Shetty, Shohan; Zevin, Boris; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Roberts, Kurt E; Duffy, Andrew J
Simulation training for surgical residents can shorten learning curves, improve technical skills, and expedite competency. Several studies have shown that skills learned in the simulated environment are transferable to the operating room. Residency programs are trying to incorporate simulation into the resident training curriculum to supplement the hands-on experience gained in the operating room. Despite the availability and proven utility of surgical simulators and simulation laboratories, they are still widely underutilized by surgical trainees. Studies have shown that voluntary use leads to minimal participation in a training curriculum. Although there are several simulation tools, there is no clear evidence of the superiority of one tool over the other in skill acquisition. The purpose of this study was to explore resident perceptions, training experiences, and preferences regarding laparoscopic simulation training. Our goal was to profile resident participation in surgical skills simulation, recognize potential barriers to voluntary simulator use, and identify simulation tools and tasks preferred by residents. Furthermore, this study may help to inform whether mandatory/protected training time, as part of the residents' curriculum is essential to enhance participation in the simulation laboratory. A cross-sectional study on general surgery residents (postgraduate years 1-5) at Yale University School of Medicine and the University of Toronto via an online questionnaire was conducted. Overall, 67 residents completed the survey. The institutional review board approved the methods of the study. Overall, 95.5% of the participants believed that simulation training improved their laparoscopic skills. Most respondents (92.5%) perceived that skills learned during simulation training were transferrable to the operating room. Overall, 56.7% of participants agreed that proficiency in a simulation curriculum should be mandatory before operating room experience. The
Fernandez, Gladys L; Lee, Patrick C; Page, David W; D'Amour, Elizabeth M; Wait, Richard B; Seymour, Neal E
Simulated patient care has gained acceptance as a medical education tool but is underused in surgical training. To improve resident clinical management in critical situations relevant to the surgical patient, high-fidelity full patient simulation training was instituted at Baystate Medical Center in 2005 and developed during successive years. We define surgical patient simulation as clinical management performed in a high fidelity environment using a manikin simulator. This technique is intended to be specifically modeled experiential learning related to the knowledge, skills, and behaviors that are fundamental to patient care. We report 3 academic years' use of a patient simulation curriculum. Learners were PGY 1-3 residents; 26 simulated patient care experiences were developed based on (1) designation as a critical management problem that would otherwise be difficult to practice, (2) ability to represent the specific problem in simulation, (3) relevance to the American Board of Surgery (ABS) certifying examination, and/or (4) relevance to institutional quality or morbidity and mortality reports. Although training started in 2005, data are drawn from the period of systematic and mandatory training spanning from July 2006 to June 2009. Training occurred during 1-hour sessions using a computer-driven manikin simulator (METI, Sarasota, Florida). Educational content was provided either before or during presimulation briefing sessions. Scenario areas included shock states, trauma and critical care case management, preoperative processes, and postoperative conditions and complications. All sessions were followed by facilitated debriefing. Likert scale-based multi-item assessments of core competency in medical knowledge, patient care, diagnosis, management, communication, and professionalism were used to generate a performance score for each resident for each simulation (percentage of best possible score). Performance was compared across PGYs by repeated
Bongiovanni, Tasce; Yeo, Heather; Sosa, Julie A; Yoo, Peter S; Long, Theodore; Rosenthal, Marjorie; Berg, David; Curry, Leslie; Nunez-Smith, Marcella
High rates of attrition from general surgery residency may threaten the surgical workforce. We sought to gain further insight regarding resident motivations for leaving general surgery residency. We conducted in-depth interviews to generate rich narrative data that explored individual experiences. An interdisciplinary team used the constant comparative method to analyze the data. Four themes characterized experiences of our 19 interviewees who left their residency program. Participants (1) felt an informal contract was breached when clinical duties were prioritized over education, (2) characterized a culture in which there was no safe space to share personal and programmatic concerns, (3) expressed a scarcity of role models who demonstrated better work-life balance, and (4) reported negative interactions with authority resulting in a profound loss of commitment. As general surgery graduate education continues to evolve, our findings may inform interventions and policies regarding programmatic changes to boost retention in surgical residency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ajao, Oluwole Gbolagunte; Alao, Adekola
In 1904, William Halsted introduced the present model of surgical residency program which has been adopted worldwide. In some developing countries, where surgical residency training programs are new, some colleges have introduced innovations to the Halsted's original concept of surgical residency training. These include 1) primary examination, 2) rural surgical posting, and 3) submission of dissertation for final certification. Our information was gathered from the publications on West African College of Surgeons' (WACS) curriculum of the medical schools, faculty papers of medical schools, and findings from committees of medical schools. Verbal information was also gathered via interviews from members of the WACS. Additionally, our personal experience as members and examiners of the college are included herein. We then noted the differences between surgical residency training programs in the developed countries and that of developing countries. The innovations introduced into the residency training programs in the developing countries are mainly due to the emphasis placed on paper qualifications and degrees instead of performance. We conclude that the innovations introduced into surgical residency training programs in developing countries are the result of the misconception of what surgical residency training programs entail. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Swain, JaBaris D; Matousek, Alexi C; Scott, John W; Cooper, Zara; Smink, Douglas S; Bolman, Ralph Morton; Finlayson, Samuel R G; Zinner, Michael J; Riviello, Robert
Academic global surgery is a nascent field focused on improving surgical care in resource-poor settings through a broad-based scholarship agenda. Although there is increasing momentum to expand training opportunities in low-resource settings among academic surgical programs, most focus solely on establishing short-term elective rotations rather than fostering research or career development. Given the complex nature of surgical care delivery and programmatic capacity building in the resource-poor settings, many challenges remain before global surgery is accepted as an academic discipline and an established career path. Brigham and Women's Hospital has established a specialized global surgery track within the general surgery residency program to develop academic leaders in this growing area of need and opportunity. Here we describe our experience with the design and development of the program followed by practical applications and lessons learned from our early experiences. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farivar, Behzad S; Flannagan, Molly; Leitman, I Michael
With the continued expansion of robotically assisted procedures, general surgery residents continue to receive more exposure to this new technology as part of their training. There are currently no guidelines or standardized training requirements for robot-assisted procedures during general surgical residency. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this new technology on general surgery training from the residents' perspective. An anonymous, national, web-based survey was conducted on residents enrolled in general surgery training in 2013. The survey was sent to 240 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved general surgery training programs. Overall, 64% of the responding residents were men and had an average age of 29 years. Half of the responses were from postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and PGY2 residents, and the remainder was from the PGY3 level and above. Overall, 50% of the responses were from university training programs, 32% from university-affiliated programs, and 18% from community-based programs. More than 96% of residents noted the availability of the surgical robot system at their training institution. Overall, 63% of residents indicated that they had participated in robotic surgical cases. Most responded that they had assisted in 10 or fewer robotic cases with the most frequent activities being assisting with robotic trocar placement and docking and undocking the robot. Only 18% reported experience with operating the robotic console. More senior residents (PGY3 and above) were involved in robotic cases compared with junior residents (78% vs 48%, p robotic case. Approximately 64% of residents reported that formal training in robotic surgery was important in residency training and 46% of residents indicated that robotic-assisted cases interfered with resident learning. Only 11% felt that robotic-assisted cases would replace conventional laparoscopic surgery in the future. This study illustrates that although the most residents
Lukish, Jeffrey; Cruess, David
The specific aim of this study was to summarize the viewpoints of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons (RAS-ACS) membership regarding current training and quality of life-related issues prior to implementation of the new duty-hour guidelines. The goal was to gain insight of the members that may be useful to recruit and guide the future training of surgical residents. An Internet-based survey was developed to evaluate the viewpoints of RAS-ACS. The survey was administered by Esurveymaker.com via the ACS Web page from 2000 to 2003. RAS-ACS member participation was voluntary and anonymous. Analyses were performed to determine the frequency of response for each survey item. Two hundred thirty-five members completed the survey representing 5 per cent of RAS-ACS. Eighty-four per cent were general surgery residents. Personal satisfaction (64%) and mentorship (49%) were top factors for respondents to pursue surgical training; discussion with colleagues and future income was less important. Forty-five per cent reported that job performance was their most important concern during residency. A rewarding surgical career and family life were ranked as the most important expectations. Eighty-six per cent reported that they were satisfied with their residency, and 66 per cent reported that work hours should be limited. Personal satisfaction and mentorship were critical factors for members of the RAS-ACS to seek surgical training. Although most of the members report that work hours should be limited, an overwhelming majority reports satisfaction with surgical training prior to institution of the new duty-hour guidelines. Further emphasis on mentorship and work-hour reform may be beneficial in recruiting medical students into surgical residencies.
Dietl, Charles A; Russell, John C
The purpose of this article is to review the literature on process changes in surgical training programs and to evaluate their effect on the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Core Competencies, American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) scores, and American Board of Surgery (ABS) certification. A literature search was obtained from MEDLINE via PubMed.gov, ScienceDirect.com, Google Scholar on all peer-reviewed studies published since 2003 using the following search queries: surgery residency training, surgical education, competency-based surgical education, ACGME core competencies, ABSITE scores, and ABS pass rate. Our initial search list included 990 articles on surgery residency training models, 539 on competency-based surgical education, 78 on ABSITE scores, and 33 on ABS pass rate. Overall, 31 articles met inclusion criteria based on their effect on ACGME Core Competencies, ABSITE scores, and ABS certification. Systematic review showed that 5/31, 19/31, and 6/31 articles on process changes in surgical training programs had a positive effect on patient care, medical knowledge, and ABSITE scores, respectively. ABS certification was not analyzed. The other ACGME core competencies were addressed in only 6 studies. Several publications on process changes in surgical training programs have shown a positive effect on patient care, medical knowledge, and ABSITE scores. However, the effect on ABS certification, and other quantitative outcomes from residency programs, have not been addressed. Studies on education strategies showing evidence that residency program objectives are being achieved are still needed. This article addresses the 6 ACGME Core Competencies. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quick, Jacob A; Kudav, Vishal; Doty, Jennifer; Crane, Megan; Bukoski, Alex D; Bennett, Bethany J; Barnes, Stephen L
Surgical resident ability to accurately evaluate one's own skill level is an important part of educational growth. We aimed to determine if differences exist between self and observer technical skill evaluation of surgical residents performing a single procedure. We prospectively enrolled 14 categorical general surgery residents (six post-graduate year [PGY] 1-2, three PGY 3, and five PGY 4-5). Over a 6-month period, following each laparoscopic cholecystectomy, residents and seven faculty each completed the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Spearman's coefficient was calculated for three groups: senior (PGY 4-5), PGY3, and junior (PGY 1-2). Rho (ρ) values greater than 0.8 were considered well correlated. Of the 125 paired assessments (resident-faculty each evaluating the same case), 58 were completed for senior residents, 54 for PGY3 residents, and 13 for junior residents. Using the mean from all OSATS categories, trainee self-evaluations correlated well to faculty (senior ρ 0.97, PGY3 ρ 0.9, junior ρ 0.9). When specific OSATS categories were analyzed, junior residents exhibited poor correlation in categories of respect for tissue (ρ -0.5), instrument handling (ρ 0.71), operative flow (ρ 0.41), use of assistants (ρ 0.05), procedural knowledge (ρ 0.32), and overall comfort with the procedure (ρ 0.73). PGY3 residents lacked correlation in two OSATS categories, operative flow (ρ 0.7) and procedural knowledge (ρ 0.2). Senior resident self-evaluations exhibited strong correlations to observers in all areas. Surgical residents improve technical skill self-awareness with progressive training. Less-experienced trainees have a tendency to over-or-underestimate technical skill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mackenzie, Colin F; Garofalo, Evan; Puche, Adam; Chen, Hegang; Pugh, Kristy; Shackelford, Stacy; Tisherman, Samuel; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark W
Surgical patient outcomes are related to surgeon skills. To measure resident surgeon technical and nontechnical skills for trauma core competencies before and after training and up to 18 months later and to compare resident performance with the performance of expert traumatologists. This longitudinal study performed from May 1, 2013, through February 29, 2016, at Maryland State Anatomy Board cadaver laboratories included 40 surgical residents and 10 expert traumatologists. Performance was measured during extremity vascular exposures and lower extremity fasciotomy in fresh cadavers before and after taking the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. The primary outcome variable was individual procedure score (IPS), with secondary outcomes of IPSs on 5 components of technical and nontechnical skills, Global Rating Scale scores, errors, and time to complete the procedure. Two trained evaluators located in the same laboratory evaluated performance with a standardized script and mobile touch-screen data collection. Thirty-eight (95%) of 40 surgical residents (mean [SD] age, 31 [2.9] years) who were evaluated before and within 4 weeks of ASSET training completed follow-up evaluations 12 to 18 months later (mean [SD], 14 [2.7] months). The experts (mean [SD] age, 52 [10.0] years) were significantly older and had a longer (mean [SD], 46 [16.3] months) interval since taking the ASSET course (both P knowledge, correct procedural steps, and decreased errors from 60% to 19% after the ASSET course regardless of clinical year of training (P knowledge (the 2 IPS components most improved with training) indicates the resident's performance was within 1 nearest-neighbor classifier of experts after ASSET training. Five residents had no improvement with training. The Trauma Readiness Index for experts (mean [SD], 74 ) was significantly different compared with the trained residents (mean [SD], 48  before training vs 63  after training [P = .004
Witzke, D B; Hoskins, J D; Mastrangelo, M J; Witzke, W O; Chu, U B; Pande, S; Park, A E
Perioperative preparations such as operating room setup, patient and equipment positioning, and operating port placement are essential to operative success in minimally invasive surgery. We developed an immersive virtual reality-based training system (REMIS) to provide residents (and other health professionals) with training and evaluation in these perioperative skills. Our program uses the qualities of immersive VR that are available today for inclusion in an ongoing training curriculum for surgical residents. The current application consists of a primary platform for patient positioning for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Having completed this module we can create many different simulated problems for other procedures. As a part of the simulation, we have devised a computer-driven real-time data collection system to help us in evaluating trainees and providing feedback during the simulation. The REMIS program trains and evaluates surgical residents and obviates the need to use expensive operating room and surgeon time. It also allows residents to train based on their schedule and does not put patients at increased risk. The method is standardized, allows for repetition if needed, evaluates individual performance, provides the possible complications of incorrect choices, provides training in 3-D environment, and has the capability of being used for various scenarios and professions.
Tanious, Adam; Wooster, Mathew; Jung, Andrew; Nelson, Peter R; Armstrong, Paul A; Shames, Murray L
As the integrated vascular residency program reaches almost a decade of maturity, a common area of concern among trainees is the adequacy of open abdominal surgical training. It is our belief that although their overall exposure to open abdominal procedures has decreased, integrated vascular residents have an adequate and focused exposure to open aortic surgery during training. National operative case log data supplied by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were compiled for both graduating integrated vascular surgery residents (IVSRs) and graduating categorical general surgery residents (GSRs) for the years 2012 to 2014. Mean total and open abdominal case numbers were compared between the IVSRs and GSRs, with more in-depth exploration into open abdominal procedures by organ system. Overall, the mean total 5-year case volume of IVSRs was 1168 compared with 980 for GSRs during the same time frame (P surgery, representing 57% of all open abdominal cases. GSRs completed an average of 116 open alimentary tract surgeries during their training. Open abdominal surgery represented an average of 7.1% of the total vascular case volume for the vascular residents, whereas open abdominal surgery represented 21% of a GSR's total surgical experience. IVSRs reported almost double the number of total cases during their training, with double chief-level cases. Sixty-five percent of open abdominal surgeries performed by IVSRs involved the aorta or its renovisceral branches. Whereas open abdominal surgery represented 7.1% of an IVSR's surgical training, GSRs had a far broader scope of open abdominal procedures, completing nearly double those of IVSRs. The differences in open abdominal procedures pertain to the differing diseases treated by GSRs and IVSRs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shin, Jennifer J; Cunningham, Michael J; Emerick, Kevin G; Gray, Stacey T
Surgical competency requires sound clinical judgment, a systematic diagnostic approach, and integration of a wide variety of nontechnical skills. This more complex aspect of clinician development has traditionally been difficult to measure through standard assessment methods. This study was conducted to use the Clinical Practice Instrument (CPI) to measure nontechnical diagnostic and management skills during otolaryngology residency training; to determine whether there is demonstrable change in these skills between residents who are in postgraduate years (PGYs) 2, 4, and 5; and to evaluate whether results vary according to subspecialty topic or method of administration. Prospective study using the CPI, an instrument with previously established internal consistency, reproducibility, interrater reliability, discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change, in an otolaryngology residency training program. The CPI was used to evaluate progression in residents' ability to evaluate, diagnose, and manage case-based clinical scenarios. A total of 248 evaluations were performed in 45 otolaryngology resident trainees at regular intervals. Analysis of variance with nesting and postestimation pairwise comparisons were used to evaluate total and domain scores according to training level, subspecialty topic, and method of administration. Longitudinal residency educational initiative. Assessment with the CPI during PGYs 2, 4, and 5 of residency. Among the 45 otolaryngology residents (248 CPI administrations), there were a mean (SD) of 5 (3) administrations (range, 1-4) during their training. Total scores were significantly different among PGY levels of training, with lower scores seen in the PGY-2 level (44 ) compared with the PGY-4 (64 ) or PGY-5 level (69 ) (P otolaryngology (mean [SD], 72 ) than in subspecialties (range, 55 , P = .003, to 56 , P < .001). Neither administering the examination with an electronic scoring system, rather than a
Kurashima, Yo; Hirano, Satoshi
We reviewed the literature regarding the specific methods and strategies for implementing simulation-based training into the modern surgical residency curriculum. Residency programs are still struggling with how best to implement it into their curricula from a practical viewpoint. A systematic review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and other resources for studies involving the use of simulation for technical skills training in the surgical residency curriculum. Studies were selected based on the integration of simulation into the curriculum and/or a description of the details of implementation and the resources required. In total, 2533 unique citations were retrieved based on this search, and 31 articles met the inclusion criteria. Most simulators were focused on laparoscopic procedures, and training occurred most often in a skills lab. The assessment of skills consisted mostly of speed of task completion. Only 4 studies addressed issues of cost, and 6 programs mentioned human resources without any mention of skills center personnel or administrative support. All of the studies described the nature of the simulation training, but very few commented on how it was actually implemented and what was needed from organizational, administrative and logistical perspectives.
Mark, James R; Kelly, Douglas C; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Shenot, Patrick J; Lallas, Costas D
This study reports on the effect of fatigue on Urology residents using the daVinci surgical skills simulator (dVSS). Seven Urology residents performed a series of selected exercises on the dVSS while pre-call and post-call. Prior to dVSS performance a survey of subjective fatigue was taken and residents were tested with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Using the metrics available in the dVSS software, the performance of each resident was evaluated. The Urology residents slept an average of 4.07 h (range 2.5-6 h) while on call compared to an average of 5.43 h while not on call (range 3-7 h, p = 0.08). Post-call residents were significantly more likely to be identified as fatigued by the Epworth Sleepiness Score than pre-call residents (p = 0.01). Significant differences were observed in fatigued residents performing the exercises, Tubes and Match Board 2 (p = 0.05, 0.02). Additionally, there were significant differences in the total number of critical errors during the training session (9.29 vs. 3.14, p = 0.04). Fatigue in post-call Urology residents leads to poorer performance on the dVSS simulator. The dVSS may become a useful instrument in the education of fatigued residents and a tool to identify fatigue in trainees.
Fu, Shangxi; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Meisheng; Wang, Liming
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of surgical laparoscopic operation course on laparoscopic operation skills after the simulated training for medical students with relatively objective results via data gained before and after the practice course of laparoscopic simulator of the resident standardized trainees. Experiment 1: 20 resident standardized trainees with no experience in laparoscopic surgery were included in the inexperienced group and finished simulated cholecystectomy according to simulator videos. Simulator data was collected (total operation time, path length, average speed of instrument movement, movement efficiency, number of perforations, the time cautery is applied without appropriate contact with adhesions, number of serious complications). Ten attending doctors were included in the experienced group and conducted the operation of simulated cholecystectomy directly. Data was collected with simulator. Data of two groups was compared. Experiment 2: Participants in inexperienced group were assigned to basic group (receiving 8 items of basic operation training) and special group (receiving 8 items of basic operation training and 4 items of specialized training), and 10 persons for each group. They received training course designed by us respectively. After training level had reached the expected target, simulated cholecystectomy was performed, and data was collected. Experimental data between basic group and special group was compared and then data between special group and experienced group was compared. Results of experiment 1 showed that there is significant difference between data in inexperienced group in which participants operated simulated cholecystectomy only according to instructors' teaching and operation video and data in experienced group. Result of experiment 2 suggested that, total operation time, number of perforations, number of serious complications, number of non-cauterized bleeding and the time cautery is applied
Holst, Daniel; Kowalewski, Timothy M; White, Lee W; Brand, Timothy C; Harper, Jonathan D; Sorenson, Mathew D; Kirsch, Sarah; Lendvay, Thomas S
Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining services from a large group of people, typically an online community. Validated methods of evaluating surgical video are time-intensive, expensive, and involve participation of multiple expert surgeons. We sought to obtain valid performance scores of urologic trainees and faculty on a dry-laboratory robotic surgery task module by using crowdsourcing through a web-based grading tool called Crowd Sourced Assessment of Technical Skill (CSATS). IRB approval was granted to test the technical skills grading accuracy of Amazon.com Mechanical Turk™ crowd-workers compared to three expert faculty surgeon graders. The two groups assessed dry-laboratory robotic surgical suturing performances of three urology residents (PGY-2, -4, -5) and two faculty using three performance domains from the validated Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills assessment tool. After an average of 2 hours 50 minutes, each of the five videos received 50 crowd-worker assessments. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) between the surgeons and crowd was 0.91 using Cronbach's alpha statistic (confidence intervals=0.20-0.92), indicating an agreement level between the two groups of "excellent." The crowds were able to discriminate the surgical level, and both the crowds and the expert faculty surgeon graders scored one senior trainee's performance above a faculty's performance. Surgery-naive crowd-workers can rapidly assess varying levels of surgical skill accurately relative to a panel of faculty raters. The crowds provided rapid feedback and were inexpensive. CSATS may be a valuable adjunct to surgical simulation training as requirements for more granular and iterative performance tracking of trainees become mandated and commonplace.
Restrictions in residents' work hours have been in place in Canada for roughly a decade, having been negotiated rather than imposed. The changes in residents' schedules that resulted are roughly equivalent to the limitation of 80 duty hours per week in the United States. When work-hours restrictions began, surgery faculty were worried that residents' experience would be compromised. But these fears have not materialized. Why? The author maintains there are many reasons. (1) Most surgical procedures are now faster, and lengthy inpatient care has diminished, all of which saves time. (2) Formerly difficult or risky procedures are now performed more frequently and safely, which increases residents' education about difficult conditions. (3) A variety of resources (e.g., skills-transfer courses, surgical simulators, etc.) are now available for residents to learn and evolve surgical techniques, and residents take advantage of these resources, being highly motivated to learn the best in the time available to them. (4) There have been positive changes in residents' education that have helped them become more efficient learners than before, with improved resources and skills for faster access to information. The author maintains that in his present surgery residency program, the residents still work extremely hard but are more protected from the unending demands for patient care. They have more time for orderly study and greater opportunities to develop skills other than technical ones. They are in a happier work setting, which the author strongly believes facilitates improved patient care.
Bauer, Bruce; Williams, Erin; Stratman, Erik J
The public and other medical specialties expect dermatologists who offer cosmetic dermatology services to provide competent care. There are numerous barriers to achieving cosmetic dermatology competency during residency. Many dermatology residents enter the workforce planning to provide cosmetic services. If a training gap exists, this may adversely affect patient safety. To identify resources available for hands-on cosmetic dermatology training in US dermatology residency training programs and to assess program director (PD) attitudes toward cosmetic dermatology training during residency and strategies, including discounted pricing, used by training programs to overcome barriers related to resident-performed cosmetic dermatology procedures. An online survey in academic dermatology practices among PDs of US dermatology residency programs. Frequency of cosmetic dermatology devices and injectables used for dermatology resident hands-on cosmetic dermatology training, categorizing PD attitudes toward cosmetic dermatology training during residency and describing residency-related discounted pricing models. Responses from PDs were received from 53 of 114 (46%) US dermatology residency programs. All but 3 programs (94%) offered hands-on cosmetic dermatology training using botulinum toxin, and 47 of 53 (89%) provided training with hyaluronic acid fillers. Pulsed dye lasers represented the most common laser use experienced by residents (41 of 52 [79%]), followed by Q-switched Nd:YAG (30 of 52 [58%]). Discounted procedures were offered by 32 of 53 (60%) programs, with botulinum toxin (30 of 32 [94%]) and fillers (27 of 32 [84%]) most prevalent and with vascular lasers (17 of 32 [53%]) and hair removal lasers (12 of 32 [38%]) less common. Various discounting methods were used. Only 20 of 53 (38%) PDs believed that cosmetic dermatology should be a necessary aspect of residency training; 14 of 52 (27%) PDs thought that residents should not be required to perform any cosmetic
Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work
Overtoom, Evelien M.; Jansen, Frank-Willem; van Santbrink, Evert J P; Schraffordt Koops, Steven E; Veersema, Sebastiaan; Schreuder, Henk W R
Objective Serious games are new in the field of laparoscopic surgical training. We evaluate the residents׳ opinion of a new laparoscopic simulator for the Nintendo Wii-U platform. Design Prospective questionnaire study. Participants received a standardized introduction and completed level 3 and 4 of
Roberts, Linda; Cornell, Charles; Bostrom, Mathias; Goldsmith, Sandra; Ologhobo, Titilayo; Roberts, Timothy; Robbins, Laura
It is vital for physicians and surgeons to communicate successfully with older adults, who will constitute one-fifth of the US population by 2030. Older adults often perceive themselves as stigmatized and powerless in healthcare settings. Effective communication leads to better patient compliance and satisfaction, which is now a component of Medicare hospital reimbursement and physician and surgeon compensation from hospitals and networks. To increase orthopaedic surgery resident understanding of the unique needs of older adults in order to maintain effective and sensitive communication with this vulnerable population. A two-part training program (ongoing for 8 years) comprised of: 1) small-group interactive didactic sessions on aging issues; and 2) workshop demonstrations given by the residents to a group of older adults, followed by a Question & Answer session. Residents were assessed using a 22-item pre-post questionnaire covering medical knowledge of aging, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety about aging. Older adult participants were surveyed for perceptions of residents' sensitivity toward them. Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City, a specialized urban academic center, with a 5-year Orthopedic Surgery Residency program. 70 PGY3 residents, for whom the program is a requirement, and 711 older adult participants recruited from a community convenience sample. Older adult participants: Of 711 participants, 672 (95%) responded; 96% strongly agreed/agreed that the residents had demonstrated sensitivity toward them. Residents: Of 70 residents, 35 (50%) were assessed. Mean knowledge scores increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001); five of nine attitude items (p ≤ 0.05) and one of four anxiety items improved significantly (p ≤ 0.001). Significant change was seen in residents' attitudes and anxiety levels toward older adults, attributes that are usually deep seated and hard to change. Residents moved along the Accreditation Council for Graduate
Saadat, Lily V; Dahlke, Allison R; Rajaram, Ravi; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Love, Remi; Odell, David D; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Yang, Anthony D
The Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial was a national, cluster-randomized, pragmatic, noninferiority trial of 117 general surgery programs, comparing standard ACGME resident duty hour requirements ("Standard Policy") to flexible, less-restrictive policies ("Flexible Policy"). Participating program directors (PDs) were surveyed to assess their perceptions of patient care, resident education, and resident well-being during the study period. A survey was sent to all PDs of the general surgery residency programs participating in the FIRST trial (N = 117 [100% response rate]) in June and July 2015. The survey compared PDs' perceptions of the duty hour requirements in their arm of the FIRST trial during the study period from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015. One hundred percent of PDs in the Flexible Policy arm indicated that residents used their additional flexibility in duty hours to complete operations they started or to stabilize a critically ill patient. Compared with the Standard Policy arm, PDs in the Flexible Policy arm perceived a more positive effect of duty hours on the safety of patient care (68.9% vs 0%; p care (98.3% vs 0%; p care (71.8%), continuity of care (94.0%), quality of resident education (83.8%), and resident well-being (55.6%) would be improved with a hypothetical permanent adoption of more flexible duty hours. Program directors involved in the FIRST trial perceived improvements in patient safety, continuity of care, and multiple aspects of resident education and well-being with flexible duty hours. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmed, Hesham M; Gale, Stephen C; Tinti, Meredith S; Shiroff, Adam M; Macias, Aitor C; Rhodes, Stancie C; Defreese, Marissa A; Gracias, Vicente H
Emergency general surgery (EGS) is increasingly being provided by academic trauma surgeons in an acute care surgery model. Our tertiary care hospital recently changed from a model where all staff surgeons (private, subspecialty academic, and trauma academic) were assigned EGS call to one in which an emergency surgery service (ESS), staffed by academic trauma faculty, cares for all EGS patients. In the previous model, many surgeries were "not covered" by residents because of work-hour restrictions, conflicting needs, or private surgeon preference. The ESS was separate from the trauma service. We hypothesize that by creating a separate ESS, residents can accumulate needed and concentrated operative experience in a well-supervised academic environment. A prospectively accrued EGS database was retrospectively queried for the 18-month period: July 2010 to June 2011. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) databases were queried for operative numbers for our residency program and for national resident data for 2 years before and after creating the ESS. The ACGME operative requirements were tabulated from online sources. ACGME requirements were compared with surgical cases performed. During the 18-month period, 816 ESS operations were performed. Of these, 307 (38%) were laparoscopy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy were most common (138 and 145, respectively) plus 24 additional laparoscopic surgeries. Each resident performed, on average, 34 basic laparoscopic cases during their 2-month rotation, which is 56% of their ACGME basic laparoscopic requirement. A diverse mixture of 70 other general surgical operations was recorded for the remaining 509 surgical cases, including reoperative surgery, complex laparoscopy, multispecialty procedures, and seldom-performed operations such as surgery for perforated ulcer disease. Before the ESS, the classes of 2008 and 2009 reported that only 48% and 50% of cases were performed at the main academic
Overtoom, Evelien M; Jansen, Frank-Willem; van Santbrink, Evert J P; Schraffordt Koops, Steven E; Veersema, Sebastiaan; Schreuder, Henk W R
Serious games are new in the field of laparoscopic surgical training. We evaluate the residents׳ opinion of a new laparoscopic simulator for the Nintendo Wii-U platform. Prospective questionnaire study. Participants received a standardized introduction and completed level 3 and 4 of the game "Underground." They filled out a questionnaire concerning demographics and their opinion on realism, usefulness, suitability, haptic feedback, and home training-use of the game. Two tertiary teaching hospitals. Obstetrics and gynaecology residents postgraduate year 1 to 6 (n = 59) from several European countries. Subjects (n = 59) were divided into 2 groups based on laparoscopic experience: Group A (n = 38) and Group B (n = 21). The realism of different aspects of the game received mean scores around 3 on a 5-point Likert scale. The hand-eye coordination was regarded most useful for training with a mean of 3.92 (standard deviation 0.93) and the game was considered most suitable for residents in the first part of their postgraduate training with a mean of 3.73 (standard deviation 0.97). Both groups differed especially concerning their opinion of the usefulness of the game as a training tool. Most residents liked the new serious game for the Nintendo Wii-U. The usefulness and suitability as a laparoscopic training tool were rated at an acceptable to high level. However, the game does require improvements such as inclusion of a good scoring system before it can be integrated in resident training curricula. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...
Zhang, Han; Isaac, Andre; Wright, Erin D; Alrajhi, Yaser; Seikaly, Hadi
Otolaryngology-Head and Neck surgery resident physicians (OHNSR) have a high prevalence of burnout, job dissatisfaction and stress as shown within the literature. Formal mentorship programs (FMP) have a proven track record of enhancing professional development and academic success. More importantly FMP have an overall positive impact on residents and assist in improving job satisfaction. The purpose of the study is to determine the effects of a FMP on the well-being of OHNSR. A FMP was established and all OHNSR participation was voluntary. Eight OHNSR participated in the program. Perceived Stress Survey (PSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were administered at baseline and then at 3, 6, 9, and 12 month intervals. World Health Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WH-QOL) was administered at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline statistics found a significant burden of stress and burnout with an average PSS of 18.5 with a high MBI of 47.6, 50.6, and 16.5 for the emotional, depersonalization, and personal achievement domains respectively. Quality of life was also found to be low with a WH-QOL score of 71.9. After implementation of the FMP, PSS was reduced to 14.5 at 3 months (p = 0.174) and a statistically significant lower value of 7.9 at 12 months (p = 0.001). Participants were also found to have lower emotional scores (14.9, p values using the WH-QOL was also found to be significantly improved (37.5, P = 0.003) with statistically significant lower scores for the physical health (33.9, p = 0.003), psychological (41.1, p = 0.001), social relationship (46.9, p = 0.019), and environment (53.5, p = 0.012) domains. This is the first study to show that FMP can potentially alleviate high levels of stress and burnout within a surgical residency program and achieve higher levels of personal satisfaction as well as overall quality of life.
Chee, Yewlin E; Newman, Lori R; Loewenstein, John I; Kloek, Carolyn E
To design and implement a teaching skills curriculum that addressed the needs of an ophthalmology residency training program, to assess the effect of the curriculum, and to present important lessons learned. A teaching skills curriculum was designed for the Harvard Medical School (HMS) Residency Training Program in Ophthalmology. Results of a needs assessment survey were used to guide curriculum objectives. Overall, 3 teaching workshops were conducted between October 2012 and March 2013 that addressed areas of need, including procedural teaching. A postcurriculum survey was used to assess the effect of the curriculum. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, a tertiary care institution in Boston, MA. Overall, 24 residents in the HMS Residency Training Program in Ophthalmology were included. The needs assessment survey demonstrated that although most residents anticipated that teaching would be important in their future career, only one-third had prior formal training in teaching. All residents reported they found the teaching workshops to be either very or extremely useful. All residents reported they would like further training in teaching, with most residents requesting additional training in best procedural teaching practices for future sessions. The pilot year of the resident-as-teacher curriculum for the HMS Residency Training Program in Ophthalmology demonstrated a need for this curriculum and was perceived as beneficial by the residents, who reported increased comfort in their teaching skills after attending the workshops. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M; Lee, Walter T
Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership 'Basic Training' is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this 'Basic Training'. Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (pvirtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency.
Binenbaum, Gil; Volpe, Nicholas J
To describe the prevalence, management, and career outcomes of ophthalmology residents who struggle with surgical competency and to explore related educational issues. Fourteen-question written survey. Fifty-eight program directors at Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education-accredited, United States ophthalmology residency programs, representing a total of 2179 resident graduates, between 1991 and 2000. Study participants completed a mailed, anonymous survey whose format combined multiple choice and free comment questions. Number of surgically challenged residents, types of problems identified, types of remediation, final departmental decision at the end of residency, known career outcomes, and residency program use of microsurgical skills laboratories and applicant screening tests. One hundred ninety-nine residents (9% overall; 10% mean per program) were labeled as having trouble mastering surgical skills. All of the programs except 2 had encountered such residents. The most frequently cited problems were poor hand-eye coordination (24%) and poor intraoperative judgment (22%). Most programs were supportive and used educational rather than punitive measures, the most common being extra practice-laboratory time (32%), scheduling cases with the best teaching surgeon (23%), and counseling (21%). Nearly one third (31%) of residents were believed to have overcome their difficulties before graduation. Other residents were encouraged to pursue medical ophthalmology (22%) or to obtain further surgical training through a fellowship (21%) or a supervised practice setting (12%); these residents were granted a departmental statement of satisfactory completion of residency for Board eligibility. Twelve percent were asked to leave residency. Of reported career outcomes, 92% of residents were practicing ophthalmology, 65% as surgical and 27% as medical ophthalmologists. Ninety-eight percent of residency programs had microsurgical practice facilities, 64% had a formal
Peshkepija, Andi N; Basson, Marc D; Davis, Alan T; Ali, Muhammad; Haan, Pam S; Gupta, Rama N; Hardaway, John C; Nebeker, Cody A; McLeod, Michael K; Osmer, Robert L; Anderson, Cheryl I
We studied prevalence and predictors of meaningful self-reflection among surgical residents and with prompting/structured interventions, sought to improve/sustain resident skills. Residents from six programs recorded 1032 narrative self-reflective comments (120 residents), using a web-based platform. If residents identified something learned or to be improved, self-reflection was deemed meaningful. Independent variables PGY level, resident/surgeon gender, study site/Phase1: July2014-August2015 vs. Phase2: September2015-September2016) were analyzed. Meaningful self-reflection was documented in 40.6% (419/1032) of entries. PGY5's meaningfully self-reflected less than PGY1-4's, 26.1% vs. 49.6% (p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, resident narratives during Phase 2 were 4.7 times more likely to engage in meaningful self-reflection compared to Phase1 entries (p self-reflection, compared to Phase1. Surgical residents uncommonly practice meaningful self-reflection, even when prompted, and PGY5/chief residents reflect less than more junior residents. Substantial/sustained improvements in resident self-reflection can occur with both training and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Calhoon, John H; Baisden, Clint; Holler, Ben; Hicks, George L; Bove, Ed L; Wright, Cameron D; Merrill, Walter H; Fullerton, Dave A
We sought to define an accurate measure of thoracic surgical education costs. Program directors from six distinct and differently sized and geographically located thoracic surgical training programs used a common template to provide estimates of resident educational costs. These data were reviewed, clarifying questions or discrepancies when noted and using best estimates when exact data were unavailable. Subsequently, a composite of previously published cost-estimation products was used to capture accurate cost data. Data were then compiled and averaged to provide an accurate picture of all costs associated with thoracic surgical education. Before formal accounting was performed, the estimated average for all programs was approximately $250,000 per year per resident. However, when formal evaluations by the six programs were performed, the annual cost of resident education ranged from $330,000 to $667,000 per year per resident. The average cost of $483,000 per year was almost double the initial estimates. Variability was noted by region and size of program. Faculty teaching costs varied from $208,000 to $346,000 per year. Simulation costs ranged from $0 to $80,000 per year. Resident savings to program ranged from $0 to $135,000 per year and averaged $37,000 per year per resident. Thoracic surgical education costs are considerably higher than initial estimates from program directors and probably represent an unappreciated source of financial burden for cardiothoracic surgical educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lases, S. S.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Slootweg, Irene A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Pierik, E. G. J. M.; Heineman, Erik
Residents' well-being is essential for both the individual physician and the quality of patient care they deliver. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly enhance residents' well-being. We investigated (i) the influence of mind fitness training (MFT) on quality of care-related well-being
Lases, S. S.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Slootweg, Irene A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Pierik, E. G. J. M.; Heineman, Erik
Background Residents' well-being is essential for both the individual physician and the quality of patient care they deliver. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly enhance residents' well-being. We investigated (i) the influence of mind fitness training (MFT) on quality of care-related
Jones, Kory; Lebron, Ricardo A; Mangram, Alicia; Dunn, Ernest
Surgical education has undergone radical changes in the past decade. The introductions of laparoscopic surgery and endovascular techniques have required program directors to alter surgical training. The 6 competencies are now in place. One issue that still needs to be addressed is the business aspect of surgical practice. Often residents complete their training with minimal or no knowledge on coding of charges or basic aspects on how to set up a practice. We present our program, which has been in place over the past 2 years and is designed to teach the residents practice management. The program begins with a series of 10 lectures given monthly beginning in August. Topics include an introduction to types of practices available, negotiating a contract, managed care, and marketing the practice. Both medical and surgical residents attend these conferences. In addition, the surgical residents meet monthly with the business office to discuss billing and coding issues. These are didactic sessions combined with in-house chart reviews of surgical coding. The third phase of the practice management plan has the coding team along with the program director attend the outpatient clinic to review in real time the evaluation and management coding of clinic visits. Resident evaluations were completed for each of the practice management lectures. The responses were recorded on a Likert scale. The scores ranged from 4.1 to 4.8 (average, 4.3). Highest scores were given to lectures concerning negotiating employee agreements, recruiting contracts, malpractice insurance, and risk management. The medical education department has tracked resident coding compliance over the past 2 years. Surgical coding compliance increased from 36% to 88% over a 12-month period. The program director who participated in the educational process increased his accuracy from 50% to 90% over the same time period. When residents finish their surgical training they need to be ready to enter the world of business
Falcone, John L; Claxton, René N; Marshall, Gary T
The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can be used to evaluate the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies of Professionalism and Interpersonal and Communication Skills. The aim of this study was to describe general surgery resident performance on a "difficult conversation" OSCE. In this prospective study, junior and senior residents participated in a 2-station OSCE. Junior stations involved discussing operative risks and benefits and breaking bad news. Senior stations involved discussing goals of care and discussing transition to comfort measures only status. Residents completed post-OSCE checklist and Likert-based self-evaluations of experience, comfort, and confidence. Trained standardized patients (SPs) evaluated residents using communication skill-based checklists and Likert-based assessments. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between self-assessment and SP assessment. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted between junior and senior resident variables, using α = 0.05. There were 27 junior residents (age 28.1 ± 1.9 years [29.6% female]) and 27 senior residents (age 32.1 ± 2.5 years [26.9% female]). The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by junior residents was -0.32 on the risks and benefits case and 0.07 on the breaking bad news case. The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by senior residents was 0.30 on the goals of care case and 0.26 on the comfort measures only case. SP assessments showed that junior residents had higher overall communication skills than senior residents (p = 0.03). Senior residents perceived that having difficult conversations was more level appropriate (p skills are correlated, and that skills-based training is needed across all residency levels. This well-received method may be used to observe, document, and provide resident feedback for these important skills. © 2014 Published by
Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods: As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results: Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9 and military personnel (n=2,433 as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001 in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions: A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency.
Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M.; Lee, Walter T.
Introduction Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001) in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency. PMID:24172053
Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy; Ristig, Kyle
There is a growing body of literature that suggests that learners assimilate information differently, depending on their preferred learning style. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). We hypothesized that resident VARK learning style preferences and American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) performance are associated. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was administered to all general surgery residents at a university hospital-based program each year to determine their preferred learning style. Resident scores from the 2012 and 2013 ABSITE were examined to identify any correlation with learning style preferences. Over a 2-year period, residents completed 53 VARK inventory assessments. Most (51%) had a multimodal preference. Dominant aural and read/write learners had the lowest and highest mean ABSITE scores, respectively (p = 0.03). Residents with dominant read/write learning preferences perform better on the ABSITE than their peers did, whereas residents with dominant aural learning preferences underperform on the ABSITE. This may reflect an inherent and inadvertent bias of the examination against residents who prefer to learn via aural modalities. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Kurt E; Bell, Robert L; Duffy, Andrew J
Surgical training is changing: one hundred years of tradition is being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hours restrictions, the cost of operating room time, and complications. Surgical simulation and skills training offers an opportunity to teach and practice advanced skills outside of the operating room environment before attempting them on living patients. Simulation training can be as straight forward as using real instruments and video equipment to manipulate simulated “tissue” in a box trainer. More advanced, virtual reality simulators are now available and ready for widespread use. Early systems have demonstrated their effectiveness and discriminative ability. Newer systems enable the development of comprehensive curricula and full procedural simulations. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education’s (ACGME) has mandated the development of novel methods of training and evaluation. Surgical organizations are calling for methods to ensure the maintenance of skills, advance surgical training, and to credential surgeons as technically competent. Simulators in their current form have been demonstrated to improve the operating room performance of surgical residents. Development of standardized training curricula remains an urgent and important agenda, particularly for minimal invasive surgery. An innovative and progressive approach, borrowing experiences from the field of aviation, can provide the foundation for the next century of surgical training, ensuring the quality of the product. As the technology develops, the way we practice will continue to evolve, to the benefit of physicians and patients. PMID:16718842
Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J
Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.
Larkin, Anne C; Cahan, Mitchell A; Whalen, Giles; Hatem, David; Starr, Susan; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Litwin, Demetrius; Sullivan, Kate; Quirk, Mark
This study examines the development and implementation of a pilot human factors curriculum during a 2-year period. It is one component of a comprehensive 5-year human factors curriculum spanning core competencies of interpersonal and communication skills, systems-based practice, and professionalism and using low-and high-fidelity simulation techniques. Members of the Department of Surgery and the Center for Clinical Communication and Performance Outcomes jointly constructed a curriculum for PGY1 and PGY2 residents on topics ranging from challenging communication to time and stress management. Video demonstrations, triggers, and simulated scenarios involving acting patients were created by surgeons and medical educators. Pre- and postintervention measures were obtained for communication skills, perceived stress level, and teamwork. Communication skills were evaluated using a series of video vignettes. The validated Perceived Stress Scale and Teamwork and Patient Safety Attitudes survey were used. Residents' perceptions of the program were also measured. Twenty-seven PGY1 residents and 15 PGY2 residents participated during 2 years. Analyses of video vignette tests indicated significant improvement in empathic communication for PGY1 (t = 3.62, p = 0.001) and PGY2 (t = 5.00, p = 0.004). There were no significant changes to teamwork attitudes. Perceived levels of stress became considerably higher. PGY1 residents reported trying 1 to 3 strategies taught in the time management session, with 60% to 75% reporting improvement post-training. This unique and comprehensive human factors curriculum is shown to be effective in building communication competency for junior-level residents in the human and emotional aspects of surgical training and practice. Continued refinement and ongoing data acquisition and analyses are underway. Copyright 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nabavi, A; Schipper, J
Patient safety during operations hinges on the surgeon's skills and abilities. However, surgical training has come under a variety of restrictions. To acquire dexterity with decreasingly "simple" cases, within the legislative time constraints and increasing expectations for surgical results is the future challenge. Are there alternatives to traditional master-apprentice learning? A literature review and analysis of the development, implementation, and evaluation of surgical simulation are presented. Simulation, using a variety of methods, most important physical and virtual (computer-generated) models, provides a safe environment to practice basic and advanced skills without endangering patients. These environments have specific strengths and weaknesses. Simulations can only serve to decrease the slope of learning curves, but cannot be a substitute for the real situation. Thus, they have to be an integral part of a comprehensive training curriculum. Our surgical societies have to take up that challenge to ensure the training of future generations.
Vinicius Antunes Freitas
AND METHODS: fifty charts of patients that were submitted to a total of 51 primary stapedotomies were reviewed mainly for complications and audiological results. RESULTS: there was closure of the air-bone gap within 10 dB HL in 70.5% of ears and closure to within 20 dB HL in 86.3% of ears. There was one ear with total hearing loss (2%. CONCLUSION: From the results and complications seen in the present study, and analyzing papers from the literature, it is possible to conclude that stapedotomy is a procedure that can be included in residency programs, if there are surgical cases for the residents.
Kang, Sanghee; Jo, Hye Sung; Boo, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Chong Suk
The application rate for surgical residents in Korea has continuously decreased over the past few years. The demanding workload and the occupational stress of surgical training are likely causes of this problem. The aim of this study was to investigate occupational stress and its related factors in Korean surgical residents. With the support of the Korean Surgical Society, we conducted an electronic survey of Korean surgical residents related to occupational stress. We used the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) to measure occupational stress. We analyzed the data focused on the stress level and the factors associated with occupational stress. The mean KOSS score of the surgical residents was 55.39, which was significantly higher than that of practicing surgeons (48.16, P occupation rate and exercise were all significantly associated with KOSS score. Surgical residents have high occupational stress compared to practicing surgeons and other professionals. Their mean number of assigned patients, resident recruitment rate and exercise were all significantly associated with occupational stress for surgical residents.
Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy
The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal
Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen
Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.
Simmerman, Erika; Simmerman, Andrew; Lassiter, Randi; King, Ray; Ham, Ben; Adam, Bao-Ling; Ferdinand, Colville; Holsten, Steven
As operative experience in general surgery decreases and work hour limitations increase there is less exposure of surgical residents to advanced vascular and trauma exposures. Many institutions have demonstrated benefits of cadaver laboratory courses. We have incorporated a multimedia cadaver laboratory course into our general surgery residency didactics curriculum with the objective to demonstrate a benefit of the program as well as the feasibility of incorporation. This is a prospective study at a tertiary care institution including general surgery residents within our residency program. A curriculum was designed, requiring residents to complete multimedia learning modules before both a trauma cadaver laboratory and vascular exposure cadaver laboratory. Outcome measures included self-efficacy/confidence (precourse and postcourse 5-point Likert surveys), knowledge (net performance on precourse and postcourse multiple choice examinations), and resident perception of the curriculum (postcourse 5-point Likert survey). Data were analyzed using ANOVA paired t-tests. For the vascular cadaver laboratory, resident knowledge improved overall from an average of 41.2% to 50.0% of questions correct (p = 0.032) and self-efficacy/confidence improved by 0.59 from 1.52 to 2.11 out of 5 (p = 0.009). Median confidence is 1.37 out of 5 and 2.32 out of 5, before and after course, respectively. Wilcoxon nonparametric test reveals a p = 0.011. Resident's perception of the usefulness of the laboratory evaluation was 3.85 out 5. There were 85.71% agreed that the laboratory is useful and 14.29% were disagree. The Z-score is -0.1579 (means 0.1579 standard deviations a score of 3.85 below the benchmark). The percentile rank is 56.27%. The coefficient of variation is 24.68%. For the trauma cadaver laboratory, resident knowledge improved overall from an average of 55.89% to 66.17% of questions correct (p = 0.001) and self-efficacy/confidence improved by 0.75 from 1.68 out of 5 to 2.43 out of
Lipsman, Nir; Khan, Osaama; Kulkarni, Abhaya V
Modern neurosurgical training is both physically and emotionally demanding, posing significant challenges, new and old, to residents as well as programs attempting to train safe, competent surgeons. Models to describe resident development, such as the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies and milestones, address the acquisition of specific skills but largely ignore the stresses and pressures unique to each stage of resident training. We propose an alternative model of resident development adapted from the developmental psychology literature. Our model identifies the challenges that must be met at each stage of junior, intermediate, and senior and chief residency, leading ultimately to an "actualized" neurosurgeon (i.e., one who has maximized his or her potential). Failure to overcome any 1 of these challenges can lead to specific long-lasting consequences, including regret, identity crisis, incompetence, and bitterness. In contrast, the actualized surgeon is one who has successfully acquired the virtues of hope, will, purpose, fidelity, productivity, leadership, competence, and wisdom. The actualized surgeon not only functions safely, confidently, and professionally, but also successfully navigates the challenges of residency and emerges from them having fulfilled his or her maximal potential. This developmental perspective provides an individualized description of healthy surgical development. Our model allows programs to identify the basis for residents who fail to progress, counsel residents during their training, and perhaps help identify resident candidates who are better prepared to meet the developmental challenges of residency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement
Pollei, Taylor R; Barrs, David M; Hinni, Michael L; Bansberg, Stephen F; Walter, Logan C
Describe the procedure length difference between surgeries performed by an attending surgeon alone compared with the resident surgeon supervised by the same attending surgeon. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care center and residency program. Six common otolaryngologic procedures performed between August 1994 and May 2012 were divided into 2 cohorts: attending surgeon alone or resident surgeon. This division coincided with our July 2006 initiation of an otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency program. Operative duration was compared between cohorts with confounding factors controlled. In addition, the direct result of increased surgical length on operating room cost was calculated and applied to departmental and published resident case log report data. Five of the 6 procedures evaluated showed a statistically significant increase in surgery length with resident involvement. Operative time increased 6.8 minutes for a cricopharyngeal myotomy (P = .0097), 11.3 minutes for a tonsillectomy (P operative time difference. Cost of increased surgical time was calculated per surgery and ranged from $286 (cricopharyngeal myotomy) to $2142 (mastoidectomy). When applied to reported national case log averages for graduating residents, this resulted in a significant increase of direct training-related costs. Resident participation in the operating room results in increased surgical length and additional system cost. Although residency is a necessary part of surgical training, associated costs need to be acknowledged.
Broholm, Malene; Rosenberg, Jacob
PURPOSE: Implementation of a robotic system may influence surgical training. The aim was to report the charge of the operating surgeon and the bedside assistant at robot-assisted procedures in urology, gynecology, and colorectal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of hospital charts from...... performed. In 10 (1.3%) of these procedures, a resident attended as bedside assistant and never as operating surgeon in the console. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a severe problem with surgical education. Robot-assisted surgery is increasingly used; however, robotic surgical training during residency...... surgical procedures during a 1-year period from October 2013 to October 2014. All robot-assisted urologic, gynecologic, and colorectal procedures were identified. Charge of both operating surgeon in the console and bedside assistant were registered. RESULTS: A total of 774 robot-assisted procedures were...
Rhodes, R S; Wile, M Z; Persons, M L; Shuck, J M
The program summary of the American Board of Surgery In-Service Training Exam (ABSITE) can be used to quantitate cognitive learning during a surgical residency and to identify areas of curricular weakness in a residency program. Knowledge on each question is categorized as high (known) or low (unknown) depending on the percentage of residents who answered correctly. Knowledge of Level 1 (entry) residents is then compared with Level 5 (exit) residents. Each ABSITE question can thus be categorized on entry versus exit as known-known, unknown-unknown, unknown-known, and known-unknown. Only about half of unknown knowledge on entry appears to become known on exit. Very little knowledge known on entry becomes unknown on exit. Weaknesses in specific subject areas can be readily identified by ranking questions according to the number of exiting residents who answer incorrectly. Use of this technique to quantitate cognitive learning in a residency program may allow objective assessment of changes in curriculum.
Ben-Or, Sharon; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph
In July 2000, the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc) received Food and Drug Administration approval for intracardiac applications, and the first mitral valve repair was done at the East Carolina Heart Institute in May 2000. The system is now approved and used in many surgical specialties. With this disruptive technology and accepted use, surgeons and hospitals are seeking the most efficacious training pathway leading to safe use and responsible credentialing.One of the most important issues related to safe use is assembling the appropriate team of professionals involved with patient care. Moreover, proper patient selection and setting obtainable goals are also important.Creation and maintenance of a successful program are discussed in the article focusing on realistic goals. This begins with a partnership between surgeon leaders, hospital administrators, and industry support. Through this partnership, an appropriate training pathway and clinical pathway for success can be outlined. A timeline can then be created with periods of data analysis and adjustments as necessary. A successful program is attainable by following this pathway and attending to every detail along the journey.
Espinoza G, Ricardo; Danilla E, Stefan; Valdés G, Fabio; San Francisco R, Ignacio; Llanos L, Osvaldo
The profile of the general surgeon has changed, aiming to incorporate new skills and to develop new specialties. To assess the quality of postgraduate General Surgery training programs given by Chilean universities, the satisfaction of students and their preferences after finishing the training period. A survey with multiple choice and Likert type questions was designed and applied to 77 surgery residents, corresponding to 59% of all residents of general surgery specialization programs of Chilean universities. Fifty five per cent of residents financed with their own resources the specialization program. Thirty nine percent disagreed partially or totally with the objectives and rotations of programs. The opportunity to perform surgical interventions and the support by teachers was well evaluated. However, 23% revealed teacher maltreatment. Fifty six percent performed research activities, 73% expected to continue training in a derived specialty and 69% was satisfied with the training program. Residents considered that the quality and dedication of professors and financing of programs are issues that must be improved. The opportunity to perform surgical interventions, obtaining a salary for their work and teacher support is considered of utmost importance.
Fryer, Jonathan P; Corcoran, Noreen; George, Brian; Wang, Ed; Darosa, Debra
While the primary goal of ranking applicants for surgical residency training positions is to identify the candidates who will subsequently perform best as surgical residents, the effectiveness of the ranking process has not been adequately studied. We evaluated our general surgery resident recruitment process between 2001 and 2011 inclusive, to determine if our recruitment ranking parameters effectively predicted subsequent resident performance. We identified 3 candidate ranking parameters (United States Medical Licensing Examination [USMLE] Step 1 score, unadjusted ranking score [URS], and final adjusted ranking [FAR]), and 4 resident performance parameters (American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination [ABSITE] score, PGY1 resident evaluation grade [REG], overall REG, and independent faculty rating ranking [IFRR]), and assessed whether the former were predictive of the latter. Analyses utilized Spearman correlation coefficient. We found that the URS, which is based on objective and criterion based parameters, was a better predictor of subsequent performance than the FAR, which is a modification of the URS based on subsequent determinations of the resident selection committee. USMLE score was a reliable predictor of ABSITE scores only. However, when we compared our worst residence performances with the performances of the other residents in this evaluation, the data did not produce convincing evidence that poor resident performances could be reliably predicted by any of the recruitment ranking parameters. Finally, stratifying candidates based on their rank range did not effectively define a ranking cut-off beyond which resident performance would drop off. Based on these findings, we recommend surgery programs may be better served by utilizing a more structured resident ranking process and that subsequent adjustments to the rank list generated by this process should be undertaken with caution. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery
Rangel, Erika L; Smink, Douglas S; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Kwakye, Gifty; Changala, Marguerite; Haider, Adil H; Doherty, Gerard M
Although family priorities influence specialty selection and resident attrition, few studies describe resident perspectives on pregnancy during surgical training. To directly assess the resident experience of childbearing during training. A self-administered 74-question survey was electronically distributed in January 2017 to members of the Association of Women Surgeons, to members of the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv, and through targeted social media platforms. Surgeons who had 1 or more pregnancies during an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited US general surgery residency program and completed training in 2007 or later were included. Important themes were identified using focus groups of surgeons who had undergone pregnancy during training in the past 7 years. Additional topics were identified through MEDLINE searches performed from January 2000 to July 2016 combining the keywords pregnancy, resident, attrition, and parenting in any specialty. Descriptive data on perceptions of work schedule during pregnancy, maternity leave policies, lactation and childcare support, and career satisfaction after childbirth. This study included 347 female surgeons (mean [SD] age, 30.5 [2.7] years) with 452 pregnancies. A total of 297 women (85.6%) worked an unmodified schedule until birth, and 220 (63.6%) were concerned that their work schedule adversely affected their health or the health of their unborn child. Residency program maternity leave policies were reported by 121 participants (34.9%). A total of 251 women (78.4%) received maternity leave of 6 weeks or less, and 250 (72.0%) perceived the duration of leave to be inadequate. The American Board of Surgery leave policy was cited as a major barrier to the desired length of leave by 268 of 326 respondents (82.2%). Breastfeeding was important to 329 (95.6%), but 200 (58.1%) stopped earlier than they wished because of poor access to lactation facilities and challenges leaving
Sternbach, Joel M; Wang, Kevin; El Khoury, Rym; Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Meyerson, Shari L
Although error identification and recovery skills are essential for the safe practice of surgery, they have not traditionally been taught or evaluated in residency training. This study validates a method for assessing error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents using a thoracoscopic lobectomy simulator. We developed a 5-station, simulator-based examination containing the most commonly encountered cognitive and technical errors occurring during division of the superior pulmonary vein for left upper lobectomy. Successful completion of each station requires identification and correction of these errors. Examinations were video recorded and scored in a blinded fashion using an examination-specific rating instrument evaluating task performance as well as error identification and recovery skills. Evidence of validity was collected in the categories of content, response process, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. Fifteen general surgical residents (9 interns and 6 third-year residents) completed the examination. Interrater reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.78 between 4 trained raters. Station scores ranged from 64% to 84% correct. All stations adequately discriminated between high- and low-performing residents, with discrimination ranging from 0.35 to 0.65. The overall examination score was significantly higher for intermediate residents than for interns (mean, 74 versus 64 of 90 possible; p = 0.03). The described simulator-based examination with embedded errors and its accompanying assessment tool can be used to measure error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents. This examination provides a valid method for comparing teaching strategies designed to improve error recognition and recovery to enhance patient safety. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rogers, Gina M; Oetting, Thomas A; Lee, Andrew G; Grignon, Connie; Greenlee, Emily; Johnson, A Tim; Beaver, Hilary A; Carter, Keith
To determine whether institution of a structured surgical curriculum for ophthalmology residents decreased the rate of sentinel surgical complications. Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Des Moines, Iowa, USA. A retrospective review was performed of third-year ophthalmic resident quality-assurance surgical outcomes data at a single residency-training site from 1998 to 2008. The primary outcome measure was defined as a sentinel event; that is, a posterior capsule tear (with or without vitreous loss) or vitreous loss (from any cause) occurring during a resident-performed case. The study population was divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised surgical cases of residents trained before the surgical curriculum change (academic years 1998 to 2003) and Group 2, surgical cases of residents trained with the enhanced curriculum (academic years 2004 to 2008). Data from 1 year (academic year 2003 to 2004) were excluded because the transition to the enhanced curriculum occurred during that period. The data were analyzed and adjusted for surgical experience. In Group 1 (before institution of surgical curriculum), there were 823 cases with 59 sentinel complications. In Group 2 (after institution of surgical curriculum), there were 1009 cases with 38 sentinel complications. There was a statistically significant reduction in the sentinel complication rate, from 7.17% before the curriculum changes to 3.77% with the enhanced curriculum (P = .001, unpaired 2-tailed t test). Implementation of a structured surgical curriculum resulted in a statistically significant reduction in sentinel event complications, even after adjusting for surgical experience.
Atesok, Kivanc; Mabrey, Jay D; Jazrawi, Laith M; Egol, Kenneth A
Mastering rapidly evolving orthopaedic surgical techniques requires a lengthy period of training. Current work-hour restrictions and cost pressures force trainees to face the challenge of acquiring more complex surgical skills in a shorter amount of time. As a result, alternative methods to improve the surgical skills of orthopaedic trainees outside the operating room have been developed. These methods include hands-on training in a laboratory setting using synthetic bones or cadaver models as well as software tools and computerized simulators that enable trainees to plan and simulate orthopaedic operations in a three-dimensional virtual environment. Laboratory-based training offers potential benefits in the development of basic surgical skills, such as using surgical tools and implants appropriately, achieving competency in procedures that have a steep learning curve, and assessing already acquired skills while minimizing concerns for patient safety, operating room time, and financial constraints. Current evidence supporting the educational advantages of surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training is limited. Despite this, positive effects on the overall education of orthopaedic residents, and on maintaining the proficiency of practicing orthopaedic surgeons, are anticipated.
Quillin, Ralph C; Cortez, Alexander R; Pritts, Timothy A; Hanseman, Dennis J; Edwards, Michael J; Davis, Bradley R
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education instituted the 80-h workweek for residency programs in 2003. This presented a unique challenge for surgery residents who must acquire a medical and technical knowledge base during training. Therefore, learning should be delivered in an environment congruent with an individual's learning style. In this study, we evaluated the learning styles of general surgery residents to determine how learning styles changed after the implementation to the 80-h workweek. Kolb learning style inventory was taken by general surgery residents at the University of Cincinnati's Department of Surgery, and results from 1999-2012 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared, logistic regression and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Significance was defined as a P value of learning styles after the institution of the 80-h workweek to converging (43.9%) and accommodating (40.4%, P learning. This change paralleled the transition to a more team-based approach to patient care with the implementation of the 80-h workweek. These findings are important for surgical educators to consider in the development of surgical resident curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Newcomb, Anna B; Trickey, Amber W; Porrey, Melissa; Wright, Jeffrey; Piscitani, Franco; Graling, Paula; Dort, Jonathan
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education milestones provide a framework of specific interpersonal and communication skills that surgical trainees should aim to master. However, training and assessment of resident nontechnical skills remains challenging. We aimed to develop and implement a curriculum incorporating interactive learning principles such as group discussion and simulation-based scenarios to formalize instruction in patient-centered communication skills, and to identify best practices when building such a program. The curriculum is presented in quarterly modules over a 2-year cycle. Using our surgical simulation center for the training, we focused on proven strategies for interacting with patients and other providers. We trained and used former patients as standardized participants (SPs) in communication scenarios. Surgical simulation center in a 900-bed tertiary care hospital. Program learners were general surgery residents (postgraduate year 1-5). Trauma Survivors Network volunteers served as SPs in simulation scenarios. We identified several important lessons: (1) designing and implementing a new curriculum is a challenging process with multiple barriers and complexities; (2) several readily available facilitators can ease the implementation process; (3) with the right approach, learners, faculty, and colleagues are enthusiastic and engaged participants; (4) learners increasingly agree that communication skills can be improved with practice and appreciate the curriculum value; (5) patient SPs can be valuable members of the team; and importantly (6) the culture of patient-physician communication appears to shift with the implementation of such a curriculum. Our approach using Trauma Survivors Network volunteers as SPs could be reproduced in other institutions with similar programs. Faculty enthusiasm and support is strong, and learner participation is active. Continued focus on patient and family communication skills would enhance
M. Erol Demirseren
Full Text Available Achieving a level of technical skill and confidence in surgical operations is the main goal of plastic surgical training. Operating rooms were accepted as the practical teaching venues of the traditional apprenticeship model. However, increased patient population, time, and ethical and legal considerations made preoperation room practical work a must for plastic surgical training. There are several plastic surgical teaching models and simulators which are very useful in preoperation room practical training and the evaluation of plastic surgery residents. The full thickness skin with its vascular network excised in abdominoplasty procedures is an easily obtainable real human tissue which could be used as a training model in plastic surgery.
Borel-Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Hamming, Jaap F.
Surgical training in the Netherlands has traditionally been characterized by learning on the job under the classic master-trainee doctrine. Over the past decades, it has become regionally organized with intensive structural training courses, and a peer-based quality control system. Recently, the
Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Balcioğlu, Harun
Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed.
Background: Mentorship is important in residency training as it is necessary for personal and professional development of the resident trainees. Objectives: This study documents mentorship in orthopaedic residency training programme in Nigeria by assessing the awareness of orthopaedic residents on the role of a mentor, ...
Guicherit, Onno R
Residents' working hours in the Netherlands were first capped in the early 1990 s. In 2003, European legislation consolidated restrictions to a 48-hour week. No adverse effects were seen on the number of surgical operations performed either in the first or the second decade following these measures. Either the effect on surgical training is minimal, or the number of operations carried out during a residency is not a meaningful indicator of its quality. Personalized modular rotations in both university and teaching hospitals are needed for residents with sub-specializations. Training activities, in combination with more supervision, have to focus on a broader set of competencies beyond simply mastering surgical procedures.
de Gara Chris; Engels Paul T
Abstract Background Surgical education is evolving under the dual pressures of an enlarging body of knowledge required during residency and mounting work-hour restrictions. Changes in surgical residency training need to be based on available educational models and research to ensure successful training of surgeons. Experiential learning theory, developed by David Kolb, demonstrates the importance of individual learning styles in improving learning. This study helps elucidate the way in which ...
Waller, Elaine; Eiff, M Patrice; Dexter, Eve; Rinaldo, Jason C B; Marino, Miguel; Garvin, Roger; Douglass, Alan B; Phillips, Robert; Green, Larry A; Carney, Patricia A
The In-training Examination (ITE) is a frequently used method to evaluate family medicine residents' clinical knowledge. We compared family medicine ITE scores among residents who trained in the 14 programs that participated in the Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) Project to national averages over time, and according to educational innovations. The ITE scores of 802 consenting P4 residents who trained in 2007 through 2011 were obtained from the American Board of Family Medicine. The primary analysis involved comparing scores within each academic year (2007 through 2011), according to program year (PGY) for P4 residents to all residents nationally. A secondary analysis compared ITE scores among residents in programs that experimented with length of training and compared scores among residents in programs that offered individualized education options with those that did not. Release of ITE scores was consented to by 95.5% of residents for this study. Scores of P4 residents were higher compared to national scores in each year. For example, in 2011, the mean P4 score for PGY1 was 401.2, compared to the national average of 386. For PGY2, the mean P4 score was 443.1, compared to the national average of 427, and for PGY3, the mean P4 score was 477.0, compared to the national PGY3 score of 456. Scores of residents in programs that experimented with length of training were similar to those in programs that did not. Scores were also similar between residents in programs with and without individualized education options. Family medicine residency programs undergoing substantial educational changes, including experiments in length of training and individualized education, did not appear to experience a negative effect on resident's clinical knowledge, as measured by ITE scores. Further research is needed to study the effect of a wide range of residency training innovations on ITE scores over time.
Lebastchi, Amir H; Yuh, David D
Integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residency programs have recently been implemented in the United States. We report the results of the first published nationwide survey assessing the motivations, satisfaction, and ambitions of integrated 6-year residents. A 63-question web-based survey was distributed to 83 residents enrolled in 21 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited integrated 6-year programs in November 2013. There was an outstanding 69% response rate. The median age of integrated 6-year residents was 29 years with women comprising 24%. A clear majority had faculty mentorship (95%) and significant clinical exposure in medical school. Focused (100%) and abbreviated (74%) training curricula were identified as the top advantages of integrated 6-year programs; the format itself was a significant factor (46%) in career choice. Most integrated 6-year residents (95%) were satisfied with their program; 80.7% were satisfied with their operative experience thus far. Career plans skewed toward adult cardiac surgery (67%), followed by pediatric cardiac (24%) and general thoracic (9%) surgery; 49% were not particularly concerned about future employment, with 65% foreseeing an increase in opportunities. Specialized training (eg, aortic, heart failure, minimally invasive, congenital) was anticipated by 77%. Most integrated 6-year residents envision an academic career (94.7%). This survey takes an important snapshot of the nascent integrated 6-year format. Mentorship and intense clinical exposure are critical in attracting applicants. Purported advantages of the format are holding true among integrated 6-year residents, with the majority satisfied with their programs. These early data indicate that this format holds significant promise in attracting and retaining highly qualified trainees to academic cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cecil, J; Gupta, Avinash; Pirela-Cruz, Miguel
The purpose of creating the virtual reality (VR) simulator is to facilitate and supplement the training opportunities provided to orthopedic residents. The use of VR simulators has increased rapidly in the field of medical surgery for training purposes. This paper discusses the creation of the virtual surgical environment (VSE) for training residents in an orthopedic surgical process called less invasive stabilization system (LISS) surgery which is used to address fractures of the femur. The overall methodology included first obtaining an understanding of the LISS plating process through interactions with expert orthopedic surgeons and developing the information centric models. The information centric models provided a structured basis to design and build the simulator. Subsequently, the haptic-based simulator was built. Finally, the learning assessments were conducted in a medical school. The results from the learning assessments confirm the effectiveness of the VSE for teaching medical residents and students. The scope of the assessment was to ensure (1) the correctness and (2) the usefulness of the VSE. Out of 37 residents/students who participated in the test, 32 showed improvements in their understanding of the LISS plating surgical process. A majority of participants were satisfied with the use of teaching Avatars and haptic technology. A paired t test was conducted to test the statistical significance of the assessment data which showed that the data were statistically significant. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of adopting information centric modeling approach in the design and development of the simulator. The assessment results underscore the potential of using VR-based simulators in medical education especially in orthopedic surgery.
Sikder, Shameema; Tuwairqi, Khaled; Al-Kahtani, Eman; Myers, William G; Banerjee, Pat
Virtual simulators have been widely implemented in medical and surgical training, including ophthalmology. The increasing number of published articles in this field mandates a review of the available results to assess current technology and explore future opportunities. A PubMed search was conducted and a total of 10 articles were reviewed. Virtual simulators have shown construct validity in many modules, successfully differentiating user experience levels during simulated phacoemulsification surgery. Simulators have also shown improvements in wet-lab performance. The implementation of simulators in the residency training has been associated with a decrease in cataract surgery complication rates. Virtual reality simulators are an effective tool in measuring performance and differentiating trainee skill level. Additionally, they may be useful in improving surgical skill and patient outcomes in cataract surgery. Future opportunities rely on taking advantage of technical improvements in simulators for education and research.
Engels, Paul T; de Gara, Chris
Surgical education is evolving under the dual pressures of an enlarging body of knowledge required during residency and mounting work-hour restrictions. Changes in surgical residency training need to be based on available educational models and research to ensure successful training of surgeons. Experiential learning theory, developed by David Kolb, demonstrates the importance of individual learning styles in improving learning. This study helps elucidate the way in which medical students, surgical residents, and surgical faculty learn. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, which divides individual learning styles into Accommodating, Diverging, Converging, and Assimilating categories, was administered to the second year undergraduate medical students, general surgery resident body, and general surgery faculty at the University of Alberta. A total of 241 faculty, residents, and students were surveyed with an overall response rate of 73%. The predominant learning style of the medical students was assimilating and this was statistically significant (p learning style found in the residents and faculty. The predominant learning styles of the residents and faculty were convergent and accommodative, with no statistically significant differences between the residents and the faculty. We conclude that medical students have a significantly different learning style from general surgical trainees and general surgeons. This has important implications in the education of general surgery residents.
Schor, Nina F
As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.
Kovach, Jessica G; Dubin, William R; Combs, Christopher J
This survey examined actual training hours in psychotherapy modalities as reported by residents, residents' perceptions of training needs, and residents' perceptions of the importance of different aspects of psychotherapy training. A brief, voluntary, anonymous, Internet-based survey was developed. All 14 program directors for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited programs in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware provided email addresses for current categorical residents. The survey inquired about hours of time spent in various aspects of training, value assigned to aspects of training, residents' involvement in their own psychotherapy, and overall resident wellness. The survey was e-mailed to 328 residents. Of the 328 residents contacted, 133 (40.5%) responded. Median reported number of PGY 3 and 4 performed versus perceived ideal hours of supportive therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and psychodynamic therapy did not differ. Answers for clinical time utilizing these modalities ranged from "none or less than 1 h" per month to 20+ h per month. PGY 3 and 4 residents reported a median of "none or less than 1 h" per month performed of interpersonal, dialectical behavior therapy, couples/family/group, and child therapies but preferred more time using these therapies. Residents in all years of training preferred more hours of didactic instruction for all psychotherapies and for medication management. Residents ranked teaching modalities in the following order of importance: supervision, hours of psychotherapy performed, personal psychotherapy, readings, and didactic instruction. Residents engaged in their own psychotherapy were significantly more likely to rank the experiential aspects of psychotherapy training (personal psychotherapy, supervision, and hours performed) higher than residents not in psychotherapy. Current psychotherapy training for psychiatry residents is highly variable, but overall, residents want more
Wohlrab, Kyle; Jelovsek, J Eric; Myers, Deborah
Today's educational environment has made it more difficult to rely on the Halstedian model of "see one, do one, teach one" in gynecologic surgical training. There is decreased surgical volume, but an increased number of surgical modalities. Fortunately, surgical simulation has evolved to fill the educational void. Whether it is through skill generalization or skill transfer, surgical simulation has shifted learning from the operating room back to the classroom. This article explores the principles of surgical education and ways to introduce simulation as an adjunct to residency training. We review high- and low-fidelity surgical simulators, discuss the progression of surgical skills, and provide options for skills competency assessment. Time and money are major hurdles when designing a simulation curriculum, but low-fidelity models, intradepartmental cost sharing, and utilizing local experts for simulation proctoring can aid in developing a simulation program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy; Ristig, Kyle; Chu, Quyen D
As a consequence of surgical resident duty hour restrictions, there is a need for faculty to utilize novel teaching methods to convey information in a more efficient manner. The current paradigm of surgical training, which has not changed significantly since the time of Halsted, assumes that all residents assimilate information in a similar fashion. However, recent data has shown that learners have preferences for the ways in which they receive and process information. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K). The VARK learning style preferences of surgical residents have not been previously evaluated. In this study, the preferred learning styles of general surgery residents were determined, along with faculty and resident perception of resident learning styles. In addition, we hypothesized that American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE) scores are associated with preference for a read/write (R) learning style. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was administered to all general surgery residents at a university hospital-based program. Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each resident. Faculty members were surveyed to determine their accuracy in identifying the preferred learning style of each resident. All residents were also surveyed to determine their accuracy in identifying their peers' VARK preferences. Resident ABSITE scores were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Twenty-nine residents completed the inventory. Most (18 of 29, 62%) had a multimodal preference, although more than a third (11 of 29, 38%) demonstrated a single-modality preference. Seventy-six percent of all residents (22 of 29) had some degree of kinesthetic (K) learning, while under 50% (14 of 29) were aural (A) learners. Although not significant, dominant (R) learners had the highest mean ABSITE scores. Faculty identified residents' learning styles
Champion, Caitlin; Saidenberg, Elianna; Lampron, Jacinthe; Pugh, Debra
Evidence-based transfusion education for surgical residents is crucial to improving practice. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of an education module for improving transfusion knowledge among surgical residents. Modules were developed and delivered by experts in surgery and transfusion medicine. They were delivered to residents in their first 2 years of training (Surgical Foundations), and to General Surgery residents across all years of training. Premodule and postmodule and retention knowledge assessments were used to assess efficacy. Median assessment scores for each group were compared using a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. Chi-square tests were used to compare each group's correct response rates for each question across the three tests. Median assessment scores of residents in the Surgical Foundations program improved from a mean of 60% premodule to 80% postmodule and remained at 80% in the retention assessment (p transfusion dose, preoperative blood management, management of reactions, and informed consent (p Transfusion knowledge of surgical residents was improved by a collaborative educational initiative. This could serve as a model for other training programs to improve resident knowledge of evidence-based transfusion practices. The efficacy of such interventions in changing practice remains untested. © 2017 AABB.
Zis, Panagiotis; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Artemiadis, Artemios K
Work engagement, defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption, can ameliorate patient care and reduce medical errors. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate work engagement among neurology residents in the region of Attica, Greece. In total, 113 residents participated in this study. Demographic and work-related characteristics, as well as emotional exhaustion and personality traits (neuroticism), were examined via an anonymous questionnaire. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The study sample had a mean age of 34.6 ± 3.6 years, ranging from 26 to 45 years. Sixty-two (54.9%) participants were women and 45 (39.8%) were married. After adjusting for sex, emotional exhaustion, and neuroticism, the main factors associated with work engagement were autonomy and chances for professional development. Providing more chances for trainees' professional development as well as allowing for and supporting greater job autonomy may improve work engagement during neurology training. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Sutherland, Michael J
Most residents in training today are in focused on their training, and the thoughts of changing the structure of residencies and fellowships is something that they are ambivalent about or have never heard anything about. The small minority who are vocal on these issues represent an activist group supporting change. This group is very vocal and raises many of the excellent questions we have examined. In discussion with residents, some feel that shortened training will help with the financial issues facing residents. However, many people today add additional years to their training with research years or "super" fellowships. The residents demonstrate that they want to get the skill sets that they desire despite the added length of training. This is unlikely to change even if the minimum number of years of training changes with the evolution of tracked training programs. Medical students, in the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons survey, did not indicate that shortened training would have an affect on decision to pursue or not pursue a surgical career. If the focus of these changes is to encourage medical students to pursue a residency in surgical specialties, we may need to look at other options to increase medical student interest. Medical students indicated that lifestyle issues, types of clinical problems, stress-related concerns, and interactions with the surgical faculty were far more important in their decision to enter a surgical specialty than work hours or duration of training. If we are to make a difference in the quality and quantity of applicants for surgical residencies, then changes in the structure of residencies do not seem to be the most effective way to accomplish this. We should possibly focus more on faculty and medical student interaction and the development of positive role models for medical students to see surgeons with attractive practices that minimize some of the traditionally perceived negative stereotypes
Symer, Matthew M; Abelson, Jonathan S; Yeo, Heather L; Sosa, Julie A; Rosenthal, M Zachary
There is limited understanding of the wide variation in attrition rates among general surgery residencies. We used the validated Behavior Inhibitory System/Behavior Approach System (BIS/BAS) instrument to compare motivational traits among residents who did and not complete surgical training. All US general surgery categorical interns in the class of 2007-2008 were surveyed with a validated motivational trait assessment tool. American Board of Surgery records from 2008-2016 were used to determine who completed training. Motivation, an aspect of personality, was assessed with the BIS/BAS, which correlates with an individual's tendency to approach pleasant stimuli (BAS) or avoid negative stimuli (BIS). Subscale mean scores were compared with regard to the primary end point, attrition. Eight hundred and one (76.5%) interns completed the survey and had matching records. Six hundred and forty-five (80.5%) completed training. Men had lower scores than women in the BAS Drive subscale (12.0 vs 12.5; p scale (19.3 vs 20.9; p academic 17.3 vs community 17.6 vs military 16.6; p motivational personality traits. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stienen, Martin N; Gempt, Jens; Gautschi, Oliver P; Demetriades, Andreas K; Netuka, David; Kuhlen, Dominique E; Schaller, Karl; Ringel, Florian
Introduction Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. Methods An electronic survey was sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 and March 2015. The responses of German trainees were compared with those of trainees from other European countries. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee being from Germany and the outcome (e.g., satisfaction, working time). Results Of 532 responses, 95 were from German trainees (17.8%). In a multivariate analysis corrected for baseline group differences, German trainees were 29% as likely as non-German trainees to be satisfied with clinical lectures given at their teaching facility (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.49; p hours as requested from the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC, and in an international comparison, German trainees were twice as likely to work > 50 hours per week (OR: 2.13; 95% CI, 1.25-3.61; p = 0.005). This working time, however, is less spent in the operating suite (OR: 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.59; p = 0.001) and more doing administrative work (OR: 1.83; 95% CI, 1.13-2.96; p = 0.015). Conclusion Some theoretical and practical aspects of neurosurgical training are superior, but a considerable proportion of relevant aspects are inferior in Germany compared with other European countries. The present analyses provide the opportunity for a critical review of the local conditions in German training facilities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Moore, Eric J; Price, Daniel L; Van Abel, Kathryn M; Carlson, Matthew L
Application to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency is highly competitive, and the interview process strives to select qualified applicants with a high aptitude for the specialty. Commonly employed criteria for applicant selection have failed to show correlation with proficiency during residency training. We evaluate the correlation between the results of a surgical aptitude test administered to otolaryngology resident applicants and their performance during residency. Retrospective study at an academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency program. Between 2007 and 2013, 224 resident applicants participated in a previously described surgical aptitude test administered at a microvascular surgical station. The composite score and attitudinal scores for 24 consecutive residents who matched at our institution were recorded, and their residency performance was analyzed by faculty survey on a five-point scale. The composite and attitudinal scores were analyzed for correlation with residency performance score by regression analysis. Twenty-four residents were evaluated for overall quality as a clinician by eight faculty members who were blinded to the results of surgical aptitude testing. The results of these surveys showed good inter-rater reliability. Both the overall aptitude test scores and the subset attitudinal score showed reliability in predicting performance during residency training. The goal of the residency selection process is to evaluate the candidate's potential for success in residency and beyond. The results of this study suggest that a simple-to-administer clinical skills test may have predictive value for success in residency and clinician quality. 4. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Gandhi, K; Sahni, N; Padhy, S K; Mathew, P J
The residents undergoing training at hospitals in our country face challenges in terms of infrastructure and high workload with undefined working hours. The aim of the study was to compare the stress and burnout levels in trainee doctors doing residency in surgical fields and anesthesia at a tertiary care academic center in North India. A comparative, observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. After Ethics Committee approval, 200 residents (100 each from surgical branches and anesthesia) were required to fill a questionnaire with information about age, sex, year of residency, marital status, and the Perceived Stress Scale-10, and Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire-12. Burnout and perceived stress were compared between residents of anesthesia and surgical specialties. Residents of both surgical and anesthesia branches scored high in perceived stress, namely 21 and 18, respectively. The score was significantly higher in surgical residents (P = 0.03) and increased progressively with the year of residency. The majority of residents (90% surgical, 80% anesthesia) felt that they were being overloaded with work. However, only 20%-30% of respondents felt that there was lack of development of individual skills and still fewer (<10%) reported giving up in view of difficulties. There is high level of stress and overload dimension of burnout among the residents of anesthesia and surgical branches at our tertiary care academic institution and the surgical residents score marginally higher than anesthesia residents.
Freiburg, Carter; James, Ted; Ashikaga, Takamura; Moalem, Jacob; Cherr, Greg
The introduction of duty-hour restrictions has impacted surgical training. Several strategies were introduced by training programs in response to these restrictions. The purpose of this study was to assess the various strategies employed by residency programs to comply with work-hour restrictions with respect to the impact on the quality of surgical education. A national survey was developed and distributed to resident members of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons in all accredited residency programs across North America. Questions in the survey addressed 10 separate accommodation strategies used by training programs to adhere to resident work-hour restrictions. Resident respondents completed a 5-point Likert scale rating each strategy according to its impact on surgical education (detrimental, not very helpful, neutral, somewhat helpful, and very helpful). A total of 599 (9.7%) responses were received from 6186 members of the Resident Associate Society. The use of health information technology (IT), nurse practitioners, and physician assistants were most highly rated. Hiring clinical fellows, establishing nonteaching services, and shift-work scheduling were the three most poorly rated accommodations to work-hour restrictions with respect to resident education. Hospital IT and nonphysician care providers were rated by residents to optimize surgical education in the current work-hour limitation environment. We infer that strategies which lead to increased efficiency and redistribution of resident workload allow surgical trainees to spend more time on activities perceived to have higher educational value. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Finnerty, Brendan M; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Aronova, Anna; Fahey, Thomas J; Zarnegar, Rasa
While robotic-assisted operations have become more prevalent, many general surgery residencies do not have a formal robotic training curriculum. We sought to ascertain how well current general surgery training permits acquisition of robotic skills by comparing robotic simulation performance across various training levels. Thirty-six participants were categorized by level of surgical training: eight medical students (MS), ten junior residents (JR), ten mid-level residents (MLR), and eight senior residents (SR). Participants performed three simulation tasks on the da Vinci (®) Skills Simulator (MatchBoard, EnergyDissection, SutureSponge). Each task's scores (0-100) and cumulative scores (0-300) were compared between groups. There were no differences in sex, hand dominance, video gaming history, or prior robotic experience between groups; however, SR was the oldest (p Robotic skillsets acquired during general surgery residency show minimal improvement during the course of training, although laparoscopic experience is correlated with advanced robotic task performance. Changes in residency curricula or pursuit of fellowship training may be warranted for surgeons seeking proficiency.
Improving Surgical Skills of OBGYN Residents through Partnership with Rural Hospitals: Experience from Southeast Nigeria. Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora, Azubuike Kanario Onyebuchi, Nkechi Bridget Emma-Echiegu, Justus Ndulue Eze, Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu ...
Silvestre, Jason; Levin, L Scott; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
Few studies in surgery have addressed medical knowledge competency training as defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. As in-training examinations are ubiquitous educational tools for surgical residents in the United States, insights into examination performance may help fill this void. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between In-Service Examination performance and training characteristics in plastic surgery. This retrospective cohort study reviewed performance data for the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination for the years 2012 to 2015. Comparisons were made both within and between training pathways by means of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Data were available for 1367 independent (37.9 percent) and 2240 integrated residents (62.1 percent). Among integrated residents, performance increased with additional years of training (p 0.05). Similarly, independent resident examination performance increased by year of training (p 0.05). At each level of training (postgraduate years 4 to 6), integrated residents outperformed their independent resident colleagues (postgraduate years 1 to 3) (p < 0.001). Performance on the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination increases during residency, with integrated residents outperforming independent residents. These findings may have implications for medical knowledge competency training as defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.
de Gara Chris
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical education is evolving under the dual pressures of an enlarging body of knowledge required during residency and mounting work-hour restrictions. Changes in surgical residency training need to be based on available educational models and research to ensure successful training of surgeons. Experiential learning theory, developed by David Kolb, demonstrates the importance of individual learning styles in improving learning. This study helps elucidate the way in which medical students, surgical residents, and surgical faculty learn. Methods The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, which divides individual learning styles into Accommodating, Diverging, Converging, and Assimilating categories, was administered to the second year undergraduate medical students, general surgery resident body, and general surgery faculty at the University of Alberta. Results A total of 241 faculty, residents, and students were surveyed with an overall response rate of 73%. The predominant learning style of the medical students was assimilating and this was statistically significant (p Conclusions We conclude that medical students have a significantly different learning style from general surgical trainees and general surgeons. This has important implications in the education of general surgery residents.
Bello, Ricardo J; Sarmiento, Samuel; Meyer, Meredith L; Rosson, Gedge D; Cooney, Damon S; Lifchez, Scott D; Cooney, Carisa M
Operative performance feedback is essential for surgical training. We aimed to understand surgical trainees' views on their operative performance feedback needs and to characterize feedback to elucidate factors affecting its value from the resident perspective. Using a qualitative research approach, 2 research fellows conducted semistructured, one-on-one interviews with surgical trainees. We analyzed recurring themes generated during interviews related to feedback characteristics, as well as the extent to which performance rating tools can help meet trainees' operative feedback needs. Departments or divisions of general or plastic surgery at 9 US academic institutions. Surgical residents and clinical fellows in general or plastic surgery. We conducted 30 interviews with 9 junior residents, 14 senior residents, and 7 clinical fellows. Eighteen (60%) participants were in plastic and 12 (40%) were in general surgery. Twenty-four participants (80%) reported feedback as very or extremely important during surgical training. All trainees stated that verbal, face-to-face feedback is the most valuable, especially if occurring during (92%) or immediately after (65%) cases. Of those trainees using performance rating tools (74%), most (57%) expressed positive views about them but wanted the tools to complement and not replace verbal feedback in surgical education. Trainees value feedback more if received within 1 week or the case. Verbal, face-to-face feedback is very or extremely important to surgical trainees. Residents and fellows prefer to receive feedback during or immediately after a case and continue to value feedback if received within 1 week of the event. Performance rating tools can be useful for providing formative feedback and documentation but should not replace verbal, face-to-face feedback. Considering trainee views on feedback may help reduce perceived gaps in feedback demand-versus-supply in surgical training, which may be essential to overcoming current
Vicent, M. D.; Fernandez, M. J.; Olmos, C.; Isidoro, B.; Espana, M. L.; Arranz, L.
In compliance with the current laws, radiation protection (RP) training is required during the formative programs of certain Health Sciences specialties. Laws entrust to official bodies in specialized training the adoption of necessary measures to coordinate and ensure a correct implementation. The aim of this study is to describe Community of Madrid experience in RP training to specialists during their formative programs, and to determine the number of residents trained and analyze their satisfaction level with the training. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed, including all training specialists from the Community of Madrid during the 2007-2011 period. We determined the number of residents trained per year and we evaluated their satisfaction level with the training through a survey. A total of 55 training courses were carried out and 5820 residents have been trained during the 2007-2011 period. the student satisfaction level with the training has increased gradually from 6.1 points in 2007 to 7.0 points in 2011. The development of the RP formative program for residents in the Community of Madrid has meant the start up o the necessary official mechanisms to ensure the quality and adequacy of training in this area, covering the formative needs of the collective. (Author)
Fish, D G
In the view of residents in their last year of specialty training, the Fellowship is now becoming the operative standard for obtaining hospital privileges in urban centres and they felt that this implied that the two standards, the Certificate and the Fellowship of the Royal College, were not achieving the purpose for which they were designed. Although 80% of the residents intended to write the Fellowship, few viewed a year in a basic science department or in research as of intrinsic value in terms of their future practice.The examinations of the Royal College were the subject of criticism, most residents feeling that the examinations did not test the knowledge and ability gained in training. Most expressed a desire for ongoing evaluation during the training period.Service responsibilities were generally regarded as too heavy.Despite the criticism of both training and examination, most residents felt that their training had provided them with the experience and background they needed to practise as specialists.
Putnam, Luke R; Levy, Shauna M; Kellagher, Caroline M; Etchegaray, Jason M; Thomas, Eric J; Kao, Lillian S; Lally, Kevin P; Tsao, KuoJen
Effective communication and patient safety practices are paramount in health care. Surgical residents play an integral role in the perioperative team, yet their perceptions of patient safety remain unclear. We hypothesized that surgical residents perceive the perioperative environment as more unsafe than their faculty and operating room staff despite completing a required safety curriculum. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, and perioperative nurses in a large academic children's hospital participated in multifaceted, physician-led workshops aimed at enhancing communication and safety culture over a 3-y period. All general surgery residents from the same academic center completed a hospital-based online safety curriculum only. All groups subsequently completed the psychometrically validated safety attitudes questionnaire to evaluate three domains: safety culture, teamwork, and speaking up. Results reflect the percent of respondents who slightly or strongly agreed. Chi-square analysis was performed. Sixty-three of 84 perioperative personnel (75%) and 48 of 52 surgical residents (92%) completed the safety attitudes questionnaire. A higher percentage of perioperative personnel perceived a safer environment than the surgical residents in all three domains, which was significantly higher for safety culture (68% versus 46%, P = 0.03). When stratified into two groups, junior residents (postgraduate years 1-2) and senior residents (postgraduate years 3-5) had lower scores for all three domains, but the differences were not statistically significant. Surgical residents' perceptions of perioperative safety remain suboptimal. With an enhanced safety curriculum, perioperative staff demonstrated higher perceptions of safety compared with residents who participated in an online-only curriculum. Optimal surgical education on patient safety remains unknown but should require a dedicated, systematic approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meyer, J E; Wollenberg, B; Schmidt, C
A concept for an ORL residency training program is necessary because of personnel bottlenecks, quality assurance and benchmarkings. We have created a 2.5 years' program, which is based on 6 pillars: 1. Acquisition of the necessary specialist knowledge by the resident in self-study. 2. Weekly attendance of training lectures according to a study timetable, a monthly specialist seminar to discuss case examples. 3. Weekly presentation by the resident on an article from the current literature, alternating with a presentation on cases and a morbidity and mortality conference. 4. Annual 60 min learning target test. 5. Definition of a surgical training calendar oriented to the new national ORL training regulations. 6. Internal operation course with preparative exercises in anatomy and visit to an operations course at a renowned otolaryngology clinic each year. After 2.5 years of the training time a revision course is introduced. In this way a basic training will be guaranteed for all residents, which can be assessed by the annual test. Finally, the construction of a further training curriculum should lead to an improved transparent training, a higher standard of quality and improved staff satisfaction.
Fishbain, Dana; Levi, Baruch; Borow, Malke; Ashkenazi, Shai; Lindner, Arie
Full-time work has long been perceived as a cornerstone of medical residency, the consensus being that a resident must apply the bulk of his time and attention to his professional training. Demographic and cultural changes that have taken place over the last several years, specifically the rise in the number of female doctors and the importance of leisure time to the younger generation, have intensified the need to find new and innovative ways to deal with the plight of the resident population. One idea, already in effect in many Western countries, is the institution of part-time residency programs. The possibility of fulfilling residency requirements on a part-time basis is intended to assist medical residents in integrating their professional development with their personal and family life, without compromising the quality of their training. A number of research studies conducted over the last several years in countries that allow part-time residency, among them the United States, England and Switzerland, aimed to examine the quality of part-time training. The various studies evinced a high level of satisfaction from the program both by the residents themselves and their supervisors, and in many aspects those doing residency part-time received higher appraisals than their full-time colleagues. Some of the residents polled noted that they would have totally foregone the practice of medicine had there not been an option to complete residency part-time. In light of the experience throughout the world and the changing landscape in Israel, the Scientific Council of the Israeli Medical Association decided to examine the issue and its various aspects, and weighed all the considerations in favor and against part-time residency. Recently, the Scientific Council approved the launch of a pilot program to allow part-time residency in several fields that were carefully selected according to specific criteria. Once the Ministry of Health completes the LegisLation process, part
Walsh, Allyn; Gold, Michelle; Jensen, Phyllis; Jedrzkiewicz, Michelle
To determine what factors enable or impede women in a Canadian family medicine residency program from combining motherhood with residency training. To determine how policies can support these women, given that in recent decades the number of female family medicine residents has increased. Qualitative study using in-person interviews. McMaster University Family Medicine Residency Program. Twenty-one of 27 family medicine residents taking maternity leave between 1994 and 1999. Semistructured interviews. The research team reviewed transcripts of audiotaped interviews for emerging themes; consensus was reached on content and meaning. NVIVO software was used for data analysis. Long hours, unpredictable work demands, guilt because absences from work increase workload for colleagues, and residents' high expectations of themselves cause pregnant residents severe stress. This stress continues upon return to work; finding adequate child care is an added stress. Residents report receiving less support from colleagues and supervisors upon return to work; they associate this with no longer being visibly pregnant. Physically demanding training rotations put additional strain on pregnant residents and those newly returned to work. Flexibility in scheduling rotations can help accommodate needs at home. Providing breaks, privacy, and refrigerators at work can help maintain breastfeeding. Allowing residents to remain involved in academic and clinical work during maternity leave helps maintain clinical skills, build new knowledge, and promote peer support. Pregnancy during residency training is common and becoming more common. Training programs can successfully enhance the experience of motherhood during residency by providing flexibility at work to facilitate a healthy balance among the competing demands of family, work, and student life.
Lange, T; Indelicato, D J; Rosen, J M
Virtual reality in surgery and, more specifically, in surgical training, faces a number of challenges in the future. These challenges are building realistic models of the human body, creating interface tools to view, hear, touch, feel, and manipulate these human body models, and integrating virtual reality systems into medical education and treatment. A final system would encompass simulators specifically for surgery, performance machines, telemedicine, and telesurgery. Each of these areas will need significant improvement for virtual reality to impact medicine successfully in the next century. This article gives an overview of, and the challenges faced by, current systems in the fast-changing field of virtual reality technology, and provides a set of specific milestones for a truly realistic virtual human body.
Dietl, Charles A; Russell, John C
The purpose of this article is to review the literature on current technology for surgical education and to evaluate the effect of technological advances on the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Core Competencies, American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) scores, and American Board of Surgery (ABS) certification. A literature search was obtained from MEDLINE via PubMed.gov, ScienceDirect.com, and Google Scholar on all peer-reviewed studies published since 2003 using the following search queries: technology for surgical education, simulation-based surgical training, simulation-based nontechnical skills (NTS) training, ACGME Core Competencies, ABSITE scores, and ABS pass rate. Our initial search list included the following: 648 on technology for surgical education, 413 on simulation-based surgical training, 51 on simulation-based NTS training, 78 on ABSITE scores, and 33 on ABS pass rate. Further, 42 articles on technological advances for surgical education met inclusion criteria based on their effect on ACGME Core Competencies, ABSITE scores, and ABS certification. Systematic review showed that 33 of 42 and 26 of 42 publications on technological advances for surgical education showed objective improvements regarding patient care and medical knowledge, respectively, whereas only 2 of 42 publications showed improved ABSITE scores, but none showed improved ABS pass rates. Improvements in the other ACGME core competencies were documented in 14 studies, 9 of which were on simulation-based NTS training. Most of the studies on technological advances for surgical education have shown a positive effect on patient care and medical knowledge. However, the effect of simulation-based surgical training and simulation-based NTS training on ABSITE scores and ABS certification has not been assessed. Studies on technological advances in surgical education and simulation-based NTS training showing quantitative evidence that surgery residency
Mamut, Adiel E; Afshar, Kourosh; Mickelson, Jennifer J; Macneily, Andrew E
The application of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has become increasingly common in urology training programs and clinical practice. Our objective was to review surgical case data from all 12 Canadian residency programs to identify trends in resident exposure to MIS and open procedures. Every year, beginning in 2003, an average of 41 postgraduate year 3 to 5 residents reported surgical case data to a secure internet relational database. Data were anonymized and extracted for the period 2003 to 2009 by measuring a set of 11 predefined index cases that could be performed in both an open and MIS fashion. 16,687 index cases were recorded by a total of 198 residents. As a proportion, there was a significant increase in MIS from 12% in 2003 to 2004 to 32% in 2008 to 2009 (P=0.01). A significant decrease in the proportion of index cases performed with an open approach was also observed from 88% in 2003 to 2004 to 68% in 2008 to 2009 (P=0.01). The majority of these shifts were secondary to the increased application of MIS for nephrectomies of all type (29%-45%), nephroureterectomy (27%-76%), adrenalectomy (15%-71%), and pyeloplasty (17%-54%) (Pfashion during the study period. MIS constitutes an increasingly significant component of surgical volume in Canadian urology residencies with a reciprocal decrease in exposure to open surgery. These trends necessitate ongoing evaluation to maintain the integrity of postgraduate urologic training.
Kuhls, Deborah A; Risucci, Donald A; Bowyer, Mark W; Luchette, Fred A
Surgical education is changing owing to workforce and economic demands. Simulation and other technical teaching methods are used to acquire skills transferable to the operating room. Operative management of traumatic injuries has declined, making it difficult to acquire and maintain competence. The ASSET course was developed by the Committee on Trauma's Surgical Skills Committee to fill a surgical skills need in resident and fellow education. Using a human cadaver, standardized rapid exposure of vital structures in the extremities, neck, thorax, abdomen, retroperitoneum, and pelvis is taught. A retrospective analysis of 79 participants in four ASSET courses was performed. Operative experience data were collected, and self-efficacy questionnaires (SEQs) were administered before and after the course. Course evaluations and instructor evaluation data were analyzed. Student's and paired samples t tests as well as analysis of variance and Spearman ρ correlation coefficient analysis were performed using α at p ASSET course would teach new surgical techniques and that learner self-assessed ability would improve. Participants included 27 PGY-4, 20 PGY-5, 24 PGY-6 or PGY-7 and PGY-8 at other levels of training. Self-assessed confidence improved in all body regions (p knowledge rated at 4.8 and learning new techniques at 4.72. A standardized cadaver-based surgical exposures course offered to senior surgical residents adds new surgical skills and improves participant self-assessed ability to perform emergent surgical exposure of vital structures.
Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Lieff, Susan; Razack, Saleem; Lee, A Curtis; Maniate, Jerry M; Hyde, Stacey; Taber, Sarah; Frank, Jason R
Despite widespread endorsement for administrative training during residency, teaching and learning in this area remains intermittent and limited in most programmes. To inform the development of a Manager Train-the-Trainer program for faculty, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada undertook a survey of perceived Manager training needs among postgraduate trainees. A representative sample of Canadian specialty residents received a web-based questionnaire in 2009 assessing their perceived deficiencies in 13 Manager knowledge and 11 Manager skill domains, as determined by gap scores (GSs). GSs were defined as the difference between residents' perceived current and desired level of knowledge or skill in selected Manager domains. Residents' educational preferences for furthering their Manager knowledge and skills were also elicited. Among the 549 residents who were emailed the survey, 199 (36.2%) responded. Residents reported significant gaps in most knowledge and skills domains examined. Residents' preferred educational methods for learning Manager knowledge and skills included workshops, web-based formats and interactive small groups. The results of this national survey, highlighting significant perceived gaps in multiple Manager knowledge and skills domains, may inform the development of Manager curricula and faculty development activities to address deficiencies in training in this important area.
McKendy, Katherine M; Posel, Nancy; Fleiszer, David M; Vassiliou, Melina C
To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a learner-created virtual patient (VP) curriculum for postgraduate year 2 surgical residents. Using a social-constructivist model of learning, we designed a learner-created VP curriculum to help postgraduate year 2 residents prepare for their in-training surgical examination. Each resident was assigned to create a VP curriculum based on the learning objectives for this examination, and VP cases were then disseminated to all residents for completion. To measure the learning effects of the curriculum, participants completed 2 simulated in-training examinations, both at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Study participants also participated in a focus group and completed an online questionnaire about the perceived learning value of the curriculum. The study was conducted at the McGill University Health Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Montreal, Canada. In total, 24 residents from 7 surgical specialties completed both the pretest and posttest, as well as took part in the creation of a VP curriculum. Of those 24 residents, only 19 residents completed the cases created by their peers, with 7 completing greater than 50% of the cases and 12 completing less than 50%. In all 17 residents responded to the online questionnaire and 11 residents participated in the focus group. The VP curriculum failed to improve scores from pretest (59.6%, standard deviation = 8.1) to posttest (55.4%, standard deviation = 6.6; p = 0.01) on the simulated in-training examination. Nonetheless, survey results demonstrated that most residents felt that creating a VP case (89%) and completing cases created by their peers (71%) had educational value. Overall, 71% preferred active participation in a curriculum to traditional didactic teaching. The focus group identified time-related constraints, concern about the quality of the peer-created cases, and questioning of the relationship between the curriculum and the Surgical Foundations
Chelsea R. Mehr MD
Full Text Available Changes in the field of pathology and resident education necessitate ongoing evaluation of residency training. Evolutionary change is particularly important for surgical pathology rotations, which form the core of anatomic pathology training programs. In the past, we organized this rotation based on subjective insight. When faced with the recent need to restructure the rotation, we strove for a more evidence-based process. Our approach involved 2 primary sources of data. We quantified the number of cases and blocks submitted per case type to estimate workload and surveyed residents about the time required to gross specimens in all organ systems. A multidisciplinary committee including faculty, residents, and staff evaluated the results and used the data to model how various changes to the rotation would affect resident workload, turnaround time, and other variables. Finally, we identified rotation structures that equally distributed work and created a point-based system that capped grossing time for residents of different experience. Following implementation, we retrospectively compared turnaround time and duty hour violations before and after these changes and surveyed residents about their experiences with both systems. We evaluated the accuracy of the point-based system by examining grossing times and comparing them to the assigned point values. We found overall improvement in the rotation following the implementation. As there is essentially no literature on the subject of surgical pathology rotation organization, we hope that our experience will provide a road map to improve pathology resident education at other institutions.
Mehr, Chelsea R; Obstfeld, Amrom E; Barrett, Amanda C; Montone, Kathleen T; Schwartz, Lauren E
Changes in the field of pathology and resident education necessitate ongoing evaluation of residency training. Evolutionary change is particularly important for surgical pathology rotations, which form the core of anatomic pathology training programs. In the past, we organized this rotation based on subjective insight. When faced with the recent need to restructure the rotation, we strove for a more evidence-based process. Our approach involved 2 primary sources of data. We quantified the number of cases and blocks submitted per case type to estimate workload and surveyed residents about the time required to gross specimens in all organ systems. A multidisciplinary committee including faculty, residents, and staff evaluated the results and used the data to model how various changes to the rotation would affect resident workload, turnaround time, and other variables. Finally, we identified rotation structures that equally distributed work and created a point-based system that capped grossing time for residents of different experience. Following implementation, we retrospectively compared turnaround time and duty hour violations before and after these changes and surveyed residents about their experiences with both systems. We evaluated the accuracy of the point-based system by examining grossing times and comparing them to the assigned point values. We found overall improvement in the rotation following the implementation. As there is essentially no literature on the subject of surgical pathology rotation organization, we hope that our experience will provide a road map to improve pathology resident education at other institutions.
Adams, Simon; Ginther, David Nathan; Neuls, Evan; Hayes, Paul
We recently studied attrition in Canadian general surgical programs; however, there are no data on whether residents enrolled in other surgical residencies harbour the same intents as their general surgical peers. We sought to determine how many residents in surgical disciplines in Canada consider leaving their programs and why. An anonymous survey was administered to all residents in 9 surgical disciplines in Canada. Significance of association was determined using the Pearson χ2 test. The Canadian Post-MD Education Registry (CAPER) website was used to calculate the response rate. We received 523 responses (27.6% response rate). Of these respondents, 140 (26.8%) were either "somewhat" or "seriously" considering leaving their program. Residents wanting to pursue additional fellowship training and those aspiring to an academic career were significantly less likely to be considering changing specialties ( p = 0.003 and p = 0.005, respectively). Poor work-life balance and fear of unemployment/underemployment were the top reasons why residents would change specialty (55.5% and 40.8%, respectively), although the reasons cited were not significantly different between those considering changing and those who were not ( p = 0.64). Residents who were considering changing programs were significantly less likely to enjoy their work and more likely to cite having already invested too much time to change as a reason for continuing ( p work-life balance and limited employment prospects. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle and to optimize employment prospects may improve completion rates.
Kotsis, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C
The traditional method of teaching in surgery is known as "see one, do one, teach one." However, many have argued that this method is no longer applicable, mainly because of concerns for patient safety. The purpose of this article is to show that the basis of the traditional teaching method is still valid in surgical training if it is combined with various adult learning principles. The authors reviewed literature regarding the history of the formation of the surgical residency program, adult learning principles, mentoring, and medical simulation. The authors provide examples for how these learning techniques can be incorporated into a surgical resident training program. The surgical residency program created by Dr. William Halsted remained virtually unchanged until recently with reductions in resident work hours and changes to a competency-based training system. Such changes have reduced the teaching time between attending physicians and residents. Learning principles such as experience, observation, thinking, and action and deliberate practice can be used to train residents. Mentoring is also an important aspect in teaching surgical technique. The authors review the different types of simulators-standardized patients, virtual reality applications, and high-fidelity mannequin simulators-and the advantages and disadvantages of using them. The traditional teaching method of "see one, do one, teach one" in surgical residency programs is simple but still applicable. It needs to evolve with current changes in the medical system to adequately train surgical residents and also provide patients with safe, evidence-based care.
Baugh, Tiffany P; Franzese, Christine B
Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of minimum case numbers on otolaryngology resident case log data and understand differences in minimum, mean, and maximum among certain procedures as a follow-up to a prior study. Study Design Cross-sectional survey using a national database. Setting Academic otolaryngology residency programs. Subjects and Methods Review of otolaryngology resident national data reports from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) resident case log system performed from 2004 to 2015. Minimum, mean, standard deviation, and maximum values for total number of supervisor and resident surgeon cases and for specific surgical procedures were compared. Results The mean total number of resident surgeon cases for residents graduating from 2011 to 2015 ranged from 1833.3 ± 484 in 2011 to 2072.3 ± 548 in 2014. The minimum total number of cases ranged from 826 in 2014 to 1004 in 2015. The maximum total number of cases increased from 3545 in 2011 to 4580 in 2015. Multiple key indicator procedures had less than the required minimum reported in 2015. Conclusion Despite the ACGME instituting required minimum numbers for key indicator procedures, residents have graduated without meeting these minimums. Furthermore, there continues to be large variations in the minimum, mean, and maximum numbers for many procedures. Variation among resident case numbers is likely multifactorial. Ensuring proper instruction on coding and case role as well as emphasizing frequent logging by residents will ensure programs have the most accurate data to evaluate their case volume.
Meara, Michael P; Schlitzkus, Lisa L; Witherington, Mitzi; Haisch, Carl; Rotondo, Michael F; Schenarts, Paul J
The current recession has impacted all aspects of our economy. Some residency programs have experienced faculty salary cuts, furlough days, and cessation of funding for travel to academic meetings. This milieu forced many residency programs to reevaluate their commitment to resident education, particularly for those expenses not provided for by Direct Medical Education (DME) and Indirect Medical Education (IME) funds. The purpose of this study was to determine what price a Department of Surgery pays to fulfill its commitment to resident education. A financial analysis of 1 academic year was performed for all expenses not covered by DME or IME funds and is paid for by the faculty practice plan. These expenses were categorized and further analyzed to determine the funds required for resident-related scholarly activity. A university-based general surgery residency program. Twenty-eight surgical residents and a program coordinator. The departmental faculty provided $153,141 during 1 academic year to support the educational mission of the residency. This amount is in addition to the $1.6 million in faculty time, $850,000 provided by the federal government in terms of DME funds, and $14 million of IME funds, which are distributed on an institutional basis. Resident presentations at scientific meetings accounted for $49,672, and program coordinator costs of $44,190 accounted for nearly two-thirds of this funding. The departmental faculty committed $6400 per categorical resident. In addition to DME and IME funds, a department of surgery must commit significant additional monies to meet the educational goals of surgical residency. Copyright © 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan; Harasym, Peter H
A crisis in pediatric residency training today has raised serious concerns about the healthcare quality for children in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to document the problems and to propose possible solutions for improvement. The problems include: 1) manpower shortage due to the difficulty of recruiting pediatric residents; 2) heavy workload that hinders learning; 3) lack of assessment and poor program planning; and 4) inadequate institutional and financial support. As a result, physicians' competencies are not guaranteed at the end of residency training, even with the pediatric board certification. Possible solutions may include: 1) conducting research on physician manpower statistics, work hours and environment; 2) establishing a Residency Program Review Committee and provision of standards for accreditation; 3) defining the competencies mandated as a general pediatrician and developing a set of measurable qualitative standards; 4) encouraging new programs with flexibility (e.g., primary care); and 5) pursuing adequate institutional and financial supports.
Austin, Ryan E; Wanzel, Kyle R
Despite increases in medical school enrolment, applications to surgical residency programs in Canada have been in decline over the past decade, with an increasing number of unmatched surgical residency positions. We examined the current status of surgical residency in Canada and analyzed application trends (2002–2013) for surgical training programs across Canada. Our findings suggest that most undergraduate medical schools across Canada are having difficulty fostering interest in surgical careers. We propose that a lack of adequate early exposure to the surgical specialties during undergraduate training is a critical factor. Moving forward, we must examine how the best-performing institutions and surgical programs have maintained interest in pursuing surgical careers and adapt our recruitment methods to both maintain and grow future interest. As Mary Engelbreit said, "If you don't like something, change it; if you can't change it, change the way you think about it."
Boerjan, M.; Bluyssen, S.J.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van; Goor, H. van
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of job-related autonomy and social support provided by consultants and colleagues on the stress-related health complaints of surgical residents in the Netherlands. METHODS: All (n = 400) Dutch residents in training in
Hadzikadic, Lejla; Burke, Peter A; Esposito, Thomas J; Agarwal, Suresh
Presenting the opinions of surgical residents about the appeal of trauma surgery as a specialty may influence current reform. Survey study. Academic research. General surgery residents (postgraduate years 1-5 and recent graduates) registered with the American College of Surgeons. A 22-item survey. Career plans and perceptions about trauma surgery as a specialty. Of 6006 mailed surveys, we had a 20.1% response rate. Midlevel residents comprised most of the respondents, and most were undecided about their career choice or planned to enter general surgical private practice. The typical residency programs represented were academic (81.7%), urban (90.6%), and level I trauma centers (78.7%), and included more than 6 months of trauma experience (77.6%). Most respondents (70.6%) thought that trauma surgery was unappealing. The most important deterrents to entering the field were lifestyle, poor reimbursement, and limited operating room exposure, while increased surgical critical care was not seen as a restriction. When questioned about the future of trauma surgery, they believed that trauma surgeons should perform elective (86.8%) and nontrauma emergency (91.5%) cases and would benefit from active association with an outpatient clinic (76.0%). Intellectual challenge and exciting nature of the field were listed as the most appealing aspects, and ideal practice characteristics included guaranteed salary and time away from work. As demand for trauma surgeons increases, resident interest has dwindled. As a specialty, trauma surgery must undergo changes that reflect the needs of the incoming generation. We present a sampling of current surgical resident opinion and offer these data to assist the changing discipline and the evolving field of acute care surgery.
Pernar, Luise I M; Breen, Elizabeth; Ashley, Stanley W; Peyre, Sarah E
The operating room (OR) remains the main teaching venue for surgical trainees. The OR is considered a pure-discovery learning environment; the downsides of this can be putatively overcome when faculty and trainee arrive at a shared understanding of learning. This study aimed to better understand preoperative learning goals to identify areas of commonalities and potential barrier to intraoperative teaching. Brief, structured preoperative interviews were conducted outside the OR with the resident and faculty member who were scheduled to operate together. Answers were analyzed and grouped using grounded theory. Twenty-seven resident-faculty pairs were interviewed. Nine residents (33.3%) were junior (PGY 1 and 2) and 18 (66.7%) were senior (PGY 3 through 5). Learning goal categories that emerged from the response analysis were anatomy, basic and advanced surgical skills, general and specific procedural tasks, technical autonomy, and pre-, intra-, and postoperative considerations. Residents articulated fewer learning goals than faculty (1.5 versus 2.4; P = 0.024). The most frequently identified learning goal by both groups was one classifiable under general procedural tasks; the greatest divergence was seen regarding perioperative considerations, which were identified frequently by faculty members but rarely by residents. Faculty articulate significantly more learning goals for the residents they will operate with than residents articulate for themselves. Our data suggest that residents and faculty align on some learning goals for the OR but residents tend to be more limited, focusing predominantly on technical aspects of the operation. Faculty members tend to hold a broader view of the learning potential of the OR. These discrepancies may present barriers to effective intraoperative teaching. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hashimoto, Daniel A; Bynum, William E; Lillemoe, Keith D; Sachdeva, Ajit K
The graduate medical education system is tasked with training competent and autonomous health care providers while also improving patient safety, delivering more efficient care, and cutting costs. Concerns about resident autonomy and preparation for independent and safe practice appear to be growing, and the field of surgery faces unique challenges in preparing graduates for independent practice. Multiple factors are contributing to an erosion of resident autonomy and decreased operative experience, including differing views of autonomy, financial forces, duty hours regulations, and diverse community health care needs. Identifying these barriers and developing solutions to overcome them are vital first steps in reversing the trend of diminishing autonomy in surgical residency training. This Commentary highlights the problem of decreasing autonomy, outlines specific threats to resident autonomy, and discusses potential solutions to mitigate their impact on the successful transition to independent practice.
Cofer, Kevin D; Hollis, Robert H; Goss, Lauren; Morris, Melanie S; Porterfield, John R; Chu, Daniel I
To evaluate whether burnout was associated with emotional intelligence and job performance in surgical residents. General surgery residents at a single institution were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and trait EI questionnaire (TEIQ-SF). Burnout was defined as scoring in 2 of the 3 following domains; Emotional Exhaustion (high), Depersonalization (high), and Personal Accomplishment (low). Job performance was evaluated using faculty evaluations of clinical competency-based surgical milestones and standardized test scores including the American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 3. USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 2, which were taken prior to residency training, were included to examine possible associations of burnout with USMLE examinations. Statistical comparison was made using Pearson correlation and simple linear regression adjusting for PGY level. This study was conducted at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) general surgery residency program. All current and incoming general surgery residents at UAB were invited to participate in this study. Forty residents participated in the survey (response rate 77%). Ten residents, evenly distributed from incoming residents to PGY-4, had burnout (25%). Mean global EI was lower in residents with burnout versus those without burnout (3.71 vs 3.9, p = 0.02). Of the 4 facets of EI, mean self-control values were lower in residents with burnout versus those without burnout (3.3 vs 4.06, p burnout was associated with global EI, with the strongest correlation being with personal accomplishment (r = 0.64; p burnout did not have significantly different mean scores for USMLE Step 1 (229 vs 237, p = 0.12), Step 2 (248 vs 251, p = 0.56), Step 3 (223 vs 222, p = 0.97), or ABSITE percentile (44.6 vs 58, p = 0.33) compared to residents without burnout. Personal accomplishment was associated with ABSITE percentile scores (r = 0.35; p = 0
Orvieto, Marcelo A; Marchetti, Pablo; Castillo, Octavio A; Coelho, Rafael F; Chauhan, Sanket; Rocco, Bernardo; Ardila, Bobby; Mathe, Mary; Patel, Vipul R
The modern-day surgeon is frequently exposed to new technologies and instrumentation. Robotic surgery (RS) has evolved as a minimally invasive technique aimed to improve clinical outcomes. RS has the potential to alleviate the inherent limitations of laparoscopic surgery such as two dimensional imaging, limited instrument movement and intrinsic human tremor. Since the first reported robot-assisted surgical procedure performed in 1985, the technology has dramatically evolved and currently multiple surgical specialties have incorporated RS into their daily clinical armamentarium. With this exponential growth, it should not come as a surprise the ever growing requirement for surgeons trained in RS as well as the interest from residents to receive robotic exposure during their training. For this reason, the establishment of set criteria for adequate and standardized training and credentialing of surgical residents, fellows and those trained surgeons wishing to perform RS has become a priority. In this rapidly evolving field, we herein review the past, present and future of robotic technologies and its penetration into different surgical specialties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahood, S.; Rojas, R.; Andres, D.; Zagozeski, C.; White, G.; Bradel, T.
An educational contract for family medicine residency training and evaluation addresses many of the difficulties and challenges of current postgraduate medical education. This article identifies important principles for developing a contractual approach; describes the contract used in one program and its implementation; and discusses its theory, advantages, and limitations.
And Others; Rood, Stewart R.
The faculty of the Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, has designed a rotation in the otolaryngology service, that is a basic clinical orientation to ear, nose and throat medicine, to fit the one-month block committed by the local family practice residency training program. The program is described and its…
Full Text Available Objective Communication between the surgeon and the patient is a core clinical skill. The ability to communicate with patients and their family members is very important in the optimum care of the surgical patient. Few studies have assessed communication between surgical trainees and their patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this, the communication skills of residents in the department of surgery were evaluated to determine their perception of competency and perceived need for training in communication skills as a basis for developing an effective education programme. Method A survey of patient care - related communication skills among surgery residents and assessment of competence, rating the importance and perceived need for training in communication skills. Results Most residents rated their skills as either fairly or extremely competent in all areas except in providing bereavement counseling. They found all skills important and indicated a need for training in them. Senior registrars rated their competence and the importance higher in skills relating to breaking bad news, educating and preparing patients and families for surgery and encouraging them to express their anxieties. (p 0.05. Conclusion Residents face difficult communication challenges with patients and their families. There is a dire need for improved education in communication skills. Understanding the surgical trainees perceptions of patient care related communication skills is the first step in designing an effective education programme.
Effective acquisition of a skill requires practise. Therefore it is of great importance to provide veterinary students with opportunities to practice their surgical skills before carrying out surgical procedures on live patients. Some veterinary schools let students perform entire surgical...... procedures on research animals, in order to learn the basic skills along the way. From an ethical point of view it is questionable however to use live research animals for the sole purpose of practising surgery, and also, research animals are very costly. It is therefore necessary to identify alternative...... teaching methods for veterinary surgical training. At the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, a number of low fidelity, stuffed toy animal dummies was developed for the Surgical Skills Lab in order to teach 4th year students the basic surgical skills. In the Surgical...
Newcomb, Anna; Trickey, Amber W; Lita, Elena; Dort, Jonathan
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to assess communication skills and provide feedback to residents. We aimed to develop a feasible data collection process that generates objective clinical performance information to guide training activities, inform ACGME milestone evaluations, and validate assessment instruments. Residents care for patients in the surgical clinic and in the hospital, and participate in a communication curriculum providing practice with standardized patients (SPs). We measured perception of resident communication using the 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT), collecting data from patients at the surgery clinic and surgical wards in the hospital, and from SP encounters during simulated training scenarios. We developed a handout of CAT example behaviors to guide patients completing the communication assessment. Independent academic medical center. General surgery residents. The primary outcome is the percentage of total items patients rated "excellent;" we collected data on 24 of 25 residents. Outpatient evaluations resulted in significantly higher scores (mean 84.5% vs. 68.6%, p communication assessments in their concurrent patient population (p = 0.017), and (2) receiving CAT example instructions was associated with a lower percentage of excellent ratings by 9.3% (p = 0.047). Our data collection process provides a model for obtaining meaningful information about resident communication proficiency. CAT evaluations of surgical residents by the inpatient population had not previously been described in the literature; our results provide important insight into relationships between the evaluations provided by inpatients, clinic patients, and SPs in simulation. Our example behaviors guide shows promise for addressing a common concern, minimizing ceiling effects when measuring physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by
Wu, Justine P; Bennett, Ian; Levine, Jeffrey P; Aguirre, Abigail Calkins; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fleischman, Joan
We aimed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the interest in and support for abortion training among family medicine residents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey before and after an educational lecture on medical and surgical abortion in primary care among 89 residents in 10 New Jersey family medicine programs. Before the lecture, there was more interest in medical abortion training than surgical abortion. Resident interest in surgical abortion and overall support for abortion training increased after the educational intervention (p<.01). Efforts to develop educational programs on early abortion care may facilitate the integration of abortion training in family medicine.
Gephart, Melanie Hayden; Derstine, Pamela; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Grady, M Sean; Burchiel, Kim; Batjer, H Hunt; Popp, A John; Barbaro, Nicholas M
Subspecialization of physicians and regional centers concentrate the volume of certain rare cases into fewer hospitals. Consequently, the primary institution of a neurological surgery training program may not have sufficient case volume to meet the current Residency Review Committee case minimum requirements in some areas. To ensure the competency of graduating residents through a comprehensive neurosurgical education, programs may need for residents to travel to outside institutions for exposure to cases that are either less common or more regionally focused. We sought to evaluate off-site rotations to better understand the changing demographics and needs of resident education. This would also allow prospective monitoring of modifications to the neurosurgery training landscape. We completed a survey of neurosurgery program directors and query of data from the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education to characterize the current use of away rotations in neurosurgical education of residents. We found that 20% of programs have mandatory away rotations, most commonly for exposure to pediatric, functional, peripheral nerve, or trauma cases. Most of these rotations are done during postgraduate year 3 to 6, lasting 1 to 15 months. Twenty-six programs have 2 to 3 participating sites and 41 have 4 to 6 sites distinct from the host program. Programs frequently offset potential financial harm to residents rotating at a distant site by support of housing and transportation costs. As medical systems experience fluctuating treatment paradigms and demographics, over time, more residency programs may adapt to meet the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education case minimum requirements through the implementation of away rotations.
Evans, Charity H; Schenarts, Kimberly D
Training competent and professional surgeons efficiently and effectively requires innovation and modernization of educational methods. Today's medical learner is quite adept at using multiple platforms to gain information, providing surgical educators with numerous innovative avenues to promote learning. With the growth of technology, and the restriction of work hours in surgical education, there has been an increase in use of simulation, including virtual reality, robotics, telemedicine, and gaming. The use of simulation has shifted the learning of basic surgical skills to the laboratory, reserving limited time in the operating room for the acquisition of complex surgical skills". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Borgmann, Hendrik; Arnold, Hannah K; Meyer, Christian P; Bründl, Johannes; König, Justus; Nestler, Tim; Ruf, Christian; Struck, Julian; Salem, Johannes
Excellent uniform training of urology residents is crucial to secure both high-quality patient care and the future of our specialty. Residency training has come under scrutiny following the demands of subspecialized care, economical aspects, and working hour regulations. To comprehensively assess the surgical training, research opportunities, and working conditions among urology residents in Germany. We sent a 29-item online survey via email to 721 members of the German Society of Residents in Urology. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe the surveys' four domains: (1) baseline characteristics, (2) surgical training (cumulative completed case volume for all minor-, medium-, and major-complexity surgeries), (3) research opportunities, and (4) working conditions. Four hundred and seventy-two residents completed the online survey (response rate 65%). Surgical training: the median number of cumulative completed cases for postgraduate yr (PGY)-5 residents was 113 (interquartile range: 76-178). Minor surgeries comprised 57% of all surgeries and were performed by residents in all PGYs. Medium-complexity surgeries comprised 39% of all surgeries and were mostly performed by residents in PGYs 2-5. Major surgeries comprised 4% of all surgeries and were occasionally performed by residents in PGYs 3-5. Research opportunities: some 44% have attained a medical thesis (Dr. med.), and 39% are currently pursuing research. Working conditions: psychosocial work-related stress was high and for 82% of residents their effort exceeded their rewards. Some 44% were satisfied, 32% were undecided, and 24% were dissatisfied with their current working situation. Limitations include self-reported survey answers and a lack of validated assessment tools. Surgical exposure among German urology residents is low and comprises minor and medium-complex surgeries. Psychosocial work-related stress is high for the vast majority of residents indicating the need for structural improvements in
Haricharan, Ramanath N; Aprahamian, Charles J; Celik, Ahmet; Harmon, Carroll M; Georgeson, Keith E; Barnhart, Douglas C
The purpose of this study was to characterize the safety of laparoscopic pyloromyotomy and examine the effect of resident training on the occurrence of complications. Five hundred consecutive infants who underwent laparoscopic pyloromyotomy between January 1997 and December 2005 were reviewed and analyzed. Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy was successfully completed in 489 patients (97.8%). Four hundred seventeen patients were boys (83%). Intraoperative complication occurred in 8 (1.6%) patients (mucosal perforation, 7; serosal injury to the duodenum, 1). All were immediately recognized and uneventfully repaired. Six patients (1.2%) required revision pyloromyotomy for persistent or recurrent gastric outlet obstruction. There were 7 wound complications (1.4%) and no deaths. Pediatric surgery residents performed 81% of the operations, whereas 16% were done by general surgery residents (postgraduate years 3-4). There was a 5.4-fold increased risk of mucosal perforation or incomplete pyloromyotomy when a general surgery resident rather than a pediatric surgery resident performed the operation (95% confidence interval, 1.8-15.8; P = .003). These effects persisted even after controlling for weight, age, and attending experience. The laparoscopic pyloromyotomy has an excellent success rate with low morbidity. The occurrence of complications is increased when the operation is performed by a general surgery resident, even when directly supervised by pediatric surgical faculty.
Yoo, Peter S; Tackett, John J; Maxfield, Mark W; Fisher, Rosemarie; Huot, Stephen J; Longo, Walter E
Although there is increasing literature about burnout and attrition among surgeons, little is known about personal and professional well-being of surgical trainees. General surgery residents from the 6 New England states participated in a cross-sectional, qualitative, self-reported survey to assess the domains of personal health maintenance, personal finance, work environment, and fatigue management as they relate to surgical training. All surgical residency programs in the New England region were invited to participate. Of these 19 programs, 10 elected to participate in the study. Three hundred and sixty-three total trainees were contacted with requests to participate, and 166 completed responses to the survey, resulting in a response rate of 44.9%. Ninety percent of respondents identified their programs as "university or academic." Substantial cohorts reported that during training they lacked basic healthcare maintenance visits (54%) and had undesired weight gain (44%). Although most found their stipends adequate, three-quarters worried about their finances (75%) and reported substantial educational debt (45%). Most residents enjoyed coming to work; however, the vast majority reported that work-related stress is moderate to extreme (92%). Most also reported that work-related stress negatively affects their overall well-being (72%). The mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score among respondents was 14, consistent with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness. Surgical trainee well-being is critical to optimal patient care, career development, and burnout reduction. Surgical residents attend to their own preventive health maintenance, finances, sleep, and stress reduction with variable success. Residency programs should make modest programmatic accommodations to allow trainees to tend to various aspects of their personal well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Encuesta de opinión sobre la cirugía mayor ambulatoria en la formación del residente de especialidades quirúrgicas Opinion survey of the effect of major ambulatory surgery on the training of surgical residents
Carlos Martínez Ramos
Full Text Available Introducción: La progresiva implantación en nuestro pais de la Cirugía Mayor Ambulatoria (CMA puede afectar a la enseñanza de la cirugía, si consideramos el desplazamiento presente y futuro hacia las Unidades de CMA de intervenciones quirúrgicas muy frecuentes, de riesgo medio y bajo, que constituyen la base del aprendizaje quirúrgico. El objetivo del presente trabajo es 1º conocer la opinión de los residentes de especialidades quirúrgicas sobre la repercusión que la CMA puede tener en su formación quirúrgica y 2º conocer las posibles soluciones que aportan en este sentido. Material y Métodos: Se ha realizado una encuesta de 17 preguntas (13 cerradas, 2 abiertas y 1 mixta a 72 residentes pertenecientes a 7 de las especialidades quirúrgicas que participan en la Unidad de CMA del Hospital Clínico San Carlos de Madrid. Resultados: La encuesta ha sido cumplimentada por el 36,1% de los residentes. De ellos, el 100% considera que: 1 es importante conocer y formarse en este tipo de cirugía. 2 las técnicas quirúrgicas que se realizan en la UCMA del Hospital son fundamentales para la formación del residente. 3 la Cirugía Mayor Ambulatoria debe incluirse en la formación de su especialidad durante el periodo de residencia. El 80,8% considera que tener formación en CMA contribuye a mejorar las expectativas laborales una vez finalizada la residencia. Conclusiones: Los residentes consideran que es necesaria su participación en la actividad de las Unidades de CMA, necesitándose, en este sentido, la creación de programas bien estructurados, elaborados y coordinados. Estos han de estar consensuados por todas las partes afectadas y se han de adaptar a las características de cada especialidad.Introduction: The progressive introduction in our country of Major Ambulatory Surgery (MAS may affect the training of surgical residents. The type of operations that may now be performed at MAS Units (frequent medium and low risk operations
Tsang, J S
Shortened trainingtimes duetothe European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is a fascinating innovation allowing surgeons to develop without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period.
Edwards, Janet P; Schofield, Adam; Paolucci, Elizabeth Oddone; Schieman, Colin; Kelly, Elizabeth; Servatyari, Ramin; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G; Grondin, Sean C
To identify core thoracic surgery procedures that require increased emphasis during thoracic surgery residency for residents to achieve operative independence and to compare the perspectives of residents and program directors in this regard. A modified Delphi process was used to create a survey that was distributed electronically to all Canadian thoracic surgery residents (12) and program directors (8) addressing the residents' ability to perform 19 core thoracic surgery procedures independently after the completion of residency. Residents were also questioned about the adequacy of their operative exposure to these 19 procedures during their residency training. A descriptive summary including calculations of frequencies and proportions was conducted. The perceptions of the 2 groups were then compared using the Fisher exact test employing a Bonferroni correction. The relationship between residents' operative exposure and their perceived operative ability was explored in the same fashion. The response rate was 100% for residents and program directors. No statistical differences were found between residents' and program directors' perceptions of residents' ability to perform the 19 core procedures independently. Both groups identified lung transplantation, first rib resection, and extrapleural pneumonectomy as procedures for which residents were not adequately prepared to perform independently. Residents' subjective ratings of operative exposure were in good agreement with their reported operative ability for 13 of 19 procedures. This study provides new insight into the perceptions of thoracic surgery residents and their program directors regarding operative ability. This study points to good agreement between residents and program directors regarding residents' surgical capabilities. This study provides information regarding potential weaknesses in thoracic surgery training, which may warrant an examination of the curricula of existing programs as well as a
Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to analyze the learning curve of phacoemulsification (phaco performed by residents without experience in performing extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE in a step-by-step training program (SBSTP. Materials and Methods: Consecutive surgical records of phaco performed from March 2009 to Sept 2011 by four residents without previous ECCE experience were retrospectively reviewed. The completion rate of the first 30 procedures by each resident was calculated. The main intraoperative phaco parameter records for the first 30 surgeries by each resident were compared with those for their last 30 surgeries. Intraoperative complications in the residents′ procedures were also recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 1013 surgeries were performed by residents. The completion rate for the first 30 phaco procedures was 79.2 μ 5.8%. The main reasons for halting the procedure were as follows: Anterior capsule tear, inability to crack the nucleus, and posterior capsular rupture during phaco or cortex removal. Cumulative dissipated energy of phaco power used during the surgeries was significantly less in the last 30 cases compared with the first 30 cases (30.10 μ 17.58 vs. 55.41 μ 37.59, P = 0.021. Posterior capsular rupture rate was 2.5 μ 1.2% in total (10.8 μ 4.2% in the first 30 cases and 1.7 μ 1.9% in the last 30 cases, P = 0.008; a statistically significant difference. Conclusion:The step-by-step training program might be a necessary process for a resident to transit from dependence to a self-supported operator. It is also an essential middle step between wet lab training to performing the entire phaco procedure on the patient both effectively and safely.
Castellanos-González, José Alberto; Torres-Martínez, Verónica; Martínez-Ruiz, Adriana; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Rendón-Félix, Jorge; Irusteta-Jiménez, Leire; Márquez-Valdez, Aída Rebeca; Cortés-Lares, José Antonio; González-Ojeda, Alejandro
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dry eye syndrome in a group of Mexican residents of different surgical specialties. A cross-sectional descriptive study where the residents were studied using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, together with diagnostic tests for dry eye syndrome, such as tear breakup time, Oxford Schema, Schirmer's test I, and meibomian gland dysfunction testing. Statistical analyses were performed by Pearson's chi-squared test for categorical variables and student's t-test for quantitative variables. Any P value eyes); 90 (73 %) were male and 33 (27 %) were female. The mean age was 27.8 ± 2.1 years. A higher number of residents with dry eye syndrome was found in the cardiothoracic surgery (75 %) and otorhinolaryngology (71 %) specialties; 70 % of them reported ocular symptoms, with teardrop quality involvement in >50 % of them. We found a prevalence of 56 % for mild-to-moderate/severe stages of the condition. Their presence in the operating room predisposes surgical residents to dry eye syndrome because of environmental conditions.
Sellers, Morgan M; Hanson, Kristi; Schuller, Mary; Sherman, Karen; Kelz, Rachel R; Fryer, Jonathan; DaRosa, Debra; Bilimoria, Karl Y
As patient-safety and quality efforts spread throughout health care, the need for physician involvement is critical, yet structured training programs during surgical residency are still uncommon. Our objective was to develop an extended quality-improvement curriculum for surgical residents that included formal didactics and structured practical experience. Surgical trainees completed an 8-hour didactic program in quality-improvement methodology at the start of PGY3. Small teams developed practical quality-improvement projects based on needs identified during clinical experience. With the assistance of the hospital's process-improvement team and surgical faculty, residents worked through their selected projects during the following year. Residents were anonymously surveyed after their participation to assess the experience. During the first 3 years of the program, 17 residents participated, with 100% survey completion. Seven quality-improvement projects were developed, with 57% completing all DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) phases. Initial projects involved issues of clinical efficiency and later projects increasingly focused on clinical care questions. Residents found the experience educationally important (65%) and believed they were well equipped to lead similar initiatives in the future (70%). Based on feedback, the timeline was expanded from 12 to 24 months and changed to start in PGY2. Developing an extended curriculum using both didactic sessions and applied projects to teach residents the theory and implementation of quality improvement is possible and effective. It addresses the ACGME competencies of practice-based improvement and learning and systems-based practice. Our iterative experience during the past 3 years can serve as a guide for other programs. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Craig, J L
Since 1984 the University of British Columbia's School of Medicine has offered teaching improvement project systems (TIPS) workshops on effective teaching techniques; two workshops a year are given for medical faculty members and two a year for residents. The faculty members who conduct the workshops have received training on how to present them. The most powerful learning experience offered by TIPS is the opportunity for participants to present 10-minute teaching segments that are videotaped...
Stoller, Jeremy; Pratt, Sarah; Stanek, Stephen; Zelenock, Gerald; Nazzal, Munier
There is an increasing number of proposals to change the way Graduate Medical Education is funded. This study attempts to estimate the potential financial contribution of surgical residents using an alternative funding mechanism similar to that used by law firms, which would allow surgery departments to bill for resident activity as "junior associates." Following 24 residents over a period of 12 weeks, we were able to estimate the annual revenue that they generated from operating room procedures, independent consultations, patient management, and minor procedures using Medicare reimbursement rates. The appropriate first assistant modifier was used to calculate the operating room procedure fees, but full price was used to calculate the revenue for minor procedures, patient management, and consultations done independently. We adjusted for vacation time and academic activities. Including postgraduate year 1 residents, the estimated yearly revenue generated per resident in first assistant operative services was $33,305.67. For minor procedures, patient management, and independent consultations, the estimated yearly revenue per resident was $37,350.66. The total estimated financial contribution per resident per year was $70,656.33. Excluding postgraduate year 1 residents, as most states require completion of the intern year before full licensure, the estimated yearly revenue generated per resident in first assistant operative services was $38,914.56. For minor procedures, patient management, and independent consultations, the estimated yearly revenue per resident was $55,957.33. The total estimated financial contribution per resident per year was $94,871.89. Residents provide a significant service to hospitals. If resident activity was compensated at the level of supervised "junior associates" of a surgery department, more than 75% of the direct educational costs of training could be offset. Furthermore, we believe this value is underestimated. Given the foreseeable
FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...
Colvin, Jennifer; French, Judith; Siperstein, Allan; Capizzani, Tony R; Krishnamurthy, Vikram D
We aimed to conduct professionalism and social competencies (PSC) training by integrating humanities into structured workshops, and to assess reception of this curriculum by first-year surgical residents. An IRB-approved, pilot curriculum consisting of 4 interactive workshops for surgical interns was developed. The workshops were scheduled quarterly, often in small group format, and supplemental readings were assigned. Humanities media utilized to illustrate PSC included survival scenarios, reflective writing, television portrayals, and social media. Emphasis was placed on recognizing personal values and experiences that influence judgment and decision-making, using social media responsibly, identifying and overcoming communication barriers related to generational changes in training (especially technology and work-life balance), and tackling stereotypes of surgeons. Anonymous and voluntary pre- and postcurriculum surveys were administered. Univariate analysis of responses was performed with JMP Pro v12 using Fisher's exact, χ 2 , and Students' t-tests for categorical and continuous variables. The study took place at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, OH, within the general surgery program. Surgical interns at the Cleveland Clinic were included in the study. A total of 16 surgical interns completed the curriculum. Sixteen surgical interns participated in the curriculum: 69% were domestic medical school graduates (DG) and 31% were international medical school graduates (IMG). Overall, the majority (81%) of residents had received PSC courses during medical school: 100% of DG compared to 40% of IMG (p = 0.02). Before beginning the curriculum, 86% responded that additional PSC training would be useful during residency, which increased to 94% upon completion (p = 0.58). Mean number of responses supporting the usefulness of PSC training increased from 1.5 ± 0.2 before the curriculum to 1.75 ± 0.2 upon completion (p = 0.4). When describing public and medical student
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous models, of variable quality, exist to impart the complex skills required to perform vascular anastomosis. These models differ with regard to the kinds of materials used, as well as their sizes, the time needed for their preparation, their availability, and the associated costs. The present study describes a bench model that uses formalin-fixed porcine aorta, and its evaluation by young surgical residents during a recent skills course. Findings The aortic segments used were a by-product of slaughtering. They were fixed and stored after harvesting for eventual use. Ten young surgical residents participated, and each performed one end-to-side vascular anastomosis. The evaluation was a questionnaire maintaining anonymity of the participant containing questions addressing particular aspects of the model and the experiences of the trainee, along with their ratings concerning the need for a training course to learn vascular anastomosis techniques. The scoring on the survey was done using a global 6-point rating scale (Likert Scale. In addition, we ranked the present model by reviewing the current literature for models that address vascular anastomosis skills. The trainees who participated were within their first two years of training (1.25 ± 0.46. A strong agreement in terms of the necessity of training for vascular anastomosis techniques was evident among the participating trainees (5.90 ± 0.32, who had only few prior manual experiences (total number 1.50 ± 0.53. The query revealed a strong agreement that porcine aorta is a suitable model that fits the needs for training vascular anastomosis skills (5.70 ± 0.48. Only a few bench models designed to teach surgical residents vascular anastomosis techniques were available in the literature. Conclusions The preparatory and financial resources needed to perform anastomosis skills training using porcine aorta are few. The presented bench model appears to be appropriate for
Honaker, Michael Drew; Paton, Beverly L; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Schiffern, Lynnette M
Robotic surgery is a rapidly growing area in surgery. In an era of emphasis on cost reduction, the question becomes how do you train residents in robotic surgery? The aim of this study was to determine if there was a difference in operative time and complications when comparing general surgery residents learning robotic cholecystectomies to those learning standard laparoscopic cholecystectomies. A retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy by surgical residents between March 2013 and February 2014 was conducted. Demographic data, operative factors, length of stay (LOS), and complications were examined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The significance was set at p robotic cholecystectomy group and 40 in the laparoscopic group). Age, diagnosis, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score were not significantly different between groups. There was only 1 complication in the standard laparoscopic group in which a patient had to be taken back to surgery because of an incarcerated port site. LOS was significantly higher in the standard laparoscopic group (mean = 2.28) than in the robotic group (mean = 0.56; p robotic group (mean = 97.00 minutes; p = 0.4455). When intraoperative cholangiogram was evaluated, OR time was shorter in the robotic group. Robotic training in general surgery residency does not amount to extra OR time. LOS in our study was significantly longer in the standard laparoscopic group. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cook, D J; Liutkus, J F; Risdon, C L; Griffith, L E; Guyatt, G H; Walter, S D
To assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault, and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation, and to examine the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in residency training programs. Self-administered questionnaire. McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. Residents in seven residency training programs during the academic year from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents 186 (82.7%) returned a completed questionnaire, and 50% of the respondents were women. Prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation experienced by residents during medical training, prevalence and residents' perceived frequency of sexual harassment. Psychological abuse was reported by 50% of the residents. Some of the respondents reported physical assault, mostly by patients and their family members (14.7% reported assaults by male patients and family members, 9.8% reported assaults by female patients and family members), 5.4% of the female respondents reported assault by male supervising physicians. Discrimination on the basis of gender was reported to be common and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (p sexual orientation. Most of the respondents experienced sexual harassment, especially in the form of sexist jokes, flirtation and unwanted compliments on their dress or figure. On average, 40% of the respondents, especially women (p sexual harassment to someone (p sexual harassment were embarassment (reported by 24.0%), anger (by 23.4%) and frustration (20.8%). Psychological abuse, discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual harassment are commonly experienced by residents in training programs. A direct, progressive, multidisciplinary approach is needed to label and address these problems.
Soucisse, Mikael L; Boulva, Kerianne; Sideris, Lucas; Drolet, Pierre; Morin, Michel; Dubé, Pierre
As surgical training is evolving and operative exposure is decreasing, new, effective, and experiential learning methods are needed to ensure surgical competency and patient safety. Video coaching is an emerging concept in surgery that needs further investigation. In this randomized controlled trial conducted at a single teaching hospital, participating residents were filmed performing a side-to-side intestinal anastomosis on cadaveric dog bowel for baseline assessment. The Surgical Video Coaching (SVC) group then participated in a one-on-one video playback coaching and debriefing session with a surgeon, during which constructive feedback was given. The control group went on with their normal clinical duties without coaching or debriefing. All participants were filmed making a second intestinal anastomosis. This was compared to their first anastomosis using a 7-category-validated technical skill global rating scale, the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills. A single independent surgeon who did not participate in coaching or debriefing to the SVC group reviewed all videos. A satisfaction survey was then sent to the residents in the coaching group. Department of Surgery, HôpitalMaisonneuve-Rosemont, tertiary teaching hospital affiliated to the University of Montreal, Canada. General surgery residents from University of Montreal were recruited to take part in this trial. A total of 28 residents were randomized and completed the study. After intervention, the SVC group (n = 14) significantly increased their Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills score (mean of differences 3.36, [1.09-5.63], p = 0.007) when compared to the control group (n = 14) (mean of differences 0.29, p = 0.759). All residents agreed or strongly agreed that video coaching was a time-efficient teaching method. Video coaching is an effective and efficient teaching intervention to improve surgical residents' technical skills. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier
Farrokhyar, Forough; Amin, Nalin; Dath, Deepak; Bhandari, Mohit; Kelly, Stephan; Kolkin, Ann M; Gill-Pottruff, Catherine; Skot, Martina; Reid, Susan
To evaluate whether implementing the formal Surgical Research Methodology (SRM) Program in the surgical residency curriculum improved research productivity compared with the preceding informal Research Seminar Series (RSS). The SRM Program replaced the RSS in July 2009. In the SRM Program, the curriculum in Year-1 consisted of 12 teaching sessions on the principles of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, whereas the focus in Year-2 was on the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. The RSS consisted of 8 research methodology sessions repeated annually for 2 years along with the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. Research productivity was measured as the number of peer-reviewed publications and the generation of studies with higher levels of evidence. Outcome measures were independently assessed by 2 authors to avoid bias. Student t test and chi-square test were used for the analysis. Frequencies, mean differences with 95% CI, and effect sizes have been reported. In this study, 81 SRM residents were compared with 126 RSS residents. The performance of the SRM residents was superior on all metrics in our evaluation. They were significantly more productive and published more articles than the RSS residents (mean difference = 1.0 [95% CI: 0.5-1.5], p research performance improved 11.0 grades (95% CI: 8.5%-13.5%, p research methodology is crucial to appropriately apply evidence-based findings in clinical practice. The SRM Program has significantly improved the research productivity and performance of the surgical residents from all disciplines. The implementation of a similar research methodology program is highly recommended for the benefit of residents' future careers and ultimately, evidence-based patient care. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dermody, Sarah M; Gao, William; McGinn, Johnathan D; Malekzadeh, Sonya
Objective (1) Evaluate the consistency and manner in which otolaryngology residents log surgical cases. (2) Assess the extent of instruction and guidance provided by program directors on case-logging practices. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey. Setting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education otolaryngology residency programs in the United States. Subjects and Methods US otolaryngology residents, postgraduate year 2 through graduating chiefs as of July 2016, were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire designed to characterize surgical case-logging practices. Program directors of US otolaryngology residency programs were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire to elucidate how residents are instructed to log cases. Results A total of 272 residents and 53 program directors completed the survey, yielding response rates of 40.6% and 49.5%, respectively. Perceived accuracy of case logs is low among residents and program directors. Nearly 40% of residents purposely choose not to log certain cases, and 65.1% of residents underreport cases performed. More than 80% of program directors advise residents to log procedures performed outside the operating room, yet only 16% of residents consistently log such cases. Conclusion Variability in surgical case-logging behaviors and differences in provided instruction highlight the need for methods to improve consistency of logging practices. It is imperative to standardize practices across otolaryngology residency programs for case logs to serve as an accurate measure of surgical competency. This study provides a foundation for reform efforts within residency programs and for the Resident Case Log System.
Dunn, John C; Belmont, Philip J; Lanzi, Joseph; Martin, Kevin; Bader, Julia; Owens, Brett; Waterman, Brian R
Surgical education is evolving as work hour constraints limit the exposure of residents to the operating room. Potential consequences may include erosion of resident education and decreased quality of patient care. Surgical simulation training has become a focus of study in an effort to counter these challenges. Previous studies have validated the use of arthroscopic surgical simulation programs both in vitro and in vivo. However, no study has examined if the gains made by residents after a simulation program are retained after a period away from training. In all, 17 orthopedic surgery residents were randomized into simulation or standard practice groups. All subjects were oriented to the arthroscopic simulator, a 14-point anatomic checklist, and Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET). The experimental group received 1 hour of simulation training whereas the control group had no additional training. All subjects performed a recorded, diagnostic arthroscopy intraoperatively. These videos were scored by 2 blinded, fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons and outcome measures were compared within and between the groups. After 1 year in which neither group had exposure to surgical simulation training, all residents were retested intraoperatively and scored in the exact same fashion. Individual surgical case logs were reviewed and surgical case volume was documented. There was no difference between the 2 groups after initial simulation testing and there was no correlation between case volume and initial scores. After training, the simulation group improved as compared with baseline in mean ASSET (p = 0.023) and mean time to completion (p = 0.01). After 1 year, there was no difference between the groups in any outcome measurements. Although individual technical skills can be cultivated with surgical simulation training, these advancements can be lost without continued education. It is imperative that residency programs implement a simulation curriculum and
Adam, P; Williamson, H A; Zweig, S C; Delzell, J E
To facilitate resident training in the ambulatory setting, a few family practice residency programs use a partnership system to train residents. Partnerships are pairs of residents from the same year that rotate together on inpatient services. We identified and characterized the advantages and disadvantages of partnership programs in family practice residencies. We conducted a national survey of family practice residencies, followed by phone interviews with residency directors of programs with partnerships. A total of 305 of 407 (75%) residencies responded; 10 programs fit our definition of partnership. Program directors were positive about resident partnerships. Benefits included improved outpatient continuity, enhanced medical communication skills, and emotional and intellectual support. Disadvantages were decreased inpatient exposure and difficulty coordinating residents' schedules. Directors were favorable about partnerships, which seem to be an underutilized technique to improve residency training.
Lea C. George
Full Text Available Objective. Robotic surgery continues to expand in minimally invasive surgery; however, the literature is insufficient to understand the current training process for general surgery residents. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify the current approach to and perspectives on robotic surgery training. Methods. An electronic survey was distributed to general surgery program directors identified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education website. Multiple choice and open-ended questions regarding current practices and opinions on robotic surgery training in general surgery residency programs were used. Results. 20 program directors were surveyed, a majority being from medium-sized programs (4–7 graduating residents per year. Most respondents (73.68% had a formal robotic surgery curriculum at their institution, with 63.16% incorporating simulation training. Approximately half of the respondents believe that more time should be dedicated to robotic surgery training (52.63%, with simulation training prior to console use (84.21%. About two-thirds of the respondents (63.16% believe that a formal robotic surgery curriculum should be established as a part of general surgery residency, with more than half believing that exposure should occur in postgraduate year one (55%. Conclusion. A formal robotics curriculum with simulation training and early surgical exposure for general surgery residents should be given consideration in surgical residency training.
George, Lea C; O'Neill, Rebecca; Merchant, Aziz M
Robotic surgery continues to expand in minimally invasive surgery; however, the literature is insufficient to understand the current training process for general surgery residents. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify the current approach to and perspectives on robotic surgery training. An electronic survey was distributed to general surgery program directors identified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education website. Multiple choice and open-ended questions regarding current practices and opinions on robotic surgery training in general surgery residency programs were used. 20 program directors were surveyed, a majority being from medium-sized programs (4-7 graduating residents per year). Most respondents (73.68%) had a formal robotic surgery curriculum at their institution, with 63.16% incorporating simulation training. Approximately half of the respondents believe that more time should be dedicated to robotic surgery training (52.63%), with simulation training prior to console use (84.21%). About two-thirds of the respondents (63.16%) believe that a formal robotic surgery curriculum should be established as a part of general surgery residency, with more than half believing that exposure should occur in postgraduate year one (55%). A formal robotics curriculum with simulation training and early surgical exposure for general surgery residents should be given consideration in surgical residency training.
Schaverien, Mark V
The predictive relationship between candidate selection criteria for surgical training programs and future performance during and at the completion of training has been investigated for several surgical specialties, however there is no interspecialty agreement regarding which selection criteria should be used. Better understanding the predictive reliability between factors at selection and future performance may help to optimize the process and lead to greater standardization of the surgical selection process. PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases were searched. Over 560 potentially relevant publications were identified using the search strategy and screened using the Cochrane Collaboration Data Extraction and Assessment Template. 57 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several selection criteria used in the traditional selection demonstrated inconsistent correlation with subsequent performance during and at the end of surgical training. The following selection criteria, however, demonstrated good predictive relationships with subsequent resident performance: USMLE examination scores, Letters of Recommendation (LOR) including the Medical Student Performance Evaluation (MSPE), academic performance during clinical clerkships, the interview process, displaying excellence in extracurricular activities, and the use of unadjusted rank lists. This systematic review supports that the current selection process needs to be further evaluated and improved. Multicenter studies using standardized outcome measures of success are now required to improve the reliability of the selection process to select the best trainees. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Residency training is the basis of good clinical and surgical practice. Purpose: The aim is to know the demographics, training experience, and perception of young ophthalmologists to improve the present residency programs in India. Setting: Young ophthalmologists trained in India. Methods: A survey was conducted by the Academic and Research Committee of the All India Ophthalmology Society, in 2014–2016 of young ophthalmologists (those trained between 2002 and 2012, with 2–10 years' postresidency experience to gauge teaching of clinical and surgical skills during the postgraduate residency program. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Results: Of the 1005 respondents, 531 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Average age was 32.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 4. On a scale of 0–10, clinical skills teaching was graded as (mean, SD: Slit lamp examination (7.2, SD 2.8, indirect ophthalmoscopy (6.2, SD 3.3, gonioscopy (5.7, SD 3.4, perimetry (6.2, SD 3.2, optical coherence tomography (4.6, SD 4, and orthoptic evaluation (4.3, SD 3.1. The mean (SD and median of surgeries performed independently was intracapsular cataract extraction 3.0 (14.9, 0; extracapsular cataract extraction 39.9 (53.2, 18; small incision cataract surgery 75.3 (64.4, 55; phacoemulsification 30 (52.6, 1; pterygium excision 31.5 (43.5, 15; dacryocystectomy 20.3 (38.1, 4; dacryocystorhinostomy 11.7 (26.2, 2; chalazion 46.4 (48.3, 30; trabeculectomies 4 (14.9, 0; strabismus correction 1.4 (4.9, 0; laser-assisted in situ Keratomileusis 1.5 (12.2, 0; retinal detachment 1.5 (12.5, 0; vitrectomy 3.0 (17.0, 0; keratoplasty 5.2 (17.8, 0; eyelid surgery 8.6 (18.9, 2 and ocular emergencies 41.7 (52.4, 20. Observed and assisted surgeries were more common. However, the range of grading was 0–10 in all categories. Conclusion: Residency training in India varies considerably from program to program. Standardization is needed to assure all graduates
Conclusions: The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors.
Malmstrom, Hans; Xiao, Jin; Romanos, Georgios E; Ren, Yan-Fang
Implant therapy is rapidly becoming a standard of care for replacing missing dentition. Predoctoral dental curricula include some training in the implant restorative phase but offer limited exposure to the surgical phase, so it is important for postdoctoral general dentistry residency programs to provide competency training in all phases of implant therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the training needed for general dentistry residents to achieve competence in this area, specifically by defining the number of clinical experiences necessary in both the surgical and prosthetic phases of implant-retained mandibular overdenture construction (IRMOD). Fifteen Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) residents at one academic dental institution placed two implants in a total of 50 patients with edentulous mandibles and subsequently restored them with IRMOD. The supervising faculty member and the residents evaluated the competency level on a five-point scale after each implant placement and prosthetic case completion. According to the faculty evaluations, the residents achieved surgical competence after placing two implants in four to six cases and prosthetic management competence after restoring two to four cases of IRMOD. All 50 patients were satisfied with the treatment outcomes of IRMOD. This study concluded that general dentistry residents could potentially achieve competence in both the surgical and prosthetic phases of implant therapy while enrolled in an AEGD program.
Causer, Joe; Harvey, Adrian; Snelgrove, Ryan; Arsenault, Gina; Vickers, Joan N
We examined the effectiveness of technical training (TT) and quiet eye training (QE) on the performance of one-handed square knot tying in surgical residents. Twenty surgical residents were randomly assigned to the 2 groups and completed pretest, training, retention, and transfer tests. Participants wore a mobile eye tracker that simultaneously recorded their gaze and hand movements. Dependent variables were knot tying performance (%), QE duration (%), number of fixations, total movement time (s), and hand movement phase time (s). The QE training group had significantly higher performance scores, a longer QE duration, fewer fixations, faster total knot tying times, and faster movement phase times compared with the TT group. The QE group maintained performance in the transfer test, whereas the TT group significantly decreased performance from retention to transfer. QE training significantly improved learning, retention, and transfer of surgical knot tying compared with a traditional technical approach. Both performance effectiveness (performance outcome) and movement efficiency (hand movement times) were improved using QE modeling, instruction, and feedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Features of residency training and psychological distress among residents in a Nigerian teaching hospital. O Esan, A Adeoye, P Onakoya, O Opeodu, K Owonikoko, D Olulana, M Bello, A Adeyemo, L Onigbogi, O Idowu, T Akute ...
Bruce, Adrienne N.; Battista, Alexis; Plankey, Michael W.; Johnson, Lynt B.; Marshall, M. Blair
Background: Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women’s perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment.Methods: Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 indiv...
Carlsen, C G; Lindorff-Larsen, K; Funch-Jensen, P
PURPOSE: Traditional surgical training is challenged by factors such as patient safety issues, economic considerations and lack of exposure to surgical procedures due to short working hours. A module-based clinical training model promotes rapidly acquired and persistent surgical skills. METHODS...... hernia repair was preferable in both short and long-term compared with standard clinical training. The model will probably be applicable to other surgical training procedures....
Codron, P; Roux, T; Le Guennec, L; Zuber, M
There have been dramatic changes in neurology over the past decade; these advances require a constant adaptation of residents' theoretical and practical training. The French Association of Neurology Residents and the College of Neurology Teachers conducted a national survey to assess the French neurology residents' satisfaction about their training. A 16-item questionnaire was sent via e-mail to French neurology residents completing training in 2014. Data were collected and processed anonymously. Of eligible respondents, 126 returned the survey, representing approximately 40% of all the French neurology residents. Most residents (78%) rated their clinical training favorably. Seventy-two percent reported good to excellent quality teaching of neurology courses from their faculty. However, many residents (40%) felt insufficient their doctoral thesis supervision. All residents intended to enter fellowship training after their residency, and most of them (68%) planned to practice in a medical center. French neurology residents seemed satisfied with the structure and quality of their training program. However, efforts are required to improve management of the doctoral thesis and make private practice more attractive and accessible during the residency. In the future, similar surveys should be scheduled to regularly assess neurology residents' satisfaction and the impact of the forthcoming national and European reforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hanna, Waël C; Mulder, David S; Fried, Gerald M; Elhilali, Mostafa; Khwaja, Kosar A
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate that senior surgical residents would benefit from focused training by professionals with management expertise. Although managerial skills are recognized as necessary for the successful establishment of a surgical practice, they are not often emphasized in traditional surgical residency curricula. DESIGN Senior residents from all surgical subspecialties at McGill University were invited to participate in a 1-day management seminar. Precourse questionnaires aimed at evaluating the residents' perceptions of their own managerial knowledge and preparedness were circulated. The seminar was then given in the form of interactive lectures and case-based discussions. The questionnaires were readministered at the end of the course, along with an evaluation form. Precourse and postcourse data were compared using the Freeman-Halton extension of the Fisher exact test to determine statistical significance (P < .05). SETTING McGill University Health Centre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. PARTICIPANTS A total of 43 senior residents. RESULTS Before the course, the majority of residents (27 of 43 [63%]) thought that management instruction only happened "from time to time" in their respective programs. After the course, 15 residents (35%) felt that management topics were "well addressed," and 19 (44%) felt that management topics have been "very well addressed" (P < .01). Residents noted a significant improvement in their ability to perform the following skills after the course: giving feedback, delegating duties, coping with stress, effective learning, and effective teaching. On the ensemble of all managerial skills combined, 26 residents (60%) rated their performance as "good" or "excellent" after the course vs only 21 (49%) before the course (P = .02). Residents also noted a statistically significant improvement in their ability to perform the managerial duties necessary for the establishment of a surgical practice. CONCLUSIONS Surgical residency programs
Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi
Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week. We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. Retrospective comparative study. The data from the US population was extracted from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education database for General Surgery residents from 2012 to 2013. For Danish residents, a questionnaire with case categories matching the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education categories were sent to all Danish surgeons graduating the national surgical residency program in 2012 or 2013, 54 in total. In all, 30 graduated residents (55%) responded to the Danish survey. We found no significant differences in mean total major procedures (1002.4 vs 976.9, p = 0.28) performed during residency training, but comparing average major procedures per year, the US residents achieve significantly more (132.3 vs 195.4, p work-hours and operative volumes achievable. Factors other than work-hours seem to effect on operative volumes achieved during training. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Han, Jing L; Pappas, Theodore N
There has been much discussion in the medical literature about the importance of empathy and physician communication style in medical practice. Empathy has been shown to have a very real positive effect on patient outcomes. Most of the existing literature speaks to its role in medical education, with relatively little empiric study about empathy in the surgical setting. Review of empathy and its importance as it pertains to the surgeon-patient relationship and improving patient outcomes, and the need for increased education in empathy during surgical training. The published, peer-reviewed literature on patient-physician and patient-surgeon communication, medical student and resident education in empathy, and empathy research was reviewed. PubMed was queried for MESH terms including "empathy," "training," "education," "surgery," "resident," and "communication." There is evidence of a decline in empathy that begins during the clinical years of medical school, which continues throughout residency training. Surgeons are particularly susceptible to this decline as by-product of the nature of their work, and the current lack of formalised training in empathic patient communication poses a unique problem to surgical residents. The literature suggests that empathy training is warranted and should be incorporated into surgical residencies through didactics, role-playing and simulations, and apprenticeship to empathic attending role models. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Mao-Che; Yu, Eric Chen-Hua; Shiao, An-Suey; Liao, Wen-Huei; Liu, Chia-Yu
A teaching hospital would incur more operation room costs on training surgical residents. To evaluate the increased operation time and the increased operation room costs of operations performed by surgical residents. As a model we used a very common surgical otology procedure -- tympanoplasty type I. From January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004, we included in this study 100 patients who received tympanoplasty type I in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Fifty-six procedures were performed by a single board-certified surgeon and 44 procedures were performed by residents. We analyzed the operation time and surgical outcomes in these two groups of patients. The operation room cost per minute was obtained by dividing the total operation room expenses by total operation time in the year 2004. The average operation time of residents was 116.47 min, which was significantly longer (pcost USD $40.36 more for each operation performed by residents in terms of operation room costs. The surgical success rate of residents was 81.82%, which was significantly lower (p=0.016) than that of the board-certified surgeon (96.43%).
Pagano, Joshua; Kyle, Brandon N; Johnson, Toni L; Saeed, Sy Atezaz
Evidence-based treatment and manualized psychotherapy have a recent but rich history. As interest and research have progressed, defining the role of treatment manuals in resident training and clinical practice has become more important. Although there is not a universal definition of treatment manual, most clinicians and researchers agree that treatment manuals are an essential piece of evidence-based therapy, and that despite several limitations, they offer advantages in training residents in psychotherapy. Requirements for resident training in psychotherapy have changed over the years, and treatment manuals offer a simple and straightforward way to meet training requirements. In a search limited to only depression, two treatment manuals emerged with the support of research regarding both clinical practice and resident training. In looking toward the future, it will be important for clinicians to remain updated on further advances in evidence based manualized treatment as a tool for training residents in psychotherapy, including recent developments in online and smartphone based treatments.
Akhavan, Alaleh; Murphy-Chutorian, Blair; Friedman, Adam
Knowledge of pediatric dermatology is considered a core competency of dermatology training and should be expected of all practicing dermatologists. While the numbers of both pediatric dermatology fellowships and board certified pediatric dermatologists in the workforce have increased over the years, recent reports suggest that there is a gap in pediatric dermatology education during dermatology residency. The goal of this study is to assess the current state of pediatric education during residency, as well as the clinical experience, satisfaction and expectations of graduating dermatology residents. A 31-question self-report survey was distributed electronically to 294 third-year dermatology residents with questions pertaining to demographics, didactic education, resident experience in pediatric dermatology training, satisfaction with pediatric training and future plans. One hundred and twenty-three residents responded (41.8% response rate) representing approximately 29.1% of the total number of graduating residents. 69 (56.1%) residents reported academic time specifically devoted to pediatric dermatology, the majority (79.7%) of which was led by pediatric dermatologists. 82% of residents reported dedicated pediatric dermatology clinics at their program. 86.8% of respondents felt that their training in pediatric dermatology will allow them to confidently see pediatric dermatology patients in practice. This survey highlights a promising state of pediatric dermatology training among current graduating dermatology residents. The majority of current graduating dermatology residents are satisfied with their pediatric dermatology education, feel confident treating pediatric patients, and plan to see pediatric patients in clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sun, Chenjing; Qi, Xiaokun
Lumbar puncture (LP) is an essential part of adult neurology residency training. Technologic as well as nontechnologic training is needed. However, current assessment tools mostly focus on the technologic aspects of LP. We propose a training method-problem- and simulator-based learning (PSBL)-in LP residency training to develop overall skills of neurology residents. We enrolled 60 neurology postgraduate-year-1 residents from our standardized residents training center and randomly divided them into 2 groups: traditional teaching group and PSBL group. After training, we assessed the extent that the residents were ready to perform LP and tracked successful LPs performed by the residents. We then asked residents to complete questionnaires about the training models. Performance scores and the results of questionnaires were compared between the 2 groups. Students and faculty concluded that PSBL provided a more effective learning experience than the traditional teaching model. Although no statistical difference was found in the pretest, posttest, and improvement rate scores between the 2 groups, based on questionnaire scores and number of successful LPs after training, the PSBL group showed a statistically significant improvement compared with the traditional group. Findings indicated that nontechnical elements, such as planning before the procedure and controlling uncertainties during the procedure, are more crucial than technical elements. Compared with traditional teaching model, PSBL for LP training can develop overall surgical skills, including technical and nontechnical elements, improving performance. Residents in the PSBL group were more confident and effective in performing LP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nicksa, Grace A; Anderson, Cristan; Fidler, Richard; Stewart, Lygia
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies stress nontechnical skills that can be difficult to evaluate and teach to surgical residents. During emergencies, surgeons work in interprofessional teams and are required to perform certain procedures. To obtain proficiency in these skills, residents must be trained. To educate surgical residents in leadership, teamwork, effective communication, and infrequently performed emergency surgical procedures with the use of interprofessional simulations. SimMan 3GS was used to simulate high-risk clinical scenarios (15-20 minutes), followed by debriefings with real-time feedback (30 minutes). A modified Oxford Non-Technical Skills scale (score range, 1-4) was used to assess surgical resident performance during the first half of the academic year (July-December 2012) and the second half of the academic year (January-June 2013). Anonymous online surveys were used to solicit participant feedback. Simulations were conducted in the operating room, intensive care unit, emergency department, ward, and simulation center. A total of 43 surgical residents (postgraduate years [PGYs] 1 and 2) participated in interdisciplinary clinical scenarios, with other health care professionals (nursing, anesthesia, critical care, medicine, respiratory therapy, and pharmacy; mean number of nonsurgical participants/session: 4, range 0-9). Thirty seven surgical residents responded to the survey. Simulation of high-risk clinical scenarios: postoperative pulmonary embolus, pneumothorax, myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal bleeding, anaphylaxis with a difficult airway, and pulseless electrical activity arrest. Evaluation of resident skills: communication, leadership, teamwork, problem solving, situation awareness, and confidence in performing emergency procedures (eg, cricothyroidotomy). A total of 31 of 35 (89%) of the residents responding found the sessions useful. Additionally, 28 of 33 (85%) reported improved confidence
Duran-Nelson, Alisa; Van Camp, Joan; Ling, Louis
On the surface, changing the rules related to the number of hours residents work per day and per week sounds like a good idea. Theoretically, residents who work fewer hours would be less tired and provide better patient care. But even small changes in residency training programs have implications for the quality of the educational experience and the cost of training, as well as patient care. This article highlights the challenges that two Minnesota residency programs are facing as they adapt to the new rules around residents' work hours.
Kalun, Portia; Wagner, Natalie; Yan, James; Nousiainen, Markku T; Sonnadara, Ranil R
While the knowledge required of residents training in orthopedic surgery continues to increase, various factors, including reductions in work hours, have resulted in decreased clinical learning opportunities. Recent work suggests residents graduate from their training programs without sufficient exposure to key procedures. In response, simulation is increasingly being incorporated into training programs to supplement clinical learning. This paper reviews the literature to explore whether skills learned in simulation-based settings results in improved clinical performance in orthopedic surgery trainees. A scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify papers discussing simulation training in orthopedic surgery. We focused on exploring whether skills learned in simulation transferred effectively to a clinical setting. Experimental studies, systematic reviews, and narrative reviews were included. A total of 15 studies were included, with 11 review papers and four experimental studies. The review articles reported little evidence regarding the transfer of skills from simulation to the clinical setting, strong evidence that simulator models discriminate among different levels of experience, varied outcome measures among studies, and a need to define competent performance in both simulated and clinical settings. Furthermore, while three out of the four experimental studies demonstrated transfer between the simulated and clinical environments, methodological study design issues were identified. Our review identifies weak evidence as to whether skills learned in simulation transfer effectively to clinical practice for orthopedic surgery trainees. Given the increased reliance on simulation, there is an immediate need for comprehensive studies that focus on skill transfer, which will allow simulation to be incorporated effectively into orthopedic surgery training programs.
Girotti, M J; Leslie, K; Chinnick, B; Butcher, C; Holliday, R L
Surgical residents (n = 330) registered in training programs in the province of Ontario, Canada were surveyed about their attitudes toward trauma care related issues. Questionnaires were returned by 48%. Overall, 84% felt that their clinical exposure to trauma was adequate; 78% noted that the emphasis placed on trauma topics in their educational programs was appropriate; 50% spend > 10% of their current clinical time in trauma care. Orthopedic residents (n = 43) were different; 79% devoted > 10% and 29% > or = 30% of their time to trauma. Future clinical activity in trauma as practicing surgeons was expressed by 83% of the trainees: 31% intended 30% of their future practices to be related to trauma. The major positive factors of trauma were the scope and excitement of trauma care. The major negative factors were the night/weekend activity and the time away from family. We are encouraged by the results of this survey in that a significant number of residents perceive trauma as a clinical endeavor to be incorporated into their future surgical practices.
... TENANT PARTICIPATION AND TENANT OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING Tenant Participation § 964.140 Resident... Resident Management Corporations and duly elected Resident Councils; (3) Public housing policies, programs... colleges, vocational schools; and (4) HUD and other Federal agencies and other local public, private and...
Zia, Aneeq; Essa, Irfan
Manual feedback in basic robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) training can consume a significant amount of time from expert surgeons' schedule and is prone to subjectivity. In this paper, we explore the usage of different holistic features for automated skill assessment using only robot kinematic data and propose a weighted feature fusion technique for improving score prediction performance. Moreover, we also propose a method for generating 'task highlights' which can give surgeons a more directed feedback regarding which segments had the most effect on the final skill score. We perform our experiments on the publicly available JHU-ISI Gesture and Skill Assessment Working Set (JIGSAWS) and evaluate four different types of holistic features from robot kinematic data-sequential motion texture (SMT), discrete Fourier transform (DFT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and approximate entropy (ApEn). The features are then used for skill classification and exact skill score prediction. Along with using these features individually, we also evaluate the performance using our proposed weighted combination technique. The task highlights are produced using DCT features. Our results demonstrate that these holistic features outperform all previous Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based state-of-the-art methods for skill classification on the JIGSAWS dataset. Also, our proposed feature fusion strategy significantly improves performance for skill score predictions achieving up to 0.61 average spearman correlation coefficient. Moreover, we provide an analysis on how the proposed task highlights can relate to different surgical gestures within a task. Holistic features capturing global information from robot kinematic data can successfully be used for evaluating surgeon skill in basic surgical tasks on the da Vinci robot. Using the framework presented can potentially allow for real-time score feedback in RMIS training and help surgical trainees have more focused training.
Daniel J. Kim
Full Text Available Introduction: Starting in 2008, emergency ultrasound (EUS was introduced as a core competency to the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College emergency medicine (EM training standards. The Royal College accredits postgraduate EM specialty training in Canada through 5-year residency programs. The objective of this study is to describe both the current experience with and the perceptions of EUS by Canadian Royal College EM senior residents. Methods: This was a web-based survey conducted from January to March 2011 of all 39 Canadian Royal College postgraduate fifth-year (PGY-5 EM residents. Main outcome measures were characteristics of EUS training and perceptions of EUS. Results: Survey response rate was 95% (37/39. EUS was part of the formal residency curriculum for 86% of respondents (32/37. Residents most commonly received training in focused assessment with sonography for trauma, intrauterine pregnancy, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cardiac, and procedural guidance. Although the most commonly provided instructional material (86% [32/37] was an ultrasound course, 73% (27/37 of residents used educational resources outside of residency training to supplement their ultrasound knowledge. Most residents (95% [35/37] made clinical decisions and patient dispositions based on their EUS interpretation without a consultative study by radiology. Residents had very favorable perceptions and opinions of EUS. Conclusion: EUS training in Royal College EM programs was prevalent and perceived favorably by residents, but there was heterogeneity in resident training and practice of EUS. This suggests variability in both the level and quality of EUS training in Canadian Royal College EM residency programs.
Verweij, Hanne; van Ravesteijn, Hiske; van Hooff, Madelon L M; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; Speckens, Anne E M
In addition to developing diagnostic and clinical skills, postgraduate medical education should stimulate residents' professional development. Teaching medical professionalism is challenging and is often left largely to the informal and hidden curricula. An intervention that might be beneficial for medical residents is Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The authors implemented MBSR as an optional course for residents and qualitatively explored how it influenced residents professionally. Between 2014 and 2016, the authors conducted 19 in-depth, face-to-face interviews with residents who had participated in an MBSR course at Radboud university medical center, the Netherlands. Medical and surgical residents, across a range of disciplines, participated. The authors used the constant comparison method to analyze the data. The analysis of the data resulted in five themes: awareness of thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations, and behavior; increased self-reflection; acceptance and nonjudgment; increased resilience; and relating to others. Residents indicated that the MBSR training increased their awareness and self-reflection at work, and they were more accepting toward themselves and toward their limitations. Furthermore, they mentioned being more resilient and better at setting priorities and limits. They improved their self-care and work-life balance. In addition, residents indicated that the training made them more aware of how they communicated. They asked for help more often and seemed to be more open toward feedback. Lastly, they indicated an increased sense of compassion for others. This study indicated that mindfulness training can serve as a tool to cultivate important professional competencies for residents.
Boerjan, Martine; Bluyssen, Simone J M; Bleichrodt, Robert P; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; van Goor, Harry
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of job-related autonomy and social support provided by consultants and colleagues on the stress-related health complaints of surgical residents in the Netherlands. All (n = 400) Dutch residents in training in general surgery were sent validated self-report questionnaires. Odds ratios were calculated predicting health and exposure to long-term stress for gender, number of working hours, type of hospital, level of social support, job-related autonomy and training phase. The interactions between job-related autonomy and level of social support provided by consultants and colleagues, and all variables, were analysed. A total of 254 of 400 (64%) residents returned questionnaires that were eligible for analysis. Residents experienced more health complaints than the average member of the Dutch working population (4.0 versus 2.5; p = 0.000). Male and senior residents were significantly 'healthier' than female and junior residents, respectively. Social support by consultants was a strong predictor of health and social support by colleagues showed a significant interaction with gender. Women and residents in university hospitals experienced less social support by consultants than men and residents in general teaching hospitals. Residents working in university hospitals experienced lower levels of job-related autonomy and less support from colleagues in comparison with those working in general teaching hospitals. A working week of > 60 hours adversely affected health and job-related autonomy. Social support provided by consultants and colleagues, and job control, are important factors that interact with the work-associated, stress-related health of residents in training in general surgery. Residents report a greater number of health complaints than the average member of the working population, especially female and junior residents. General teaching hospitals seem to provide better support at work than
Damewood, Richard B; Blair, Patrice Gabler; Park, Yoon Soo; Lupi, Linda K; Newman, Rachel Williams; Sachdeva, Ajit K
Medicaid Services regulations (65%). Although 64% of PDs believe that moderate or significant changes are needed in the current structure of residency training, 35% believe that no changes in the structure are needed. When asked for their 1 best recommendation regarding the structure of surgical residency, only 22% of PDs selected retaining the current 5-year structure. The greatest percentage of PDs (28%) selected the "4 + 2" model as their 1 best recommendation for the structure to be used. In the area of faculty development, 56% of PDs supported a significant or extensive increase in Train the Teacher programs, and 41% supported a significant or extensive increase in faculty certification in education. Information regarding the valuable perspectives of PDs gathered through these surveys should help in implementing important changes in residency training and faculty development. These efforts will need to be pursued collaboratively with involvement of key stakeholders, including the organizations represented on this ACS committee. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maluf, Miguel Angel; Gomes, Walter José; Bras, Ademir Massarico; Araújo, Thiago Cavalcante Vila Nova de; Mota, André Lupp; Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Coutinho, Rafael Viana dos S
Engage the UNIFESP Cardiovascular Surgery residents in coronary anastomosis, assess their skills and certify results, using the Arroyo Anastomosis Simulator and UNIFESP surgical models. First to 6th year residents attended a weekly program of technical training in coronary anastomosis, using 4 simulation models: 1. Arroyo simulator; 2. Dummy with a plastic heart; 3. Dummy with a bovine heart; and 4. Dummy with a beating pig heart. The assessment test was comprised of 10 items, using a scale from 1 to 5 points in each of them, creating a global score of 50 points maximum. The technical performance of the candidate showed improvement in all items, especially manual skill and technical progress, critical sense of the work performed, confidence in the procedure and reduction of the time needed to perform the anastomosis after 12 weeks practice. In response to the multiplicity of factors that currently influence the cardiovascular surgeon training, there have been combined efforts to reform the practices of surgical medical training. 1 - The four models of simulators offer a considerable contribution to the field of cardiovascular surgery, improving the skill and dexterity of the surgeon in training. 2 - Residents have shown interest in training and cooperate in the development of innovative procedures for surgical medical training in the art.
Heidenreich, Mark J; Musonza, Tashinga; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha
The foundation upon which surgical residents are trained to work comprises more than just critical cognitive, clinical, and technical skill. In an environment where the synchronous application of expertise is vital to patient outcomes, the expectation for optimal functioning within a multidisciplinary team is extremely high. Studies have shown that for most residents, one of the most difficult milestones in the path to achieving professional expertise in a surgical career is overcoming the learning curve. This view point commentary provides a reflection from the two senior medical students who have participated in the Student-as-Teacher program developed by the Department of Anatomy at Mayo Clinic, designed to prepare students for their teaching assistant (TA) role in anatomy courses. Both students participated as TAs in a six week surgical anatomy course for surgical first assistant students offered by the School of Health Sciences at Mayo Clinic. Development of teaching skills, nontechnical leadership, communication, and assessment skills, are discussed in relation to their benefits in preparing senior medical students for surgical residency. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Gopal, R. K.; Carreira, F.; Baker, W. A.; Glasheen, J. J.; Crane, L. A.; Miyoshi, T. J.; Prochazka, A. V.
Background Increasing complexity of medical care, coupled with limits on resident work hours, has prompted consideration of extending Internal Medicine training. It is unclear whether further hour reductions and extension of training beyond the current duration of 3?years would be accepted by trainees. Objective We aimed to determine if further work-hour reductions and extension of training would be accepted by trainees and whether resident burnout affects their opinions. Design A postal surv...
McKendy, Katherine M; Watanabe, Yusuke; Lee, Lawrence; Bilgic, Elif; Enani, Ghada; Feldman, Liane S; Fried, Gerald M; Vassiliou, Melina C
Changes in surgical training have raised concerns about residents' operative exposure and preparedness for independent practice. One way of addressing this concern is by optimizing teaching and feedback in the operating room (OR). The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on perioperative teaching and feedback. A systematic literature search identified articles from 1994 to 2014 that addressed teaching, feedback, guidance, or debriefing in the perioperative period. Data was extracted according to ENTREQ guidelines, and a qualitative analysis was performed. Thematic analysis of the 26 included studies identified four major topics. Observation of teaching behaviors in the OR described current teaching practices. Identification of effective teaching strategies analyzed teaching behaviors, differentiating positive and negative teaching strategies. Perceptions of teaching behaviors described resident and attending satisfaction with teaching in the OR. Finally models for delivering structured feedback cited examples of feedback strategies and measured their effectiveness. This study provides an overview of perioperative teaching and feedback for surgical trainees and identifies a need for improved quality and quantity of structured feedback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Durbin, C G; McLafferty, C L
The number of anesthesiology residents pursuing critical care medicine (CCM) fellowship training has been decreasing in recent years. A significant number of training positions remain unfilled each year. Possible causes of this decline were evaluated by surveying residents regarding their attitudes toward practice and training in CCM. All 38 anesthesiology programs having accredited CCM fellowships were surveyed. Four of these and one program without CCM fellowships were used to develop the survey instrument. Four programs without CCM fellowships and 34 programs with CCM fellowships make up the survey group. Returned were 640 surveys from 37 (97%) programs accounting for over 30% of the possible residents. Resident interest in pursuing CCM training decreased as year of residency increased (P questions suggested resident concerns with the following: stress of chronic care, financial consequences of additional year of training, ICU call frequency and load, ICU role ambiguity, and shared decision-making in the ICU. A recurring question was, "Are there jobs (outside of academics) for anesthesiologist intensivists?" Most residents knew a CCM anesthesiologist they admired and knew that there were unfilled fellowship positions available. Defining the job market, improving curriculum and teaching, supporting deferment of student loans, and introducing residents and medical students to the ICU earlier may increase the interest in CCM practice among anesthesiology residents.
Rebecca L. Collins
Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation educational program on pediatric residents' counseling. Residents were randomly selected to receive the intervention. Residents who were trained were compared to untrained residents. Self-reported surveys and patient chart reviews were used. Measures included changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents, and differences in chart documentation and caretaker-reported physician counseling behaviors. The intervention was multidimensional including a didactic presentation, a problem-solving session, clinic reminders, and provision of patient education materials. Results showed that residents who were trained were more likely to ask about tobacco use in their patients' households. They were also more likely to advise caretakers to cut down on or to quit smoking, to help set a quit date, and to follow up on the advice given at a subsequent visit. Trained residents were more likely to record a history of passive tobacco exposure in the medical record. These residents also reported improved confidence in their counseling skills and documented that they had done such counseling more often than did untrained residents. Caretakers of pediatric patients who smoke seen by intervention residents were more likely to report that they had received tobacco counseling. Following this intervention, pediatric residents significantly improved their behaviors, attitudes, and confidence in providing smoking cessation counseling to parents of their pediatric patients.
Osborne, Lauren M; MacLean, Joanna V; Barzilay, Erin Murphy; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Miller, Laura; Yang, Sarah Nagle
The reproductive life cycle has unique influences on the phenotypic expression of mental illness in women. Didactic and clinical training focused on these sex-specific influences should be a vital component of the education of future psychiatrists. The authors sought to determine the current state of and attitudes toward reproductive psychiatry in resident education. The authors administered a web-based survey to psychiatry residency training directors. They assessed the availability of both mandated and optional didactic and clinical training experiences in reproductive psychiatry. Fifty residency program directors answered the survey, for a response rate of 28%. More than half of residency program directors (59%) reported requiring some training in reproductive psychiatry. Both the breadth and depth of topics covered varied greatly among programs. Lack of time (48%) and lack of qualified faculty (26%) were the most frequently cited barriers to more training. Only 40% of residency directors surveyed agreed that all residents should be competent in reproductive psychiatry. These findings suggest that specific training in reproductive psychiatry is inconsistent in US residency programs, and that training that does exist varies considerably in clinical time and content. Given that women comprise more than 50% of all psychiatric patients and most women will menstruate, give birth, and undergo menopause, future psychiatrists would benefit from more systematic instruction in this area. The authors propose the development of a national, standardized reproductive psychiatry curriculum to address this gap and aid in producing psychiatrists competent to treat women at all stages of life.
Frintner, Mary Pat; Mendoza, Fernando S; Dreyer, Benard P; Cull, William L; Laraque, Danielle
To describe the diversity of pediatric residents and examine relationships of cross-cultural training experiences with training satisfaction, perceived preparedness for providing culturally effective care, and attitudes surrounding care for underserved populations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of a national random sample of graduating pediatric residents and an additional sample of minority residents. Using weighted analysis, we used multivariate regression to test for differences in satisfaction, preparedness, and attitudes between residents with more and less cross-cultural experiences during residency, controlling for residents' characteristics and experiences before training. The survey response rate was 57%. Eleven percent were Hispanic, 61% white, 21% Asian, 9% African American, 9% other racial/ethnic groups; 34% grew up in a bi- or multilingual family. Ninety-three percent of residents were satisfied with their residency training, 81% with the instruction they received on health and health care disparities, and 54% on global health issues. Ninety-six percent of residents felt they were prepared to care for patients from diverse backgrounds, but fewer felt prepared to care for families with beliefs at odds with Western medicine (49%) and families who receive alternative or complementary care (37%). Residents with more cross-cultural experiences during residency reported being better prepared than those with less experience to care for families with limited English proficiency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-3.17), new immigrants (aOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.32-2.75), and with religious beliefs that might affect clinical care (aOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.13-2.32). Pediatric residents begin their training with diverse cross-cultural backgrounds and experiences. Residency experiences in cross-cultural care contribute to feelings of preparedness to care for diverse US children. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published
Piotrowski, Madison; Stulberg, Debra; Egan, Mari
Medical residents continue to experience high rates of burnout during residency training even after implementation of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour restrictions. The purpose of this study is to determine medical student interest in flexible residency training options. Researchers developed an 11-question survey for second through fourth-year medical students. The populations surveyed included medical students who were: (1) attending the 2015 American Academy of Family Physicians National Conference, the 2015 Family Medicine Midwest Conference, and (2) enrolled at University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Drexel University College of Medicine, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The survey was completed by 789 medical students. Over half of medical students surveyed indicated that they would be interested in working part-time during some portion of their residency training (51%), and that access to part-time training options would increase their likelihood of applying to a particular residency program (52%). When given the option of three residency training schedules of varying lengths, 41% of male students and 60% of female students chose a 60-hour workweek, even when that meant extending the residency length by 33% and reducing their yearly salary to $39,000. There is considerable interest among medical students in access to part-time residency training options and reduced-hour residency programs. This level of interest indicates that offering flexible training options could be an effective recruitment tool for residency programs and could improve students' perception of their work-life balance during residency.
Nakhla, Jonathan; Kobets, Andrew; De la Garza Ramos, Rafeal; Haranhalli, Neil; Gelfand, Yaroslav; Ammar, Adam; Echt, Murray; Scoco, Aleka; Kinon, Merritt; Yassari, Reza
The relatively decreased time spent in the operating room and overall reduction in cases performed by neurosurgical trainees as a result of duty-hour restrictions demands that the pedagogical content within each surgical encounter be maximized and crafted toward the specific talents and shortcomings of the individual. It is imperative to future generations that the quality of training adapts to the changing administrative infrastructures and compensates for anything that may compromise the technical abilities of trainees. Neurosurgeons in teaching hospitals continue to experiment with various emerging technologies-such as simulators and virtual presence-to supplement and improve surgical training. The authors participated in the Google Glass Explorer Program in order to assess the applicability of Google Glass as a tool to enhance the operative education of neurosurgical residents. Google Glass is a type of wearable technology in the form of eyeglasses that employs a high-definition camera and allows the user to interact using voice commands. Google Glass was able to effectively capture video segments of various lengths for residents to review in a variety of clinical settings within a large, tertiary care university hospital, as well as during a surgical mission to a developing country. The resolution and quality of the video were adequate to review and use as a teaching tool. While Google Glass harbors the potential to dramatically improve both neurosurgical education and practice in a variety of ways, certain technical drawbacks of the current model limit its effectiveness as a teaching tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Xiaodong Phoenix; Sullivan, Amy M; Alseidi, Adnan; Kwakye, Gifty; Smink, Douglas S
Providing resident autonomy in the operating room (OR) is one of the major challenges for surgical educators today. The purpose of this study was to explore what approaches expert surgical teachers use to assess residents' readiness for autonomy in the OR. We particularly focused on the assessments that experts make prior to conducting the surgical time-out. We conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with expert surgical teachers from March 2016 to September 2016. Purposeful sampling and snowball sampling were applied to identify and recruit expert surgical teachers from general surgery residency programs across the United States to represent a range of clinical subspecialties. All interviews were audio-recorded, deidentified, and transcribed. We applied the Framework Method of content analysis, discussed and reached final consensus on the themes. We interviewed 15 expert teachers from 9 institutions. The majority (13/15) were Program or Associate Program Directors; 47% (7/15) primarily performed complex surgical operations (e.g., endocrine surgery). Five themes regarding how expert surgical teachers determine residents' readiness for OR autonomy before the surgical time-out emerged. These included 3 domains of evidence elicited about the resident (resident characteristics, medical knowledge, and beyond the current OR case), 1 variable relating to attending characteristics, and 1 variable composed of contextual factors. Experts obtained one or more examples of evidence, and adjusted residents' initial autonomy using factors from the attending variable and the context variable. Expert surgical teachers' assessments of residents' readiness for OR autonomy included 5 key components. Better understanding these inputs can contribute to both faculty and resident development, enabling increased resident autonomy and preparation for independent practice. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wiener, Scott; Haddock, Peter; Shichman, Steven; Dorin, Ryan
To define the time needed by urology residents to attain proficiency in computer-aided robotic surgery to aid in the refinement of a robotic surgery simulation curriculum. We undertook a retrospective review of robotic skills training data acquired during January 2012 to December 2014 from junior (postgraduate year [PGY] 2-3) and senior (PGY4-5) urology residents using the da Vinci Skills Simulator. We determined the number of training sessions attended and the level of proficiency achieved by junior and senior residents in attempting 11 basic or 6 advanced tasks, respectively. Junior residents successfully completed 9.9 ± 1.8 tasks, with 62.5% completing all 11 basic tasks. The maximal cumulative success rate of junior residents completing basic tasks was 89.8%, which was achieved within 7.0 ± 1.5 hours of training. Of senior residents, 75% successfully completed all six advanced tasks. Senior residents attended 6.3 ± 3.5 hours of training during which 5.1 ± 1.6 tasks were completed. The maximal cumulative success rate of senior residents completing advanced tasks was 85.4%. When designing and implementing an effective robotic surgical training curriculum, an allocation of 10 hours of training may be optimal to allow junior and senior residents to achieve an acceptable level of surgical proficiency in basic and advanced robotic surgical skills, respectively. These data help guide the design and scheduling of a residents training curriculum within the time constraints of a resident's workload.
Gebhard, Grant M; Hauser, Leah J; Dally, Miranda J; Weitzenkamp, David A; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina
To determine whether there is an association between the geographic location of an applicant's undergraduate school, medical school, and residency program among matched otolaryngology residency applicants. Observational. Otolaryngology residency program applications to our institution from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed. The geographic location of each applicant's undergraduate education and medical education were collected. Online public records were queried to determine the residency program location of matched applicants. Applicants who did not match or who attended medical school outside the United States were excluded. Metro area, state, and region were determined according to US Census Bureau definitions. From 2009 to 2013, 1,089 (78%) of 1,405 applicants who matched into otolaryngology residency applied to our institution. The number of subjects who attended medical school and residency in the same geographic region was 241 (22%) for metropolitan area, 305 (28%) for state, and 436 (40%) for region. There was no difference in geographic location retention by gender or couples match status of the subject. United States Medical Licensing Exam step 1 scores correlated with an increased likelihood of subjects staying within the same geographic region (P = .03). Most otolaryngology applicants leave their previous geographic area to attend residency. Based on these data, the authors recommend against giving weight to geography as a factor when inviting applicants to interview. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Tseng, Warren H; Jin, Leah; Canter, Robert J; Martinez, Steve R; Khatri, Vijay P; Gauvin, Jeffrey; Bold, Richard J; Wisner, David; Taylor, Sandra; Chen, Steven L
Outcomes of surgical resident training are under scrutiny with the changing milieu of surgical education. Few have investigated the effect of surgical resident involvement (SRI) on operative parameters. Examining 7 common general surgery procedures, we evaluated the effect of SRI on perioperative morbidity and mortality and operative time (OpT). The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005 to 2007) was used to identify 7 cases of nonemergent operations. Cases with simultaneous procedures were excluded. Logistic regression was performed across all procedures and within each procedure incorporating SRI, OpT, and risk-stratifying American College of Surgery National Surgical Quality Improvement Program morbidity and mortality probability scores, which incorporate multiple prognostic individual patient factors. Procedure-specific, SRI-stratified OpTs were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. A total of 71.3% of the 37,907 cases had SRI. Absolute 30-day morbidity for all cases with SRI and without SRI were 3.0% and 1.0%, respectively (p < 0.001); absolute 30-day mortality for all cases with SRI and without SRI were 0.1% and 0.08%, respectively (p < 0.001). After multivariate analysis by specific procedure, SRI was not associated with increased morbidity but was associated with decreased mortality during open right colectomy (odds ratio 0.32; p = 0.01). Across all procedures, SRI was associated with increased morbidity (odds ratio 1.14; p = 0.048) but decreased mortality (odds ratio 0.42; p < 0.001). Mean OpT for all procedures was consistently lower for cases without SRI. SRI has a measurable impact on both 30-day morbidity and mortality and OpT. These data have implications to the impact associated with surgical graduate medical education. Further studies to identify causes of patient morbidity and prevention strategies in surgical teaching environments are warranted. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons
Sweigart, Joseph R; Tad-Y, Darlene; Kneeland, Patrick; Williams, Mark V; Glasheen, Jeffrey J
Hospital medicine (HM) is rapidly evolving into new clinical and nonclinical roles. Traditional internal medicine (IM) residency training likely does not optimally prepare residents for success in HM. Hospital medicine residency training tracks may offer a preferred method for specialized HM education. Internet searches and professional networks were used to identify HM training tracks. Information was gathered from program websites and discussions with track directors. The 11 HM tracks at academic medical centers across the United States focus mostly on senior residents. Track structure and curricular content are determined largely by the structure and curricula of the IM residency programs in which they exist. Almost all tracks feature experiential quality improvement projects. Content on healthcare economics and value is common, and numerous track leaders report this content is expanding from HM tracks into entire residency programs. Tracks also provide opportunities for scholarship and professional development, such as workshops on abstract creation and job procurement skills. Almost all tracks include HM preceptorships as well as rotations within various disciplines of HM. HM residency training tracks focus largely on quality improvement, health care economics, and professional development. The structures and curricula of these tracks are tightly linked to opportunities within IM residency programs. As HM continues to evolve, these tracks likely will expand to bridge clinical and extra-clinical gaps between traditional IM training and contemporary HM practice. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:173-176. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine
Young, Katelyn A; Lane, Samantha M; Widger, John E; Neuhaus, Nina M; Dove, James T; Fluck, Marcus; Hunsinger, Marie A; Blansfield, Joseph A; Shabahang, Mohsen M
Characterize the concordance among faculty and resident perceptions of surgical case complexity, resident technical performance, and autonomy in a diverse sample of general surgery procedures using case-specific evaluations. A prospective study was conducted in which a faculty surgeon and surgical resident independently completed a postoperative assessment examining case complexity, resident operative performance (Milestone assessment) and autonomy (Zwisch model). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) reaching statistical significance (p autonomy demonstrated a moderate correlation (r = 0.56, p autonomy and operative performance, respectively. General surgery residents generally demonstrated high correlations with faculty perceptions of case complexity, technical performance, and operative autonomy. This generalized accord supports the use of the Milestone and Zwisch assessments in residency programs. However, discordance among perceptions of midlevel resident autonomy and chief resident operative performance suggests that these trainees may need more direct communication from the faculty. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thawani, Jayesh P; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Abdullah, Kalil G; Hudgins, Eric; Vaughan, Kerry; Piazza, Matthew; Madsen, Peter J; Buch, Vivek; Sean Grady, M
Simulated practice may improve resident performance in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Using the NeuroTouch haptic simulation platform, we evaluated resident performance and assessed the effect of simulation training on performance in the operating room. First- (N=3) and second- (N=3) year residents were assessed using six measures of proficiency. Using a visual analog scale, the senior author scored subjects. After the first session, subjects with lower scores were provided with simulation training. A second simulation served as a task-learning control. Residents were evaluated in the operating room over six months by the senior author-who was blinded to the trained/untrained identities-using the same parameters. A nonparametric bootstrap testing method was used for the analysis (Matlab v. 2014a). Simulation training was associated with an increase in performance scores in the operating room averaged over all measures (p=0.0045). This is the first study to evaluate the training utility of an endoscopic endonasal surgical task using a virtual reality haptic simulator. The data suggest that haptic simulation training in endoscopic neurosurgery may contribute to improvements in operative performance. Limitations include a small number of subjects and adjudication bias-although the trained/untrained identity of subjects was blinded. Further study using the proposed methods may better describe the relationship between simulated training and operative performance in endoscopic Neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Ramshorst, Gabrielle H; Kaijser, Mirjam A; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; van Wagensveld, Bart A
Surgical procedures for morbid obesity, including laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), are considered standardized laparoscopic procedures. Our goal was to determine how bariatric surgery is trained in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent to lead surgeons from all 19 bariatric centers in the Netherlands. At least two residents or fellows were surveyed for each center. Dutch residents are required to collect at least 20 electronic Objective Standard Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) observations per year, which include the level of supervision needed for specific procedures. Centers without resident accreditation were excluded. All 19 surgeons responded (100%). Answers from respondents who worked at teaching hospitals with residency accreditation (12/19, 63%) were analyzed. The average number of trained residents or fellows was 14 (range 3-33). Preferred procedures were LRYGB (n = 10), laparoscopic gastric sleeve (LGS) resection (n = 1), or no preference (n = 1). Three groups could be discerned for the order in which procedural steps were trained: unstructured, in order of increasing difficulty, or in order of chronology. Questionnaire response was 79% (19/24) for residents and 73% (8/11) for fellows. On average, residents started training in bariatric surgery in postgraduate year (PGY) 4 (range 0-5). The median number of bariatric procedures performed was 40 for residents (range 0-148) and 220 during fellowships (range 5-306). Training in bariatric surgery differs considerably among centers. A structured program incorporating background knowledge, step-wise technical skills training, and life-long learning should enhance efficient training in bariatric teaching centers without affecting quality or patient safety.
Kasparian, Andres C; Martinez, A C; JoverClos, R J; Chércoles, R A
technical skills acquisition is considered to be of paramount importance in surgical training. Yet, formal assessment of technical skills is the weakest and less developed area. Currently available resources to evaluate technical skills are largely subjective, and lack of validity and reliability. Direct observation, one of the most frequently used methods, is largely biased by interpersonal subjectivity and personality traits. We propose the creation and use of a new procedure-specific tool for objective assessment of technical skills in surgery to evaluate validity and reliability. laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Lichstenstein's inguinal hernia repair were the chosen procedures. Three groups of comparison were defined according to surgical expertise: initial, intermediate, and experts. Surgeries were videorecorded in real time without identification of the patient or the surgeon. Tapes without any posterior edition were assigned to two expert surgeons in a blind and randomized sequence. A newly proposed procedure-specific rating scale was used for evaluation, as well as Reznick's OSATS global scale. Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test was used to assess validity. p 0.8 granted reliability. from April 2010 to December 2012 36 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and 31 inguinal hernia repairs were recorded. Significant difference was found among groups of comparison for every item (ptechnical skills in surgery is feasible and useful. The tool we proposed showed construct validity and reliability. Video recording of surgical procedures grants durability over time to an ephemeral phenomenon. The objectivity is based on the explicit statements and quantification of every step to be evaluated, and the blind randomization and anonymous treatment of the sample. Sharing the same quality criteria between evaluators is of paramount importance to reach satisfactory results. The process of evaluation always implies a shortened view of the reality.
Sørensen, Anette Bagger; Christensen, Mette Krogh
Background: Residents are often caught between two interests: the resident’s desire to participate in challenging learning situations and the department’s work planning. However, these interests may clash if they are not coordinated by the senior doctors, and challenging learning situations risk...... that the residents benefit from the intervention because they experienced more optimal challenges than before the intervention. However, the matching of resident and case seems to work against the established culture in the department: The daily work has for many years been organized so that senior doctors have...... their “own” patients and they do not “share” patients with residents. Thus the patients were accustomed to have their “own” specialist doctor. Conclusion: The intervention generated optimal challenges, but revealed the need for more team-based organization of senior doctors and residents’ working...
Krafcik, Brianna M; Sachs, Teviah E; Farber, Alik; Eslami, Mohammad H; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Shah, Nishant K; Peacock, Matthew R; Siracuse, Jeffrey J
General surgeons have traditionally performed open vascular operations. However, endovascular interventions, vascular residencies, and work-hour limitations may have had an impact on open vascular surgery training among general surgery residents. We evaluated the temporal trend of open vascular operations performed by general surgery residents to assess any changes that have occurred. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's database was used to evaluate graduating general surgery residents' cases from 1999 to 2013. Mean and median case volumes were analyzed for carotid endarterectomy, open aortoiliac aneurysm repair, and lower extremity bypass. Significance of temporal trends were identified using the R(2) test. The average number of carotid endarterectomies performed by general surgery residents decreased from 23.1 ± 14 (11.6 ± 9 chief, 11.4 + 10 junior) cases per resident in 1999 to 10.7 ± 9 (3.4 ± 5 chief, 7.3 ± 6 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.98). Similarly, elective open aortoiliac aneurysm repairs decreased from 7.4 ± 5 (4 ± 4 chief, 3.4 ± 4 junior) in 1999 to 1.3 ± 2 (0.4 ± 1 chief, 0.8 ± 1 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.98). The number of lower extremity bypasses decreased from 21 ± 12 (9.5 ± 7 chief, 11.8 ± 9 junior) in 1999 to 7.6 ± 2.6 (2.4 ± 1.3 chief, 5.2 + 1.8 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.94). Infrapopliteal bypasses decreased from 8.1 ± 3.8 (3.5 ± 2.2 chief, 4.5 ± 2.9 junior) in 2001 to 3 ± 2.2 (1 ± 1.6 chief, 2 ± 1.6 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.94). General surgery resident exposure to open vascular surgery has significantly decreased. Current and future graduates may not have adequate exposure to open vascular operations to be safely credentialed to perform these procedures in future practice without advanced vascular surgical training. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmad, Rima; Mullen, John T
There remains a debate as to whether nondesignated preliminary (NDP) positions in surgery ultimately translate into successful surgical careers for those who pursue them. We sought to identify the success with which our NDP residents were able to transition to their desired career and what, if any, factors contributed to their success. The records of all NDP residents accepted into the Massachusetts General Hospital General Surgery Residency Program from 1995 to 2010 were examined and long-term follow-up was completed. Thirty-four NDP residents were identified, including 26.5% US graduates and 73.5% international medical graduates. At the end of the initial preliminary year, 30 (88%) got placed in a postgraduate residency program, whereas 4 (12%) pursued other career paths. Of those who got placed, 25 (83%) attained surgical residency positions, including 17 (57%) who continued as preliminary residents at our institution and 8 (27%) who got placed in categorical surgical positions at other programs. After multiple preliminary years, 15 of 17 achieved a categorical position, of which, 93% were in surgical fields. Overall, 64.7% of all entering NDP residents eventually went on to have careers in general surgery (50%) or surgical subspecialties (14.7%), and 24 of 34 (71%) fulfilled their desired career goals. No factor predicted success. From 1995 to 2012 there have been 15 midlevel (11 postgraduate year 4) vacancies in our program, 4 of which were filled by preliminary residents, 2 from our program and 2 from elsewhere. All have gone on to board certifications and careers in surgery. More than 70% of NDP residents in our program successfully transitioned to their desired career paths, many achieving categorical surgical positions and academic surgical careers, thus demonstrating the benefit of this track to both residency programs and trainees. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Andrew G.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Boldt, H. Culver; Olson, Richard; Oetting, Thomas A.; Abramoff, Michael; Carter, Keith
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has mandated that all residency training programs teach and assess new competencies including professionalism. This article reviews the literature on medical professionalism, describes good practices gleaned from published works, and
John, Nadyah Janine; Shelton, P G; Lang, Michael C; Ingersoll, Jennifer
Professionalism is an abstract concept which makes it difficult to define, assess and teach. An additional layer of complexity is added when discussing professionalism in the context of digital technology, the internet and social media - the digital world. Current physicians-in-training (residents and fellows) are digital natives having been raised in a digital, media saturated world. Consequently, their use of digital technology and social media has been unconstrained - a reflection of it being integral to their social construct and identity. Cultivating the professional identity and therefore professionalism is the charge of residency training programs. Residents have shown negative and hostile attitudes to formalized professionalism curricula in training. Approaches to these curricula need to consider the learning style of Millennials and incorporate more active learning techniques that utilize technology. Reviewing landmark position papers, guidelines and scholarly work can therefore be augmented with use of vignettes and technology that are available to residency training programs for use with their Millennial learners.
Kiesau, Carter D; Heim, Kathryn A; Parekh, Selene G
Leadership and business challenges have become increasingly present in the practice of medicine. Orthopaedic residency programs are at the forefront of educating and preparing orthopaedic surgeons. This study attempts to quantify the number of orthopaedic residency programs in the United States that include leadership or business topics in resident education program and to determine which topics are being taught and rate the importance of various leadership characteristics and business topics. A survey was sent to all orthopaedic department chairpersons and residency program directors in the United States via e-mail. The survey responses were collected using a survey collection website. The respondents rated the importance of leadership training for residents as somewhat important. The quality of character, integrity, and honesty received the highest average rating among 19 different qualities of good leaders in orthopaedics. The inclusion of business training in resident education was also rated as somewhat important. The topic of billing and coding received the highest average rating among 14 different orthopaedically relevant business topics. A variety of topics beyond the scope of clinical practice must be included in orthopaedic residency educational curricula. The decreased participation of newly trained orthopaedic surgeons in leadership positions and national and state orthopaedic organizations is concerning for the future of orthopaedic surgery. Increased inclusion of leadership and business training in resident education is important to better prepare trainees for the future.
Irvine, A. Blair; Billow, Molly B.; Gates, Donna M.; Fitzwater, Evelyn L.; Seeley, John R.; Bourgeois, Michelle
Purpose: This research evaluated an individualized Internet training designed to teach nurse aides (NAs) strategies to prevent or, if necessary, react to resident aggression in ways that are safe for the resident as well as the caregiver. Design and Methods: A randomized treatment and control design was implemented, with baseline, 1-, and 2-month…
Langenfeld, Sean J; Cook, Gates; Sudbeck, Craig; Luers, Thomas; Schenarts, Paul J
postgraduate year status (p = 0.88). Unprofessional behavior is prevalent among surgical residents who use Facebook, and this behavior does not appear to decrease as residents progress through training. This represents a risk to the reputations of hospitals and residency programs, and residents should be educated on the dangers of social media. Although it may be perceived as an invasion of privacy, this information is publically available, and program directors may benefit from monitoring these sites to identify gaps in professionalism that require correction. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shackelford, Stacy; Garofalo, Evan; Shalin, Valerie; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin F
Maintaining trauma-specific surgical skills is an ongoing challenge for surgical training programs. An objective assessment of surgical skills is needed. We hypothesized that a validated surgical performance assessment tool could detect differences following a training intervention. We developed surgical performance assessment metrics based on discussion with expert trauma surgeons, video review of 10 experts and 10 novice surgeons performing three vascular exposure procedures and lower extremity fasciotomy on cadavers, and validated the metrics with interrater reliability testing by five reviewers blinded to level of expertise and a consensus conference. We tested these performance metrics in 12 surgical residents (Year 3-7) before and 2 weeks after vascular exposure skills training in the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. Performance was assessed in three areas as follows: knowledge (anatomic, management), procedure steps, and technical skills. Time to completion of procedures was recorded, and these metrics were combined into a single performance score, the Trauma Readiness Index (TRI). Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test compared pretraining/posttraining effects. Mean time to complete procedures decreased by 4.3 minutes (from 13.4 minutes to 9.1 minutes). The performance component most improved by the 1-day skills training was procedure steps, completion of which increased by 21%. Technical skill scores improved by 12%. Overall knowledge improved by 3%, with 18% improvement in anatomic knowledge. TRI increased significantly from 50% to 64% with ASSET training. Interrater reliability of the surgical performance assessment metrics was validated with single intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.7 to 0.98. A trauma-relevant surgical performance assessment detected improvements in specific procedure steps and anatomic knowledge taught during a 1-day course, quantified by the TRI. ASSET training reduced time to complete vascular
Hadjipavlou, George; Halli, Priyanka; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S
The authors collected nationally representative data on Canadian residents' experiences with and perspectives on personal psychotherapy in their psychiatric training. A 43-item questionnaire was distributed electronically to all current psychiatry residents in Canada (N = 839). Four hundred residents from every program across Canada returned the survey (response rate 47.7%). The prevalence of personal therapy at any time was 55.3%, with 42.8% receiving personal therapy during residency. Of residents who undertook personal psychotherapy, 59.3% engaged in weekly therapy, 74.1% received psychodynamic psychotherapy, and 81.5% participated in long-term therapy (>1 year). Personal growth, self-understanding, and professional development were the most common reasons for engaging in personal therapy; however, one-third of residents did so to alleviate symptoms of depression, anxiety, or other mental health concerns. Time was the most important factor impeding residents from personal therapy; only 8.8% found stigma to act as a barrier. The vast majority of residents rated their experience with personal therapy as having a positive or very positive impact on their personal life (84.8%) and overall development as psychiatrists (81.8%). For 64% of respondents, personal therapy had an important or very important role in psychiatry residency training. Residents who received personal therapy rated themselves as better able to understand what happens moment by moment during therapy sessions, detect and deal with patients' emotional reactions, and constructively use their personal reactions to patients. Interest in personal therapy remains strong among psychiatry trainees in Canada. Residents who engaged in psychotherapy endorsed greater confidence in psychotherapy and rated their psychotherapy skills more favorably than those who had never been in the patient role, supporting the view of personal therapy as an important adjunct to psychotherapy training during residency.
Tomlinson, Corey; Labossière, Joseph; Rommens, Kenton; Birch, Daniel W
Surgery training programs in Canada and the United States have recognized the need to modify current models of training and education. The shifting demographic of surgery trainees, lifestyle issues and an increased trend toward subspecialization are the major influences. To guide these important educational initiatives, a contemporary profile of Canadian general surgery residents and their impressions of training in Canada is required. We developed and distributed a questionnaire to residents in each Canadian general surgery training program, and residents responded during dedicated teaching time. In all, 186 surveys were returned for analysis (62% response rate). The average age of Canadian general surgery residents is 30 years, 38% are women, 41% are married, 18% have dependants younger than 18 years and 41% plan to add to or start a family during residency. Most (87%) residents plan to pursue postgraduate education. On completion of training, 74% of residents plan to stay in Canada and 49% want to practice in an academic setting. Almost half (42%) of residents identify a poor balance between work and personal life during residency. Forty-seven percent of respondents have appropriate access to mentorship, whereas 37% describe suitable access to career guidance and 40% identify the availability of appropriate social supports. Just over half (54%) believe the stress level during residency is manageable. This survey provides a profile of contemporary Canadian general surgery residents. Important challenges within the residency system are identified. Program directors and chairs of surgery are encouraged to recognize these challenges and intervene where appropriate.
Cervantes-Sánchez, Carlos Roberto; Chávez-Vizcarra, Paola; Barragán-Ávila, María Cristina; Parra-Acosta, Haydee; Herrera-Mendoza, Renzo Eduardo
Evaluation is a means for significant and rigorous improvement of the educational process. Therefore, competence evaluation should allow assessing the complex activity of medical care, as well as improving the training process. This is the case in the evaluation process of clinical-surgical competences. A cross-sectional study was designed to measure knowledge about the evaluation of clinical-surgical competences for the General Surgery residency program at the Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua (UACH). A 55-item questionnaire divided into six sections was used (perception, planning, practice, function, instruments and strategies, and overall evaluation), with a six level Likert scale, performing a descriptive, correlation and comparative analysis, with a significance level of 0.001. In both groups perception of evaluation was considered as a further qualification. As regards tools, the best known was the written examination. As regards function, evaluation was considered as a further administrative requirement. In the correlation analysis, evaluation was perceived as qualification and was significantly associated with measurement, assessment and accreditation. In the comparative analysis between residents and staff surgeons, a significant difference was found as regards the perception of the evaluation as a measurement of knowledge (Student t test: p=0.04). The results provide information about the concept we have about the evaluation of clinical-surgical competences, considering it as a measure of learning achievement for a socially required certification. There is confusion as regards the perception of evaluation, its function, goals and scopes as benefit for those evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Morris, Daniel L J; Bryson, David J; Ollivere, Ben J; Forward, Daren P
English Major Trauma Centres (MTCs) were established in April 2012. Increased case volume and complexity has influenced trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) core surgical training in these centres. To determine if T&O core surgical training in MTCs meets Joint Committee on Surgical Training (JCST) quality indicators including performance of T&O operative procedures and consultant supervised session attendance. An audit cycle assessing the impact of a weekly departmental core surgical trainee rota. The rota included allocated timetabled sessions that optimised clinical and surgical learning opportunities. Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme (ISCP) records for T&O core surgical trainees at a single MTC were analysed for 8 months pre and post rota introduction. Outcome measures were electronic surgical logbook evidence of leading T&O operative procedures and consultant validated work-based assessments (WBAs). Nine core surgical trainees completed a 4 month MTC placement pre and post introduction of the core surgical trainee rota. Introduction of core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of T&O operative procedures led by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 20.2 to 34.0 (pcore surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement was significantly increased (0.3 vs 2.4 [p=0.04]). Those of dynamic hip screw fixation (2.3 vs 3.6) and ankle fracture fixation (0.7 vs 1.6) were not. Introduction of a core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of consultant validated WBAs completed by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 1.7 to 6.6 (pcore surgical trainee rota utilising a 'problem-based' model can significantly improve T&O core surgical training in MTCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yule, Steven; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Wilkinson, Jill; McKinley, Aileen; MacDonald, Jamie; Neill, Adrian; McAdam, Tim
To investigate the effect of coaching on non-technical skills and performance during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated operating room (OR). Non-technical skills (situation awareness, decision making, teamwork, and leadership) underpin technical ability and are critical to the success of operations and the safety of patients in the OR. The rate of developing assessment tools in this area has outpaced development of workable interventions to improve non-technical skills in surgical training and beyond. A randomized trial was conducted with senior surgical residents (n = 16). Participants were randomized to receive either non-technical skills coaching (intervention) or to self-reflect (control) after each of 5 simulated operations. Coaching was based on the Non-Technical Skills For Surgeons (NOTSS) behavior observation system. Surgeon-coaches trained in this method coached participants in the intervention group for 10 minutes after each simulation. Primary outcome measure was non-technical skills, assessed from video by a surgeon using the NOTSS system. Secondary outcomes were time to call for help during bleeding, operative time, and path length of laparoscopic instruments. Non-technical skills improved in the intervention group from scenario 1 to scenario 5 compared with those in the control group (p = 0.04). The intervention group was faster to call for help when faced with unstoppable bleeding in the final scenario (no. 5; p = 0.03). Coaching improved residents' non-technical skills in the simulated OR compared with those in the control group. Important next steps are to implement non-technical skills coaching in the real OR and assess effect on clinically important process measures and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vergmann, Anna Stage; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Grauslund, Jakob
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a full virtual reality vitreoretinal training program at the Eyesi Surgical simulator. Design and methods: A virtual vitreoretinal training program was composed on the Eyesi Surgical simulator, software version 2.9.2 (VRmagic...... GmbH, Manheim, Germany). It was completed twice by three groups: Group 1: Twenty medical students Group 2: Ten ophthalmology residents Group 3: Five vitreoretinal surgeons The program consisted of six training modules (Figure 1): Navigation level 2 (Nav2) Forceps Training level 5 (ForT5) Bimanual...... developed a training program in virtual vitreoretinal surgery with construct validity for four out of six modules and for overall score. This makes the program a useful tool in the training of future vitreoretinal surgeons....
Fletcher, Sarah; Mullett, Jennifer; Beerman, Steve
Abstract Objective To examine the perceptions of residents, nurses, and physicians about the effect of a regional family practice residency site on the delivery of health services in the community, as well as on the community health care providers. Design Interviews and focus groups were conducted. Setting Nanaimo, BC. Participants A total of 16 residents, 15 nurses, and 20 physicians involved with the family practice residency training program at the Nanaimo site. Methods A series of semistructured interviews and focus groups was conducted. Transcripts of interviews and focus groups were analyzed thematically by the research team. Main findings Overall, participants agreed that having a family practice residency training site in the community contributed to community life and to the delivery of health services in the following ways: increased community capacity and social capital; motivated positive relationships and attitudes in the hospital and community settings; improved communication and teamwork, as well as accessibility and understanding of the health care system; increased the standard of care; and facilitated the recruitment and retention of family physicians. Conclusion This family practice residency training site was beneficial for the community it served. Future planning for distributed medical education sites should take into account the effects of these sites on the health care community and ensure that they continue to be positive influences. Further research in this area could focus on patients’ perceptions of how residency programs affect their care, as well as on the effect of residency programs on wait times and workload for physicians and nurses. PMID:25217693
Fabricius, Rasmus; Sillesen, Martin; Hansen, Morten Sejer
not previously been studied. In the present study, we aim to investigate the role of supervision in the national surgical residency programme and the self-perceived readiness to undertake the role of a specialist doctor in gastrointestinal surgery in a cohort of gastrointestinal surgeons graduating in 2012......: A total of 30 graduated residents (55%) responded to the Danish survey. Among those, 14 (47%) felt ready to be a specialist in surgery. A total of 25 (83%) answered that increased supervision would have increased their selfperceived competencies to serve as a surgical specialist. Self -perceived readiness...... was significantly associated with level of supervision during surgical training (p = 0.02), whereas no association with operative volume could be established. CONCLUSIONS: A worryingly high number of graduates did not feel ready to undertake their role as a gastrointestinal surgical specialist. Adequate supervision...
Yunoki, Kazuma; Sakai, Tetsuro
An increasing number of reports indicate the efficacy of simulation training in anesthesiology resident education. Simulation education helps learners to acquire clinical skills in a safe learning environment without putting real patients at risk. This useful tool allows anesthesiology residents to obtain medical knowledge and both technical and non-technical skills. For faculty members, simulation-based settings provide the valuable opportunity to evaluate residents' performance in scenarios including airway management and regional, cardiac, and obstetric anesthesiology. However, it is still unclear what types of simulators should be used or how to incorporate simulation education effectively into education curriculums. Whether simulation training improves patient outcomes has not been fully determined. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the status of simulation in anesthesiology resident education, encourage more anesthesiologists to get involved in simulation education to propagate its influence, and stimulate future research directed toward improving resident education and patient outcomes.
Ricciotti, Hope A; Freret, Taylor S; Aluko, Ashley; McKeon, Bri Anne; Haviland, Miriam J; Newman, Lori R
To pilot a short video-based resident-as-teacher training toolkit and assess its effect on resident teaching skills in clinical settings. A video-based resident-as-teacher training toolkit was previously developed by educational experts at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School. Residents were recruited from two academic hospitals, watched two videos from the toolkit ("Clinical Teaching Skills" and "Effective Clinical Supervision"), and completed an accompanying self-study guide. A novel assessment instrument for evaluating the effect of the toolkit on teaching was created through a modified Delphi process. Before and after the intervention, residents were observed leading a clinical teaching encounter and scored using the 15-item assessment instrument. The primary outcome of interest was the change in number of skills exhibited, which was assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Twenty-eight residents from two academic hospitals were enrolled, and 20 (71%) completed all phases of the study. More than one third of residents who volunteered to participate reported no prior formal teacher training. After completing two training modules, residents demonstrated a significant increase in the median number of teaching skills exhibited in a clinical teaching encounter, from 7.5 (interquartile range 6.5-9.5) to 10.0 (interquartile range 9.0-11.5; P<.001). Of the 15 teaching skills assessed, there were significant improvements in asking for the learner's perspective (P=.01), providing feedback (P=.005), and encouraging questions (P=.046). Using a resident-as-teacher video-based toolkit was associated with improvements in teaching skills in residents from multiple specialties.
Shaikh, Faisal M; Hseino, Hazem; Hill, Arnold D K; Kavanagh, Eamon; Traynor, Oscar
Basic surgical skills are an integral part of surgical training. Simulation-based surgical training offers an opportunity both to trainees and trainers to learn and teach surgical skills outside the operating room in a nonpatient, nonstressed environment. However, widespread adoption of simulation technology especially in medical education is prohibited by its inherent higher cost, limited space, and interruptions to clinical duties. Mobile skills laboratory has been proposed as a means to address some of these limitations. A new program is designed by the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), in an approach to teach its postgraduate basic surgical trainees the necessary surgical skills, by making the use of mobile innovative simulation technology in their own hospital settings. In this article, authors describe the program and students response to the mobile surgical skills being delivered in the region of their training hospitals and by their own regional consultant trainers.
Saunier, C; Raimond, E; Dupont, A; Pelissier, A; Bonneau, S; Gabriel, R; Graesslin, O
To evaluate French residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology's training in instrumental deliveries in 2015. We conducted a national descriptive survey among 758 residents between December 2014 and January 2015. Respondents were invited by email to specify their University Hospital, their current university term, the number of instrumental deliveries performed by vacuum extractor, forceps or spatulas, and whether they made systematic ultrasound exams before performing the extraction. Response rate was 34.7 % (n=263). There were important differences between regions in terms of type of instruments used. Vacuum extractor was the most commonly used instrument for instrumental deliveries by French residents (56.9 %), more than forceps (25.2 %) and spatulas (17.9 %). At the end of the residency, all the residents had been trained in instrumental deliveries with at least two instruments. The training of difficult techniques as well as their perfect control is required for instrumental deliveries. Yet, we are forced to note that there are substantial differences in the French residents' training in instrumental deliveries depending on their region. So, teaching at least two techniques seems essential as well as improving the training capacities and standardizing practices. A greater systematization of the teaching of the mechanics and obstetric techniques might be a solution to be considered too. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kelly, B D
BACKGROUND: On the 1 August 2009, the implementation of European Working Time Directive became European law and was implemented in Galway University Hospital (GUH). AIMS: The aim of the study is to ascertain the opinion of the 25 surgical SHOs in GUH on the effect of the implementation of an EWTD compliant roster had on the quality of their training. METHODS: A questionnaire was circulated to all 25 surgical SHOs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (88%) SHOs report a reduction in the quality of their training. 18 (72%) report a reduction in the development of their operative skills. The SHOs believed the EWTD Rotas would encourage Irish graduates to train abroad. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical training faces a challenge with the implementation of EWTD Rotas. Major changes need to be made to the surgical training structure to train surgeons to the highest standard and to retain Irish-trained surgeons in the Irish healthcare system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the critical importance of well-being during residency training, only a few Canadian studies have examined stress in residency and none have examined well-being resources. No recent studies have reported any significant concerns with respect to perceived stress levels in residency. We investigated the level of perceived stress, mental health and understanding and need for well-being resources among resident physicians in training programs in Alberta, Canada. Methods A mail questionnaire was distributed to the entire resident membership of PARA during 2003 academic year. PARA represents each of the two medical schools in the province of Alberta. Results In total 415 (51 % residents participated in the study. Thirty-four percent of residents who responded to the survey reported their life as being stressful. Females reported stress more frequently than males (40% vs. 27%, p Residents highly valued their colleagues (67%, program directors (60% and external psychiatrist/psychologist (49% as well-being resources. Over one third of residents wished to have a career counselor (39% and financial counselor (38%. Conclusion Many Albertan residents experience significant stressors and emotional and mental health problems. Some of which differ among genders. This study can serve as a basis for future resource application, research and advocacy for overall improvements to well-being during residency training.
Mohamed A. Bedaiwy
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the surgical outcomes of robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASCP before and after the incorporation of hands-on training for urology and gynecology residents. Study Design. Forty-one patients underwent RASCP between December 2008 and March 2010 with one surgeon. RASCP was performed in the context of surgical repair of complex pelvic organ prolapse and/or stress urinary incontinence. The first 20 cases (group I were performed exclusively by the attending surgeon. In the last 21 cases (group II, the urology resident performed a 50% or more of the RASCP while the gynecology resident performed the supracervical hysterectomy. The primary outcome measure was vaginal vault support at 24 weeks postoperatively based on pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q. Results. Mean ± SD operative time for the entire surgery including RASCP was 282.3±51.3 min and median EBL was 83.1±50.4 mL. Patient demographics and stage of disease did not differ between groups. Procedure time, PACU time, blood loss, and intraoperative complications were similar between groups. Follow-up POP-Q evaluations demonstrated significant correction of all points on vaginal examination for both groups (P<0.001. Conclusions. Incorporation of resident training during RASCP allows teaching of robotic surgery techniques in an effective manner without prolonging operative time or affecting the overall surgical outcome.
Fan, Kenneth; Kawamoto, Henry K; McCarthy, Joseph G; Bartlett, Scott P; Matthews, David C; Wolfe, S Anthony; Tanna, Neil; Vu, Minh-Thien; Bradley, James P
Despite increasing specialization of craniofacial surgery, certain craniofacial techniques are widely applicable. The authors identified five such craniofacial techniques and queried American Society of Plastic Surgeons members and plastic surgery program directors regarding their comfort level with the procedures and their opinion on resident training for these selected procedures. First, a select group of senior craniofacial surgeons discussed and agreed on the top five procedures. Second, active American Society of Plastic Surgeons were surveyed regarding their opinion on training and their comfort level with each procedure. Third, plastic surgery residency program directors were studied to see which of the top five procedures are taught as part of the plastic surgery residency curriculum. The top five widely applicable craniofacial procedures are technically described and include the following: (1) cranial or iliac bone graft for nasal reconstruction, (2) perialar rim bone graft, (3) lateral canthopexy, (4) osseous genioplasty, and (5) bone graft harvest for orbital floor defects. For practicing plastic surgeons, comfort level in all procedures increased with advancing years in practice (except those with 75 percent), especially those with craniofacial fellowship training, felt competent in all procedures except osseous genioplasty (53 percent). Plastic surgery program directors agreed that all top five procedures should be mastered by graduation. Although program directors felt that all five selected craniofacial procedures should be taught and mastered during residency training, plastic surgeons without craniofacial fellowship training were less comfortable with the techniques. Residency training goals should include competence in core craniofacial techniques.
Forgione, Antonello; Guraya, Salman Y.
Background: Historically, operating room (OR) has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training. However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. Th...
Ponton-Carss, Alicia; Kortbeek, John B; Ma, Irene W Y
Surgical competence encompasses both technical and nontechnical skills. This study seeks to evaluate the validity evidence for a comprehensive surgical skills examination and to examine the relationship between technical and nontechnical skills. Six examination stations assessing both technical and nontechnical skills, conducted yearly for surgical trainees (n = 120) between 2010 and 2014 are included. The assessment tools demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Interstation reliability for technical skills was low (alpha = .39). Interstation reliability for the nontechnical skills was lower (alpha range -.05 to .31). Nontechnical skills domains were strongly correlated, ranging from r = .65, P skills were inconsistent, ranging from poor (r = -.06; P = .54) to moderate (r = .45; P skills are necessary to assess overall surgical competency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Lerner, Nancy B; Yang, Bo Kyum; Han, Kihye
To examine the relationship between certified nursing assistant (CNA) training requirements and resident outcomes in U.S. nursing homes (NHs). The number and type of training hours vary by state since many U.S. states have chosen to require additional hours over the federal minimums, presumably to keep pace with the increasing complexity of care. Yet little is known about the impact of the type and amount of training CNAs are required to have on resident outcomes. Compiled data on 2010 state regulatory requirements for CNA training (clinical, total initial training, in-service, ratio of clinical to didactic hours) were linked to 2010 resident outcomes data from 15,508 NHs. Outcomes included the following NH Compare Quality Indicators (QIs) (Minimum Data Set 3.0): pain, antipsychotic use, falls with injury, depression, weight loss and pressure ulcers. Facility-level QIs were regressed on training indicators using generalized linear models with the Huber-White correction, to account for clustering of NHs within states. Models were stratified by facility size and adjusted for case-mix, ownership status, percentage of Medicaid-certified beds and urban-rural status. A higher ratio of clinical to didactic hours was related to better resident outcomes. NHs in states requiring clinical training hours above federal minimums (i.e., >16hr) had significantly lower odds of adverse outcomes, particularly pain falls with injury, and depression. Total and in-service training hours also were related to outcomes. Additional training providing clinical experiences may aid in identifying residents at risk. This study provides empirical evidence supporting the importance of increased requirements for CNA training to improve quality of care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rickard, Jennifer L; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Chu, Kathryn M
To define the operations performed by surgical residents at a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda to help guide development of the residency program. Cross-sectional study of all patients operated by surgical residents from October 2012 to September 2013. University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali [CHUK]), a public, tertiary referral hospital in Kigali, Rwanda. All patient data were entered into the operative database by surgical residents at CHUK. A total of 2833 cases were entered into the surgical database. Of them, 53 cases were excluded from further analysis because no surgical resident was listed as the primary or assistant surgeon, leaving 2780 cases for analysis. There were 2780 operations involving surgical residents. Of them, 51% of procedures were classified under general surgery, 38% orthopedics, 7% neurosurgery, and 4% urology. Emergency operations accounted for 64% of the procedures, with 56% of those being general surgery and 35% orthopedic. Further, 50% of all operations were trauma, with 71% of those orthopedic and 21% general surgery. Surgical faculty were involved in 45% of operations as either the primary or the assistant surgeons, while the remainder of operations did not involve surgical faculty. Residents were primary surgeons in 68% of procedures and assistant surgeons in 84% of procedures. The operative experience of surgery residents at CHUK primarily involves emergency and trauma procedures. Although this likely reflects the demographics of surgical care within Rwanda, more focus should be placed on elective procedures to ensure that surgical residents are broadly trained. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rutherford, Kimberly; Oda, Joanna
Background Almost three-quarters of family practice residents in British Columbia (BC) meet criteria for burnout. We sought to understand how burnout is perceived and experienced by family medicine residents, and to identify both contributory and protective factors for resident burnout. Method Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with ten family practice residents from five distinct University of British Columbia training sites. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Seventy percent of the focus group participants met criteria for burnout using the MBI. The experience of burnout was described as physical and emotional exhaustion, loss of motivation, isolation from loved ones, and disillusionment with the medical profession. Contributory factors included high workload, burned-out colleagues, perceived undervaluing of family medicine, lack of autonomy, and inability to achieve work-life balance. Protective factors included strong role models in medicine, feeling that one’s work is valued and rotations in family medicine. Conclusions The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors. PMID:26451218
Rutherford, Kimberly; Oda, Joanna
Almost three-quarters of family practice residents in British Columbia (BC) meet criteria for burnout. We sought to understand how burnout is perceived and experienced by family medicine residents, and to identify both contributory and protective factors for resident burnout. Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with ten family practice residents from five distinct University of British Columbia training sites. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Seventy percent of the focus group participants met criteria for burnout using the MBI. The experience of burnout was described as physical and emotional exhaustion, loss of motivation, isolation from loved ones, and disillusionment with the medical profession. Contributory factors included high workload, burned-out colleagues, perceived undervaluing of family medicine, lack of autonomy, and inability to achieve work-life balance. Protective factors included strong role models in medicine, feeling that one's work is valued and rotations in family medicine. The high level of burnout in family medicine residents in BC is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon. Training programs and faculty should be aware of burnout risk factors and strive to implement changes to reduce burnout, including allowing residents increased control over scheduling, access to counseling services and training for resident mentors.
Hochberg, Mark S; Berman, Russell S; Kalet, Adina L; Zabar, Sondra R; Gillespie, Colleen; Pachter, H Leon
Teaching professionalism effectively to fully engaged residents is a significant challenge. A key question is whether the integration of professionalism into residency education leads to a change in resident culture. The goal of this study was to assess whether professionalism has taken root in the surgical resident culture 3 years after implementing our professionalism curriculum. Evidence was derived from 3 studies: (1) annual self-assessments of the residents' perceived professionalism abilities to perform 20 defined tasks representing core Accrediting Council on Graduate Medical Education professionalism domains, (2) objective metrics of their demonstrated professionalism skills as rated by standardized patients annually using the objective structure clinical examination tool, and (3) a national survey of the Surgical Professionalism and Interpersonal Communications Education Study Group. Study 1: aggregate perceived professionalism among surgical residents shows a statistically significant positive trend over time (P = .016). Improvements were seen in all 6 domains: accountability, ethics, altruism, excellence, patient sensitivity, and respect. Study 2: the cohort of residents followed up over 3 years showed a marked improvement in their professionalism skills as rated by standardized patients using the objective structure clinical examination tool. Study 3: 41 members of the national Surgical Professionalism and Interpersonal Communications Education Study Group rated their residents' skills in admitting mistakes, delivering bad news, communication, interdisciplinary respect, cultural competence, and handling stress. Twenty-nine of the 41 responses rated their residents as "slightly better" or "much better" compared with 5 years ago (P = .001). Thirty-four of the 41 programs characterized their department's leadership view toward professionalism as "much better" compared with 5 years ago. All 3 assessment methods suggest that residents feel increasingly
Park, Elyse R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Miller, Elizabeth; Nathan, Michael; MacDonald, Ellie; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu; Stone, Valerie E
BACKGROUND Physicians increasingly face the challenge of managing clinical encounters with patients from a range of cultural backgrounds. Despite widespread interest in cross-cultural care, little is known about resident physicians' perceptions of what will best enable them to provide quality care to diverse patient populations. OBJECTIVES To assess medicine residents' (1) perceptions of cross-cultural care, (2) barriers to care, and (3) training experiences and recommendations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 26 third-year medicine residents at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston (response rate = 87%). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. RESULTS Despite significant interest in cross-cultural care, almost all of the residents reported very little training during residency. Most had gained cross-cultural skills through informal learning. A few were skeptical about formal training, and some expressed concern that it is impossible to understand every culture. Challenges to the delivery of cross-cultural care included managing patients with limited English proficiency, who involve family in critical decision making, and who have beliefs about disease that vary from the biomedical model. Residents cited many implications to these barriers, ranging from negatively impacting the patient-physician relationship to compromised care. Training recommendations included making changes to the educational climate and informal and formal training mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS If cross-cultural education is to be successful, it must take into account residents' perspectives and be focused on overcoming residents' cited barriers. It is important to convey that cross-cultural education is a set of skills that can be taught and applied, in a time-efficient manner, rather than requiring an insurmountable knowledge base. PMID:16704391
Seabott, Heather; Smith, Ryan K; Alseidi, Adnan; Thirlby, Richard C
The interview process is a pivotal, differentiating component of the residency match. Our bias is toward a working interview, producing better fulfillment of the needs of both parties, and a more informed match selection for the candidates and program. We describe a "candidate-centered" approach for integrating applicant interviews into our daily work schedule. Applicants are informed upon accepting the interview of the working interview model. Our program offers 33 interview days over a 12-week period. A maximum of 5 applicants are hosted per day. Applicants are assigned to 1 of our general, thoracic, vascular, or plastic surgery teams. The interview day begins with the applicant changing into scrubs, attending a morning conference, and taking part in a program overview by a Chief Resident. Applicants join their host team where 4-8 hours are spent observing the operative team, on rounds and sharing lunch. The faculty and senior residents are responsible for interviewing and evaluating applicants though the Electronic Residency Application Service. A total of 13 surgeons are involved in the interview process resulting in broad-based evaluations. Each surgeon interviewed between 3 and 12 applicants. Faculty rate this interview approach highly because it allows them to maintain a rigorous operative schedule while interacting with applicants. Current residents are engaged in welcoming applicants to view the program. Faculty and residents believe cooperating in a real world manner aids their assessment of the applicant. Applicants routinely provide positive feedback, relaying this approach is informative, transparent, and should be the "standard." Applicants believe they are presented a realistic view of the program. Ultimately, this candidate-centered process may be attributable to our resident cohort who exhibit high satisfaction, excellent resident morale, and very low dropout rate. We present a candidate-centered, working interview approach used in the selection of
Jabbour, Jad; Bakeman, Anna; Robey, Thomas; Jabbour, Noel
To characterize the nature of surgical preparation among otolaryngology residents nationwide, determine the self-rated effectiveness and efficiency of case preparation practices, and identify potential means for educational improvement. A survey examining the study objectives was developed and distributed to otolaryngology residents nationwide. Survey response data were submitted to descriptive analysis and comparative analyses between junior and senior residents. Literature regarding case preparation among otolaryngology residents was reviewed. Among 108 resident respondents, the most commonly used resources included textbooks (86.1%), surgical education websites (74.1%), and surgical atlases (66.7%). Time was the primary limitation (cited by 84.3%) and convenience the predominant factor influencing resource selection (92.5%). On a 5-point Likert scale, mean scores regarding effectiveness and efficiency of case preparation were 3.53 ± 0.68 and 3.19 ± 0.88, respectively. Senior residents compared to junior residents were more likely to rate their preparation as effective (3.75 ± 0.54 vs 3.40 ± 0.72, P = .008) and efficient (3.45 ± 0.85 vs 3.03 ± 0.86, P = .02). Otolaryngology residents do not consistently rate their case preparation as effective or efficient. While there appears to be progress in self-directed learning throughout residency, room for improvement remains, with potential avenues for such improvement explored here.
Zuckerman, Scott L; Kelly, Patrick D; Dewan, Michael C; Morone, Peter J; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Magarik, Jordan A; Baticulon, Ronnie E; Zusman, Edie E; Solomon, Gary S; Wellons, John C
Neurosurgical educators strive to identify the best applicants, yet formal study of resident selection has proved difficult. We conducted a systematic review to answer the following question: What objective and subjective preresidency factors predict resident success? PubMed, ProQuest, Embase, and the CINAHL databases were queried from 1952 to 2015 for literature reporting the impact of preresidency factors (PRFs) on outcomes of residency success (RS), among neurosurgery and all surgical subspecialties. Due to heterogeneity of specialties and outcomes, a qualitative summary and heat map of significant findings were constructed. From 1489 studies, 21 articles met inclusion criteria, which evaluated 1276 resident applicants across five surgical subspecialties. No neurosurgical studies met the inclusion criteria. Common objective PRFs included standardized testing (76%), medical school performance (48%), and Alpha Omega Alpha (43%). Common subjective PRFs included aggregate rank scores (57%), letters of recommendation (38%), research (33%), interviews (19%), and athletic or musical talent (19%). Outcomes of RS included faculty evaluations, in-training/board exams, chief resident status, and research productivity. Among objective factors, standardized test scores correlated well with in-training/board examinations but poorly correlated with faculty evaluations. Among subjective factors, aggregate rank scores, letters of recommendation, and athletic or musical talent demonstrated moderate correlation with faculty evaluations. Standardized testing most strongly correlated with future examination performance but correlated poorly with faculty evaluations. Moderate predictors of faculty evaluations were aggregate rank scores, letters of recommendation, and athletic or musical talent. The ability to predict success of neurosurgical residents using an evidence-based approach is limited, and few factors have correlated with future resident performance. Given the importance of
Richards, Morgan K; McAteer, Jarod P; Drake, F Thurston; Goldin, Adam B; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Gow, Kenneth W
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created a shift in how many surgical diseases are treated. Examining the effect on resident operative experience provides valuable insight into trends that may be useful for restructuring the requirements of resident training. To evaluate changes in general surgery resident operative experience regarding MIS. Retrospective review of the frequency of MIS relative to open operations among general surgery residents using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for academic years 1993-1994 through 2011-2012. General surgery residency training among accredited programs in the United States. We analyzed the difference in the mean number of MIS techniques and corresponding open procedures across training periods using 2-tailed t tests with statistical significance set at P surgery has an increasingly prominent role in contemporary surgical therapy for many common diseases. The open approach, however, still predominates in all but 5 procedures. Residents today must become efficient at performing multiple techniques for a single procedure, which demands a broader skill set than in the past.
Peugnet, Frederic; Dubois, Patrick; Rouland, Jean-Francois
Virtual reality is one of these recent technologies which can provide an efficient help in the field of surgical apprenticeship. We achieved an original training simulator for retinal photocoagulation destined to the residents of the ophthalmological department. This paper describes the comparison between this new training tool and the conventional practice. Two groups of residents, randomly selected, were trained exclusively by one of these methods. These two groups were under the responsibility of two distinct experts. A final evaluation was made by a third and different expert, ignoring the training mode practiced by each of the residents. The study lasted six months. The results show that this new training mode is at least as efficient as the current one in terms of elapsed time and efficiency. It may even reduce the training duration. These results confirm that a pedagogical simulator could give a new approach in the medical teaching, particularly in its management. Such a device may solve the problems of practitioner's lack of disponibility and of patients' safety and comfort during a conventional training. Furthermore, it could bring an objective way to value the students; practical ability. On the other hand, this preliminary study emphasizes the difficulties in introducing a new modality in a traditional teaching environment.
Abramson, Erika L; Naifeh, Monique M; Stevenson, Michelle D; Todd, Christopher; Henry, Emilie D; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Gerber, Linda M; Li, Su-Ting T
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) states that "residents should participate in scholarly activity." However, there is little guidance for effectively integrating scholarly activity into residency. This study was conducted to understand how pediatric residency programs meet ACGME requirements and to identify characteristics of successful programs. The authors conducted an online cross-sectional survey of all pediatric residency program directors in October 2012, assessing program characteristics, resident participation in scholarly activity, program infrastructure, barriers, and outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify characteristics of programs in the top quartile for resident scholarly activity participation. The response rate was 52.8% (105/199 programs). Seventy-seven (78.6%) programs required scholarly activity, although definitions were variable. When including only original research, systematic reviews or meta-analyses, and case reports or series with references, resident participation averaged 56% (range 0%-100%). Characteristics associated with high-participation programs included a scholarly activity requirement (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-30.0); program director belief that all residents should present work regionally or nationally (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.5-15.1); and mentorship by >25% of faculty (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.2-11.4). Only 47.1% (41) of program directors were satisfied with resident participation, and only 30.7% (27) were satisfied with the quality of research training provided. The findings suggest that resident scholarly activity experience is highly variable and suboptimal. Identifying characteristics of successful programs can improve the resident research training experience.
Ly, Catherine L; Chun, Maria B J
Although cultural competency is not a new concept in healthcare, it has only recently been formally embraced as important in the field of surgery. All physicians, including and especially surgeons, must acknowledge the potential influence of culture in order to provide effective and equitable care for patients of all backgrounds. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) recognizes cultural competency as a component of "patient care," "professionalism," and "interpersonal and communication skills." A systematic literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. All publications focusing on surgical residents and the assessment of patient care, professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, or specifically cultural competency and/or were considered. This initial search resulted in 12 articles. To further refine the review, publications discussing curricula in residencies other than surgery, the assessment of technical, or clinical skills and/or without any explicit focus on cultural competency were excluded. Based on the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5 articles were selected. These studies utilized various methods to improve surgical residents' cultural competency, including lectures, Objective Structural Clinical Examinations (OSCE), and written exercises and evaluations. A number of surgical residency programs have made promising strides in training culturally competent surgeons. Ultimately, in order to maximize our collective efforts to improve the quality of health care, the development of cultural competency curricula must be made a priority and such training should be a requirement for all trainees in surgical residency programs. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Graf, Jahanara; Cook, Mackenzie; Schecter, Samuel; Deveney, Karen; Hofmann, Paul; Grey, Douglas; Akoko, Larry; Mwanga, Ali; Salum, Kitembo; Schecter, William
Assessment of the effect of the collaborative relationship between the high-income country (HIC) surgical educators of the Alliance for Global Clinical Training (Alliance) and the low-income country surgical educators at the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences/Muhimbili National Hospital (MUHAS/MNH), Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, on the clinical global surgery training of the HIC surgical residents participating in the program. A retrospective qualitative analysis of Alliance volunteer HIC faculty and residents' reports, volunteer case lists and the reports of Alliance academic contributions to MUHAS/MNH from 2012 to 2017. In addition, a survey was circulated in late 2016 to all the residents who participated in the program since its inception. Twelve HIC surgical educators provided rotating 1-month teaching coverage at MUHAS/MNH between academic years 2012 and 2017 for a total of 21 months. During the same time period 11 HIC residents accompanied the HIC faculty for 1-month rotations. HIC surgery residents joined the MUHAS/MNH Department of Surgery, made significant teaching contributions, performed a wide spectrum of "open procedures" including hand-sewn intestinal anastomoses. Most had had either no or limited previous exposure to hand-sewn anastomoses. All of the residents commented that this was a maturing and challenging clinical rotation due to the complexity of the cases, the limited resources available and the ethical and emotional challenges of dealing with preventable complications and death in a resource constrained environment. The Alliance provides an effective clinical global surgery rotation at MUHAS/MNH for HIC Surgery Departments wishing to provide such an opportunity for their residents and faculty. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hou, Yang; Shi, Jiangang; Lin, Yanping; Chen, Huajiang; Yuan, Wen
The cervical screw placement is one of the most difficult procedures in spine surgery, which often needs a long period of repeated practices and could cause screw placement-related complications. We performed this cadaver study to investigate the effectiveness of virtual surgical training system (VSTS) on cervical pedicle screw instrumentation for residents. A total of ten novice residents were randomly assigned to two groups: the simulation training (ST) group (n = 5) and control group (n = 5). The ST group received a surgical training of cervical pedicle screw placement on VSTS and the control group was given an introductory teaching session before cadaver test. Ten fresh adult spine specimens including 6 males and 4 females were collected, and were randomly allocated to the two groups. The bilateral C3-C6 pedicle screw instrumentation was performed in the specimens of the two groups, respectively. After instrumentation, screw positions of the two groups were evaluated by image examinations. There was significantly statistical difference in screw penetration rates between the ST (10%) and control group (62.5%, P VSTS as an advanced training tool exhibited promising effects on improving performance of novice residents in cervical pedicle screw placement compared with the traditional teaching methods.
Pascual, T.N.; San Luis, T.O.L.; Leus, M.
Full text: The comprehensive evaluation of medical residents in a residency-training program includes the use of educational tools to measure the attainment of competencies in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains as prescribed in the training curriculum. Attention is almost always focused on the testing of cognitive domain of the learners with limited attention given on the psychomotor and affective parameters, which are in fact, together with the cognitive domain, integral to the students' learning behaviour. This paper aims to review the principles of test construction, including the perspectives on the roles, types and purpose of tests in the domains of learning (cognitive, psychomotor and affective) as well as the use of Non-Test materials for measuring affective learning outcomes and the construction of Performance Tests and Portfolio Assessment tools which are all essential for the effective and efficient evaluation of residents in a Nuclear Medicine Training Program. (author)
Lesko, David; Showmaker, Jason; Ukatu, Ceisha; Wu, Qiwei; Chang, C W David
Objective To evaluate recent tracheostomy surgical experience among otolaryngology residents and general surgery residents. Study Design Retrospective database review. Setting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education otolaryngology and general surgery programs. Subjects and Methods Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case log data from 2005 to 2015 for resident graduates in otolaryngology and general surgery were used to obtain mean graduate tracheostomy numbers, mean graduate composite case numbers, and number of graduating residents. Market share for each specialty was estimated through the derived metric of nationwide total tracheostomy graduate experience, calculated by multiplying the number of graduating residents by the mean number of graduate tracheostomies. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate trends. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for pairwise comparison of trends. Results From 2005 to 2015, mean graduate tracheostomy numbers for otolaryngology residents declined 2.3% per year, while those for general surgery residents increased 1.8% per year. Accounting for changes in number of resident graduates, market share of tracheostomy decreased 1.0% per year for otolaryngology and increased 3.0% per year for general surgery. Mean graduate composite case numbers increased significantly by 1.8% and 1.0% per year for otolaryngology and general surgery residents, respectively. Conclusion Tracheostomy case volume in otolaryngology residency has decreased steadily in comparison with general surgery residency. However, current otolaryngology graduates have more experience in tracheostomy when compared with general surgery graduates. While otolaryngology residents have excellent exposure to tracheostomy, otolaryngology programs should be made aware of this declining trend as well as changing procedural trends, which may affect training needs.
Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora
through Partnership with Rural Hospitals: Experience from Southeast Nigeria. ... of Sociology, Anthropology and Psychiatry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria .... of the junior residents who felt that their emotions and opinions .... which combined both quantitative and qualitative data to draw ... J Preg Child Health.
Objective: Inadequate knowledge and expertise are major contributing factors to poor pain management in the cancer patient. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of formal teaching on pain management on the current practice of the resident surgeons at the University College Hospital (UCH). Ibadan. Method: ...
Mangano, Alberto; Gheza, Federico; Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo
The number of robotic surgical procedures has been increasing worldwide. It is important to maximize the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgical training and safely reduce the time needed for trainees to reach proficiency. The use of preliminary lab training in robotic skills is a good strategy for the rapid acquisition of further, standardized robotic skills. Such training can be done either by using a simulator or by exercises in a dry or wet lab. While the use of an actual robotic surgical system for training may be problematic (high cost, lack of availability), virtual reality (VR) simulators can overcome many of these obstacles. However, there is still a lack of standardization. Although VR training systems have improved, they cannot yet replace experience in a wet lab. In particular, simulated scenarios are not yet close enough to a real operative experience. Indeed, there is a difference between technical skills (i.e., mechanical ability to perform a simulated task) and surgical competence (i.e., ability to perform a real surgical operation). Thus, while a VR simulator can replace a dry lab, it cannot yet replace training in a wet lab or operative training in actual patients. However, in the near future, it is expected that VR surgical simulators will be able to provide total reality simulation and replace training in a wet lab. More research is needed to produce more wide-ranging, trans-specialty robotic curricula.
LeBedis, Christina A; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Otero, Hansel J; Decker, Summer J; Ward, Robert J
To perform a survey-based assessment of current contrast reaction training in US diagnostic radiology residency programs. An electronic survey was distributed to radiology residency program directors from 9/2015-11/2015. 25.7% of programs responded. 95.7% of those who responded provide contrast reaction management training. 89.4% provide didactic lectures (occurring yearly in 71.4%). 37.8% provide hands-on simulation training (occurring yearly in 82.3%; attended by both faculty and trainees in 52.9%). Wide variability in contrast reaction education in US diagnostic radiology residency programs reveals an opportunity to develop and implement a national curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harnof, Sagi; Hadani, Moshe; Ziv, Amitai; Berkenstadt, Haim
Communication skills are an important component of the neurosurgery residency training program. We developed a simulation-based training module for neurosurgery residents in which medical, communication and ethical dilemmas are presented by role-playing actors. To assess the first national simulation-based communication skills training for neurosurgical residents. Eight scenarios covering different aspects of neurosurgery were developed by our team: (1) obtaining informed consent for an elective surgery, (2) discharge of a patient following elective surgery, (3) dealing with an unsatisfied patient, (4) delivering news of intraoperative complications, (5) delivering news of a brain tumor to parents of a 5 year old boy, (6) delivering news of brain death to a family member, (7) obtaining informed consent for urgent surgery from the grandfather of a 7 year old boy with an epidural hematoma, and (8) dealing with a case of child abuse. Fifteen neurosurgery residents from all major medical centers in Israel participated in the training. The session was recorded on video and was followed by videotaped debriefing by a senior neurosurgeon and communication expert and by feedback questionnaires. All trainees participated in two scenarios and observed another two. Participants largely agreed that the actors simulating patients represented real patients and family members and that the videotaped debriefing contributed to the teaching of professional skills. Simulation-based communication skill training is effective, and together with thorough debriefing is an excellent learning and practical method for imparting communication skills to neurosurgery residents. Such simulation-based training will ultimately be part of the national residency program.
Randall, C S; Bergus, G R; Schlechte, J A; McGuinness, G; Mueller, C W
Satisfaction is known to impact work performance, learning, recruitment, and retention. This study identifies the factors associated with primary care residents' satisfaction with their training. We used a cross-sectional survey based on the Price-Mueller model of job satisfaction. The model included 14 job characteristics, four personal characteristics, and four demographic factors. Data were collected in February and March 1996 from residents in three primary care training programs (family practice, pediatrics, and internal medicine) at a large academic medical center. The same standardized, self-administered questionnaires were used in all three departments. Seventy-five percent (n = 119) of the residents returned questionnaires. Five job characteristics were positively associated with resident satisfaction: continuity of care, autonomy, collegiality, work that encourages professional growth, and work group loyalty. Role conflict, a sixth job characteristic, was negatively associated with satisfaction. The personal characteristic of having an optimistic outlook on life was also positively associated with satisfaction. The model explained 66% of the variation in self-reported satisfaction. The satisfaction of the residents was significantly associated with six job characteristics and one personal factor. Interventions based on these job characteristics may increase resident satisfaction and may lead to better patient outcomes, better work performance, greater patient satisfaction, and more success in recruiting top students into a residency.
Rouch, Joshua D; Wagner, Justin P; Scott, Andrew; Sullins, Veronica F; Chen, David C; DeUgarte, Daniel A; Shew, Stephen B; Tillou, Areti; Dunn, James C Y; Lee, Steven L
General surgery residents lack a standardized educational experience in pediatric surgery. We hypothesized that the development of a mobile educational interface would provide general surgery residents broader access to pediatric surgical education materials. We created an educational mobile website for general surgery residents rotating on pediatric surgery, which included a curriculum, multimedia resources, the Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS), and Twitter functionality. Residents were instructed to consult the curriculum. Residents and faculty posted media using the Twitter hashtag, #UCLAPedSurg, and following each surgical procedure reviewed performance via the OPRS. Site visits, Twitter posts, and OPRS submissions were quantified from September 2013 to July 2014. The pediatric surgery mobile website received 257 hits; 108 to the homepage, 107 to multimedia, 28 to the syllabus, and 19 to the OPRS. All eligible residents accessed the content. The Twitter hashtag, #UCLAPedSurg, was assigned to 20 posts; the overall audience reach was 85 individuals. Participants in the mobile OPRS included 11 general surgery residents and 4 pediatric surgery faculty. Pediatric surgical education resources and operative performance evaluations are effectively administered to general surgery residents via a structured mobile platform. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kleinert, Robert; Fuchs, Claudia; Romotzky, Vanessa; Knepper, Laura; Wasilewski, Marie-Luise; Schröder, Wolfgang; Bruns, Christiane; Woopen, Christiane; Leers, Jessica
Introduction The current student generation have their own expectations toward professional life and pay particular attention to their work-life balance. Less interest in work-intensive specialties leads to a shortage of skilled candidates especially in surgery. In order to motivate students into a surgical residency, new priorities become important. A deeper understanding of the underlying arguments and students’ expectations towards a surgical training are necessary to counteract a future s...
Peterson, Lars E; Johnson, Hillary; Pugno, Perry A; Bazemore, Andrew; Phillips, Robert L
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 2003 restrictions on resident duty hours (RDH) raised concerns among educators about potential negative impacts on residents' training. In the early wake of these restrictions, little is known about how RDH reform impacts training in primary care. The authors surveyed family medicine (FM) residency program directors (PDs) for their perceptions of the impact of RDH regulations on training in primary care. All PDs of 472 FM residency programs were asked via list-serve to complete an anonymous Internet-based survey in the fall of 2004. The survey solicited PDs' opinions about changes in staff and in residents' training experiences with respect to implementation of RDH regulations. Descriptive and qualitative analyses were conducted. There were 369 partial and 328 complete responses, for a response rate of 69% (328/472). Effects of the RDH regulations are varied. Fifty percent of FMPDs report increased patient-care duties for attendings, whereas 42% report no increase. Nearly 80% of programs hired no additional staff. Sixty percent of programs eliminated postcall clinics, and nearly 40% implemented a night-float system. Administrative hassles and losses of professionalism, educational opportunity, and continuity of care were common concerns, but a sizeable minority feel that residents will be better off under the new regulations. Many FMPDs cited increased faculty burden and the risk of lower-quality educational experiences for their trainees. Innovations for increasing the effectiveness of teaching may ultimately compensate for lost educational time. If not, alternatives such as extending the length of residency must be considered.
Zakaria, Ahmed S.; Haddad, Richard; Dragomir, Alice; Kassouf, Wassim; Andonian, Sero; Aprikian, Armen G.
Introduction: According to the Royal College objectives of training in urology, urologic surgical procedures are divided as category A, B and C. We wanted to determine the level of proficiency required and achieved by urology training faculty for Royal College accreditation. Methods: We conducted a survey that was sent electronically to all Canadian urology training faculty. Questions focused on demographics (i.e., years of practice, geographic location, subspecialty, access to robotic surgery), operating room contact with residents, opinion on the level of proficiency required from a list of 54 surgical procedures, and whether their most recent graduates attained category A proficiency in these procedures. Results: The response rate was 43.7% (95/217). Among respondents, 92.6% were full timers, 21.1% practiced urology for less than 5 years and 3.2% for more than 30 years. Responses from Quebec and Ontario formed 69.4% (34.7% each). Of the respondents, 37.9% were uro-oncologists and 75.7% reported having access to robotic surgery. Sixty percent of faculty members operate with R5 residents between 2 to 5 days per month. When respondents were asked which categories should be listed as category A, only 8 procedures received 100% agreement. Also, results varied significantly when analyzed by sub-specialty. For example, almost 50% or more of uro-oncologists believed that radical cystectomy, anterior pelvic exenteration and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy should not be category A. The following procedures had significant disagreement suggesting the need for re-classification: glanular hypospadias repair, boari flap, entero-vesical and vesicovaginal fistulae repair. Overall, more than 80% of faculty reported that their recent graduating residents had achieved category A proficiency, in a subset of procedures. However, more than 50% of all faculty either disagreed or were ambivalent that all of their graduating residents were Category A proficient in several procedures
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies.
Jiang, Deng-Jin; Wen, Chan; Yang, Ai-Jun; Zhu, Zhi-Li; Lei, Yan; Lan, Yang-Jun; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Hou, Xiao-Yu
The importance of basic surgical skills is entirely agreed among surgical educators. However, restricted by ethical issues, finance etc, the basic surgical skills training is increasingly challenged. Increasing cost gives an impetus to the development of cost-effective training models to meet the trainees' acquisition of basic surgical skills. In this situation, a cost-effective training framework was formed in our department and introduced here. Each five students were assigned to a 'training unit'. The training was implemented weekly for 18 weeks. The framework consisted of an early, a transitional, an integrative stage and a surgical skills competition. Corresponding training modules were selected and assembled scientifically at each stage. The modules comprised campus intranet databases, sponge benchtop, nonliving animal tissue, local dissection specimens and simulating reality operations. The training outcomes used direct observation of procedural skills as an assessment tool. The training data of 50 trainees who were randomly selected in each year from 2006 to 2011 year, were retrospectively analysed. An excellent and good rate of the surgical skills is from 82 to 88%, but there is no significant difference among 6 years (P > 0.05). The skills scores of the contestants are markedly higher than those of non-contestants (P < 0.05). The average training cost per trainee is about $21.85-34.08. The present training framework is reliable, feasible, repeatable and cost-effective. The skills competition can promote to improve the surgical skills level of trainees. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Mar 1, 2008 ... Ancient India's contributions to ethics and surgical training ... business of health care becomes increasingly venal. Doctors are better informed .... 'Friendship, sympathy towards the sick, interest in cases .... Textbook of Surgery.
Kwon, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Young-Mee; Chang, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Ae-Ri
The core curriculum in graduate medical education (GME) is an educational program that covers the minimum body of knowledge and skills that is required of all residents, regardless of their specialty. This study examined the opinions of stakeholders in GME regarding the core curriculum. A questionnaire was administered at three tertiary hospitals that were affiliated with one university; 192 residents and 61 faculty members and attending physicians participated in the survey. The questionnaire comprised six items on physician competency and the needs for a core curriculum. Questions on subjects or topics and adequate training years for each topics were asked only to residents. Most residents (78.6%) and faculty members (86.9%) chose "medical expertise" as the "doctor's role in the 21st century." In contrast, communicator, manager, and collaborator were recognized by less than 30% of all participants. Most residents (74.1%) responded that a core curriculum is "necessary but not feasible," whereas 68.3% of faculty members answered that it is "absolutely needed." Regarding subjects that should be included in the core curriculum, residents and faculty members had disparate preferences- residents preferred more "management of a private clinic" and "financial management," whereas faculty members desired "medical ethics" and "communication skills." Residents and faculty members agree that residents should develop a wide range of competencies in their training. However, the perception of the feasibility and opinions on the contents of the core curriculum differed between groups. Further studies with larger samples should be conducted to define the roles and professional competencies of physicians and the needs for a core curriculum in GME.
Ghiabi, Edmond; Taylor, K Lynn
This project aimed at documenting the surgical training curricula offered by North American graduate periodontics programs. A survey consisting of questions on teaching methods employed and the content of the surgical training program was mailed to directors of all fifty-eight graduate periodontics programs in Canada and the United States. The chi-square test was used to assess whether the residents' clinical experience was significantly (Pperiodontal plastic procedures, hard tissue grafts, and implants. Furthermore, residents in programs offering a structured preclinical component performed significantly more procedures (P=0.012) using lasers than those in programs not offering a structured preclinical program. Devising new and innovative teaching methods is a clear avenue for future development in North American graduate periodontics programs.
Kates, Nick; Toews, John; Leichner, Pierre
Family physicians may spend up to 50% of their time diagnosing and managing mental disorders and emotional problems, but this is not always reflected in the training they receive. This study of the teaching of psychiatry in the 16 family medicine residency programs in Canada showed that although the majority of program directors are reasonably satisfied with the current training, they see room for improvement—particularly in finding psychiatrists with a better understanding of family practice...
Kolontarev, K B; Govorov, A V; Rasner, P I; Sheptunov, S A; Prilepskaya, E A; Maltsev, E G; Pushkar, D Yu
Since the first use of robotic surgical system in 2000, the robot-assisted technology has gained wide popularity throughout the world. Robot-assisted surgical training is a complex issue that requires significant efforts from students and teacher. During the last two decades, simulation-based training had received active development due to wide-spread occurrence and popularization of laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgical techniques. We performed a systematic review to identify the currently available simulators for robot-assisted surgery. We searched the Medline and Pubmed, English sources of literature data, using the following key words and phrases: "robotics", "robotic surgery", "computer assisted surgery", "simulation", "computer simulation", "virtual reality", "surgical training", and "surgical education". There were identified 565 publications, which meet the key words and phrases; 19 publications were selected for the final analysis. It was established that simulation-based training is the most promising teaching tool that can be used in the training of the next generation robotic surgeons. Today the use of simulators to train surgeons is validated. Price of devices is an obvious barrier for inclusion in the program for training of robotic surgeons, but the lack of this tool will result in a sharp increase in the duration of specialists training.
Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina
Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating student-led research and providing learners with advanced, practical surgical skills. In tandem with department-led activities, student surgical interest groups prepare learners through surgical competitions, known as "Surgical Olympiads," which have been conducted in many Russian centers on a regular basis since 1988. Surgical Olympiads stimulate student interest in the development of surgical skills before graduation and encourage students to choose surgery as their postgraduate specialty. Many of the participants in these surgical Olympiads have become highly qualified specialists in general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, and emergency medicine. The present article emphasizes the role of student interest groups and surgical Olympiads in clinical anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Forgione, Antonello; Guraya, Salman Y
Historically, operating room (OR) has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training. However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. This research aimed to explore the value of currently available modern surgical tools that can be used outside the OR and also elaborates the existing laparoscopic surgical training programs in world-class centers across the globe with a view to formulate a blended and unified structured surgical training program. Several data sources were searched using MeSH terms "Laparoscopic surgery" and "Surgical training" and "Surgical curriculum" and "fundamentals of endoscopic surgery" and "fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery" and "Telementoring" and "Box trainer." The eligibility criteria used in data extraction searched for original and review articles and by excluding the editorial articles, short communications, conference proceedings, personal view, and commentaries. Data synthesis and data analysis were done by reviewing the initially retrieved 211 articles. Irrelevant and duplicate and redundant articles were excluded from the study. Finally, 12 articles were selected for this systematic review. Data results showed that a myriad of cutting-edge technical innovations have provided modern surgical training tools such as the simulation-based mechanical and virtual reality simulators, animal and cadaveric labs, telementoring, telerobotic-assisted surgery, and video games. Surgical simulators allow the trainees to acquire surgical skills in a tension-free environment without supervision or time constraints. The existing world-renowned surgical training centers employ various clusters of training
Onate, John; Hales, Robert; McCarron, Robert; Han, Jaesu; Pitman, Dorothy
Objective: A unique rotation was developed to address limited outpatient internal medicine training in psychiatric residency by the University of California, Davis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, which provides medical care to patients with mental illness. Methods: The number of patients seen by the service and the number of…
Sticca, Robert P; Mullin, Brady C; Harris, Joel D; Hosford, Clint C
Specialty procedures constitute one eighth of rural surgery practice. Currently, general surgeons intending to practice in rural hospitals may not get adequate training for specialty procedures, which they will be expected to perform. Better definition of these procedures will help guide rural surgery training. Current Procedural Terminology codes for all surgical procedures for 81% of North Dakota and South Dakota rural surgeons were entered into the Dakota Database for Rural Surgery. Specialty procedures were analyzed and compared with the Surgical Council on Resident Education curriculum to determine whether general surgery training is adequate preparation for rural surgery practice. The Dakota Database for Rural Surgery included 46,052 procedures, of which 5,666 (12.3%) were specialty procedures. Highest volume specialty categories included vascular, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, cardiothoracic, urology, and otolaryngology. Common procedures in cardiothoracic and vascular surgery are taught in general surgical residency, while common procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology are usually not taught in general surgery training. Optimal training for rural surgery practice should include experience in specialty procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: The tympanoplasty aims to reconstruct the tympanic membrane, restoring protection to the middle ear and improve hearing. In this study we evaluated the surgical results and audiometric this surgery, performed in the service of Otorhinolaryngology, HC / UFPR by residents of the second year in the year 2008 and factors that may influence the results. Method: A retrospective study through review of medical records. Results: Among the 31 patients evaluated, there was closure of the perforation in 24 (80% and hearing improvement with reduction or closure of the conductive gap by 60% and 26.7% respectively. Discussion: The success rate of surgery was satisfactory and similar to that found in the literature, and factors such as age, presence of unilateral or bilateral pathology and size of perforation were not determinants of surgical success. Conclusion: Tympanoplasty performed by residents of the second year of residence showed satisfactory results regarding both surgical audiometric.
Conclusion: Most respondents opine that resident work hours should be regulated and welcome minor rescheduling of residents' workflow. The impacts on residents' training and patient care require further evaluation.
Tolan, Amy M; Kaji, Amy H; Quach, Chi; Hines, O Joe; de Virgilio, Christian
Program directors often struggle to determine which factors in the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) application are important in the residency selection process. With the establishment of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies, it would be important to know whether information available in the ERAS application can predict subsequent competency-based performance of general surgery residents. This study is a retrospective correlation of data points found in the ERAS application with core competency-based clinical rotation evaluations. ACGME competency-based evaluations as well as technical skills assessment from all rotations during residency were collected. The overall competency score was defined as an average of all 6 competencies and technical skills. A total of77 residents from two (one university and one community based university-affiliate) general surgery residency programs were included in the analysis. Receiving honors for many of the third year clerkships and AOA membership were associated with a number of the individual competencies. USMLE scores were predictive only of Medical Knowledge (p = 0.004). Factors associated with higher overall competency were female gender (p = 0.02), AOA (p = 0.06), overall number of honors received (p = 0.04), and honors in Ob/Gyn (p = 0.03) and Pediatrics (p = 0.05). Multivariable analysis showed honors in Ob/Gyn, female gender, older age, and total number of honors to be predictive of a number of individual core competencies. USMLE scores were only predictive of Medical Knowledge. The ERAS application is useful for predicting subsequent competency based performance in surgical residents. Receiving honors in the surgery clerkship, which has traditionally carried weight when evaluating a potential surgery resident, may not be as strong a predictor of future success. Copyright © 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Wallace, Lauren; Raison, Nicholas; Ghumman, Faisal; Moran, Aidan; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran
There is a need for new approaches to surgical training in order to cope with the increasing time pressures, ethical constraints, and legal limitations being placed on trainees. One of the most interesting of these new approaches is "cognitive training" or the use of psychological processes to enhance performance of skilled behaviour. Its ability to effectively improve motor skills in sport has raised the question as to whether it could also be used to improve surgical performance. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current evidence on the use of cognitive training within surgery, and evaluate the potential role it can play in surgical education. Scientific database searches were conducted to identify studies that investigated the use of cognitive training in surgery. The key studies were selected and grouped according to the type of cognitive training they examined. Available research demonstrated that cognitive training interventions resulted in greater performance benefits when compared to control training. In particular, cognitive training was found to improve surgical motor skills, as well as a number of non-technical outcomes. Unfortunately, key limitations restricting the generalizability of these findings include small sample size and conceptual issues arising from differing definitions of the term 'cognitive training'. When used appropriately, cognitive training can be a highly effective supplementary training tool in the development of technical skills in surgery. Although further studies are needed to refine our understanding, cognitive training should certainly play an important role in future surgical education. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sudak, Donna M.; Goldberg, David A.
Objective: The authors sought to determine current trends in residency training of psychiatrists. Method: The authors surveyed U.S. general-psychiatry training directors about the amount of didactic training, supervised clinical experience, and numbers of patients treated in the RRC-mandated models of psychotherapy (psychodynamic,…
A Ibrahim; Z I Delia; M E Asuku; T Dahiru
Objective Communication between the surgeon and the patient is a core clinical skill. The ability to communicate with patients and their family members is very important in the optimum care of the surgical patient. Few studies have assessed communication between surgical trainees and their patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this, the communication skills of residents in the department of surgery were evaluated to determine their perception of competency and perceived need for ...
Curtis, Stuart H; Miller, Robert H; Weng, Cindy; Gurgel, Richard K
Evaluate the effect of duty hour regulation on graduating otolaryngology resident surgical case volume and analyze trends in surgical case volume for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) key indicator cases from 1996 to 2011. Time-trend analysis of surgical case volume. Nationwide sample of otolaryngology residency programs. Operative logs from the American Board of Otolaryngology and ACGME for otolaryngology residents graduating in the years 1996 to 2011. Key indicator volumes and grouped domain volumes before and after resident duty hour regulations (2003) were calculated and compared. Independent t test was performed to evaluate overall difference in operative volume. Wilcoxon rank sum test evaluated differences between procedures per time period. Linear regression evaluated trend. The average total number of key indicator cases per graduating resident was 440.8 in 1996-2003 compared to 500.4 cases in 2004-2011, and overall average per number of key indicators was 31.5 and 36.2, respectively (P = .067). Four key indicator cases showed statistically significant (P otolaryngology residents. The overall trend in operative volume is increasing for several specific key indicators. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.
Kramp, Kelvin H.; van Det, Marc J.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.
INTRODUCTION: Current surgical training is still highly dependent on expensive operating room (OR) experience. Although there have been many attempts to transfer more training to the skills laboratory, little research is focused on which technical behaviors can lead to the highest profit when they
Sethi, Rosh K V; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Lee, Daniel J; Gliklich, Richard E; Shrime, Mark G; Gray, Stacey T
There is a paucity of data on junior resident training in common otolaryngology procedures such as ear debridement, nasal and laryngeal endoscopy, epistaxis management, and peritonsillar abscess drainage. These common procedures represent a critical aspect of training and are necessary skills in general otolaryngology practice. We sought to determine how a dedicated otolaryngology emergency room (ER) staffed by junior residents and a supervising attending provides exposure to common otolaryngologic procedures. Retrospective review. Diagnostic and procedural data for all patients examined in the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary ER between January 2011 and September 2013 were evaluated. A total of 12,234 patients were evaluated. A total of 5,673 patients (46.4%) underwent a procedure. Each second-year resident performed over 450 procedures, with the majority seen Monday through Friday (75%). The most common procedures in our study included diagnostic nasolaryngoscopy (52.0%), ear debridement (34.4%), and epistaxis control (7.0%) An otolaryngology-specific ER provides junior residents with significant diagnostic and procedural volume in a concentrated period of time. This study demonstrates utility of a unique surgical education model and provides insight into new avenues of investigation for otolaryngology training. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Dominguez, Luis Carlos; Stassen, Laurents; de Grave, Willem; Sanabria, Alvaro; Alfonso, Edgar; Dolmans, Diana
The intention to leave surgical training, hereinafter referred as proxy of "attrition," is associated with poor well-being in the workplace. Attrition is suggested to diminish when residents possess job-crafting skills, that is, the ability to redefine their job in meaningful ways and maximize well-being at work by increasing structural and social resources and challenges and decreasing hindering demands. However, the evidence supporting this relationship is scant. This study sought to: 1) investigate to what extent residents possess job-crafting skills and compare residents' levels of job-crafting skills across years of residency training; 2) investigate the relationship between job crafting, well-being as measured by burnout and work-engagement rates, and the intention to leave; and 3) compare the levels of job-crafting skills and well-being between residents with and without serious intentions to leave. This cross sectional study was conducted in fifteen residency programs in Colombia. Surgical residents completed different questionnaires including the Dutch Job Crafting Scale (DJCS), MBI-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17) and an adapted version of the Nurse Turnover Intention Scale (NTIS). The objectives were addressed by independent analyses of variance (ANOVA), structural equation modeling techniques (SEM) and independent t-tests, respectively. A total of 202 residents participated. Residents generally scored high on their job-crafting skills to increase structural and social resources as well as challenging demands, but were less positive about their skills to reduce hindering demands. No differences across years of training were found. Job crafting correlated positively with work-engagement, which was inversely related to the intention to leave. Conversely, job crafting correlated negatively with burnout, which bore a positive relationship to the intention to leave. Residents with serious intentions to leave exhibited
Blaschko, Sarah D.; Brooks, H. Mark; Dhuy, S. Michael; Charest-Shell, Cynthia; Clayman, Ralph V.
Background: The human cadaver remains the gold standard for anatomic training and is highly useful when incorporated into minimally invasive surgical training programs. However, this valuable resource is often not used to its full potential due to a lack of multidisciplinary cooperation. Herein, we propose the coordinated multiple use of individual cadavers to better utilize anatomical resources and potentiate the availability of cadaver training. Methods: Twenty-two postgraduate surgeons participated in a robot-assisted surgical training course that utilized shared cadavers. All participants completed a Likert 4-scale satisfaction questionnaire after their training session. Cadaveric tissue quality and the quality of the training session related to this material were assessed. Results: Nine participants rated the quality of the cadaveric tissue as excellent, 7 as good, 5 as unsatisfactory, and 1 as poor. Overall, 72% of participants who operated on a previously used cadaver were satisfied with their training experience and did not perceive the previous use deleterious to their training. Conclusion: The coordinated use of cadavers, which allows for multiple cadaver use for different teaching sessions, is an excellent training method that increases availability of human anatomical material for minimally invasive surgical training. PMID:18237501
American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...
Fernandes, Carla Ferreira Kikuchi; Ruano, José Maria Cordeiro; Kati, Lea Mina; Noguti, Alberto Sinhiti; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira
To evaluate laparoscopic skills of third-year Gynecology and Obstetrics residents after training at a training and surgical experimentation center. Use of a prospective questionnaire analyzing demographic data, medical residency, skills, competences, and training in a box trainer and in pigs. After the training, there was significant improvement in laparoscopic skills according to the residents (before 1.3/after 2.7; p=0.000) and preceptors (before 2.1/after 4.8; p=0.000). There was also significant improvement in the feeling of competence in surgeries with level 1 and 2 of difficulty. All residents approved the training. The training was distributed into 12 hours in the box trainer and 20 hours in animals, and led to better laparoscopic skills and a feeling of more surgical competence in laparoscopic surgery levels 1 and 2. Avaliar a habilidade laparoscópica dos residentes do terceiro ano de residência médica em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia após treinamento em um centro de treinamento e experimentação cirúrgica. Aplicação de questionário de forma prospectiva analisando dados demográficos, da residência médica, da habilidade, da competência e do treinamento em caixa preta e em porcas. Após o treinamento, houve melhora da habilidade em laparoscopia de forma significativa na avaliação dos residentes (antes 1,3/depois 2,7; p=0,000) e preceptores (antes 2,1/depois 4,8; p=0,000). Houve melhora significativa na sensação de competência em cirurgias de níveis 1 e 2 de dificuldade. Todos os residentes aprovaram o treinamento. O treinamento dividido em 12 horas de caixa preta e 20 horas em animais trouxe melhora na habilidade em laparoscopia e na sensação de melhora na competência cirúrgica em cirurgias laparoscópicas de níveis 1 e 2.
Ronald E. Domen MD
Full Text Available Professionalism issues are common in residency training and can be very difficult to recognize and manage. Almost one-third of the milestones for pathology recently instituted by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education encompass aspects of professionalism. Program directors are often unsure of how and when to remediate residents for unprofessional behavior. We used a case-based educational approach in a workshop setting to assist program directors in the management of unprofessional behavior in residents. Eight case scenarios highlighting various aspects of unprofessional behavior by pathology residents were developed and presented in an open workshop forum at the annual pathology program director’s meeting. Prior to the workshop, 2 surveys were conducted: (1 to collect data on program directors’ experience with identifying, assessing, and managing unprofessional behavior in their residents and (2 to get feedback from workshop registrants on how they would manage each of the 8 case scenarios. A wide range of unprofessional behaviors have been observed by pathology program directors. Although there is occasionally general agreement on how to manage specific behaviors, there remains wide variation in how to manage many of the presented unprofessional behaviors. Remediation for unprofessional behavior in pathology residents remains a difficult and challenging process. Additional education and research in this area are warranted.
Porcerelli, John H; Fowler, Shannon L; Murdoch, William; Markova, Tsveti; Kimbrough, Christina
This article will describe a training curriculum for family medicine residents to practice collaboratively with psychology (doctoral) trainees at the Wayne State University/Crittenton Family Medicine Residency program. The collaborative care curriculum involves a series of patient care and educational activities that require collaboration between family medicine residents and psychology trainees. Activities include: (1) clinic huddle, (2) shadowing, (3) pull-ins and warm handoffs, (4) co-counseling, (5) shared precepting, (6) feedback from psychology trainees to family medicine residents regarding consults, brief interventions, and psychological testing, (7) lectures, (8) video-observation and feedback, (9) home visits, and (10) research. The activities were designed to teach the participants to work together as a team and to provide a reciprocal learning experience. In a brief three-item survey of residents at the end of their academic year, 83% indicated that they had learned new information or techniques from working with the psychology trainees for assessment and intervention purposes; 89% indicated that collaborating with psychology trainees enhanced their patient care; and 89% indicated that collaborating with psychology trainees enhanced their ability to work as part of a team. Informal interviews with the psychology trainees indicated that reciprocal learning had taken place. Family medicine residents can learn to work collaboratively with psychology trainees through a series of shared patient care and educational activities within a primary care clinic where an integrated approach to care is valued.
Keiper, Mark; Donovan, Timothy; DeVries, Matthew
To investigate the ability to successfully develop and institute a comprehensive health care economics skills curriculum in radiology residency training utilizing didactic lectures, case scenario exercises, and residency miniretreats. A comprehensive health care economics skills curriculum was developed to significantly expand upon the basic ACGME radiology residency milestone System-Based Practice, SBP2: Health Care Economics requirements and include additional education in business and contract negotiation, radiology sales and marketing, and governmental and private payers' influence in the practice of radiology. A health care economics curriculum for radiology residents incorporating three phases of education was developed and implemented. Phase 1 of the curriculum constituted basic education through didactic lectures covering System-Based Practice, SBP2: Health Care Economics requirements. Phase 2 constituted further, more advanced didactic lectures on radiology sales and marketing techniques as well as government and private insurers' role in the business of radiology. Phase 3 applied knowledge attained from the initial two phases to real-life case scenario exercises and radiology department business miniretreats with the remainder of the radiology department. A health care economics skills curriculum in radiology residency is attainable and essential in the education of future radiology residents in the ever-changing climate of health care economics. Institution of more comprehensive programs will likely maximize the long-term success of radiology as a specialty by identifying and educating future leaders in the field of radiology. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
W. Stephen Black-Schaffer MA, MD
Full Text Available Scientific advances, open information access, and evolving health-care economics are disrupting extant models of health-care delivery. Physicians increasingly practice as team members, accountable to payers and patients, with improved efficiency, value, and quality. This change along with a greater focus on population health affects how systems of care are structured and delivered. Pathologists are not immune to these disruptors and, in fact, may be one of the most affected medical specialties. In the coming decades, it is likely that the number of practicing pathologists will decline, requiring each pathologist to serve more and often sicker patients. The demand for increasingly sophisticated yet broader diagnostic skills will continue to grow. This will require pathologists to acquire appropriate professional training and interpersonal skills. Today’s pathology training programs are ill designed to prepare such practitioners. The time to practice for most pathology trainees is typically 5 to 6 years. Yet, trainees often lack sufficient experience to practice independently and effectively. Many studies have recognized these challenges suggesting that more effective training for this new century can be implemented. Building on the strengths of existing programs, we propose a redesign of pathology residency training that will meet (and encourage a continuing evolution of American Board of Pathology and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements, reduce the time to readiness for practice, and produce more effective, interactive, and adaptable pathologists. The essence of this new model is clear definition and acquisition of core knowledge and practice skills that span the anatomic and clinical pathology continuum during the first 2 years, assessed by competency-based metrics with emphasis on critical thinking and skill acquisition, followed by individualized modular training with intensively progressive responsibility
de Visser, Hans; Watson, Marcus O; Salvado, Olivier; Passenger, Joshua D
There is increasing evidence that educating trainee surgeons by simulation is preferable to traditional operating-room training methods with actual patients. Apart from reducing costs and risks to patients, training by simulation can provide some unique benefits, such as greater control over the training procedure and more easily defined metrics for assessing proficiency. Virtual reality (VR) simulators are now playing an increasing role in surgical training. However, currently available VR simulators lack the fidelity to teach trainees past the novice-to-intermediate skills level. Recent technological developments in other industries using simulation, such as the games and entertainment and aviation industries, suggest that the next generation of VR simulators should be suitable for training, maintenance and certification of advanced surgical skills. To be effective as an advanced surgical training and assessment tool, VR simulation needs to provide adequate and relevant levels of physical realism, case complexity and performance assessment. Proper validation of VR simulators and an increased appreciation of their value by the medical profession are crucial for them to be accepted into surgical training curricula.
Davison, Sara; Raison, Nicholas; Khan, Muhammad S; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran
Pressures on surgical education from restricted working hours and increasing scrutiny of outcomes have been compounded by the development of highly technical surgical procedures requiring additional specialist training. Mental training (MT), the act of performing motor tasks in the 'mind's eye', offers the potential for training outside the operating room. However, the technique is yet to be formally incorporated in surgical curricula. This study aims to review the available literature to determine the role of MT in surgical education. EMBASE and Medline databases were searched. The primary outcome measure was surgical proficiency following training. Secondary analyses examined training duration, forms of MT and trainees level of experience. Study quality was assessed using Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials scores or Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After (Pre-Post) Studies with No Control Group. Fourteen trials with 618 participants met the inclusion criteria, of which 11 were randomized and three longitudinal. Ten studies found MT to be beneficial. Mental rehearsal was the most commonly used form of training. No significant correlation was found between the length of MT and outcomes. MT benefitted expert surgeons more than medical students or novice surgeons. The majority studies demonstrate MT to be beneficial in surgical education especially amongst more experienced surgeons within a well-structured MT programme. However, overall studies were low quality, lacked sufficient methodology and suffered from small sample sizes. For these reasons, further research is required to determine optimal role of MT as a supplementary educational tool within the surgical curriculum. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Hou, Yang; Lin, Yanping; Shi, Jiangang; Chen, Huajiang; Yuan, Wen
The virtual simulation surgery has initially exhibited its promising potentials in neurosurgery training. To evaluate effectiveness of the Virtual Surgical Training System (VSTS) on novice residents placing thoracic pedicle screws in a cadaver study. A total of 10 inexperienced residents participated in this study and were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The group using VSTS to learn thoracic pedicle screw fixation was the simulation training (ST) group and the group receiving an introductory teaching session was the control group. Ten fresh adult spine specimens including 6 males and 4 females with a mean age of 58.5 yr (range: 33-72) were collected and randomly allocated to the 2 groups. After exposing anatomic structures of thoracic spine, the bilateral pedicle screw placement of T6-T12 was performed on each cadaver specimen. The postoperative computed tomography scan was performed on each spine specimen, and experienced observers independently reviewed the placement of the pedicle screws to assess the incidence of pedicle breach. The screw penetration rates of the ST group (7.14%) was significantly lower in comparison to the control group (30%, P < .05). Statistically significant difference in acceptable rates of screws also occurred between the ST (100%) and control (92.86%) group (P < .05). In addition, the average screw penetration distance in control group (2.37 mm ± 0.23 mm) was significantly greater than ST group (1.23 mm ± 0.56 mm, P < .05). The virtual reality surgical training of thoracic pedicle screw instrumentation effectively improves surgical performance of novice residents compared to those with traditional teaching method, and can help new beginners to master the surgical technique within shortest period of time.
Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E
Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and
Ovaere, Sander; Zimmerman, David D E; Brady, Richard R
Surgeon engagement with social media is growing rapidly. Innovative applications in diverse fields of health care are increasingly available. The aim of this review is to explore the current and future applications of social media in surgical training. In addition, risks and barriers of social media engagement are analyzed, and recommendations for professional social media use amongst trainers and trainees are suggested. The published, peer-reviewed literature on social media in medicine, surgery and surgical training was reviewed. MESH terms including "social media", "education", "surgical training" and "web applications" were used. Different social media surgical applications are already widely available but limited in use in the trainee's curriculum. E-learning modalities, podcasts, live surgery platforms and microblogs are used for teaching purposes. Social media enables global research collaboratives and can play a role in patient recruitment for clinical trials. The growing importance of networking is emphasized by the increased use of LinkedIn, Facebook, Sermo and other networking platforms. Risks of social media use, such as lack of peer review and the lack of source confirmation, must be considered. Governing surgeon's and trainee's associations should consider adopting and sharing their guidelines for standards of social media use. Surgical training is changing rapidly and as such, social media presents tremendous opportunities for teaching, training, research and networking. Awareness must be raised on the risks of social media use. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.
Van Orden, Kathryn E; Talutis, Stephanie D; Ng-Glazier, Joanna H; Richman, Aaron P; Pennington, Elliot C; Janeway, Megan G; Kauffman, Douglas F; Dechert, Tracey A
This article provides a theoretical and practical rational for the implementation of an innovative and comprehensive social wellness program in a surgical residency program at a large safety net hospital on the East Coast of the United States. Using basic needs theory, we describe why it is particularly important for surgical residency programs to consider the residents sense of competence, autonomy, and belonging during residence. We describe how we have developed a comprehensive program to address our residents' (and residents' families) psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and belongingness.
Meeks, Natalie M; McGuire, April L; Carroll, Bryan T
The use of online educational resources and professional social networking sites is increasing. The field of dermatology is currently under-utilizing online social networking as a means of professional collaboration and sharing of training materials. In this study, we sought to assess the current structure of and satisfaction with dermatology resident education and gauge interest for a professional social networking site for educational collaboration. Two surveys-one for residents and one for faculty-were electronically distributed via the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery and Association of Professors of Dermatology (APD) listserves. The surveys confirmed that there is interest among dermatology residents and faculty in a dermatology professional networking site with the goal to enhance educational collaboration.
Targarona Soler, Eduardo Ma; Jover Navalon, Jose Ma; Gutierrez Saiz, Javier; Turrado Rodríguez, Víctor; Parrilla Paricio, Pascual
Residents in our country have achieved a homogenous surgical training by following a structured residency program. This is due to the existence of specific training programs for each specialty. The current program, approved in 2007, has a detailed list of procedures that a surgeon should have performed in order to complete training. The aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of the program with regard to the number of procedures performed during the residency period. A data collection form was designed that included the list of procedures from the program of the specialty; it was sent in April 2014 to all hospitals with accredited residency programs. In September 2014 the forms were analysed, and a general descriptive study was performed; a subanalysis according to the resident's sex and Autonomous region was also performed. The number of procedures performed according to the number of residents in the different centers was also analyzed. The survey was sent to 117 hospitals with accredited programs, which included 190 resident places. A total of 91 hospitals responded (53%). The training offered adapts in general to the specialty program. The total number of procedures performed in the different sub-areas, in laparoscopic and emergency surgery is correct or above the number recommended by the program, with the exception of esophageal-gastric and hepatobiliary surgery. The sub-analysis according to Autonomous region did not show any significant differences in the total number of procedures, however, there were significant differences in endocrine surgery (P=.001) and breast surgery (P=.042). A total of 55% of residents are female, with no significant differences in distribution in Autonomous regions. However, female surgeons operate more than their male counterparts during the residency period (512±226 vs. 625±244; P<.01). The number of residents in the hospital correlates with the number of procedures performed; the residents with more procedures
Bric, Justin; Connolly, Michael; Kastenmeier, Andrew; Goldblatt, Matthew; Gould, Jon C
The clinical application of robotic surgery is increasing. The skills necessary to perform robotic surgery are unique from those required in open and laparoscopic surgery. A validated laparoscopic surgical skills curriculum (Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery or FLS™) has transformed the way surgeons acquire laparoscopic skills. There is a need for a similar skills training and assessment tool for robotic surgery. Our research group previously developed and validated a robotic training curriculum in a virtual reality (VR) simulator. We hypothesized that novice robotic surgeons could achieve proficiency levels defined by more experienced robotic surgeons on the VR robotic curriculum, and that this would result in improved performance on the actual daVinci Surgical System™. 25 medical students with no prior robotic surgery experience were recruited. Prior to VR training, subjects performed 2 FLS tasks 3 times each (Peg Transfer, Intracorporeal Knot Tying) using the daVinci Surgical System™ docked to a video trainer box. Task performance for the FLS tasks was scored objectively. Subjects then practiced on the VR simulator (daVinci Skills Simulator) until proficiency levels on all 5 tasks were achieved before completing a post-training assessment of the 2 FLS tasks on the daVinci Surgical System™ in the video trainer box. All subjects to complete the study (1 dropped out) reached proficiency levels on all VR tasks in an average of 71 (± 21.7) attempts, accumulating 164.3 (± 55.7) minutes of console training time. There was a significant improvement in performance on the robotic FLS tasks following completion of the VR training curriculum. Novice robotic surgeons are able to attain proficiency levels on a VR simulator. This leads to improved performance in the daVinci surgical platform on simulated tasks. Training to proficiency on a VR robotic surgery simulator is an efficient and viable method for acquiring robotic surgical skills.
Rosendale, Nicole; Josephson, S Andrew
Providing culturally responsive care to an increasingly multicultural population is essential and requires formal cultural humility training for residents. We sought to understand the current prevalence and need for this type of training within neurology programs and to pilot an integrated curriculum locally. We surveyed via email all program directors of academic neurology programs nationally regarding the prevalence of and need for formal cultural responsiveness training. Forty-seven program directors (36%) responded to the survey. The majority of respondents did not have a formalized diversity curriculum in their program (65%), but most (85%) believed that training in cultural responsiveness was important. We developed locally an integrated diversity curriculum as a proof of concept. The curriculum covered topics of diversity in language, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity/expression, and socioeconomic status designed to focus on the needs of the local community. Program evaluation included a pre and post survey of the learner attitudes toward cultural diversity. There is an unmet need for cultural responsiveness training within neurology residencies, and integrating this curriculum is both feasible and efficacious. When adapted to address cultural issues of the local community, this curriculum can be generalizable to both academic and community organizations. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Sundar, Swetha J; Healy, Andrew T; Kshettry, Varun R; Mroz, Thomas E; Schlenk, Richard; Benzel, Edward C
OBJECTIVE Pedicle and lateral mass screw placement is technically demanding due to complex 3D spinal anatomy that is not easily visualized. Neurosurgical and orthopedic surgery residents must be properly trained in such procedures, which can be associated with significant complications and associated morbidity. Current training in pedicle and lateral mass screw placement involves didactic teaching and supervised placement in the operating room. The objective of this study was to assess whether teaching residents to place pedicle and lateral mass screws using navigation software, combined with practice using cadaveric specimens and Sawbones models, would improve screw placement accuracy. METHODS This was a single-blinded, prospective, randomized pilot study with 8 junior neurosurgical residents and 2 senior medical students with prior neurosurgery exposure. Both the study group and the level of training-matched control group (each group with 4 level of training-matched residents and 1 senior medical student) were exposed to a standardized didactic education regarding spinal anatomy and screw placement techniques. The study group was exposed to an additional pilot program that included a training session using navigation software combined with cadaveric specimens and accessibility to Sawbones models. RESULTS A statistically significant reduction in overall surgical error was observed in the study group compared with the control group (p = 0.04). Analysis by spinal region demonstrated a significant reduction in surgical error in the thoracic and lumbar regions in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). The study group also was observed to place screws more optimally in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions (p = 0.02, p = 0.04, and p = 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Surgical resident education in pedicle and lateral mass screw placement is a priority for training programs. This study demonstrated that compared with a
Nathwani, Jay N; Wise, Brett J; Garren, Margaret E; Mohamadipanah, Hossein; Van Beek, Nicole; DiMarco, Shannon M; Pugh, Carla M
Nearly one-third of surgical residents will enter into academic development during their surgical residency by dedicating time to a research fellowship for 1-3 y. Major interest lies in understanding how laboratory residents' surgical skills are affected by minimal clinical exposure during academic development. A widely held concern is that the time away from clinical exposure results in surgical skills decay. This study examines the impact of the academic development years on residents' operative performance. We hypothesize that the use of repeated, annual assessments may result in learning even without individual feedback on participants simulated performance. Surgical performance data were collected from laboratory residents (postgraduate years 2-5) during the summers of 2014, 2015, and 2016. Residents had 15 min to complete a shortened, simulated laparoscopic ventral hernia repair procedure. Final hernia repair skins from all participants were scored using a previously validated checklist. An analysis of variance test compared the mean performance scores of repeat participants to those of first time participants. Twenty-seven (37% female) laboratory residents provided 2-year assessment data over the 3-year span of the study. Second time performance revealed improvement from a mean score of 14 (standard error = 1.0) in the first year to 17.2 (SD = 0.9) in the second year, (F[1, 52] = 5.6, P = 0.022). Detailed analysis demonstrated improvement in performance for 3 grading criteria that were considered to be rule-based errors. There was no improvement in operative strategy errors. Analysis of longitudinal performance of laboratory residents shows higher scores for repeat participants in the category of rule-based errors. These findings suggest that laboratory residents can learn from rule-based mistakes when provided with annual performance-based assessments. This benefit was not seen with operative strategy errors and has important implications for
Papas, Athanasios; Montemurro, Paolo; Hedén, Per
Plastic Surgery is one of the most competitive specialties in the field of medicine. However, this specialty has a unique particularity: the difficulties in Aesthetic Surgery training within the residency program. Despite the fact that the full title of the specialty is Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery and that Aesthetic Surgery is a part of the examination syllabus, the actual training in the specific area is limited. One of the solutions to this problem is Fellowships. The first author describes his personal experience with Aesthetic training and how it enhanced his knowledge in the area as well as the status of Fellowships in various training programs. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Kates, N; Toews, J; Leichner, P
Family physicians may spend up to 50% of their time diagnosing and managing mental disorders and emotional problems, but this is not always reflected in the training they receive. This study of the teaching of psychiatry in the 16 family medicine residency programs in Canada showed that although the majority of program directors are reasonably satisfied with the current training, they see room for improvement-particularly in finding psychiatrists with a better understanding of family practice, in integrating the teaching to a greater degree with clinical work, thereby increasing its relevance, and in utilizing more suitable clinical settings.
Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Toll, Edward C; Cole, Matthew; Smith, Frank C T; Stark, Michael
Undergraduate training in surgical safety is essential to maximize patient safety. This national review quantified undergraduate surgical safety training. Training of 2 international safety initiatives was quantified: (1) World Health Organization (WHO) "Guidelines for Safe Surgery" and (2) Department of Health (DoH) "Principles of the Productive Operating Theatre." Also, 13 additional safety skills were quantified. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests. In all, 23 universities entered the study (71.9% response). Safety skills from WHO and DoH documents were formally taught in 4 UK medical schools (17.4%). Individual components of the documents were taught more frequently (47.6%). Half (50.9%) of the additional safety skills identified were taught. Surgical societies supplemented safety training, although the total amount of training provided was less than that in university curricula (P < .0001). Surgical safety training is inadequate in UK medical schools. To protect patients and maximize safety, a national undergraduate safety curriculum is recommended. © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality.
Boehnlein, James K; Leung, Paul K; Kinzie, John David
The purpose of this article is to describe the goals and structure of cross-cultural psychiatric training at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU). This training in core knowledge, skills, and attitudes of cultural psychiatry over the past three decades has included medical students, residents, and fellows, along with allied mental health personnel. The curriculum includes both didactic sessions devoted to core topics in the field and varied clinical experiences in community settings and the Intercultural Psychiatric Program under the supervision of experienced academic faculty. The authors review the central elements of the training experiences and include a detailed description of the core clinical settings and experiences. At the conclusion of their clinical experiences, trainees have specialized cross-cultural psychiatric knowledge and skills, including treatment of refugees and immigrants, sociocultural variables that influence the assessment and treatment of a wide range of psychiatric conditions, and comfort with cultural dynamics that influence both the doctor/patient relationship and collaboration with a wide range of mental health professionals. Because of rapid demographic changes in the U.S. population, providing cross-cultural training for students, residents, and fellows is an essential foundation for the education of the next generation of clinicians and health care leaders. OHSU has provided a long-term model for this training in a busy clinical and academic setting that places an emphasis on multidisciplinary and multicultural collaboration.
Adrienne N. Bruce
Full Text Available Background: Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women's perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment. Methods: Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 individual members of the Association of Women Surgeons. Results: We received 334 responses from medical students, residents, and practicing physicians with a response rate of 31%. Eighty-seven percent experienced gender-based discrimination in medical school, 88% in residency, and 91% in practice. Perceived sources of gender-based discrimination included superiors, physician peers, clinical support staff, and patients, with 40% emanating from women and 60% from men. Conclusions: The majority of responses indicated perceived gender-based discrimination during medical school, residency, and practice. Gender-based discrimination comes from both sexes and has a significant impact on women surgeons.
Bruce, Adrienne N; Battista, Alexis; Plankey, Michael W; Johnson, Lynt B; Marshall, M Blair
Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women's perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment. Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 individual members of the Association of Women Surgeons. We received 334 responses from medical students, residents, and practicing physicians with a response rate of 31%. Eighty-seven percent experienced gender-based discrimination in medical school, 88% in residency, and 91% in practice. Perceived sources of gender-based discrimination included superiors, physician peers, clinical support staff, and patients, with 40% emanating from women and 60% from men. The majority of responses indicated perceived gender-based discrimination during medical school, residency, and practice. Gender-based discrimination comes from both sexes and has a significant impact on women surgeons.
Yutani, Motoki; Takahashi, Megumi; Miyaoka, Hitoshi
The objective of this study was to clarify whether the communication skills (CS) of clinical residents change before and after psychiatric training and, if so, what factors are related to the change. The 44 clinical residents who agreed to participate in this study were provided with an originally developed self-accomplished questionnaire survey on CS (communication skills questionnaire [CSQ]) and a generally used questionnaire on self-esteem, anxiety, and depressive mood considered to be related to CS at the start and end of a 2-month psychiatric training session. Statistical analysis was conducted for the 34 residents who completed both questionnaires. The CSQ score (t: -2.17, P self-esteem and negatively with anxiety and depressive tendency. The amount of change in assertive CS score showed a weakly positive correlation with self-esteem. The results suggested that CS, including assertive CS and cooperative CS, were improved by the psychiatric training. Increasing self-esteem and reducing the tendency toward depression and anxiety are considered to be useful for further improving CS. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Surgery as a profession requires significant training to improve both clinical decision making and psychomotor proficiency. In the medical knowledge domain, tools have been developed, validated, and accepted for evaluation of surgeons' competencies. However, assessment of the psychomotor skills still relies on the Halstedian model of…
van Det, M J; Meijerink, W J H J; Hoff, C; Middel, L J; Koopal, S A; Pierie, J P E N
The transition from basic skills training in a skills lab to procedure training in the operating theater using the traditional master-apprentice model (MAM) lacks uniformity and efficiency. When the supervising surgeon performs parts of a procedure, training opportunities are lost. To minimize this intervention by the supervisor and maximize the actual operating time for the trainee, we created a new training method called INtraoperative Video-Enhanced Surgical Training (INVEST). Ten surgical residents were trained in laparoscopic cholecystectomy either by the MAM or with INVEST. Each trainee performed six cholecystectomies that were objectively evaluated on an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) global rating scale. Absolute and relative improvements during the training curriculum were compared between the groups. A questionnaire evaluated the trainee's opinion on this new training method. Skill improvement on the OSATS global rating scale was significantly greater for the trainees in the INVEST curriculum compared to the MAM, with mean absolute improvement 32.6 versus 14.0 points and mean relative improvement 59.1 versus 34.6% (P=0.02). INVEST significantly enhances technical and procedural skill development during the early learning curve for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Trainees were positive about the content and the idea of the curriculum.
Herrera-Almario, Gabriel E; Kirk, Katherine; Guerrero, Veronica T; Jeong, Kwonho; Kim, Sara; Hamad, Giselle G
Video review of surgical skills is an educational modality that allows trainees to reflect on self-performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resident and attending assessments of a resident's laparoscopic performance differ and whether video review changes assessments. Third-year surgery residents were invited to participate. Elective laparoscopic procedures were video recorded. The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills evaluation was completed immediately after the procedure and again 7 to 10 days later by both resident and attending. Scores were compared using t tests. Nine residents participated and 76 video reviews were completed. Residents scored themselves significantly lower than the faculty scores both before and after video review. Resident scores did not change significantly after video review. Attending and resident self-assessment of laparoscopic skills differs and subsequent video review does not significantly affect Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scores. Further studies should evaluate the impact of video review combined with verbal feedback on skill acquisition and assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shin, Dong-Seong; Yeo, Dong-Kyu; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Park, Sukh-Que
Objective Transfemoral catheter angiography (TFCA) is a basic procedure in neurovascular surgery with increasing importance in surgical and non-invasive treatments. Unfortunately, resident neurosurgeons have relatively few opportunities to perform TFCA in most institutions. We report a method developed in our hospital for training resident neurosurgeons to perform TFCA and evaluate the efficacy of this training. Methods From May 2011 to September 2011, a total of 112 consecutive patients underwent TFCA by one resident neurosurgeon supervised by two neuroendovascular specialists. Patients who underwent elective diagnostic procedures were included in this study. Patients who underwent endovascular treatment were excluded. Demographic data, indications for TFCA, side of approach, number of selected arteries, and complications were analyzed. Results This study included 64 males and 48 females with a mean age of 51.6 (12-81) years. All procedures were performed in the angiography suite. Common indications for procedures were as follows: stroke-induced symptoms in 61 patients (54.5%), Moyamoya disease and arteriovenous malformation in 13 patients (11.6%), and unruptured intracranial aneurysm in eight patients (7.1%). Right and left femoral puncture was performed in 98.2% and 1.8% of patients, respectively. A total of 465 selective angiographies were performed without complications. Angiographic examination was performed on 4.15 vessels per patient. Conclusion TFCA can be performed safely by resident neurosurgeons based on anatomical study and a meticulous protocol under the careful supervision of neuroendovascular specialists. PMID:24175020
Inclan, Paul M; Hyde, Adam S; Hulme, Michael; Carter, Jeffrey E
Surgical residents cite increased income potential as a motivation for pursuing fellowship training, despite little evidence supporting this perception. Thus, our goal is to quantify the financial impact of surgical fellowship training on financial career value. By using Medical Group Management Association and Association of American Medical Colleges physician income data, and accounting for resident salary, student debt, a progressive tax structure, and forgone wages associated with prolonged training, we generated a net present value (NPV) for both generalist and subspecialist surgeons. By comparing generalist and subspecialist career values, we determined that cardiovascular (NPV = 698,931), pediatric (430,964), thoracic (239,189), bariatric (166,493), vascular (96,071), and transplant (46,669) fellowships improve career value. Alternatively, trauma (11,374), colorectal (44,622), surgical oncology (203,021), and breast surgery (326,465) fellowships all reduce career value. In orthopedic surgery, spine (505,198), trauma (123,250), hip and joint (60,372), and sport medicine (56,167) fellowships improve career value, whereas shoulder and elbow (4,539), foot and ankle (173,766), hand (366,300), and pediatric (489,683) fellowships reduce career NPV. In obstetrics and gynecology, reproductive endocrinology (352,854), and maternal and fetal medicine (322,511) fellowships improve career value, whereas gynecology oncology (28,101) and urogynecology (206,171) fellowships reduce career value. These data indicate that the financial return of fellowship is highly variable.
Surgical training, duty-hour restrictions, and implications for meeting the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies: views of surgical interns compared with program directors.
Antiel, Ryan M; Van Arendonk, Kyle J; Reed, Darcy A; Terhune, Kyla P; Tarpley, John L; Porterfield, John R; Hall, Daniel E; Joyce, David L; Wightman, Sean C; Horvath, Karen D; Heller, Stephanie F; Farley, David R
To describe the perspectives of surgical interns regarding the implications of the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour regulations for their training. We compared responses of interns and surgery program directors on a survey about the proposed ACGME mandates. Eleven general surgery residency programs. Two hundred fifteen interns who were administered the survey during the summer of 2011 and a previously surveyed national sample of 134 surgery program directors. Perceptions of the implications of the new duty-hour restrictions on various aspects of surgical training, including the 6 ACGME core competencies of graduate medical education, measured using 3-point scales (increase, no change, or decrease). Of 215 eligible surgical interns, 179 (83.3%) completed the survey. Most interns believed that the new duty-hour regulations will decrease continuity with patients (80.3%), time spent operating (67.4%), and coordination of patient care (57.6%), while approximately half believed that the changes will decrease their acquisition of medical knowledge (48.0%), development of surgical skills (52.8%), and overall educational experience (51.1%). Most believed that the changes will improve or will not alter other aspects of training, and 61.5% believed that the new standards will decrease resident fatigue. Surgical interns were significantly less pessimistic than surgery program directors regarding the implications of the new duty-hour restrictions on all aspects of surgical training (P training under the new paradigm of duty-hour restrictions have significant concerns about the effect of these regulations on the quality of their training.
Gondi, Vinai; Bernard, Johnny Ray; Jabbari, Siavash; Keam, Jennifer; Amorim Bernstein, Karen L. de; Dad, Luqman K.; Li, Linna; Poppe, Matthew M.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Chollet, Casey T.
Purpose: To document clinical training and resident working conditions reported by chief residents during their residency. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to assess changes in clinical training and resident working conditions over time. Results: Surveys were completed by representatives from 55 programs (response rate, 71.4%) in 2005 to 2006, 60 programs (75.9%) in 2006 to 2007, and 74 programs (93.7%) in 2007 to 2008. Nearly all chief residents reported receiving adequate clinical experience in commonly treated disease sites, such as breast and genitourinary malignancies; and commonly performed procedures, such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical experience in extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy increased over time (p < 0.001), whereas clinical experience in endovascular brachytherapy (p <0.001) decreased over time. The distribution of gynecologic and prostate brachytherapy cases remained stable, while clinical case load in breast brachytherapy increased (p = 0.006). A small but significant percentage of residents reported receiving inadequate clinical experience in pediatrics, seeing 10 or fewer pediatric cases during the course of residency. Procedures involving higher capital costs, such as particle beam therapy and intraoperative radiotherapy, and infrequent clinical use, such as head and neck brachytherapy, were limited to a minority of institutions. Most residency programs associated with at least one satellite facility have incorporated resident rotations into their clinical training, and the majority of residents at these programs find them valuable experiences. The majority of residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week on required clinical duties
Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgery is an inevitable trend of the development of surgery, the scope of endoscopy surgery application has been covering the whole departments of surgery, which also put forward higher requirements on the nursing coordination during surgery, training high-quality endoscopy nurses is a focus of the researchers. In the paper, the precise training mode was applied to the professional training process of endoscopy nurses, the systematic training of endoscopy nurse was conducted from the following three aspects, including the precision of teaching, the precision of operative cooperation, and the precision of assessment, which had gained good effects. The research indicated that the precise training mode can contribute to upgrading various capacities of endoscopy nurses in the operating room, and improving the teaching quality and effect of specialized training, suggesting a good application effect.
Glassman, Deanna; White, Lee; Lewis, Andrew; King, Hawkeye; Clarke, Alicia; Glassman, Thomas; Comstock, Bryan; Hannaford, Blake; Lendvay, Thomas S
The rapid adoption of robotic assisted surgery challenges the pace at which adequate robotic training can occur due to access limitations to the da Vinci robot. Thirty medical students completed a randomized controlled trial evaluating whether the Raven robot could be used as an alternative training tool for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) block transfer task on the da Vinci robot. Two groups, one trained on the da Vinci and one trained on the Raven, were tested on a criterion FLS block transfer task on the da Vinci. After robotic FLS block transfer proficiency training there was no statistically significant difference between path length (p=0.39) and economy of motion scores (p=0.06) between the two groups, but those trained on the da Vinci did have faster task times (p=0.01). These results provide evidence for the value of using the Raven robot for training prior to using the da Vinci surgical system for similar tasks.
Curry, Martin; Malpani, Anand; Li, Ryan; Tantillo, Thomas; Jog, Amod; Blanco, Ray; Ha, Patrick K; Califano, Joseph; Kumar, Rajesh; Richmon, Jeremy
To develop a robotic surgery training regimen integrating objective skill assessment for otolaryngology and head and neck surgery trainees consisting of training modules of increasing complexity leading up to procedure-specific training. In particular, we investigated applications of such a training approach for surgical extirpation of oropharyngeal tumors via a transoral approach using the da Vinci robotic system. Prospective blinded data collection and objective evaluation (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills [OSATS]) of three distinct phases using the da Vinci robotic surgical system in an academic university medical engineering/computer science laboratory setting. Between September 2010 and July 2011, eight otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents and four staff experts from an academic hospital participated in three distinct phases of robotic surgery training involving 1) robotic platform operational skills, 2) set up of the patient side system, and 3) a complete ex vivo surgical extirpation of an oropharyngeal tumor located in the base of tongue. Trainees performed multiple (four) approximately equally spaced training sessions in each stage of the training. In addition to trainees, baseline performance data were obtained for the experts. Each surgical stage was documented with motion and event data captured from the application programming interfaces of the da Vinci system, as well as separate video cameras as appropriate. All data were assessed using automated skill measures of task efficiency and correlated with structured assessment (OSATS and similar Likert scale) from three experts to assess expert and trainee differences and compute automated and expert assessed learning curves. Our data show that such training results in an improved didactic robotic knowledge base and improved clinical efficiency with respect to the set up and console manipulation. Experts (e.g., average OSATS, 25; standard deviation [SD], 3.1; module 1, suturing
Kim, Michael J; Monson, John R T
This article addresses the current paradigms of surgical oncology training and the directions in which the training process may evolve over the course of the next decade. In doing so, the potential influences upon this evolution are discussed along with potential barriers associated with each of these factors. In particular, the topics include issues of specialty training with regard to new technologies and procedures, involvement of the surgeon as part of the multi-disciplinary team of oncologists, and the very real issue of burnout and career satisfaction associated with the profession of surgical oncology. Changes to the training of tomorrow's cancer surgeons will need to involve each one of these factors in a comprehensive and efficient manner, in order to ensure the continued strength and growth of the field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sexson, Sandra B
Directing child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) training for residents is a complex and challenging administrative task that encompasses the broad creativity of the orchestral conductor, the social and interpersonal effectiveness of the best politician, and the orientation to details of the finest accountant. This article examines these roles in detail, recognizing the leadership, administrative, and managerial achievements of the successful child and adolescent program director. Resources for optimizing the chances for success in each of these areas, and the common pitfalls to avoid, are identified and discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for CAP training directors to influence medical student education. Although challenging and sometimes frustrating, the role of the program director in CAP training is almost always exciting and rewarding.
Anderson, Katherine; Tennankore, Karthik; Cox, Ashley
There is limited research on why females do or do not choose a career in urology. Considering the increasing proportion of female medical students, we assessed for trends in female applicants to urology programs in Canada and their post-residency career choices. Data from the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) was used (1998-2015). Trends in the proportions of females applying and matching to surgical subspecialties, and applying and matching to urology were computed. Surveys were sent to urology program directors to assess female residents' chosen career paths over the last decade. A significant increasing trend in the proportion of females applying to urology as their first choice program was found (0.19 in 1998-99 to 0.27 in 2012-15; p=0.04). An increasing trend in the proportion of females successfully matching to urology was found, although it was not statistically significant (0.13 in 1998-99 to 0.24 in 2012-15; p=0.07). This was in keeping with the trends found for surgical programs overall. Female graduates choose a variety of career paths with urogynecology being the most common fellowship (26%). The last two decades has seen an increase in the proportion of female students applying to urology in Canada. Female urology graduates pursue a variety of career paths. It remains imperative that both female and male medical students have early exposure and education about our subspecialty to ensure we continue to recruit the most talented candidates.
Lehmann, K S; Gröne, J; Lauscher, J C; Ritz, J-P; Holmer, C; Pohlen, U; Buhr, H-J
Training and simulation are gaining importance in surgical education. Today, virtual reality surgery simulators provide sophisticated laparoscopic training scenarios and offer detailed assessment methods. This also makes simulators interesting for the application in surgical skills courses. The aim of the current study was to assess the suitability of a virtual surgery simulator for training and assessment in an established surgical training course. The study was conducted during the annual "Practical Course for Visceral Surgery" (Warnemuende, Germany). 36 of 108 course participants were assigned at random for the study. Training was conducted in 15 sessions over 5 days with 4 identical virtual surgery simulators (LapSim) and 2 standardised training tasks. The simulator measured 16 individual parameters and calculated 2 scores. Questionnaires were used to assess the test persons' laparoscopic experience, their training situation and the acceptance of the simulator training. Data were analysed with non-parametric tests. A subgroup analysis for laparoscopic experience was conducted in order to assess the simulator's construct validity and assessment capabilities. Median age was 32 (27 - 41) years; median professional experience was 3 (1 - 11) years. Typical laparoscopic learning curves with initial significant improvements and a subsequent plateau phase were measured over 5 days. The individual training sessions exhibited a rhythmic variability in the training results. A shorter night's sleep led to a marked drop in performance. The participants' different experience levels could clearly be discriminated ( ≤ 20 vs. > 20 laparoscopic operations; p ≤ 0.001). The questionnaire showed that the majority of the participants had limited training opportunities in their hospitals. The simulator training was very well accepted. However, the participants severely misjudged the real costs of the simulators that were used. The learning curve on the
Gender-Based Differences in Surgical Residents' Perceptions of Patient Safety, Continuity of Care, and Well-Being: An Analysis from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial.
Ban, Kristen A; Chung, Jeanette W; Matulewicz, Richard S; Kelz, Rachel R; Shea, Judy A; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Yang, Anthony D; Bilimoria, Karl Y
Little is known about gender differences in residency training experiences and whether duty hour policies affect these differences. Using data from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial, we examined gender differences in surgical resident perceptions of patient safety, education, health and well-being, and job satisfaction, and assessed whether duty hour policies affected gender differences. We compared proportions of male and female residents expressing dissatisfaction or perceiving a negative effect of duty hours on aspects of residency training (ie patient safety, resident education, well-being, job satisfaction) overall and by PGY. Logistic regression models with robust clustered SEs were used to test for significant gender differences and interaction effects of duty hour policies on gender differences. Female PGY2 to 3 residents were more likely than males to be dissatisfied with patient safety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.29-4.84) and to perceive a negative effect of duty hours on most health and well-being outcomes (OR = 1.51-2.10; all p duty hours reduced gender differences in career dissatisfaction among interns (p = 0.028), but widened gender differences in negative perceptions of duty hours on patient safety (p duty hour policies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zahiri, Mohsen; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun
Providing computer-based laparoscopic surgical training has several advantages that enhance the training process. Self-evaluation and real-time performance feedback are 2 of these advantages, which avoid dependency of trainees on expert feedback. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a visual time indicator as real-time feedback correlated with the laparoscopic surgical training. Twenty novices participated in this study working with (and without) different presentations of time indicators. They performed a standard peg transfer task, and their completion times and muscle activity were recorded and compared. Also of interest was whether the use of this type of feedback induced any side effect in terms of motivation or muscle fatigue. Of the 20 participants, 15 (75%) preferred using a time indicator in the training process rather than having no feedback. However, time to task completion showed no significant difference in performance with the time indicator; furthermore, no significant differences in muscle activity or muscle fatigue were detected with/without time feedback. The absence of significant difference between task performance with/without time feedback shows that using visual real-time feedback can be included in surgical training based on user preference. Trainees may benefit from this type of feedback in the form of increased motivation. The extent to which this can influence training frequency leading to performance improvement is a question for further study.
Forel, Deanne; Vandepeer, Meegan; Duncan, Joanna; Tivey, David R; Tobin, Stephen A
In 2014, the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons identified, through internal analysis, a considerable attrition rate within its Surgical Education and Training programme. Within the attrition cohort, choosing to leave accounted for the majority. Women were significantly over-represented. It was considered important to study these 'leavers' if possible. An external group with medical education expertise were engaged to do this, a report that is now published and titled 'A study exploring the reasons for and experiences of leaving surgical training'. During this time, the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons came under serious external review, leading to the development of the Action Plan on Discrimination, Bullying and Sexual Harassment in the Practice of Surgery, known as the Building Respect, Improving Patient Safety (BRIPS) action plan. The 'Leaving Training Report', which involved nearly one-half of all voluntary 'leavers', identified three major themes that were pertinent to leaving surgical training. Of these, one was about surgery itself: the complexity, the technical, decision-making and lifestyle demands, the emotional aspects of dealing with seriously sick patients and the personal toll of all of this. This narrative literature review investigates these aspects of surgical education from the trainees' perspective. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
said surgical procedure. 32. The rm:thod of daim 30. whcn.:in st~id linul dm ;~.: dimcnsional model is used to evaluate pcrKwmancc charac...of Environmental Aging Upon the Load Bearing Properties and Polyurethane Foams. Noble PC; Goode B; Krouskop TA; and Crisp B. Journal Rehab. Res. and...Surgery 77A: 513-523, 1995. 32. Partial Tears of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Are They Clinically Detectable? Lintner DM , Kamaric E, Moseley JB
Ringsted, C; Østergaard, D; Scherpbier, A
Assessment of clinical competence is facing a paradigm shift in more than one sense. The shift relates to test content, which increasingly covers a broader spectrum of competences than mere medical expertise, and to test methods, with an increasing focus on testing performance in realistic settings....... Also there is a shift in the concept of assessment in that instruction and assessment are no longer seen as being separate in time and purpose, but as integral parts of the learning process. The nature of the new paradigm for assessment is well described but the challenge to programme directors...... is to specify the evaluation situations and develop appropriate methods. This paper describes the intrinsic rational validation process in outlining an assessment programme for first-year anaesthesiology residency training according to the new paradigm. The applicability to other residency programmes and higher...
Burnand, Henry; Mutimer, Jon
The advent of simulated surgical skills courses has brought dynamic changes to the traditional approach to acquiring practical skills in surgery. Teaching is a core part of the surgical profession, and any trainee can be involved in the organisation of skills training courses. This paper outlines the importance of organising surgical skills courses for trainees, and provides a practical guide on how to do so within busy clinical environments. The paper examines how to plan a course, how to design the programme, and provides tips on faculty staff requirements, venue, finance and participants, with additional suggestions for assessment and evaluation. We recommend the organisation of skills courses to any trainee. By following key ground rules, the surgical trainee can enable the acquisition of advanced learning opportunities and the ability to demonstrate valuable organisational skills. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Hudelson, Patricia; Demaurex, Florence; Luthy, Christophe; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu; De Grave, Willem; Dolmans, Diana; Van der Vleuten, Cees
Residents' perceived needs in communication skills training are important to identify before designing context-specific training programmes, since learrners' perceived needs can influence the effectiveness of training. To explore residents' perceptions of their training needs and training experiences around communication skills, and whether these differ between residents training in inpatient and outpatient clinical settings. Four focus groups (FG) and a self-administered questionnaire were conducted with residents working in in- and outpatient medical service settings at a Swiss University Hospital. Focus groups explored residents' perceptions of their communication needs, their past training experiences and suggestions for future training programmes in communication skills. Transcripts were analysed in a thematic way using qualitative analytic approaches. All residents from both settings were asked to complete a questionnaire that queried their sociodemographics and amount of prior training in communication skills. In focus groups, outpatient residents felt that communication skills were especially useful in addressing chronic diseases and social issues. In contrast, inpatient residents emphasized the importance of good communication skills for dealing with family conflicts and end-of-life issues. Felt needs reflected residents' differing service priorities: outpatient residents saw the need for skills to structure the consultation and explore patients' perspectives in order to build therapeutic alliances, whereas inpatient residents wanted techniques to help them break bad news, provide information and increase their own well-being. The survey's overall response rate was 56%. Its data showed that outpatient residents received more training in communication skills and more of them than inpatient residents considered communication skills training to be useful (100% vs 74%). Outpatient residents' perceived needs in communication skills were more patient
Khouli, Hassan; Jahnes, Katherine; Shapiro, Janet; Rose, Keith; Mathew, Joseph; Gohil, Amit; Han, Qifa; Sotelo, Andre; Jones, James; Aqeel, Adnan; Eden, Edward; Fried, Ethan
Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a preventable cause of a potentially lethal ICU infection. The optimal method to teach health-care providers correct sterile techniques during central vein catheterization (CVC) remains unclear. We randomly assigned second- and third-year internal medicine residents trained by a traditional apprenticeship model to simulation-based plus video training or video training alone from December 2007 to January 2008, with a follow-up period to examine CRBSI ending in July 2009. During the follow-up period, a simulation-based training program in sterile techniques during CVC was implemented in the medical ICU (MICU). A surgical ICU (SICU) where no residents received study interventions was used for comparison. The primary outcome measures were median residents' scores in sterile techniques and rates of CRBSI per 1,000 catheter-days. Of the 47 enrolled residents, 24 were randomly assigned to the simulation-based plus video training group and 23 to the video training group. Median baseline scores in both groups were equally poor: 12.5 to 13 (52%-54%) out of maximum score of 24 (P = .95; median difference, 0; 95% CI, 0.2-2.0). After training, median score was significantly higher for the simulation-based plus video training group: 22 (92%) vs 18 (75%) for the video training group (P training in sterile techniques during CVC is superior to traditional training or video training alone and is associated with decreased rate of CRBSI. Simulation-based training in CVC should be routinely used to reduce iatrogenic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00612131; URL: clinicaltrials.gov.
Full Text Available Background: Historically, operating room (OR has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training.However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. This research aimed to explore the value of currently available modern surgical tools that can be used outside the OR and also elaborates the existing laparoscopic surgical training programs in world-class centers across the globe with a view to formulate a blended and unified structured surgical training program. Materials and Methods: Several data sources were searched using MeSH terms “Laparoscopic surgery” and “Surgical training” and “Surgical curriculum” and “fundamentals of endoscopic surgery” and “fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery” and “Telementoring” and “Box trainer.” The eligibility criteria used in data extraction searched for original and review articles and by excluding the editorial articles, short communications, conference proceedings, personal view, and commentaries. Data synthesis and data analysis were done by reviewing the initially retrieved 211 articles. Irrelevant and duplicate and redundant articles were excluded from the study. Results: Finally, 12 articles were selected for this systematic review. Data results showed that a myriad of cutting-edge technical innovations have provided modern surgical training tools such as the simulation-based mechanical and virtual reality simulators, animal and cadaveric labs, telementoring, telerobotic-assisted surgery, and video games. Surgical simulators allow the trainees to acquire surgical skills in a tension-free environment without supervision or time constraints
Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R
Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared
Yap, Raymond; Cullinan, Mark
Training in medicine and surgery has been a public hospital responsibility in Australia. Increasing specialist training needs has led to pressure on speciality societies to find additional training posts, with one utilized solution being the establishment of private hospital training. This growing use has been despite no previously published evaluations of private hospital training in Australia. This article seeks to evaluate the feasibility of surgical training in private hospitals in appendicectomy. Data were prospectively collected on registrar involvement in appendicectomy cases at a single private tertiary institution over 1 year. These data were divided into groups according to registrar involvement and analysed, looking at training caseload, operating theatre time and complications. A total of 122 cases were analysed over the study period. Registrars were more likely to have increased primary operator responsibility if they were an accredited versus unaccredited registrar (P = 0.04) and if the case was open versus laparoscopic (P difference in complications whether the registrar was involved or not. Training in the private sector in Australia appears feasible, with a small loss of efficiency and no increase in complications. This article hopes to further encourage implementation and evaluation of private sector training programs to expand current training positions. Further studies, in different specialty and procedural domains, are needed to assess and evaluate the ongoing feasibility of private sector training. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Calabrese, Christina; Sciolla, Andres; Zisook, Sidney; Bitner, Robin; Tuttle, Jeffrey; Dunn, Laura B.
Objective: Few studies of residents' attitudes toward psychotherapy training exist. The authors examined residents' perceptions of the quality of their training, support for training, their own competence levels, and associations between self-perceived competence and perceptions of the training environment. Methods: An anonymous, web-based…
M. Fernanda Bellolio
Full Text Available Introduction: Compassion fatigue (CF is the emotional and physical burden felt by those helping others in distress, leading to a reduced capacity and interest in being empathetic towards future suffering. Emergency care providers are at an increased risk of CF secondary to their first responder roles and exposure to traumatic events. We aimed to investigate the current state of compassion fatigue among emergency medicine (EM resident physicians, including an assessment of contributing factors. Methods: We distributed a validated electronic questionnaire consisting of the Professional Quality of Life Scale with subscales for the three components of CF (compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary traumatic stress, with each category scored independently. We collected data pertaining to day- versus night-shift distribution, hourly workload and child dependents. We included residents in EM, neurology, orthopedics, family medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, and general surgery. Results: We surveyed 255 residents, with a response rate of 75%. Of the 188 resident respondents, 18% worked a majority of their clinical shifts overnight, and 32% had child dependents. Burnout scores for residents who worked greater than 80 hours per week, or primarily worked overnight shifts, were higher than residents who worked less than 80 hours (mean score 25.0 vs 21.5; p=0.013, or did not work overnight (mean score 23.5 vs 21.3; p=0.022. EM residents had similar scores in all three components of CF when compared to other specialties. Secondary traumatic stress scores for residents who worked greater than 80 hours were higher than residents who worked less than 80 hours (mean score 22.2 vs 19.5; p=0.048, and those with child dependents had higher secondary traumatic stress than those without children (mean score 21.0 vs 19.1; p=0.012. Conclusion: CF scores in EM residents are similar to residents in other surgical and medical specialties. Residents working primarily
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of virtual reality (VR has gained increasing interest to acquire laparoscopic skills outside the operating theatre and thus increasing patients' safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate trainees' acceptance of VR for assessment and training during a skills course and at their institution. Methods All 735 surgical trainees of the International Gastrointestinal Surgery Workshop 2006–2008, held in Davos, Switzerland, were given a minimum of 45 minutes for VR training during the course. Participants' opinion on VR was analyzed with a standardized questionnaire. Results Fivehundred-twenty-seven participants (72% from 28 countries attended the VR sessions and answered the questionnaires. The possibility of using VR at the course was estimated as excellent or good in 68%, useful in 21%, reasonable in 9% and unsuitable or useless in 2%. If such VR simulators were available at their institution, most course participants would train at least one hour per week (46%, two or more hours (42% and only 12% wouldn't use VR. Similarly, 63% of the participants would accept to operate on patients only after VR training and 55% to have VR as part of their assessment. Conclusion Residents accept and appreciate VR simulation for surgical assessment and training. The majority of the trainees are motivated to regularly spend time for VR training if accessible.
Undre, Shabnam; Koutantji, Maria; Sevdalis, Nick; Gautama, Sanjay; Selvapatt, Nowlan; Williams, Samantha; Sains, Parvinderpal; McCulloch, Peter; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles
High-reliability organizations have stressed the importance of non-technical skills for safety and of regularly providing such training to their teams. Recently safety skills training has been applied in the practice of medicine. In this study, we developed and piloted a module using multidisciplinary crisis scenarios in a simulated operating theatre to train entire surgical teams. Twenty teams participated (n = 80); each consisted of a trainee surgeon, anesthetist, operating department practitioner (ODP), and scrub nurse. Crisis scenarios such as difficult intubation, hemorrhage, or cardiac arrest were simulated. Technical and non-technical skills (leadership, communication, team skills, decision making, and vigilance), were assessed by clinical experts and by two psychologists using relevant technical and human factors rating scales. Participants received technical and non-technical feedback, and the whole team received feedback on teamwork. Trainees assessed the training favorably. For technical skills there were no differences between surgical trainees' assessment scores and the assessment scores of the trainers. However, nurses overrated their technical skill. Regarding non-technical skills, leadership and decision making were scored lower than the other three non-technical skills (communication, team skills, and vigilance). Surgeons scored lower than nurses on communication and teamwork skills. Surgeons and anesthetists scored lower than nurses on leadership. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training is feasible and well received by surgical teams. Non-technical skills can be assessed alongside technical skills, and differences in performance indicate where there is a need for further training. Future work should focus on developing team performance measures for training and on the development and evaluation of systematic training for technical and non-technical skills to enhance team performance and safety in surgery.
Johnson, Nicholas E; Maas, Matthew B; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John
To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training.
Nathan, Lisa M; Banks, Erika H; Conroy, Erin M; McGinn, Aileen P; Ghartey, Jeny P; Wagner, Sarah A; Merkatz, Irwin R
Benefits of exposure to global health training during medical education are well documented and residents' demand for this training is increasing. Despite this, it is offered by few US obstetrics and gynaecology (OBGYN) residency training programmes. To evaluate interest, perceived importance, predictors of global health interest and barriers to offering global health training among prospective OBGYN residents, current OBGYN residents and US OGBYN residency directors. We designed two questionnaires using Likert scale questions to assess perceived importance of global health training. The first was distributed to current and prospective OBGYN residents interviewing at a US residency programme during 2012-2013. The second questionnaire distributed to US OBGYN programme directors assessed for existing global health programmes and global health training barriers. A composite Global Health Interest/Importance score was tabulated from the Likert scores. Multivariable linear regression was performed to assess for predictors of Global Health Interest/Importance. A total of 159 trainees (77%; 129 prospective OBGYN residents and 30 residents) and 69 (28%) programme directors completed the questionnaires. Median Global Health Interest/Importance score was 7 (IQR 4-9). Prior volunteer experience was predictive of a 5-point increase in Global Health Interest/Importance score (95% CI -0.19 to 9.85; p=0.02). The most commonly cited barriers were cost and time. Interest and perceived importance of global health training in US OBGYN residency programmes is evident among trainees and programme directors; however, significant financial and time barriers prevent many programmes from offering opportunities to their trainees. Prior volunteer experience predicts global health interest. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Rodríguez González, R; Capilla Cabezuelo, E
The official training program for the specialty "Diagnostic Imaging" establishes minimum learning objectives that must be fulfilled. Each accredited teaching unit is responsible for designing and carrying out a curriculum to ensure that these objectives are met, and this approach permits a degree of flexibility. Various aspects must be considered in the individual training plans for each resident: the rotation scheme according to the way the department is organized, plans for recovering missed material or reinforcing weak points, optional rotations, increasing degrees of responsibility as skills are acquired during training, and accommodating special needs of handicapped persons. Nevertheless, the individual plan must be fitted to the established curriculum and guarantee that the content of the official program is covered and that the objectives stipulated therein are met. Furthermore, the methods of teaching must be adapted to the individual characteristics of the residents, and this is the most important aspect of the individualization of training. To this end, it is fundamental for residents to take on an active role in their training, guided by their tutor and with the participation of all the radiologists in the department including the other residents, all of whom should act as teachers. Copyright © 2010 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hoffman, Rebecca L; Hudak-Rosander, Cristina; Datta, Jashodeep; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R
The subconscious way in which an individual approaches learning, goal orientation (GO), has been shown to influence job satisfaction, job performance, and burnout in nonmedical cohorts. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate an instrument to assess GO in surgical residents, so that in the future, we can better understand how differences in motivation affect professional development. Residents were recruited to complete a 17-item survey adapted from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). The survey included three scales assessing GO in residency-specific terms. Items were scored on a 5-point Likert scale, and the psychometric properties of the adapted and original PALS were compared. Ninety-five percent of residents (61/64) participated. Median age was 30 y and 33% were female. Mean (standard deviation) scale scores for the adapted PALS were: mastery 4.30 (0.48), performance approach (PAP) 3.17 (0.99), and performance avoid 2.75 (0.88). Mean (standard deviation) scale scores for the original PALS items were: mastery 3.35 (1.02), PAP 2.76 (1.15), and performance avoid 2.41 (0.91). Cronbach alpha were α = 0.89 and α = 0.84 for the adapted PAP and avoid scales, respectively, which were comparable with the original scales. For the adapted mastery scale, α = 0.54. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors, and factor loadings for individual mastery items did not load consistently onto a single factor. This study represents the first steps in the development of a novel tool to measure GO among surgical residents. Understanding motivational psychology in residents may facilitate improved education and professional development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Real, Francis J; DeBlasio, Dominick; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Davis, David; Cruse, Bradley; Mclinden, Daniel; Klein, Melissa D
Communication skills can be difficult to teach and assess in busy outpatient settings. These skills are important for effective counseling such as in cases of influenza vaccine hesitancy. It is critical to consider novel educational methods to supplement current strategies aimed at teaching relational skills. An immersive virtual reality (VR) curriculum on addressing influenza vaccine hesitancy was developed using Kern's six-step approach to curriculum design. The curriculum was meant to teach best-practice communication skills in cases of influenza vaccine hesitancy. Eligible participants included postgraduate level (PL) 2 and PL-3 pediatric residents (n = 24). Immediately following the curriculum, a survey was administered to assess residents' attitudes toward the VR curriculum and perceptions regarding the effectiveness of VR in comparison to other educational modalities. A survey was administered 1 month following the VR curriculum to assess trainee-perceived impact of the curriculum on clinical practice. All eligible residents (n = 24) completed the curriculum. Ninety-two percent (n = 22) agreed or strongly agreed that VR simulations were like real-life patient encounters. Seventy-five percent (n = 18) felt that VR was equally effective to standardized patient (SP) encounters and less effective than bedside teaching (P training.
Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.
Moreau, Katherine A; Pound, Catherine M; Peddle, Beth; Tokarewicz, Jaclyn; Eady, Kaylee
Pediatric health research is important for improving the health and well-being of children and their families. To foster the development of physicians' research competencies, it is vital to integrate practical and context-specific research training into residency programs. To describe the development of a resident research training program at one tertiary care pediatric academic health sciences center in Ontario, Canada. We surveyed residents and pediatricians/research staff to establish the need and content for a resident research training program. Residents and resident research supervisors agreed or strongly agreed that research training is important for residents. However, few residents and supervisors believed that their academic health sciences center provided adequate training and resources to support resident research. As such, an online resident research training program was established. Residents and supervisors agreed that the program should focus on the following topics: 1) critically evaluating research literature, 2) writing a research proposal, 3) submitting an application for research funding, and 4) writing a manuscript. This highly accessible, context-specific, and inexpensive online program model may be of interest and benefit to other residency programs as a means to enhance residents' scholarly roles. A formal evaluation of the research training program is now underway.
Nestel, Debra; Harlim, Jennifer; Bryant, Melanie; Rampersad, Rajay; Hunter-Smith, David; Spychal, Bob
The landscape of surgical training is changing. The anticipated increase in the numbers of surgical trainees and the shift to competency-based surgical training places pressures on an already stretched health service. With these pressures in mind, we explored trainers' and trainees' experiences of surgical training in a less traditional rotation, an outer metropolitan hospital. We considered practice-based learning theories to make meaning of surgical training in this setting, in particular Actor-network theory. We adopted a qualitative approach and purposively sampled surgical trainers and trainees to participate in individual interviews and focus groups respectively. Transcripts were made and thematically analysed. Institutional human research ethics approval was obtained. Four surgical trainers and fourteen trainees participated. Almost without exception, participants' report training needs to be well met. Emergent inter-related themes were: learning as social activity; learning and programmatic factors; learning and physical infrastructure; and, learning and organizational structure. This outer metropolitan hospital is suited to the provision of surgical training with the current rotational system for trainees. The setting offers experiences that enable consolidation of learning providing a rich and varied overall surgical training program. Although relational elements of learning were paramount they occurred within a complex environment. Actor-network theory was used to give meaning to emergent themes acknowledging that actors (both people and objects) and their interactions combine to influence training quality, shifting the focus of responsibility for learning away from individuals to the complex interactions in which they work and learn.
Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.
Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…
David W. Doo
Full Text Available Residency training in obstetrics and gynecology is being challenged by increasingly stringent regulations and decreased operative experience. We sought to determine the perception of preparedness of incoming gynecologic oncology fellows for advanced surgical training in gynecologic oncology. An online survey was sent to gynecologic oncologists involved in fellowship training in the United States. They were asked to evaluate their most recent incoming clinical fellows in the domains of professionalism, level of independence/graduated responsibility, psychomotor ability, clinical evaluation and management, and academia and scholarship using a standard Likert-style scale. The response rate among attending physicians was 40% (n = 105/260 and 61% (n = 28/46 for program directors. Of those who participated, 49% reported that their incoming fellows could not independently perform a hysterectomy, 59% reported that they could not independently perform 30 min of a major procedure, 40% reported that they could not control bleeding, 40% reported that they could not recognize anatomy and tissue planes, and 58% reported that they could not dissect tissue planes. Fellows lacked an understanding of pathophysiology, treatment recommendations, and the ability to identify and treat critically ill patients. In the academic domain, respondents agreed that fellows were deficient in the areas of protocol design (54%, statistical analysis (54%, and manuscript writing (65%. These results suggest that general Ob/Gyn residency is ineffective in preparing fellows for advanced training in gynecologic oncology and should prompt a revision of the goals and objectives of resident education to correct these deficiencies.
Adams, Barbara J; Margaron, Franklin; Kaplan, Brian J
The video game industry has become increasingly popular over recent years, offering photorealistic simulations of various scenarios while requiring motor, visual, and cognitive coordination. Video game players outperform nonplayers on different visual tasks and are faster and more accurate on laparoscopic simulators. The same qualities found in video game players are highly desired in surgeons. Our investigation aims to evaluate the effect of video game play on the development of fine motor and visual skills. Specifically, we plan to examine if handheld video devices offer the same improvement in laparoscopic skill as traditional simulators, with less cost and more accessibility. We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved study, including categorical surgical residents and preliminary interns at our institution. The residents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 study arms, including a traditional laparoscopic simulator, XBOX 360 gaming console, or Nintendo DS handheld gaming system. After an introduction survey and baseline timed test using a laparoscopic surgery box trainer, residents were given 6 weeks to practice on their respective consoles. At the conclusion of the study, the residents were tested again on the simulator and completed a final survey. A total of 31 residents were included in the study, representing equal distribution of each class level. The XBOX 360 group spent more time on their console weekly (6 hours per week) compared with the simulator (2 hours per week), and Nintendo groups (3 hours per week). There was a significant difference in the improvement of the tested time among the 3 groups, with the XBOX 360 group showing the greatest improvement (p = 0.052). The residents in the laparoscopic simulator arm (n = 11) improved 4.6 seconds, the XBOX group (n = 10) improved 17.7 seconds, and the Nintendo DS group (n = 10) improved 11.8 seconds. Residents who played more than 10 hours of video games weekly had the fastest times on the simulator
I. Wallenburg (Iris); J. Pols (Jeannette); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette)
textabstractThis paper addresses contemporary reform in postgraduate medical education that aims to standardise training. The reforms are guided by public policy interventions to increase quality of care, objectify performance, and to prepare residents for changing health care needs. This
Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.
Objective Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their program’s curriculum related to tobacco treatment, attitudes related to treating tobacco in psychiatry, and perceptions of residents’ skills for addressing nicotine dependence in psychiatric patients. Results Respondents were representative of the national pool. Half of the programs provided training in tobacco treatments for a median duration of 1 hour. Content areas covered varied greatly. Programs with tobacco-related training expressed more favorable attitudes toward addressing tobacco in psychiatry and were more likely to report confidence in their residents’ skills for treating nicotine dependence. Programs without tobacco training reported a lack of faculty expertise on tobacco treatments. Most training directors reported moderate to high interest in evaluating a model tobacco curriculum for psychiatry and stated they would dedicate an average of 4 hours of curriculum time. Conclusions The findings demonstrate the need for and interest in a model tobacco treatment curriculum for psychiatry residency training. Training psychiatrists offers the potential of delivering treatment to one of the largest remaining groups of smokers: patients with mental disorders. PMID:17021144
Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B
To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries we developed an online questionnaire in cooperation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian...... (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecological oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange...
van Det, M J; Meijerink, W J H J; Hoff, C; Middel, B; Pierie, J P E N
INtraoperative Video Enhanced Surgical procedure Training (INVEST) is a new training method designed to improve the transition from basic skills training in a skills lab to procedural training in the operating theater. Traditionally, the master-apprentice model (MAM) is used for procedural training in the operating theater, but this model lacks uniformity and efficiency at the beginning of the learning curve. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of INVEST compared to MAM. Ten surgical residents with no laparoscopic experience were recruited for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy training curriculum either by the MAM or with INVEST. After a uniform course in basic laparoscopic skills, each trainee performed six cholecystectomies that were digitally recorded. For 14 steps of the procedure, an observer who was blinded for the type of training determined whether the step was performed entirely by the trainee (2 points), partially by the trainee (1 point), or by the supervisor (0 points). Time measurements revealed the total procedure time and the amount of effective procedure time during which the trainee acted as the operating surgeon. Results were compared between both groups. Trainees in the INVEST group were awarded statistically significant more points (115.8 vs. 70.2; p < 0.001) and performed more steps without the interference of the supervisor (46.6 vs. 18.8; p < 0.001). Total procedure time was not lengthened by INVEST, and the part performed by trainees was significantly larger (69.9 vs. 54.1 %; p = 0.004). INVEST enhances effectiveness and training efficiency for procedural training inside the operating theater without compromising operating theater time efficiency.
Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim
Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised.Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study.Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures.
Stirling, Euan RB; Lewis, Thomas L; Ferran, Nicholas A
Changing patterns of health care delivery and the rapid evolution of orthopaedic surgical techniques have made it increasingly difficult for trainees to develop expertise in their craft. Working hour restrictions and a drive towards senior led care demands that proficiency be gained in a shorter period of time whilst requiring a greater skill set than that in the past. The resulting conflict between service provision and training has necessitated the development of alternative methods in orde...
Katherine A. Moreau
Full Text Available Background: Pediatric health research is important for improving the health and well-being of children and their families. To foster the development of physicians’ research competencies, it is vital to integrate practical and context-specific research training into residency programs. Purpose: To describe the development of a resident research training program at one tertiary care pediatric academic health sciences center in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We surveyed residents and pediatricians/research staff to establish the need and content for a resident research training program. Results: Residents and resident research supervisors agreed or strongly agreed that research training is important for residents. However, few residents and supervisors believed that their academic health sciences center provided adequate training and resources to support resident research. As such, an online resident research training program was established. Residents and supervisors agreed that the program should focus on the following topics: 1 critically evaluating research literature, 2 writing a research proposal, 3 submitting an application for research funding, and 4 writing a manuscript. Discussion: This highly accessible, context-specific, and inexpensive online program model may be of interest and benefit to other residency programs as a means to enhance residents’ scholarly roles. A formal evaluation of the research training program is now underway.
Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room. This thesis has led to an enlarged insight in the organization of surgical skills training during residency training of surgical medical specialists.
Bakaeen, Faisal G; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Chu, Danny; Holman, William L; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Merrill, Walter H; Grover, Frederick L
With cardiothoracic education going through a critical phase of reevaluation and adaptation, we investigated perceptions of Veterans Affairs hospitals in cardiothoracic training. A content-validated survey was distributed electronically to 676 cardiothoracic surgery residents, recent cardiothoracic graduates (on or after June 2006), cardiothoracic surgery chairpersons, program directors, associate program directors, and section heads. The Cardiothoracic Surgery Network was used to identify target recipients and their e-mail addresses. Forty-three percent of the target recipients (292/676) completed the survey. Of those who were residents, 59% (65/111) rotated at a Veterans Affairs hospital during their cardiothoracic training; this rotation accounted for 25% or more of the total training period for 19% of them (21/111). A Veterans Affairs appointment was held by 42% of program directors/chairpersons (20/48) and 24% of graduates, associate program directors, and section heads (31/129). An affiliation with a Veterans Affairs hospital was rated as somewhat to very beneficial by 93% of the responders (273/292), and the cardiothoracic training received at Veterans Affairs facilities was rated as good to excellent by 73% of the responders (213/292). Sixty-nine percent of respondents (201/292) reported the operating room environment at Veterans Affairs hospitals to be at least as conducive to learning as that at the affiliate teaching hospital, and 76% (223/292) indicated that residents get more autonomy and hands-on experience at Veterans Affairs institutions. In addition, 64% of responders (188/292) reported that they would seek or recommend a Veterans Affairs job. Responses were positive toward the Veterans Affairs system regardless of whether the responder had any Veterans Affairs affiliation (ie, appointment as staff or rotation as resident); however, a Veterans Affairs affiliation was associated with a higher rate of positive responses regarding Veterans Affairs
Background Several residency program characteristics have been suggested as measures of program quality, but associations between these measures are unknown. We set out to determine associations between these potential measures of program quality. Methods Survey of internal medicine residency programs that shared an online ambulatory curriculum on hospital type, faculty size, number of trainees, proportion of international medical graduate (IMG) trainees, Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores, three-year American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination (ABIM-CE) first-try pass rates, Residency Review Committee-Internal Medicine (RRC-IM) certification length, program director clinical duties, and use of pharmaceutical funding to support education. Associations assessed using Chi-square, Spearman rank correlation, univariate and multivariable linear regression. Results Fifty one of 67 programs responded (response rate 76.1%), including 29 (56.9%) community teaching and 17 (33.3%) university hospitals, with a mean of 68 trainees and 101 faculty. Forty four percent of trainees were IMGs. The average post-graduate year (PGY)-2 IM-ITE raw score was 63.1, which was 66.8 for PGY3s. Average 3-year ABIM-CE pass rate was 95.8%; average RRC-IM certification was 4.3 years. ABIM-CE results, IM-ITE results, and length of RRC-IM certification were strongly associated with each other (p ITE scores were higher in programs with more IMGs and in programs that accepted pharmaceutical support (p < 0.05). RRC-IM certification was shorter in programs with higher numbers of IMGs. In multivariable analysis, a higher proportion of IMGs was associated with 1.17 years shorter RRC accreditation. Conclusions Associations between quality indicators are complex, but suggest that the presence of IMGs is associated with better performance on standardized tests but decreased duration of RRC-IM certification. PMID:21651768
Zheng, Jianmin; Zhang, Boheng; Yin, Yiqing; Fang, Taolin; Wei, Ning; Lineaweaver, William C; Zhang, Feng
Residency training is internationally recognized as the only way for the physicians to be qualified to practice independently. China has instituted a new residency training program for the specialty of plastic surgery. Meanwhile, plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States are presently in a transition because of restricted work hours. The purpose of this study is to compare the current characteristics of plastic surgery residency training in 2 countries. Flow path, structure, curriculum, operative experience, research, and evaluation of training in 2 countries were measured. The number of required cases was compared quantitatively whereas other aspects were compared qualitatively. Plastic surgery residency training programs in 2 countries differ regarding specific characteristics. Requirements to become a plastic surgery resident in the United States are more rigorous. Ownership structure of the regulatory agency for residency training in 2 countries is diverse. Training duration in the United States is more flexible. Clinical and research training is more practical and the method of evaluation of residency training is more reasonable in the United States. The job opportunities after residency differ substantially between 2 countries. Not every resident has a chance to be an independent surgeon and would require much more training time in China than it does in the United States. Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States and China have their unique characteristics. The training programs in the United States are more standardized. Both the United States and China may complement each other to create training programs that will ultimately provide high-quality care for all people.
Radiation treatments in radiation oncology clinics have been always planned to irradiate three dimensional (3D) volumes. Though the term 3D planning has come in vogue only in recent years, the essence of 3D planning had been always there. This is because the patient is a 3D subject and every treatment option adopted in a radiotherapy clinic has to be based on a 3D judgement of its acceptability. An essential aspect of training of radiation oncology residents is to help them understand the different techniques and methods used to get an acceptable 3D dose delivery. The tools of 3D planning should be introduced to the residents for their educational value. The regular use of these tools may require not only fast computers and work stations, but also a change of routine in the department. This might be difficult since the departmental routine can evolve only gradually. On the other hand, an insight about the advantages of the tools could be gained through a simple personal computer. Some examples of using the 3D planning tools through a personal computer, for educational purposes have been presented here, using clinical contexts routinely encountered. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs
Chow, Alexander K; Sherer, Benjamin A; Yura, Emily; Kielb, Stephanie; Kocjancic, Ervin; Eggener, Scott; Turk, Thomas; Park, Sangtae; Psutka, Sarah; Abern, Michael; Latchamsetty, Kalyan C; Coogan, Christopher L
To evaluate the Urological resident's attitude and experience with surgical simulation in residency education using a multi-institutional, multi-modality model. Residents from 6 area urology training programs rotated through simulation stations in 4 consecutive sessions from 2014 to 2017. Workshops included GreenLight photovaporization of the prostate, ureteroscopic stone extraction, laparoscopic peg transfer, 3-dimensional laparoscopy rope pass, transobturator sling placement, intravesical injection, high definition video system trainer, vasectomy, and Urolift. Faculty members provided teaching assistance, objective scoring, and verbal feedback. Participants completed a nonvalidated questionnaire evaluating utility of the workshop and soliciting suggestions for improvement. Sixty-three of 75 participants (84%) (postgraduate years 1-6) completed the exit questionnaire. Median rating of exercise usefulness on a scale of 1-10 ranged from 7.5 to 9. On a scale of 0-10, cumulative median scores of the course remained high over 4 years: time limit per station (9; interquartile range [IQR] 2), faculty instruction (9, IQR 2), ease of use (9, IQR 2), face validity (8, IQR 3), and overall course (9, IQR 2). On multivariate analysis, there was no difference in rating of domains between postgraduate years. Sixty-seven percent (42/63) believe that simulation training should be a requirement of Urology residency. Ninety-seven percent (63/65) viewed the laboratory as beneficial to their education. This workshop model is a valuable training experience for residents. Most participants believe that surgical simulation is beneficial and should be a requirement for Urology residency. High ratings of usefulness for each exercise demonstrated excellent face validity provided by the course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and goal: Curriculum development for residency training is increasingly challenging in times of financial restrictions and time limitations. Several countries have adopted the CanMEDS framework for medical education as a model into their curricula of specialty training. The purpose of the present study was to validate the competency goals, as derived from CanMEDS, of the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine of the Berlin Charité University Medical Centre, by conducting a staff survey. These goals for the qualification of specialists stipulate demonstrable competencies in seven areas: expert medical action, efficient collaboration in a team, communications with patients and family, management and organisation, lifelong learning, professional behaviour, and advocacy of good health. We had previously developed a catalogue of curriculum items based on these seven core competencies. In order to evaluate the validity of this catalogue, we surveyed anaesthetists at our department in regard to their perception of the importance of each of these items. In addition to the descriptive acquisition of data, it was intended to assess the results of the survey to ascertain whether there were differences in the evaluation of these objectives by specialists and registrars. Methods: The questionnaire with the seven adapted CanMEDS Roles included items describing each of their underlying competencies. Each anaesthetist (registrars and specialists working at our institution in May of 2007 was asked to participate in the survey. Individual perception of relevance was rated for each item on a scale similar to the Likert system, ranging from 1 (highly relevant to 5 (not at all relevant, from which ratings means were calculated. For determination of reliability, we calculated Cronbach’s alpha. To assess differences between subgroups, we performed analysis of variance.Results: All seven roles were rated as relevant. Three of the seven
Forster, James A; Browning, Anthony J; Paul, Alan B; Biyani, C Shekhar
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The role of surgical simulators is currently being debated in urological and other surgical specialties. Simulators are not presently implemented in the UK urology training curriculum. The availability of simulators and the opinions of Training Programme Directors' (TPD) on their role have not been described. In the present questionnaire-based survey, the trainees of most, but not all, UK TPDs had access to laparoscopic simulators, and that all responding TPDs thought that simulators improved laparoscopic training. We hope that the present study will be a positive step towards making an agreement to formally introduce simulators into the UK urology training curriculum. To discuss the current situation on the use of simulators in surgical training. To determine the views of UK Urology Training Programme Directors (TPDs) on the availability and use of simulators in Urology at present, and to discuss the role that simulators may have in future training. An online-questionnaire survey was distributed to all UK Urology TPDs. In all, 16 of 21 TPDs responded. All 16 thought that laparoscopic simulators improved the quality of laparoscopic training. The trainees of 13 TPDs had access to a laparoscopic simulator (either in their own hospital or another hospital in the deanery). Most TPDs thought that trainees should use simulators in their free time, in quiet time during work hours, or in teaching sessions (rather than incorporated into the weekly timetable). We feel that the current apprentice-style method of training in urological surgery is out-dated. We think that all TPDs and trainees should have access to a simulator, and that a formal competency based simulation training programme should be incorporated into the urology training curriculum, with trainees reaching a minimum proficiency on a simulator before undertaking surgical procedures. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.
Stirling, Euan R B; Lewis, Thomas L; Ferran, Nicholas A
Changing patterns of health care delivery and the rapid evolution of orthopaedic surgical techniques have made it increasingly difficult for trainees to develop expertise in their craft. Working hour restrictions and a drive towards senior led care demands that proficiency be gained in a shorter period of time whilst requiring a greater skill set than that in the past. The resulting conflict between service provision and training has necessitated the development of alternative methods in order to compensate for the reduction in 'hands-on' experience. Simulation training provides the opportunity to develop surgical skills in a controlled environment whilst minimising risks to patient safety, operating theatre usage and financial expenditure. Many options for simulation exist within orthopaedics from cadaveric or prosthetic models, to arthroscopic simulators, to advanced virtual reality and three-dimensional software tools. There are limitations to this form of training, but it has significant potential for trainees to achieve competence in procedures prior to real-life practice. The evidence for its direct transferability to operating theatre performance is limited but there are clear benefits such as increasing trainee confidence and familiarity with equipment. With progressively improving methods of simulation available, it is likely to become more important in the ongoing and future training and assessment of orthopaedic surgeons.
Cleland, Jennifer; Walker, Kenneth G; Gale, Michael; Nicol, Laura G
The focus of simulation-based education (SBE) research has been limited to outcome and effectiveness studies. The effect of social and cultural influences on SBE is unclear and empirical work is lacking. Our objective in this study was to explore and understand the complexity of context and social factors at a surgical boot camp (BC). A rapid ethnographic study, employing the theoretical lenses of complexity and activity theory and Bourdieu's concept of 'capital', to better understand the socio-cultural influences acting upon, and during, two surgical BCs, and their implications for SBE. Over two 4-day BCs held in Scotland, UK, an observer and two preceptors conducted 81 hours of observations, 14 field interviews and 11 formal interviews with faculty members (n = 10, including the lead faculty member, session leaders and junior faculty members) and participants (n = 19 core surgical trainees and early-stage residents). Data collection and inductive analysis for emergent themes proceeded iteratively. This paper focuses on three analytical themes. First, the complexity of the surgical training system and wider health care education context, and how this influenced the development of the BC. Second, participants' views of the BC as a vehicle not just for learning skills but for gaining 'insider information' on how best to progress in surgical training. Finally, the explicit aim of faculty members to use the Scottish Surgical Bootcamp to welcome trainees and residents into the world of surgery, and how this occurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study of a surgical BC that takes a socio-cultural approach to exploring and understanding context, complexities, uncertainties and learning associated with one example of SBE. Our findings suggest that a BC is as much about social and cultural processes as it is about individual, cognitive and acquisitive learning. Acknowledging this explicitly will help those planning similar enterprises and
O'Grady, Gregory; Harper, Simon; Loveday, Benjamin; Adams, Brandon; Civil, Ian D; Peters, Matthew
The demands of surgical training, learning and service delivery compete with the need to minimize fatigue and maintain an acceptable lifestyle. The optimal balance of working hours is uncertain. This study aimed to define the appropriate hours to meet these requirements according to trainees. All Australian and New Zealand surgical trainees were surveyed. Roster structures, weekly working hours and weekly 'sleep loss hours' (work practices were then correlated with sufficiency of training time, time for study, fatigue and its impacts, and work-life balance preferences. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed. The response rate was 55.3% with responders representative of the total trainee body. Trainees who worked median 60 h/week (interquartile range: 55-65) considered their work hours to be appropriate for 'technical' and 'non-technical' training needs compared with 55 h/week (interquartile range: 50-60) regarded as appropriate for study/research needs. Working ≥65 h/week, or accruing ≥5.5 weekly 'sleep loss hours', was associated with increased fatigue, reduced ability to study, more frequent dozing while driving and impaired concentration at work. Trainees who considered they had an appropriate work-life balance worked median 55 h/week. Approximately, 60 h/week proved an appropriate balance of working hours for surgical training, although study and lifestyle demands are better met at around 55 h/week. Sleep loss is an important determinant of fatigue and its impacts, and work hours should not be considered in isolation. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Resident Electives Select pediatric residents may be approved for a 4-week elective rotation at the Pediatric Oncology Branch. This rotation emphasizes the important connection between research and patient care in pediatric oncology. The resident is supervised directly by the Branch’s attending physician and clinical fellows. Residents attend daily in-patient and out-patient
Shariff, Umar; Seretis, Charalampos; Lee, Doreen; Balasubramanian, Saba P
Multimedia is an educational resource that can be used to supplement surgical skills training. The aim of this review was to determine the role of multimedia in surgical training and assessment by performing a systematic review of the literature. A systematic review for published articles was conducted on the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE (1992 to November 2014), SCOPUS (1992 to November 2014) and EMBASE (1992 to November 2014). For each study the educational content, study design, surgical skill assessed and outcomes were recorded. A standard data extraction form was created to ensure systematic retrieval of relevant information. 21 studies were included; 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 non-randomized controlled trials (Non-RCTs). Technical skills were assessed in 7 RCTs and 3 non-RCTs; cognitive skills were assessed in 9 RCTs and 4 non-RCTs. In controlled studies, multimedia was associated with significant improvement in technical skills (4 studies; 4 RCTs) and cognitive skills (7 studies; 6 RCTs). In two studies multimedia was inferior in comparison to conventional teaching. Evaluation of multimedia (9 studies) demonstrated strongly favourable results. This review suggests that multimedia effectively facilitates both technical and cognitive skills acquisition and is well accepted as an educational resource. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lo, Siu-Fai; Spurgeon, Peter
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and European working time directive have restricted residents' workweek to 80 and 48 hours, respectively. Impacts on resident's training and health services are under evaluation in western countries. However, relevant studies are deficient in Hong Kong. Surgeons in a regional hospital of Hong Kong were recruited. Opinions were collected by semi-structured questionnaire. Response rate was 82%. Most respondents agreed that residents' work hours should be limited. Seventy-two percent thought that the addition of physician assistants, nurse practitioners and ancillary staff could help decrease the workload of residents. More than 60% thought that residents should have post-call afternoon off. Seventy-two percent worried that the number of operations residents performed would decrease. Only half agreed that long work hours was part of resident training and 56.3% agreed that the training period should be lengthened because of limiting work hours. Ninety-four percent agreed that sleep-deprived residents would create more medical errors; 72% thought that long work hours would impair quality of care. Surprisingly, only 28% thought that limiting work hours would compromise continued patient care. Most respondents opine that resident work hours should be regulated and welcome minor rescheduling of residents' workflow. The impacts on residents' training and patient care require further evaluation.
Skelton, Jann B; Owen, James A
The Community Pharmacy Residency Program (CPRP) Planning Committee convened to develop a vision and a strategic action plan for the advancement of community pharmacy residency training. Aligned with the profession's efforts to achieve provider status and expand access to care, the Future Vision and Action Plan for Community-based Residency Training will provide guidance, direction, and a strategic action plan for community-based residency training to ensure that the future needs of community-based pharmacist practitioners are met. National thought leaders, selected because of their leadership in pharmacy practice, academia, and residency training, served on the planning committee. The committee conducted a series of conference calls and an in-person strategic planning meeting held on January 13-14, 2015. Outcomes from the discussions were supplemented with related information from the literature. Results of a survey of CPRP directors and preceptors also informed the planning process. The vision and strategic action plan for community-based residency training is intended to advance training to meet the emerging needs of patients in communities that are served by the pharmacy profession. The group anticipated the advanced skills required of pharmacists serving as community-based pharmacist practitioners and the likely education, training and competencies required by future residency graduates in order to deliver these services. The vision reflects a transformation of community residency training, from CPRPs to community-based residency training, and embodies the concept that residency training should be primarily focused on training the individual pharmacist practitioner based on the needs of patients served within the community, and not on the physical location where pharmacy services are provided. The development of a vision statement, core values statements, and strategic action plan will provide support, guidance, and direction to the profession of pharmacy to
Reismann, M; Ellerkamp, V; Dingemann, J
As in other surgical specialties, increasing concern has been expressed worldwide about the shortage of trainees in pediatric surgery training programs. We performed a nationwide survey to investigate the current situation in Germany. An internet-based nationwide survey comprising 36 questions on training conditions in pediatric surgery was linked to the homepage of the German Society of Pediatric Surgery from June to September 2008. Statements on the following aspects were evaluated by responding residents using a scale from 1 (I do not agree at all) to 5 (I fully agree): workplace, cooperation with colleagues, head of the department, cooperation with other specialties, training and research conditions. A median value of 3 indicated an unsatisfactory assessment, with at least 50% of respondents giving an indifferent or negative response. 70 questionnaires were completed. Some of the evaluations revealed problematic areas. In particular, statements regarding working hours revealed dissatisfaction among the responding doctors. The median value accorded the statement "I am satisfied with the current working time regulation" was 2.9. With regard to departmental heads, some criticisms were directed against a perceived lack of soft skills. According to the respondents, their involvement in decision-making processes was insufficient ("We are involved in decision-making processes affecting our working conditions" - median value 2.4). Residents were also dissatisfied with the feedback they received for their work ("I get enough feedback regarding my achievement" - median value 2.6). Another problem area was career development ("I will finish my specialist training in time" - median value 2.9). However, these points did not affect overall satisfaction. Trainee satisfaction with regulations on working hours is low. Despite a general satisfaction with all fields appraised, improvements in various individual areas, e. g., the attitude of departmental heads and strategies of
Jansen, Shirley; Cowie, Margaret; Linehan, John; Hamdorf, Jeffery M
Reduction in working hours, streamlined training schemes and increasing use of endovascular techniques has meant a reduction in operative experience for newer vascular surgical trainees, especially those exposures which are not routinely performed such as thoracoabdominal, thoracotomy and retroperitoneal aortic, for example. This paper describes an Advanced Anatomy of Exposure course which was designed and convened at the Clinical Training & Evaluation Centre in Western Australia and uses fresh frozen cadavers. Feedback was obtained from the participants who attended over three courses by questionnaire. Feedback was strongly positive for the course meeting both its learning outcomes and personal learning objectives, and in addition, making a significant contribution to specialty skills. Most participants thought the fresh frozen cadaveric model significantly improved the learning objectives for training. The fresh frozen cadaver is an excellent teaching model highly representative of the living open surgical scenario where advanced trainees and newly qualified consultants can improve their operative confidence and consequently patient safety in vascular surgery. An efficient fresh frozen cadaver teaching programme can benefit many health professionals simultaneously maximizing the use of donated human tissue. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Ali, Jason M
Workplace based assessments (WBA) are integral to the competence-based surgical training curriculum that currently exists in the UK. The GMC emphasise the value of WBA's as assessments for learning (formative), rather than as assessments of learning (summative). Current implementation of WBA's in the workplace though, is at odds with their intended use, with the formative functions often being overlooked in favour of the summative, as exemplified by the recent announcement that trainees are required to complete a minimum of 40 WBA's a year, an increase from 24. Even before this increase, trainees viewed WBA's as tick-box exercises that negatively impact upon training opportunities. As a result, the tools are commonly misused, often because both trainees and trainers lack understanding of the benefits of full engagement with the formative learning opportunities afforded by WBA's. To aid the transition in mind-set of trainees and trainers to the purpose of assessment in the workplace, the GMC propose the introduction of 'supervised learning events' and 'assessments of performance' to supersede 'WBA's'. The impact of this change and how these will be integrated into surgical training is yet to be seen, but is likely to be a step in the right direction. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kramp, Kelvin H; van Det, Marc J; Veeger, Nic J G M; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N
Current surgical training is still highly dependent on expensive operating room (OR) experience. Although there have been many attempts to transfer more training to the skills laboratory, little research is focused on which technical behaviors can lead to the highest profit when they are trained outside the OR. The Pareto principle states that in any population that contributes to a common effect, a few account for the bulk of the effect. This principle has been widely used in business management to increase company profits. This study uses the Pareto principle for establishing content criteria for more efficient surgical training. A retrospective study was conducted to assess verbal guidance provided by 9 supervising surgeons to 12 trainees performing 64 laparoscopic cholecystectomies in the OR. The verbal corrections were documented, tallied, and clustered according to the aimed change in novice behavior. The corrections were rank ordered, and a cumulative distribution curve was used to calculate which corrections accounted for 80% of the total number of verbal corrections. In total, 253 different verbal corrections were uttered 1587 times and were categorized into 40 different clusters of aimed changes in novice behaviors. The 35 highest-ranking verbal corrections (14%) and the 11 highest-ranking clusters (28%) accounted for 80% of the total number of given verbal corrections. Following the Pareto principle, we were able to identify the aspects of trainee behavior that account for most corrections given by supervisors during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on humans. This strategy can be used for the development of new training programs to prepare the trainee in advance for the challenges encountered in the clinical setting in an OR. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agarwal, Nitin; Schmitt, Paul J; Sukul, Vishad; Prestigiacomo, Charles J
Virtual reality training for complex tasks has been shown to be of benefit in fields involving highly technical and demanding skill sets. The use of a stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality environment to teach a patient-specific analysis of the microsurgical treatment modalities of a complex basilar aneurysm is presented. Three different surgical approaches were evaluated in a virtual environment and then compared to elucidate the best surgical approach. These approaches were assessed with regard to the line-of-sight, skull base anatomy and visualisation of the relevant anatomy at the level of the basilar artery and surrounding structures. Overall, the stereoscopic 3D virtual reality environment with fusion of multimodality imaging affords an excellent teaching tool for residents and medical students to learn surgical approaches to vascular lesions. Future studies will assess the educational benefits of this modality and develop a series of metrics for student assessments.
Gutiérrez-Baños, J L; Ballestero-Diego, R; Truan-Cacho, D; Aguilera-Tubet, C; Villanueva-Peña, A; Manuel-Palazuelos, J C
The training and learning of residents in laparoscopic surgery has legal, financial and technological limitations. Simulation is an essential tool in the training of residents as a supplement to their training in laparoscopic surgery. The training should be structured in an appropriate environment, with previously established and clear objectives, taught by professionals with clinical and teaching experience in simulation. The training should be conducted with realistic models using animals and ex-vivo tissue from animals. It is essential to incorporate mechanisms to assess the objectives during the residents' training progress. We present the training model for laparoscopic surgery for urology residents at the University Hospital Valdecilla. The training is conducted at the Virtual Hospital Valdecilla, which is associated with the Center for Medical Simulation in Boston and is accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The model is designed in 3 blocks, basic for R1, intermediate for R2-3 and advanced for R4-5, with 9 training modules. The training is conducted in 4-hour sessions for 4 afternoons, for 3 weeks per year of residence. Residents therefore perform 240 hours of simulated laparoscopic training by the end of the course. For each module, we use structured objective assessments to measure each resident's training progress. Since 2003, 9 urology residents have been trained, in addition to the 5 who are currently in training. The model has undergone changes according to the needs expressed in the student feedback. The acquisition of skills in a virtual reality model has enabled the safe transfer of those skills to actual practice. A laparoscopic surgery training program designed in structured blocks and with progressive complexity provides appropriate training for transferring the skills acquired using this model to an actual scenario while maintaining patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Margaret K Sande
Full Text Available Introduction: There is currently no standard forensic medicine training program for emergency medicine residents. In the advent of sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE programs aimed at improving the quality of care for sexual assault victims, it is also unclear how these programs impact emergency medicine (EM resident forensic medicine training. The purpose of this study was togather information on EM residency programs’ training in the care of sexual assault patients and determine what impact SANE programs may have on the experience of EM resident training from the perspective of residency program directors (PDs.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. The study cohort was all residency PDs from approved EM residency training programs who completed a closed-response self-administered survey electronically.Results: We sent surveys to 152 PDs, and 71 responded for an overall response rate of 47%. Twenty-two PDs (31% reported that their residency does not require procedural competency for the sexual assault exam, and 29 (41% reported their residents are required only to observe sexual assault exam completion to demonstrate competency. Residency PDs were asked how their programs established resident requirements for sexual assault exams. Thirty-seven PDs (52% did not know how their sexual assault exam requirement was established.Conclusion: More than half of residency PDs did not know how their sexual assault guidelines were established, and few were based upon recommendations from the literature. There is no clear consensus as to how PDs view the effect of SANE programs on resident competency with the sexual assault exam. This study highlights both a need for increased awareness of EM resident sexual assault education nationally and also a possible need for a training curriculum defining guidelines forEM residents performing sexual assault exams. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:461–466.
McElhaney, Ashley; Weber, Robert J
Pharmacy students typically become more focused on career planning and assessment in the final year of their PharmD training. Weighing career options in the advanced pharmacy practice experience year can be both exciting and stressful. The goal of this article is to provide a primer on how pharmacy students can assess how a residency can fit into career planning. This article will describe the various career paths available to graduating students, highlight ways in which a residency can complement career choices, review the current state of the job market for pharmacists, discuss the current and future plans for residency programs, and present thoughts from some current and former residents on why they chose to complete a residency. Most career paths require some additional training, and a residency provides appropriate experience very quickly compared to on-the-job training. Alternative plans to residency training must also be considered, as there are not enough residency positions for candidates. Directors of pharmacy must consider several factors when giving career advice on pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students; they should provide the students with an honest assessment of their work skills and their abilities to successfully complete a residency. This assessment will help the students to set a plan for improvement and give them a better chance at being matched to a pharmacy residency.
Ovadia, Steven A; Gishen, Kriya; Desai, Urmen; Garcia, Alejandro M; Thaller, Seth R
Entrepreneurial skills are important for physicians, especially plastic surgeons. Nevertheless, these skills are not typically emphasized during residency training. Evaluate the extent of business training at plastic surgery residency programs as well as means of enhancing business training. A 6-question online survey was sent to plastic surgery program directors for distribution to plastic surgery residents. Responses from residents at the PGY2 level and above were included for analysis. Tables were prepared to present survey results. Hundred and sixty-six residents including 147 PGY2 and above residents responded to our survey. Only 43.5% reported inclusion of business training in their plastic surgery residency. A majority of residents reported they do not expect on graduation to be prepared for the business aspects of plastic surgery. Additionally, a majority of residents feel establishment of a formal lecture series on the business of plastic surgery would be beneficial. Results from our survey indicate limited training at plastic surgery programs in necessary business skills. Plastic surgery residency programs should consider incorporating or enhancing elements of business training in their curriculum. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Gallagher, Anthony G; Ritter, E Matt; Champion, Howard; Higgins, Gerald; Fried, Marvin P; Moses, Gerald; Smith, C Daniel; Satava, Richard M
To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The learning and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation as a solution for this problem. Only recently have robust scientific studies supported that vision A review of the surgical education, human-factor, and psychology literature to identify important factors which will impinge on the successful integration of VR training into a surgical training program. VR is more likely to be successful if it is systematically integrated into a well-thought-out education and training program which objectively assesses technical skills improvement proximate to the learning experience. Validated performance metrics should be relevant to the surgical task being trained but in general will require trainees to reach an objectively determined proficiency criterion, based on tightly defined metrics and perform at this level consistently. VR training is more likely to be successful if the training schedule takes place on an interval basis rather than massed into a short period of extensive practice. High-fidelity VR simulations will confer the greatest skills transfer to the in vivo surgical situation, but less expensive VR trainers will also lead to considerably improved skills generalizations. VR for improved performance of MIS is now a reality. However, VR is only a training tool that must be thoughtfully introduced into a surgical training curriculum for it to successfully improve surgical technical skills.
Wong, Brian M; Coffey, Maitreya; Nousiainen, Markku T; Brydges, Ryan; McDonald-Blumer, Heather; Atkinson, Adelle; Levinson, Wendy; Stroud, Lynfa
Residents' attitudes toward error disclosure have improved over time. It is unclear whether this has been accompanied by improvements in disclosure skills. To measure the disclosure skills of internal medicine (IM), paediatrics, and orthopaedic surgery residents, and to explore resident perceptions of formal versus informal training in preparing them for disclosure in real-world practice. We assessed residents' error disclosure skills using a structured role play with a standardized patient in 2012-2013. We compared disclosure skills across programs using analysis of variance. We conducted a multiple linear regression, including data from a historical cohort of IM residents from 2005, to investigate the influence of predictor variables on performance: training program, cohort year, and prior disclosure training and experience. We conducted a qualitative descriptive analysis of data from semistructured interviews with residents to explore resident perceptions of formal versus informal disclosure training. In a comparison of disclosure skills for 49 residents, there was no difference in overall performance across specialties (4.1 to 4.4 of 5, P = .19). In regression analysis, only the current cohort was significantly associated with skill: current residents performed better than a historical cohort of 42 IM residents ( P formal (workshops, morbidity and mortality rounds) and informal (role modeling, debriefing) activities in preparation for disclosure in real-world practice. Residents across specialties have similar skills in disclosure of errors. Residents identified role modeling and a strong local patient safety culture as key facilitators for disclosure.
Colton H. L. McNichols, MD
Conclusions:. There is an increase in dedicated cosmetic surgery rotations and fewer residents believe they need a fellowship to practice cosmetic surgery. However, the comfort level of performing facial aesthetic and body contouring procedures remains low particularly among independent residents.
Ganni, Sandeep; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Goossens, Richard H M; Jakimowicz, Jack J
The concept of self-assessment has been widely acclaimed for its role in the professional development cycle and self-regulation. In the field of medical education, self-assessment has been most used to evaluate the cognitive knowledge of students. The complexity of training and evaluation in laparoscopic surgery has previously acted as a barrier in determining the benefits self-assessment has to offer in comparison with other fields of medical education. Thirty-five surgical residents who attended the 2-day Laparoscopic Surgical Skills Grade 1 Level 1 curriculum were invited to participate from The Netherlands, India and Romania. The competency assessment tool (CAT) for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was used for self- and expert-assessment and the resulting distributions assessed. A comparison between the expert- and self-assessed aggregates of scores from the CAT agreed with previous studies. Uniquely to this study, the aggregates of individual sub-categories-'use of instruments'; 'tissue handling'; and errors 'within the component tasks' and the 'end product' from both self- and expert-assessments-were investigated. There was strong positive correlation (r s > 0.5; p assessment in all categories with only the 'tissue handling' having a weaker correlation (r s = 0.3; p = 0.04). The distribution of the mean of the differences between self-assessment and expert-assessment suggested no significant difference between the scores of experts and the residents in all categories except the 'end product' evaluation where the difference was significant (W = 119, p = 0.03). Self-assessment using the CAT form gives results that are consistently not different from expert-assessment when assessing one's proficiency in surgical skills. Areas where there was less agreement could be explained by variations in the level of training and understanding of the assessment criteria.
Huotarinen, Antti; Niemelä, Mika; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai
Residents' lives are hectic-it is hard to find a place and time for training basic and advanced microsurgical skills. Surgical instruments and sutures can be purchased (or loaned from another department), but the most expensive and space-occupying device is the microscope. In developing countries, microscopes are used where they are needed most, in operating rooms. Furthermore, a conventional microscope is not portable. For all of these reasons, the availability of microscopes for training microsurgery is limited. We used a coffee cup and smartphone (CCS) as a training device instead of a microscope. The coffee cup was the base, and the smartphone functioned to magnify, illuminate, and visualize objects. We measured 2 residents' performance on end-to-end artificial bypass before and after 5 days of CCS-based training. We were able to quickly set up the environment for practicing microsurgical skills in any surrounding. After 5 days of training with CCS we could see significant development of microsurgical performance with a conventional microscope as well. The learning curve was dependent on baseline performance. CCS is efficient, mobile, and easy to set up. Even though our smartphone-based training was in 2 dimensions, we could improve our microsurgical performance with conventional microscopes, which have 3-dimensional capability. CCS also provides an easy method to record one's microsurgical training. CCS improved both of the subjects' microsurgical performance, making it a good alternative for a traditional microscope. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
M Emre Altunrende
Full Text Available Background: Neurosurgery and ophthalmology residents need many years to improve microsurgical skills. Laboratory training models are very important for developing surgical skills before clinical application of microsurgery. A simple simulation model is needed for residents to learn how to handle microsurgical instruments and to perform safe dissection of intracranial or intraorbital nerves, vessels, and other structures. Materials and Methods: The simulation material consists of a one-year-old fresh cadaveric sheep cranium. Two parts (Part 1 and Part 2 were designed to approach structures of the orbit. Part 1 consisted of a 2-step approach to dissect intraorbital structures, and Part 2 consisted of a 3-step approach to dissect the optic nerve intracranially. Results: The model simulates standard microsurgical techniques using a variety of approaches to structures in and around the orbit and the optic nerve. Conclusions: This laboratory training model enables trainees to gain experience with an operating microscope, microsurgical instruments and orbital structures.
Abdelsattar, Jad M; AlJamal, Yazan N; Ruparel, Raaj K; Rowse, Phillip G; Heller, Stephanie F; Farley, David R
Faculty evaluations, ABSITE scores, and operative case volumes often tell little about true resident performance. We developed an objective structured clinical examination called the Surgical X-Games (5 rooms, 15 minutes each, 12-15 tests total, different for each postgraduate [PGY] level). We hypothesized that performance in X-Games will prove more useful in identifying areas of strength or weakness among general surgery (GS) residents than faculty evaluations, ABSITE scores, or operative cases volumes. PGY 2 to 5 GS residents (n = 35) were tested in a semiannual X-Games assessment using multiple simulation tasks: laparoscopic skills, bowel anastomosis, CT/CXR analysis, chest tube placement, etc. over 1 academic year. Resident scores were compared to their ABSITE, in-training evaluation reports, and operating room case numbers. Academic medical center. PGY-2, 3, 4, and 5 GS residents at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Results varied greatly within each class except for staff evaluations: in-training evaluation reports medians for PGY-2s were 5.3 (range: 5.0-6.0), PGY-3s 5.9 (5.5-6.3), PGY-4s 5.6 (5.0-6.0), and PGY-5s were 6.1 (5.6-6.9). Although ABSITE and operating room case volumes fluctated greatly with each PGY class, only X-Games scores (median: PGY-2 = 82, PGY-3 = 61, PGY-4 = 76, and PGY-5 = 60) correlated positively (p < 0.05) with operative case volume and negatively (p < 0.05) with staff evaluations. X-Games assessment generated wide differentiation of resident performance quickly, inexpensively, and objectively. Although "Minnesota-nice" surgical staff may feel all GS trainees are "above average," objective assessment tells us otherwise. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.
Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…
Kassardjian, Charles D; Williamson, Michelle L; van Buskirk, Dorothy J; Ernste, Floranne C; Hunderfund, Andrea N Leep
Teaching quality improvement (QI) is a priority for residency and fellowship training programs. However, many medical trainees have had little exposure to QI methods. The purpose of this study is to review a rigorous and simple QI methodology (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control [DMAIC]) and demonstrate its use in a fellow-driven QI project aimed at reducing the number of delayed and canceled muscle biopsies at our institution. DMAIC was utilized. The project aim was to reduce the number of delayed muscle biopsies to 10% or less within 24 months. Baseline data were collected for 12 months. These data were analyzed to identify root causes for muscle biopsy delays and cancellations. Interventions were developed to address the most common root causes. Performance was then remeasured for 9 months. Baseline data were collected on 97 of 120 muscle biopsies during 2013. Twenty biopsies (20.6%) were delayed. The most common causes were scheduling too many tests on the same day and lack of fasting. Interventions aimed at patient education and biopsy scheduling were implemented. The effect was to reduce the number of delayed biopsies to 6.6% (6/91) over the next 9 months. Familiarity with QI methodologies such as DMAIC is helpful to ensure valid results and conclusions. Utilizing DMAIC, we were able to implement simple changes and significantly reduce the number of delayed muscle biopsies at our institution. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Francesca Monn, M; Wang, Ming-Hsien; Gilson, Marta M; Chen, Belinda; Kern, David; Gearhart, Susan L
To determine the perceived effectiveness of surgical subspecialty training programs in teaching and assessing the 6 ACGME core competencies including research. Cross-sectional survey. ACGME approved training programs in pediatric urology and colorectal surgery. Program Directors and recent trainees (2007-2009). A total of 39 program directors (60%) and 57 trainees (64%) responded. Both program directors and recent trainees reported a higher degree of training and mentorship (75%) in patient care and medical knowledge than the other core competencies (pinterpersonal and communication, and professionalism training were perceived effective to a lesser degree. Specifically, in the areas of teaching residents and medical students and team building, program directors, compared with recent trainees, perceived training to be more effective, (p = 0.004, p = 0.04). Responses to questions assessing training in systems based practice ubiquitously identified a lack of training, particularly in financial matters of running a practice. Although effective training in research was perceived as lacking by recent trainees, 81% reported mentorship in this area. According to program directors and recent trainees, the most effective method of teaching was faculty supervision and feedback. Only 50% or less of the recent trainees reported mentorship in career planning, work-life balance, and job satisfaction. Not all 6 core competencies and research are effectively being taught in surgery subspecialty training programs and mentorship in areas outside of patient care and research is lacking. Emphasis should be placed on faculty supervision and feedback when designing methods to better incorporate all 6 core competencies, research, and mentorship. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Narayanan, Sarath Kumar; Cohen, Ralph Clinton; Shun, Albert
Minimal access techniques have transformed the way pediatric surgery is practiced. Due to various constraints, surgical residency programs have not been able to tutor adequate training skills in the routine setting. The advent of new technology and methods in minimally invasive surgery (MIS), has similarly contributed to the need for systematic skills' training in a safe, simulated environment. To enable the training of the proper technique among pediatric surgery trainees, we have advanced a porcine non-survival model for endoscopic surgery. The technical advancements over the past 3 years and a subjective validation of the porcine model from 114 participating trainees using a standard questionnaire and a 5-point Likert scale have been described here. Mean attitude scores and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis of the data. Almost all trainees agreed or strongly agreed that the animal-based model was appropriate (98.35%) and also acknowledged that such workshops provided adequate practical experience before attempting on human subjects (96.6%). Mean attitude score for respondents was 19.08 (SD 3.4, range 4-20). Attitude scores showed no statistical association with years of experience or the level of seniority, indicating a positive attitude among all groups of respondents. Structured porcine-based MIS training should be an integral part of skill acquisition for pediatric surgery trainees and the experience gained can be transferred into clinical practice. We advocate that laparoscopic training should begin in a controlled workshop setting before procedures are attempted on human patients.
Glover, Mark L; Sussmane, Jeffrey B
To evaluate residents' skills in performing basic mathematical calculations used for prescribing medications to pediatric patients. In 2001, a test of ten questions on basic calculations was given to first-, second-, and third-year residents at Miami Children's Hospital in Florida. Four additional questions were included to obtain the residents' levels of training, specific pediatrics intensive care unit (PICU) experience, and whether or not they routinely double-checked doses and adjusted them for each patient's weight. The test was anonymous and calculators were permitted. The overall score and the score for each resident class were calculated. Twenty-one residents participated. The overall average test score and the mean test score of each resident class was less than 70%. Second-year residents had the highest mean test scores, although there was no significant difference between the classes of residents (p =.745) or relationship between the residents' PICU experiences and their exam scores (p =.766). There was no significant difference between residents' levels of training and whether they double-checked their calculations (p =.633) or considered each patient's weight relative to the dose prescribed (p =.869). Seven residents committed tenfold dosing errors, and one resident committed a 1,000-fold dosing error. Pediatrics residents need to receive additional education in performing the calculations needed to prescribe medications. In addition, residents should be required to demonstrate these necessary mathematical skills before they are allowed to prescribe medications.
Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Mazza, Joni M; Silverberg, Nanette B
Variability exists in pediatric dermatology education for dermatology residents. We sought to formally assess the pediatric dermatology curriculum and experience in a dermatology residency program. Three unique surveys were developed for dermatology residents, residency program directors, and pediatric dermatology fellowship program directors. The surveys consisted of questions pertaining to residency program characteristics. Sixty-three graduating third-year residents, 51 residency program directors, and 18 pediatric dermatology fellowship program directors responded. Residents in programs with one or more full-time pediatric dermatologist were more likely to feel very competent treating children and were more likely to be somewhat or extremely satisfied with their pediatric curriculums than residents in programs with no full-time pediatric dermatologist (50.0% vs 5.9%, p = 0.002, and 85.3% vs 52.9%, p dermatology fellowships were much more likely to report being extremely satisfied than residents in programs without a pediatric dermatology fellowship (83.3% vs 21.2%; p dermatology residency programs to continue to strengthen their pediatric dermatology curriculums, especially through the recruitment of full-time pediatric dermatologists. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Blom, E M; Verdaasdonk, E G G; Stassen, L P S; Stassen, H G; Wieringa, P A; Dankelman, J
Verbal communication in the operating room during surgical procedures affects team performance, reflects individual skills, and is related to the complexity of the operation process. During the procedural training of surgeons (residents), feedback and guidance is given through verbal communication. A classification method based on structural analysis of the contents was developed to analyze verbal communication. This study aimed to evaluate whether a classification method for the contents of verbal communication in the operating room could provide insight into the teaching processes. Eight laparoscopic cholecystectomies were videotaped. Two entire cholecystectomies and the dissection phase of six additional procedures were analyzed by categorization of the communication in terms of type (4 categories: commanding, explaining, questioning, and miscellaneous) and content (9 categories: operation method, location, direction, instrument handling, visualization, anatomy and pathology, general, private, undefinable). The operation was divided into six phases: start, dissection, clipping, separating, control, closing. Classification of the communication during two entire procedures showed that each phase of the operation was dominated by different kinds of communication. A high percentage of explaining anatomy and pathology was found throughout the whole procedure except for the control and closing phases. In the dissection phases, 60% of verbal communication concerned explaining. These explaining communication events were divided as follows: 27% operation method, 19% anatomy and pathology, 25% location (positioning of the instrument-tissue interaction), 15% direction (direction of tissue manipulation), 11% instrument handling, and 3% other nonclassified instructions. The proposed classification method is feasible for analyzing verbal communication during surgical procedures. Communication content objectively reflects the interaction between surgeon and resident. This
Rosenberg, Adam A; Kamin, Carol; Glicken, Anita Duhl; Jones, M Douglas
Resident training in pediatrics currently entails similar training for all residents in a fragmented curriculum with relatively little attention to the career plans of individual residents. To explore strengths and gaps in training for residents planning a career in primary care pediatrics and to present strategies for addressing the gaps. Surveys were sent to all graduates of the University of Colorado Denver Pediatric Residency Program (2003-2006) 3 years after completion of training. Respondents were asked to evaluate aspects of their training, using a 5-point Likert scale and evaluating each item ranging from "not at all well prepared" to "extremely well prepared" for their future career. In addition, focus groups were conducted with practitioners in 8 pediatric practices in Colorado. Sessions were transcribed and hand coded by 2 independent coders. Survey data identified training in behavior and development (mean score, 3.72), quality improvement and patient safety strategies (mean, 3.57), and practice management (mean, 2.46) as the weakest aspects of training. Focus groups identified deficiencies in training in mental health, practice management, behavioral medicine, and orthopedics. Deficiencies noted in curriculum structure were lack of residents' long-term continuity of relationships with patients; the need for additional training in knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for primary care (perhaps even a fourth year of training); and a training structure that facilitates greater resident autonomy to foster development of clinical capability and self-confidence. Important gaps were identified in the primary care training of pediatric residents. These data support the need to develop more career-focused training.
Eckert, Jill; Vaida, Sonia J; Bezinover, Dmitri; McCloskey, Diane E; Mets, Berend
We report the successful implementation of structured resident academic projects in our Department of Anesthesiology at the Penn State Hershey Medical Center. Beginning with the graduating class of 2010, we adopted an expectation that each resident complete a project that results in a manuscript of publishable quality. Defining a clear timeline for all steps in the project and providing research education, as well as the necessary infrastructure and ongoing support, has helped grow the academic productivity of our anesthesia residents.
Lu-Myers, Yemeng; Myers, Christopher G
Increasing attention has been paid to the selection of otolaryngology residents, a highly competitive process but one with room for improvement. A recent commentary in this journal recommended that residency programs more thoroughly incorporate theory and evidence from personnel psychology (part of the broader field of organizational science) in the resident selection process. However, the focus of this recommendation was limited to applicants' cognitive abilities and independent work-oriented traits (eg, conscientiousness). We broaden this perspective to consider critical interpersonal skills and traits that enhance resident effectiveness in interdependent health care organizations and we expand beyond the emphasis on selection to consider how these skills can be honed during residency. We advocate for greater use of standardized team-based care simulations, which can aid in assessing and developing the key interpersonal leadership skills necessary for success as an otolaryngology resident.
Mansi, Ishak A
In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from "years of residency" to "hours of residency." For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of "multipliers" based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the "final adjusted accredited hours" that count toward graduation. Substituting "years of training" with "hours of training" may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education.
Makdisi, George; Makdisi, Tony; Caldeira, Christiano C; Wang, I-Wen
The quality of training provided to thoracic transplant fellows is a critical step in the care of complex patients undergoing transplant. The training varies since it is not an accreditation council for graduate medical education accredited fellowship. A total of 104 heart or lung transplant program directors throughout the United States were sent a survey of 24 questions focusing on key aspects of training, fellowship training content and thoracic transplant job satisfaction. Out of the 104 programs surveyed 45 surveys (43%) were returned. In total, 26 programs offering a transplant fellowship were included in the survey. Among these programs 69% currently have fellows of which 56% are American Board of Thoracic Surgery board eligible. According to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) requirements, 46% of the programs do not meet the requirements to be qualified as a primary heart transplant surgeon. A total of 23% of lung transplant programs also perform less than the UNOS minimum requirements. Only 24% have extra-surgical curriculum. Out of the participating programs, only 38% of fellows secured a job in a hospital setting for performing transplants. An astounding 77% of replies site an unpredictable work schedule as the main reason that makes thoracic transplant a less than favorable profession among new graduates. Long hours were also a complaint of 69% of graduates who agreed that their personal life is affected by excessive work hours. Annually, almost half of all thoracic transplant programs perform fewer than the UNOS requirements to be a primary thoracic surgeon. This results in a majority of transplant fellows not finding a suitable transplant career. The current and future needs for highly qualified thoracic transplant surgeons will not be met through our existing training mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berkenbosch, Lizanne; Schoenmaker, Suzanne Gerdien; Ahern, Susannah
Previous research has shown that Dutch medical residents feel inadequate in certain management areas: 85% had a need for management training and reported preferences on the format of such training. Our objective was to explore if the perceived deficiencies and needs among Dutch residents were sim...... similar to those of their peers in other countries, and if a longer duration of the incorporation of the CanMEDS competency framework into curricula as well as management training had an influence on these perceptions....
Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Tan, Sarah; Lee, Shu Yen; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San
To investigate residents' self-reported satisfaction level with their proficiency in extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) surgery and the initial barriers to learning the procedure. This is a single-centre prospective descriptive case series involving eight first-year ophthalmology residents in Singapore National Eye Center. We recorded the demographics, frequency of review by the residents of their own surgical videos and their satisfaction level with their proficiency at each of the ECCE steps using a 5-point Likert scale. All ECCE surgical videos between October 2013 and May 2014 were collected and analysed for the overall time taken for the surgery and the time taken to perform the individual steps of the procedure. The mean age of the residents was 27.6 ± 1.5 years and 62.5% (5/8) were women. More than half (62.5%, 5/8) reviewed their own surgical videos while 37.5% (3/8) discussed the surgical videos with their peers or supervisors. Of the ECCE steps, the residents were most dissatisfied with their proficiency in performing irrigation and aspiration (87.5%, 7/8), followed by suturing (62.5%, 5/8), intraocular lens insertion (62.5%, 5/8) and tin can capsulotomy (62.5%, 5/8). The average time taken for each ECCE case was 55.0 ± 12.2 min and, of all the steps, most time was spent on suturing (20.5 ± 6.8 min), followed by irrigation and aspiration (5.5 ± 3.6 min) and tin can capsulotomy (3.3 ± 1.8 min). The first-year ophthalmology residents were most dissatisfied with their proficiency in irrigation/aspiration, suturing and tin can capsulotomy. More training needs to be directed to these areas during teaching sessions in the operating room, wet laboratory or cataract simulation training sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Salles, Arghavan; Milam, Laurel; Cohen, Geoffrey; Mueller, Claudia
Physician well-being is a significant problem. Here we explore whether one factor, a resident's concern for being judged by one's gender, influences well-being. Over two years at one institution, we surveyed surgical residents on validated measures of well-being as well as the extent to which they felt they were judged because of their gender (gender judgment). We used correlations and linear regression to investigate the relationships between gender judgment and well-being. There were 193 unique respondents (87% response rate). Women had significantly more concerns about gender judgment than men (M = 2.39, SD = 0.73 vs. M = 1.46, SD = 0.62, t = -9.47, p gender judgment concerns were significantly associated with all three well-being outcomes (Bs -0.34, 0.50, and 0.39, respectively for well-being, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization, all p gender is significantly associated with worse well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Green, Courtney A; Huang, Emily; Zhao, Nina W; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Kim, Edward; Chern, Hueylan
Sustainability of skill acquisition gained from graduating medical student (GMS) preparatory courses remains uncertain. GMS skills were assessed before (T1) and after a preparatory course (T2) and then again 2 (T3) and 4 (T4) months into residency and compared to surgical interns without such a course. In April, GMS took the preparatory course. In July-August all interns participated in a basic skills curriculum. Learners completed four technical exercises pre/post each course. Three surgeons scored performances. GMS scores were compared across the 4 time points. Control interns were compared at T3 and T4. Thirty-two interns completed all pre/post course assessments (T3 and T4); seven of those were GMSs. GMS scores increased from 74.5%(T1) to 94.2%(T2) (p starting residency compared to control interns (T3, 89.08% vs 65.03%, p start. Without such course, interns require a steep learning curve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Eindhoven laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course--improving operating room performance using virtual reality training: results from the first E.A.E.S. accredited virtual reality trainings curriculum
Schijven, M. P.; Jakimowicz, J. J.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.; Tseng, L. N. L.
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to investigate operating room performance of surgical residents, after participating in the Eindhoven virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course. This course is the first formal surgical resident trainings course, using a variety of
Hymowitz, Norman; Pyle, Sara A; Haddock, C Keith; Schwab, Joseph V
To assess parent behavioral change and perception of resident intervention on tobacco. In a long-term study of the efficacy of training pediatric residents to address tobacco conducted at the New Jersey Medical School, sixteen pediatric training programs were assigned randomly to either special or standard training conditions. Parent surveys were administered in the fall of 2001 and 2005 in order to assess the effects of resident intervention on parent behavior, as well as parent perceptions of resident intervention. The percent of parents who smoke at sites associated with the special training condition, but not of those at sites associated with standard training, who reported that residents advised them to stop smoking, offered to help them quit, and provided quit smoking materials increased significantly from baseline to year 4. The percent of parents in the special training condition who reported quitting smoking in the past year also increased, although the increase was not statistically significant. A majority of the parents associated with each training condition reported receiving intervention for second hand smoke (SHS). For each training condition, the level of intervention to prevent exposure of infants and children to SHS exposure was similar at baseline and year 4, as was the percent of parents who reported having a smoke-free household. The results support the efficacy of the special training program and underscore the importance of preparing pediatric residents to address tobacco.
Wagoner, Michael D; Wickard, Joseph C; Wandling, George R; Milder, Lisa C; Rauen, Matthew P; Kitzmann, Anna S; Sutphin, John E; Goins, Kenneth M
To evaluate and compare the outcome of initial resident surgical experience with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK. Retrospective review of all cases performed with the VISX Star S4 platform (Abbott Medical Optics) between July 1, 2003 and June 30, 2007. Inclusion criteria were spherical equivalent of -0.50 to -10.00 diopters (D), refractive astigmatic error of ≤3.00 D, intention to provide full distance correction, and minimum 3-month postoperative follow-up after initial ablation or retreatment (if performed). A total of 153 cases performed by 20 different residents met the inclusion criteria; 38 eyes underwent PRK and 115 eyes had LASIK. After initial treatment, mean Snellen uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) after PRK was 20/17.3 and after LASIK was 20/19.5. Photorefractive keratectomy was associated with a significantly better approximation between preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and postoperative UDVA (ΔlogMAR 0.009 vs 0.091; P=.004) and a greater percentage of eyes that achieved UDVA of 20/20 or better (94.7% vs 78.3%; P=.02) or 20/30 or better (100% vs 87.8%; P=.02). There was a higher prevalence of retreatment in eyes that underwent LASIK (7.0% vs 0%; P=.20). One (0.9%) eye lost 2 lines of CDVA after LASIK. Supervised refractive surgery residents can achieve excellent visual outcomes in patients operated during their initial refractive experience. Photorefractive keratectomy was associated with better visual outcome than LASIK. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Singh, Barinder; Banwell, Emma; Groll, Dianne
The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada specifies both respect for diversity as a requirement of professionalism and culturally sensitive provision of medical care. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the perception of preparedness and attitudes of medical residents to deliver cross-cultural care. The Cross Cultural Care Survey was sent via e-mail to all Faculty of Medicine residents (approx. 450) in an academic health sciences centre. Comparisons were made between psychiatry residents, family medicine residents, and other residency groups with respect to training, preparedness, and skillfulness in delivering cross-cultural care. Seventy-three (16%) residents responded to the survey. Residents in psychiatry and family medicine reported significantly more training and formal evaluation regarding cross-cultural care than residents in other programs. However, there were no significant differences in self-reported preparedness and skillfulness. Residents in family medicine were more likely to report needing more practical experience working with diverse groups. Psychiatry residents were less likely to report inadequate cross-cultural training. While most residents reported feeling skillful and prepared to work with culturally diverse groups, they report receiving little additional instruction or formal evaluation on this topic, particularly in programs other than psychiatry and family medicine.
Sargent, M Catherine; Sotile, Wayne; Sotile, Mary O; Rubash, Harry; Barrack, Robert L
A pilot study of two academic training programs revealed concerning levels of resident burnout and psychological dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to determine the quality of life of orthopaedic residents and faculty on a national scale and to identify risk factors for decompensation. Three hundred and eighty-four orthopaedic residents and 264 full-time orthopaedic faculty members completed a voluntary, anonymous survey consisting of three validated instruments (the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale) and question sets assessing demographic information, relationship issues, stress reactions/management, and work/life balance. High levels of burnout were seen in 56% of the residents and 28% of the faculty members. Burnout risk was greatest among second-postgraduate-year residents and residents in training programs with six or more residents per postgraduate year. Sixteen percent of residents and 19% of faculty members reported symptoms of psychological distress. Sleep deprivation was common among the residents and correlated positively with every distress measure. Faculty reported greater levels of stress but greater satisfaction with work and work/life balance. A number of factors, such as making time for hobbies and limiting alcohol use, correlated with decreased dysfunction for both residents and faculty. Despite reporting high levels of job satisfaction, orthopaedic residents and faculty are at risk for burnout and distress. Identification of protective factors and risk factors may provide guidance to improve the quality of life of academic orthopaedic surgeons in training and beyond.
van Det, M.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Hoff, C.; Middel, B.; Pierie, J.P.
INtraoperative Video Enhanced Surgical procedure Training (INVEST) is a new training method designed to improve the transition from basic skills training in a skills lab to procedural training in the operating theater. Traditionally, the master-apprentice model (MAM) is used for procedural training
Hamadani, Fadi T; Deckelbaum, Dan; Sauve, Alexandre; Khwaja, Kosar; Razek, Tarek; Fata, Paola
The implementation of work hour restrictions across North America have resulted in decreased levels of self injury and medical errors for Residents. An arbitration ruling in Quebec has led to further curtailment of work hours beyond that proposed by the ACGME. This may threaten Resident quality of life and in turn decrease the educational quality of surgical residency training. We administered a quality of life questionnaire with an integrated education quality assessment tool to all General Surgery residents training at McGill 6 months after the work hour restrictions. Across several strata respondents reveal a decreased sense of educational quality and quality of life. The arbitration argued that work- hour restrictions would be necessary to improve quality of life for trainees and hence improve patient safety. Results from this study demonstrate the exact opposite in a large majority of respondents, who report a poorer quality of life and a self-reported inability on their part to provide continuous and safe patient care. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lases, S S; Lombarts, M J M H; Slootweg, Irene A; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Pierik, E G J M; Heineman, Erik
Residents’ well-being is essential for both the individual physician and the quality of patient care they deliver. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly enhance residents’ well-being. We investigated (i) the influence of mind fitness training (MFT) on quality of care-related well-being characteristics: work engagement, empathy, work satisfaction and stress perception and explored (ii) residents’ perceptions of MFT. A multicenter study was conducted in eight Dutch teaching hospitals, from September 2012 to February 2014, using mixed methods—that is, quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis. Eighty-nine surgical residents were invited to participate in pre- and post-intervention questionnaire surveys. Twenty-two residents participated in MFT and were additionally invited to evaluate the training by post-intervention interviews including open questions. At baseline 22 (100%) residents in intervention group and 47 (70.2%) residents in control group, and postintervention 20 (90.9 %) residents in intervention group and 41 (66.1%) residents in control group completed the questionnaires. In intervention-group, residents’ specialty satisfaction increased by 0.23 point on 5-point Likert scale (95% CI 0.23–0.24, P < 0.001) while stress scores decreased by -0.94 point on 10-point scale (95% CI -1.77 to -0.12, P = 0.026). No substantial changes were observed in control group. Participation in MFT was positively associated with residents’ empathy (b = 7.22; 95% CI 4.33–10.11; P < 0.001) and specialty satisfaction scores (b = 0.42; 95% CI 0.18–0.65; P = 0.001). Residents positively evaluated MFT with median scores of 6.80 for training design and 7.21 for outcome (10-point scale). Residents perceived improvement in focusing skills and reported being more aware of their own state of mind and feeling calmer and more in control. Mind fitness training could improve residents’ empathy, specialty satisfaction, stress
Conclusions: We conclude that medical educators should critically re-think our programs to develop resident researchers. If it is worthwhile to require original research projects during residency, then we must consider the priorities of local settings to best serve the public interest.
McCannel, Colin A
To assess the specificity of simulation-based virtual reality ophthalmic cataract surgery training on the Eyesi ophthalmic virtual reality surgical simulator, and test the hypothesis that microsurgical motor learning is highly specific. Retrospective educational interventional case series. The rates of vitreous loss and retained lens material, and vitreous loss and retained lens material associated with an errant continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) were assessed among 1037 consecutive cataract surgeries performed during four consecutive academic years at a teaching hospital. The data were grouped by Eyesi use and capsulorhexis intensive training curriculum (CITC) completion. The main intervention was the completion of the CITC on the Eyesi. In the Eyesi simulator experience-based stratification, the vitreous loss rate was similar in each group (chi square p=0.95) and was not preceded by an errant CCC in 86.2% for "CITC done at least once", 57.1% for "CITC not done, but some Eyesi use", and 48.9% for "none" training groups (p=4×10-5). Retained lens material overall and occurring among the errant CCC cases was similar among training groups (p=0.82 and p=0.71, respectively). Eyesi capsulorhexis training was not associated with lower vitreous loss rates overall. However, non-errant CCC associated vitreous loss was higher among those who underwent Eyesi capsulorhexis training. Training focused on the CCC portion of cataract surgery may not reduce vitreous loss unassociated with an errant CCC. It is likely that surgical training is highly specific to the task being trained. Residents may need to be trained for all surgical steps with adequate intensity to minimize overall complication rates.
Eduardo B. Arribalzaga
in two basis surgical techniques performed by residents. Material and method: Observational prospective preliminary study in University Hospital, in both thoracotomy and abdominoplasty performed. Through a modified comparison Likert scale, specific maneuvers were evaluated. Observers did not know surgeons identity. Statistical analysis (ANOVA and Student t test was used to detect results validity and differences. Results: Both surgical techniques obtainded a number 2 value (good, without significant differences between them. Conclusions: A simple observational method allowed a situational diagnosis and demonstrated the importance of developing teaching skills in surgical residence program.
Zender, Chad A; Clancy, Kate; Melki, Sami; Li, Shawn; Fowler, Nicole
To assess the impact of a microvascular head and neck (H&N) fellowship on senior residents' surgical experience. Retrospective review of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-generated operative case log reports, retrospective chart review, and electronic survey. A retrospective review of one institution's residents' H&N operative case logs and free flap operative reports was performed to determine changes in key indicator cases (KICs) after the addition of a H&N fellowship. An electronic survey was distributed to senior residents at all U.S. otolaryngology residency programs to determine residents' perceptions of a H&N fellow's impact on their surgical experience. An electronic survey was distributed to senior medical students applying to surgical residencies to explore the perceived impact that a fellowship has on the desirability of a residency program. The average number of each postgraduate year (PGY)5's H&N KIC before and after the addition of the fellowship were: parotidectomy, 19 versus 17.8; neck dissection, 33.2 versus 40.6; oral cavity resection, 15.3 versus 12.6; thyroid/parathyroid, 45.5 versus 45.6; and flaps/grafts, 56.7 versus 42. PGY5 participation as first assistant in free flaps dropped from 78% to 17%; however, residents still participated in some aspect of 45% of the cases. Seventy percent of senior residents reported a positive perception of the H&N fellow on their H&N operative experience. Eighty-nine percent of senior medical student respondents reported a nonnegative perception of a fellowship in their applied field. The addition of a H&N fellowship did not decrease senior residents' H&N KIC, and most senior residents at programs with fellowships report that the fellow has a positive impact on their H&N operative experience. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:52-56, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Gaufberg, Elizabeth H.; Joseph, Robert C.; Pels, Richard J.; Wyshak, Grace; Wieman, Dow; Nadelson, Carol C.
Surveyed directors of internal medicine (IM) and family practice (FP) residency programs regarding the format, content, and quantity of psychosocial training in their programs, their opinions on topics related to such training, and program demographics. Found considerable variation in content and time devoted to psychosocial training within and…
Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Ingram, Katherine M; Williams, Kristy H; Bencken, Crystal L; Swiderski, Dawn
Interdisciplinary team training in a simulation center recreates clinical team interactions and holds promise in improving teamwork of clinicians by breaking down educational silos. The objective of our study was to assess the appropriateness of interdisciplinary training with general surgery residents and nursing students. Over 2 consecutive academic years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014), general surgery residents participated in interdisciplinary team-training simulation-based sessions with senior nursing students. Scenario objectives included demonstration of appropriate teamwork and communication, and clinical decision making; sessions incorporated interdisciplinary debriefing of the scenarios. Participants were asked to assess their team-training experience and the appropriateness of their team-training partner. Responses were compared. A total of 16 team-training sessions were conducted during the study period. Overall, 12 surgery residents (67%) and 44 nursing students (63%) who had participated in at least 1 session responded to the survey. Although both residents and nursing students indicated that the knowledge and team skills acquired during these sessions were useful to them in clinical practice (73% vs 86%, respectively; p = not significant), residents rated their educational value lower (3.3 vs 4.3 on a 5-point scale, respectively; p training partners whereas 100% residents preferred practicing nurses and 0% with nursing students owing to their limited clinical experience. Interdisciplinary team training and debriefing of surgery residents with nursing students is feasible and highly valued by nursing students. Nevertheless, our experience indicates that residents do not prefer nursing students as team-training partners owing to their limited clinical experience and would rather train with experienced nurses. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gene Hern, H; Wills, Charlotte; Alter, Harrison; Bowman, Steven H; Katz, Eric; Shayne, Philip; Vahidnia, Farnaz
The residency review committee for emergency medicine (EM) requires residents to have greater than 70% attendance of educational conferences during residency training, but it is unknown whether attendance improves clinical competence or scores on the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training examination (ITE). This study examined the relationship between conference attendance and ITE scores. The hypothesis was that greater attendance would correlate to a higher examination score. This was a multi-center retrospective cohort study using conference attendance data and examination results from residents in four large county EM residency training programs. Longitudinal multi-level models, adjusting for training site, U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score, and sex were used to explore the relationship between conference attendance and in-training examination scores according to year of training. Each year of training was studied, as well as the overall effect of mean attendance as it related to examination score. Four training sites reported data on 405 residents during 2002 to 2008; 386 residents had sufficient data to analyze. In the multi-level longitudinal models, attendance at conference was not a significant predictor of in-training percentile score (coefficient = 0.005, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.053 to 0.063, p = 0.87). Score on the USMLE Step 1 examination was a strong predictor of ITE score (coefficient = 0.186, 95% CI = 0.155 to 0.217; p ITE scores. Conference attendance may represent an important part of EM residency training but perhaps not of ITE performance. (c) 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Snyder, Elizabeth; Solnes, Lilja; Horton, Karen M; Johnson, Pamela T
The role of a radiologist has expanded beyond the tripartite mission of patient care, education, and research to include cross-specialty consultation for patient management, innovative solutions to improve health-care quality and safety, device design, and policy advocacy. As such, radiology residency programs should incorporate formalized training to prepare residents for these various professional roles. Since the 2015-2016 academic year, five training tracks focused on noninterpretative skills have been integrated into our residency training program: Clinician Educator, Quality Improvement, Entrepreneurship/Innovation, Health Policy Advocacy, and High-Value Care. Each track is longitudinal, with a set of requirements throughout the residents' training necessary to achieve certification at graduation. To date nine residents have participated in the programs, including two who received distinction in two separate tracks. Residents in each of the tracks have implemented successful initiatives related to the focus area. As such, these tracks enrich training by ensuring that residents make meaningful contributions to the department and institution during their training and disseminate successful initiatives through presentation at national meetings and publications. The duration of a radiology residency and resources available in an academic center provide opportunities for residency program directors to advance residents' skills in important noninterpretative components of radiology practice. Regardless of whether residents pursue academic medicine or private practice, these skills are necessary for graduates to become valuable members of a radiology practice and serve as national leaders in the field of radiology. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drain, Paul K; Holmes, King K; Skeff, Kelley M; Hall, Thomas L; Gardner, Pierce
Increasing international travel and migration have contributed to globalization of diseases. Physicians today must understand the global burden and epidemiology of diseases, the disparities and inequities in global health systems, and the importance of cross-cultural sensitivity. To meet these needs, resident physicians across all specialties have expressed growing interest in global health training and international clinical rotations. More residents are acquiring international experience, despite inadequate guidance and support from most accreditation organizations and residency programs. Surveys of global health training, including international clinical rotations, highlight the benefits of global health training as well as the need for a more coordinated approach. In particular, international rotations broaden a resident's medical knowledge, reinforce physical examination skills, and encourage practicing medicine among underserved and multicultural populations. As residents recognize these personal and professional benefits, a strong majority of them seek to gain international clinical experience. In conclusion, with feasible and appropriate administrative steps, all residents can receive global health training and be afforded the accreditation and programmatic support to participate in safe international rotations. The next steps should address accreditation for international rotations and allowance for training away from continuity clinics by residency accreditation bodies, and stipend and travel support for six or more weeks of call-free elective time from residency programs.
Paulino, Arnold C.; Kurtz, Elizabeth
Purpose: To review the results of the recent American College of Radiology (ACR) in-training examinations in radiation oncology and to provide information regarding the examination changes in recent years. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of the 2004 to 2007 ACR in-training examination was undertaken. Results: The number of residents taking the in-training examination increased from 2004 to 2007, compatible with the increase in the number of radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. The number of questions decreased from approximately 510 in 2004 and 2005, to 405 in 2006 and 360 in 2007, most of these changes were in the clinical oncology section. Although the in-training examination showed construct validity with resident performance improving with each year of additional clinical oncology training, it did so only until Level 3 for biology and physics. Several changes have been made to the examination process, including allowing residents to keep the examination booklet for self-study, posting of the answer key and rationales to questions on the ACR Website, and providing hard copies to residency training directors. In addition, all questions are now A type or multiple choice questions with one best answer, similar to the American Board of Radiology written examination for radiation oncology. Conclusion: Several efforts by the ACR have been made in recent years to make the examination an educational tool for radiation oncology residents and residency directors
Guyatt, G H; Cook, D J; Griffith, L; Walter, S D; Risdon, C; Liutkus, J
To explore postgraduate medical trainees' attitudes toward the use of gender-inclusive language. Self-administered questionnaire. Seven residency training programs at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents in the programs, 186 responded to the survey, for a response rate of 82.7%. Men and women were equally represented among the respondents. Categorization of attitudes about the use of language as gender-inclusive or gender-exclusive; characteristics predicting a gender-inclusive attitude. Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (0.90) supported the existence of a construct related to attitudes about language use, the poles of which were categorized as gender-inclusive and gender-exclusive. The authors classified residents with respect to their attitudes to language use from their responses to the questionnaire. In univariate analyses, sex, residency program and country of graduation significantly predicted a gender-inclusive attitude (p inclusive attitudes, whereas residents in surgery and anesthesia had the most gender-exclusive attitudes. Residents' values are reflected in the language they choose to use. Language use may provide an index of underlying attitudes that may create hostile environments for female trainees.
4 Department of Peridontal and Community Dentistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 5 Department of ... had <5 hours of research or private study per week. ..... in the USA issued a directive limiting resident doctors' working hours. Following this ...
Capasso, Rebecca; Adler, Laura
The teaching hospitals of the New York University psychiatry residency program were evacuated and then closed for a minimum of 3 months in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. Faculty and residents were deployed to alternate clinical sites. The authors examine the consequences of Superstorm Sandy and its implications for the New York University psychiatry residency training program. A survey was administered to faculty and residents. The authors tabulated 98 surveys, for which 24 % of faculty and 84 % of residents responded. Among respondents, 61 % believed that being involved in the evacuation of the hospitals was a positive experience. During deployment, most (85 %) found being placed with peers and supervisors to be beneficial, but there were significant disruptions. Despite facing multiple challenges including closed facilities, deployment to nonaffiliated hospitals, and exhausted personal resources, the training program continued to provide accredited clinical experiences, a core curriculum, and supervision for psychiatry residents during and after Superstorm Sandy.
Full Text Available Resident training of neurosurgical specialization will be tried and carried out in all over China. From the point of view of training base hospitals, a majority of 3A level hospitals have sufficient patients and good equipments which will ensure the success of training process; however, division of subspecialty, teaching motivation and teaching method still have a great potential to improve. In order to establish and improve training bases for residents of specialization, supervision from national administrative department should be strengthened; professional society also plays an important role in standardizing and controlling the training quality. Considering our nation's situation, integration of postgraduate education and resident training is worth of discussion. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.015
van Schaik, Sandrijn; Plant, Jennifer; O'Brien, Bridget
Simulation-based interprofessional team training is thought to improve patient care. Participating teams often consist of both experienced providers and trainees, which likely impacts team dynamics, particularly when a resident leads the team. Although similar team composition is found in real-life, debriefing after simulations puts a spotlight on team interactions and in particular on residents in the role of team leader. The goal of the current study was to explore residents' perceptions of simulation-based interprofessional team training. This was a secondary analysis of a study of residents in the pediatric residency training program at the University of California, San Francisco (United States) leading interprofessional teams in simulated resuscitations, followed by facilitated debriefing. Residents participated in individual, semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews within one month of the simulation. The original study aimed to examine residents' self-assessment of leadership skills, and during analysis we encountered numerous comments regarding the interprofessional nature of the simulation training. We therefore performed a secondary analysis of the interview transcripts. We followed an iterative process to create a coding scheme, and used interprofessional learning and practice as sensitizing concepts to extract relevant themes. 16 residents participated in the study. Residents felt that simulated resuscitations were helpful but anxiety provoking, largely due to interprofessional dynamics. They embraced the interprofessional training opportunity and appreciated hearing other healthcare providers' perspectives, but questioned the value of interprofessional debriefing. They identified the need to maintain positive relationships with colleagues in light of the teams' complex hierarchy as a barrier to candid feedback. Pediatric residents in our study appreciated the opportunity to participate in interprofessional team training but were conflicted about the
Auriemma, Michael J; Whitehair, Curtis L
Since the inception of the National Resident Matching Program, multiple studies have investigated the factors applicants consider important to ranking prospective residency programs. However, only 2 previous studies focused on prospective physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) trainees, and the most recent of these studies was published in 1993. It is unknown whether these previous studies are reflective of current prospective PM&R residents. To assess various factors that contribute to prospective PM&R residents' decision making in choosing a residency program and compare these findings with previous studies. An anonymous, voluntary questionnaire. A single PM&R residency program. All applicants to a single PM&R residency program. All applicants to our PM&R residency program were invited to participate in a 44-item, 5-point Likert-based questionnaire. Applicants were asked to rate the importance of various factors as they related to constructing their residency rank list. Means and standard deviations were calculated for items included in the survey. A response rate of 26% was obtained, with the responses of 98 applicants (20%) ultimately analyzed. The highest rated factors included "perceived happiness of current residents," "opportunities for hands-on procedure training," "perceived camaraderie among current residents," "perceived camaraderie among faculty and current residents," "perceived quality of current residents," and "perceived work/life balance among current residents." Although male and female respondents demonstrated similar ranking preferences, an apparent difference was detected between how genders rated the importance of "whether the program projects a favorable environment for women" and "whether the program projects a favorable environment for minorities." As compared with previous PM&R applicants, current prospective trainees seem to place greater importance on skill acquisition over didactic teaching. Prospective PM&R residents highly value
Full Text Available Background: Postgraduate specialities require a combination of knowledge and clinical skills. The internship year is less structured. Clinical and practical skills that are picked up during training are not well regulated and the impact is not assessed. In this study, we assessed knowledge and skills using objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. Aim: To evaluate the clinical skills of new first-year surgical residents using orientation programme and OSCE as a tool for assessment. Settings and Design: Observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty new first-year surgical residents (10 each in 2008 and 2009 participated in a detailed structured orientation programme conducted over a period of 7 days. Clinically important topics and skills expected at this level (e.g., suturing, wound care etc. were covered. The programme was preceded by an OSCE to test pre-programme knowledge (the "pre-test". The questions were validated by senior department staff. A post-programme OSCE (the "post-test" helped to evaluate the change in clinical skill level brought about by the orientation programme. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxson matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Results: Passing performance was achieved by all participants in both pre- and post-tests. Following the orientation programme, significant improvement was seen in tasks testing the psychomotor and cognitive domains. (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0401, respectively. Overall reliability of the OSCE was found to be 0.7026 (Cronbach′s coefficient alpha. Conclusions: This study highlighted the lacunae in current internship training, especially for skill-based tasks. There is a need for universal inclusion of structured orientation programmes in the training of first-year residents. OSCE is a reliable, valid and effective method for the assessment of clinical skills.
Slootweg, Irene; Lombarts, Kiki; van der Vleuten, Cees; Mann, Karen; Jacobs, Johanna; Scherpbier, Albert
Residents learn by working in a multidisciplinary context, in different locations, with many clinical teachers. Although clinical teachers are collectively responsible for residency training, little is known about the way teaching teams function. We conducted a qualitative study to explore clinical
Slootweg, I.; Lombarts, K.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Mann, K.; Jacobs, J.; Scherpbier, A.
Background: Residents learn by working in a multidisciplinary context, in different locations, with many clinical teachers. Although clinical teachers are collectively responsible for residency training, little is known about the way teaching teams function. Aim: We conducted a qualitative study to
Books Kotler , Philip, and Roberta Clarke. Marketing for Health Care Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1987. Runyon, Richard P., and...8217 and most can benefit from instruction in administrative principles and practices during residency" (444). A focus began to turn toward residency...leadership development, office communi-ations, professional and legal obligations, Rawls 8 and practice marketing . Because these newly trained physicians
Conclusions: Resident evaluations of clinical teachers are influenced by teachers’ age, gender, year of residency training, type of teachers’ academic position and whether or not a clinical teacher performed self-evaluation. Development of CBME should be focused on the continuous evaluation of quality, clinical teachers educational support and the implementation of e-portfolio.
Thureau, S; Challand, T; Bibault, J-E; Biau, J; Cervellera, M; Diaz, O; Faivre, J-C; Fumagalli, I; Leroy, T; Lescut, N; Martin, V; Pichon, B; Riou, O; Dubray, B; Giraud, P; Hennequin, C
A national survey was conducted among the radiation oncology residents about their clinical activities and responsibilities. The aim was to evaluate the clinical workload and to assess how medical tasks are delegated and supervised. A first questionnaire was administered to radiation oncology residents during a national course. A second questionnaire was mailed to 59 heads of departments. The response rate was 62% for radiation oncology residents (99 questionnaires) and 51% for heads of department (30). Eighteen heads of department (64%) declared having written specifications describing the residents' clinical tasks and roles, while only 31 radiation oncology residents (34%) knew about such a document (P=0.009). A majority of residents were satisfied with the amount of medical tasks that were delegated to them. Older residents complained about insufficient exposure to new patient's consultation, treatment planning and portal images validation. The variations observed between departments may induce heterogeneous trainings and should be addressed specifically. National specifications are necessary to reduce heterogeneities in training, and to insure that the residents' training covers all the professional skills required to practice radiation oncology. A frame endorsed by academic and professional societies would also clarify the responsibilities of both residents and seniors. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Jeray, Kyle J; Frick, Steven L
Residency education continues to evolve. Several major changes have occurred in the past several years, including emphasis on core competencies, duty-hour restrictions, and call. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Next Accreditation System (NAS) implemented educational milestones in orthopaedic surgery in July 2013. Additionally, the Residency Review Committee for orthopaedic surgery published suggested surgical case minimums in 2012, which overlap with several of the milestones.We conducted a survey to assess the opinions of orthopaedic residents regarding the ACGME-suggested surgical case minimums and the effects that these may have on resident education and potential future privileges in hospitals. The survey was sent via e-mail to all of the residents participating in the American Orthopaedic Association (AOA) Resident Leadership Forum for both 2011 and 2012. Participants in the Resident Leadership Forum are in either postgraduate year 4 or postgraduate year 5, are selected by the program directors as resident leaders, and represent 80% of the orthopaedic residency programs in the United States. The survey was completed by 157 of the 314 participants. Sixty-nine percent of the participants believed that case logs with minimum numbers of surgical procedures were an effective way to monitor the work but were not necessarily the only way to monitor the educational progress of the residents. Thirty-two percent believed that the minimums should not be required. Overwhelmingly, there was agreement that important cases were missing from the currently proposed sixteen core surgical minimums. Specifically, the residents believed that a minimum number of cases are necessary for distal radial fracture fixation and proximal humeral fracture fixation and possibly have a milestone to reflect the progress of the residents for each fixation.Most residents thought that surgical case minimums are an effective tool in monitoring the progress of
Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher keith; Pyle, Sara; Moore, Glenisha; Meshberg, Sarah
Pediatricians have an important and unique role to play in the anti-tobacco arena. They may prevent relapse to smoking in women who stopped smoking during pregnancy, encourage parents to protect infants and young children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prevent the onset of smoking in children and adolescents, and help patients and parents who smoke or use other forms of tobacco to quit. Unfortunately, few pediatricians intervene on tobacco use or ETS, and few pediatric residency training programs prepare residents to address tobacco. The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a 4-year randomized prospective study of the effectiveness of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco in patients and parents. In this paper, we present findings from the Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey. Fifteen pediatric residency training programs participated in the Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project, and they were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions. The Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey was administered to 1770 participants, a minimum of 100 from each site. The Parent/Guardian Survey was designed to describe the population under study. It addressed demographic information, family tobacco use, rules concerning smoking in the home and elsewhere, smoking behavior and beliefs, and parent/guardian reports of resident intervention on tobacco. Data analyses described the population served by Continuity Clinics associated with the pediatric residency training programs and determined the degree to which residents addressed tobacco in parents/guardians. The parents/guardians were primarily low-income African American and Hispanic females. Approximately 20% reported that they smoked cigarettes, and about 60% prohibited smoking in their home. Seventy percent of the parents reported that the resident asked about cigarette smoking, and about half indicated that the resident talked with them about ETS. However, only
Davenport, María Carolina; Domínguez, Paula Alejandra; Martins, Andrea Elizabeth
The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, SAP (Argentine Society of Pediatri