantial effects on water quality. Federal Superfund remediation activities in the upper Clark Fork Basin began in 1983 and have included substantial remediation near Butte and removal of the former Milltown Dam near Missoula. To aid in evaluating the effects of remediation activities on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey began collecting streamflow and water-quality data in the upper Clark Fork Basin in the 1980s.Trend analysis was done on specific conductance, selected trace elements (arsenic, copper, and zinc), and suspended sediment for seven sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site for water years 1996–2015. The most upstream site included in trend analysis is Silver Bow Creek at Warm Springs, Montana (sampling site 8), and the most downstream site is Clark Fork above Missoula, Montana (sampling site 22), which is just downstream from the former Milltown Dam. Water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends. Trend analysis was done by using a joint time-series model for concentration and streamflow. To provide temporal resolution of changes in water quality, trend analysis was conducted for four sequential 5-year periods: period 1 (water years 1996–2000), period 2 (water years 2001–5), period 3 (water years 2006–10), and period 4 (water years 2011–15). Because of the substantial effect of the intentional breach of Milltown Dam on March 28, 2008, period 3 was subdivided into period 3A (October 1, 2005–March 27, 2008

  5. Environmental Factor(tm) system: Superfund site information from five EPA databases (on cd-rom). Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Environmental Factor puts today`s technology to work to provide a better, more cost-efficient and time-saving way to access EPA information on hazardous waste sites. Environmental consultants, insurers, and reinsurers, corporate risk assessors and companies actively involved in the generation, transport, storage or cleanup of hazardous waste materials can use its user-friendly information retrieval system to gain rapid access to vital information in immediately-usable form. Search, retrieve, and export information in real time. No more waiting for the mail or overnight delivery services to deliver hard copies of voluminous listings and individual site reports. More than 200,000 pages of EPA hazardous waste site information are contained in 5 related databases: (1) Site data from the National Priority List (NPL) and CERCLIS databases, Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) and Records of Decision (RODs) summaries; (2) Complete PRP information; (3) EPA Records of Decision (Full Text); (4) entire Civil Enforcement Docket; and (5) Glossary of EPA terms, abbreviations and acronyms. Environmental Factor`s powerful database management engine gives even the most inexperienced computer user extensive search capabilities, including wildcard, phonetic and direct cross reference searches across multiple databases. The first menu option delivers information from the NPL, CERCLIS site data, PRP and RODs summary information. Enter a set of search criteria and then immediately access displays containing information from all of these databases. Get full PRP information and Full Text RODs by using their respective menu options. If your search turns up multiple items, a list of site names appears. To bring up the data, highlight the specific site you want and hit Enter. That`s how easy it is to access the vast amount of data stored in the Environmental Factor CD-ROM.

  6. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Majcher, Emily H.; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  7. 76 FR 72405 - San Fernando Valley Area 2 Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles...) concerning 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles, California (Property). The Agreement is entered into..., Glendale/Goodwin Realty I, LLC, an Ohio limited liability company, The Kroger Co., an Ohio corporation,...

  8. Water-quality trends and constituent-transport analysis for selected sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site in the upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, water years 1996–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2016-07-20

    During the extended history of mining in the upper Clark Fork Basin in Montana, large amounts of waste materials enriched with metallic contaminants (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) and the metalloid trace element arsenic were generated from mining operations near Butte and milling and smelting operations near Anaconda. Extensive deposition of mining wastes in the Silver Bow Creek and Clark Fork channels and flood plains had substantial effects on water quality. Federal Superfund remediation activities in the upper Clark Fork Basin began in 1983 and have included substantial remediation near Butte and removal of the former Milltown Dam near Missoula. To aid in evaluating the effects of remediation activities on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey began collecting streamflow and water-quality data in the upper Clark Fork Basin in the 1980s.Trend analysis was done on specific conductance, selected trace elements (arsenic, copper, and zinc), and suspended sediment for seven sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site for water years 1996–2015. The most upstream site included in trend analysis is Silver Bow Creek at Warm Springs, Montana (sampling site 8), and the most downstream site is Clark Fork above Missoula, Montana (sampling site 22), which is just downstream from the former Milltown Dam. Water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends. Trend analysis was done by using a joint time-series model for concentration and streamflow. To provide temporal resolution of changes in water quality, trend analysis was conducted for four sequential 5-year periods: period 1 (water years 1996–2000), period 2 (water years 2001–5), period 3 (water years 2006–10), and period 4 (water years 2011–15). Because of the substantial effect of the intentional breach of Milltown Dam on March 28, 2008, period 3 was subdivided into period 3A (October 1, 2005–March 27, 2008

  9. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at the Gettysburg Elevator Plant Superfund Site, Adams County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Goode, Daniel J.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Gettysburg, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial and commercial supply. In 1983, ground water at the Gettysburg Elevator Plant was found by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources to be contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and other synthetic organic compounds. As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 1980 process, a Remedial Investigation was completed in July 1991, a method of site remediation was issued in the Record of Decision dated June 1992, and a Final Design Report was completed in May 1997. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the hydrogeologic assessment of the site remediation, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1997 to determine the effects of the onsite and offsite extraction wells on ground-water flow and contaminant migration from the Gettysburg Elevator Plant. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1991 to 1998 and on results of numerical model simulations of the local ground-water flow-system. The Gettysburg Elevator Site is underlain by red, green, gray, and black shales of the Heidlersburg Member of the Gettysburg Formation. Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicates the sedimentary rock strike about N. 23 degrees E. and dip about 23 degrees NW. Depth to bedrock onsite commonly is about 6 feet but offsite may be as deep as 40 feet. The ground-water system consists of two zones?a thin, shallow zone composed of soil, clay, and highly weathered bedrock and a thicker, nonweathered or fractured bedrock zone. The shallow zone overlies the bedrock zone and truncates the dipping beds parallel to land surface. Diabase dikes are barriers to ground-water flow in the bedrock zone. The ground-water system is generally confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths. Depth

  10. Temporal Chemical Data for Sediment, Water, and Biological Samples from the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada County, California-2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea L.; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Tufano, Kate; White, Richard III

    2010-01-01

    the possibility of future movement of tailings, and began an assessment of the risks posed by physical and chemical hazards at the site. The EPA's assessment identified arsenic (As) as the primary hazard of concern. Three main exposure routes were identified: inhalation/ingestion of mine tailings, dermal absorption/ingestion of As in lake water from swimming, and ingestion of As-contaminated ground water or surface water. Lost Lake is a private lake which is completely surrounded by low-density residential development. Prior to the dam failure, the lake was used by the local residents for swimming and boating. An estimated 1,776 people reside within one mile of the lake, and almost all residents of the area use potable groundwater for domestic use. Risk factors for human exposure to As derived from mine wastes were high enough to merit placement of the mine site and surrounding area on the National Priority List (commonly called ?Superfund?). The Lava Cap Mine Superfund site (LCMS) encompasses approximately 33 acres that include the mine site, the stretch of Little Clipper Creek between the mine and Lost Lake, the lake itself, and the area between the lake and the confluence of Little Clipper Creek with its parent stream, Clipper Creek. The area between the two creeks is named the ?deposition area? due to the estimated 24 m thick layer of tailings that were laid down there during and after active mining. The lobate structure of Lost Lake is also due to deposition in this area. The deposition area and Lost Lake are together estimated to contain 382,277 m3 of tailings. The primary goals of the EPA have been to minimize tailings movement downstream of Lost Lake and to ensure that residents in the area have drinking water that meets national water quality standards. EPA has officially decided to construct a public water supply line to deliver safe water to affected residences, since some residential wells in the area have As concentrations above the curr

  11. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  12. Geohydrology and vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds in ground water, Fischer and Porter Company Superfund Site, Warminster, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, R.A.; Macchiaroli, Paola; Conger, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Fischer and Porter company Superfund Site is underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Upper Triassic Stockton Formation, which consists of interbedded siltstone, very-fine grained to coarse-grained sandstone, and conglomerate in crudely defined upward fining cycles. These rocks form a complex, heterogeneous, leaky, multiaquifer system comprised of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. Ground water is unconfined in the shallower part of the aquifer and confined or semiconfined in the deeper part of the aquifer. Water levels measured in monitor well clusters and borehole-flow measurements made in open boreholes show a downward hydraulic head gradient at the site, caused in part by the pumping of nearby, deep public-supply wells and the Fischer and Porter treatment system extraction wells. Downward borehole flow was measured at rates up to 9 gallons per minute. Aquifer-isolation tests were run in the six boreholes to obtain depth-discrete specific-capacity and water-quality data. On the basis of specific-capacity data for 27 isolated intervals, specific capacity is not related to depth. Water levels in monitor wells at the Fischer and Porter Site are greatly affected by the pumping of nearby public-supply wells, as well as the pumping of the Fischer and Porter treatment system extraction wells. Pumping of the public-supply wells causes daily water-level fluctuations in wells at the site as great as 5.3 feet. The shutdown of the Fischer and Porter treatment system extraction wells caused a rise in water level in all wells screened in the intermediate and deep zones. The rise in water level was as great as 4.3 feet in the intermediate zone and as great as 5.9 feet in the deep zone. The direction of ground-water flow is toward the north in the shallow and intermediate zones and toward the west and west-southwest in the deep zone. Ground-water discharge probably is to the unnamed tributary to Pennypack Creek north and west of

  13. Slowdown Trade Surplus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo Zhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to Ma Kai's economic planning report submitted to the NPC session on March 5th.(Ma Kai is the Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission),the government has listed the slowdown in trade surplus growth and the steady expansion of,external investment as major tasks for 2008.

  14. 'Nonprofits' need surplus too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D W

    1982-01-01

    By definition profit refers to the difference between revenue and expenses. In for-profit organizations profit or surplus gives a return to the owners of the company and serves as a source of financing for capital acquisitions and working capital. Nonprofit organizations, which are not allowed a surplus, don't suffer on the first count because they have no owners. But they do suffer on the second count because, if expected to grow, they need to finance asset replacement and growth. In these days when funds for long-term debt are becoming scarcer, this author asserts, the need for regulators to allow 'nonprofits' to keep a surplus is increasing. In this article, he argues for a surplus and then discusses how managers and regulators can determine how much a nonprofit organization should be allowed. He presents a combination of a modified version of the return-on-asset pricing model used in for-profit organizations and a model for assessing working capital needs associated with growth.

  15. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted justification, perpetuates…

  16. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  17. Geochemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas characteristics of groundwater in a fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE), a volatile organic compound, was detected in groundwater from deep (more than (>) 300 feet (ft) below land surface) fractures in monitoring wells tapping a crystalline-rock aquifer beneath operable unit 1 (OU1) of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site (Weston, Inc., 2010). Operable units define remedial areas of contaminant concern. PCE contamination within the fractured-rock aquifer has been designated as a separate operable unit, operable unit 3 (OU3; Weston, Inc., 2010). PCE contamination was previously detected in the overlying glacial sand and gravel deposits and basal till, hereafter termed the Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift (MSGD) aquifer (Harte, 2004, 2006). Operable units 1 and 2 encompass areas within the MSGD aquifer, whereas the extent of the underlying OU3 has yet to be defined. The primary original source of contamination has been identified as a former manufacturing facility—the OK Tool manufacturing facility; hence OU1 sometimes has been referred to as the OK Tool Source Area (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, undated). A residential neighborhood of 30 to 40 houses is located in close proximity (one-quarter of a mile) from the PCE-contaminated monitoring wells. Each house has its own water-supply well installed in similar rocks as those of the monitoring wells, as indicated by the New Hampshire State geologic map (Lyons and others, 1997). An investigation was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) region 1, and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) to assess the potential for PCE transport from known contaminant locations (monitoring wells) to the residential wells. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES entered into a cooperative agreement in 2011 to assist in the evaluation of PCE transport in the fractured-rock aquifer. Periodic sampling over the last decade by the USEPA and NHDES has yet to detect PCE in groundwater from the

  18. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN.SHP: Institutional Control Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN is a polygon shapefile that contains Institutional Control (IC) site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  19. Hydrogeologic framework, arsenic distribution, and groundwater geochemistry of the glacial-sediment aquifer at the Auburn Road landfill superfund site, Londonderry, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James R.; Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Leachate continues to be generated from landfills at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund Site in Londonderry, New Hampshire. Impermeable caps on the three landfills at the site inhibit direct infiltration of precipitation; however, high water-table conditions allow groundwater to interact with landfill materials from below, creating leachate and ultimately reducing conditions in downgradient groundwater. Reducing conditions can facilitate arsenic transport by allowing it to stay in solution or by liberating arsenic adsorbed to surfaces and from geologic sources, such as glacial sediments and bedrock. The site occupies a 180-acre parcel of land containing streams, ponds, wetlands, and former gravel pits located in glacial sediment. Four areas, totaling 14 acres, including three landfills and one septage lagoon, were used for waste disposal. The site was closed in 1980 after volatile organic compounds associated with industrial waste dumping were detected. The site was added to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List in 1982, and the landfills were capped in 1996. Although volatile organic compound concentrations in groundwater have declined substantially, some measurable concentrations remain. Temporally variable and persistent elevated arsenic concentrations have been measured in groundwater affected by the landfill leachate. Microbial consumption of carbon found in leachate is a driver of reducing conditions that liberate arsenic at the site. In addition to sources of carbon in landfill leachate, wetland areas throughout the site also could contribute carbon to groundwater, but it is currently unknown if any of the wetland areas have downward or reversing gradients that could allow the infiltration of surface water to groundwater. Red-stained sediments and water indicate iron-rich groundwater discharge to surface water and are also associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic in sediment and groundwater. Ironrich groundwater seeps have

  20. Geophysical Logs, Aquifer Tests, and Water Levels in Wells in and Near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 from October 2002 through December 2006. This followed work that began in 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form fractured-rock aquifers that act as a set of confined to semi-confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area. This stream flows southwest approximately parallel to strike and bisects North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 42 wells that ranged in depth from 40 to 477 ft. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 17 of the 42 wells, for a total of 122 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping and shutdown of a 600-ft deep production well in November-December 2004. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in four wells in the area from October 2002 through September 2006, and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on

  1. Hydrostratigraphic mapping of the Milford-Souhegan glacial drift aquifer, and effects of hydrostratigraphy on transport of PCE, Operable Unit 1, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2010-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in the Town of Milford, New Hampshire, was underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume (as mapped in 1994) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), most of which consisted of tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within highly transmissive stratified-drift deposits but also extends into underlying till and bedrock. The plume has been divided into two areas called Operable Unit 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit 2 (OU2), which is defined as the extended plume area outside of OU1. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier wall that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE and a series of injection and extraction wells to contain and remove contaminants. The barrier wall likely penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; in many places, it also penetrates the full thickness of the underlying basal till and sits atop bedrock.From 1998 to 2004, PCE concentrations decreased by an average of 80 percent at most wells outside the barrier wall. However, inside the barrier, PCE concentrations greater than 10,000 micrograms per liter (μg/L) still exist (2008). The remediation of these areas of recalcitrant PCE presents challenges to successful remediation.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Region 1, is studying the solute transport of VOCs (primarily PCE) in contaminated groundwater in the unconsolidated sediments (overburden) of the Savage site and specifically assisting in the evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial operations in the OU1 area. As part of this effort, the USGS analyzed the subsurface stratigraphy to help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on remediation.A combination of lithologic, borehole natural gamma-ray and electromagnetic (EM) induction logging, and test drilling has identified 11 primary

  2. Technology evaluation report: SITE (Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation) program demonstration test. The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the US EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) combustion research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterland, L.; Lee, J.W.

    1989-04-01

    A series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System was performed under the SITE program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the rotary-kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. The system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a coal tar waste (KO87). Comparative performance with conventional incinerator operation was also tested. Compliance with the incinerator performance standards of 99.99% principal organic hazardous constituents (POHC) destruction and removal efficiency and particulate emissions of less than 180 mg/dscm at 7% O2 was measured for all tests. The Pyretron system was capable of in-compliance performance at double the mixed waste feedrate and at a 60% increase in batch waste charge mass than possible with conventional incineration. Scrubber blowdown and kiln ash contained no detectable levels of any of the POHCs chosen.

  3. A cross-site comparison of methods used for hydrogeologic characterization of the Galena-Platteville aquifer in Illinois and Wisconsin, with examples from selected Superfund sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Mills, Patrick C.; Dunning, Charles P.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Ursic, James R.; Vendl, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of 28 methods used to characterize the fractured Galena-Platteville aquifer at eight sites in northern Illinois and Wisconsin is evaluated. Analysis of government databases, previous investigations, topographic maps, aerial photographs, and outcrops was essential to understanding the hydrogeology in the area to be investigated. The effectiveness of surface-geophysical methods depended on site geology. Lithologic logging provided essential information for site characterization. Cores were used for stratigraphy and geotechnical analysis. Natural-gamma logging helped identify the effect of lithology on the location of secondary- permeability features. Caliper logging identified large secondary-permeability features. Neutron logs identified trends in matrix porosity. Acoustic-televiewer logs identified numerous secondary-permeability features and their orientation. Borehole-camera logs also identified a number of secondary-permeability features. Borehole ground-penetrating radar identified lithologic and secondary-permeability features. However, the accuracy and completeness of this method is uncertain. Single-point-resistance, density, and normal resistivity logs were of limited use. Water-level and water-quality data identified flow directions and indicated the horizontal and vertical distribution of aquifer permeability and the depth of the permeable features. Temperature, spontaneous potential, and fluid-resistivity logging identified few secondary-permeability features at some sites and several features at others. Flowmeter logging was the most effective geophysical method for characterizing secondary-permeability features. Aquifer tests provided insight into the permeability distribution, identified hydraulically interconnected features, the presence of heterogeneity and anisotropy, and determined effective porosity. Aquifer heterogeneity prevented calculation of accurate hydraulic properties from some tests. Different methods, such as flowmeter

  4. Assessment of subsurface chlorinated solvent contamination using tree cores at the front street site and a former dry cleaning facility at the Riverfront Superfund site, New Haven, Missouri, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, John G.; Struckhoff, Garrett C.; Burken, Joel G.

    2004-01-01

    Tree-core sampling has been a reliable and inexpensive tool to quickly assess the presence of shallow (less than about 30 feet deep) tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in soils and ground water at the Riverfront Superfund Site. This report presents the results of tree-core sampling that was successfully used to determine the presence and extent of chlorinated solvent contamination at two sites, the Front Street site (operable unit OU1) and the former dry cleaning facility, that are part of the overall Riverfront Superfund Site. Traditional soil and ground-water sampling at these two sites later confirmed the results from the tree-core sampling. Results obtained from the tree-core sampling were used to design and focus subsequent soil and ground-water investigations, resulting in substantial savings in time and site assessment costs. The Front Street site is a small (less than 1-acre) site located on the Missouri River alluvium in downtown New Haven, Missouri, about 500 feet from the south bank of the Missouri River. Tree-core sampling detected the presence of subsurface PCE contamination at the Front Street site and beneath residential property downgradient from the site. Core samples from trees at the site contained PCE concentrations as large as 3,850 mg-h/kg (micrograms in headspace per kilogram of wet core) and TCE concentrations as large as 249 mg-h/kg. Soils at the Front Street site contained PCE concentrations as large as 6,200,000 mg/kg (micrograms per kilogram) and ground-water samples contained PCE concentrations as large as 11,000 mg/L (micrograms per liter). The former dry cleaning facility is located at the base of the upland that forms the south bank of the Missouri River alluvial valley. Tree-core sampling did not indicate the presence of PCE or TCE contamination at the former dry cleaning facility, a finding that was later confirmed by the analyses of soil samples collected from the site. The lateral extent of PCE

  5. Evaluation of modeling for groundwater flow and tetrachloroethylene transport in the Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift aquifer at the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services entered into a cooperative agreement to assist in the evaluation of remedy simulations of the MSGD aquifer that are being performed by various parties to track the remedial progress of the PCE plume. This report summarizes findings from this evaluation. Topics covered include description of groundwater flow and transport models used in the study of the Savage Superfund site (section 2), evaluation of models and their results (section 3), testing of several new simulations (section 4), an assessment of the representation of models to simulate field conditions (section 5), and an assessment of models as a tool in remedial operational decision making (section 6).

  6. 75 FR 49414 - Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 RIN 2050-AG58 Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund... Superfund Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts. DATES: This rule is effective October 12... requirements shall apply to all new Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts, funded under...

  7. High Surplus Means High Profits?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In recent years,China has been in the limelight worldwide due to its constant high trade surplus.Its trade surplus hit US$ 24.974 billion in August, a record high and an increase of US$ 624 million versus the previous month, according to the latest data from China Customs.

  8. The social surplus of broadband initiatives in compulsory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peter Parsons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the New Zealand government embarked upon an ambitious programme of broadband infrastructure investment, a process that will continue until at least 2019. Part of this investment is specifically targeted at compulsory education, with initiatives that include bringing fibre connections to the school gate, supporting on-site network upgrades (including wireless and providing teaching, learning and support services delivered through these networks. Such investments are not made without some projections of the likely rate of return, but calculating return on investment (ROI in educational broadband is complex, as it encompasses a range of factors. This article reports on an interview-based study engaging a range of stakeholders in educational broadband provision. The study utilises a research model that considers the various elements of social surplus, namely; producer surplus (savings, producer surplus (profit and consumer surplus (perceived value over and above cost, to explore the elements of social surplus that have been used to define educational broadband ROI calculations and justify the scale of investment. The results indicate that all three components of social surplus are relevant, though the concept of profit can only be seen in the broader context of long term contributions to the economy. A note of caution is that projections of ROI based only on positive returns fail to acknowledge the potential for some innovations to actually increase costs. Further, purely quantitative models do not properly take into account qualitative components of consumer surplus.

  9. Simulation of solute transport of tetrachloroethylene in ground water of the glacial-drift aquifer at the Savage Municipal Well Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire, 1960-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2004-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, named after the former municipal water-supply well for the town of Milford, is underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within a highly transmissive sand-and-gravel unit, but also extends to an underlying till and bedrock unit. The plume logistically is divided into two areas termed Operable Unit No. 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2), which is the extended plume area. PCE concentrations in excess of 100,000 parts per billion (ppb) had been detected in the OU1 area in 1995, indicating a likely Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) source. In the fall of 1998, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) installed a remedial system in OU1. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE, and a series of injection and extraction wells. The barrier primarily sits atop bedrock and penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; and in some places, the full thickness of the underlying basal till. The sand and gravel unit and the till comprise the aquifer termed the Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift aquifer (MSGD). Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite-difference solute-transport models of the unconsolidated sediments (MSGD aquifer) were constructed to help evaluate solute-transport processes, assess the effectiveness of remedial activities in OU1, and to help design remedial strategies in OU2. The solute-transport models simulate PCE concentrations, and model results were compared to observed concentrations of PCE. Simulations were grouped into the following three time periods: an historical calibration of the distribution of PCE from the initial input (circa 1960) of PCE into the subsurface to the 1990s, a pre-remedial calibration from 1995

  10. Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in well MG-1693 at North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in well MG-1693 (NP-87) at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pa. Objectives of the study were to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of vertical borehole flow, and effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wells. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and borehole-video logs were collected. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and select depths to set packers. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of water-bearing zones and effects of pumping individual zones on water levels in two nearby monitor wells. Specific capacities of isolated zones during aquifer-isolation tests ranged from 0.03 to 3.09 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. Water enters the borehole primarily through high-angle fractures at 416 to 435 ft bls (feet below land surface) and 129 to 136 ft bls. Water exits the borehole through a high-angle fracture at 104 to 107 ft bls, a broken casing joint at 82 ft bls, and sometimes as artesian flow through the top of the well. Thirteen intervals were selected for aquifer-isolation testing, using a straddle-packer assembly. The specific capacity of interval 1 was 2.09 (gal/min)/ft. The specific capacities of intervals 2, 3, and 4 were similar: 0.27, 0.30, and 0.29 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. The specific capacities of intervals 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 were similar: 0.03, 0.04, 0.09, 0.09, and 0.04 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. Intervals 9, 11, and 12 each showed a strong

  11. Results of a monitoring program of continuous water levels and physical water properties at the Operable Unit 1 area of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, water years 2000-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    The Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift (MSGD) aquifer, in south-central New Hampshire, is an important source of industrial, commercial, and domestic water. The MSGD aquifer was also an important source of drinking water for the town of Milford until it was found to contain high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Savage and Keyes municipal-supply wells in the early 1980s. A VOC plume was found to cover part of the southwestern half of the MSGD aquifer. In September 1984, the site was designated a Superfund site, called the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site. The primary source area of contaminants was a former tool manufacturing facility (called the OK Tool facility, and now called the Operable Unit 1 (OU1) area) that disposed of solvents at the surface and in the subsurface. The facility was closed in 1987 and removed in 1998. A low-permeability containment barrier wall was constructed and installed in the overburden (MSGD aquifer) in 1998 to encapsulate the highest concentrations of VOCs, and a pump-and-treat remediation facility was also added. Remedial operations of extraction and injection wells started in May 1999. A network of water-level monitoring sites was implemented in water year 2000 (October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000) in the OU1 area to help assess the effectiveness of remedial operations to mitigate the VOC plume, and to evaluate the effect of the barrier wall and remedial operations on the hydraulic connections across the barrier and between the overburden and underlying bedrock. Remedial extraction and injections wells inside and outside the barrier help isolate ground-water flow inside the barrier and the further spreading of VOCs. This report summarizes both continuous and selected periodic manual measurements of water level and physical water properties (specific conductance and water temperature) for 10 monitoring locations during water years 2000-03. Additional periodic manual measurements of water levels were

  12. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  13. Region 9 Removal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  14. Report: EPA’s Distribution of Superfund Human Resources Does Not Support Current Regional Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0397, September 19, 2017. Due to insufficient human resources to cover all Superfund site work, some regions have had to slow down or discontinue their efforts to protect human health and the environment.

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT INCINERATION OF CERCLA SARMS AT THE JOHN ZINK COMPANY TEST FACILITY (FINAL PROJECT REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of rotary kiln incineration of a synthetic "Superfund soil" bearing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring at Superfund sites. This surrogate soil is referred to as a synthetic analytical reference ...

  16. Evaluation of native microbial soil populations at a trichloroethylene contaminated Superfund site in the presence of a permeable reactive barrier (biowall) using a metagenomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Beaverdam Road Landfill occupies 3.5 acres and was an active disposal site for miscellaneous non-hazardous waste from 1943 to 1990, before being capped. In 1994, this site was included on the Nation Priorities List (NPL) for periodic inspection and remediation in accordance with the program regu...

  17. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Malta Rocket Fuel Area Site, Towns of Malta and Stillwater, Saratoga County, NY, July 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) documents the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) selection of the remedial action for the Malta Rocket Fuel Area site (the Site). The remedy addresses the principal threats to human health and the environment that are posed by conditions at the Site. Exposure to soil contamination at the Malta Test Station will be addressed by excavation and off-site disposal of the contaminated soil. Ingestion of contaminated ground water by on-site employees will be addressed by pumping the Test Station water supply wells and treating the water to acceptable drinking water standards using an air stripper. Ground water not captured by the air stripper will be remediated to cleanup standards through natural attenuation and degradation processes.

  18. Looking Through the Trade Surplus Prism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Huge trade surplus attracks more and more attention to the China's economy operation,a controversial topic on people's lips as well. The years from 2005 to 2007,China's most rapid trade surplus growing period,have witnessed China's continuous trade surplus growing,breaking out the threshold of US$100 billion,and 200 billion US Dollar successivcly.

  19. Behind the Ever-Widening Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's trade surplus has been on the rise since 2005.The surplus hit US$ 32.1 billion in 2004,and has soared to us$177.5 billion in 2006.The Chinese government has made the reduction of the trade surplus one of its major macro-economic goals since last September.

  20. Effects of changes in pumping on regional groundwater-flow paths, 2005 and 2010, and areas contributing recharge to discharging wells, 1990–2010, in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2017-06-06

    A previously developed regional groundwater flow model was used to simulate the effects of changes in pumping rates on groundwater-flow paths and extent of recharge discharging to wells for a contaminated fractured bedrock aquifer in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater in the vicinity of the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, was found to be contaminated with organic compounds, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), in 1979. At the time contamination was discovered, groundwater from the underlying fractured bedrock (shale) aquifer was the main source of supply for public drinking water and industrial use. As part of technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the Remedial Investigation of the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site from 2000 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a model of regional groundwater flow to describe changes in groundwater flow and contaminant directions as a result of changes in pumping. Subsequently, large decreases in TCE concentrations (as much as 400 micrograms per liter) were measured in groundwater samples collected by the EPA from selected wells in 2010 compared to 2005‒06 concentrations.To provide insight on the fate of potentially contaminated groundwater during the period of generally decreasing pumping rates from 1990 to 2010, steady-state simulations were run using the previously developed groundwater-flow model for two conditions prior to extensive remediation, 1990 and 2000, two conditions subsequent to some remediation 2005 and 2010, and a No Pumping case, representing pre-development or cessation of pumping conditions. The model was used to (1) quantify the amount of recharge, including potentially contaminated recharge from sources near the land surface, that discharged to wells or streams and (2) delineate the areas contributing recharge that discharged to wells or streams for the five conditions.In all simulations, groundwater divides differed from

  1. Region 9 Removal Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  2. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logging, aquifer-isolation tests, distribution of contaminants, and water-level measurements at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site, Bucks and Montgomery counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquiferisolation (packer) tests were conducted at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund site in Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pa. Caliper, naturalgamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and digital acoustic-televiewer logs and borehole television surveys were collected in 32 new and previously drilled wells that ranged in depth from 68 to 302 feet. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole- fluid movement, select depths to set packers, and locate appropriate screen intervals for reconstructing new wells as monitoring wells. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in four wells to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of discrete water-bearing zones. Specific capacities of isolated zones during packer testing ranged from 0.12 to 15.30 gallons per minute per foot. Most fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. The acoustic-televiewer logs define two basic fracture sets, bedding-plane partings with a mean strike of N. 62? E. and a mean dip of 27? NW., and high-angle fractures with a mean strike of N. 58? E. and a mean dip of 72? SE. Correlation of heatpulse-flowmeter data and acoustic-televiewer logs showed 83 percent of identified water-bearing fractures were high-angle fractures.

  3. AHR-related activities in a creosote-adapted population of adult atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, two decades post-EPA superfund status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdylo, Josephine V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Vogelbein, Wolfgang [The College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Bain, Lisa J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Rice, Charles D., E-mail: cdrice@clemson.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AHR-related activities in creosote-adapted adult killifish were examined. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated intestine CYP1A. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated liver COX2 mRNA expression. • Most creosote-adapted adult killifish have lesions varying in severity. • Liver lesions in creosote-adapted adult killifish express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins. - Abstract: Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): General Motors/Central Foundry Division Site, St. Lawrence County, Massena, NY. (Second remedial action), March 1992. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-31

    The 270-acre General Motors/Central Foundry Division site is an aluminum casting plant in Massena, St. Lawrence County, New York. From 1985 to 1989, General Motors investigations detected contamination in soil, sludge, debris, sediment, ground water and surface water. In 1988, an interim cap was placed over the industrial landfill. A 1990 ROD addressed most affected areas of the site, including the St. Lawrence River System sediments, contaminated ground water, soils on the facility and the St. Regis Mohawk Indian Reservation, and material at four lagoons and the North Disposal Area. The ROD provides the final remedy for the contaminated soil, sludge, debris, and groundwater at the East Disposal Area and the Industrial Lagoon. The primary contaminants of concern are VOCs, including TCE; and other organics, including PCBs, phenols, and PAHs. The selected remedial action for the site are included.

  5. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 3): Fairchild, Intel, and Raytheon Sites, (Mew Study Area), Mountain View, CA, September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of the document is to explain the significant differences between the Record of Decision (ROD) signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on June 9, 1989 (PB90-118225) and the remedy that will be implemented at the Middlefield/Ellis/Whisman Study Area (MEW Site). The document provides a brief background on the MEW Site, describes the change to the ROD that EPA is now making and explains the ways in which this change affects implementation of the remedy selected by EPA in June of 1989.

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): General Motors/Central Foundry Division site, St. Lawrence County, Massena, NY. (First remedial action), December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The 270-acre General Motors/Central Foundry Division site is an active aluminum casting plant in Massena, St. Lawrence County, New York. The site overlies a surficial alluvial aquifer and is adjacent to wetlands, both of which have been contaminated. Additional onsite features of concern include the unlined North and East Disposal Areas and the Industrial Landfill, which contain contaminated soil, debris, sludge; four unlined Industrial Lagoons, which contain contaminated liquids, sludge, and soil; the rivers and creek which contains contaminated sediment; contaminated soil on the St. Regis Mohawk Reservation and on General Motors property; and contaminated associated wetlands. The Record of Decision (ROD) provides a final remedy for all site areas and media except the East Disposal Area and the Industrial Landfill, which will be addressed in a subsequent ROD. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, sludge, debris, ground water, and surface water are PCBs, and to a much lesser degree, VOCs including TCE; and other organics including PAHs, and phenols. The selected remedial action for this site is included.

  7. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air. T....... The accident described in this article serves to illustrate that care should be taken if a tank originally designed for atmospheric pressure is modified to operate at slight overpressure.......GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  8. Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats Superfund Site, Tacoma, Washington Remedial Investigations. Evaluation of Alternative Dredging Methods and Equipment, Disposal Methods and Sites, and Site Control and Treatment Practices for Contaminated Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Material Disposal in the Ocean, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York. Myers, A. C., 1979. "Summer and Winter Burrows of a Mantis Shrimp , Squilla...Deep water is any depth below the influence of storm waves, which will vary between sites. Theoretically, depths are unlimited, although in fact ...Swann, et. al., uses the term in a thermodynamic sense. He classifies the organic compounds by mobility class when in fact his classifica- tion

  9. CERCLIS (Superfund) ASCII Text Format - CPAD Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database (CPAD) contains a selected set...

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Carson River Mercury Site, operable unit 1, Lyon, Storey and Churchill County, NV, March 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) of the Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) which is located in Lyon, Storey and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The selected remedy for the five residential yards is to excavate contaminated surface soil (estimated to go to a depth of approximately 2 feet below ground surface), dispose of the soil at the RCRA municipal landfill if the soils do not exceed the TCLP standards, and restore the excavated areas. If it is determined that all or part of the excavated soil exceeds the TCLP standards, then the excavated soil will either be treated and disposed of at a RCRA municipal landfill or disposed of at the RCRA hazardous waste landfill.

  11. Delineation of areas having elevated electrical conductivity, orientation and characterization of bedrock fractures, and occurrence of groundwater discharge to surface water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2015-07-16

    During October 2012 through March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4, Superfund Section, conducted borehole geophysical logging, surface geophysical surveys, and water-quality profiling in selected wells and areas to characterize or delineate the extent of elevated subsurface electrical conductivity at the EPA Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina. Elevated electrical conductivity measured at the site may be related to native rock materials, waste rock disposal areas used in past operations, and (or) groundwater having elevated dissolved solids (primarily metals and major ions) related to waste migration. Five shallow screened wells and four open-borehole bedrock wells were logged by using a suite of borehole tools, and downhole water-quality profiles were recorded in two additional wells. Well depths ranged from about 26 to 300 feet below land surface. Surface geophysical surveys based on frequency-domain electromagnetic and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) techniques were used to identify areas of elevated electrical conductivity (Earth materials and groundwater) and potential high dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water on land and in areas along the northern unnamed tributary at the site.

  12. Earthworm survival and behavior results from a Clark Fork River Superfund site: Grant-Kohrs Ranch N.H.S., Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.R.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the boundaries of the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, have exceeded those typically found in uncontaminated soils. Upstream mining activities along the Clark Fork River in the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, have produced substantial quantities of mine waste which have been deposited throughout the watershed. Releases and re-releases of these contaminated substances continue to occur, and appear to be preventing the germination and establishment of critical riparian plant species and depressing soil microbe activity. Slickens, bare spots devoid of all vegetation, occur frequently in the floodplain along the Clark Fork River. This research investigates the toxicity of slicken soils using a series of earthworm (Eisenia foetida andrei) survival and behavior tests. In dilution tests, earthworm survival was reduced significantly in as little as 12.5% slicken soil. Results from earthworm behavior tests currently being conducted using non-lethal slicken soil dilutions will also be presented.

  13. Trophic transfer and effects of DDT in male hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) from Palos Verdes Superfund site, CA (USA) and comparisons to field monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Jordan; Xu, Elvis Genbo; Kupsco, Allison; Jia, Fang; Mehinto, Alvine C; Lao, Wenjian; Maruya, Keith A; Gan, Jay; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    High concentrations of DDT and metabolites (ΣDDT) have been detected in sediment and the demersal flatfish hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichtys verticalis) collected from Palos Verdes (PV), California, USA, a site contaminated with over 100 metric tons of DDT throughout 1960s-70s. This study was conducted to assess the transfer of ΣDDT from PV-sediment into polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata) and hornyhead turbot, and to investigate if the responses in turbots from two different laboratory exposures mimic those in turbots caught in PV (PV-turbot). Turbot fed PV-sediment-contaminated polychaete for 7 days had liver concentrations of ΣDDT similar to PV-turbot. After 28 days, ΣDDT also accumulated in livers of turbot gavaged with a ΣDDT mixture. In vitro cell bioassays indicated significant increases of 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ) in turbot bile extracts as compared to the control in the 7-day study. These responses corresponded to those measured in PV-fish. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), anti-androgen receptor (anti-AR), estrogen receptor (ER) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activities were also observed in extracts of PV-sediment, and PV-sediment-exposed worm. Anti-AR, AhR and GR activities were significantly higher in PV-sediment than reference sediment (San Diego, SD). Higher transcripts of hepatic VTG, ERα and ERβ were found in PV-turbot than SD-turbot, but were unaltered in fish exposed to sediment-contaminated worms for the 7-day study. In contrast, liver extracts from the 28-day treatment of ΣDDT showed lower EEQ but similar hepatic VTG and ERβ transcripts relative to those of PV-turbot. These data indicated that trophic transfer of sediment-associated DDT in 7-day exposures corresponded to field measurements of DDT residues and in vitro ER bioactivities, but failed to mimic in vivo biological effects observed in field fish. In contrast, treatment with ΣDDT alone for 28 days mimicked in vivo biological effects of DDTs in PV fish, but did not

  14. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  15. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  16. Remediation System Evaluation, FCX Statesville Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FCX property was an agriculture distribution center that formulated, repackaged, and warehoused pesticides and fertilizers. The former Burlington Industries property to the north and upgradient of the FCX property was a textile facility.

  17. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Ormet Corporation, Hannibal, OH, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-12

    The Record of Decision presents the selected remedy for the Ormet Corporation Superfund Site. The purpose of this remedy is to eliminate or reduce contamination in soils, sediments and ground water, and to reduce the risks associated with exposure to contaminated materials. This is the first and final remedy planned for the Site.

  18. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig

    2010-01-01

    -varying risk-free rate. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future stock and bond returns. We find that, although there are important cross-country differences and economically significant pricing errors, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets...... empirical support in a variety of different dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk-free rates. Further, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains...... significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. In addition, in most countries the surplus consumption ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns. Thus, the surplus consumption ratio captures time-varying expected returns in both stock and bond markets....

  19. Effects of a remedial system and its operation on volatile organic compound-contaminated ground water, Operable Unit 1, Savage Municipal Well Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire, 1998-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2006-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in the Town of Milford, N.H., is underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mostly tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within a highly transmissive sand and gravel layer, but also extends into underlying till and bedrock. The plume has been divided into two areas called Operable Unit 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit 2 (OU2), which is defined as the extended plume area. PCE concentrations in excess of 100,000 parts per billion (ppb) had been detected in the OU1 area in 1995, indicating a likely Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) source. In the fall of 1998, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) installed a remedial system in OU1 to contain and capture the dissolved VOC plume. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier wall that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE, and a series of injection and extraction wells to contain and remove contaminants. The barrier wall likely penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; in most places, it also penetrates the full thickness of the underlying basal till and sits atop bedrock. Remedial injection and extraction wells have been operating since the spring of 1999 and include a series of interior (inside the barrier wall) injection and extractions wells and exterior (outside the barrier wall) injection and extraction wells. A recharge gallery outside the barrier wall receives the bulk of the treated water and reinjects it into the shallow aquifer. From 1998 to 2004, PCE concentrations decreased by an average of 80 percent at most wells outside the barrier wall. This decrease indicates (1) the barrier wall and interior extraction effectively contained high PCE concentrations inside the wall, (2) other sources of PCE did not appear to be outside of the wall, and (3) ambient ground

  20. 45 CFR 12.7 - Applications for surplus real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for surplus real property. 12.7 Section 12.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.7 Applications for surplus real property. Applications for surplus real...

  1. Superfund: Interagency Agreements and Improved Project Management Needed to Achieve Cleanup Progress at Key Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Superfund completing the remedial investigation, which would include a human and ecological risk assessment , feasibility study, proposed plan...EPA said that a human and ecological risk assessment —which would estimate how threatening a hazardous waste site is to human health and the

  2. Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, Washington Added to Superfund Cleanup List

    Science.gov (United States)

    (September 28, 2015 - Seattle) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has added the Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, in Spokane County, Washington, to the Superfund National Priorities List. The site was added to the NPL after EPA considered input rec

  3. Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Tian F; Huang, Ying Y; Parish, William; Pan, Sui M; Chen, Xiang S; Cohen, Myron S

    2005-03-24

    While 70% of HIV positive individuals live in sub-Saharan Africa, it is widely believed that the future of the epidemic depends on the magnitude of HIV spread in India and China, the world's most populous countries. China's 1.3 billion people are in the midst of significant social transformation, which will impact future sexual disease transmission. Soon approximately 8.5 million 'surplus men', unmarried and disproportionately poor and migrant, will come of age in China's cities and rural areas. Meanwhile, many millions of Chinese sex workers appear to represent a broad range of prices, places, and related HIV risk behaviors. Using demographic and behavioral data, this paper describes the combined effect of sexual practices, sex work, and a true male surplus on HIV transmission. Alongside a rapid increase in sexually transmitted disease incidence across developed parts of urban China, surplus men could become a significant new HIV risk group. The anticipated high sexual risk among many surplus men and injecting drug use use among a subgroup of surplus men may create bridging populations from high to low risk individuals. Prevention strategies that emphasize traditional measures--condom promotion, sex education, medical training--must be reinforced by strategies which acknowledge surplus men and sex workers. Reform within female sex worker mandatory re-education centers and site specific interventions at construction sites, military areas, or unemployment centers may hold promise in curbing HIV/sexually transmitted infections. From a sociological perspective, we believe that surplus men and sex workers will have a profound effect on the future of HIV spread in China and on the success or failure of future interventions.

  4. Trade Surplus Drops,more Rebate Cutting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Almost everyone was surprised when the China Customs released the latest export and import statistics on April, 10th:6.87 billion US dollars,China’s favorable balance of trade in March.But only one month earlier,the trade surplus

  5. The (Surplus) Value of Scientific Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on scientific communication. Topics include theory-less and formal technical/natural scientific models of scientific communication; social-scientific, power-sensitive models; the sociology of scientific communication; sciences as fields of competition; fraud and deception; potential surplus value across subject information…

  6. Double-Blade Sword: Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the famous animation Saint Saiya,the golden saint of Gemini, Saga,Left audience the deepest impression of being an angel at one side and a demon at the other.So does China's trade surplus.It is a double-blade sword.

  7. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  8. 45 CFR 12.8 - Assignment of surplus real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of surplus real property. 12.8 Section 12.8 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.8 Assignment of surplus real property. (a) Notice of interest in a specific...

  9. 26 CFR 1.815-3 - Shareholders surplus account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholders surplus account. 1.815-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-3 Shareholders surplus account. (a) In general... maintain a shareholders surplus account. This account shall be established as of January 1, 1958, and...

  10. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund. to protect human health and the environment from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. CERCLA was amended by the Superfund Amendments and R...

  11. INDUST.SUPERFUND_POLY_09

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This polygon layer represents a current (as of April 2009) list of CERCLIS' sites in EPA Region 7. Some of the sites are expanded to include plumes and others not.

  12. 77 FR 4559 - Ecusta Mill Site, Pisgah Forest, Transylvania County, NC; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... AGENCY Ecusta Mill Site, Pisgah Forest, Transylvania County, NC; Notice of Amended Settlement AGENCY... Ecusta Mill Superfund Site located in Pisgah Forest, Transylvania County, North Carolina. DATES: The... by Site name Ecusta Mill Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  13. Keeping Food Alive: Surplus Food Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sedef Sert; Paola Garrone; Marco Melacini

    2014-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the paradoxical reality of food waste in a world of food insecurity, which is an important issue even for developed countries. Today, in Europe,nearly 43.6 million people are estimated to be food insecure, while European countries are reported to generate 179 kg per capita of food waste every year. Previous empirical studies highlight the potential of surplus food management, i.e. managerial processes and practices that strike a balance between social, environmental...

  14. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

  15. Superfund Training/Tech Transfer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a collection of information resources, training, and other media related to hazardous waste site cleanup and characterization. A major part of...

  16. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Facility Registry Services (FRS) : Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) , National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) , and Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the estimated density of georeferenced sites within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the...

  17. The Vulnerability Framework Integrates Various Models of Generating Surplus Revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniaci, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Budgets operationalize the strategic planning process, and institutions must have surplus revenue to be able to cope with future operations. There are three approaches to generate surplus revenue: increased revenue, decreased cost, and reallocation of resources. Extending their earlier work, where they established strategic benchmarks for annual…

  18. The assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marcysiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish agriculture is characterised by high labour surplus in agricultural farms. The aim of the study is showing the methods used for assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms. The assessment was made considering two criteria: objective and subjective.

  19. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle,...

  20. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  1. A stochastic surplus production model in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2017-01-01

    Surplus production modelling has a long history as a method for managing data-limited fish stocks. Recent advancements have cast surplus production models as state-space models that separate random variability of stock dynamics from error in observed indices of biomass. We present a stochastic su...

  2. EPA Region 2 SEMS_CERCLIS Sites All [R2] and SEMS_CERCLIS Sites NPL [R2] GIS Layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 2 SEMS_CERCLIS Sites All [R2] GIS layer contains unique Superfund Enterprise Management System (SEMS) site records. These records have the following...

  3. How Large Is China’s Rural Surplus Labor Force?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓河; 马建蕾

    2008-01-01

    The existence of surplus labor in the countryside and transfer of agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors is a common phenomenon in economic development.Supply of rural surplus labor will change with the transfer of labor.By calculating the di erence between the agricultural labor force and current demand of laborin agriculture,this paper seeks to estimate the total amount of China’s rural surplus labor as identified by age,gender and education.Results indicate that there areroughly 110 million rural surplus laborers,of which 50%are aged above 40 years old,55.37%are women,and 42.96%have received an education below primaryschool.Currently,China’s rural surplus labor supply falls short of non-agricultural industry demand.

  4. Geothermal Prospects in a Shrinking Power Surplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, John D.

    1989-03-21

    The western power surplus is finite and electric load growth is persistent. Concerns about availability and environmental effects will overshadow life-cycle cost in selection of tomorrow's sources. Geothermal's growth and achievements qualify it as a preferred resource for the 1990s and beyond but its merits remain largely unknown in political and financial circles. Near-term needs include power sales contracts after 1990, improved comfort for banks and utilities with reservoir assessment techniques and mitigation of financial risks at pilot plants on new fields. Institutional, not technical, issues will dominate geothermal energy's growth, performance, image and utility relationships in the 1990s.

  5. EPA Removes Burrows Sanitation Site in Michigan from National List of Most Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Immediate Release No. 15-OPA142 CHICAGO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced that the Burrows Sanitation Superfund site in Hartford Township, Van Buren County, Michigan, has been officially removed from the Agency's l

  6. 77 FR 1920 - Second Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the Surplus Plutonium Disposition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), which DOE is constructing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in... the other alternatives. The MOX fuel alternative is DOE's preferred alternative for surplus plutonium... suitable for MOX fuel fabrication is disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New...

  7. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManus, R.W. [SOUND Environmental Services, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Grajczak, P. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wilcoxson, J.C. [ARCO, Plano, TX (United States); Webster, S.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR{trademark}), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Helena Chemical Company, (Tampa Plant), Hillsborough County, Tampa, FL, May 7, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected remedial action for the Helena Chemical Company Superfund Site, Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida. This action addresses soil, sediment, and ground water contamination at the site and calls for the implementation of response measures which will protect human health and the environment. The selected remedy includes biological treatment (i.e., bioremediation) of pesticides and other site related contaminants located in surface soil sand sediments to levels appropriate for future industrial use of the Site. In addition, the selected remedy includes ground water recovery and treatment to remove pesticides and other site related contaminants.

  11. NOW ON THE WEB SALES AND PURCHASE OF OBSOLETE OR SURPLUS EQUIPMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Recuperation and Sales Service wishes to recall that obsolete or surplus equipment which is no longer needed at CERN may be sold to outside institutes, members of the personnel, companies, etc. For this purpose an 'on-line sales and purchase tool' has been developed and installed on the web: consult the 'Recuperation and Sales Service' site on the CERN homepage. Users wishing to eliminate or sell obsolete or surplus equipment are invited to use the tool to issue an 'on-line sales request' and users who are looking for cheap 2nd hand equipment may consult the 'on-line sales catalogue' and make 'on-line purchase bids'. The direct sale of low value equipment, which takes place Thursdays 13h30 ­ 15h30 in the Recuperation Centre, building 133, will continue as before. For more information contact the Recuperation & Sales Service, tel. 75782 or 78665.

  12. EPA Proposes to Add Dutchess County Creek, N.Y. to the Federal Superfund List, Sediment Contaminated with Mercury, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today proposed adding the Wappinger Creek in Dutchess County, N.Y. to its Superfund National Priorities List of the country's most hazardous waste sites. Sediment within the two mile long tidal port

  13. Transfert de risques et création de surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Courtault, Jean-Michel; Jean-Pascal GAYANT

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we use the certain benefit function of Luenberger, which is a generalization of the notion of distributable surplus by Allais, to characterize the classical notions of willingness to pay and willingness to accept. These concepts allow us to study the transfer of one or several risks between two agents or more. Specifically, we determine the conditions under which the maximization of the total distributable surplus leads to a Pareto efficient allocation of risks.; Dans cet artic...

  14. Surplus analysis for variable annuities with a GMDB option

    OpenAIRE

    Haberman, S; Piscopo, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the insurance surplus for a Variable Annuity contract with a Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit (GMDB) option. Initially, we derive the first two moments of the distribution of the surplus; and subsequently, we develop the whole distribution using a stochastic model which involves an integrated analysis of financial and mortality risk for a portfolio of annuities with GMDB embedded options. We offer a model according which the premium can be modified as per the forecas...

  15. Historical Reflection on Deviation in Transfer Policy of Agricultural Surplus Labor at Early Stage of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly made an analysis on transfer of agricultural surplus labor in the end of the 20 th century. On this basis,it made reflection on policy of agricultural surplus labor. Then,it stated that there is a great deviation of transfer of agricultural surplus labor from practical requirement and pointed out basic internationally recognized ideas of agricultural surplus labor transfer. Finally,it came up with recommendations for formulating agricultural surplus labor transfer.

  16. Carson Lake Pasture : Mercury Superfund Site : Soil investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this investigation is to determine whether the soil in the CLkP exceeds the EPA's hazardous waste level criterion for mercury and whether there is...

  17. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have heen completed on treating a leachate from New Lyme, Ohio. The leachate was transported to Cincinnati, Ohio, where a pilot-sized rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used for a treatment evaluation. he biomass was developed on the ARC discs with primary effluent f...

  18. A biological assessment of Wildcat Landfill Superfund Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document was prepared as part of the Wildcat Landfill Remedial Investigation (RI) Report; the report was financed through a grant and authority of CERCLA as...

  19. Optimization Review, Fairfield Coal Gasification Plant Superfund Site, Fairfield, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fairfield Coal Gasification Plant (FCGP) also known as the Fairfield Former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) is located in the southwest 1/4 of the southeast 1/4, Section 26, Township 72 North, Range 10 West of Jefferson County, Iowa.

  20. OLEM Center for Program Analysis Site Analysis Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes environmental justice-related analyses of population located within a mile of Superfund and RCRA Corrective Action sites. It characterizes...

  1. Toxicity tests and sediment chemistry at Site 9 (Neptune Drive Disposal Site) - U.S. Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During a remedial investigation of the U.S. Naval Air Station Superfund Site in Brunswick, Maine (NASB), elevated concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic...

  2. AMCO Off-Site Air Monitoring Polygons, Oakland CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class was developed to support the AMCO Chemical Superfund Site air monitoring process and depicts a single polygon layer, Off-Site Air Monitors,...

  3. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required.

  4. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  5. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  6. Transfer of Rural Surplus Labor and Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces about the rural surplus labor transfer.According to the paper,the transfer of rural surplus labor in China presents such fundamental characteristics as randomness and non-thoroughness,scope and field constraint,and hysteretic nature of employment and industrial structure conversion.Besides,the causes of the difficulties in the transfer of rural surplus labor lie in the barriers from the system and policy,structural imbalance of industry and low quality of rural labor.The paper studies the correlation between the quality and the transfer of rural surplus labor FORCE in a systematical way from three aspects,which are the correlations between rural labor quality and the transfer difficulty & speed,the transfer scope & field and the employment stability & income after transfer respectively.Moreover,the paper carries out analysis of the special effects of vocational education on the transfer of rural surplus labor in China,which shows that vocational education is a help in the improvement of cultural qualities,labor skills and physical & mental health of rural labor.

  7. A Note on Realistic Dividends in Actuarial Surplus Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Avanzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of the profitable nature of risk businesses in the long term, de Finetti suggested that surplus models should allow for cash leakages, as otherwise the surplus would unrealistically grow (on average to infinity. These leakages were interpreted as ‘dividends’. Subsequent literature on actuarial surplus models with dividend distribution has mainly focussed on dividend strategies that either maximise the expected present value of dividends until ruin or lead to a probability of ruin that is less than one (see Albrecher and Thonhauser, Avanzi for reviews. An increasing number of papers are directly interested in modelling dividend policies that are consistent with actual practice in financial markets. In this short note, we review the corporate finance literature with the specific aim of fleshing out properties that dividend strategies should ideally satisfy, if one wants to model behaviour that is consistent with practice.

  8. THE CLOWER CONSTRAINTS MODEL DARI SURPLUS ATAU DEFISIT FISKAL PEMERINTAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonni Manurung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has something as a purpose to building the empirical models and the new hypothesis between the broad money, surpluses or fiscal deficit, the general price index or inflation rate, demand for monetary base and demand for bank deposit. This study also head for optimal interest rate for bank deposit at the given value of broad money, surplus or fiscal deficit, general price index, demand for monetary base, and demand for bank deposit. The model build consist to balance central bank, intertemporal budget constraint at the maximum expected utility for hold monetary base and bank deposit. The evaluation of the surplus or fiscal deficit stabilization is with the alteration of the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate. The results of the study show that the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate is very respect to surplus or deficit fiscal. The contribution requirement reserve ratio and interest rate for surplus or deficit fiscal are relatively high. This results show that the clower constraint model can explain the necessary of fiscal and monetary coordinate. Fiscal policy still weak and cause the real business cycle slow down, high inflation and interest rate. The other hands, monetary policy is very strong and cause fiscal surplus is relatively high. The prudent of government and monetary authority are needed to build the fiscal and monetary policy for create the dynamic economy, lower inflation, requirement reserve ratio and interest rate, and the monetary and fiscal dynamic equilibrium. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi ini bertujuan membuat model empiris dan hipotesis baru tentang faktor-faktor broad money, surplus dan defisit fiskal, tingkat bunga secara umum, atau tingkat inflasi, permintaan uang primer dan deposito. Selain itu studi ini juga mencari tingkat suku bunga deposito optimal pada nilai tertentu dari faktor-faktor tersebut

  9. Does China's Huge External Surplus Imply an Undervalued Renminbi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony J. Makin

    2007-01-01

    A pegged exchange rate regime has been pivotal to China's export-led development strategy. However, its huge trade surpluses and massive build up of international reserves have been matched by large deficits for major trading partners, creating acute policy concerns abroad, especially in the USA. This paper provides a straightforward conceptual framework for interpreting the effect of China's exchange rate policy on its own trade balance and that of trading partners in the context of discrepant economic growth rates. It shows how pegging the exchange rate when output is outstripping expenditure induces China's trade surpluses and counterpart deficits for its trading partners. An important corollary is that given its strictly regulated capital account, China's persistently large surpluses imply a significantly undervalued renminbi, which should gradually become more flexible.

  10. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  11. Superfund reform: US Environmental Protection Agency`s 30-day study and its implication for the US Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.R.; Friedman, J.R.; Neff, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to reform and restructure the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAS) Superfund program, the EPA Administrator on October 21, 1991, announced several key programmatic reforms. These reforms are a result of the Superfund 30-Day Task Force Report (30-Day Study, EPA 1991a), an effort carried out by EPAs office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). The EPA OSWER oversees environmental cleanup activities under a number of statutory authorities, including the Comprehensive Environmental response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). CERCLA and its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), establish a regulatory framework to govern the cleanup of existing, and often abandoned, hazardous waste sites. The purposes of this report are to (1) review the background and recommendations of EPNs 30-Day Study, (2) identify and discuss the initiatives from the 30-Day Study that may impact DOE`s environmental restoration mission, (3) report on EPAs progress in implementing the selected priority initiatives, and (4) describe potentially related DOE activities.

  12. ANL-W MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement (EIS). This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. The paper describes the following: Site map and the LA facility; process descriptions; resource needs; employment requirements; wastes, emissions, and exposures; accident analysis; transportation; qualitative decontamination and decommissioning; post-irradiation examination; LA fuel bundle fabrication; LA EIS data report assumptions; and LA EIS data report supplement.

  13. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  14. How to Promote the Rural Area of Shandong Province to Absorb Surplus Labor by Itself?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qujing; DAI

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly highlights the importance of solving the problem of rural surplus labor force,and then shows the necessity and significance of the rural areas to absorb rural surplus labor on their own. Meanwhile,the paper introduces the situation of rural surplus labor in Shandong Province. At last,it proposes the solutions to promote the rural area to absorb the surplus labor by itself.

  15. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...

  16. The Democratic Surplus that Constitutionalised the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus...

  17. 46 CFR 387.5 - Surplus property assignment recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus property assignment recommendation. 387.5 Section 387.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS UTILIZATION AND... property assignment recommendation. Before any assignment recommendation is submitted to the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.815-4 - Policyholders surplus account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-4 Policyholders surplus account. (a) In...) by reason of distributions to shareholders during the taxable year which are treated as being made...), exceeds $25,000 for the taxable year 1959. Assume that of the amount distributed by S to its...

  19. Why Double Surplus in China's International Balance of Payments?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhengxiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In accordance with the theory of development economics,developing countries should maintain a current account deficit and capital account surplus, and achieve a higher level of investment through foreign savings rather than just domestic savings. The international financial crisis not only hit the European and US economy, but also gave China's macro-micro economy a heavy blow.

  20. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a determination... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE...

  1. 41 CFR 102-37.40 - What type of surplus property is available for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property is available for donation? 102-37.40 Section 102-37.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.40 What type of surplus property is available for donation? All surplus property (including property held...

  2. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  3. Analysis of Influential Factors on Agricultural Surplus Labor Pro-fessionalization During China's Economic Downturn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiu-li; Li Lu-tang

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributed to the pool of studies about agricultural surplus labor in China, also acted as the root to the imminent settlement of the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers. Using data from survey of agricultural surplus labor in 2012, which covered three provinces in northern, midwestern and southern parts of China, this paper analyzed the influential factors on agricultural surplus labor professionalization by adoption of a logistic regression model. It showed that agricultural surplus labor shortage could be explained by low-quality professionalization. It was a feasible and effective way to solve the issue of workforce shortage during economic downturn by improving agricultural surplus labor's professionalization.

  4. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Share-of-Surplus Product Line Optimisation with Price Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraus and Yano (2003 established the share-of-surplus product line optimisation model and developed a heuristic procedure for this nonlinear mixed-integer optimisation model. In their model, price of a product is defined as a continuous decision variable. However, because product line optimisation is a planning process in the early stage of product development, pricing decisions usually are not very precise. In this research, a nonlinear integer programming share-of-surplus product line optimization model that allows the selection of candidate price levels for products is established. The model is further transformed into an equivalent linear mixed-integer optimisation model by applying linearisation techniques. Experimental results in different market scenarios show that the computation time of the transformed model is much less than that of the original model.

  6. How Much Surplus Labor Is in the Countryside?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The long-held belief of an inexhaustible surplus of labor in rural areas of China is fading fast.Amid worries over its aging popula- tion,China is confronted with serious challenges to sustain its labor supply so as to shore up its growing economy.How to fur- ther transfer the remaining surplus labor into cities and how to improve the quality of Chinese laborers are questions the country faces.The Guangming Daily,a newspaper based in Beijing,con- ducted an interview with Cai Fang,an economist and Director of the Institute of Population and Labor Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,to delve into China’s labor dilemma.Cai gave his opinions in the following excerpts:

  7. 41 CFR 102-37.200 - What certifications must a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.200 Section 102-37.200 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus... requesting surplus property for donation? When requesting or applying for property, you must certify that:...

  8. Some optimal dividend problems for a surplus process with interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hu; GENG Wen-ting

    2008-01-01

    We derive some results on the dividend payments prior to ruin in the classical surplus process with interest. An integro-differential equation with a boundary conditions satisfied by the expected present value of dividend payments is derived and solved. Furthermore, we derive an integro-differential equation for the moment generating function, through which we analyze the higher moment of the present value of dividend payments. Finally, closed-form expressions for exponential claims are given.

  9. Im/Ex in April:Small Trade Surplus Resurged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 10,2010,General Administration of Customs of the Peole's Republic of China (GAC) released the Profile of China of foreign trade import and export in April and the first four months of this year China returned to a trade surplus in April on strong exports growth after posting its first monthly deficit in almost six years in March ,the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced.

  10. Superfund/IGD: EF_NPL

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_NPL is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  11. Due To Surplus in Aluminum Capacity, a Number of Enterprises Experienced Loss to Varying Degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from 2002,in China’s aluminum industry,aluminum output began to show surplus due to dwindling demand from downstream industry;in 2008 China’s aluminum surplus was expected to reach 500,000 tonnes.In recent years,capacity surplus in the aluminum industry has become widely known,in the final analysis,the reason is related to the accelerating speed of capacity

  12. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malović Marko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery.

  13. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko G Malovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  14. The Maximum Surplus Distribution before Ruin in an Erlang(n)Risk Process Perturbed by Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zhong ZHANG; Jie Zhong ZOU; Yuan Yuan LIU

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the distribution of the maximum surplus before ruin in a generalized Erlang(n) risk process (i.e.,convolution of n exponential distributions with possibly different parameters) perturbed by diffusion.It is shown that the maximum surplus distribution before ruin satisfies the integro-differential equation with certain boundary conditions.Explicit expressions are obtained when claims amounts are rationally distributed.Finally,the surplus distribution at the time of ruin and the surplus distribution immediately before ruin are presented.

  15. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  16. The Democratic Surplus that Constitutionalised the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus.......” It offers, first, a narrative of European integration that does not insist on an identity logic of democratic sovereignty and self-determination; on the contrary, a differentiated and deconstructed constitution of a network society of intermediate institutions seems more realist. Contrary to the classical...

  17. Ruin Probabilities of a Surplus Process Described by PDMPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-min He; Rong Wu; Hua-yue Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we mainly study the ruin probability of a surplus process described by a piecewise deterministic Markov process (PDMP). An integro-differentiai equation for the ruin probability is derived. Under a certain assumption, it can be transformed into the ruin probability of a risk process whose premiums depend on the current reserves. Using the same argument as that in Asmussen and Nielsen[2], the ruin probability and its upper bounds are obtained. Finally, we give an analytic expression for ruin probability and its upper bounds when the claim-size is exponentially distributed.

  18. Patients' Attitudes towards the Surplus Frozen Embryos in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive techniques have been used in China for more than 20 years. This study investigates the attitudes of surplus embryo holders towards embryos storage and donation for medical research. Methods. A total of 363 couples who had completed in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment and had already had biological children but who still had frozen embryos in storage were invited to participate. Interviews were conducted by clinics in a narrative style. Results. Family size was the major reason for participants’ (discontinuation of embryo storage; moreover, the moral status of embryos was an important factor for couples choosing embryo storage, while the storage fee was an important factor for couples choosing embryo disposal. Most couples discontinued the storage of their embryos once their children were older than 3 years. In our study, 58.8% of the couples preferred to dispose of surplus embryos rather than donate them to research, citing a lack of information and distrust in science as significant reasons for their decision. Conclusions. Interviews regarding frozen embryos, including patients’ expectations for embryo storage and information to assist them with decisions regarding embryo disposal, are beneficial for policies addressing embryo disposition and embryo donation in China.

  19. 41 CFR 105-50.202-4 - Technical assistance incident to Federal surplus personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical assistance... Available From General Services Administration § 105-50.202-4 Technical assistance incident to Federal surplus personal property. Technical assistance will be provided in the screening and selection of surplus...

  20. The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits on Tests of the Pecking Order Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Verbeek, Marno; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a panel of US firms over the period 1971-2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coefficient is highest for surpluses (0.90),

  1. 41 CFR 102-37.270 - May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use? 102-37.270 Section 102-37.270 Public Contracts and Property Management... Property § 102-37.270 May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use? Yes, you can retain...

  2. The contrasting features of Asian summer monsoon during surplus and deficient rainfall over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. V. S.; Mohanty, U. C.; Rao, P. L. S.; Bhatla, R.

    2002-12-01

    An endeavour is made to distinguish the mean summer monsoon features during surplus and deficient monsoon seasons. Based on all-India summer monsoon rainfall, over 42 years (1958-99), seven surplus and ten deficient monsoon seasons are identified. Making use of daily averaged (00 Z and 12 Z) reanalysis data sets from the National Center for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research for the corresponding surplus and deficient monsoon seasons, the mean circulation characteristics and large-scale energetics are examined.The circulation features denote that the cross equatorial flow, low-level jet and tropical easterly jet are stronger during a surplus monsoon. Further, strong Tibetan anticyclonic flow characterizes a surplus monsoon. The large-scale balances of kinetic energy, heat and moisture show a significantly large quantity of diabatic heating, adiabatic generation of kinetic energy, and horizontal convergence of heat and moisture during the surplus monsoon season compared with the deficient state. The regions with statistically significant difference between surplus and deficient monsoon seasons are delineated by a Student's t-test at the 95% confidence level. The remarkable aspect noticed in this study is that the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon circulation is more vigorous during a surplus monsoon season, whereas the eastern Bay of Bengal branch is stronger during a deficient monsoon. The various large-scale budget terms of kinetic energy, heat and moisture are found to be consistent and in agreement with the seasonal monsoon activity over India.

  3. 41 CFR 102-37.35 - Who handles the donation of surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.35 Who handles the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who handles the donation of surplus property? 102-37.35 Section 102-37.35 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  4. Ten Ways to Restrict Children's Freedom to Play: The Problem of Surplus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley; Tranter, Paul; Naughton, Geraldine; Little, Helen; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bundy, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Play and playgrounds provide essential experiences for young children's growth, development and enjoyment of life. However, such play experiences are now limited for many children due to excessive fear of risk, or "surplus safety". In this article, the authors examine the pervasiveness of surplus safety in the lives of young children. They argue…

  5. 76 FR 13615 - B&B Manufacturing Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... AGENCY B&B Manufacturing Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental... Manufacturing Site located in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama for publication. DATES: The Agency will consider... No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2011-0192 or Site name B&B Manufacturing Superfund Site by one of the...

  6. 76 FR 2112 - Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site, Augusta, Richmond County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... AGENCY Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site, Augusta, Richmond County, GA; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site located in Augusta, Richmond County... Site name Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http...

  7. The Estimation Methods for Agricultural Surplus Labor Based on Stochastic Frontier Production Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaozhou; LU; Yanfen; LUO

    2014-01-01

    The existing calculation methods for the number of agricultural surplus labor have a common flaw,that is,they can not reflect the impact of technical efficiency changes in agricultural production on the surplus labor. Based on the basic principle of stochastic frontier production function,this paper calculates the agricultural production technical efficiency of various provinces,and selects the province with the highest technical efficiency to assume that its agricultural labor is fully utilized,and there is no agricultural surplus labor. With the ratio of agricultural labor number to agricultural output value in this province as a reference,this paper calculates the number of agricultural surplus labor in other provinces. This calculation method makes up for the shortcomings of the existing calculation methods; it reflects the relationship between the number of agricultural surplus labor and production technical efficiency.

  8. Hanford MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site (SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. Hanford has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 1 facility. In all, a total of three LA MOX fuel fabrication options were identified by Hanford that could accommodate the program. In every case, only minor modification would be required to ready any of the facilities to accept the equipment necessary to accomplish the LA program.

  9. Where Should the Rural Surplus Labour Force Go?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩康

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese government attaches a great deal of importance to the income growth of farmers.In considering strategies for solving rural problems in China,it is important not to depart from the external development strategy of transferring employment of the rural surplus labour force.For farmers to become rich,they must be fewer in number.This strategic task cannot be replaced by any of the new measures of an internal development strategy.However,certain scholars at home and abroad hold that difficulties have emerged during the transfer process.In this article,the author offers an in- depth analysis of this issue and puts forward some further considerations.

  10. The local field potential reflects surplus spike synchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denker, Michael; Roux, Sébastien; Lindén, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    While oscillations of the local field potential (LFP) are commonly attributed to the synchronization of neuronal firing rate on the same time scale, their relationship to coincident spiking in the millisecond range is unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence to reconcile the notions...... of synchrony at the level of spiking and at the mesoscopic scale. We demonstrate that only in time intervals of significant spike synchrony that cannot be explained on the basis of firing rates, coincident spikes are better phase locked to the LFP than predicted by the locking of the individual spikes....... This effect is enhanced in periods of large LFP amplitudes. A quantitative model explains the LFP dynamics by the orchestrated spiking activity in neuronal groups that contribute the observed surplus synchrony. From the correlation analysis, we infer that neurons participate in different constellations...

  11. Building a 3D Computed Tomography Scanner From Surplus Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are expensive imaging devices, often out of reach for small research groups. Designing and building a CT scanner from modular components is possible, and this article demonstrates that realization of a CT scanner from components is surprisingly easy. However, the high costs of a modular X-ray source and detector limit the overall cost savings. In this article, the possibility of building a CT scanner with available surplus X-ray parts is discussed, and a practical device is described that incurred costs of less than $16,000. The image quality of this device is comparable with commercial devices. The disadvantage is that design constraints imposed by the available components lead to slow scan speeds and a resolution of 0.5 mm. Despite these limitations, a device such as this is attractive for imaging studies in the biological and biomedical sciences, as well as for advancing CT technology itself.

  12. Using information technology for patient education: realizing surplus value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Arjen P; van't Riet, Annemarie; Berg, Marc

    2004-08-01

    Computer-based patient information systems are introduced to replace traditional forms of patient education like brochures, leaflets, videotapes and, to a certain extent, face-to-face communication. In this paper, we claim that though computer-based patient information systems potentially have many advantages compared to traditional means, the surplus value of these systems is much harder to realize than often expected. By reporting on two computer-based patient information systems, both found to be unsuccessful, we will show that building computer-based patient information systems for patient education requires a thorough analysis of the advantages and limitations of IT compared to traditional forms of patient education. When this condition is fulfilled, however, these systems have the potential to improve health status and to be a valuable supplement to (rather than a substitute for) traditional means of patient education.

  13. Estimating the 'consumer surplus' for branded versus standardised tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Eckert, Christine; Hoek, Janet; Farley, Tessa; Louviere, Jordan; Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco companies question whether standardised (or 'plain') packaging will change smokers' behaviour. We addressed this question by estimating how standardised packaging compared to a proven tobacco control intervention, price increases through excise taxes, thus providing a quantitative measure of standardised packaging's likely effect. We conducted an online study of 311 New Zealand smokers aged 18 years and above that comprised a willingness-to-pay task comparing a branded and a standardised pack at four different price levels, and a choice experiment. The latter used an alternative-specific design, where the alternatives were a branded pack or a standardised pack, with warning theme and price varied for each pack. Respondents had higher purchase likelihoods for the branded pack (with a 30% warning) than the standardised pack (with a 75% warning) at each price level tested, and, on average, were willing to pay approximately 5% more for a branded pack. The choice experiment produced a very similar estimate of 'consumer surplus' for a branded pack. However, the size of the 'consumer surplus' varied between warning themes and by respondents' demographic characteristics. These two experiments suggest standardised packaging and larger warning labels could have a similar overall effect on adult New Zealand smokers as a 5% tobacco price increase. The findings provide further evidence for the efficacy of standardised packaging, which focuses primarily on reducing youth initiation, and suggest this measure will also bring notable benefits to adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. 41 CFR 102-37.80 - What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property that isn't transferred for donation? 102-37.80 Section 102-37.80 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.80 What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation? Surplus property not transferred...

  15. 41 CFR 102-37.50 - What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process for requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.50 Section 102-37.50 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.50 What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation? The process...

  16. 41 CFR 102-37.110 - What are a holding agency's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property? 102-37.110 Section 102-37.110 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Holding Agency § 102-37.110 What are a holding agency's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property? Your...

  17. Sensitivity Analyses of Site Selection for a Concrete Batch Plant at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.P.

    2001-07-10

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for an onsite concrete batch plant to support the construction of the proposed surplus plutonium disposition facilities at the Savannah River site. Presented in this report is a sensitivity analysis that demonstrates the robustness of the site evaluations.

  18. Letter to Silverton and San Juan County Regarding Potential Superfund Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feb. 12, 2016 Update: EPA added a letter to the Town of Silverton and San Juan County regarding the agency’s commitment to the Town and County’s involvement during a potential Superfund listing process.

  19. Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, Washington Proposed to Superfund Cleanup List

    Science.gov (United States)

    (March 24, 2015 - Seattle) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to add the Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, in Spokane County, Washington, to the Superfund National Priorities List. The proposed listing includes a 60-day public comment

  20. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): PRP listing by site for Region 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). This data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. Region 9 includes American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Midway, Nevada, Northern Marianas, Pacific Islands, Trust Territories, and Wake Island.

  1. Phytoextraction of Pb and Cd from a superfund soil: effects of amendments and croppings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, T J; Pichtel, J; Brown, H J; Simmons, M

    2001-01-01

    In a growth chamber, maize (Zea mays) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were grown over two croppings in soil from a Superfund site (PbTotal = 65,200 mg/kg and CdTotal = 52mg/kg). Soil treatments consisted of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium citrate and composted sewage sludge, each at two rates (EDTA .05%, EDTA .2%, citrate .05%, citrate .2%, CSS 5% and CSS 10%, respectively). In most cases, the EDTA and citrate treatments were superior in terms of solubilizing soil Pb for root uptake and translocation into above-ground biomass. In the first maize crop, the EDTA .2% treatment resulted in 2,435 and 9,389mg/kg Pb in shoot and root tissues, respectively. The CSS treatments typically resulted in lowest Pb and Cd removal efficiencies. Lead remaining in the soil after two croppings was mainly associated with the carbonate, organic, and residual fractions, which represent the less bioavailable forms. Soil Cd was generally more mobile for plant uptake than soil Pb. The EDTA .2% and citrate treatments were most successful in promoting Cd uptake by both maize and mustard. Although Pb concentrations (mg/kg tissue) were lower for maize than mustard, the former removed more total Pb (0.2 mg per pot, mean over all treatments), compared to mustard (0.03 mg), by virtue of its higher biomass production.

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): McClellan Air Force Base, Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit, Sacramento, CA, May 11, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Interim Record of Decision (ROD) presents the interim remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit (Groundwater OU) at the McClellan Air Force Base (McClellan AFB) Superfund site in Sacramento, California. The Groundwater OU addresses all of the VOC-contaminated groundwater at McClellan AFB. The Groundwater OU remedy is designed to prevent the spread of contamination that is already in the groundwater by containing groundwater with concentrations greater than maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). The remedy is also designed to remove to the maximum extent practicable the mass of contamination that lies in that volume of the groundwater.

  3. 77 FR 50447 - Federal Management Regulation; Donation of Surplus Personal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Property AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Proposed... Regulation (FMR) by changing its personal property policy. The proposed changes will (1) include the addition... surplus property those organizations whose membership comprises substantially of veterans, as authorized...

  4. The drying of wood chips with surplus heat in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhagen, E. [Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., As (Norway). Dept. of Forest Resources, Forest Operations and Economics

    2010-07-01

    The study evaluated a wood chip drying procedure that used surplus heat from 2 hydroelectric power plants in western Norway. The wood was chipped and then loaded into the dryer using a tractor-trailer and a container. Warm air from the plants was funnelled into the dryer from perforated floors in the plants and an electric fan. Trials of the procedure were conducted to determine the drying capacity of the trailer and container. The study showed that the temperature and the moisture content of the wood chips varied over the course of the drying period. The chips located at the bottom dried first. The moisture content in the chip ranged between 66.1 to 52.1 before drying and between 9.6 and 6.9 per cent after drying. No substantial difference in moisture content between wood chips located at the top and bottom of the piles was noted. The net calorific values of the wood chips ranged from 1340 to 2170 kWh per tonne before drying, and between 4710 to 4860 after drying. The study showed that the cheapest option for the production of wood chips is natural drying and chipping at the roadside.

  5. The Political Economy of the Budget Surplus in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina

    2000-01-01

    Current surpluses in the U.S. have been achieved by a combination of a strong economy, low interest rates, and sharp cuts in defense spending. These surpluses follow a period (the 1980s) of rather exceptional budget deficit. This paper investigates the origin, size, and expected future patterns of the U.S. budget balance. It discusses how different political forces may generate alternative fiscal scenarios for the U.S. in the next decade.

  6. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments Riparian Buffer for the Conterminous United States: Facility Registry Services (FRS) : Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) , National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) , and Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the estimated density of georeferenced sites within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian...

  7. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  8. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  9. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  10. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  11. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  12. LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.; Ludwig, S.B. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule.

  13. 78 FR 46948 - Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... AGENCY Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill... response costs incurred at the American Lead and Zinc Mill Superfund Site near Ouray, Colorado. The... via electric mail at rudy.mike@epa.gov and should reference the American Lead and Zinc Mill Site,...

  14. 77 FR 47840 - American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... AGENCY American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet... Drum and Pallet Company Site by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs...

  15. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: INPLANT SYSTEMS, INC. SFC 0.5 OLEOFILTRATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleofiltration is used to separate suspended, emulsified and a portion of dissolved hydrocarbons from water. The InPlant Systems, Inc., SFC 0.5 Oleofiltration System was demonstrated under the SITE Program in June 1994 at a Superfund site in Florida that was contaminated with 29,...

  16. Sustainable exposure prevention through innovative detection and remediation technologies from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Heather F; Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups. Primary prevention success is ultimately governed by the widespread acceptance of the prevention tool. And, in like fashion, detection and remediation technologies must convey technical and sustainability advantages to be adopted for use. Hence, sustainability - economic, environmental, and societal - drives innovation in detection and remediation technology. The National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) is mandated to advance innovative detection, remediation, and toxicity screening technology development through grants to universities and small businesses. SRP recognizes the importance of fast, accurate, robust, and advanced detection technologies that allow for portable real-time, on-site characterization, monitoring, and assessment of contaminant concentration and/or toxicity. Advances in non-targeted screening, biological-based assays, passive sampling devices (PSDs), sophisticated modeling approaches, and precision-based analytical tools are making it easier to quickly identify hazardous "hotspots" and, therefore, prevent exposures. Innovation in sustainable remediation uses a variety of approaches: in situ remediation; harnessing the natural catalytic properties of biological processes (such as bioremediation and phytotechnologies); and application of novel materials science (such as nanotechnology, advanced

  17. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  18. Performance Analysis of a Manufacturing Line Operated under Optimal Surplus-Based Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Starkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine optimality and performance of a tandem manufacturing line driven by a surplus-based decentralized production control strategy. The main objective of this type of production strategies is to guarantee that the cumulative number of produced products follows the cumulative production demand on the output of the given network. The basic idea of surplus-based control strategy is presented for the case of one manufacturing machine. We prove that this strategy is optimal. Then, a flow model of a line composed of arbitrarily many machines with bounded buffers is analyzed. We prove that the surplus-based production control enables this network to efficiently follow the product demand and establish the relation between the efficiency in the production tracking error and the intermediate inventory levels of a line. Performance and robustness of the flow model of the closed-loop manufacturing line are illustrated by computer simulations.

  19. MIGRATION OF SURPLUS AGRICULTURAL LABOR IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC TRANSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖辉; 鲁柏祥; 陈欣欣

    2001-01-01

    This paper on the migration of the surplus farm labor during the economic transition of China, focuses on a case study of Zhejiang, China's eastern coastal province, with 45 million population and located in relatively developed area since the reform in 1978. The background and mechanism of Chinese surplus farm labor migration are discussed briefly in the first section. Detailed analysis and development of this topic are based on the Zhejiang case, and consists of two parts: a review of the migration history of surplus agricultural labor in Zhejiang since the 1978 reform; and further analysis and key points are given in the second part. The third sector focuses on challenges and recommendation of policies.

  20. Im/Ex in July,2010: Biggest Trade Surplus in a Year and a Half

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On Ausust10,2010,General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China(GAC)released the profile of China foreign trade import and export in July and the first seven months of this year.China's trade surplus for July widened to its highest level in a year and a half,likely adding to the pressure on Beijing to allow faster yuan appreciation.A sharp slowdown in import growth sent China's trade surplus to US(S)28.7 billion in July from US(S)20.02 billion in June,far surpassing expectations of economists.July's surplus was the highest since January 2009,when it was US(S)39.11 billion.

  1. Stabilization effects of surplus soft clay with cement and GBF slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jiang; Chirdchanin MODMOLTIN; Katsutada ONITSUKA

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of industrial waste and surplus construction soft clay as construction material was recommended, and many attempts at geotechnical waste utilization were undertaken. This study aimed at the application of cement and a kind of industrial wastes, i.e. granulated blast furnace slag, on stabilization of surplus soft clay. The results showed that the cement and slag can successfully stabilize Ariake clays even though this high organic clay fails to be stabilized by lime and cement. Addition of slag in cement for stabilization induces higher strength than cement alone for longer curing time. The application of the cement with slag is more suitable than cement alone for stabilization because of economical consideration.

  2. Linking Plant Water-Use Efficiency and Depth of Water Uptake to Field­-Level Productivity Under Surplus and Deficit Irrigation in Almond Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, T.; Shackel, K.; Silva, L. C. R.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of water stress on depth of water uptake, as well as water­-use efficiency (WUE) at the tree-level and field-level was examined in almond orchards under varying degrees of deficit and surplus irrigation treatments. Three different orchards, spanning a latitudinal gradient (35° to 39° N) were sampled during two growing seasons in the central valley of CA. The orchards encompass a range of climatic and edaphic conditions, providing an opportunity for comparisons of WUE and orchard yield under contrasting environmental conditions. In each orchard, the control treatment received 100% replacement of water lost to evapotranspiration (ET), while the surplus treatment received 110% and the deficit treatment received 70% replenishment of ET, the latter simulating conditions of water stress. Preliminary results based on the analysis of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in leaves throughout the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons, reveal a significant change in WUE in all three orchard sites, increasing up to 20% on average in the deficit irrigation treatment relative to controls. In contrast, trees growing under surplus irrigation had the lowest WUE across all orchard sites. The difference in WUE between surplus irrigated trees and control irrigated trees within each orchard was not always statistically significant. These physiological responses to levels of water availability were not reflected in field-level orchard productivity, which was highly variable across orchard sites and treatments. Additionally, analysis of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotope ratios of stem, leaf, and soil water has been undertaken to determine the effect of water stress on the depth of root water uptake. The hypothesis that almond trees can effectively acclimate to water stress through higher WUE and deeper root water uptake compared to well-watered trees will be tested. This multi-scale, ecohydrological study will elucidate the impacts of drought on almond orchards, one of the most

  3. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  4. 41 CFR 102-37.235 - What type of information must a SASP provide when requesting surplus property for cannibalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What type of information must a SASP provide when requesting surplus property for cannibalization? 102-37.235 Section 102-37.235... Surplus Property (SASP) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.235 What type of information must...

  5. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  6. 41 CFR 102-37.85 - Can surplus property being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for donation? 102-37.85 Section 102-37.85 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.85 Can surplus property being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for...

  7. 41 CFR 102-37.65 - What happens to surplus property that has been approved for transfer when the prospective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.65 What... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens to surplus property that has been approved for transfer when the prospective transferee decides it cannot use...

  8. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.

  9. 77 FR 44222 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... an oxide form of plutonium suitable for disposition, and the use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabricated... the decision to fabricate 34 metric tons (MT) (37.5 tons) of surplus plutonium into MOX fuel in the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) (65 FR 1608, January 11, 2000 and 68 FR 20134, April 24,...

  10. Testing the Pecking Order Theory: The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno); P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers (1999) by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a broad cross-section of publicly traded firms for 1971 to 2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coeffic

  11. 75 FR 56520 - Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: NASJRB Willow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Willow Grove, PA AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice provides information on the surplus property at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NASJRB) Willow Grove located in... INFORMATION: In 2005, NASJRB Willow Grove, PA was designated for closure under the authority of the...

  12. Demographic perspectives on agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations': supply-side banalities versus redistributive imperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper frames the discussion of agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations' in the Global South within a political economy and macro-structural consideration of the developmental challenges faced in the context of contemporary rapid population growth. The case is made that the

  13. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and

  14. A comparison of nitrogen use efficiency and surplus in two dairy farms typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Referring to the Destra Brenta district (Veneto Region, Italy two farming systems were considered: grassland-hay (H vs. arable land-silage maize (M. Manure and crop products belonged to an internal flow, thus an annual farm gate balance of nitrogen (N was carried out to determine the nutrient use efficiency (NUE and surplus by using data from a survey. Surplus was determined as difference between inputs (I and outputs (O and NUE as ratio between O and I. The main I was represented by purchased concentrate, on the contrary fertilizer accounted only for low amounts. Surplus per surface unit was significantly higher in M-farms group than in H one (269 vs. 369 kg N per ha; P<0.01. Surplus referred to unit of fat corrected milk was significantly lower in M-farms (17.6 vs.15.6 kg of N per ton of FCM; P<0.01 leading to an higher N-NUE (0.260 vs. 0.278; P<0.05.

  15. The Traders' Cross: Identifying Traders' Surpluses in the Traditional Edgeworth Exchange Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulier, Scott A.; Prychitko, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The Edgeworth exchange diagram is a traditional tool of undergraduate microeconomic theory that depicts the mutually beneficial gains from voluntary trade. The authors take the analysis one step further. They identify the buyer's and seller's surpluses that accrue to both trading parties in the Edgeworth diagram. This is a straightforward exercise…

  16. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavo

  17. Stable Isotope Analyses of Ancient Penguin Tissues Support the Krill Surplus Hypothesis in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, S. D.; Polito, M. J.; Patterson, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    The krill surplus hypothesis in Antarctica is based on the premise that historic depletion of krill-eating whales and seals in the 18-20th centuries provided a surplus of krill in the southern ocean that benefited penguins. Previous study of δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes in ancient and modern tissues of Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from dozens of active and abandoned colonies in Antarctica have provided the first test in support of this hypothesis (Emslie and Patterson 2007). Specifically, there is a significant decrease in both δ13C and δ15N isotope values in modern versus ancient Adélie Penguin tissues from an apparent dietary shift from fish to krill associated with the timing of the purported krill surplus. Here, we present new data on similar analyses of Gentoo Penguin (P. papua) tissues from active and abandoned colonies at two locations in the Antarctic Peninsula to determine if this species recorded a similar shift in its diet in association with the krill surplus. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease (1.5-2.0 ‰) in δ13C in modern versus fossil eggshells (two-tailed t-test of modern versus fossil mean values, t = 1.98, p Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 11666-11669. A pair of Adélie Penguins with their well-fed chick.

  18. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Nazare; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2014-01-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Ind...

  19. Session 6: The effect of oxygen surplus on No reduction by Pt-loaded zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuhtanen, M.; Keiski, R.L. [Oulu Univ., Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland); Rahkamaa-Tolonen, K.; Maunula, T. [ECOCAT Oy, Catalysts Research, Oulu (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    In this study, Pt-loaded zeolites, ZSM-5, Beta, Y, and Ferrierite have been investigated under reaction gas mixtures which contained NO and propene with or without excess oxygen to understand the effect of oxygen surplus on NO reduction. The obtained experimental results are explained. (O.M.)

  20. 20 CFR 654.8 - Services to firms and individuals in labor surplus areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... initiation of industrial expansion programs in labor surplus areas; (b) Identify upon request the skills and... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services to firms and individuals in labor... OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Responsibilities Under Executive...

  1. Knowledge Valorisation: A Route of Knowledge That Ends In Surplus Value (An Example of The Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladchenko, Myroslava

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons of the success of the Netherlands in knowledge valorisation: what are the actors that participate in knowledge valorisation process and what are their functions; what is the route of knowledge in valorisation; what "surplus value" does knowledge gain in the valorisation…

  2. When Shortage Coexists with Surplus of Teachers: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Pinson, Halleli

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between pre-service teacher education polices and the supply and demand of minority teachers. It problematizes the recent reports on teacher shortages in Israel, which tend to focus on the shortage of Jewish teachers while dealing with the surplus of Arab teachers only tangentially. Specifically, this article…

  3. The Value Relevance of Dirty Surplus Accounting Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Buijink, W.F.J.; Eken Ra, R.C.W.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Dutch financial reporting standard setters have taken steps to make dirty surplus accounting flows more visible to parties outside firms, either by eliminating their possibility or by requiring comprehensive income type statements. These steps are presumably based on the idea that dirty

  4. Forecasting and optimal probabilistic scheduling of surplus gas systems in iron and steel industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 李红娟

    2015-01-01

    To make full use of the gas resource, stabilize the pipe network pressure, and obtain higher economic benefits in the iron and steel industry, the surplus gas prediction and scheduling models were proposed. Before applying the forecasting techniques, a support vector classifier was first used to classify the data, and then the filtering was used to create separate trend and volatility sequences. After forecasting, the Markov chain transition probability matrix was introduced to adjust the residual. Simulation results using surplus gas data from an iron and steel enterprise demonstrate that the constructed SVC-HP-ENN-LSSVM-MC prediction model prediction is accurate, and that the classification accuracy is high under different conditions. Based on this, the scheduling model was constructed for surplus gas operating, and it has been used to investigate the comprehensive measures for managing the operational probabilistic risk and optimize the economic benefit at various working conditions and implementations. It has extended the concepts of traditional surplus gas dispatching systems, and provides a method for enterprises to determine optimal schedules.

  5. 41 CFR 102-37.210 - Must a SASP make a drug-free workplace certification when requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-free workplace certification when requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.210 Section 102-37...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for... workplace certification when requesting surplus property for donation? No, you must certify that you...

  6. 77 FR 59989 - Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... published, at ETA's LSA Web site http://www.doleta.gov/programs/lsa.cfm . Petition for Exceptional... Department of Labor's ETA. The current criteria for an exceptional circumstance classification are: An area's..., Employment and Training Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-4231, Washington, DC...

  7. On the Fermi Large Area Telescope Surplus of Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völk, H. J.; Berezhko, E. G.

    2013-11-01

    Recent observations of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission (DGE) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV to about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this "Fermi-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus" by estimating the γ-ray emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (source cosmic rays, SCRs), can indeed explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess, which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs is also predicted to increasingly exceed the DGE models above 100 GeV, up to γ-ray energies of about 10 TeV, where the corresponding surplus exceeds the hadronic part of the DGE by about one order of magnitude. Above such energies, the emission surplus should decrease again with energy due to the finite lifetime of the assumed supernova remnant sources. Observations of the DGE in the inner Galaxy at 15 TeV with the ground-based Milagro γ-ray detector and, at TeV energies, with the ARGO-YBJ detector are interpreted to provide confirmation of a significant SCR contribution to the DGE.

  8. ON THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SURPLUS OF DIFFUSE GALACTIC GAMMA-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Völk, H. J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Berezhko, E. G., E-mail: Heinrich.Voelk@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Avenue, 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-10

    Recent observations of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission (DGE) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV to about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this 'Fermi-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus' by estimating the γ-ray emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (source cosmic rays, SCRs), can indeed explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess, which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs is also predicted to increasingly exceed the DGE models above 100 GeV, up to γ-ray energies of about 10 TeV, where the corresponding surplus exceeds the hadronic part of the DGE by about one order of magnitude. Above such energies, the emission surplus should decrease again with energy due to the finite lifetime of the assumed supernova remnant sources. Observations of the DGE in the inner Galaxy at 15 TeV with the ground-based Milagro γ-ray detector and, at TeV energies, with the ARGO-YBJ detector are interpreted to provide confirmation of a significant SCR contribution to the DGE.

  9. Mercury Exposure in Piscivorous Birds at the Carson River (NV) Superfund Site, 1997-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The persistence and degree of mercury contamination of the lower Carson River system (LCRS) have led to placement of a portion of the Carson River Basin (including...

  10. 76 FR 1154 - Operating Industries, Inc., Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA; Notice of Proposed CERCLA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...., Beren Corporation, Beylik Drilling, Inc., Big Penny Car Wash General Partnership, Bimbo Bakeries USA... Metal Finishing Corp., dba Barron Anodizing, Cackle Fresh Egg Farms, Inc., Califone International, Inc...-interest to Lightolier, Inc., Geo Drilling Fluids, Inc., George O. Ladner, Jr., Trustee, Trepanier...

  11. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HOUSE DUST AND YARD SOIL NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE. (R825173)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting i...

  12. 78 FR 5801 - Operating Industries, Inc. Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA; Notice of Proposed CERCLA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Corradini Corporation, George J. Peckham, Jr., H.W. Hull & Sons, Inc., Hacienda Car Wash, Inc., Hiro's Transmission, Inc., International Paper Company, International Transportation Service, Inc., John Crane,...

  13. Technical Guidelines on Performing a Sediment Erosion and Deposition Assessment (SEDA) at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A. Shipp, and R. L. Ulery. 1996. Water quality in the Trinity River Basin, Texas , 1992-95. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1171. Available at...and W. Lick. 1997. Effects of bulk density on sediment erosion rates. Water , Air, and Soil Pollution 99:21-31. Jepsen, R., J. Roberts, and J...sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of Defense, civilian agencies, and our nation’s public good. Find

  14. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Coloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was demonstrated at the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE) Rock Flats Plant (RFP) as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund and Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. ...

  15. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL WASTE TECHNOLOGIES/GEO-CON IN SITU STABILIZATION/ SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the first field demonstration of an in situ stabilization/solidification process for contaminated soil under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Demonstration of this process was a joint effort of two vendors...

  16. EPA Contract Laboratory Program Statement of Work for Inorganic Superfund Methods Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration ISM02.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains analytical methods for the analysis of metals and cyanide in environmental samples. It also contains contractual requirements for laboratories participating in Superfund's Contract Laboratory Program.

  17. EPA Contract Laboratory Program Statement of Work for Inorganic Superfund Methods Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration ISM02.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains analytical methods for the analysis of metals and cyanide in environmental samples. It also contains contractual requirements for laboratories participating in Superfund's Contract Laboratory Program.

  18. A re-estimation of China's agricultural surplus labor——the demonstration and modification of three prevalent methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiangui; DING Shouhai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to re-estimate China's agricultural surplus labor.Our estimation is based on three prevalent methods including classical,neoclassical and standard structure comparing methods.Different from other researchers,we pay attention to not only the total amount of surplus labor but also its distribution among different provinces and districts.By comparing the results from the different methods,we conclude that the classical method is the most creditable.In order to make them more reasonable,we modified the three methods.The results show that there are about 40 million agricultural surplus labor in China currently.

  19. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter are used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data include PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. The site report is designed to provide PRP information linked by the associated site, which appears according to the state where the site is located. Region 9 includes American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Midway, Nevada, Northern Marianas, Pacific Islands, Trust Territories, and Wake Island.

  20. Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S S W

    2003-02-28

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a pilot scale.

  1. US FDI in China Has Widened China-US Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨来科; 廖春

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the impact of U.S.direct investment in Chino on the Sino-US trade balance.The research shows that US FDI in China has largely widened the US-Chino trade deficit.On the one hand,cost-oriented US investment enlarged Ch/nese export to the US;on the other hand,market-oriented investment decreased US exports to China.Moreover,China’s surplus against US high-technology products is mainly created by foreign invested enterprises.Therefore,the paper suggests that China should adjust its FDI policies to reduce the trade surplus against the US,thereby calming the trade dispute with the US as well as other countries.

  2. The problem of surplus body mass of humanitarian specialities students (girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova T.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Have been defined a degree of conformity of body mass to length of humanitarian specialities students. Have been research 526 students, the middle age of them is 18 years and 4 month. For definition conformity of body mass to length of body is used BMI. It is set that on the average 13,5% of all students have surplus mass of body, which they inherited on a female line. From childhood 36,4% students have surplus mass of body, 45,4% - from teens, At others this problem has arisen at the age of 16-17 years. Most of them would like to bring it over to the norm and to join regular employment by physical exercises.

  3. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  4. [Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulz, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology. Thought experiments are an important element in Ernst Mach's epistemology: They facilitate amplifying our knowledge by experimenting with thoughts; they thus exceed the empirical experience and suspend the quest for immediate utility. In an economical perspective, Mach suggested that thought experiments depended on the production of an economic surplus based on the division of labor relieving the struggle for survival of the individual. Thus, as frequently emphasized, in Mach's epistemology, not only the 'economy of thought' is an important feature; instead, also the socioeconomic conditions of science play a decisive role. The paper discusses the mental and social economic aspects of experimental thinking in Mach's epistemology and examines those within the contemporary evolutionary, physiological, and economic contexts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Comercio Exterior de Costa Rica. Based on this data, USTR determines that Costa Rica's trade surplus is 25... data published by the Ministerio de Fomento, Industria, y Comercio. Based on this data, USTR determines...

  6. Surplus Product Donation and Sustainability Strategy: Channels and Challenges for Corporate Product Donations

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md.,; Vate, John,

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Sustainable Production; International audience; Sustainability addresses three aspects of corporate responsibility: economic, environmental and social. Over the years, the operations and supply chain literature has focused on economic and environmental objectives limiting the social agenda to ethical sourcing practices. Yet the disposition of surplus inventories in particular and charitable giving in general are key components of corporate social responsibility. We discuss the channel...

  7. Anxiety and surplus in nursing practice: lessons from Lacan and Bataille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alicia M; Glass, Nel; Traynor, Michael

    2014-07-01

    It is well established, following Menzies' work, that nursing practice produces considerable anxiety. Like Menzies, we bring a psychoanalytic perspective to a theorization of anxiety in nursing and do so in order to consider nursing practice in the light of psychoanalytic theory, although from a Lacanian perspective. We also draw on Bataille's notion of 'surplus'. These concepts provide the theoretical framework for a study investigating how some clinical nurses are able to remain in clinical practice rather than leave the profession or seek work at a distance from the bedside. We conducted focus groups and present here an analysis of two fragments of nurses' speech. We found the nurses responded from one of two positions. In the first position, the nurses focus on doctors, complain about the surplus afforded them, and call for it to be eliminated. In this way, the nursing group is similar to other groups, considered by Bataille, who also attempt to get rid of a surplus. However, in the second position, the nurses stay with the surplus, tolerating it as they nurse the patient. This latter position is one where the nurse practises with a focus on the patient rather than being distracted by their dispute over the doctor's privilege. The importance of this paper is in its illustration of two distinct positions from which the nurse can practise: one that is not optimal because the nurse is distracted and the other that is more focused on practice, and thus the nurse is in a position to provide the best care possible to patients.

  8. California’s 2015-16 Budget: Fiscal Surpluses and Water Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    DiSarro, Brian; Hussey, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    California’s budget politics were temporarily sidetracked by an increasingly severe statewide drought, forcing the state to take action. Democratic lawmakers elected new leadership, who, like their predecessors, argued the state should increase social spending. The major budget clash centered on California’s booming economy and what to do with a large projected tax surplus. The legislature wanted to spend the revenue, while Governor Jerry Brown downplayed the fiscal estimates and wanted to sq...

  9. Im/Ex in November, 2010: Trade Surplus Jumps to Second Highest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 10, 2010, General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GAC) released the profile of Chinas import and export in November and the first eleven months of this year. China's foreign trade in the first eleven months totaled US$2.68 trillion, a year-on-year increase of 36.3 percent, according to the GAC. Trade surplus for the first eleven months of the year totaled US$170.41 billion.

  10. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Papargyropoulou, E; Lozano, R.; Steinberger, JK; Wright, N; Ujang, ZB

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavoidable food waste, and between waste prevention and waste management. This study suggests that the first step towards a more sustainable resolution of the food waste issue is to adopt a sustainable...

  11. Capital injections with negative surplus and delays:models and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo JIN; George YIN

    2014-01-01

    This work develops a new model to deal with the scenario that some companies can still run business even the surplus falls below zero temporarily. With such a scenario in mind, we allow the surplus process to continue in this negative-surplus period, during which capital injections will be ordered to assist in the stabilization of financial structure, until the financial status becomes severe enough to file bankruptcy. The capital injections will be modeled as impulse controls. By introducing the capital injections with time delays, optimal dividend payment and capital injection policies are considered. Using the dynamic programming approach, the value function obeys a quasi-variational inequality. With delays in capital injections, the company will be exposed to the risk of bankruptcy during the delay period. In addition, the optimal dividend payment and capital injection strategies should balance the expected cost of the possible capital injections and the time value of the delay periods. This gives rise to a stochastic control problem with mixed singular and delayed impulse controls. Under general assumptions, the lower capital injection barrier is determined, where bankruptcy occurs. The closed-form solution to the value function and corresponding optimal policies are obtained.

  12. [Electricity generation of surplus sludge microbial fuel cells enhanced by additional enzyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Hu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Fang, Li; Huang, Hua-Jun; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the feasibility of enhanced electricity generation of microbial fuel cell fed surplus sludge by additional enzymes (neutral protease and alpha-amylase) was discussed. The effect of dosage of additional enzyme on characteristics of electricity generation of the surplus sludge microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) and the reduction of surplus sludge were investigated. The results indicated that the maximum output power destiny of the group of experiment was higher than that of control under the same condition. Moreover, the maximum output power density, coulomb efficiency, efficiency of reducing TCOD, efficiency of reducing TSS and efficiency of reducing VSS reached up to 507 W x m(-2) (700 mW x m(-2)), 3.98% (5.11%), 88.31% (94.09%), 83.18% (98.02%) and 89.03% (98.80%) respectively for protease (alpha-amylase) at the dosage of 10 mg x g(-1). This study demonstrated that additional enzyme greatly enhanced the electricity generation of MFC with simultaneous accomplishments of sludge treatment, providing a novel approach for the practical application of microbial fuel cell.

  13. Recent Progress on the Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Mitchell, A; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S W

    2004-07-06

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6- trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a larger scale. In FY 03, a 10 g per batch process was developed with good results. Development for a one pound per batch system is required as part of overall scale up process for producing TATB from the surplus feedstocks.

  14. On The {\\it Fermi} -Lat Surplus of the Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Voelk, Heinrich J

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of the diffuse Galactic \\gr emission (DGE) by the {\\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope ({\\it Fermi}-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV until about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this "{\\it Fermi}-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus" by estimating the \\gr emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that indeed the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (SCRs), can explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs ...

  15. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E. [MET-1: ACTINIDE PROCESSING SUPPORT; Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  16. Groundwater nitrate pollution: High-resolution approach of calculating the nitrogen balance surplus for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz; Häußermann, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive determined that 26.3% of Germany's groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. As of late October 2016, the European Commission has filed a lawsuit against Germany for not taking appropriate measures against high nitrate levels in water bodies and thus failing to comply with the EU Nitrate Directive. Due to over-fertilization and high-density animal production, Agriculture was identified as the main source of nitrate pollution. One way to characterize the potential impact of reactive nitrogen on water bodies is the soil surface nitrogen balance where all agricultural nitrogen inputs within an area are contrasted with the output, i.e. the harvest. The surplus nitrogen (given in kg N per ha arable land and year) can potentially leach into the groundwater and thus can be used as a risk indicator. In order to develop and advocate appropriate measures to mitigate the agricultural nitrogen surplus with spatial precision, high-resolution data for the nitrogen surplus is needed. In Germany, not all nitrogen input data is available with the required spatial resolution, especially the use of mineral fertilizers is only given statewide. Therefore, some elements of the nitrogen balance need to be estimated based on agricultural statistics. Hitherto, statistics from the Federal Statistical Office and the statistical offices of the 16 federal states of Germany were used to calculate the soil surface balance annually for the spatial resolution of the 402 districts of Germany (mean size 890 km2). In contrast, this study presents an approach to estimate the nitrogen surplus at a much higher spatial resolution by using the comprehensive Agricultural census data collected in 2010 providing data for 326000 agricultural holdings. This resulted in a nitrogen surplus map with a 5 km x 5 km grid which was subsequently used to calculate the nitrogen concentration of percolation water. This provides a

  17. Direct observation of heavy metal-mineral association from the Clark Fork River Superfund Complex: Implications for metal transport and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochella, M.F.; Moore, J.N.; Putnis, C.V.; Putnis, A.; Kasama, T.; Eberl, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Two sets of samples from riverbeds and adjacent floodplains, separated by 80 river kilometers, were collected from the Clark Fork River Superfund Complex, Montana, (the largest Superfund site in the United States), and studied primarily with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with several supporting techniques to determine heavy metal-mineral association. Seven of the eight samples studied were strongly influenced by material that once resided in mining and smelting dumps and impoundments; this material was transported downstream sometime during the last century and a half from the Butte/Anaconda areas. The eighth sample was from a deeper floodplain level and dates to premining days. The TEM observations afford a direct look, down to the nanometer level, at secondary mineral formation as a result of the breakdown of sulfides and silicates in the acid environment of this massive mine-drainage system. In the shallow, oxic floodplain sediments, heavy metals of concern in this system (As, Cu, Pb, and Zn) are taken up by the formation of sulfates (particularly Pb in jarosite), as well as hydrous metal oxides (As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in and on ferrihydrite, and a possibly new vernadite-like mineral). The oxides are long-lived in these systems, as they were also found in the anoxic riverbeds. Metals are also taken up by the formation of sulfides in sulfate-reducing environments as observed in the formation of nanoclusters of chalcopyrite and sphalerite. In all samples, clays make up between 5 and 20% of the sediment and carry significant amounts of Cu and Zn. The hydrous oxides, secondary sulfides, and clays provide several routes for metal transport downstream over long distances. Besides the potential bioavailability of heavy metals exchanged on and off the hydrous metal oxides and clays, nanometer-sized sulfides may also be highly reactive in the presence of biologic systems. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-05

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.

  19. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures in the Venice Lagoon Watershed. Nitrogen Budgets and Surplus Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Trevisiol

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the environmental scientists and policy makers is related to the environmental compatibility of current agricultural systems and, in particular, to the losses of chemical fertilizers and manure in surface and ground-waters, as a consequence of run-off and leaching phenomena. In most cases European recent agrienvironmental schemes envisaged specific measures for the reduction of fertilizer rates and the control of manure applications, in order to limit the releases of nutrients in surface and ground-waters. Substantial financial resources are invested in those measures and therefore the issue raises interest in monitoring and evaluating their effectiveness. Nutrient balance indicators are often used for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the measures in limiting the environmental impact of farming activities. N-surplus is one of the most commonly used indicators. The paper refers the results of a research project aimed at assessing the outcomes of agri-environmental measures implemented in the Venice Lagoon Watershed with an approach based upon the gross nitrogen balance, called “Nboxes”. The results of applying the Nboxes procedure to a sample of 550 farms set are presented, evidencing the expectations of greater effectiveness in terms of nitrogen surplus reduction from the measure C.5.1.3a and C.5.1.3b (low input farming and buffer strips. Measures supporting improved irrigation systems, controlled drainage and more rational livestock nutritional programmes and technologies, showed instead only limited potential for tangible contributions to the reduction of nitrogen surplus in cultivated soils.

  20. Surpluses and Deficits: How University Partners Perceive University-Community Partnerships at One Ivy League Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Klebanoff Cohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available University-community partnerships are a critical method for how universities can serve the public interest.  Yet key questions remain: how do these partnerships work in practice, and how can university and fill reciprocal and mutual needs effectively?  A participatory evaluation of university-community partnerships in education at an Ivy League university found that university partners had a surplus perspective of the university and a deficit perspective of community partners; practitioners must shift our paradigm towards mutually beneficial, asset-driven university-community partnerships to ensure success.

  1. Study on the Quantity and Age Structure of Rural Surplus Labor Force in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Sui; CHEN Zhuochun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data from the Second National Agriculture Census in 2006, this paper analyzed the absolute quantity and age structure of China rural surplus labor force by the classical approach. It showed that the migration of rural labor force was still far away from "Lewis turning point", and "mingong huang" (shortage of peasant workforce) appearing in coastal areas could be explained with the location separation between the labor-intensive industries and rural labor force. It was a feasible and an effective way to push forward the transfer of labor-intensive industries from the east coast to central and Western China to absorb the abundant supply of rural labor force.

  2. Exact and asymptotic results for insurance risk models with surplus-dependent premiums

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecher, Hansjörg; Palmowski, Zbigniew; Regensburger, Georg; Rosenkranz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a symbolic technique to obtain asymptotic expressions for ruin probabilities and discounted penalty functions in renewal insurance risk models when the premium income depends on the present surplus of the insurance portfolio. The analysis is based on boundary problems for linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. The algebraic structure of the Green's operators allows us to develop an intuitive way of tackling the asymptotic behavior of the solutions, leading to exponential-type expansions and Cram\\'er-type asymptotics. Furthermore, we obtain closed-form solutions for more specific cases of premium functions in the compound Poisson risk model.

  3. Im/Ex in August,2010: Trade Surplus in Surprise Drop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On September 10,2010,General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GAC) released the profile of China foreign trade import and export in August and the first eight months of this year.China's foreign trade in the first eight months totaled US$1.88 trillion,a year-on-year increase of 40 percent,according to the GAC.Trade surplus for the first eight months of the year totaled US$103.9 billion,down 14.6 percent from the same period last year.

  4. Primary surplus and debt projections based on estimated fiscal reaction functions for euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We project the path of the public debt and primary surpluses for a number of countries in the euro area under a fiscal rule based on a set of estimated fiscal policy reaction functions. Our fiscal rule represents a fiscal analogue to a well-known monetary policy rule, and it is calibrated using country-specific as well as euro area-wide parameter estimates. We then forecast the dynamics of the fiscal aggregates under different convergence, growth, and interest rate scenarios and investigate t...

  5. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility and remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. These lists represent EPA's preliminary findings on the identities of potentially responsible parties. The site report is designed to provide PRP information linked by the associated site, which appears according to the state where the site is located. Region 9 includes American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Midway, Nevada, Northern Marianas, Pacific Islands, Trust Territories, and Wake Island.

  6. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  7. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  8. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward; Faaij, Andre [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation - Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Tabeau, Andrzej [Landbouw Economisch Instituut - Wageningen University and Research Centre, Burgermeester Partijnlaan 19, 2585 BE Den Haag (Netherlands); Hilbert, Jorge [Instituto Ingenieria Rural - Instituto Nacional de la Tecnologia Agropecuario, C.C. 25, 1712 Castelar (Buenos Aires) (Argentina)

    2009-12-15

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  9. Discharge of surplus phloem water may be required for normal grape ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Keller, Markus

    2017-01-01

    At the onset of ripening, some fleshy fruits shift the dominant water import pathway from the xylem to the phloem, but the cause for the decline in xylem inflow remains obscure. This study found that xylem-mobile dye movement into grape berries decreased despite transient increases in berry growth and transpiration during early ripening, whereas outward dye movement continued unless the roots were pressurized. Modeling berry vascular flows using measurements of pedicel phloem sap sugar concentration, berry growth, solute accumulation, and transpiration showed that a fraction of phloem-derived water was used for berry growth and transpiration; the surplus was recirculated via the xylem. Changing phloem sap sugar concentration to a much higher published value led to model simulations predicting xylem inflow or backflow depending on the developmental stage and genotype. Mathematically preventing net xylem flow resulted in large variations in phloem sap sugar concentration in pedicels serving neighboring berries on the same fruit cluster. Moreover, restricting water discharge via the xylem and/or across the skin impaired berry solute accumulation and color change. Collectively, these results indicate that discharge of surplus phloem water via berry transpiration and/or xylem backflow may be necessary to facilitate normal grape ripening. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Price Discrimination and Consumer Surplus. Applications of Calculus to Economics Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 294.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevison, Christopher H.

    This unit considers the application of calculus in determining price discrimination and consumer surplus in a competitive market. Producer surplus and two-tier price discrimination are also developed in problems. It is noted that calculus cannot usually provide numerical answers for practical economic problems. The importance of calculus…

  11. 26 CFR 1.593-2 - Additions to reserve for bad debts where surplus, reserves, and undivided profits equal or exceed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additions to reserve for bad debts where surplus... bad debts where surplus, reserves, and undivided profits equal or exceed 12 percent of deposits or... profits, and reserves at the beginning of the taxable year, a reasonable addition to the reserve for...

  12. Congressional Testimony: Statement of Wade T. Najjum Before the Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statement of Wade T. Najjum Assistant Inspector General for Program Evaluation U.S. EPA Office of Inspector General Before the Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

  13. 77 FR 74726 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ...-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras..., Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru, Colombia... the Ministro de Agricultura de Chile. Based on this data, USTR determines that Chile's trade surplus...

  14. 7 CFR 1955.144 - Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.144 Disposal of NP or surplus property to... the inventory file. Forms and preparation instructions will be obtained from the appropriate GSA...

  15. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.695 - Who can receive surplus real property for the purpose of providing replacement housing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... real property for the purpose of providing replacement housing for persons who are to be displaced by... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Displaced Persons § 102-75... provide replacement housing under title II of the Relocation Act for persons who are or will be...

  17. 77 FR 37908 - Federal Supply Service; Submission for OMB Review; Standard Form (SF) 123, Transfer Order-Surplus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... regarding Standard Form (SF) 123, transfer order-surplus personal property and continuation sheet. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 12840, on March 2, 2012. No comments were received... ADMINISTRATION Federal Supply Service; Submission for OMB Review; Standard Form (SF) 123, Transfer...

  18. Low inflation, a high net savings surplus and institutional restrictions keep the Japanese long-term interest rate low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains that the interest rate on long-term Japanese government bonds is low in comparison with other industrialised countries for four main reasons: lower inflation, net savings surplus, institutional restrictions and home bias. Monetary policy and institutionalised purchases of govern

  19. 41 CFR 102-37.195 - Does a SASP have to have a donee in mind to request surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does a SASP have to have...) Screening and Requesting Property § 102-37.195 Does a SASP have to have a donee in mind to request surplus property? Generally yes, you should have a firm requirement or an anticipated demand for any property...

  20. 75 FR 1839 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Moore County Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Moore County Airport, Pinehurst/Southern Pines, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... that the FAA is considering a request from the Moore County Airport Authority to waive the requirement that a 27.7 acre parcel of surplus property, located at the Moore County Airport, be used...

  1. 32 CFR 644.425 - Authority and procedure for disposal of surplus property by DA to eligible public agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority and procedure for disposal of surplus property by DA to eligible public agencies. 644.425 Section 644.425 National Defense Department of Defense... property by DA to eligible public agencies. FPMR 101-47.303-2 provides that the disposal agency shall...

  2. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Nazare; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    . Individual and synergistic effects of biostimulation were also tested, in parallel. An interim evaluation at the end of the first 42 days showed that biostimulation and active heating, as separate treatments, enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) removal compared to natural attenuation. The coupling of both...... technologies was even more effective, corroborating the benefits of both techniques in a remediation strategy. However, between day 42 and day 168, there was an opposite remediation trend with all treatments suggesting a stabilization except for natural attenuation, where PHC values continued to decrease......A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs...

  3. The Surplus-Electric-Power Trade of the Cogeneration by PPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takuya; Akisawa, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Takahiko; Kashiwagi, Takao

    The report modeled an electricity interchange trade by a PPS (Power Producer and Supplier) and a cogeneration, and evaluated the interchange trade using the numerical example. The PPS and the CGS user behave economically themselves in the model. It is new that not an electric power company but PPS trades the surplus electric power. From the numerical example, the effect of electricity price and gas prices is different between commercial sector and industrial sector when maximizing the PPS profits. An electricity interchange gives profits to three groups (the PPS, the CGS user, and the unspecified general user) who participate in trades. However, it was shown that the PPS cannot gain only few portions of the whole interchange profits although the PPS determines the purchase price for the CGS user.

  4. Genomic testing interacts with reproductive surplus in reducing genetic lag and increasing economic net return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Line; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kargo, Morten

    2015-01-01

    , especially if genomic tests are used in combination with sexed semen or a high management level for reproductive performance, because both factors provide the opportunity for generating a reproductive surplus in the herd. In this study, sexed semen is used in combination with beef semen to produce high-value...... simulates the parity distribution of the dams of heifer calves. The ADAM program estimates genetic merit per year in a herd under different strategies for use of sexed semen and genomic tests. The annual net return per slot was calculated as the sum of operational return and value of genetic lag minus costs......Until now, genomic information has mainly been used to improve the accuracy of genomic breeding values for breeding animals at a population level. However, we hypothesize that the use of information from genotyped females also opens up the possibility of reducing genetic lag in a dairy herd...

  5. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from substandard and surplus dates by Egyptian native Clostridium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Ali, Shimaa Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    One hundred and seven mesophilic isolates of Clostridium were isolated from agricultural soils cultivated with different plants in Assuit Governorate, Egypt. Eighty isolates (out of 107) showed the ability to produce ABE (Acetone, butanol and ethanol) on T6 medium ranging from 0.036 to 31.89 g/L. The highest numbers of ABE producing isolates were obtained from soil samples of potato contributing 27 isolates, followed by 18 isolates from wheat and 10 isolates from onion. On the other hand, there were three native isolates that produced ABE more than those produced by the reference isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (11.543 g/L). The three isolates were identified based on phenotypic and gene encoding 16S rRNA as Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 (KF372577), Clostridium chauvoei ASU55 (KF372580) and Clostridium roseum ASU58 (KF372581). The highest ABE level from substandard and surplus dates was produced by C. beijerinckii ASU10 (24.07 g/L) comprising butanol 67.15% (16.16 g/L), acetone 30.73% (7.4 g/L) and ethanol 2.12% (0.51 g/L), while C. roseum ASU58 and C. chauvoei ASU55 produced ABE contributing 20.20 and 13.79 g/L, respectively. ABE production by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was 15.01 g/L. This study proved that the native strains C. beijerinckii ASU10 and C. roseum ASU58 have high competitive efficacy on ABE production from economical substrate as substandard and surplus date fruits. Additionally, using this substrate without any nutritional components is considered to be a commercial substrate for desired ABE production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing Surplus Labor Transfer in Poverty-stricken Areas: A Case Study of Yimatu Town in Fuxin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the microscopic point of view,taking the surplus labor transfer in the Yimatu Town area as study object,we conduct survey of characteristics and transfer of rural surplus labor in Yimatu Town,through questionnaires and field interviews.Then we analyze the main factors influencing surplus labor transfer in rural areas from the personal characteristics of labor forces and family factor of labor forces.The results show that gender,age,educational level,farmland management days and other factors pertaining to the labor forces all affect the transfer of surplus labor, but the size and extent of the impact vary.In accordance with various influencing factors,we put forward recommendations for promoting the effective transfer of surplus labor in rural areas as follows:first,paying equal attention to macroscopic factors and microscopic factors influencing the transfer of surplus labor;second,focusing on the factors concerning the rural households and individual farmers,to find out the factors influencing the rational transfer;third,shifting the employment concept of surplus labor in rural areas;fourth,speeding up the construction of small towns and developing the secondary and tertiary industries.

  7. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Section 120(e)(5). Annual report to Congress for Fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to conducting its operations in a safe and environmentally sound manner. High priorities for the Department are identifying and correcting environmental problems at DOE facilities that resulted from past operations, and preventing environmental problems from occurring during present and future operations. In this regard, the Department is committed to clean up the 1989 inventory of sites in the Environmental Restoration Program by the year 2019. DOE has issued an Order and guidance establishing policy and procedures for activities conducted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and has developed a Five-Year Plan, updated annually, that integrates planning for corrective activities, environmental restoration and waste management operations at its facilities. DOE also continues to conduct assessments (e.g., Management Audits, Environmental Safety and Health (ES & H) Progress Assessments, Internal Self Assessments) at its operating facilities to provide the Secretary of Energy with information on current environmental compliance status and follow-up on findings.

  8. Problems in the Transfer of Rural Surplus Labor Force in Chengdu Plain——A Empirical Analysis of Xiyu Village,Gexianshan Town,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under the new situation of the coordination of rural and urban development,the employment and transfer of surplus labor force have become the major social problems in China.Based on the field investigation on Xiyu Village of Gexianshan Town in Pengzhou City,the surplus labor force and the absorptive capacity of non-agricultural industries are estimated by using per capita cultivated method and output value absorption method.Based on this,the transfer pattern of surplus labor force is generalized and the corresponding suggestions for transfer are put forward.

  9. On the management of life insurance company risk by strategic choice of product mix, investment strategy and surplus appropriation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnert, Alexander; Gatzert, Nadine; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of management’s strategic choice of asset and liability composition in life insurance on shortfall risk and the shareholders’ fair risk charge. In contrast to previous work, we focus on the effectiveness of management decisions regarding the product...... mix and the riskiness of the asset side under different surplus appropriation schemes. We propose a model setting that comprises temporary life annuities and endowment insurance contracts. Our numerical results show that the effectiveness of management decisions in regard to risk reduction strongly...... depends on the surplus appropriation scheme offered to the customer and their impact on guaranteed benefit payments, which thus presents an important control variable for the insurer....

  10. Developmental competence of oocytes isolated from surplus medulla tissue in connection with cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken-Jensen, Helle N; Kristensen, Stine G; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the developmental competence of immature oocytes collected from surplus medulla tissue in connection with ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. DESIGN: Cohort comparative study. SETTING: University laboratory in Denmark from 2011-2012. POPULATION: 69...... girls and women (0-38 years of age) who each had one ovary cryopreserved for fertility preservation. METHODS: Ovaries were obtained directly from the local hospital or from collaborating hospitals (two to five hours' transport on ice). Immature oocytes were aspirated from large antral follicles visible...... on the ovaries, and collected from the saline solution, containing surplus medulla tissue, following dissection of the ovarian cortical tissue for cryopreservation. The immature oocytes were cultured for 48 h in an Embryoscope™ Time-lapse System or in culture dishes overlaid with liquid paraffin using commercial...

  11. Effects of whaling on the structure of the Southern Ocean food web: insights on the "krill surplus" from ecosystem modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Surma

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the ecological plausibility of the "krill surplus" hypothesis and the effects of whaling on the Southern Ocean food web using mass-balance ecosystem modelling. The depletion trajectory and unexploited biomass of each rorqual population in the Antarctic was reconstructed using yearly catch records and a set of species-specific surplus production models. The resulting estimates of the unexploited biomass of Antarctic rorquals were used to construct an Ecopath model of the Southern Ocean food web existing in 1900. The rorqual depletion trajectory was then used in an Ecosim scenario to drive rorqual biomasses and examine the "krill surplus" phenomenon and whaling effects on the food web in the years 1900-2008. An additional suite of Ecosim scenarios reflecting several hypothetical trends in Southern Ocean primary productivity were employed to examine the effect of bottom-up forcing on the documented krill biomass trend. The output of the Ecosim scenarios indicated that while the "krill surplus" hypothesis is a plausible explanation of the biomass trends observed in some penguin and pinniped species in the mid-20th century, the excess krill biomass was most likely eliminated by a rapid decline in primary productivity in the years 1975-1995. Our findings suggest that changes in physical conditions in the Southern Ocean during this time period could have eliminated the ecological effects of rorqual depletion, although the mechanism responsible is currently unknown. Furthermore, a decline in iron bioavailability due to rorqual depletion may have contributed to the rapid decline in overall Southern Ocean productivity during the last quarter of the 20th century. The results of this study underscore the need for further research on historical changes in the roles of top-down and bottom-up forcing in structuring the Southern Ocean food web.

  12. MOX Lead Assembly Fabrication at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Spiker, D.L.; Poon, A.P.

    1997-12-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the disposition of the nations weapon-usable surplus plutonium.This EIS is tiered from the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Material Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement issued in December 1996,and the associated Record of Decision issued on January, 1997. The EIS will examine reasonable alternatives and potential environmental impacts for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three types of facilities for plutonium disposition. The three types of facilities are: a pit disassembly and conversion facility, a facility to immobilize surplus plutonium in a glass or ceramic form for disposition, and a facility to fabricate plutonium oxide into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.As an integral part of the surplus plutonium program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Fissile Material Disposition(MD) as the technical lead to organize and evaluate existing facilities in the DOE complex which may meet MD`s need for a domestic MOX fuel fabrication demonstration facility. The Lead Assembly (LA) facility is to produce 1 MT of usable test fuel per year for three years. The Savannah River Site (SRS) as the only operating plutonium processing site in the DOE complex, proposes two options to carry out the fabrication of MOX fuel lead test assemblies: an all Category I facility option and a combined Category I and non-Category I facilities option.

  13. Evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.S.; Butler, J.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Edmunds, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-04

    The Department of Energy Record of Decision (ROD) selected alternatives for disposition of surplus, weapons grade plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns addressed included economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The analysis reported here was conducted in parallel with technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses; it uses multiattribute utility theory to combine these considerations in order to facilitate an integrated evaluation of alternatives. This analysis is intended to provide additional insight regarding alternative evaluation and to assist in understanding the rationale for the choice of alternatives recommended in the ROD. Value functions were developed for objectives of disposition, and used to rank alternatives. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the ranking of alternatives for the base case was relatively insensitive to changes in assumptions over reasonable ranges. The analyses support the recommendation of the ROD to pursue parallel development of the vitrification immobilization alternative and the use of existing light water reactors alternative. 27 refs., 109 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Shortage and surplus of water in the socio-hydrological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, A.; Nijssen, d.

    2014-09-01

    Balancing the temporal variability of hydrological conditions in the long- and short-term is often essential for steady socio-economic conditions. However, this equilibrium is very fragile in many cases. Hydrological changes or socio-economic changes may destroy it in a short time. If we extend the bearing capacity of socio-hydrological systems we increase, in many cases, the harmful consequences of failures. Here, two case studies are discussed to illustrate these problems. The limited success at adapting water resources to increasing human requirements without consideration of the natural capacities will be discussed with the example of water use for irrigation in northeastern China. The demand for a new planning approach, which is based on a combination of monitoring, model-based impact assessments and spatial distributed planning, is demonstrated. The problems of water surplus, which becomes evident during floods, are discussed in a second case study. It is shown that flood protection depends strongly on expectations of flood characteristics. The gap between the social requirement for complete flood prevention and the remaining risk of flood damage becomes obvious. An increase of risk-awareness would be more sustainable than promises of flood protection, which are the basis for technical measures to affect floods and (or) to prevent flood damages.

  15. Challenges for Nordic power; How to handle the renewable electricity surplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    Almost two years after the EU Commission put forth the EUs 202020 Climate and Energy policy package, it is clear that the Nordic region may face investment in new renewable generation at levels that are unprecedented since the deregulation of the Nordic electricity market. This report explores the linkages between political choices and market dynamics on the basis of four scenarios for the Nordic Power Sector towards 2020 and 2030. The aim is to contribute to a common understanding of the market challenges and dynamics among different stakeholders: How do different policy and market drivers interact? What are the long-term implications for prices and the energy balance? And ultimately, what policy choices are available when it comes to handling the expected increase in renewable generation and the looming Nordic energy surplus. Econ Poeyry and THEMA Consulting Group have invited companies, industry organizations and government agencies to participate in the process to elaborate on the issues mentioned above. The participants have contributed through workshops, working groups and conferences. (Author)

  16. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Nazaré; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille E; Højrup, Mads; Rodrigo, Ana P; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2014-05-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Individual and synergistic effects of biostimulation were also tested, in parallel. An interim evaluation at the end of the first 42 days showed that biostimulation and active heating, as separate treatments, enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) removal compared to natural attenuation. The coupling of both technologies was even more effective, corroborating the benefits of both techniques in a remediation strategy. However, between day 42 and day 168, there was an opposite remediation trend with all treatments suggesting a stabilization except for natural attenuation, where PHC values continued to decrease. This enforces the "self-purification" capacity of the system, even at low temperatures. Coupling biostimulation with active heating was the best approach for PHC removal, namely for a short period of time (42 days). The proposed remediation scheme can be considered a reliable option for faster PHC removal with low maintenance and using "waste heating" from an incineration facility.

  17. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE, which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE.

  18. What do we really know about food storage, surplus, and feasting in preagricultural communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijt, Ian

    2009-10-01

    In studying the origins of agriculture it is critical that we envision food production as a long-term human process that centers on the control and management of cycles of plant reproduction, including the harvesting, storage, and planting of seed stock. Drawing upon a growing body of literature illustrating multiple trajectories and pathways to agriculture, I see domestication as developing through coevolution between human beings and the resources they exploited. A more detailed understanding of the process and pathways of the origins of agriculture requires us to disentangle a complex knot of different yet interrelated factors, including food storage, food surplus, and feasting. I argue that archaeologists have yet to develop a detailed understanding of the scale and economic contributions of food storage in preagriculturalist communities. Evidence from the Near East indicates that use of storage practices increased dramatically after domestication. Analysis indicates that while there was a level of food storage in predomesticate and agricultural context, it was small scale. Finally, I argue that in some cases, discussions of food storage and feasting been reduced to claims of universal importance rather than a contextualized and detailed exploration within a specific cultural, temporal, and geographical case study.

  19. Surplus Space Method:A New Numerical Model for Prediction of Shallow-seated Magmatic Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jun; HUANG Dinghua; WANG Qingfei; WAN Li; YAO Lingqing; GAO Bangfei; Liu Yan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the data of field measurement and drilling in the Tongling area, a series of numerical simulations are carried out by using the "Surplus Space Method" (SSM), which is first put forward in this paper and applied to predict the shallow-seated magmatic bodies. The results of the numerical simulations show the existence and the 3-D shape of a conical magmatic structure at a depth of-1000 m beneath the center of the area: its top offsets southwards and bifurcates to several branches, while its lower part stretches northeastwards and contracts rapidly to a point at about -1000 m depth.This point is reckoned to be a "sink" of magma system, transferring ore materials and heat energy from the deep magma chamber to the sub-surface apophyses. The preliminary application of the SSM proves that it may be developed as a new detection means for determining the existence of shallow-seated magmatic bodies and analyzing their three-dimensional features.

  20. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.H.; Son, J.E.; Lee, S.D.; Cho, S.I.; Ashtiani-Araghi, A.; Rhee, J.Y.

    2016-11-01

    If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE), which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE. (Author)

  1. Joint Inventory, Pricing, and Advertising Decisions with Surplus and Stockout Loss Aversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Bing Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The newsvendor models considering decision-makers’ behavioral factors remain a fruitful research area in operation management field in past decade. In this paper, we further extend the current literatures to look into joint inventory, pricing, and advertising decisions considering loss aversion effects under the newsvendor setting. The purpose is to explore how the loss aversions affect the optimal policy of order quantity, price, and advertising effort level. We present an integrated utility model to measure both economic payoff and loss aversion utility of the newsvendor, where surplus loss aversion and stockout loss aversion are first separately defined and quantified. Then, we analyze the optimal solution conditions of the integrated model under exogenous and endogenous price cases, respectively. Under exogenous price case, we find that the uniquely optimal policy exists and is presented in the closed form. Under endogenous price case, the optimal policy is determined under mild conditions; we also provide the solutions when order quantity factor or advertising effort level is fixed in this case. In addition, the sensitivity analysis shows that the loss aversions affect the optimal decisions of order quantity, price, and advertising effort level in a systematic way.

  2. Sugar demand of ripening grape berries leads to recycling of surplus phloem water via the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Zhang, Yun; Shrestha, Pradeep M; Biondi, Marco; Bondada, Bhaskar R

    2015-06-01

    We tested the common assumption that fleshy fruits become dependent on phloem water supply because xylem inflow declines at the onset of ripening. Using two distinct grape genotypes exposed to drought stress, we found that a sink-driven rise in phloem inflow at the beginning of ripening was sufficient to reverse drought-induced berry shrinkage. Rewatering accelerated berry growth and sugar accumulation concurrently with leaf photosynthetic recovery. Interrupting phloem flow through the peduncle prevented the increase in berry growth after rewatering, but interrupting xylem flow did not. Nevertheless, xylem flow in ripening berries, but not berry size, remained responsive to root or shoot pressurization. A mass balance analysis on ripening berries sampled in the field suggested that phloem water inflow may exceed growth and transpiration water demands. Collecting apoplastic sap from ripening berries showed that osmotic pressure increased at distinct rates in berry vacuoles and apoplast. Our results indicate that the decrease in xylem inflow at the onset of ripening may be a consequence of the sink-driven increase in phloem inflow. We propose a conceptual model in which surplus phloem water bypasses the fruit cells and partly evaporates from the berry surface and partly moves apoplastically to the xylem for outflow. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Bioconversion of potatoes residues or surplus potatoes to ethanol under non axenic conditions [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamaudière, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels can offer an alternative to fossil fuels in the context of climate change and fossil reserves depletion. With 3 million tons of potatoes produced in 2007 and a high yield per hectare of 47 tons, Belgium is the 19th largest producer in the world. The residual and surplus potatoes could be used to produce bioethanol by fermentation. We examined the feasibility of a simple ethanol fermentation process under non axenic conditions. The substrate was pretreated with commercial amylases or by adding as low as 10% FM (Fresh Matter barley malt. It was then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol and volatile fatty acids were analyzed by GC-FID and soluble sugars were analyzed with the Anthrone method. Starch from potatoes was hydrolyzed to soluble sugars. Hydrolysis seems to continue with 10% FM of barley malt after 48 h while the hydrolysis stopped or decelerated with commercial enzymes. With 10% FM of malt, 3 h of hydrolysis and 7 days of fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 42 g.l-1 was obtained and the conversion yield was 139 gethanol.kg-1 DM. The fermentation conversion yield of soluble sugars to ethanol was > 82% and the endogenous competition was limited. However, starch hydrolyzing seems to be a limiting step under the conditions tested. Commercial enzymes did not provide better results under the same conditions.

  4. Policy, planning and generation of energy surpluses in a sugar and alcohol plants; Politica, planejamento e geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarussi, Maria Alessandra Silva Nunes; Martins, Juliana Marinho Cavalcanti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    This present work has as it main purpose to analyze briefly the Decenal Plan of Energy Expansion and the National Energy Plan 2030 in relation to the surplus energy cogeneration capacity from sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil. At the same time, this work also intends to compare the existent public policies to foment the surplus electric energy production such as the Proinfa and energy auctions and the acquisition of more efficient cogeneration systems by the sugar cane sector. (author)

  5. Site technology capsule. Inplant Systems, Inc. SFC 0. 5 oleofiltration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitford, K.

    1994-12-01

    Oleofiltration is used to separate suspended, emulsified and a portion of dissolved hydrocarbons from water. the InPlant Systems, Inc., SFC 0.5 Oleofiltration System was demonstrated under the SITE Program in June 1994 at a Superfund site in Florida that was contaminated with 29,000 gallons of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) hydrocarbon. More than 90% of the TRPH was removed from the oil/water emulsion during the demonstration. This capsule provides information on the technology applicability, technology limitations, a technology description, process residuals, site requirements, latest performance data, the technology status, and the source of further information.

  6. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment.

  7. Coupling Research on the Process of Transfer of Surplus Labor Forces and Scaling-up of Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of giving an overview of efficiency research on transformation of land from fragmentation to scale economy, by using the concept of coupling in physics, this paper expounds the behavior basis of transfer of surplus rural labor forces in China and transformation of land from fragmentation to scaling up, and analyzes behaviors of all parties and equilibrium outcomes in the three stages concerning the transformation of agricultural land from fragmentation to scaling up as follows. At the first stage of coupling, after multitudinous rural surplus labor forces emerge, the farmers begin to go to city seeking jobs. In this period, the amalgamation of land management has not occurred and the single farmer’s land has not yet concentrated. The total land area of single farmer has not yet increased and the total amount of farmers has not yet decreased. At the second stage of coupling, driven by living standards and income, multitudinous rural surplus labor forces begin to live in the city permanently in fact, and the scale management of rural land begins to arise. Foreign funded enterprises begin to enter agriculture, and the industrialization management of agriculture is equipped with the most fundamental conditions due to the occurrence of scaling up of land. At the third stage of coupling, the transfer of rural surplus labor forces basically ends. The property rights of agricultural land or the management forms also, in a large measure, concentrate. The obstacles to agricultural scaling-up management are solved fundamentally, and the income gap between urban areas and rural areas is narrowed. Urban-rural population migration is no longer the main form of China’s population migration. This stage has not yet been realized in China and it is the future state of villages. Finally, through the two cases researched by the predecessors, we verify the research results of the preceding two stages, which provides reliable reference for transformation of China

  8. Surplus N in US maize production: Informing data-driven policies using the Adapt-N model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Shai; van-Es, Harold; McLellan, Eileen; Margerison, Rebecca; Melkonian, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) production accounts for the largest share of crop land area in the U.S, and is the largest consumer of nitrogen (N) fertilizers of all US crops. Over-application of N fertilizer in excess of crop needs often lead to surplus of N in the soil, resulting in well-documented environmental problems and social costs associated with high reactive N losses. There is a potential to reduce these costs through better application timing, use of enhanced efficiency products, and more precise rate calculations. However, promoting management changes by means of environmental policies requires robust analysis of the possible environmental outcomes associated with these policies. This research gap is addressed using Adapt-N, a computational tool that combines soil, crop and management information with near-real-time weather data to estimate optimum N application rates for maize. Using results from a large synthetic dataset of 8100 simulations spanning 6 years (2010-2015), we have explored the total applied N rates, surplus of N (total N applied minus N removed by the crop) and the environmental losses resulting from seven N management scenarios applied in the top 5 US maize production states - IL, IN, IA, MN and NE. To cover a wide range of weather and production environments, all scenarios were applied at five randomly selected locations in each state, using combinations of three soil texture classes and two organic matter contents. The results indicate that fall applications typically lead to the highest total amount of N applied, highest N surplus and substantial amounts of environmental N losses. Nitrification inhibitors were found to have a marginal benefits for fall applied N. Spring pre-plant N applications were found to have lower N surplus than fall applications, but could still lead to high N losses under wet spring conditions. These losses were reduced (12%) when nitrification and urease inhibitors were applied. Out of all simulated N management

  9. The relationship between milk production and farm-gate nitrogen surplus for the Waikato region, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, P C; Scarsbrook, M R; Gregorini, P; Romera, A J; Clark, D A; Catto, W

    2012-01-01

    As the scope and scale of New Zealand (NZ) dairy farming increases, farmers and the industry are being challenged by Government and the New Zealand public to address growing environmental concerns. Dairying has come under increasing scrutiny from local authorities tasked with sustainable resource management. Despite recent efforts of farmers and industry to improve resource use efficiency, there is increasing likelihood of further regulatory constraints on water use and nutrient management. This study uses available data on farm-gate nitrogen (N) surpluses and milk production from the Waikato, New Zealand's largest dairying region, together with a farm scale modeling exercise, to provide a perspective on the current situation compared to dairy farms in Europe. It also aims to provide relevant guidelines for N surpluses and efficiencies under NZ conditions. Waikato dairy farms compare favorably with farms in Europe in terms of N use efficiency expressed as L milk/kg farm-gate N surplus. Achievable and realistic good practice objectives for Waikato dairy farmers could be 15,000 L milk/ha (1200 kg milk fat plus protein/ha) with a farm-gate N surplus of 100 kg/ha giving an eco-efficiency (L milk/kg N surplus) of 150, and long-term average nitrate leaching losses of approximately 25-30 kg/ha/yr. This can be achieved by increasing the N conversion efficiency through lower replacement rates (16 versus 22%), lower stocked (effluent-irrigated, home-grown, low-protein supplements to cows on high-protein, grass-clover pastures to dilute N concentration in the diet, removing some of the urinary N from the paddocks during critical times by standing cows on a loafing pad for part of the day, and through lower N fertilizer rates (50-70 kg/ha/yr compared to the norm of 170-200 kg/ha/yr) and using a nitrification inhibitor and gibberellins to boost pasture growth and the former to reduce N leaching.

  10. Mercury Exposure in Piscivorous Birds at the Carson River (NV) Superfund Site, 1997-2006: egg data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The persistence and degree of mercury contamination of the lower Carson River system (LCRS) have led to placement of a portion of the Carson River Basin (including...

  11. GIS-Mapping and Statistical Analyses to Identify Climate-Vulnerable Communities and Populations Exposed to Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change-related cumulative health risks are expected to be disproportionately greater for overburdened communities, due to differential proximity and exposures to chemical sources and flood zones. Communities and populations vulnerable to climate change-associated impacts ...

  12. GIS-Mapping and Statistical Analyses to Identify Climate-Vulnerable Communities and Populations Exposed to Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change-related cumulative health risks are expected to be disproportionately greater for overburdened communities, due to differential proximity and exposures to chemical sources and flood zones. Communities and populations vulnerable to climate change-associated impacts ...

  13. Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D K; Alpers, C N

    1999-03-30

    The Richmond Mine of the Iron Mountain copper deposit contains some of the most acid mine waters ever reported. Values of pH have been measured as low as -3.6, combined metal concentrations as high as 200 g/liter, and sulfate concentrations as high as 760 g/liter. Copious quantities of soluble metal sulfate salts such as melanterite, chalcanthite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, voltaite, copiapite, and halotrichite have been identified, and some of these are forming from negative-pH mine waters. Geochemical calculations show that, under a mine-plugging remediation scenario, these salts would dissolve and the resultant 600,000-m3 mine pool would have a pH of 1 or less and contain several grams of dissolved metals per liter, much like the current portal effluent water. In the absence of plugging or other at-source control, current weathering rates indicate that the portal effluent will continue for approximately 3, 000 years. Other remedial actions have greatly reduced metal loads into downstream drainages and the Sacramento River, primarily by capturing the major acidic discharges and routing them to a lime neutralization plant. Incorporation of geochemical modeling and mineralogical expertise into the decision-making process for remediation can save time, save money, and reduce the likelihood of deleterious consequences.

  14. U.S. EPA’s Technical Support for the Reich Farm (Toms River, NJ) Superfund Site Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    PowerPoint slide file that gives a brief history of the SAN Trimer contamination in Toms River, NJ as well as the EPA's provided technical support, specifically the development and application of the Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Value (PPRTV) assessment for SAN Trimer.

  15. 76 FR 20287 - Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New Bedford, MA: Anchorage Ground and Regulated Navigation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... New Bedford Harbor hurricane barrier in the outer harbor. The pilot cap consists of sand and gravel... revising paragraph (a)(2) to read as follows: Sec. 110.140 Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and...

  16. Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melinda Christine Wiles [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Public Health

    2004-08-15

    Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective was to delineate a sequence of biological changes caused by chlorinated phenol (CP) exposure. The second study was to develop multi-functional sorbents to remediate CPs and other components of wood preserving waste from groundwater. Following water remediation, the final aim of this work was to explore the safety of the parent clay minerals as potential enterosorbents for contaminants ingested in water and food. Based on evaluations of toxicity and neutron activation analysis of tissues, no significant differences were observed between animals receiving clay supplements and control animals, with the exception of slightly decreased brain Rb in animals ingesting clay. Overall, the results suggest that neither clay mineral, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. 420 refs., 28 figs, 15 tabs.

  17. 77 FR 46433 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlements for the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...; request for public comment. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response... attributable to the costs of marketing and selling the Properties. Any proceeds from the Bank's foreclosure... proportion to the percentage that the following amounts represent in relation to the combined total of...

  18. 75 FR 76280 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood... of the Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington. The RNA will... notice of proposed rulemaking (SNPRM) entitled Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood...

  19. 75 FR 30753 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood... and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington. The RNA would protect the seabed... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA...

  20. Surplus weapons-grade plutonium: a resource for exploring and terraforming Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Houts, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    With the end of the Cold War, greater than 100 metric tons (MT) of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) have become surplus to defense needs in the United States and the Former Soviet Union. This paper is a proposal for an option for WGPu disposition, i.e., use of the plutonium as a fuel for nuclear reactors for Mars exploration and eventual terraforming. WGPu was used in nuclear weapons because it has a much smaller critical mass than highly enriched uranium, allowing lighter weapons with consequent longer ranges. Similarly, WGPu reactors would also require smaller amounts of fuel to attain a critical mass, making the reactor much lighter overall and resulting in large savings in launch costs. The greater than 100 MT of WGPu would generate about 1000 billion kilowatt hours of heat energy, much of which could be converted into electricity. The waste heat would also be useful to a Martian outpost or colony. A potential way of getting the WGPu reactors into space is a large gas gun like that being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to orbit materials by achieving high velocity at the surface, greatly reducing launch costs and enhancing reliability. Reactor components would be launched on conventional rockets or space shuttles, the reactor fuel rods would be injected into orbit using the gas gun, and the reactor would be assembled in space. Implementation of this proposal would allow disposition of a serious, expensive problem on earth by removing the WGPu from the planet and simultaneously provide a very large energy resource for Mars exploration and terraforming.

  1. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  2. Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter

    2015-01-01

    The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  3. Seasonal shifting of surplus renewable energy in a power system located in a cold region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 changed Japan's strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. The government is now placing more emphasis on the development of nonCO2-emitting distributed generation systems such as wind, solar, and tidal power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and guarantee electricity supply in the case of a natural disaster. This paper proposes a strategy for the exploitation of wind, solar, and tidal resources in a cold region in Japan by utilizing surplus energy from the summer and spring during winter. It also aims to determine the most favorable energy mix of these renewable sources and storage system types. The study is performed by calculating hourly demand and renewable energy supply for the city in one year, which is based on actual data of demand, solar irradiation, wind speeds, and tidal current speeds. The costs of the components of the renewable power plants and storage systems are considered, and different proportions of generation outputs are evaluated with different types of storage systems. According to results, the configuration containing the hydrogen storage system using organic chemical hydride methylcyclohexane (OCHM is the most economical but is still more expensive than one using a conventional generation system. Moreover, we confirm that the cost of CO2 emissions is the key element for leveling the playing field between conventional and renewable generation from an economic perspective. The cost of CO2 emissions to public health as well as those costs related to the interruption of services during a catastrophe must be carefully calculated with other issues from conventional power projects to perform a precise comparative evaluation between both types of generation systems.

  4. Water deficit and water surplus maps for Brazil, based on FAO Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalton Evandro Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The climatological water balance (CWB proposed by Thornthwaite and Mather (1957 is a useful tool for agricultural planning. This method requires the soil water holding capacity (SWHC, rainfall (R and potential evapotranspiration (PET data as input. Among the methods used to estimate PET, the one proposed by Thornthwaite (1948 is the simplest and the most used in Brazil, however it presents limitations of use, which is caused by its empirical relationships. When Thornthwaite PET method is used into the CWB, the errors associated to PET are transferred to the output variables, mainly water deficit (WD and water surplus (WS. As all maps of WD and WS for Brazil are based on Thornthwaite PET, the objective of this study was to produce new maps of these variables considering Penman-Monteith PET. For this purpose, monthly normal climate data base (1961-1990 from Brazilian Meteorological Service (INMET, with 219 locations in all country, was used. PET data were estimated by Thornthwaite (TH and FAO Penman-Monteith (PM methods. PET, from both methods, and R data were used to estimate the CWB for a SWHC of 100 mm, having as results actual ET (AET, WD and WS. Results obtained with PET from the two methods were compared by regression analysis. The results showed that TH method underestimated annual PM PET by 13% in 84% of the places. Such underestimation also led to AET and WD underestimations of 7% (in 69% of places and 40% (in 83% of places, respectively. For WS, the use of TH PET data in the CWB resulted in overestimations of about 80% in 78% of places. The differences observed in the CWB variables resulted in changes in the maps of WD and WS for Brazil. These new maps, based on PM PET, provide more accurate information, mainly for agricultural and hydrological planning and irrigation and drainage projects purposes.

  5. The potential for generating a surplus of biomass fuel in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, U.

    2001-06-01

    The conditions under which the pulp and paper industry is working are changing. New technology and new environmental objectives lead to changes: system closure (less water is used); processes are introduced and modified; new, more energy efficient processes are applied. Many of these changes affect the energy system in a mill and can also result in new potential for energy savings. Here a method is described and applied to six modern and/or future green field kraft market pulp model mills. The basic configuration for these model mills is designed according to best available technology today and consists of commercially available equipment in conventionally designed mills. These basic configurations are process integrated using Pinch Technology to ensure that the model mills are as energy efficient as possible with existing processes. Then by allowing process and system modifications, the model mills are made even more energy efficient. From the process integration study streams that could produce usable excess heat below the Pinch temperature are identified. In a pulp mill, necessary cooling is performed while producing warm and hot water. In modern mills there is usually a surplus of warm and hot water. It is herein presented that by designing the secondary heat system differently such that only necessary warm and hot water is produced, excess heat at a higher temperature than traditionally can be made available. The excess heat made available can be used for several applications; in this work it is used for evaporation. In order to use the excess heat for evaporation the evaporation plant has to be designed non-conventionally, with more than one level where heat is supplied, and a lower temperature in the surface condenser than what is typically used. A reasonable level of the extra investment cost for the novel system compared to the reference system is then calculated and a payback period is estimated. This payback period varies between approximately 3.5 and 6

  6. Study of Surplus Value and Labor Rent-Based on “Surplus Value”from Perspective of West-ern Economics%论剩余价值与劳动租金--基于西方经济学视角下的“剩余价值”∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海鸿; 胥敏

    2016-01-01

    The surplus value theory has always been questioned and criticism.From the concepts such as e-conomic rent (including the vague labor rent concept),monopoly rent,producer surplus and economic sur-plus,in fact,they are surplus value in essence or cannot be put aside from the surplus value completely. The core idea of the theory of surplus value about “the capitalists exploit the surplus value of wage labour”by Marx is the irrefutable truth.%剩余价值理论不断遭受西方经济学主流学者的非难,通过他们所使用的经济租金(包括隐晦的劳动租金)、垄断租金、生产者剩余和经济剩余等概念,其本质或为剩余价值,或不能完全撇开剩余价值。因此,马克思阐述的“资本家剥削雇佣劳动的剩余价值”的核心思想是驳不倒的真理。

  7. LEO cooperative multi-spacecraft refueling mission optimization considering J2 perturbation and target's surplus propellant constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Zhang, Jin; Li, Hai-yang; Zhou, Jian-yong

    2017-01-01

    The optimization of an LEO cooperative multi-spacecraft refueling mission considering the J2 perturbation and target's surplus propellant constraint is studied in the paper. First, a mission scenario is introduced. One service spacecraft and several target spacecraft run on an LEO near-circular orbit, the service spacecraft rendezvouses with some service positions one by one, and target spacecraft transfer to corresponding service positions respectively. Each target spacecraft returns to its original position after obtaining required propellant and the service spacecraft returns to its original position after refueling all target spacecraft. Next, an optimization model of this mission is built. The service sequence, orbital transfer time, and service position are used as deign variables, whereas the propellant cost is used as the design objective. The J2 perturbation, time constraint and the target spacecraft's surplus propellant capability constraint are taken into account. Then, a hybrid two-level optimization approach is presented to solve the formulated mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. A hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm is adopted to seek the near optimal solution in the up-level optimization, while a linear relative dynamic equation considering the J2 perturbation is used to obtain the impulses of orbital transfer in the low-level optimization. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed model and method is validated by numerical examples.

  8. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  9. Oak Ridge Reservation Site Management Plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This site management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) describes the overall approach for addressing environmental contamination problems at the ORR Superfund site located in eastern Tennessee. The ORR consists of three major US Department of Energy (DOE) installations constructed in the early to mid 1940s as research, development, and process facilities in support of the Manhattan Project. In addition to the three installations -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) -- the ORR Superfund Site also includes areas outside the installations, land used by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities and waterways that have been contaminated by releases from the DOE installations. To date, {approximately} 400 areas (Appendix A) requiring evaluation have been identified. Cleanup of the ORR is expected to take two to three decades and cost several billion dollars. This site management plan provides a blueprint to guide this complex effort to ensure that the investigation and cleanup activities are carried out in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

  10. The current shortage and future surplus of doctors: a projection of the future growth of the Japanese medical workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogawa Hiroki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Starting in the late 1980s, the Japanese government decreased the number of students accepted into medical school each year in order to reduce healthcare spending. The result of this policy is a serious shortage of doctors in Japan today, which has become a social problem in recent years. In an attempt to solve this problem, the Japanese government decided in 2007 to increase the medical student quota from 7625 to 8848. Furthermore, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ, Japan's ruling party after the 2009 election, promised in their manifesto to increase the medical student quota to 1.5 times what it was in 2007, in order to raise the number of medical doctors to more than 3.0 per 1000 persons. It should be noted, however, that this rapid increase in the medical student quota may bring about a serious doctor surplus in the future, especially because the population of Japan is decreasing. The purpose of this research is to project the future growth of the Japanese medical doctor workforce from 2008 to 2050 and to forecast whether the proposed additional increase in the student quota will cause a doctor surplus. Methods Simulation modeling of the Japanese medical workforce. Results Even if the additional increase in the medical student quota promised by the DPJ fails, the number of practitioners is projected to increase from 286 699 (2.25 per 1000 persons in 2008 to 365 533 (over the national numerical goal of 3.0 per 1000 in 2024. The number of practitioners per 1000 persons is projected to further increase to 3.10 in 2025, to 3.71 in 2035, and to 4.69 in 2050. If the additional increase in the medical student quota promised by the DPJ is realized, the total workforce is projected to rise to 392 331 (3.29 per 1000 persons in 2025, 464 296 (4.20 per 1,000 persons in 2035, and 545 230 (5.73 per 1000 persons in 2050. Conclusions The plan to increase the medical student quota will bring about a serious doctor surplus in the long run.

  11. The current shortage and future surplus of doctors: a projection of the future growth of the Japanese medical workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting in the late 1980s, the Japanese government decreased the number of students accepted into medical school each year in order to reduce healthcare spending. The result of this policy is a serious shortage of doctors in Japan today, which has become a social problem in recent years. In an attempt to solve this problem, the Japanese government decided in 2007 to increase the medical student quota from 7625 to 8848. Furthermore, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), Japan's ruling party after the 2009 election, promised in their manifesto to increase the medical student quota to 1.5 times what it was in 2007, in order to raise the number of medical doctors to more than 3.0 per 1000 persons. It should be noted, however, that this rapid increase in the medical student quota may bring about a serious doctor surplus in the future, especially because the population of Japan is decreasing. The purpose of this research is to project the future growth of the Japanese medical doctor workforce from 2008 to 2050 and to forecast whether the proposed additional increase in the student quota will cause a doctor surplus. Methods Simulation modeling of the Japanese medical workforce. Results Even if the additional increase in the medical student quota promised by the DPJ fails, the number of practitioners is projected to increase from 286 699 (2.25 per 1000 persons) in 2008 to 365 533 (over the national numerical goal of 3.0 per 1000) in 2024. The number of practitioners per 1000 persons is projected to further increase to 3.10 in 2025, to 3.71 in 2035, and to 4.69 in 2050. If the additional increase in the medical student quota promised by the DPJ is realized, the total workforce is projected to rise to 392 331 (3.29 per 1000 persons) in 2025, 464 296 (4.20 per 1,000 persons) in 2035, and 545 230 (5.73 per 1000 persons) in 2050. Conclusions The plan to increase the medical student quota will bring about a serious doctor surplus in the long run. PMID:21619585

  12. Pilot Project to Optimize Superfund-financed Pump and Treat Systems: Summary Report and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes Phase II (site optimization) of the Nationwide Fund-lead Pump and Treat Optimization Project. This phase included conducting Remediation System Evaluations (RSEs) at each of the 20 sites selected in Phase I.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision: Monticello Mill Tailings (DOE), UT First Remedial Action

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Emergency and Remedial Response

    1990-01-01

    The 300-acre Monticello Mill Tailings site is comprised of a 7S-acre inactive uranium and vanadium milling operation and affected peripheral properties in Monticello, San Juan County, Utah. Surrounding land use is rural residential and agricultural. The site overlies a shallow alluvial aquifer, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of Montezuma Creek. Approximately IS-acres of wetlands adjacent to Montezuma Creek also have been contaminated by tailings. In 1940, the site was operate...

  14. Thermodynamic investigation of the interaction between cyclodextrins and preservatives - Application and verification in a mathematical model to determine the needed preservative surplus in aqueous cyclodextrin formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Olesen, Niels Erik; Alexandersen, Signe Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    of the present work was to establish a mathematical model, which defines this surplus based upon knowledge of stability constants and the minimal concentration of preservation to inhibit bacterial growth. The stability constants of benzoic acid, methyl- and propyl-paraben with different frequently used βCDs were...

  15. 41 CFR 102-37.225 - What information or documentation must a SASP provide when requesting a surplus aircraft or vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information or documentation must a SASP provide when requesting a surplus aircraft or vessel? 102-37.225 Section 102-37.225 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  16. From "Migrant Workers Boom" to "Migrant Workers Scarcity"——Analysis of Institutional Bottleneck of Rural Surplus Labors Transfer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through description of three-steps characteristic of dual economic theory and its practical significance to the process of industrialization and urbanization in China,and making comparative analysis between important criterion of "Lewis turning point" and current situation of rural surplus labors market in China,we can find that there exists a great deal of surplus labors in rural areas in our country,improvement of peasant income is the result of external interference of government,and demographic dividend in our country hasn’t finished.These phenomena go against the theory of "Lewis turning point".So it can prove that "Lewis turning point" in China hasn’t come yet.The paper points out the major factors of coexistence of "migrant workers scarcity" and labors redundancy in our country.The first one is structure contradiction of labors market;the second one is law of supply-demand of labors market;the third one is institutional barrier which hinders labors in free flow of census register and social guarantee.Therefore,if we want to realize successful transfer of rural surplus labors and the goal of industrialization and urbanization,we must promote upgrading of industrial structure,change the style of economic growth and realize harmonious development of regional economy in macrocosmic level;And in microcosmic level,we should eliminate institutional barrier which hinders transfer of rural surplus labors.

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.575 - Who notifies non-profit organizations that surplus real property and related personal property to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who notifies non-profit... Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.575 Who notifies non-profit organizations that surplus real property... available? HUD notifies eligible non-profit organizations, following guidance in the GSA Customer Guide...

  18. 41 CFR 102-38.345 - Do we have to withdraw personal property advertised for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal property advertised for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus Property wants to buy it? 102-38... withdraw the item from public sale if the property has been advertised. ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  19. 41 CFR 102-37.60 - How much time does a transferee have to pick up or remove surplus property from holding agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much time does a transferee have to pick up or remove surplus property from holding agency premises? 102-37.60 Section 102-37.60 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  20. A Review of Marx's Theory of Surplus Value%对马克思剩余价值理论的重新审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛陆地

    2014-01-01

    依据当代资本主义生产方式所发生的重大变化,对马克思剩余价值理论所面临的一些新问题进行了阐述,对剩余价值源泉、剩余价值的载体与实现形式以及剩余价值分配等问题给出了新的思考,提出在市场经济条件下需要深化认识和创新马克思剩余价值理论。%According to the significant change of Present capitalism mode of production ,the paper e‐laborated on the new problems with Marx's theory of surplus value ,try to discuss the source of surplus value ,and the realization and the division of surplus value etc .On this basis ,puts forward that must further deepen the understanding and Innovation of Marx's theory of surplus value .

  1. Ferritin surplus in mouse spleen 14 months after intravenous injection of iron oxide nanoparticles at clinical dose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandre Tamion; Matthias Hillenkamp; Arnaud Hillion; Valentin A.Maraloiu; Ioana D.Vlaicu; Mariana Stefan; Daniela Ghica

    2016-01-01

    In this study,we followed the biodegradation of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles injected intravenously at clinical doses in mice.An advanced fitting procedure for magnetic susceptibility curves and lowtemperature hysteresis loops was used to fully characterize the magnetic size distribution as well as the magnetic anisotropy energy of the injected P904 nanoparticles (Guerbet Laboratory).Additional magnetometry measurements and transmission electronic microscopy observations were systematically performed to examine dehydrated samples from the spleen and liver of healthy C57B16 mice after nanoparticle injection,with sacrifice of the mice for up to 14 months.At 3 months after injection,the magnetic properties of the spleen and liver were dramatically different.While the liver showed no magnetic signals other than those also present in the reference species,the spleen showed an increased magnetic signal attributed to ferritin.This surplus of ferritin remained constant up to 14 months after injection.

  2. [Chronic surplus of Japanese cardiac surgeon--ideal nurse practitioner for cardiac surgery, cardiac surgeon's attitude toward the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hirohisa

    2014-03-01

    It is chronically surplus of doctors in the world of cardiac surgery. There are too many cardiac surgeons because cardiac surgery requires a large amount of manpower resources to provide adequate medical services. Many Japanese cardiac surgeons do not have enough opportunity to perform cardiac surgery operations, and many Japanese cardiac surgery residents do not have enough opportunity to learn cardiac surgery operations. There are physician assistants and nurse practitioners in the US. Because they provide a part of medical care to cardiac surgery patients, American cardiac surgeons can focus more energy on operative procedures. Introduction of cardiac surgery specialized nurse practitioner is essential to deliver a high quality medical service as well as to solve chronic problems that Japanese cardiac surgery has had for a long time.

  3. 78 FR 63248 - Labor Surplus Area Classification under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Rico can be accessed at ETA's LSA Web site http://www.doleta.gov/programs/lsa.cfm . In addition, the..., Employment and Training Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-4231, Washington, DC 20210... Labor's regulations at 20 CFR Part 654, Subpart A, require the Employment and Training...

  4. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  5. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  6. The Off-Site Rule. CERCLA Information Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, B.

    1994-03-01

    Under Section 121(d)(3) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, wastes generated as a result of CERCLA remediation activities and transferred off-site must be managed at a facility operating in compliance with federal laws. EPA issued its Off-Site Policy (OSWER Directive No. 9834, 11), which gave guidance on complying with this particular requirement. Specifically, EPA requires off-site waste management facilities to fulfill EPA`s definition of acceptability and has established detailed procedures for issuing and reviewing unacceptability determinations. EPA proposed amending the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR part 300) to include the requirements contained in the Off-Site Policy (53 FR 48218). On September 22, 1993 EPA published the Off-Site Rules [58 FR 49200], which became effective on October 22, 1993. The primary purpose of the Off-Site Rule is to clarify and codify CERCLA`s requirement to prevent wastes generated from remediation activities conducted under CERCLA from contributing to present or future environmental problems at off-site waste management facilities that receive them. Thus, the Off-Site Rule requires that CERCLA wastes only be sent to off-site facilities that meet EPA`s acceptability criteria. The final Off-Site Rule makes two major changes to the proposed Off-Site Rule: (1) only EPA, not an authorized State, can make determinations of the acceptability of off-site facilities that manage CERCLA wastes, and (2) the Off-Site eliminate the distinction between CERCLA wastes governed under pre-SARA and post-SARA agreements. The purpose of this information Brief is to highlight and clarify EPA`s final Off-Site and its implications on DOE remedial actions under CERCLA.

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels.

  8. Off site demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Open demonstrations of technologies developed by the Office of Technology Development`s (QTD`s) Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) should facilitate regulatory acceptance and speed the transfer and commercialization of these technologies. The purpose of the present project is to identify the environmental restoration needs of hazardous waste and/or mixed waste landfill owners within a 25-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Most municipal landfills that operated prior to the mid-1980s accepted household/commercial hazardous waste and medical waste that included low-level radioactive waste. The locations of hazardous and/or mixed waste landfills within the State of New Mexico were. identified using federal, state, municipal and Native American tribal environmental records. The records reviewed included the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Program CERCLIS Event/Site listing (which includes tribal records), the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), Solid Waste Bureau mixed waste landfill database, and the City of Albuquerque Environmental Health Department landfill database. Tribal envirorunental records are controlled by each tribal government, so each tribal environmental officer and governor was contacted to obtain release of specific site data beyond what is available in the CERCLIS listings.

  9. Effect of Applying Surplus Heat Sharing in Bulk Curing Barn%密集烤房余热共享应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽英; 谢帮金; 杨启冰; 刘勇; 李立新; 齐飞

    2014-01-01

    通过比较余热共享密集烤房与无余热共享密集烤房在烘烤过程中能耗和鲜干比值的变化,研究了余热共享密集烤房的应用效果。结果表明:余热共享密集烤房的耗煤量、耗电量和鲜干比值均优于无余热共享密集烤房,有效地降低了烘烤成本。密集烤房通过余热共享,可以降低顶层烟叶烘烤后的含青度,提高顶层烟叶烘烤质量。%The effect of applying surplus heat sharing in bulk curing barn was studied by comparing the variation of energy consumption and ratio of dry weight to fresh weight in flue-curing process between bulk curing barn with surplus heat sharing and normal bulk curing barn. The results showed that in comparison normal bulk curing barn, the coal consumption, the power consumption and the ratio of dry weight to fresh weight of bulk curing barn with surplus heat sharing were all relatively better, thus reducing the curing cost effectively. Through surplus heat sharing, the bulk curing barn can reduce the green degree of top layer tobacco leaves after curing, thus improving the curing quality of top layer tobacco leaves.

  10. Enhancement of biomass and fermentation activity of surplus brewers' yeast in a fed-batch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strel, B. (Ministry of Science and Technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Industrial Property Office); Grba, S.; Maric, V. (Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology)

    1993-04-01

    The growth of surplus brewers' yeast in a fedbatch process was studied with the aim of increasing the fermentation activity of the yeast cells and of optimizing the growth conditions: 20 h cultivation at 30deg C and pH 5.0-5.5 using beet molasses as substrate, with a regulated feeding rate, showed satisfactory results. Under the chosen conditions, the final amount of biomass increased more than fivefold, achieving a specific growth rate of 0.1 h[sup -1] and substrate yield coefficient of 0.54 g.g[sup -1]. The increase in fermentation activity of yeast cells during cultivation correlated very well with the concentration of reduced glutathione, which increased from 1.2 to 2.7 mg.g[sup -1] (dry matter). At the same time the fermentation activity increased fivefold, which related to the nitrogen content of the yeast cells. Ethanol formation throughout the cultivation did not exceed 0.5 g.l[sup -1]. (orig.).

  11. Performance Comparison Between Logistic and Generalized Surplus-Production Models Applied to the Sillago sihama Fishery in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sher Khan Panhwar; LIU Qun; Shabir Ali Amir; Muhsan Ali Kalhoro

    2012-01-01

    The catch and effort data of Sillago sihama fishery in Pakistani waters were used to investigate the performance of two closely related stock assessment models:logistic and generalized surplus-production models.Compared with the generalized production model,the logistic model produced more reasonable estimates for parameters such as maximum sustainable yield.The Akaike's Information Criterion values estimated at 4.265 and-51.152 respectively by the logistic and generalized models.Simulation analyses of the S.sihama fishery showed that the estimated and observed abundance indices for the logistic model were closer than those for the generalized production model.Standardized residuals were distributed closer for logistic model,but exhibited a slightly increasing trend for the generalized model.Statistical outliers were seen in 1989 and 1993 for the logistic model,and in 1981 and 1999 for the generalized model.Simulated results revealed that the logistic estimates were close to the true value for low CVs(coefficients of variation)but widely dispersed for high CVs.In contrast,the generalized model estimates were loose for all CV levels.The estimated production model curve parameter φ was not reasonable at all the tested levels of white noise.With the increase in white noise R2 for the catch per unit effort decreased.Therefore,we conclude that the logistic model performs more reasonably than the generalized production model.

  12. 我国国际收支双顺差的对策构建%Measures of Double Surplus of China's International Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛佳

    2011-01-01

    China's international balance of payments shows the abnormal and unique structure features; double surplus of the current account and capital and financial account, which has attracted the attention of theorists at home and abroad. and is a hot research issue of theorists in recent years This paper analyzes features of China's international balance of payments double surplus and proposes building measures to properly handle the double surplus.%我国国际收支呈现出的异常独特的结构特征,即经常账户和资本与金融账户双顺差,引起了国内外理论界的重视,是近年来理论界研究的热点问题.本文通过分析我国国际收支双顺差呈现的特点,提出我国双顺差妥善处理的对策构建.

  13. Total Site Integration and paper machine technologies; Total site integration ja paperikoneteknologia - PMST 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puumalainen, T.; Kaijaluoto, S.; Tervonen, P.; Edelmann, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    During the last 30 years the production capacity of a paper machine has tripled. The fastest machines of today run over about 1600 m/min, the web width being around 10 m. The desire to further increase the production capacity is leading to more expensive paper machines and to larger buildings, if current pressing and drying techniques are used. New pressing and drying techniques will decrease the need of thermal energy. Closed water cycles reduce the need of secondary heat abundantly available from the dryer section based on cylinder drying. Total Site Integration studies are required when the effect of new process concepts are to be evaluated against energy efficiency and environmental impacts. A proto type tool has been developed and the effect of new paper machine concepts on energy consumption have been analysed. The utilisation possibilities of the surplus energy will be studied later in the course of this project. (orig.)

  14. Field demonstration of on-site analytical methods for TNT and RDX in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, H. [Environmental Protection Agency Region 10, Portland, OR (United States); Ferguson, G.; Markos, A. [Black and Veatch Special Projects Corp., Tacoma, WA (United States); Kusterbeck, A.; Shriver-Lake, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering; Jenkins, T.; Thorne, P. [Army Corps of Engineers, Hanover, NH (United States). Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab.

    1996-12-31

    A field demonstration was conducted to assess the performance of eight commercially-available and emerging colorimetric, immunoassay, and biosensor on-site analytical methods for explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in ground water and leachate at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon and US Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington, Superfund sites. Ground water samples were analyzed by each of the on-site methods and results compared to laboratory analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with EPA SW-846 Method 8330. The commercial methods evaluated include the EnSys, Inc., TNT and RDX colorimetric test kits (EPA SW-846 Methods 8515 and 8510) with a solid phase extraction (SPE) step, the DTECH/EM Science TNT and RDX immunoassay test kits (EPA SW-846 Methods 4050 and 4051), and the Ohmicron TNT immunoassay test kit. The emerging methods tested include the antibody-based Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Continuous Flow Immunosensor (CFI) for TNT and RDX, and the Fiber Optic Biosensor (FOB) for TNT. Accuracy of the on-site methods were evaluated using linear regression analysis and relative percent difference (RPD) comparison criteria. Over the range of conditions tested, the colorimetric methods for TNT and RDX showed the highest accuracy of the emerging methods for TNT and RDX. The colorimetric method was selected for routine ground water monitoring at the Umatilla site, and further field testing on the NRL CFI and FOB biosensors will continue at both Superfund sites.

  15. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  16. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  17. FDI与我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差%FDI and China' s Capital and Financial Account Surplus in Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹浩华

    2012-01-01

    本文从我国引进FDI的历程及FDI的结构特点入手,深入分析了FDI对我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差的具体贡献,还从我国利用外资政策导向、受世界经济波动的影响程度、资金转移的便利性、对就业的贡献等方面,探讨了我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差主要源自FDI的机理,并提出相应的对策建议。%China has maintained double surplus pattern in balance of pay ments for 17 years since 1994 to 2010.This phenomenon is rare in the world. In the double surplus pattern in balance of payments, foreign direct investment (FDI) results in not only China' s surplus of capital and financial account direct ly, but also China' s surplus of current account indirectly through its dominant position in processing trade, so FDI plays an extremely important role in China' s double surpluses in balance of payments. This paper firstly analyzes the cours es of China' s introduction of FDI and the structural characteristics of FDI, and then analyzes the specific contribution of FDI to China' s capital and financial account surplus in balance of payments in depth. Furthermore,the paper research es the mechanism of China' s capital and financial account surplus mainly origi nating from FDI from the aspects of China' s policy concerning foreign invest ment, the influential degree of world economic fluctuations, the convenience of transferring funds and the contribution to employment. In the end, the paper puts forward the corresponding countermeasures.

  18. 76 FR 13615 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... administrative settlement concerning the Grants Chlorinated Solvents Superfund Site, Grants, Cibola County, New... Grants Chlorinated Solvents Superfund Site, Grants, Cibola County, New Mexico and EPA Docket Number...

  19. (1) Insufficient Labor Supply and Wage Increases under Labor Surplus Conditions: From thePerspective of Intra-household Labor Division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On th labor supp household labor supp response o e basis of family economics and the theory of time allocation, it can be proved that ly under labor surplus conditions is not limitless. Subject to the constraint of intralabor division, the supply curve takes on a special staircase form: with the increase in ly, the reservation wage of rural labor rises constantly by an increasing margin. The f labor supply to wage is not continuous: labor supply will increase only when the wage rises to the new level of reservation wage;

  20. Challenges in Obtaining Property Access: The FUSRAP Maywood Site Experience - 13433

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollar, William [Shaw Environmental, Inc., 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is the US government program started in 1974 to identify, investigate and clean up or control sites that became contaminated as a result of the nation's early atomic programs. Many of these sites are not owned by the federal government and therefore require owner permission to enter. The experience in pursuing such access at the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site (the Maywood Site or the Site) in Bergen County, New Jersey, is extensive. Since the US Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) assumed responsibility for the Maywood Site from the US Department of Energy in 1997, at least 186 separate property access agreements (known in FUSRAP as a Real Estate Right-of- Entry or ROE) have been executed between the Corps and approximately 55 different land owners and tenant occupants at the Maywood Site (agreement renewals with the same owners over time account for the difference). Maywood's experience during the Corps' tenure, reflected here in three case studies of representative property access efforts, offers some lessons and best practices that may apply to other remedial programs. While the Site Community Relations Manager (the author of this paper) managed the property access task, multi-disciplinary support from across the project was also critical to success in this endeavor. (authors)

  1. Site Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahedi, Haseebullah

    2016-01-01

    different practices in the construction phase. The research is based on an ethnographic study of a case in Denmark. The empirical data were collected through direct observations and semi-structured interviews with site managers, contract managers, foremen and craftsmen. Findings revealed...... that the construction phase comprises several communities and practices, leading to various uses of the drawings. The results indicated that the craftsmen used drawings to position themselves in the correct location, and that the site managers and contract managers used them as management tools and legal documents...

  2. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  3. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  4. Work More? The 8.2 kaBP Abrupt Climate Change Event and the Origins of Irrigation Agriculture and Surplus Agro-Production in Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H.

    2003-12-01

    The West Asian archaeological record is of sufficient transparency and resolution to permit observation of the social responses to the major Holocene abrupt climate change events at 8.2, 5.2 and 4.2 kaBP. The 8.2kaBP abrupt climate change event in West Asia was a three hundred year aridification and cooling episode. During this period rain-fed agriculture, established for over a millennium in northern Mesopotamia, suddenly collapsed. Irrigation agriculture, pastoral nomadism, or migration were the only subsistence alternatives for populations previously supported by cereal dry-farming. Irrigation agriculture was not, however, possible along the northern alluvial plains of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where incised riverbeds were several meters below plain level. Exploitable plain-level levees were only accessible in southern-most alluvial plain, at the head of the present-day Persian Gulf. The archaeological data from this region documents the first irrigation agriculture settlement of the plain during the 8.2 kaBP event. Irrigation agriculture provides about twice the yield of dry-farming in Mesopotamia, but at considerable labor costs relative to dry-farming. With irrigation agriculture surplus production was now available for deployment. But why work more? The 8.2 kaBP event provided the natural force for Mesopotamian irrigation agriculture and surplus production that were essential for the earliest class-formation and urban life.

  5. The Recycling of Surplus Associated Gas in Pingbei Oil Field%坪北油田伴生气的回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨溢; 徐同欢

    2012-01-01

    During the early stage of Pingbei Oil Field development,the surplus associated gas had been always combusted directly in the open air which was a waste of energy and a threat to the environment.In this paper,three solutions are proposed to tackle this problem.First is to build up gas collecting pipe network to recycle casing gas with pressure;second is to improve the relevant techniques to recover more associated gas;and the last is to develop energy efficient facilities to reduce gas loss.Moreover,the surplus associated gas can be used to generate power which is a good way to enhance energy efficiency while cutting power generation costs.%坪北油田开发初期,富余伴生气直接放空燃烧,既浪费能源,又污染环境。要解决这个问题可以三个方面入手:一是建设集气管网,增压回收套管气;二是完善配套工艺,回收更多伴生气;三是研发节能设备,减少伴气损耗。同时要应利用富余伴生气发电,提高能源利用率,降低电力成本。

  6. 电液伺服加载系统多余力分析%Research on Surplus Force of Electro-hydraulic Servo Loading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩洋; 吴晖; 曾毅; 潘阳

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic cylinder position control is widely used. Electro-hydraulic servo loading system is often used to simulate the real load. This article firstly build the mathematical model of electro-hydraulic proportional position and electro-hydraulic servo loading systems. Then analyze the surplus torque generated in loading process to find out the related factors influencing the surplus torque. Finally adopt“PID+speed feed-forward compensation”to improve comprehensive performance of loading system.%液压缸位置控制广泛应用于各类液压控制系统中,常采用电液伺服加载系统模拟其运动过程中的真实负载。该文首先建立电液比例位置控制和电液伺服加载系统的数学模型;然后对加载过程中产生的多余力进行分析,找出影响多余力的相关因素;最后采用“PID+速度前馈补偿”来改善加载系统的综合性能。

  7. Estimating Children’s Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through Retrospective Analyses of Blood Lead Biomonitoring from the Bunker Hill Superfund Site in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Soil/dust ingestion rates are important variables in assessing children’s health risks in contaminated environments. Current estimates are based largely on soil tracer methodology, which is limited by analytical uncertainty, small sample size, and short study du...

  8. Evaluation of Sediment Agitation and Mixing into the Surrounding WaterColumn from Capping Activities at the Wyckoff/Eagle Harbor Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capping is a common remediation technology for the containment of contaminated sediments. While capping is a common remediation technology for contaminated sediments, little information exists on the potential release of contaminated sediments during and after the capping operati...

  9. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, M.D.; Sarasua, S.; Jones, P.A. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies)

    1999-07-01

    For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, the authors used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. They used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included in the blood lead measurements of 1,015 children aged 6--71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil, house dust, interior paint, and tap water. After adjusting for income, education or the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, they found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09--0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 [micro]g/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2.08--17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

  10. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, M D; Sarasua, S; Jones, P A

    1999-07-01

    For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, we used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. We used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included the blood lead measurements (0.5 to 40.2 microg/dL) of 1015 children aged 6-71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil (18.1-9980 mg/kg), house dust (5.2-71,000 mg/kg), interior paint (0-16.5 mg/cm2), and tap water (0.3-103 microg/L). After adjusting for income, education of the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, we found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 microg/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2. 08-17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

  11. PAH MIXTURE BIOACCUMULATION BY MEIOBENTHIC COPEPODS (CRUSTACEA) INHABITING A U.S. EPA SUPERFUND SITE: TECHNIQUES FOR MICROMASS BODY BURDEN AND TOTAL LIPID ANALYSIS. (R825279)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  13. New perspectives for underground storage of surplus LPG within the framework of a strategy to optimize the production rate of a gas condensate field; Perspectives nouvelles de stockage souterrain du GPL en surplus dans le cadre d'une strategie d'optimisation de la production d'un champ de gaz a condensat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terkmani, M. [Sonatrach, Direction Production, Hydra (Algeria)

    2000-07-01

    Most of the algerian natural gas reserves, as well as those of many other countries, are made up of gas - condensate which needs to be processed in surface facilities where it is split into three different fluids: dry gas, LPG and condensate. The relative proportion of each fluid is fixed and cannot be altered. Therefore any disturbance due to technical, commercial or conjuncture reasons that would reduce or block the dispatching of one of them will have a negative impact on the producing performance of the field. In case circumstances would lead to the necessity of reducing or totally suppressing the dispatching of LPG, then one one of the following unpleasant decisions would have to be taken: - Flare surplus LPG in order to avoid reducing or suppressing condensate and dry gas production. - Reduce or suppress condensate and dry gas production in order to avoid producing any surplus LPG. The alternative to avoid either decision lies in the availability of a sufficient storage capacity for the surplus LPG. Among conventional technics for underground or surface storage none seems fit for LPG because of an almost certain risk of economic failure in the context of the problem to be solved. The aim of this paper is to present a possible solution to solve this problem through a new underground storage concept that would offer enough flexibility to store the required volume of LPG whatever its importance, at a very low investment cost whatever the size of the volumes to be stored, with the possibility to start immediately the production of stored LPG as soon as the disturbance is over. This solution lies in the possibility to inject LPG into the gas reservoir from which it is produced by means of one or several producers temporarily converted into LPG injection wells. (author)

  14. Energy use from sugar cane industry to generated electric surplus for public supply in El Salvador; Aproveitamento energetico da agroindustria da cana de acucar para geracao de excedentes de eletricidade na rede publica de El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabanino, Ana Maria Gonzalez

    1990-08-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that the application of technological alternatives using high pressure (cogeneration or thermoelectric systems) and improving the efficiency of the whole energy cycle in sugar cane industry, it is possible to generate electric energy surplus for public electric network with technical and economical advantages. (author). 28 figs., 182 tabs., 53 refs

  15. Oak Ridge Reservation Site Management Plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This site management for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program implements the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (EPA 1990), also known as an Interagency Agreement (IAG), hereafter referred to as the Agreement.'' The Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), hereafter known as the Parties,'' entered into this Agreement for the purpose of coordinating remediation activities undertaken on the ORR to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 7 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Community Essay: Implementation of the MediSend Program: a multidisciplinary medical surplus recovery initiative at an academic health science center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruh Workeneh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a second year medical student my focus was narrowly on navigating and absorbing the enormous amount of information that I needed to pass my courses—it was not one year at a time, rather it was one course at a time. This changed when I became a student leader and met phenomenal individuals, like my co-author, who introduced the idea of medical surplus recovery to me, as well as Martin Lazar, who founded MediSend/International. The world was not simply going to wait while I struggled to finish medical school, and if I wanted to make a difference I had to jump in. In the article below we describe the MediSend Program, a student-conceived, student-driven effort to collect medical, dental, and educational surplus at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The students that helped and continue to help craft the MediSend Program have realized that they are not only important constituents of higher education, but they play a vital role in shaping university priorities. In the process, the MediSend Program has provided an uncommon learning experience, one that incorporates the values of compassion and altruism with environmental preservation and equitable resource distribution. I am no longer a student and consider my participation in sustainable solutions a duty, a sensibility that was shaped during my tenure in medical school. Sustainability should be a universal guiding principle in healthcare education and practice, as well as other disciplines, because it is the key to human survival.

  17. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  18. Superfund Programmatic Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes an inventory of program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the...

  19. Characterization of candidate DOE sites for fabricating MOX fuel for lead assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdaway, R.F.; Miller, J.W.; Sease, J.D.; Moses, R.J.; O`Connor, D.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carrell, R.D. [Technical Resources International, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Jaeger, C.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, M.L.; Strasser, A.A. [Delta-21 Resources, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is directing the program to disposition US surplus weapons-usable plutonium. For the reactor option for disposition of this surplus plutonium, MD is seeking to contract with a consortium, which would include a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabricator and a commercial US reactor operator, to fabricate and burn MOX fuel in existing commercial nuclear reactors. This option would entail establishing a MOX fuel fabrication facility under the direction of the consortium on an existing DOE site. Because of the lead time required to establish a MOX fuel fabrication facility and the need to qualify the MOX fuel for use in a commercial reactor, MD is considering the early fabrication of lead assemblies (LAs) in existing DOE facilities under the technical direction of the consortium. The LA facility would be expected to produce a minimum of 1 metric ton heavy metal per year and must be operational by June 2003. DOE operations offices were asked to identify candidate sites and facilities to be evaluated for suitability to fabricate MOX fuel LAs. Savannah River Site, Argonne National Laboratory-West, Hanford, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory were identified as final candidates to host the LA project. A Site Evaluation Team (SET) worked with each site to develop viable plans for the LA project. SET then characterized the suitability of each of the five plans for fabricating MOX LAs using 28 attributes and documented the characterization to aid DOE and the consortium in selecting the site for the LA project. SET concluded that each option has relative advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other options; however, each could meet the requirements of the LA project as outlined by MD and SET.

  20. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.