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Sample records for surgical reform curriculum

  1. A Model for Persistent Improvement of Medical Education as Illustrated by the Surgical Reform Curriculum HeiCuMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmon, Guni; Schmidt, Jan; De Cono, Nicola; Kadmon, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Heidelberg Medical School underwent a major curricular change with the implementation of the reform curriculum HeiCuMed (Heidelberg Curriculum Medicinale) in October 2001. It is based on rotational modules with daily cycles of interactive, case-based small-group seminars, PBL tutorials and training of sensomotor and communication skills. For surgical undergraduate training an organisational structure was developed that ensures continuity of medical teachers for student groups and enables their unimpaired engagement for defined periods of time while accounting for the daily clinical routine in a large surgery department of a university hospital. It includes obligatory didactic training, standardising teaching material on the basis of learning objectives and releasing teaching doctors from clinical duties for the duration of a module. To compare the effectiveness of the undergraduate surgical reform curriculum with that of the preceding traditional one as reflected by students' evaluations. The present work analyses student evaluations of the undergraduate surgical training between 1999 and 2008 including three cohorts (~360 students each) in the traditional curriculum and 13 cohorts (~150 students each) in the reform curriculum. The evaluation of the courses, their organisation, the teaching quality, and the subjective learning was significantly better in HeiCuMed than in the preceding traditional curriculum over the whole study period. A medical curriculum based on the implementation of interactive didactical methods is more important to successful teaching and the subjective gain of knowledge than knowledge transfer by traditional classroom teaching. The organisational strategy adopted in the surgical training of HeiCuMed has been successful in enabling the maintenance of a complex modern curriculum on a continuously high level within the framework of a busy surgical environment.

  2. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  3. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  4. Global curriculum in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, C; Berman, R S; Wyld, L; Cummings, C; Lecoq, C; Audisio, R A

    2016-06-01

    The significant global variations in surgical oncology training paradigms can have a detrimental effect on tackling the rising global cancer burden. While some variations in training are essential to account for the differences in types of cancer and biology, the fundamental principles of providing care to a cancer patient remain the same. The development of a global curriculum in surgical oncology with incorporated essential standards could be very useful in building an adequately trained surgical oncology workforce, which in turn could help in tackling the rising global cancer burden. The leaders of the Society of Surgical Oncology and European Society of Surgical Oncology convened a global curriculum committee to develop a global curriculum in surgical oncology. A global curriculum in surgical oncology was developed to incorporate the required domains considered to be essential in training a surgical oncologist. The curriculum was constructed in a modular fashion to permit flexibility to suit the needs of the different regions of the world. Similarly, recognizing the various sociocultural, financial and cultural influences across the world, the proposed curriculum is aspirational and not mandatory in intent. A global curriculum was developed which may be considered as a foundational scaffolding for training surgical oncologists worldwide. It is envisioned that this initial global curriculum will provide a flexible and modular scaffolding that can be tailored by individual countries or regions to train surgical oncologists in a way that is appropriate for practice in their local environment. Copyright © 2016 Society of Surgical Oncology, European Society of Surgical Oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  6. Ein Modell zur nachhaltigen Qualitätssteigerung der medizinischen Ausbildung am Beispiel des chirurgischen Reformcurriculums HeiCuMed [A Model for Persistent Improvement of Medical Education as Illustrated by the Surgical Reform Curriculum HeiCuMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadmon, Guni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Heidelberg Medical School underwent a major curricular change with the implementation of the reform curriculum HeiCuMed (Heidelberg Curriculum Medicinale in October 2001. It is based on rotational modules with daily cycles of interactive, case-based small-group seminars, PBL tutorials and training of sensomotor and communication skills. For surgical undergraduate training an organisational structure was developed that ensures continuity of medical teachers for student groups and enables their unimpaired engagement for defined periods of time while accounting for the daily clinical routine in a large surgery department of a university hospital. It includes obligatory didactic training, standardising teaching material on the basis of learning objectives and releasing teaching doctors from clinical duties for the duration of a module. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of the undergraduate surgical reform curriculum with that of the preceding traditional one as reflected by students' evaluations. Method: The present work analyses student evaluations of the undergraduate surgical training between 1999 and 2008 including three cohorts (~360 students each in the traditional curriculum and 13 cohorts (~150 students each in the reform curriculum. Results: The evaluation of the courses, their organisation, the teaching quality, and the subjective learning was significantly better in HeiCuMed than in the preceding traditional curriculum over the whole study period. Conclusion: A medical curriculum based on the implementation of interactive didactical methods is more important to successful teaching and the subjective gain of knowledge than knowledge transfer by traditional classroom teaching. The organisational strategy adopted in the surgical training of HeiCuMed has been successful in enabling the maintenance of a complex modern curriculum on a continuously high level within the framework of a busy surgical environment

  7. Reform in Turkish Elementary Mathematics Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    BABADOĞAN, Cem; OLKUN, Sinan

    2006-01-01

    Disappointed from such major international studies as TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS andsome internal indicators such as national university entrance examination, the Turkish Ministry ofNational Education initiated a massive reform movement in education. These reforms includedeveloping new curricula for both elementary and secondary education and developing teachercompetencies. The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of the elementary schoolmathematics curriculum, which is a part of the ref...

  8. Discrete Mathematics and Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Margaret J.

    1996-01-01

    Defines discrete mathematics as the mathematics necessary to effect reasoned decision making in finite situations and explains how its use supports the current view of mathematics education. Discrete mathematics can be used by curriculum developers to improve the curriculum for students of all ages and abilities. (SLD)

  9. Curriculum Reform as Adaptive Leadership Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kathy J.

    2015-01-01

    Serious curricular reform is both exhilarating in its possibilities and exhausting in its particulars. When its scope is significant and it is undertaken in response to a variety of difficult challenges, curriculum revision becomes more about cultural change than a mere matter of logistics. While studying adaptive leadership with colleagues at the…

  10. Impact of the Curriculum Reform on Problem Solving Ability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ex post facto study was conducted to examine the effect of the curriculum reform on 60 Dilla University chemistry education students' problem solving ability. The study shows that the curriculum reform that shifted university introductory courses of the old curriculum into preparatory school levels in the new curriculum ...

  11. Implementing Reform: Teachers' Beliefs about Students and the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartiromo, Tara; Etkina, Eugenia

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents findings on how consistent teachers' perceptions of their students, their own role in the classroom, and the reformed curriculum are with the actual implementation of the reformed curriculum in the classroom. This study shows that the five participating teachers were consistent with their perceptions and their actual behavior in the classroom. The teachers who were engaged in designing the curriculum demonstrated consistent reformed teaching views and behaviors. The degree to which the teachers viewed the curriculum as useful to them and their students was an indicator of how reformed their teaching was as measured by the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) [1][2]. Finally, it was determined that faithful implementation of a curriculum can mean faithfully implementing the theoretical foundation of the curriculum materials during instruction instead of implementing every component or lesson of the reformed curriculum.

  12. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  13. Curriculum Reform in Higher Education: A Contested Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Suellen

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical and analytical tools from the sociology of education, in particular the work of Basil Bernstein and Karl Maton, the paper explores the tensions within curriculum reform discourses and how these tensions play out in different global contexts. The analysis focuses on two curriculum reform policies--Hong Kong and South…

  14. Moral education and values education in curriculum reform In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiaoman

    2006-01-01

    In the new curriculum reform in China,moral education and values education have been defined from the angles of the integrity and conformity of curriculum functions.Accordingly, a new education concept based on complete/integral curriculum functions is established.By discussing the essences of the curriculum,the basis of moral and values education,integrated curriculum setting in instruction structure,the presence of emotional and attitudinal goals in the subject standards,and teaching methods,this text points out that this curriculum reform looks to moral and values education in schools.The reform also emphasizes and will guarantee moral and values education in schools.Finally,the article recommends to elementary and secondary schools the studies on moral education in class conducted by the Research Institute of Moral Education of Nanjing Normal University,one of the Key Bases for Humanities and Social Sciences Research for the Ministry of Education.

  15. Extended professional development for systemic curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitskey, Mary Elizabeth

    suggests a PD design model for long-term systemic change, incorporating teacher practice and student response, providing guidance for teachers making adaptations that maintain reform. This dissertation responds to the call for empirical research linking PD to learning outcomes. These models are unique because practice becomes a continuum of PD, rather than outcome and stresses the importance of addressing teachers' beliefs. This PD design provides mechanisms for maintaining equivalence between the written and enacted curriculum, sustaining the integrity of the reform.

  16. Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cheng, Liming; Cai, Qiaoling; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Yun; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Guo-Tong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-12-01

    Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools has attracted a lot of attention recently. Several leading medical schools in China have undergone exploratory reforms and in so doing, have accumulated significant experience and have made considerable progress. An analysis of the reforms conducted by 38 Chinese medical colleges that were targeted by the government for upgrade was performed. Drawing from both domestic and international literature, we designed a questionnaire to determine what types of curricular reforms have occurred at these institutions and how they were implemented. Major questions touched upon the purpose of the reforms, curricular patterns, improvements in teaching methods post-reform, changes made to evaluation systems post-reform, intra-university reform assessment, and what difficulties the schools faced when instituting the reforms. Besides the questionnaire, relevant administrators from each medical school were also interviewed to obtain more qualitative data. Out of the 38 included universities, twenty-five have undergone major curricular reforms. Among them, 60.0% adopted an organ system-based curriculum model, 32.0% adopted a problem-based curriculum model, and 8.0% adopted a hybrid curriculum model. About 60.0% of the schools' reforms involved both the "pre-clinical" and the "clinical" curricula, 32.0% of the schools' reforms were limited to the "pre-clinical" curricula, and 8.0% of the schools' reforms only involved the "clinical" curricula. Following curricular reform, 60.0% of medical schools experienced an overall reduction in teaching hours, 76.0% reported an increase in their students' clinical skills, and 60.0% reported an increase in their students' research skills. Medical curricular reform is still in its infancy in China. The republic's leading medical schools have engaged in various approaches to bring innovative teaching methods to their respective institutions. However, due to limited resources and the shackle of traditional

  17. Curriculum Implementation and Reform: Teachers' Views about Kuwait's New Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The MoE (Ministry of Education) in the state of Kuwait is starting to reform the science curriculum in all school academic stages: primary (1-5) grades, intermediate (6-9) grades, and secondary (10-12) grades. The purpose of this study was to explore the opinions of science teachers about Kuwait's new sixth and seventh grade science curriculum,…

  18. Large-Scale Curriculum Reform in Finland--Exploring the Interrelation between Implementation Strategy, the Function of the Reform, and Curriculum Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Soini, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to gain a better understanding of the national large-scale curriculum process in terms of the used implementation strategies, the function of the reform, and the curriculum coherence perceived by the stakeholders accountable in constructing the national core curriculum in Finland. A large body of school reform literature has shown…

  19. Examining the Gaps between Teaching and Learning in the Technology Curriculum within Taiwan's 9-Year Articulated Curriculum Reform from the Perspective of Curriculum Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuen-Yi; Chang, Liang-Te; Tsai, Fu-Hsing; Kao, Chia-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reform has frequently focused on the curriculum-development stage, overlooking considerations regarding curriculum implementation, which has led to reform failure. In this study, consideration was placed primarily on the curriculum implementation stage. The gaps between teachers' and students' perceptions of content, learning…

  20. Goodbye Conflict, Hello Development? Curriculum Reform in Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Motivations to reform curriculum in post-conflict, or post-colonial states are often driven by the need to (re) construct a cohesive and publicly legitimated national identity that is starkly different to that which existed prior. This paper explores the context behind such action in the Timor-Leste (East Timor) and some challenges which policy…

  1. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography.

  2. China's New National Curriculum Reform: Innovation, Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qun; Meng, Wanjin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents systematically China's New National Curriculum Reform (CNNCR). It covers the background, origin, essence, goals, features, evolvement, schedule, implementation, the alignment in primary, secondary and middle schools' curricula and inter-subjects, the outcomes and the challenges and strategies of CNNCR.

  3. Basic Education Curriculum Reform in Rural China: Achievements, Problems, and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayi; Zhao, Zhichun

    2011-01-01

    The latest wave of basic education curriculum reform, carried out over the past ten years, has achieved significant results and promoted the development of rural education. There are still some problems in the reform of basic education in rural areas, however, such as a serious shortage of funds for rural school curriculum reform, the continuing…

  4. Debates on the Basic Education Curriculum Reform and Teachers' Challenges in China: The Case of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Ni, Yu-jing

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on the case of mathematics, this paper reviews debates on China's new Basic Education Curriculum Reform program, including the status of knowledge within the reformed curriculum, the arrangement of the curriculum system, and the push toward real-life applicability and hands-on participation. It discusses the related challenges that…

  5. The Reformulation of National Identity in the New Taiwanese Citizenship Curriculum through the Lens of Curriculum Reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Cheng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The national curriculum reformers, regarded as members of the social elites and intellectuals, projected their vision of identity onto the curriculum which they constructed and influenced the next generation's national consciousness. In the tangled relationship between politics and education, the selection of the reformers in a sense dictates the…

  6. Exploration on teaching reform of theory curriculum for engineering specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Shen, Wei-min; Shen, Chang-yu; Li, Chen-xia; Jing, Xu-feng; Lou, Jun; Shi, Yan; Jin, Shang-zhong

    2017-08-01

    The orientation of talents cultivation for local colleges is to train engineering application-oriented talents, so the exploration and practice on teaching reform of theory curriculum was carried out. We restructured the knowledge units basing on numerical solution problems, and chose the software to build algorithm models for improving the analytical and designed ability. Relying on micro video lessons platform, the teacher-student interaction was expanded from class to outside. Also, we programmed new experimental homework, which was suited for process evaluation. The new teaching mode has achieved good effect, and the students' application ability was significantly improved.

  7. An Empirical Study of Industrial Engineering and Management Curriculum Reform in Fostering Students' Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Kuang; Jiang, Bernard C.; Hsu, Kuang-Yiao

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a creativity-fostering program in industrial engineering and management (IE&M) curriculum reform. Fostering creativity in students has become a crucial issue in industrial engineering education. In a survey of previous studies, we found few on IE&M curriculum reform. In…

  8. Fashioning Curriculum Reform as Identity Politics--Taiwan's Dilemma of Curriculum Reform in New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chin-Ju

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores indigenization and globalization, the double issue of curriculum and identity as a dialectical contradiction that characterizes the ambivalence of "Taiwanese identity." "Taiwanese identity" is treated as a social, political, and cultural construct rather than a fixed term in an essentialist sense.…

  9. Global curriculum in research literacy for the surgical oncologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, C; Yanala, U; Malhotra, G; Hall, B; Smith, L; Cummings, C; Lecoq, C; Wyld, L; Audisio, R A; Berman, R S

    2018-01-01

    The ability to provide optimal care to cancer patients depends on awareness of current evidence-based practices emanating from research or involvement in research where circumstances permit. The significant global variations in cancer-related research activity and its correlation to cancer-specific outcomes may have an influence on the care provided to cancer patients and their outcomes. The aim of this project is to develop a global curriculum in research literacy for the surgical oncologist. The leadership of the Society of Surgical Oncology and European Society of Surgical Oncology convened a global curriculum committee to develop a global curriculum in research literacy for the Surgical Oncologist. A global curriculum in research literacy is developed to incorporate the required domains considered to be essential to interpret the published research or become involved in research activity where circumstances permit. The purpose of this curriculum is to promote research literacy for the surgical oncologist, wherever they are based. It does not mandate direct research participation which may not be feasible due to restrictions within the local health-care delivery environment, socio-economic priorities and the educational environment of the individual institution where they work. A global curriculum in research literacy is proposed which may promote research literacy or encourage involvement in research activity where circumstances permit. It is hoped that this will enhance cancer-related research activity, promote awareness of optimal evidence-based practices and improve outcomes for cancer patients globally. Copyright © 2017 Society of Surgical Oncology, European Society of Surgical Oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Symbolic Interactionism to Analyze a Specialized STEM High School Teacher's Experience in Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a microanalysis of a specialized STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) high school teacher's experience of self-initiated science inquiry curriculum reform. We examine the meanings of these two constructs: "inquiry curriculum" and "curriculum change" through the process lens of interactions, actions,…

  11. Survey of Attitudes towards Curriculum Reforms among Medical Teachersin Different Socio-economic and Cultural Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum reforms in medical schools require cultural and conceptual changes from the faculty. We assessed attitudes towards curriculum reforms in different academic, economic, and social environments among 776 teachers from 2 Western European medical schools (Belgium and Denmark) and 7 medical...... schools in 3 countries in post-communist transition (Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina). The survey included a 5-point Likert-type scale on attitudes towards reforms in general and towards reforms of medical curriculum (10 items each). Teaching staff from medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina...... had more positive attitude towards reforms of medical curriculum (mean score 36.8 out of maximum 50 [95% CI 36.1 to 37.3]) than those from medical schools in Croatia or Slovenia (30.7 [29.8 to 31.6]) or Western Europe (27.7 [27.1 to 28.3]) (Pattitudes...

  12. Proficiency training on a virtual reality robotic surgical skills curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bric, Justin; Connolly, Michael; Kastenmeier, Andrew; Goldblatt, Matthew; Gould, Jon C

    2014-12-01

    The clinical application of robotic surgery is increasing. The skills necessary to perform robotic surgery are unique from those required in open and laparoscopic surgery. A validated laparoscopic surgical skills curriculum (Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery or FLS™) has transformed the way surgeons acquire laparoscopic skills. There is a need for a similar skills training and assessment tool for robotic surgery. Our research group previously developed and validated a robotic training curriculum in a virtual reality (VR) simulator. We hypothesized that novice robotic surgeons could achieve proficiency levels defined by more experienced robotic surgeons on the VR robotic curriculum, and that this would result in improved performance on the actual daVinci Surgical System™. 25 medical students with no prior robotic surgery experience were recruited. Prior to VR training, subjects performed 2 FLS tasks 3 times each (Peg Transfer, Intracorporeal Knot Tying) using the daVinci Surgical System™ docked to a video trainer box. Task performance for the FLS tasks was scored objectively. Subjects then practiced on the VR simulator (daVinci Skills Simulator) until proficiency levels on all 5 tasks were achieved before completing a post-training assessment of the 2 FLS tasks on the daVinci Surgical System™ in the video trainer box. All subjects to complete the study (1 dropped out) reached proficiency levels on all VR tasks in an average of 71 (± 21.7) attempts, accumulating 164.3 (± 55.7) minutes of console training time. There was a significant improvement in performance on the robotic FLS tasks following completion of the VR training curriculum. Novice robotic surgeons are able to attain proficiency levels on a VR simulator. This leads to improved performance in the daVinci surgical platform on simulated tasks. Training to proficiency on a VR robotic surgery simulator is an efficient and viable method for acquiring robotic surgical skills.

  13. Talk the Talk: Implementing a Communication Curriculum for Surgical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Anna B; Trickey, Amber W; Porrey, Melissa; Wright, Jeffrey; Piscitani, Franco; Graling, Paula; Dort, Jonathan

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education milestones provide a framework of specific interpersonal and communication skills that surgical trainees should aim to master. However, training and assessment of resident nontechnical skills remains challenging. We aimed to develop and implement a curriculum incorporating interactive learning principles such as group discussion and simulation-based scenarios to formalize instruction in patient-centered communication skills, and to identify best practices when building such a program. The curriculum is presented in quarterly modules over a 2-year cycle. Using our surgical simulation center for the training, we focused on proven strategies for interacting with patients and other providers. We trained and used former patients as standardized participants (SPs) in communication scenarios. Surgical simulation center in a 900-bed tertiary care hospital. Program learners were general surgery residents (postgraduate year 1-5). Trauma Survivors Network volunteers served as SPs in simulation scenarios. We identified several important lessons: (1) designing and implementing a new curriculum is a challenging process with multiple barriers and complexities; (2) several readily available facilitators can ease the implementation process; (3) with the right approach, learners, faculty, and colleagues are enthusiastic and engaged participants; (4) learners increasingly agree that communication skills can be improved with practice and appreciate the curriculum value; (5) patient SPs can be valuable members of the team; and importantly (6) the culture of patient-physician communication appears to shift with the implementation of such a curriculum. Our approach using Trauma Survivors Network volunteers as SPs could be reproduced in other institutions with similar programs. Faculty enthusiasm and support is strong, and learner participation is active. Continued focus on patient and family communication skills would enhance

  14. Investigating the Alignment of Bhutanese Mathematics Teachers' Planned Approaches within the Context of a Reformed Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolma, Phuntsho; Nutchey, David; Watters, James J.; Chandra, Vinesh

    2018-01-01

    Reform of mathematics education has been in focus in many countries including those in major economic transition. This paper reports a segment of a study which was conducted in Bhutan, where a reformed elementary mathematics curriculum has been recently introduced. The reformed curriculum is based on social constructivism and its design has been…

  15. Lebanon's 2011 ICT Education Reform Strategy and Action Plan: Curriculum Success or Abeyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Ghada; Diab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of Lebanon's Education Reform Strategy and Action Plan (LERSAP) set in 2011 as a form of the educational reform the curriculum underwent through focusing on promoting and employing the information communication technology (ICT) tools. The LERSAP was launched to equip teachers…

  16. Results of Third-Grade Students in a Reform Curriculum on the Illinois State Mathematics Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the results of the reform curriculum of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project's elementary curriculum, Everyday Mathematics, for third-grade students. Results included the fact that only 2% of UCSMP students failed to meet state goals. UCSMP students also scored well in all mathematical areas including number skills and…

  17. The Failure of Progressive Classroom Reform: Lessons from the Curriculum Reform Implementation Project in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Progressive education has been an article of educational faith in Papua New Guinea during the last 50 years but the best available evidence indicates that major reforms to formalistic curriculum and teaching in primary and secondary classrooms have failed during this period despite large-scale professional, administrative and financial support. In…

  18. Impact of a structured surgical curriculum on ophthalmic resident cataract surgery complication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gina M; Oetting, Thomas A; Lee, Andrew G; Grignon, Connie; Greenlee, Emily; Johnson, A Tim; Beaver, Hilary A; Carter, Keith

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether institution of a structured surgical curriculum for ophthalmology residents decreased the rate of sentinel surgical complications. Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Des Moines, Iowa, USA. A retrospective review was performed of third-year ophthalmic resident quality-assurance surgical outcomes data at a single residency-training site from 1998 to 2008. The primary outcome measure was defined as a sentinel event; that is, a posterior capsule tear (with or without vitreous loss) or vitreous loss (from any cause) occurring during a resident-performed case. The study population was divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised surgical cases of residents trained before the surgical curriculum change (academic years 1998 to 2003) and Group 2, surgical cases of residents trained with the enhanced curriculum (academic years 2004 to 2008). Data from 1 year (academic year 2003 to 2004) were excluded because the transition to the enhanced curriculum occurred during that period. The data were analyzed and adjusted for surgical experience. In Group 1 (before institution of surgical curriculum), there were 823 cases with 59 sentinel complications. In Group 2 (after institution of surgical curriculum), there were 1009 cases with 38 sentinel complications. There was a statistically significant reduction in the sentinel complication rate, from 7.17% before the curriculum changes to 3.77% with the enhanced curriculum (P = .001, unpaired 2-tailed t test). Implementation of a structured surgical curriculum resulted in a statistically significant reduction in sentinel event complications, even after adjusting for surgical experience.

  19. Integrated Curriculum Design Reform of Civil Engineering Management Discipline Based on Inter-disciplinary Professional Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidong, Xu; Ping, Wu; Jian, Chen; Jiansheng, Shen

    2018-05-01

    In view of the shortcomings of the current civil engineering management discipline, this paper investigates the necessity of the course design reform. Based on the analysis of basic occupation requirements of civil engineering management discipline, the basic ideas and implementation strategies of the integrated reform of curriculum design system are proposed, which can not only improve the students’ overall understanding of knowledge and skills, but also enhance the system of student learning.

  20. Business Curriculum and Assessment Reform in Hong Kong Schools: A Critical Review from a Competence-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Christina Wai Mui

    2010-01-01

    From September 2009 onwards, a new business curriculum which focuses on three key business disciplines, namely management, accounting and finance, has been implemented in Hong Kong senior secondary schools. A new assessment guide has been also proposed in light of the new curriculum. Such business curriculum and assessment reform move in the…

  1. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  2. Professional Identities and Emotions of Teachers in the Context of Curriculum Reform: A Chinese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Huang, Yvonne Xian-Han; Law, Edmond Hau-Fai; Wang, Mu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the changing professional identities of teachers and their emotional experiences during curriculum reform in Shenzhen in the southern part of China. A qualitative approach to research was adopted. Findings reveal that the informants display several teaching behaviours and diverse emotions ranging from pain and helplessness,…

  3. Enacting Curriculum Reform through Lesson Study: A Case Study of Mathematics Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Shuilleabhain, Aoibhinn; Seery, Aidan

    2018-01-01

    Based in a time of major curriculum reform, this article reports on a qualitative case study of teacher professional development (PD) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Five mathematics teachers in an Irish secondary school were introduced to and participated in successive cycles of school-based lesson study (LS) over the course of one academic…

  4. Teacher Self-Efficacy and Occupational Stress: A Major Australian Curriculum Reform Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, John; Ayres, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to study teachers' self-efficacy and occupational stress in the context of a large-scale curriculum reform in New South Wales, Australia. The study aims to follow up and replicate a study carried out approximately one year earlier. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical framework, primarily based on…

  5. Cognitive learning during surgical residency. A model for curriculum evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, R S; Wile, M Z; Persons, M L; Shuck, J M

    1987-02-01

    The program summary of the American Board of Surgery In-Service Training Exam (ABSITE) can be used to quantitate cognitive learning during a surgical residency and to identify areas of curricular weakness in a residency program. Knowledge on each question is categorized as high (known) or low (unknown) depending on the percentage of residents who answered correctly. Knowledge of Level 1 (entry) residents is then compared with Level 5 (exit) residents. Each ABSITE question can thus be categorized on entry versus exit as known-known, unknown-unknown, unknown-known, and known-unknown. Only about half of unknown knowledge on entry appears to become known on exit. Very little knowledge known on entry becomes unknown on exit. Weaknesses in specific subject areas can be readily identified by ranking questions according to the number of exiting residents who answer incorrectly. Use of this technique to quantitate cognitive learning in a residency program may allow objective assessment of changes in curriculum.

  6. Curriculum reform and evolution: Innovative content and processes at one US medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, Janet E; Olvet, Doreen M; Iuli, Richard J; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha

    2018-03-11

    Curriculum reform in medical schools continues to be an ever-present and challenging activity in medical education. This paper describes one school's experiences with specific curricular innovations that were developed or adapted and targeted to meet a clear set of curricular goals during the curriculum reform process. Those goals included: (a) promoting active learning and learner engagement; (b) establishing early professional identity; and (c) developing physician competencies in an integrated and contextual manner while allowing for individualized learning experiences for the millennial student. Six specific innovations championed by the school are described in detail. These included Themes in Medical Education, Translational Pillars, Stony Brook Teaching Families, Transition Courses, Educational Continuous Quality Improvement Processes, and our Career Advising Program. Development of the ideas and design of the innovations were done by faculty and student teams. We discuss successes and ongoing challenges with these innovations which are currently in the fourth year of implementation. Our curriculum reform has emphasized the iterative process of curriculum building. Based on our experience, we discuss general and practical guidelines for curriculum innovation in its three phases: setting the stage, implementation, and monitoring for the achievement of intended goals.

  7. Graduates from a reformed undergraduate medical curriculum based on Tomorrow's Doctors evaluate the effectiveness of their curriculum 6 years after graduation through interviews

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    Taylor David CM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 Liverpool reformed its medical curriculum from a traditional lecture based course to a curriculum based on the recommendations in Tomorrow's Doctors. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. This paper focuses on the views of graduates from that reformed curriculum 6 years after they had graduated. Methods Between 2007 and 2009 45 interviews took place with doctors from the first two cohorts to graduate from the reformed curriculum. Results The interviewees felt like they had been clinically well prepared to work as doctors and in particular had graduated with good clinical and communication skills and had a good knowledge of what the role of doctor entailed. They also felt they had good self directed learning and research skills. They did feel their basic science knowledge level was weaker than traditional graduates and perceived they had to work harder to pass postgraduate exams. Whilst many had enjoyed the curriculum and in particular the clinical skills resource centre and the clinical exposure of the final year including the "shadowing" and A & E attachment they would have liked more "structure" alongside the PBL when learning the basic sciences. Conclusion According to the graduates themselves many of the aims of curriculum reform have been met by the reformed curriculum and they were well prepared clinically to work as doctors. However, further reforms may be needed to give confidence to science knowledge acquisition.

  8. Graduates from a reformed undergraduate medical curriculum based on Tomorrow's Doctors evaluate the effectiveness of their curriculum 6 years after graduation through interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmough, Simon D; O'Sullivan, Helen; Taylor, David C M

    2010-09-29

    In 1996 Liverpool reformed its medical curriculum from a traditional lecture based course to a curriculum based on the recommendations in Tomorrow's Doctors. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. This paper focuses on the views of graduates from that reformed curriculum 6 years after they had graduated. Between 2007 and 2009 45 interviews took place with doctors from the first two cohorts to graduate from the reformed curriculum. The interviewees felt like they had been clinically well prepared to work as doctors and in particular had graduated with good clinical and communication skills and had a good knowledge of what the role of doctor entailed. They also felt they had good self directed learning and research skills. They did feel their basic science knowledge level was weaker than traditional graduates and perceived they had to work harder to pass postgraduate exams. Whilst many had enjoyed the curriculum and in particular the clinical skills resource centre and the clinical exposure of the final year including the "shadowing" and A & E attachment they would have liked more "structure" alongside the PBL when learning the basic sciences. According to the graduates themselves many of the aims of curriculum reform have been met by the reformed curriculum and they were well prepared clinically to work as doctors. However, further reforms may be needed to give confidence to science knowledge acquisition.

  9. A human factors curriculum for surgical clerkship students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Mitchell A; Larkin, Anne C; Starr, Susan; Wellman, Scott; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Sullivan, Kate; Shah, Shimul; Hirsh, Michael; Litwin, Demetrius; Quirk, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Early introduction of a full-day human factors training experience into the surgical clerkship curriculum will teach effective communication skills and strategies to gain professional satisfaction from a career in surgery. In pilot 1, which took place between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008, 50 students received training and 50 did not; all received testing at the end of the rotation for comparison of control vs intervention group performance. In pilot 2, a total of 50 students were trained and received testing before and after rotation to examine individual change over time. University of Massachusetts Medical School. A total of 148 third-year medical students in required 12-week surgical clerkship rotations. Full-day training with lecture and small-group exercises, cotaught by surgeons and educators, with focus on empathetic communication, time management, and teamwork skills. Empathetic communication skill, teamwork, and patient safety attitudes and self-reported use of time management strategies. Empathy scores were not higher for trained vs untrained groups in pilot 1 but improved from 2.32 to 3.45 on a 5-point scale (P work-life balance, with some trained groups scoring significantly lower than untrained groups in pilot 1 and no significant improvement shown in pilot 2. The significant increase in student-patient communication scores suggests that a brief focused presentation followed by simulation of difficult patient encounters can be successful. A video demonstration can improve interdisciplinary teamwork.

  10. Zanzibar's Curriculum Reform: Implications for Children's Educational Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores recent developments in linguistic choices in education in Zanzibar and examines the arguments for using local languages of instruction (LoI) as a right. The article's analysis is based on a study of a curriculum change in Zanzibar in which English replaced Kiswahili as the LoI in the last two years of primary school in…

  11. Using symbolic interactionism to analyze a specialized STEM high school teacher's experience in curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we present a microanalysis of a specialized STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) high school teacher's experience of self-initiated science inquiry curriculum reform. We examine the meanings of these two constructs: inquiry curriculum and curriculum change through the process lens of interactions, actions, and interpretations. Symbolic interactionism is the theoretical framework we used to frame our analysis of how this teacher, Darren Daley (a pseudonym) and various stakeholders purposefully and strategically engaged in "face-work" and act out lines of actions to advocate or oppose curriculum change. Symbols are used in this world of face-to-face encounters to communicate, imply, and assert, meanings through socially flexible and adjustable processes. We scrutinize how Daley (un)consciously engaged all of these to defend his decisions, actions, and outcomes and "look" to others as doing inquiry reform. The meanings of such work are not intrinsically driven or reactions to psychological and extraneous factors and forces, but emergent through interactions. The data collection methods include interviews with Daley, school administrators, students, and parents, lesson observations in Daley's class, and gathering of school website pages, brochures, and curriculum materials. We represent data in narratives describing storied history, voices, interactions, anecdotal accounts from individuals' experiences, and interpretations. The analysis and findings illuminate the nature of teacher agency—how it is reclaimed, sustained, reinforced, contested, exercised, and modified in more nuanced ways, hence offering an alternative lens to theorizing and empirically analyzing this construct.

  12. Leading change: curriculum reform in graduate education in the biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Shoumita; Symes, Karen; Hyman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Graduate Medical Sciences at the Boston University School of Medicine houses numerous dynamic graduate programs. Doctoral students began their studies with laboratory rotations and classroom training in a variety of fundamental disciplines. Importantly, with 15 unique pathways of admission to these doctoral programs, there were also 15 unique curricula. Departments and programs offered courses independently, and students participated in curricula that were overlapping combinations of these courses. This system created curricula that were not coordinated and that had redundant course content as well as content gaps. A partnership of key stakeholders began a curriculum reform process to completely restructure doctoral education at the Boston University School of Medicine. The key pedagogical goals, objectives, and elements designed into the new curriculum through this reform process created a curriculum designed to foster the interdisciplinary thinking that students are ultimately asked to utilize in their research endeavors. We implemented comprehensive student and peer evaluation of the new Foundations in Biomedical Sciences integrated curriculum to assess the new curriculum. Furthermore, we detail how this process served as a gateway toward creating a more fully integrated graduate experience, under the umbrella of the Program in Biomedical Sciences. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Integrative curriculum reform, domain dependent knowing, and teachers` epistemological theories: Implications for middle-level teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.R. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). College of Education

    1998-12-01

    Integrative curriculum as both a theoretical construct and a practical reality, and as a theme-based, problem-centered, democratic way of schooling, is becoming more widely considered as a feasible alternative to traditional middle-level curricula. Importantly for teaching and learning, domain dependence requires teachers to view one area of knowledge as fully interdependent with other areas of knowledge during the learning process. This requires teachers to adopt personal epistemological theories that reflect integrative, domain dependent knowing. This study explored what happened when teachers from highly traditional domain independent school settings encountered an ambitious college-level curriculum project that was designed to help the teachers understand the potential that integrative, domain dependent teaching holds for precollege settings. This study asked: What influence does an integrative, domain dependent curriculum project have on teachers` domain independent, epistemological theories for teaching and learning? Finding an answer to this question is essential if we, as an educational community, are to understand how integrative curriculum theory is transformed by teachers into systemic curriculum reform. The results suggest that the integrative curriculum project that teachers participated in did not explicitly alter their classroom practices in a wholesale manner. Personal epistemological theories of teachers collectively precluded teachers from making any wholesale changes in their individual classroom teaching. However, teachers became aware of integrative curriculum as an alternative, and they expressed interest in infusing integrative practices into their classrooms as opportunities arise.

  14. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Chun Yeh; Cheng-Fang Yen; Chung-Sheng Lai; Chun-Hsiung Huang; Keh-Min Liu; In-Ting Huang

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program ...

  15. Tobephobia Experienced by Teachers in Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Study Focusing on Curriculum Reform in the Nelson Mandela Metropole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its history from apartheid to democracy, the aspiration to reform schools is a recurrent theme in South African education. Efforts to reform education in schools based on the outcomes-based education (OBE) curriculum approach created major challenges for policy makers in South Africa. The purpose of this exploratory research was…

  16. Mind the Gap: An Initial Analysis of the Transition of a Second Level Curriculum Reform to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; Faulkner, Fiona; Breen, Cormac; Carr, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article details an initial analysis of the transition of a second level curriculum reform to higher education in Ireland. The reform entitled 'Project Maths' involved changes to what second level students learn in mathematics, how they learn it, and how they are assessed. Changes were rolled out nationally on a phased basis in September 2010.…

  17. Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything: A New Approach to General Chemistry, and a Model for Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie; Klymkowsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The history of general chemistry is one of almost constant calls for reform, yet over the past 60 years little of substance has changed. Those reforms that have been implemented are almost entirely concerned with how the course is taught, rather than what is to be learned. Here we briefly discuss the history of the general chemistry curriculum and…

  18. Exploring the role of curriculum materials to support teachers in science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2001-07-01

    For curriculum materials to succeed in promoting large-scale science education reform, teacher learning must be supported. Materials were designed to reflect desired reforms and to be educative by including detailed lesson descriptions that addressed necessary content, pedagogy, and pedagogical content knowledge for teachers. The goal of this research was to describe how such materials contributed to classroom practices. As part of an urban systemic reform effort, four middle school teachers' initial enactment of an inquiry-based science unit on force and motion were videotaped. Enactments focused on five lesson sequences containing experiences with phenomena, investigation, technology use, or artifact development. Each sequence spanned three to five days across the 10-week unit. For each lesson sequence, intended and actual enactment were compared using ratings of (1) accuracy and completeness of science ideas presented, (2) amount student learning opportunities, similarity of learning opportunities with those intended, and quality of adaptations , and (3) amount of instructional supports offered, appropriateness of instructional supports and source of ideas for instructional supports. Ratings indicated two teachers' enactments were consistent with intentions and two teachers' enactments were not. The first two were in school contexts supportive of the reform. They purposefully used the materials to guide enactment, which tended to be consistent with standards-based reform. They provided students opportunities to use technology tools, design investigations, and discuss ideas. However, enactment ratings were less reflective of curriculum intent when challenges were greatest, such as when teachers attempted to present challenging science ideas, respond to students' ideas, structure investigations, guide small-group discussions, or make adaptations. Moreover, enactment ratings were less consistent in parts of lessons where materials did not include lesson specific

  19. Curriculum Reform in 3D: A Panel of Experts Discuss the New HPE Curriculum in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Chris; Kirk, David; Macdonald, Doune; Penney, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This paper was developed at the request of the Organising Committee for the 27th Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation International Conference, in Melbourne, 2013. Its genesis was as a feature forum, wherein a panel of curriculum experts were bought together to discuss the emergence of the Australian Health and Physical…

  20. Nursing and health care reform: implications for curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, M; Lyons, K J; Young, B E

    2000-01-01

    The health care system is undergoing profound changes. Cost containment efforts and restructuring have resulted in cutbacks in registered nurse (RN) positions. These changes are often related to the increased market penetration by managed care companies. To determine how RN graduates perceive these changes and their impact on the delivery of patient care, Healthcare Environment Surveys were mailed to graduates of the classes of 1986 and 1991. Using the Survey's 5-point Likert Scale, we measured the graduates' satisfaction with their salary, quality of supervision they received, opportunities for advancement, recognition for their job, working conditions, the overall job and the changes in their careers over the previous five year period. Our study suggests that the changes in the health care system are having an impact on how health care is being delivered and the way nurses view their jobs. Respondents reported that insurance companies are exerting increased control over patient care and perceive that the quality of patient care is declining. Increased workloads and an increase in the amount of paperwork were reported. Participants perceived that there were fewer jobs available and that job security was decreasing. The percentage of nurses who see job satisfaction as remaining the same or increasing are a majority. However, the relatively high percent of nurses who see job satisfaction as declining should provide a note of warning. The major implications of this study are that the professional nursing curriculum must be modified to include content on communication, organization, legislative/policy skills, and leadership. The nation's health care system is undergoing profound changes. There are numerous forces at work that are effecting the delivery of care and, consequently, the work of health professionals. These forces include significant efforts at cost containment, restructuring and downsizing of hospitals, and the movement of health care delivery out of acute

  1. Workplace-based assessment in surgical training: experiences from the Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, Ian; Bussey, Maria; Woodthorpe, Adrian; Munsch, Chris; Beard, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    The Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme was launched in the United Kingdom in 2007. At its heart was the reliance upon clear, defined curricula, competence-based training and the use of workplace-based assessments to assess the competence. The principle assessments used were Case-based Discussion, Procedure-based Assessments (PBA), Direct Observation of Procedural Skills, and Clinical Evaluation Exercise and a Multisource Feedback tool. We report the initial experience with that system, and most importantly, the experience with workplace-based assessment. Themes include issues around faculty development, misuse of assessments, inappropriate timing of assessments, concerns about validity and reliability of the assessments and concerns about the actual process of workplace-based assessments. Of the assessments, the PBA performed best. As a consequence, there has been an increased focus upon faculty development, while some of the assessments have been redesigned in line with the PBA. A global rating scale has been introduced that uses clinical anchors. The rating scales have also been altered with a reduction in the number of ratings while an enhanced description of the complexity of the case has been introduced within the Case-based Discussion and the Clinical Evaluation Exercise. A re-evaluation will take place in the near future. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. Education for Sustainable Development in Malaysia's National Curriculum Reformation: A Theoretical Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aai Sheau Yean

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the feasibility and potential of including appropriate Education for Sustainable Development (ESD elements in the National Curriculum Reformation of Malaysia that is set to be introduced in the year 2017. This is done through the proposal of a theoretical approach for understanding ESD fit for Malaysia from an environmental epistemology. To start with, this article outlines dominant ideologies and epistemologies revolving around the concept of Sustainable Development (SD and focuses on critiquing the underlying anthropocentric tendencies found within. Drawing principally from the ideas of Schumacher (1973, Orr (2004, and Sterling (1992, the article then sets out to examine the ideologies and epistemologies needed to support education reformation that are more environmentally sensitive in nature.

  3. A Learner-Created Virtual Patient Curriculum for Surgical Residents: Successes and Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendy, Katherine M; Posel, Nancy; Fleiszer, David M; Vassiliou, Melina C

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a learner-created virtual patient (VP) curriculum for postgraduate year 2 surgical residents. Using a social-constructivist model of learning, we designed a learner-created VP curriculum to help postgraduate year 2 residents prepare for their in-training surgical examination. Each resident was assigned to create a VP curriculum based on the learning objectives for this examination, and VP cases were then disseminated to all residents for completion. To measure the learning effects of the curriculum, participants completed 2 simulated in-training examinations, both at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Study participants also participated in a focus group and completed an online questionnaire about the perceived learning value of the curriculum. The study was conducted at the McGill University Health Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Montreal, Canada. In total, 24 residents from 7 surgical specialties completed both the pretest and posttest, as well as took part in the creation of a VP curriculum. Of those 24 residents, only 19 residents completed the cases created by their peers, with 7 completing greater than 50% of the cases and 12 completing less than 50%. In all 17 residents responded to the online questionnaire and 11 residents participated in the focus group. The VP curriculum failed to improve scores from pretest (59.6%, standard deviation = 8.1) to posttest (55.4%, standard deviation = 6.6; p = 0.01) on the simulated in-training examination. Nonetheless, survey results demonstrated that most residents felt that creating a VP case (89%) and completing cases created by their peers (71%) had educational value. Overall, 71% preferred active participation in a curriculum to traditional didactic teaching. The focus group identified time-related constraints, concern about the quality of the peer-created cases, and questioning of the relationship between the curriculum and the Surgical Foundations

  4. Validation of a virtual reality-based robotic surgical skills curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Michael; Seligman, Johnathan; Kastenmeier, Andrew; Goldblatt, Matthew; Gould, Jon C

    2014-05-01

    The clinical application of robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) is rapidly increasing. The da Vinci Surgical System™ is currently the only commercially available RAS system. The skills necessary to perform robotic surgery are unique from those required for open and laparoscopic surgery. A validated laparoscopic surgical skills curriculum (fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery or FLS™) has transformed the way surgeons acquire laparoscopic skills. There is a need for a similar skills training and assessment tool specific for robotic surgery. Based on previously published data and expert opinion, we developed a robotic skills curriculum. We sought to evaluate this curriculum for evidence of construct validity (ability to discriminate between users of different skill levels). Four experienced surgeons (>20 RAS) and 20 novice surgeons (first-year medical students with no surgical or RAS experience) were evaluated. The curriculum comprised five tasks utilizing the da Vinci™ Skills Simulator (Pick and Place, Camera Targeting 2, Peg Board 2, Matchboard 2, and Suture Sponge 3). After an orientation to the robot and a period of acclimation in the simulator, all subjects completed three consecutive repetitions of each task. Computer-derived performance metrics included time, economy of motion, master work space, instrument collisions, excessive force, distance of instruments out of view, drops, missed targets, and overall scores (a composite of all metrics). Experienced surgeons significantly outperformed novice surgeons in most metrics. Statistically significant differences were detected for each task in regards to mean overall scores and mean time (seconds) to completion. The curriculum we propose is a valid method of assessing and distinguishing robotic surgical skill levels on the da Vinci Si™ Surgical System. Further study is needed to establish proficiency levels and to demonstrate that training on the simulator with the proposed curriculum leads to improved robotic

  5. The reform of the teaching mode of Applied Optics curriculum and analysis of teaching effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yu; Xu, Zhongjie; Li, Dun; Chen, Zilun; Cheng, Xiangai; Zhong, Hairong

    2017-08-01

    Military academies have two distinctive characteristics on talent training: Firstly, we must teach facing actual combat and connecting with academic frontier. Secondly, the bachelor's degree education and the military education should be balanced. The teaching mode of basic curriculum in military academies must be reformed and optimized on the basis of the traditional teaching mode, so as to ensure the high quality of teaching and provide enough guidance and help for students to support their academic burden. In this paper, our main work on "Applied Optics" teaching mode reform is introduced: First of all, we research extensively and learn fully from advanced teaching modes of the well-known universities at home and abroad, a whole design is made for the teaching mode of the core curriculum of optical engineering in our school "Applied Optics", building a new teaching mode which takes the methods of teaching basic parts as details, teaching application parts as emphases, teaching frontier parts as topics and teaching actual combat parts on site. Then combining with the questionnaire survey of students and opinions proposed by relevant experts in the teaching seminar, teaching effect and generalizability of the new teaching mode are analyzed and evaluated.

  6. Scientists in the classroom: Curriculum reform and the Cold War, 1949--1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, John Laurence

    This dissertation focuses on the origins of the National Science Foundation-supported curriculum reform movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Using the Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) as exemplars of the curriculum projects that proliferated during this era, this work provides a historical analysis of the shift in school curriculum from the life adjustment, functional approach to schooling prevalent after World War II to the discipline-centered approach characteristic of the 1960s. Important factors in this shift include the rising technological threat posed by the Soviet Union along with the Red Scare in the United States, which aroused public suspicion of the ideological underpinnings of the life adjustment curricular program. The efforts of the scientific elite to develop new science curricula were welcomed as a means to combat both the technological threat of the Soviets and, through science's identification with free inquiry and democracy, the ideological threat of communism. This dissertation specifically illustrates how the key elements of the new science curriculum materials---the focus on inquiry, laboratory work, and instructional technology---were shaped by the social and political atmosphere of the Cold War and how those elements were designed to advance the interests of the American scientific community in the postwar period. This social and political atmosphere, this work argues, was not only responsible for moving science instruction away from an emphasis on the every-day applications of science toward the disciplinary structure of scientific knowledge, but also contributed to a fundamental restructuring of the substantive content of the scientific knowledge itself that made up the subject matter of the new curricula.

  7. Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

    This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish

  8. The importance of an ethics curriculum in surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jason D; Kodner, Ira J

    2014-07-01

    The nature of surgical work provides fertile ground in which ethical problems can grow. The concept of what it means to be a "good surgeon" includes the ability to reason and deliberate about how the surgeon's unique technical capabilities integrate with larger society. Ethics education at the resident level is important for several reasons. It can ensure that care is delivered in a socially and ethically responsible manner through global and emergent effects on institutions and traditions. It will prepare residents for leadership positions. It can allow residents to confront issues, such as the scientific underdetermination of surgical practice, the application of new technologies to trusting patients that have been developed by for-profit companies, and a surgical environment that is becoming increasingly institutionalized. Resident ethics education provides the opportunity for a model of collective deliberation to be developed that can be used to make sense of ethical problems as they arise.

  9. Improving Surgical Safety and Nontechnical Skills in Variable-Resource Contexts: A Novel Educational Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Scott, John W; Yi, Sojung; Taylor, Kathryn K; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Ntirenganya, Faustin; Banguti, Paulin; Yule, Steven; Riviello, Robert

    2017-10-23

    A substantial proportion of adverse intraoperative events are attributed to failures in nontechnical skills. To strengthen these skills and improve surgical safety, the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) taxonomy was developed as a common framework. The NOTSS taxonomy was adapted for low- and middle-income countries, where variable resources pose a significant challenge to safe surgery. The NOTSS for variable-resource contexts (VRC) curriculum was developed and implemented in Rwanda, with the aim of enhancing knowledge and attitudes about nontechnical skills and promoting surgical safety. The NOTSS-VRC curriculum was developed through a rigorous process of integrating contextually appropriate values. It was implemented as a 1-day training course for surgical and anesthesia postgraduate trainees. The curriculum comprises lectures, videos, and group discussions. A pretraining and posttraining questionnaire was administered to compare knowledge and attitudes regarding nontechnical skills, and their potential to improve surgical safety. The setting of this study was in the tertiary teaching hospital of Kigali, Rwanda. Participants were residents of the University of Kigali. A total of 55 residents participated from general surgery (31.4%), obstetrics (25.5%), anesthesia (17.6%), and other surgical specialties (25.5%). In a paired analysis, understanding of NOTSS improved significantly (55.6% precourse, 80.9% postcourse, pskills would improve patient outcomes. Nontechnical skills must be highlighted in surgical training in low- and middle-income countries. The NOTSS-VRC curriculum can be implemented without additional technology or significant financial cost. Its deliberate design for resource-constrained settings allows it to be used both as an educational course and a quality improvement strategy. Our research demonstrates it is feasible to improve knowledge and attitudes about NOTSS through a 1-day course, and represents a novel approach to improving global

  10. A Tale of Two Generations: Creativity Growth and Gender Differences over a Period of Education and Curriculum Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ping Chung; Lau, Sing

    2013-01-01

    The Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests were translated into Chinese and later fully computerized for research in Hong Kong. The normative data of two cohorts (1994 and 2002) of school children were employed to test the hypothesis that growth in creative thinking occurs in a society or culture during a period of education and curriculum reforms that…

  11. The Situations Bank, a Tool for Curriculum Design Focused on Daily Realities: The Case of the Reform in Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, Patrick; Cyr, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the curriculum reform in Niger, the authors describe the process of developing a situations bank which focusses on everyday life situations in Niger. The bank plays a central role in the formulation of new study programmes guided by the so-called "situated" approach. The authors also describe various issues that arose…

  12. Evolving a common surgical curriculum for ASEAN nations with a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Siew Kheong

    2013-03-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) on medical practitioners' agreement will become a reality in the year 2015. Doctors registered in one ASEAN country will be given reciprocal recognition in another country under this agreement. Rapid and excessive movement of human resources between countries in a short span of time is undesirable and can be destabilizing. The surgical fraternity in the ASEAN countries should plan for a common surgical curriculum, a common examination and an ASEAN Board of Surgery so that standards of future trainees in different countries are comparable. The curriculum should take into consideration the diversity of the countries in socio-economic development. Ideally, it should be based on a public health approach to bring affordable quality surgical care to the masses in an efficient and effective manner. © 2013 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Addressing Professionalism, Social, and Communication Competencies in Surgical Residency Via Integrated Humanities Workshops: A Pilot Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jennifer; French, Judith; Siperstein, Allan; Capizzani, Tony R; Krishnamurthy, Vikram D

    We aimed to conduct professionalism and social competencies (PSC) training by integrating humanities into structured workshops, and to assess reception of this curriculum by first-year surgical residents. An IRB-approved, pilot curriculum consisting of 4 interactive workshops for surgical interns was developed. The workshops were scheduled quarterly, often in small group format, and supplemental readings were assigned. Humanities media utilized to illustrate PSC included survival scenarios, reflective writing, television portrayals, and social media. Emphasis was placed on recognizing personal values and experiences that influence judgment and decision-making, using social media responsibly, identifying and overcoming communication barriers related to generational changes in training (especially technology and work-life balance), and tackling stereotypes of surgeons. Anonymous and voluntary pre- and postcurriculum surveys were administered. Univariate analysis of responses was performed with JMP Pro v12 using Fisher's exact, χ 2 , and Students' t-tests for categorical and continuous variables. The study took place at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, OH, within the general surgery program. Surgical interns at the Cleveland Clinic were included in the study. A total of 16 surgical interns completed the curriculum. Sixteen surgical interns participated in the curriculum: 69% were domestic medical school graduates (DG) and 31% were international medical school graduates (IMG). Overall, the majority (81%) of residents had received PSC courses during medical school: 100% of DG compared to 40% of IMG (p = 0.02). Before beginning the curriculum, 86% responded that additional PSC training would be useful during residency, which increased to 94% upon completion (p = 0.58). Mean number of responses supporting the usefulness of PSC training increased from 1.5 ± 0.2 before the curriculum to 1.75 ± 0.2 upon completion (p = 0.4). When describing public and medical student

  14. Reforming the 4th-Year Curriculum as a Springboard to Graduate Medical Training: One School's Experiences and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Andrew; Daroowalla, Feroza; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha

    2016-01-01

    Concerns regarding the quality of training in the 4th year of medical school and preparation of graduates to enter residency education persist and are borne out in the literature. We reviewed the published literature regarding Year 4 concerns as well as institutional efforts to improve the 4th-year curriculum from several schools. Based on input from key stakeholders, we established 4 goals for our Year 4 curriculum reform: (a) standardize the curricular structure, (b) allow flexibility and individualization, (c) improve the preparation for residency, and (d) improve student satisfaction. After the reform, we evaluated the outcomes using results from the Association of American Medical Colleges Questionnaire, student focus groups, and program director surveys. This article describes the context, process, and outcomes of the reform of the Year 4 curriculum at Stony Brook University School of Medicine. We were able to achieve all four stated goals for the reform. The significant components of the change included a flexible adaptable curriculum based on individual needs and preferences, standardized learning objectives across the year, standardized competency-based evaluations regardless of discipline, reinforcement of clinical skills, and training for the transition to the workplace as an intern. The reform resulted in increased student satisfaction, increased elective time, and increased preparedness for residency training as perceived by the graduates. The Program Director survey showed significant changes in ability to perform a medical history and exam, management of common medical conditions and emergencies, clinical reasoning and problem-solving skills, working and communication with the healthcare team, and overall professionalism in meeting obligations inherent in the practice of medicine. Lessons learned from our 4th-year reform process are discussed. Listening to the needs of the stakeholders was an important step in ensuring buy-in, having an institutional

  15. A literature review of professionalism in surgical education: suggested components for development of a curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptula, Peter; Chun, Maria B J

    2013-01-01

    While it is evident that a surgeon must master medical knowledge and technical skill, there are other "soft skills" that are essential to a successful surgeon. One of these skills is professionalism. The challenge in surgical education lies in developing an effective professionalism curriculum and a related method of evaluation. Our review updates the literature and provides recommendations for improving instruction and evaluation of professionalism. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge. We restricted our search to documents published from 2009 to 2012 that address methods of teaching and tools for assessing professionalism in surgical education. Sixty-three documents were reviewed, with 14 fitting our search criteria for professionalism in surgical education completely. Other articles focused on the topics of professionalism in surgery, medical professionalism, and professionalism education in medical specialties other than surgery. Development of a professionalism curriculum for surgical residents might begin with defining professionalism in terms of tangible behaviors. The program might also include a precurriculum preparatory course and simulation-based training. Residency programs must also maintain professionalism among its faculty. Assessment in the form of multisource feedback that is consistent with observable behavioral definitions of professionalism should also be considered in evaluating resident professionalism. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Teachers' sense-making of curriculum structures and its impact on the implementation of an innovative reform-based science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford-Smart, Meredith

    different teacher stories shaped their teaching practices and enactment of science curriculum. Curriculum developers and policy makers struggle to understand how their messages can be communicated clearly to their readers and users. Many argue that curriculum materials are not used the way they are intended. Others argue the messages read from policy and curriculum materials and artifacts are ambiguous and unclear. This study did not argue that teachers do not use the curriculum materials correctly. This study focused on teachers' sense-making of curriculum materials so we can get a better understanding of the role curriculum resources can play in reform.

  17. Correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression in medical students experiencing integrated curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Liu, Keh-Min; Huang, In-Ting

    2007-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. The

  18. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Yeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth

  19. American College of Surgeons/Association for Surgical Education medical student simulation-based surgical skills curriculum needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Charity C; Acton, Robert D; Blair, Patrice G; Campbell, Andre R; Deutsch, Ellen S; Jones, Daniel B; Liscum, Kathleen R; Sachdeva, Ajit K; Scott, Daniel J; Yang, Stephen C

    2014-02-01

    Simulation can enhance learning effectiveness, efficiency, and patient safety and is engaging for learners. A survey was conducted of surgical clerkship directors nationally and medical students at 5 medical schools to rank and stratify simulation-based educational topics. Students applying to surgery were compared with others using Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests. Seventy-three of 163 clerkship directors (45%) and 231 of 872 students (26.5%) completed the survey. Of students, 28.6% were applying for surgical residency training. Clerkship directors and students generally agreed on the importance and timing of specific educational topics. Clerkship directors tended to rank basic skills, such as examination skills, higher than medical students. Students ranked procedural skills, such as lumbar puncture, more highly than clerkship directors. Surgery clerkship directors and 4th-year medical students agree substantially about the content of a simulation-based curriculum, although 4th-year medical students recommended that some topics be taught earlier than the clerkship directors recommended. Students planning to apply to surgical residencies did not differ significantly in their scoring from students pursuing nonsurgical specialties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  1. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  2. Systematic review of the implementation of simulation training in surgical residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Yo; Hirano, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    We reviewed the literature regarding the specific methods and strategies for implementing simulation-based training into the modern surgical residency curriculum. Residency programs are still struggling with how best to implement it into their curricula from a practical viewpoint. A systematic review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and other resources for studies involving the use of simulation for technical skills training in the surgical residency curriculum. Studies were selected based on the integration of simulation into the curriculum and/or a description of the details of implementation and the resources required. In total, 2533 unique citations were retrieved based on this search, and 31 articles met the inclusion criteria. Most simulators were focused on laparoscopic procedures, and training occurred most often in a skills lab. The assessment of skills consisted mostly of speed of task completion. Only 4 studies addressed issues of cost, and 6 programs mentioned human resources without any mention of skills center personnel or administrative support. All of the studies described the nature of the simulation training, but very few commented on how it was actually implemented and what was needed from organizational, administrative and logistical perspectives.

  3. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instruction, including: Microbiology Pathophysiology Pharmacology Anatomy and physiology Medical terminology Curriculum . Course content includes: Advanced surgical anatomy Surgical microbiology Surgical pharmacology Anesthesia methods and agents Bioscience Ethical ...

  4. A reformed surgical treatment modality for children with giant cystic craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanchun; Li, Xiang; He, Jintao; Sun, Tao; Li, Chunde; Gong, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Surgical removal plays an important role in treating children's craniopharyngioma. For a safe and minimally invasive craniotomy, a reformed surgical modality was proposed in this paper by combining the insertion of an Ommaya reservoir system (ORS) by stereotactic puncture, aspiration of cystic fluid in 2-day interval for consecutive 7-10 days, and the delayed tumor resection. Eleven patients (aged from 5 to 9 years old) with giant cystic craniopharyngiomas who had undergone the reformed surgical modality during November 2014 and December 2015 were collected as group A. In contrast, seven patients (aged from 5 to 11 years old) who had undergone the traditional directed operation without any prior management from January 2014 to October 2014 were collected into group B. A retrospective analysis was performed for both groups at one institution. The preoperative and postoperative clinical presentations, neuroimaging, early postoperative outcome, and the surgery-related complications of both groups were reviewed. For group A, the mean value of the maximum tumor diameters shank from 52.36 to 23.82 mm after implementing aspiration of the cystic fluid in 1-day interval for consecutive 8.23 days. Eight patients (72.73%) in group A underwent a gross total resection (GTR), while two (28.57%) patients underwent GTR in group B. The postoperative electrolyte disturbance rate and endocrine disorder rate of group B were significantly higher than those of group A (42.86 vs 36.36%; 71.43 vs 45.45%). Postoperative long-term diabetes insipidus only occurred in one patient of group B, and postoperative visual deterioration occurred in two patients of group B. Besides, one patient of group B died of severe postoperative hypothalamus dysfunction. Patients with residual tumors were applied with additional adjuvant radiotherapy, and no recurrence was observed in follow-up examinations. A favorable outcome can be achieved by combining the insertion of an ORS by stereotactic puncture

  5. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgical Simulation Training Curriculum: Transfer Reliability and Maintenance of Skill Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John C; Belmont, Philip J; Lanzi, Joseph; Martin, Kevin; Bader, Julia; Owens, Brett; Waterman, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Surgical education is evolving as work hour constraints limit the exposure of residents to the operating room. Potential consequences may include erosion of resident education and decreased quality of patient care. Surgical simulation training has become a focus of study in an effort to counter these challenges. Previous studies have validated the use of arthroscopic surgical simulation programs both in vitro and in vivo. However, no study has examined if the gains made by residents after a simulation program are retained after a period away from training. In all, 17 orthopedic surgery residents were randomized into simulation or standard practice groups. All subjects were oriented to the arthroscopic simulator, a 14-point anatomic checklist, and Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET). The experimental group received 1 hour of simulation training whereas the control group had no additional training. All subjects performed a recorded, diagnostic arthroscopy intraoperatively. These videos were scored by 2 blinded, fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons and outcome measures were compared within and between the groups. After 1 year in which neither group had exposure to surgical simulation training, all residents were retested intraoperatively and scored in the exact same fashion. Individual surgical case logs were reviewed and surgical case volume was documented. There was no difference between the 2 groups after initial simulation testing and there was no correlation between case volume and initial scores. After training, the simulation group improved as compared with baseline in mean ASSET (p = 0.023) and mean time to completion (p = 0.01). After 1 year, there was no difference between the groups in any outcome measurements. Although individual technical skills can be cultivated with surgical simulation training, these advancements can be lost without continued education. It is imperative that residency programs implement a simulation curriculum and

  6. Who's Steering the Ship? National Curriculum Reform and the Re-Shaping of Australian Federalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the repositioning of state curriculum agencies in response to the establishment of the Australian Curriculum and the key national policy organisation responsible for its development: the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). I begin with an analysis of the federal Labor government's role in the…

  7. Examining the Perceptions of Curriculum Leaders on Primary School Reform: A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to enhance the quality of teachers and teaching, and to lead internal curriculum development in primary schools, the Hong Kong Education Bureau created a new curriculum leader post entitled primary school master/mistress (curriculum development) or PSMCD for short. The main purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of these…

  8. Curriculum development in studio-style university physics and implications for dissemination of research-based reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen T. Foote

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that students learn best in engaging, interactive, collaborative, and inquiry-based environments. However, most college science classes are still taught with traditional methods suggesting the existing selection of research-based instructional materials has not widely transformed undergraduate education. SCALE-UP is a renovated pedagogy and classroom environment that has achieved a greater impact than most, used extensively throughout the United States and abroad. SCALE-UP is not a simple collection of lesson plans or a textbook that can be easily adopted, and instead instructors are encouraged to customize main pedagogical principles to their unique instructional situation. This flexibility along with promotion of instructor autonomy may have assisted its spread. This paper uses case studies of five successful secondary implementations in the United States to examine how instructors gather information about reform, create a curriculum, and achieve sustained use. Many people learned about research-based resources that formed the composite of their curricula through interpersonal connections. Time constraints and misunderstandings between developers and instructors limited which resources were chosen and how they were used. Once instructors created a “working form” of the curriculum, three out of five instructors did not make significant changes. This could lead to the preservation of a more conservative curriculum. Implications include that disseminators should articulate core principles of the reform that should be retained to uphold the integrity of the reform as well as the areas where adopters have flexibility to innovate. Strategically involving other secondary users in the dissemination process could facilitate important interpersonal exchanges that could provide an additional layer of support for faculty.

  9. Symbolic Politics and Institutional Boundaries in Curriculum Reform: The Case of National Sectarian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Gordon B.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many colleges and universities have set out to reform or revisit their general education curricula. These efforts often have failed to achieve the comprehensive change that reformers originally had envisioned. Using the example of one case, this paper explores how institutionalized organizational elements and politics can shape…

  10. Curriculum Reform and School Performance: An Evaluation of the "New Basics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Karl L.; Pallas, Aaron M.

    This report examines whether a high school curriculum organized around the five "new basics" suggested by the National Commission on Excellence in Education is likely to enhance student achievement. Data from the ETS Growth Study reveals that completion of the core curriculum has sizable effects on senior-year test performance, even when…

  11. "Butterfly under a Pin": An Emergent Teacher Image amid Mandated Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    The author examines 1 experienced teacher's image of teaching and how it was purposely changed--through external intervention and against the individual's will--from the view of teacher as curriculum maker to the view of teacher as curriculum implementer. Laura's account of the "butterfly under a pin" image, a version of the…

  12. Curriculum Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan: A Required Reform Initiative for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer; Abu-Alruz, Jamal; Alsharqawi, Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the curriculum orientations of pre-service teachers at a university in Jordan. Rigorous translation procedures were utilized to validate an Arabic version of the Curriculum Orientation Inventory (COI) for use in Jordan. The validated COI was administered to a sample of 259 pre-service teachers who…

  13. The professionalism curriculum as a cultural change agent in surgical residency education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Mark S; Berman, Russell S; Kalet, Adina L; Zabar, Sondra R; Gillespie, Colleen; Pachter, H Leon

    2012-01-01

    Teaching professionalism effectively to fully engaged residents is a significant challenge. A key question is whether the integration of professionalism into residency education leads to a change in resident culture. The goal of this study was to assess whether professionalism has taken root in the surgical resident culture 3 years after implementing our professionalism curriculum. Evidence was derived from 3 studies: (1) annual self-assessments of the residents' perceived professionalism abilities to perform 20 defined tasks representing core Accrediting Council on Graduate Medical Education professionalism domains, (2) objective metrics of their demonstrated professionalism skills as rated by standardized patients annually using the objective structure clinical examination tool, and (3) a national survey of the Surgical Professionalism and Interpersonal Communications Education Study Group. Study 1: aggregate perceived professionalism among surgical residents shows a statistically significant positive trend over time (P = .016). Improvements were seen in all 6 domains: accountability, ethics, altruism, excellence, patient sensitivity, and respect. Study 2: the cohort of residents followed up over 3 years showed a marked improvement in their professionalism skills as rated by standardized patients using the objective structure clinical examination tool. Study 3: 41 members of the national Surgical Professionalism and Interpersonal Communications Education Study Group rated their residents' skills in admitting mistakes, delivering bad news, communication, interdisciplinary respect, cultural competence, and handling stress. Twenty-nine of the 41 responses rated their residents as "slightly better" or "much better" compared with 5 years ago (P = .001). Thirty-four of the 41 programs characterized their department's leadership view toward professionalism as "much better" compared with 5 years ago. All 3 assessment methods suggest that residents feel increasingly

  14. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative: the case of the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaeka Raselimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography. More specifically the focus was on a Danish donor-fundedproject, known as the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP. Driven by a sustainable development imperative, the project was intended to assist Lesotho with the implementation of local action for Agenda 21 by introducing environmental education into the formal education system. It is widely accepted that teachers play an important role in implementing curriculum change. Using a previous framework, we generate insights for understanding how teachers' epistemologies interact with contextual factors to impede the process ofcurriculum sense-making. Furthermore, guided by the notion ofcurriculum as a contextualised social process, we present the findings on the contextual/structural factors enabling or constraining implementation ofthe LEESP curriculum policy intentions as perceived by the teachers.

  15. 臺灣課程改革理論基礎再思Revisiting the Theoretical Bases of Taiwan’s Curriculum Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    黃顯華Hin-Wah Wong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available 教育工作者如何理解「課程」此一概念,對課程改革中的課程設計、課程決定模式、課程實施、課程評價/研究均有重要啟示。本文即從這些維度,針對教育部在二十世紀一九九○年代頒布課程標準與課程綱要的文本與相關研究進行比較分析。 結果發現:課程標準傾向於將課程定義爲「學科」,其改革過程可分為發 展、傳遞、採用三個階段;課程綱要傾向於將課程定義爲「經驗」,其改革表現出持續發展的傾向。但後者在課程決定、實施及研究取向上仍保留課程定義爲「學科」時的部分特徵。從課程的定義角度觀之,臺灣課程改革的性質正從課程作爲「科目」的方向朝課程作爲「經驗」的方向發展。 The way educators understand the concept of curriculum has significant implication to the nature of curriculum design, decision, implementation, evaluation and research in curriculum reform. Based on these dimensions, this article compares documents and research reports of curriculum standard of 1993 with those of curriculum program of 1998. It comes to the conclusion that curriculum standard tends to define curriculum as an academic discipline, in which reform is a repeated process of development, diffusion and adoption. Curriculum program tends to define curriculum as an experience, in which reform is a continuous development process. However, the latter has inherited some characteristics of the former in curriculum decision, implementation and research. From the perspective of the definition of curriculum, the nature of curriculum reform in Taiwan can be considered as moving from “academic discipline” to “experience”.

  16. "I'm Not Teaching English, I'm Teaching Something Else!": How New Teachers Create Curriculum under Mandates of Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    This study presents how beginning teachers create and teach an English Language Arts (ELA) curriculum in urban schools in the context of an educational reform movement driven by mandates such as Common Core State Standards (CCSS), high stakes tests, and prescribed curricula. They serve in schools with each using unique and individual curricula due…

  17. Surgical Education and Health Care Reform: Defining the Role and Value of Trainees in an Evolving Medical Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayanju, Oluwadamilola M; Aggarwal, Reena; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Ferrone, Cristina R; Massaro, David; Terhune, Kyla P

    2017-03-01

    Health care reform and surgical education are often separated functionally. However, especially in surgery, where resident trainees often spend twice as much time in residency and fellowship than in undergraduate medical education, one must consider their contributions to health care. In this short commentary, we briefly review the status of health care in the United States as well as some of the recent and current changes in graduate medical education that pertain to surgical trainees. This is a perspective piece that draws on the interests and varied background of the multiinstitutional and international group of authors. The authors propose 3 main areas of focus for research and practice- (1) accurately quantifying the care provided currently by trainees, (2) determining impact to trainees and hospital systems of training parameters, focusing on long-term outcomes rather than short-term outcomes, and (3) determining practice models of education that work best for both health care delivery and trainees. The authors propose that surgical education must align itself with rather than separate itself from overall health care reform measures and even individual hospital financial pressures. This should not be seen as additional burden of service, but rather practical education in training as to the pressures trainees will face as future employees. Rethinking the contributions and training of residents and fellows may also synergistically work to impress to hospital administrators that providing better, more focused and applicable education to residents and fellows may have long-term, strategic, positive impacts on institutions.

  18. Medical curriculum reform in Sun Yat-sen University: implications from the results of GMER evaluation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Haipeng; Xian, Liqing; Yu, Xueqing; Wang, Jianping

    2007-09-01

    Created by interlocking economies, a global language, the informatics revolution and rapid travel, globalization has penetrated all aspects of human life including science, environment, public health and medicine. Physicians are now members of a global community. The global physician should possess universal core essential competences required for medical practice throughout the world. The Institute for International Medical Education (IIME), created by the China Medical Board (CMB) of New York, has developed the " global minimal essential requirements" (GMER) that define the knowledge, skills, professional behavior and ethics that all physicians must have regardless of where they received their general medical education and training. The IIME initiated a pilot project in China in October, 2003, to evaluate the graduates of the 7- or 8-year track program of eight leading medical schools, including Medical School of Sun Yat-sen University. The results of GMER evaluation indicated strengths and areas for improvement of our school in relation to international standards, which greatly re-invigorate our enthusiasm on medical curriculum reform on the new 8-year track program in Medical School of Sun Yat-sen University. The modifications of our medical curriculum for the new 8-year track program based on the results of GMER evaluation are discussed in this paper.

  19. Teachers' Views about Technical Education: Implications for Reforms towards a Broad Based Technology Curriculum in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikasanda, Vanwyk Khobidi; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Jones, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Internationally there has been concern about the direction of technical education and how it is positioned in schools. This has also been the case in Malawi where the curriculum has had a strong focus on skills development. However, lately there has been a call for enhancing technological literacy of students, yet little support has been provided…

  20. The demand for private tutoring in Turkey: unintended consequences of curriculum reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.; Bray, M.; Mazawi, A.E.; Sultana, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the private tutoring phenomenon in Turkey. It seeks to analyse the impact of the revision of primary school curriculum on the demand for private tutoring. It also outlines various academic, economic and social implications of private tutoring. Based on interviews with school

  1. A Call for Curriculum Reform to Combat Refugees Crisis: The Case of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Ghada; Diab, Hassan; Faour, Kawthar

    2018-01-01

    The study was set to elicit teachers' perceptions of adopting a new curriculum integrating Human Rights Education (HRE) into most school subjects and developing textbooks which could address the mainstreaming of the Syrian children into the Lebanese schools especially after the influx of more than 1.2 million Syrian refugees who migrated to…

  2. Deconstructing Engineering Education Programmes: The DEEP Project to Reform the Mechanical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch-Vishniac, Ilene; Kibler, Tom; Campbell, Patricia B.; Patterson, Eann; Guillaume, Darrell; Jarosz, Jeffrey; Chassapis, Constantin; Emery, Ashley; Ellis, Glenn; Whitworth, Horace; Metz, Susan; Brainard, Suzanne; Ray, Pradosh

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Deconstructing Engineering Education Programmes project is to revise the mechanical engineering undergraduate curriculum to make the discipline more able to attract and retain a diverse community of students. The project seeks to reduce and reorder the prerequisite structure linking courses to offer greater flexibility for…

  3. Agents' Social Imagination: The "Invisible" Hand of Neoliberalism in Taiwan's Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teng

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberalism has become the most dominant ideology in current world and educational researchers thus may need to disclose the ways in which neoliberalism affects education and curriculum and propose new strategies to cope with them. Through literature review, however, the author argues that perhaps because of the social and theoretical scope in…

  4. An exploration of the science teaching orientations of Indian science teachers in the context of curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

    This study explores the concepts and behaviors, otherwise referred to as orientations, of six Indian science teachers and the alignment of these orientations to the 2005 India National Curriculum Framework (NCF-2005). Differences in teachers' orientations across grade bands (elementary, middle, and secondary) and school types (public versus private) are also examined to determine how contextual factors may influence this alignment. First, a content analysis of the NCF-2005 was completed to identify the overarching principles of the NCF-2005 and goals specific to the teaching and learning of science. Interviews with school principals were also analyzed to understand how the goals of NCF-2005 were communicated to schools and teachers. Together, these data sources served to answer research question one. Next, profiles were created based on three interviews with each teacher and several observations of their teaching. These profiles provide a point of reference for answering the remaining three research questions. Findings include teacher's orientations falling along a continuum from traditionalist in nature to inquiry/constructivist in nature. Stark contrasts were found between traditionalist orientations and the goals of NCF-2005, with much of this contrast due to the limited pedagogical content knowledge these teachers have regarding students' scientific thinking, curriculum design, instructional strategies, and assessment. Inquiry/constructivist teachers' orientations, while more in line with reform, still have a few key areas of pedagogical content knowledge needing attention (e.g., knowledge of assessment and a variety of purposes for constructivist instructional strategies). In response to the final research question, several contextual factors contributed to teachers' orientations including environmental constraints, such as limited resources and large class sizes, cultural testing pressures, and limited accessibility to professional development. Suggestions

  5. Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Kroflič

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern curriculum theories emphasize that if we understand the curriculum as a real core substance of education. We have to bear in mind, when planning the curriculum, the whole multitude of factors (curricula which have an influence on the educational impact. In the field of andragogy, we especially have to consider educational needs, and linking the strategies of instruction with those of learning. The best way of realizing this principle is the open strategy of planning the national curriculum and process-developmental strategy of planning with the microandragogic situation. This planning strategy is S1m1lar to the system-integration strategy and Jarvis's model of negotiated curriculum, which derive from the basic andragogic principle: that the interests and capacities of adults for education increase if we enable them to cooperate in the planning and production of the curriculum.

  6. 論地方課程發展機制與課程改革On the Developmental Mechanism of Local Curriculum and Curricula Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陸明玉Ming-Yu Lu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 自1992年地方課程正式提出至今,地方課程經歷了近20年的發展。擁有年輕生命的地方課程難免遭遇荊棘與障礙,本研究立足於課程改革的宏觀背景,在辨析相關概念的基礎上,考察地方課程發展面臨的困境,並力圖從困境中尋找路徑。受國家相關政策、地方教育行政管理,以及學校實施制衡的地方課程,亦受其內源性因素:價值取向的釐定、課程目標的確立、課程內容的選擇、課程的實施及課程的評價等的影響。那麼,合理定位地方課程、統整各內外因素、探索良性的地方課程發展機制,或許是地方課程發展的關鍵路徑。地方課程的發展可說對課程改革具有重要意義。 Since the beginning of it in 1992, local curriculum has developed for almost 20 years. Like every new things, it is unavoidable for local curriculum to meet some difficulties. Based on the macro-background of curricula reform, after defined the conception of related terms, the article tries to find the countermeasures by analyzing the difficulties and problems of the development of local curriculum. Apart from the laws of the nation, regulations of local educational administration and school, the local curriculum will also be affected by its inner factors, such as curriculum value, curriculum aim, curriculum selection, curriculum implementation and curriculum evaluation. So the key approach to explore the developmental mechanism of local curriculum is to establish exact position for the local curriculum by integrating all the factors. In all, development of local curriculum is very important for curriculum reform.

  7. Integration and Validation of Hysteroscopy Simulation in the Surgical Training Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawy, Mohamed; Skrzipczyk, Moritz; Eckmann-Scholz, Christel; Maass, Nicolai; Mettler, Liselotte; Guenther, Veronika; van Mackelenbergh, Marion; Bauerschlag, Dirk O; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    participants independent of their levels of experience which could be an important key for streamlining the learning curve. Future studies testing the predictive validation of the simulator and frequency of the training intervals are necessary before the introduction of the simulator into the standard surgical training curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilising a construct of teacher capacity to examine national curriculum reform in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinqiong; Stephens, Max

    2013-12-01

    This study involving 120 Australian and Chinese teachers introduces a construct of teacher capacity to analyse how teachers help students connect arithmetic learning and emerging algebraic thinking. Four criteria formed the basis of our construct of teacher capacity: knowledge of mathematics, interpretation of the intentions of official curriculum documents, understanding of students' thinking, and design of teaching. While these key elements connect to what other researchers refer to as mathematical knowledge for teaching, several differences are made clear. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that our construct was robust and effective in distinguishing between different levels of teacher capacity.

  9. Basic airway skills acquisition using the American College of Surgeons/Association for Surgical Education medical student simulation-based surgical skills curriculum: Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Sydne; Kim, Michael; Olasky, Jaisa; Campbell, Andre; Acton, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Skills Curriculum was developed to standardize medical student training. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and validity of implementing the basic airway curriculum. This single-center, prospective study of medical students participating in the basic airway module from 12/2014-3/2016 consisted of didactics, small-group practice, and testing in a simulated clinical scenario. Proficiency was determined by a checklist of skills (1-15), global score (1-5), and letter grade (NR-needs review, PS-proficient in simulation scenario, CP-proficient in clinical scenario). A proportion of students completed pre/post-test surveys regarding experience, satisfaction, comfort, and self-perceived proficiency. Over 16 months, 240 students were enrolled with 98% deemed proficient in a simulated or clinical scenario. Pre/post-test surveys (n = 126) indicated improvement in self-perceived proficiency by 99% of learners. All students felt moderately to very comfortable performing basic airway skills and 94% had moderate to considerable satisfaction after completing the module. The ACS/ASE Surgical Skills Curriculum is a feasible and effective way to teach medical students basic airway skills using simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of secondary science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, educational beliefs and perceptions of the curriculum on implementation and science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Portia Selene

    2001-07-01

    Science education reform is one of the focal points of restructuring the educational system in the United States. However, research indicates a slow change in progression towards science literacy among secondary students. One of the factors contributing to slow change is how teachers implement the curriculum in the classroom. Three constructs are believed to be influential in curriculum implementation: educational beliefs, pedagogical knowledge and perception of the curriculum. Earlier research suggests that there is a strong correlation between teachers' educational beliefs and instructional practices. These beliefs can be predictors of preferred strategies employed in the classroom. Secondly, teachers' pedagogical knowledge, that is the ability to apply theory and appropriate strategies associated with implementing and evaluating a curriculum, contributes to implementation. Thirdly, perception or how the curriculum itself is perceived also effects implementation. Each of these constructs has been examined independently, but never the interplay of the three. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the interplay of teachers' educational beliefs, pedagogical content knowledge and perceptions of a science curriculum with respect to how these influence curriculum implementation. This was accomplished by investigating the emerging themes that evolved from classroom observations, transcripts from interview and supplementary data. Five high school biology teachers in an urban school system were observed for ten months for correspondence of teaching strategies to the curriculum. Teachers were interviewed formally and informally about their perceptions of science teaching, learning and the curriculum. Supplementary material such as lesson plans, course syllabus and notes from classroom observations were collected and analyzed. Data were transcribed and analyzed for recurring themes using a thematic matrix. A theoretical model was developed from the emerging

  11. Reform in Secondary Education: The Continuing Efforts to Reform Secondary Education, and a Modest Proposal. Curriculum Bulletin Vol. XXXII, No. 340.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Galen

    The author begins by examining the functions of the school and the basic principles governing the provision of education in the American democracy as a way of providing a framework for analyzing proposals for the reform of secondary education. He then examines proposals for reform. His major focus is on ten proposals made by agencies,…

  12. The Iowa ophthalmology wet laboratory curriculum for teaching and assessing cataract surgical competency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Andrew G.; Greenlee, Emily; Oetting, Thomas A.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Johnson, A. Tim; Boldt, H. Culver; Abramoff, Michael; Olson, Richard; Carter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe an ophthalmology wet laboratory (OWL) curriculum for residents in training. Methods Systematic literature review and selection of best practices for use in the OWL learning plan from a single academic ophthalmology program. Results A pretest and posttest of cognitive

  13. Das Longitudinale Curriculum "Soziale und kommunikative Komptenzen" im Bologna-reformierten Medizinstudium in Basel [The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland. Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE. Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment.[german] Hintergrund: Mit der Umstellung auf die Bachelor-/Masterstruktur wurde in Basel (Schweiz ein longitudinales Curriculum „soziale und Kommunikative Kompetenzen“ (SOKO in das Medizinstudium implementiert. Projektbeschreibung: Ziel ist es, den Studierenden grundlegende Techniken einer patientenzentrierten Kommunikation in dem Sinne zu vermitteln, dass die Studierenden in der Lage sind, Informationen zu erheben und Informationen an Patientinnen und Patienten weiterzugeben, um sie als gut informierte Partner am Entscheidungsprozess zu beteiligen. Das

  14. The ASM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology: A Case Study of the Advocacy Role of Societies in Reform Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Rachel E A; Merkel, Susan; Chang, Amy

    2015-05-01

    A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities. In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss the results of these surveys (353 responses). We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.

  15. Teacher Beliefs and Intentions regarding the Instruction of English Grammar under National Curriculum Reforms: A Theory of Planned Behaviour Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    While numerous studies in mainstream education have drawn on the Theory of Planned Behaviour to investigate curriculum impact, in English Language Teaching contexts such research is scant. This study applies the theory to anticipate the impact of the Japanese national curriculum for English, by exploring the beliefs of senior high school teachers…

  16. A Study of Curriculum Development and Reform in Residential Schools for the Blind in the United States: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holiday, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand curriculum development in residential schools for the blind after the enactment of NCLB and was guided by the research question, "How do residential schools for the blind and visually impaired develop their curriculum to meet the unique needs of students who are blind and visually impaired?" In the…

  17. Student-centered and ability training-oriented curriculum reform in teaching Microcontroller Principles and Interface Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Cai, Peijun; Liu, Yuling; Wang, Liqiang; Liang, Yiyong

    2017-08-01

    Courses are an important way of cultivating talents in college education. Advanced training schemes and the course system are implemented through course teaching. Advanced teaching notions and methods also rely on course teaching. Therefore, the quality of course teaching is the fundamental guarantor for grooming talent. The teachers of the course "Microcontroller Principles and Interface Techniques" in the Optical Science and Engineering College of Zhejiang University insist on course teaching becoming student centered and ability-training-oriented. They pay attention to students'all-round development in terms of learning ability, practical ability, innovation ability, and exploring spirit. They actively carried out course reforms in four aspects, namely teaching, learning, evaluation, and experimentation. This paper mainly introduced these reforms. First, the teaching method was reformed by introducing case analysis and the notion of a flipped classroom to shift the course focus from the teacher to the students. Second, the learning method was reformed through the use of techniques such as peer learning and project design to promote students' sense of enquiry and learning initiative. Third, the evaluation method was reformed through the use of process assessment and diversity evaluation to encourage students to develop logical thinking and a down-to-earth manner. Fourth, the experimentation method was reformed by introducing hierarchical content, process management, and diversification of examination to change students'learning attitude from "dependence, passivity, and imitation" to "independence, active involvement, and creation."In general, the teaching method reform promoted reforms in learning, evaluation, and experimentation methods and further improved the style of study. These reforms improved teachers' teaching abilities and enabled course teaching to transform from being teacher centered to student centered. Years of exploration and practice results have

  18. The ASM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology: A Case Study of the Advocacy Role of Societies in Reform Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E.A. Horak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities.  In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss results of these surveys (353 responses. We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.

  19. Evidence-Based Conclusions Concerning Practice, Curriculum Design and Curriculum Reform in a Civil Engineering Capstone Design Course in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cecilia K. Y.; Wong, George C. K.; Law, Ada K. H.; Zhang, T.; Au, Francis T. K.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to provide evidence-based conclusions from students concerning a capstone-design course in a civil engineering programme in Hong Kong. The evidence was generated by designing a student-experience questionnaire. The questionnaire instrument was assessed for internal consistency in four scales (curriculum and structure changes;…

  20. Curriculum reform in the context of massification in China : a case study of BIPT, Foreign language department

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, De Hui

    2009-01-01

    As early as 1971, the collection of papers which make up the book Knowledge and Control (Young, 1971) had a remarkable impact on an enormous numbers of teachers and students of education in the 10 years or more after its appearance (David Halpin, 1990). Moreover, Knowledge and Control played a crucial role in encouraging a wave of innovative and analytical thinking about the school curriculum (Whitty & Young, 1976; Young and Whitty, 1977). Nowadays, curriculum is undertaking numerous chan...

  1. 再概念化:課程改革的邏輯與實踐Reconceptualization: the Logic and Praxis of Curriculum Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    許芳懿Fang-Yi Hsu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available 「再概念化」起源自1970年代的再概念化運動,由William Pinar所發起。「再概念化」本身意喻著「不斷的重新定義」,代表一種批判、省思與重定位。我國的九年一貫課程改革立意在學習者中心,發展結果卻偏向菁英主義,顯示其邏輯與實踐存有矛盾。本文針對我國當前課程改革進行檢視,檢視角度除蘊含再概念化的歷史變化觀點外,更擷取「再概念化」內在的批判精神來檢驗九年一貫課程,針對統整、基本能力、鬆綁解構、國家教育目標等結構性問題提出質疑,同時亦探討績效責任、社會公平、倫理向度、文化同質性、工具理性問題,文末並提出省思與結論。 “Reconceptualization” stemmed from the “reconceptualization movement” initiated by Pinar in 1970s.“Reconceptualization” means “constant redefinition” which represents criticism, reflection and re-focus. Curriculum reform lately in Taiwan focused on learner centered, but it was inclined to elitism finally. That represents the relation between the logic and practice of curriculum reform was contradictory mutually. The article was aimed to review the reform of grades 1st–9th integrative curriculum lately in Taiwan. It was not only from the viewpoints of the history of reconceptualizaton, but includes the inner essence of criticism. The structural problems of integration, basic ability, deconstruction and the aims of country education were suspicious. Simultaneously, the accountability, social justice, ethic, cultural homogeneity, instrumental rationality were explored. Finally, the reflection and conclusion were suggested.

  2. Effects of a novel mental skills curriculum on surgical novices' attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Nicholas E; Mulji, Neelam; Howley, Lisa D; Yurco, Ashley M; Tobben, Daniel; Bean, Eric; Stefanidis, Dimitrios

    2017-11-01

    Surgery is very cognitively demanding, particularly for novices. Novices are required to direct full attention on the procedure at hand, and additional demands can lead to cognitive overload. Through extensive practice, experts develop spare attentional capacity (SAC) for simultaneous tasks. However, little effort has been made to enhance novices' SAC. Mental skills may enhance attention management and increase SAC. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel mental skills curriculum (MSC) to enhance novices' attention management. Sixty novice volunteers were randomly stratified to a control or MSC group based on baseline laparoscopic skill and mental skill use (assessed with the Test of Performance Strategies version 2 [TOPS-2]). All participants received laparoscopic training, whereas the MSC group received additional mental skills training. At all sessions, participants completed a secondary task during laparoscopy, which assessed SAC. Participants also completed the D2 Test of Attention and the TOPS-2 attention control subscale, which are valid attention measures. Fifty-five novices completed the study. Both groups displayed significantly improved laparoscopic suturing ability (P attention control scores. However, only the MSC group displayed significantly improved hit rate on the secondary task (P attentional capacity is currently underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The American College of Surgeons/Association of Program Directors in Surgery National Skills Curriculum: adoption rate, challenges and strategies for effective implementation into surgical residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korndorffer, James R; Arora, Sonal; Sevdalis, Nick; Paige, John; McClusky, David A; Stefanidis, Dimitris

    2013-07-01

    The American College of Surgeons/Association of Program Directors in Surgery (ACS/APDS) National Skills Curriculum is a 3-phase program targeting technical and nontechnical skills development. Few data exist regarding the adoption of this curriculum by surgical residencies. This study attempted to determine the rate of uptake and identify implementation enablers/barriers. A web-based survey was developed by an international expert panel of surgical educators (5 surgeons and 1 psychologist). After piloting, the survey was sent to all general surgery program directors via email link. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the residency program characteristics and perceptions of the curriculum. Implementation rates for each phase and module were calculated. Adoption barriers were identified quantitatively and qualitatively using free text responses. Standardized qualitative methodology of emergent theme analysis was used to identify strategies for success and details of support required for implementation. Of the 238 program directors approached, 117 (49%) responded to the survey. Twenty-one percent (25/117) were unaware of the ACS/APDS curriculum. Implementation rates for were 36% for phase I, 19% for phase II, and 16% for phase III. The most common modules adopted were the suturing, knot-tying, and chest tube modules of phase I. Over 50% of respondents identified lack of faculty protected time, limited personnel, significant costs, and resident work-hour restrictions as major obstacles to implementation. Strategies for effective uptake included faculty incentives, adequate funding, administrative support, and dedicated time and resources. Despite the availability of a comprehensive curriculum, its diffusion into general surgery residency programs remains low. Obstacles related to successful implementation include personnel, learner, and administrative issues. Addressing these issues may improve the adoption rate of the curriculum. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc

  4. Negotiating the Teaching of History in Times of Curriculum Reform: The Narrative Accounts of Four Australian Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitano, Paul; Winter, Satine

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the understandings of four teachers who teach history in primary and early childhood settings. Data were gathered from participants through semi-structured interviews. The participants were experienced teachers who were in the process of curriculum change--from teachers of studies of society and environment to teachers…

  5. The effects of the design and development of a chemistry curriculum reform on teachers' professional growth, a case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.; Terlouw, C.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Dijkstra, S.

    2009-01-01

    A curriculum innovation requires new learning material for students and a preparation program for teachers, in which teacher learning is a key ingredient. In this paper we describe how three experienced teachers, involved in the development and subsequent classroom enactment of student learning

  6. Phenomenon-Based Teaching and Learning through the Pedagogical Lenses of Phenomenology: The Recent Curriculum Reform in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Symeonidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the phenomenon-based approach in teaching and learning, through the pedagogical lenses of phenomenology, the philosophy of phenomena. The phenomenon-based approach has informed the new core curriculum for basic education in Finland, which has officially introduced multidisciplinary learning modules as periods of phenomenon-based project studies. In this paper, we discuss how the specific approach is integrated into the curriculum, its theoretical grounding and its connections to constructivism. We also explore its implications for teaching and learning from a phenomenological perspective. The paper concludes that the responsive relation between teaching and learning is essential when our purpose is educational. Students are part of the learning process, but they do not necessarily initiate it; similarly, teachers cannot fully instruct it. Thus, we need to make meaning of the space between teaching and learning, in an effort to reclaim learning for pedagogy.

  7. Misrecognition and science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  8. A prática docente no contexto da sala de aula frente às reformas curriculares Classroom teaching practice facing curriculum reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Barreto da Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente texto, busco refletir acerca da importante posição a ser assumida pelos professores nos processos que desencadeiam reformas curriculares. Tendo em vista que a implementação de propostas voltadas para o contexto da sala de aula depende diretamente do papel exercido pelo professor, chamo atenção para a necessidade do seu protagonismo desde a fase da concepção. Para tanto, organizo a argumentação em dois grandes pontos: no primeiro, discuto o lugar historicamente ocupado pelo docente no decorrer das reformas, recorrendo à perspectiva defendida e experimentada pelo inglês Lawrence Stenhouse, baseada na crença na capacidade de os professores se desenvolverem profissionalmente com base na pesquisa, desenvolvendo currículo. No segundo ponto, procuro evidenciar que a prática docente se constitui em um exercício que transcende a dimensão técnica, não podendo ser assumida tão-somente como o atendimento às prescrições curriculares desenvolvidas por outros. Recorro, nesse ponto, ao pensamento de autores como Gauthier e Mellouki, Giroux, Vorraber Costa e Moreira para demarcar o caráter de mediação que marca a prática docente em sala de aula.This text seeks to reflect on the central role teachers should play in processes leading to curriculum reform. Bearing in mind that the implementation of proposals focussing on the classroom context is directly dependent on the role played by the teacher, we would like to stress the need for this player to take on a leading role from the start of any such project. To this end, the text puts forward two major arguments: the first one discusses the place historically occupied by teachers in school reforms, taking as a starting point Lawrence Stenhouse's views on teachers' professional development based on research Carried out in the context of curriculum development. The second argument put forward the point that teaching practice transcends the technical dimension, often going beyond

  9. The usefulness of the surgical knowledge and skills acquired via the university curriculum for doctors' medical practice several years after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyluk, Andrzej; Puchalski, Piotr; Szlosser, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Teaching surgery during university curriculum comprises transferring theoretical knowledge traditionally and simultaneously acquiring manual skills, i.e., suturing, stitch removal, limb immobilization, catheterization, and assisting operations. Observations of doctors several years after graduation led to the reflection that teachers' ideas about surgical knowledge and skills that are useful in daily practice frequently fail to meet the facts of the case. The objective of this study was to determine which part of the surgical knowledge and skills taught via the university surgical curriculum proved to be useful in the daily practice of young doctors. A custom-made questionnaire was designed and mailed to 200 randomly chosen doctors who had graduated from the medical faculty at the authors' university 5 to 6 years previously. The questionnaire comprised 9 items concerning the knowledge and skills that proved to be the most useful in participants' daily practice, regardless of their specialty. A total of 64 completed questionnaires were returned (32% of 200 sent) and were the subject of analysis. The most useful knowledge in daily practice was that acquired from general surgery, followed by oncological and vascular surgery. The most useful was knowledge about the rational interpretation of clinical symptoms and signs acquired from examination of the patient, followed by arriving at an accurate diagnosis through logical analysis, and next developing "oncological sensitivity" to diagnosing neoplasms. The most effective teaching model was specialized outpatient clinic rounds, followed by training manual skills on a model and classical ward-round teaching. The most frequently learned (acquired) manual skills were removal of stitches, rectal examination, and examination of the abdomen. Of these skills, the most useful in daily practice appeared to be removal of stitches, catheterization of the urinary bladder, and wound suturing. Learning and practicing manual skills

  10. How teen girls think about fertility and the reproductive lifespan. Possible implications for curriculum reform and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Fiona Kisby

    2014-09-01

    Despite an 'epidemic' of delayed childbirth in England and Wales beyond a woman's optimally fertile years, research shows that young adults are unaware of or misunderstand the risks regarding starting or extending families that such behaviour entails. Currently, sex education syllabi in British schools neglect these issues, rendering school leavers ignorant of them.These curricula cannot be improved until more is known about adolescents' knowledge of relevant topics. In the light of this, this article describes exploratory research on how teenage girls in one English school think about the reproductive lifespan. Going beyond recent 'scientific' investigations which have mostly only tested the extent of ignorance of young adults, this qualitative enquiry used theories of the life course and emerging adulthood to analyse data gathered in interviews. It sought to understand not only what girls know, but how they apply their knowledge in relation to their assumptions about aging, motherhood, pregnancy, parenting and employment. One finding is highlighted here: that whilst "correct" knowledge about the reproductive lifespan does appear to be held by teenage girls, the ability to apply that knowledge and connect the socio-cultural with the biological domain, may not always be in place. This is relevant for curriculum developers aiming to prepare future citizens to take full control of their reproductive health, and policy makers responsible for ensuring an appropriate public health message about these concerns is available after formal schooling ends.

  11. Developing curriculum design expertise through teacher design teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, T.

    2014-01-01

    To foster the design and especially the implementation of curriculum reform, teacher involvement from the early stages of curriculum reform processes is advocated. By fulfilling the role of designer, it is expected that teachers’ understanding of the reform and their ownership concerning the reform

  12. How does preclinical laboratory training impact physical examination skills during the first clinical year? A retrospective analysis of routinely collected objective structured clinical examination scores among the first two matriculating classes of a reformed curriculum in one Polish medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerszcz, Jolanta; Stalmach-Przygoda, Agata; Kuźma, Marcin; Jabłoński, Konrad; Cegielny, Tomasz; Skrzypek, Agnieszka; Wieczorek-Surdacka, Ewa; Kruszelnicka, Olga; Chmura, Kaja; Chyrchel, Bernadeta; Surdacki, Andrzej; Nowakowski, Michał

    2017-09-01

    As a result of a curriculum reform launched in 2012 at our institution, preclinical training was shortened to 2 years instead of the traditional 3 years, creating additional incentives to optimise teaching methods. In accordance with the new curriculum, a semester-long preclinical module of clinical skills (CS) laboratory training takes place in the second year of study, while an introductory clinical course (ie, brief introductory clerkships) is scheduled for the Fall semester of the third year. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are carried out at the conclusion of both the preclinical module and the introductory clinical course. Our aim was to compare the scores at physical examination stations between the first and second matriculating classes of a newly reformed curriculum on preclinical second-year OSCEs and early clinical third-year OSCEs. Analysis of routinely collected data. One Polish medical school. Complete OSCE records for 462 second-year students and 445 third-year students. OSCE scores by matriculation year. In comparison to the first class of the newly reformed curriculum, significantly higher (ie, better) OSCE scores were observed for those students who matriculated in 2013, a year after implementing the reformed curriculum. This finding was consistent for both second-year and third-year cohorts. Additionally, the magnitude of the improvement in median third-year OSCE scores was proportional to the corresponding advancement in preceding second-year preclinical OSCE scores for each of two different sets of physical examination tasks. In contrast, no significant difference was noted between the academic years in the ability to interpret laboratory data or ECG - tasks which had not been included in the second-year preclinical training. Our results suggest the importance of preclinical training in a CS laboratory to improve students' competence in physical examination at the completion of introductory clinical clerkships during

  13. Human Emotion and Response in Surgery (HEARS): a simulation-based curriculum for communication skills, systems-based practice, and professionalism in surgical residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Anne C; Cahan, Mitchell A; Whalen, Giles; Hatem, David; Starr, Susan; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Litwin, Demetrius; Sullivan, Kate; Quirk, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study examines the development and implementation of a pilot human factors curriculum during a 2-year period. It is one component of a comprehensive 5-year human factors curriculum spanning core competencies of interpersonal and communication skills, systems-based practice, and professionalism and using low-and high-fidelity simulation techniques. Members of the Department of Surgery and the Center for Clinical Communication and Performance Outcomes jointly constructed a curriculum for PGY1 and PGY2 residents on topics ranging from challenging communication to time and stress management. Video demonstrations, triggers, and simulated scenarios involving acting patients were created by surgeons and medical educators. Pre- and postintervention measures were obtained for communication skills, perceived stress level, and teamwork. Communication skills were evaluated using a series of video vignettes. The validated Perceived Stress Scale and Teamwork and Patient Safety Attitudes survey were used. Residents' perceptions of the program were also measured. Twenty-seven PGY1 residents and 15 PGY2 residents participated during 2 years. Analyses of video vignette tests indicated significant improvement in empathic communication for PGY1 (t = 3.62, p = 0.001) and PGY2 (t = 5.00, p = 0.004). There were no significant changes to teamwork attitudes. Perceived levels of stress became considerably higher. PGY1 residents reported trying 1 to 3 strategies taught in the time management session, with 60% to 75% reporting improvement post-training. This unique and comprehensive human factors curriculum is shown to be effective in building communication competency for junior-level residents in the human and emotional aspects of surgical training and practice. Continued refinement and ongoing data acquisition and analyses are underway. Copyright 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying gaps in the surgical training curriculum in Rwanda through evaluation of operative activity at a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Jennifer L; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Chu, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    To define the operations performed by surgical residents at a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda to help guide development of the residency program. Cross-sectional study of all patients operated by surgical residents from October 2012 to September 2013. University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali [CHUK]), a public, tertiary referral hospital in Kigali, Rwanda. All patient data were entered into the operative database by surgical residents at CHUK. A total of 2833 cases were entered into the surgical database. Of them, 53 cases were excluded from further analysis because no surgical resident was listed as the primary or assistant surgeon, leaving 2780 cases for analysis. There were 2780 operations involving surgical residents. Of them, 51% of procedures were classified under general surgery, 38% orthopedics, 7% neurosurgery, and 4% urology. Emergency operations accounted for 64% of the procedures, with 56% of those being general surgery and 35% orthopedic. Further, 50% of all operations were trauma, with 71% of those orthopedic and 21% general surgery. Surgical faculty were involved in 45% of operations as either the primary or the assistant surgeons, while the remainder of operations did not involve surgical faculty. Residents were primary surgeons in 68% of procedures and assistant surgeons in 84% of procedures. The operative experience of surgery residents at CHUK primarily involves emergency and trauma procedures. Although this likely reflects the demographics of surgical care within Rwanda, more focus should be placed on elective procedures to ensure that surgical residents are broadly trained. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A serious game skills competition increases voluntary usage and proficiency of a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator during first-year surgical residents' simulation curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beheiry, Mostafa; McCreery, Greig; Schlachta, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a serious game skills competition on voluntary usage of a laparoscopic simulator among first-year surgical residents' standard simulation curriculum. With research ethics board approval, informed consent was obtained from first-year surgical residents enrolled in an introductory surgical simulation curriculum. The class of 2013 served as a control cohort following the standard curriculum which mandates completion of six laparoscopic simulator skill tasks. For the 2014 competition cohort, the only change introduced was the biweekly and monthly posting of a leader board of the top three and ten fastest peg transfer times. Entry surveys were administered assessing attitudes towards simulation-based training and competition. Cohorts were observed for 5 months. There were 24 and 25 residents in the control and competition cohorts, respectively. The competition cohort overwhelmingly (76 %) stated that they were not motivated to deliberate practice by competition. Median total simulator usage time was 132 min (IQR = 214) in the competition cohort compared to 89 (IQR = 170) in the control cohort. The competition cohort completed their course requirements significantly earlier than the control cohort (χ 2  = 6.5, p = 0.01). There was a significantly greater proportion of residents continuing to use the simulator voluntarily after completing their course requirements in the competition cohort (44 vs. 4 %; p = 0.002). Residents in the competition cohort were significantly faster at peg transfer (194 ± 66 vs. 233 ± 53 s, 95 % CI of difference = 4-74 s; p = 0.03) and significantly decreased their completion time by 33 ± 54 s (95 % CI 10-56 s; paired t test, p = 0.007). A simple serious games skills competition increased voluntary usage and performance on a laparoscopic simulator, despite a majority of participants reporting they were not motivated by competition. Future directions should

  16. A Biofilm Pocket Model to Evaluate Different Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment Modalities in Terms of Biofilm Removal and Reformation, Surface Alterations and Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias T Hägi

    Full Text Available There is a lack of suitable in vitro models to evaluate various treatment modalities intending to remove subgingival bacterial biofilm. Consequently, the aims of this in vitro-study were: a to establish a pocket model enabling mechanical removal of biofilm and b to evaluate repeated non-surgical periodontal treatment with respect to biofilm removal and reformation, surface alterations, tooth hard-substance-loss, and attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts.Standardized human dentin specimens were colonized by multi-species biofilms for 3.5 days and subsequently placed into artificially created pockets. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed as follows: a hand-instrumentation with curettes (CUR, b ultrasonication (US, c subgingival air-polishing using erythritol (EAP and d subgingival air-polishing using erythritol combined with chlorhexidine digluconate (EAP-CHX. The reduction and recolonization of bacterial counts, surface roughness (Ra and Rz, the caused tooth substance-loss (thickness as well as the attachment of PDL fibroblasts were evaluated and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA with Post-Hoc LSD.After 5 treatments, bacterial reduction in biofilms was highest when applying EAP-CHX (4 log10. The lowest reduction was found after CUR (2 log10. Additionally, substance-loss was the highest when using CUR (128±40 µm in comparison with US (14±12 µm, EAP (6±7 µm and EAP-CHX (11±10 µm. Surface was roughened when using CUR and US. Surfaces exposed to US and to EAP attracted the highest numbers of PDL fibroblasts.The established biofilm model simulating a periodontal pocket combined with interchangeable placements of test specimens with multi-species biofilms enables the evaluation of different non-surgical treatment modalities on biofilm removal and surface alterations. Compared to hand instrumentation the application of ultrasonication and of air-polishing with erythritol prevents from substance-loss and results

  17. Collective inquiry in the context of school-wide reform: Exploring science curriculum and instruction through team-based professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy Spicer, David Henning

    Teacher collaboration and joint reflective inquiry have been viewed as central elements of progressive educational reform for more than two decades. More recently, researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners have heralded "blended" or "hybrid" approaches that combine online and on-site environments for collaborative learning as especially promising for "scaling up" instructional improvement. Yet, relatively little is known about how teachers working together navigate organizational and interpersonal constraints to develop and sustain conditions essential to collective inquiry. This in-depth study of meaning making about curriculum and instruction among a group of 11 physics teachers in a public, urban secondary school in the U.S. is an effort to explore collective inquiry as a resource for teacher learning and innovations in teaching practice. Through extended observations, multiple interviews, and close analyses of interaction, the study followed teachers for 7 months as they worked together across 3 settings organized in fundamentally different ways to promote joint inquiry into teaching practice. The explanatory framework of the study rests on the mutually-reinforcing conceptual underpinnings of sociocultural theory and systemic functional linguistics to establish connections between micro-social interactions and macro-social processes. Drawing on systemic functional linguistics, the study explores interpersonal meaning making through close analyses of speech function and speech role in 6 extended sequences of generative interaction. Concepts from activity theory elucidate those features of settings and school that directly impinged on or advanced teachers' collaborative work. Findings run counter to prevailing congenial views of teacher collegiality by identifying ways in which collective inquiry is inherently unstable. That instability makes itself apparent at two levels: (a) the dynamics of authority within the group, and (b) middle-level features of

  18. Face validation of the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual reality training module and its applicability in the surgical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayodeji, I. D.; Schijven, M.; Jakimowicz, J.; Greve, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The goal of our study was to determine expert and referent face validity of the LAP Mentor, the first procedural virtual reality (VR) laparoscopy trainer. METHODS: In The Netherlands 49 surgeons and surgical trainees were given a hands-on introduction to the Simbionix LAP Mentor training

  19. 生命化心理健康教育课程教学改革的实施路径%The Ideas of Teaching Reform of Mental Health Education Curriculum of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘柳燕; 余东芳

    2015-01-01

    Life-cultivatize education is a kind of procedural education theory which is based on life education and aimed at holis-tic education.From this perspective,this article discusses mental health education curriculum reform,including two main parts. Part one is about the reform theoretical foundation,that is,the harmony and unity of life education,life-cultivatize education and holistic education.Part Two is about the concrete configuration of the reform,covering value goal,fundamental connotation and implement approaches.%生命化教育是一种源于生命教育和指向全人教育的过程性教育理论,以此出发探讨了生命化心理健康教育的课程教学改革,一是探讨生命化心理健康教育课程教学改革的理论基础,二是提出了生命化心理健康教育课程教学改革的具体实施路径。

  20. Implementation of a novel portfolio of structured, curriculum-aligned, simulation-based, cardiothoracic surgery training courses: Evolving the delivery of surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorjani, Narain; Lewis, Michael; Shah, Rajesh; Barnard, Sion; Graham, Tim; Rathinam, Sridhar

    2017-12-01

    The provision of high-quality cardiothoracic surgical training faces many challenges. This has generated an increased interest in simulation-based learning, which can provide a less stressful environment for deliberate practice. We developed a comprehensive, structured program of knowledge and simulation-based learning aligned to the official cardiothoracic surgery curriculum. A portfolio of 10 curriculum-aligned training courses was designed for cardiothoracic surgical trainees during their 6-year training program. The courses were delivered through a multitude of education methods, including live porcine operating simulation models, and were evaluated through a series of quantitative (5-point Likert-scale) and qualitative assessments. The trainees (n = 15-21 per course) also completed pre- and postsession self-confidence and competency levels for each training episode of knowledge and skill, respectively. In addition, board examination pass rates were assessed in the 3-year periods before and after implementation of the courses. Quantitative analysis of the trainees' feedback demonstrated an extremely positive view of the portfolio of the simulation-based training courses with excellent satisfaction scores (out of 5) for teaching sessions (4.44 ± 0.07), faculty (4.64 ± 0.07), content and materials (4.63 ± 0.07), and facilities (4.73 ± 0.05). The courses have shown a significant improvement in the post-self-confidence (7.98 ± 0.13 vs 5.62 ± 0.20, P < .01) and perceived self-competency (8.10 ± 0.10 vs 5.67 ± 0.11, P < .01) scores for all courses. Examination pass rates significantly improved in the 3-year period after attendance at the courses (94.82% ± 2.34% vs 76.26% ± 3.23%, P < .005). This study has described the implementation of the only extensive program of structured simulation-based courses that has been developed to complement clinical training in cardiothoracic surgery. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  1. Feasibility and Benefit of Incorporating a Multimedia Cadaver Laboratory Training Program into a Didactics Curriculum for Junior and Senior Surgical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, Erika; Simmerman, Andrew; Lassiter, Randi; King, Ray; Ham, Ben; Adam, Bao-Ling; Ferdinand, Colville; Holsten, Steven

    2018-04-17

    As operative experience in general surgery decreases and work hour limitations increase there is less exposure of surgical residents to advanced vascular and trauma exposures. Many institutions have demonstrated benefits of cadaver laboratory courses. We have incorporated a multimedia cadaver laboratory course into our general surgery residency didactics curriculum with the objective to demonstrate a benefit of the program as well as the feasibility of incorporation. This is a prospective study at a tertiary care institution including general surgery residents within our residency program. A curriculum was designed, requiring residents to complete multimedia learning modules before both a trauma cadaver laboratory and vascular exposure cadaver laboratory. Outcome measures included self-efficacy/confidence (precourse and postcourse 5-point Likert surveys), knowledge (net performance on precourse and postcourse multiple choice examinations), and resident perception of the curriculum (postcourse 5-point Likert survey). Data were analyzed using ANOVA paired t-tests. For the vascular cadaver laboratory, resident knowledge improved overall from an average of 41.2% to 50.0% of questions correct (p = 0.032) and self-efficacy/confidence improved by 0.59 from 1.52 to 2.11 out of 5 (p = 0.009). Median confidence is 1.37 out of 5 and 2.32 out of 5, before and after course, respectively. Wilcoxon nonparametric test reveals a p = 0.011. Resident's perception of the usefulness of the laboratory evaluation was 3.85 out 5. There were 85.71% agreed that the laboratory is useful and 14.29% were disagree. The Z-score is -0.1579 (means 0.1579 standard deviations a score of 3.85 below the benchmark). The percentile rank is 56.27%. The coefficient of variation is 24.68%. For the trauma cadaver laboratory, resident knowledge improved overall from an average of 55.89% to 66.17% of questions correct (p = 0.001) and self-efficacy/confidence improved by 0.75 from 1.68 out of 5 to 2.43 out of

  2. Reforming English Curriculum in United Arab Emirates: An Examination of Emirate Teachers' Beliefs and Practices Regarding the Adoption of "English Continous Assessment Rich Task" (ECART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAlili, Sara

    2014-01-01

    United Arab Emirates (UAE) is currently undergoing massive educational reform, especially in the teaching and assessment methods of all subject-matter areas. In Abu Dhabi, the capital of UAE, the Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) has mandated the revamping of English language teaching and assessment in grades 6-12 through the introduction of…

  3. Private Universities in Kenya Seek Alternative Ways to Manage Change in Teacher Education Curriculum in Compliance with the Commission for University Education Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amimo, Catherine Adhiambo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated management of change in teacher education curriculum in Private universities in Kenya. The study employed a concurrent mixed methods design that is based on the use of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. A multi-stage sampling process which included purposive, convenience, cluster, and snowball sampling methods…

  4. 我国基础教育课程内容改革的特点、问题与发展方向%Characteristics of China’s Basic Education Curriculum Contents Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙泽文

    2013-01-01

      我国新一轮基础教育课程内容改革表现出注重传统性与现代性、基础性与发展性、共同性与个性化、学术性与生活性统整的特点。但由于在一些方面的改革过于激进,采取了一种颠覆性的革命方式,导致课程内容存在与素质教育整体性目标相悖的问题。在信息化、全球化背景下,基础教育课程内容改革应按照时代精神和社会发展需求建构一个具有内在联系的文化整体,将一个完整的世界呈现给学习者,以推进基础教育课程内容体系的科学化建设。%The organization of course contents is no longer simply the subject-centric in the new round of basic education curricu-lum reform in China, which demonstrates a compatible focus of tradition and modernization, fundamentality and development, common-ality and personalization, technicality and life, and so on. However, too much radicalization and disruptive revolution in some aspects of the reform leads to the contrary from course contents to holistic training goals of quality education. In the context of information and globalization, basic education curriculum reform should organically integrate the knowledge of different disciplines, the practice of learners and the social problems and build a culture whole of intrinsic link in accordance with the spirit of the times and the needs of so-cial development, and present a complete world to the learner so as to achieve a holistic goal of quality education.

  5. 從家課的質與量看香港課程改革的實施 The Quality and Quantity of Homework in Hong Kong Primary Schools: An Indicator of Curriculum Reform Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    林智中 Chi-Chung Lam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 華人地區深受傳統儒家文化影響,不少家長及教師都認同「勤有功、戲無益」、「有志者、事竟成」和「鐵柱磨成針」等傳統觀念。因此長期以來,香港學童都面對家課量多、家課深、長時間做家課的問題。2001年,香港特區政府推行教育改革,建議學校適當編排學生家課的數量,從而提升教與學的質素。為求了解香港學童家課的質與量是否因家課政策的實施而得以改善,本研究在香港10所小學進行調查,邀請各所學校其中一班五年級學生填寫問卷,統計完成家課的時間和家課類型,並訪問教師了解他們在家課設計、家課類型、家課功能等方面的考量。研究顯示,相對於課程改革之前,學生每天花在家課的時間的確減少;然而,大部分家課仍是紙筆練習,以鞏固課堂所學為主,較少有發展性的家課。分析這些研究結果背後的成因,有助於了解香港課程改革實施的狀況。Parents and teachers across Chinese societies mostly uphold the traditional belief of Confucianism that “hard work is the key to success.” As such, Hong Kong students have long been using much of their time doing lots of difficult homework. In 2001, curriculum reform was launched in Hong Kong, requesting schools and teachers to adjust the quantity and quality of homework assigned to students for the improvement of teaching and learning. The present study attempts to reveal the level of implementation of this homework policy. Ten primary schools participated in this study. One class of Grade 5 students in each school was chosen to complete a questionnaire for identifying the amount of time students spent on homework and the types of homework. Teachers of these classes were interviewed to find out how schools and teachers design and plan homework for their students. The study reveals that the time students spent on homework has decreased

  6. Constructivism and Pedagogical Reform in China: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    This article critically discusses the constructivist ideas, assumptions and practices that undergird the current pedagogical reform in China. The pedagogical reform is part of a comprehensive curriculum reform that has been introduced across schools in Mainland China. Although the official documents did not specify the underpinning theories for…

  7. Changing the curriculum and the role of the teacher and the students in the classroom-an analysis of the process of reforming a course in oral microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, I; Fiehn, N E; Larsen, T

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a new curriculum was introduced at the School of Dentistry at the University of Copenhagen. Amongst many changes, the pedagogical concept behind theoretical teaching was changed. The main emphasis was previously on lectures and teacher controlled teaching, but the emphasis has now shifted...... and teachers, an evaluation is made regarding how the changes were implemented and developed. Despite the fact that the students themselves wanted to abandon the lecture-based teaching style, there was great dissatisfaction with the new dialogue-based teaching style as the students did not think...

  8. Educational Development and Reformation in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rahimah Haji

    1998-01-01

    Discusses educational development in Malaysia, focusing on curriculum changes, issues, and future perspectives. Discusses the development of values education, its importance in the curriculum, and the government's efforts to mold a united nation with Malaysian values. Current reforms target tertiary education. The school curriculum has not been…

  9. CT two-dimensional reformation versus three-dimensional volume rendering with regard to surgical findings in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yong; Liu, Yang; Lu, Qiao-hui; Zheng, Kui-hong; Shi, Li-jing; Wang, Qing-jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of three-dimensional volume rendering (3DVR) in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). Materials and methods: Sixty-six patients with CSOM were included in this prospective study. Temporal bone was scanned with a 128-channel multidetector row CT and the axial data was transferred to the workstation for multiplanar reformation (MPR) and 3DVR reconstructions. Evaluation of the ossicular chain according to a three-point scoring system on two-dimensional reformation (2D) and 3DVR was performed independently by two radiologists. The evaluation results were compared with surgical findings. Results: 2D showed over 89% accuracy in the assessment of segmental absence of the ossicular chain in CSOM, no matter how small the segmental size was. 3DVR was as accurate as 2D for the assessment of segmental absence. However, 3DVR was found to be more accurate than 2D in the evaluation of partial erosion of segments. Conclusion: Both 3DVR and 2D are accurate and reliable for the assessment of the ossicular chain in CSOM. The inclusion of 3DVR images in the imaging protocol improves the accuracy of 2D in detecting ossicular erosion from CSOM

  10. CT two-dimensional reformation versus three-dimensional volume rendering with regard to surgical findings in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoyong27@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyangdoc@sina.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Lu, Qiao-hui, E-mail: Luqiaohui465@126.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Zheng, Kui-hong, E-mail: zhengkuihong1971@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Shi, Li-jing, E-mail: Shilijing2003@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Wang, Qing-jun, E-mail: wangqingjun77@163.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the role of three-dimensional volume rendering (3DVR) in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). Materials and methods: Sixty-six patients with CSOM were included in this prospective study. Temporal bone was scanned with a 128-channel multidetector row CT and the axial data was transferred to the workstation for multiplanar reformation (MPR) and 3DVR reconstructions. Evaluation of the ossicular chain according to a three-point scoring system on two-dimensional reformation (2D) and 3DVR was performed independently by two radiologists. The evaluation results were compared with surgical findings. Results: 2D showed over 89% accuracy in the assessment of segmental absence of the ossicular chain in CSOM, no matter how small the segmental size was. 3DVR was as accurate as 2D for the assessment of segmental absence. However, 3DVR was found to be more accurate than 2D in the evaluation of partial erosion of segments. Conclusion: Both 3DVR and 2D are accurate and reliable for the assessment of the ossicular chain in CSOM. The inclusion of 3DVR images in the imaging protocol improves the accuracy of 2D in detecting ossicular erosion from CSOM.

  11. Effects of resident duty hour reform on surgical and procedural patient safety indicators among hospitalized Veterans Health Administration and Medicare patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Amy K; Loveland, Susan A; Romano, Patrick S; Itani, Kamal M F; Silber, Jeffrey H; Even-Shoshan, Orit O; Halenar, Michael J; Teng, Yun; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G

    2009-07-01

    Improving patient safety was a strong motivation behind duty hour regulations implemented by Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education on July 1, 2003. We investigated whether rates of patient safety indicators (PSIs) changed after these reforms. Observational study of patients admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) (N = 826,047) and Medicare (N = 13,367,273) acute-care hospitals from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005. We examined changes in patient safety events in more versus less teaching-intensive hospitals before (2000-2003) and after (2003-2005) duty hour reform, using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for patient age, gender, comorbidities, secular trends, baseline severity, and hospital site. Ten PSIs were aggregated into 3 composite measures based on factor analyses: "Continuity of Care," "Technical Care," and "Other" composites. Continuity of Care composite rates showed no significant changes postreform in hospitals of different teaching intensity in either VA or Medicare. In the VA, there were no significant changes postreform for the technical care composite. In Medicare, the odds of a Technical Care PSI event in more versus less teaching-intensive hospitals in postreform year 1 were 1.12 (95% CI; 1.01-1.25); there were no significant relative changes in postreform year 2. Other composite rates increased in VA in postreform year 2 in more versus less teaching-intensive hospitals (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% CI; 1.10-2.41), but not in Medicare in either postreform year. Duty hour reform had no systematic impact on PSI rates. In the few cases where there were statistically significant increases in the relative odds of developing a PSI, the magnitude of the absolute increases were too small to be clinically meaningful.

  12. Staying afloat: surviving curriculum change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Debra; Welborn-Brown, Pauline; Smith, Debra; Giddens, Jean; Harris, Judith; Wright, Mary; Nichols, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In response to calls for nursing education reform, a content-based curriculum was changed to a concept-based curriculum, using Kanter's 7 skills for effective change model. The skills include tuning in to the environment, challenging the prevailing organizational wisdom, communicating a compelling aspiration, building coalitions, transferring ownership to a working team, learning to persevere, and making everyone a hero. The authors describe the steps taken to successfully accomplish this arduous task.

  13. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  14. The Hegemonic Curriculum and School Dropout: The Newfoundland Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedge, Joseph L.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by a disturbing dropout rate and low student achievement, the Newfoundland (Canada) government is attempting to rationalize organizational restructuring and curriculum reform based on a centralized core academic curriculum aimed at college entrance. This article argues for an expanded, hegemonic curriculum that is organic to the…

  15. 'Knowledge,' Curriculum and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Terry

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the place of knowledge in developing a socially just curriculum. It pursues the unusual route of a critique of Social Realism, a small but influential tendency in curriculum studies which claims that knowledge has been squeezed out by recent curriculum reforms and that there has been a descent into relativism. This paper…

  16. Shifts in funding for science curriculum design and their (unintended) consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Schunn, Christian; Bernstein, Debra; McKenney, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Federal agencies in the Unites States invest heavily in the development of science curriculum materials, which can significantly facilitate science education reform. The current study describes the characteristics of K-12 science curriculum materials produced by federally funded projects between

  17. A Study of EFL Curriculum of China's Science and Technology Institutes under Graded Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyan; Han, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Recent years, most universities and colleges have been reforming the English as a foreign language (EFL) curriculum system in China. Some reformed EFL curriculum into English for Specific Purposes (ESP) courses, for instance, while some conducted a graded teaching model in EFL teaching. However, the effect of this reform was not so good,…

  18. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  19. Tracing the Policy Mediation Process in the Implementation of a Change in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Alant, Busisiwe

    2015-01-01

    This paper accounts for the enacted realities of curriculum reform in South Africa, in particular the mediation of curriculum change. Curriculum implementation is viewed as a complex networked process of transforming or mediating policy into classroom practice. The fact that curriculum implementation is seen as problematic requires attention for…

  20. 從PISA與TIMSS國際學測檢視 課程改革與評量機制From PISA and TIMSS to Curriculum Reform and Assessment Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    戴維揚Wei-Yang Dai

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available 依「成敗究因」理論,成功者選擇進步的改革策略,失敗者尋找掩飾的藉口。OECD每年研擬國際標準與策略,因應瞬息萬變的挑戰與轉換。PISA國際學測評量結果公布以後,芬蘭、英、美、德、澳等國都經深入廣泛嚴肅地研究檢討,並制定、實施課程改革方案及重新調整評量機制。另就IEA 2003年TIMSS學測成績公布:新加坡取代臺灣,榮獲四冠王,成績最亮麗,全球皆矚目,值得深思、檢討。 教育改革成功要訣,首先要求教師專業成長,教師以身作則,重新啟動良好閱讀習慣,才能帶動學生、學校、家庭親子共讀,建構一個書香社會。芬蘭由於全民享受閱讀、紮實學習,因此2000年PISA三科學測皆排前四名,2003年的PISA四項評量成績皆升為前三名,其中「閱讀」與「科學」皆獲第一,成為全球最優秀的教育改革楷模。德國學測成績並不理想,「知恥近乎勇」,全國總動員,嚴管勤教,果然PISA及TIMSS成績都大幅度提升。美國教改也全面提升TIMSS的成績。相對地,日本、臺灣國際評量名次雖然曾經名列第一,然而近年都連續全面下滑。香港各界知所驚惕,引以為鑑,於2003年公布提升法案,期盼往後成績依然亮麗。臺灣將於2006年首次參與PISA全面評量,並於2006年首次參與IEA的PIRLS國際閱讀素養評比,以及2007年第三次參加TIMSS的評量。本文論述上述8國(地區)一些教改成功的模式,供教育改革與評量機制的方家參考。In this age of standards and assessments, a curriculum designed for primary and secondary schools is the most significant foundation for educational reform. We should start to strengthen strategies and guidances to align standards, curricula, and assessments. OECD issues yearly educational indicators, benchmarks and standards for policy planning and also indicates

  1. Applying Concepts of Critical Pedagogy to Qatar's Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Michael H.; Amatullah, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    Qatar is in the midst of a systemic education reform, Education For a New Era, steered by RAND's (a nonprofit research organization) analysis and report of Qatar's Educational system. Driven by a neoliberal agenda, the reform includes international curricula, curriculum standards, teacher licensure, and professional standards for school leaders…

  2. From policy to practice: education reform in Mozambique and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mozambican government has introduced reforms of basic education, notably the introduction of interdisciplinarity, learner-centredness and new teaching pedagogies. This is a case study of how these curriculum reforms have been implemented at Marrere Teachers' Training College. We conducted interviews with ...

  3. Neoliberalism and Corporate School Reform: "Failure" and "Creative Destruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…

  4. Elementary Social Studies: Trite, Disjointed, and in Need of Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplass, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Elementary social studies has used the same scope and sequence for more than a half century despite significant changes in society. Efforts to reform the curriculum are adversely impacted by inertia, tradition, the culture wars, traditional state autonomy in setting curriculum, publishers, and competition between disciplines for space within the…

  5. Themes in Current Soviet Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1982-01-01

    Soviet educators are first of all "upbringers" whose prime task is the formation and maintenance of the socialist outlook. They base their teaching on dialectical materialism, assume there are law-like principles of teaching and learning, and are inexhaustibly optimistic. (Author)

  6. Barreda, Vasconcelos, and Mexican Educational Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirius, John

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the contributions to Mexican education of Gabino Barredas' positivism between 1867-1898 and the contributions of Jose Vasconcelos during the 1920s. Discusses the secondary curriculum reforms of Barreda's era and the vocational education and the education for women and adults during the Vasconcelos era. (SB)

  7. The Lesotho curriculum and assessment policy: Opportunities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    The Curriculum and Assessment Policy 2009 represents the latest education reform, which marks a ... statements create for educational development in Lesotho. We adopt a ...... approach is adopted in the higher grades, where there is policy ...

  8. The Lesotho curriculum and assessment policy: Opportunities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    The Curriculum and Assessment Policy 2009 represents the latest education reform, which marks a departure ... out of the dissatisfaction with a traditional education that ..... polities to modern (Western) and knowledge-based polities. Is this the ...

  9. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...

  10. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  11. Research on Implementation of the Teaching Process in Higher Vocational Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Songjie Gong

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the teaching process is the main channel to carry out good education. The aim of the implementation of the teaching process is to place emphasis on cultivating students’ innovation ability and take innovation education as the point to deepen higher vocational teaching reformation. The reform of project curriculum has become the main trend of course reform in higher vocational education. The traditional curriculum teaching process has shown some disadvantages in the teach...

  12. [Simulation in surgical training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, A; Schipper, J

    2017-01-01

    Patient safety during operations hinges on the surgeon's skills and abilities. However, surgical training has come under a variety of restrictions. To acquire dexterity with decreasingly "simple" cases, within the legislative time constraints and increasing expectations for surgical results is the future challenge. Are there alternatives to traditional master-apprentice learning? A literature review and analysis of the development, implementation, and evaluation of surgical simulation are presented. Simulation, using a variety of methods, most important physical and virtual (computer-generated) models, provides a safe environment to practice basic and advanced skills without endangering patients. These environments have specific strengths and weaknesses. Simulations can only serve to decrease the slope of learning curves, but cannot be a substitute for the real situation. Thus, they have to be an integral part of a comprehensive training curriculum. Our surgical societies have to take up that challenge to ensure the training of future generations.

  13. The Curriculum Ideology of the South African Secondary School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnguni, Lindelani

    2013-01-01

    South Africa has had a number of curriculum reforms since 1994 which have been based on both political and education grounds. However, there is a dearth of knowledge about the nature of the envisioned graduates, especially with respect to social challenges. This can be addressed by exploring the curriculum ideology which outlines the vision of…

  14. International trends in curriculum research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    of the western school systems (especially within natural science and mathematics), the PISA-study has also been followed by school and curriculum radical reforms. The inspiration for the European reforms was taken in the so called accountability policy that during the 1990s had been developed in the USA...... is at the same time a centralization and a decentralization strategy: centralization at the input and the output side and decentralization of processes. The basic idea is that those responsible for the processes (principals and teachers) are held responsible for the outcomes. In the USA outcomes are related...... of their first generation goals as well of their national test systems. A trend in international school reform policy seems to be a break with the New Public Management and accountability philosophy that has played a major role over the last two decades. It is probably too early to say that these strategies...

  15. Designing Web-Based Educative Curriculum Materials for the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Cory; Saye, John; Brush, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a design experiment of web-based curriculum materials explicitly created to help social studies teachers develop their professional teaching knowledge. Web-based social studies curriculum reform efforts, human-centered interface design, and investigations into educative curriculum materials are reviewed, as well as…

  16. Centrifugal Schooling: Third Sector Policy Networks and the Reassembling of Curriculum Policy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article examines changes in curriculum policy in secondary education in England. It is concerned with recent curriculum policy and reform, and the proliferation of non-government actors in curriculum policy creation. It examines the emergence of a loose alliance of third sector organisations and their involvement in a series of alternative…

  17. What Are Critical Features of Science Curriculum Materials That Impact Student and Teacher Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, Natalie Pareja; Schunn, Christian; McKenney, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Large investments are made in curriculum materials with the goal of supporting science education reform. However, relatively little evidence is available about what features of curriculum materials really matter to impact student and teacher learning. To address this need, the current study examined curriculum features associated with student and…

  18. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  19. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  20. Analysis of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Cheng, Liming; Kosik, Russell; Mandell, Greg; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Xu, Guo-Tong; Fan, Angela P

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive search of the literature published between 2001 and 2010 was performed to gain a greater understanding of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools. There were 10,948 studies published between 2001 and 2010 that were retrieved from the database. Following preliminary screening, 76 publications from 49 different medical schools were selected. Thirty-one publications regarding clinical medicine curricular reforms were analyzed further. Of the 76 studies, 53 described curricular reforms that were instituted in theoretical courses, 22 described curricular reforms that were instituted in experimental courses, and 1 described curricular reforms that were instituted in a clinical skills training course. Of the 31 clinical medicine publications, 2 described reforms that were implemented for 3-year program medical students, 12 described reforms that were implemented for 5-year program medical students, 6 described reforms that were implemented for 7-year program medical students, and 2 described reforms that were implemented for 8-year program medical students. Currently, the majority of medical schools in China use the discipline-based curriculum model. Thirteen studies described transition to an organ-system-based curriculum model, 1 study described transition to a problem-based curriculum model, and 3 studies described transition to a clinical presentation-based curriculum model. In 7 studies educators decided to retain the discipline-based curriculum model while integrating 1 or several new courses to remedy the weaker aspects of the traditional curriculum, in 7 studies educators decided to integrate the preclinical courses with the clinical courses by using the systemic-integrating curricular system that dilutes classical disciplines and integrates material based on organ systems, and in 2 studies educators limited reforms to clinical courses only. Eight studies discussed the implementation of a formative evaluation system, 4 studies

  1. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  2. Curriculum, quantitative concepts and methodology of teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    argues that the educational reforms in Ghana did not influence curriculum development in .... the educable level could perform at sixth grade level, which raises the .... McConkey, R. and McEvoy, J. (1986) 'Games for learning to count'. British.

  3. The Significance of Context for Curriculum Development in Engineering Education: A Case Study across Three African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.; Kumar, Anil; Itika, Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum reform is a key topic in the engineering education literature, but much of this discussion proceeds with little engagement with the impact of the local context in which the programme resides. This article thus seeks to understand the influence of local contextual dynamics on curriculum reform in engineering education. The empirical…

  4. Investigating Teacher Learning Supports in High School Biology Curricular Programs to Inform the Design of Educative Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Delgado, Cesar; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Krajcik, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Reform efforts have emphasized the need to support teachers' learning about reform-oriented practices. Educative curriculum materials are one potential vehicle for promoting teacher learning about these practices. Educative curriculum materials include supports that are intended to promote both student "and" teacher learning. However, little is…

  5. Iliopsoas Tendon Reformation after Psoas Tendon Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

  6. On Study of Teaching Reform of Organic Chemistry Course in Applied Chemical Industry Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-11-01

    with the implementation of new curriculum reform, the education sees great changes in teaching methods. Teaching reform is profound in organic chemistry course in applied chemical industry technology. However, many problems which have never been noticed before occur when reform programs are implemented which harm students’ ability for learning and enthusiasm in side face. This paper proposes reform measures like combining theory and practice, improving professional quality, supplementing professional needs and integrating teaching into life after analyzing organic chemistry course teaching in applied chemical industry technology currently, hoping to play a role of reference for organic chemistry course teaching reform in applied chemical industry technology.

  7. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  8. Education Reform: Ten Years after the Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Driscoll, Joseph B. Berger, Ronald K. Hambleton, Lisa A. Keller, Robert W. Maloy, David Hart, Paul Oh, Victoria Getis, Susan Bowles, Francis L. Gougeon, Kathryn A. McDermott, Andrew Churchill

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In June 1993, Governor William Weld signed into law the Massachusetts Education Reform Act (MERA. MERA greatly increased the state role both in funding public education and in guiding the local educational process. The state’s role changed to incorporate setting curriculum frameworks and holding schools accountable for student performance. Because MERA was designed to be a systemic reform of education, all of the various state activities and policies needed to fit together into a coherent whole based on state educational standards.

  9. The Mediating Role of Textbooks in High-Stakes Assessment Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ching Yin; Andrews, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Whenever high-stakes assessment/curriculum reforms take place, new textbooks appear on the market. These textbooks inevitably play a significant mediating role in the implementation of any reform and on teaching and learning. This paper reports on a small-scale study which attempts to investigate the role of textbooks in the mediation of a…

  10. Converging Paths or Ships Passing in the Night? An "English" Critique of Japanese School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy

    2000-01-01

    Examines origins and potential effects of liberalizing reforms in Japanese secondary education in light of British experiences with policies such as local school management and school choice. Argues that Japanese reform involves necessary diversification of curriculum and pedagogic practices, but administrative shifts toward deregulation and…

  11. Eating the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K M

    1997-03-01

    The alimentary metaphor--learning as ingestion--is well established in medical education: students are spoonfed, forcefed; they cram, digest, and metabolize information; and they regurgitate it on tests. In the author's experience, these metaphors are inextricably bound with the attitudes and information they describe, organize, and sometimes generate in medical education. Alimentary imagery shapes discussions of the curriculum, and its perversities characterize and help perpetuate much that needs changing in North American medical education. Medical school teachers speak of their life's work as feeding students, not as chiefs but as the anxious caretakers of problem eaters, and the images used most often to describe the teacher-learner relationship suggest an underlying infantilization of medical students. Alimentary metaphors are not in themselves evil. A closer look at medicine's uses of the metaphor of learning as eating suggests a healthier educational philosophy. Despite the "full plate" that students are served, they are metaphorically starving. Fundamental curriculum reform should help them learn to be healthy eaters-using lessons from parents, pediatricians, and child psychologists about how to do this, which are discussed in detail. The difficult-to-achieve but imperative goal of medical education should be to put students in charge of their own "eating" and thereby produce intellectually curious, self-motivated, active, and "well-nourished" physicians who know how to feed themselves in the right amounts and at reasonable levels, maintain a healthy skepticism about the information they consume, and periodically check that information for freshness.

  12. Liberal Studies Reform in Hong Kong Secondary Education: Contrasting Desirability with Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Ping Kwan

    2016-01-01

    In major curriculum reforms, there are inevitably gaps between design and implementation issues, taking the introduction of liberal studies (LS) into the senior secondary curriculum in Hong Kong as a classic example. The current paper illustrates how the implementation of LS as a compulsory core subject has impacted noticeably on Hong Kong senior…

  13. Constitutional reform as process

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  14. Reforming Organizational Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  15. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  16. National Assessment and the Opportunity to Learn in Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Conrad Wesley, Jr.; Mereku, Kofi D.; Amedahe, Francis K.; Etsey, Kofui; Adu, John

    2013-01-01

    Over two decades, national assessments in Ghana have revealed generally poor performances across curriculum-based tests for primary school (Grades 1-6). Various reform agendas have been applied to the education system, sometimes with isolated success, but the overall performances remained stable and low. Surveying teacher mentors in schools…

  17. systemic chemical education reform [scer] in the global era

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    growing the systemic way of thinking of our students that is one of the most important characteristics of Global Era. Here is the systemic education reform which means the change of our educational system from linearity to systemic in which we design the curriculum and write content systemically, which presented by SATL ...

  18. Academic Governance and Academic Reform: Legitimacy and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Kenneth B.; Bain, Linda L.

    1998-01-01

    A thorough review and revision of curriculum at San Jose State University (California) illustrates that the modern university can achieve major internal academic reforms when two important conditions are met: legitimacy and energy. These two concepts are defined and practical illustrations are drawn from the institution's recent experience in…

  19. The SQL Server Database for Non Computer Professional Teaching Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangwei

    2012-01-01

    A summary of the teaching methods of the non-computer professional SQL Server database, analyzes the current situation of the teaching course. According to non computer professional curriculum teaching characteristic, put forward some teaching reform methods, and put it into practice, improve the students' analysis ability, practice ability and…

  20. Teacher professional development through collaborative curriculum design in. Ghana¿s polytechnics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakah, M.A.B.; Bakah, Marie Afua Baah

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation entitled Teacher professional development through collaborative curriculum design in Ghana‟s polytechnics is a research conducted among polytechnic teachers in Ghana. Polytechnic development, curricular reform, improving the quality of teaching and teachers‟ knowledge needs

  1. Impact of national context and culture on curriculum change: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jippes, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Majoor, G.D.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Muijtjens, A.M.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies suggested national culture to be a potential barrier to curriculum reform in medical schools. In particular, Hofstede's cultural dimension 'uncertainty avoidance' had a significant negative relationship with the implementation rate of integrated curricula. Aims: However,

  2. Health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolon, Ken

    2009-06-01

    A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.

  3. Welding Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is a handbook for the development of welding trade programs. Based on a survey of Alaskan welding employers, it includes all competencies a student should acquire in such a welding program. The handbook stresses the importance of understanding the principles associated with the various elements of welding.…

  4. Factors affecting science reform: Bridging the gap between reform initiatives and teaching practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensak, Karl John

    In response to the perceived deficiencies in science education today, and to the expressed need for research into the culture of schools (due primarily to the failure of many science reforms in the past), this study used a broad based approach to study the gap between science education research and science education practice. This study identified 47 factors that may encourage or inhibit science curriculum reform. A survey was conducted to determine which factors were perceived to be important by local and national K-12 classroom teachers, science supervisors/coordinators, and college/university professors. Continual staff development (scheduled as part of teachers' work day/week/month), funding (for long-term staff development, teacher training and support, science laboratory facilities and materials), teacher motivation and "ownership" of the reform, the need for collaborative opportunities for classroom teachers, teachers' college preparation, textbook reform, community support, and reform initiatives that are "in tune" with assessment, are major factors identified as having a substantial affect on the successful adoption, implementation, and institutionalization of science reforms.

  5. SURGICAL EDUCATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based Learning (PBL) curriculum involved the simultaneous introduction of the .... of such teaching can likewise influence grade performance. A study conducted by .... supplemental instruction project: peer-devised and delivered tutorials.

  6. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...

  7. Student memories: Insights for science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillie, Jane Hall

    The purpose of this study was to examine the recollections pre-service teachers majoring in elementary education have of their science experiences during their elementary years and to explore the recollections in the context of science education reform efforts. At the beginning of science methods course work, pre-service elementary teachers reflected on their memories of their own elementary education experiences. Themes from 102 reflective essays collected in two settings and time periods were identified and compared. The themes remained consistent over both settings and time frames studied and fall into three general categories: curriculum and instruction, teacher traits, and student traits. The pre-service teachers expressed difficulty in recalling elementary science experiences and attributed their limited memories to what they perceived as a low priority of science content in the elementary curriculum. Teaching strategies played a prominent role in the memories reported. Hands-on and active learning strategies produced positive memories, while lectures, reading textbooks, and completing worksheets resulted in more negative memories. Furthermore, pre-service teacher essays often failed to connect the learning activities with concept development or understanding. Pre-service teachers were split nearly equally between those who liked and those who disliked elementary science. The attributes of elementary teachers received the least attention in the categories and focused primarily on passion for teaching science. Implications for science reform leaders, teacher education preparation programs, and school administrators and curriculum directors are identified.

  8. Uncovering Portuguese teachers’ difficulties in implementing sciences curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many countries recognize the positive and effective results of improving science education through the introduction of reforms in the sciences curriculum. However, some important issues are generally neglected like, for example, the involvement of the teachers in the reform process. Taking the sciences curriculum reform under analysis and benefitting from 10 years of teachers’ experiences in teaching sciences based on this curriculum, 19 semi-structure interviews were applied so as to identify the major difficulties felt by science teachers when implementing the Portuguese sciences curriculum in the third cycle of middle school (pupils’ age range of 12–15. Some of the difficulties depicted by the data analysis include: length of the curriculum, lack of time, unsuitable laboratory facilities, insufficient means and materials for experimental work, pupils’ indiscipline and little interest in learning sciences. Although less frequently mentioned, the lack of professional development was also referred to as a constraint that seems to play an essential role in this process. Some recommendations for improving the success of sciences curriculum reforms’ implementation are given: defining and conceptualizing curricular policies by relating the reality of both the schools and the science classrooms; reorganizing and restructuring pre-service teachers’ courses; organizing professional development courses for in-service teachers.

  9. What are critical features of science curriculum materials that impact student and teacher outcomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roblin, Natalie Pareja; Schunn, Christian; McKenney, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Large investments are made in curriculum materials with the goal of supporting science education reform. However, relatively little evidence is available about what features of curriculum materials really matter to impact student and teacher learning. To address this need, the current study examined

  10. Teacher involvement in curriculum design: need for support to enhance teachers' design expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, T.; Handelzalts, A.; Nieveen, N.; Voogt, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher involvement in curriculum design has a long tradition. However, although it fosters implementation of curriculum reforms, teachers encounter various problems while designing related to conditions set for the design process, and lack the knowledge and skills needed to enact collaborative

  11. Taiwanese Science and Life Technology Curriculum Standards and Earth Systems Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2005-01-01

    In the past several years, curriculum reform has received increasing attention from educators in many countries around the world. Recently, Taiwan has developed new Science and Life Technology Curriculum Standards (SaLTS) for grades 1-9. SaLTS features a systematic way for developing students' understanding and appreciation of…

  12. Innovation in pediatric surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Matthew S; Wulkan, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric surgical training in the United States remained basically unchanged from the model developed by Ladd and Gross in the 1930s until recently. Standardized curriculum and novel evaluation methods are now being implemented. Pediatric Surgical education is currently undergoing a transition to competency-based evaluation and promotion. Unfortunately, there is little data on the efficacy of these changes. This presents an opportunity for further study of how we conduct training, and how we evaluate and promote our trainees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Accomplishments and challenges of surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satava, R M

    2001-03-01

    For nearly a decade, advanced computer technologies have created extraordinary educational tools using three-dimensional (3D) visualization and virtual reality. Pioneering efforts in surgical simulation with these tools have resulted in a first generation of simulators for surgical technical skills. Accomplishments include simulations with 3D models of anatomy for practice of surgical tasks, initial assessment of student performance in technical skills, and awareness by professional societies of potential in surgical education and certification. However, enormous challenges remain, which include improvement of technical fidelity, standardization of accurate metrics for performance evaluation, integration of simulators into a robust educational curriculum, stringent evaluation of simulators for effectiveness and value added to surgical training, determination of simulation application to certification of surgical technical skills, and a business model to implement and disseminate simulation successfully throughout the medical education community. This review looks at the historical progress of surgical simulators, their accomplishments, and the challenges that remain.

  14. Global social issues in the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Kremer Prøsch, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    and sustainability education and treats the two issues as societal challenges that are important to address in schools as educational examples. We draw on the literature on school leadership challenges linked to global neoliberal trends in educational reform. The context of the study is the on-going school reform...... somewhat more than sustainability education; however, both are characterized by insufficient attention to teachers’ professional development and the low prioritization of collaboration within the school and between the school and community actors. Acknowledging the contradicting demands that principals...... face in the context of the reform, we argue for reconnecting the concept of leadership with the wider purposes of schooling and for providing space for an emergent, whole-school curriculum that addresses health and sustainability....

  15. SAGES's advanced GI/MIS fellowship curriculum pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Joshua J; Goldblatt, Matthew; Pryor, Aurora; Dunkin, Brian J; Brunt, L Michael; Jones, Daniel B; Scott, Daniel J

    2018-06-01

    The American health care system faces deficits in quality and quantity of surgeons. SAGES is a major stakeholder in surgical fellowship training and is responsible for defining the curriculum for the Advanced GI/MIS fellowship. SAGES leadership is actively adapting this curriculum. The process of reform began in 2014 through a series of iterative meetings and discussions. A working group within the Resident and Fellow Training Committee reviewed case log data from 2012 to 2015. These data were used to propose new criteria designed to provide adequate exposure to core content. The working group also proposed using video assessment of an MIS case to provide objective assessment of competency. Case log data were available for 326 fellows with a total of 85,154 cases logged (median 227 per fellow). The working group proposed new criteria starting with minimum case volumes for five defined categories including foregut (20), bariatrics (25), inguinal hernia (10), ventral hernia (10), and solid organ/colon/thoracic (10). Fellows are expected to perform an additional 75 complex MIS cases of any category for a total of 150 required cases overall. The proposal also included a minimum volume of flexible endoscopy (50) and submission of an MIS foregut case for video assessment. The new criteria more clearly defined which surgeon roles count for major credit within individual categories. Fourteen fellowships volunteered to pilot these new criteria for the 2017-2018 academic year. The new SAGES Advanced GI/MIS fellowship has been crafted to better define the core content that should be contained in these fellowships, while still allowing sufficient heterogeneity so that individual learners can tailor their training to specific areas of interest. The criteria also introduce innovative, evidence-based methods for assessing competency. Pending the results of the pilot program, SAGES will consider broad implementation of the new fellowship criteria.

  16. Surviving the Implementation of a New Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Beverly; Appleton, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Queensland schools are currently teaching with the first National Curriculum for Australia. This new curriculum was one of a number of political responses to address the recurring low scores in literacy, mathematics, and science that continue to hold Australia in poor international rankings. Teachers have spent 2 years getting to know the new science curriculum through meetings, training, and exploring the new Australian curriculum documents. This article examines the support and preparation for implementation provided in two regional schools, with a closer look at six specific teachers and their science teaching practices as they attempted to implement the new science curriculum. The use of a survey, field observations, and interviews revealed the schools' preparation practices and the teachers' practices, including the support provided to implement the new science curriculum. A description and analysis of school support and preparation as well as teachers' views of their experiences implementing the new science curriculum reveal both achievements and shortcomings. Problematic issues for the two schools and teachers include time to read and comprehend the curriculum documents and content expectations as well as time to train and change the current processes effectively. The case teachers' experiences reveal implications for the successful and effective implementation of new curriculum and curriculum reform.

  17.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  18. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  19. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  20. Launching Curricular Reform in First-Year Composition: Navigating the Terrain between Buy-in and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    One of the most taxing duties of a writing program administrator (WPA), and one that is likely to cause the most burnout, is initiating curricular reform, an initiative often met with pushback and resistance. Within the literature on curriculum reform in first-year composition, this resistance seems to arise from a complex web of issues related to…

  1. Moving from Traditional Teacher Education to a Field-Based Urban Teacher Education Program: One Program's Story of Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jennifer; Vartuli, Sue

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, teacher education has been charged with reforming programs to better align curriculum, clinical practice, and accountability. The sense of urgency for reform has been heightened by competition from alternative routes to teaching that jump straight to practice, often criticized for foregoing essential knowledge and theory. This…

  2. Development and Implementation of Inquiry-Based and Computerized-Based Laboratories: Reforming High School Chemistry in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit Judy; Hofstein, Avi

    2010-01-01

    Reforms in science education in general and in chemistry education in particular have been introduced in many countries since the beginning of the 21st Century. Similarly, at this time in Israel both the content and pedagogy of the chemistry curriculum in high schools were reformed. New content and pedagogical standards emerged, fostering…

  3. Envisioning Curriculum as Six Simultaneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hanin; Conner, Lindsey; Mayo, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the discourse of complexity thinking to envision curriculum as six partial and coupled facets that exist simultaneously: curriculum as structure, curriculum as process, curriculum as content, curriculum as teaching, curriculum as learning and curriculum as activity. Such a curriculum is emergent and self-organising. It is emergent…

  4. The medical school curriculum committee revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricson, W D; Payer, A F; Rogers, L P; Markus, J F

    1993-03-01

    Numerous study commissions have contended that departmental territoriality and lack of coordinated planning are stagnating contemporary medical education. As a cure, these commissions have recommended the creation of centralized academic management units empowered to oversee revitalization of the curriculum through a series of reforms, including better definition of graduation competencies, community-based training, interdisciplinary courses, problem-based learning, and modernization of evaluation strategies. To determine the extent to which these recommendations were being adopted, in 1990 the authors sent a questionnaire on curriculum committee functions, current innovation efforts, and future priorities to academic administrators and members of medical school curriculum committees at 143 North American medical schools. Responses were received from administrators (primarily associate deans for academic affairs) at 118 schools and committee members (primarily faculty) at 111 schools. Recommendations for enhancing curriculum committee effectiveness were also elicited. The authors conclude that centralization of curricular management has occurred at very few institutions, and that the commonly mentioned reforms are being adopted at a modest pace. The results are analyzed in light of theories of the institutional change process and strategies for introducing educational innovations into established institutions.

  5. Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of…

  6. Surgical orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Alexis M; Vitkus, Lauren

    2017-08-01

    The article reviews some commonly used orthodontic treatments as well as new strategies to assist in the correction of malocclusion. Many techniques are used in conjunction with surgical intervention and are a necessary compliment to orthognathic surgery. Basic knowledge of these practices will aid in the surgeon's ability to adequately treat the patient. Many orthodontists and surgeons are eliminating presurgical orthodontics to adopt a strategy of 'surgery first' orthodontics in orthognathic surgery. This has the benefit of immediate improvement in facial aesthetics and shorter treatment times. The advent of virtual surgical planning has helped facilitate the development of this new paradigm by making surgical planning faster and easier. Furthermore, using intraoperative surgical navigation is improving overall precision and outcomes. A variety of surgical and nonsurgical treatments may be employed in the treatment of malocclusion. It is important to be familiar with all options available and tailor the patient's treatment plan accordingly. Surgery-first orthodontics, intraoperative surgical navigation, virtual surgical planning, and 3D printing are evolving new techniques that are producing shorter treatment times and subsequently improving patient satisfaction without sacrificing long-term stability.

  7. Reforming Organizational Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  8. Teacher and School Characteristics and Their Influence on Curriculum Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Gillian H.; Kruse, Rebecca A.; Kern, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Reform-based curriculum materials have been suggested as a mechanism to make inquiry-based instruction more prevalent in secondary science classrooms, specifically when accompanied by comprehensive professional development (Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, [1998]; Powell & Anderson, [2002]). This research examines the implementation of a…

  9. The International Curriculum: Current Trends and Emerging Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jesse Jones

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of tertiary level international curricula and provides groundwork for future research aimed at ongoing needs. Recognized is the premise that existing international curricular programs require maintenance. Burn (1995) called for curriculum reform in international departments two decades ago with the rationale…

  10. Reforming science: methodological and cultural reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture.

  11. Curriculum Analytics: Application of Social Network Analysis for Improving Strategic Curriculum Decision-Making in a Research-Intensive University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Shane; Hubball, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the use of curriculum analytics to enhance learning-centred curricula in diverse higher education contexts. Engagement in evidence-based practice to evaluate and monitor curricula is vital to the success and sustainability of efforts to reform undergraduate and graduate programs. Emerging technology-enabled inquiry…

  12. How do medical educators design a curriculum that facilitates student learning about professionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Glenn; Wang, Shaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study analyses the ways in which curriculum reform facilitated student learning about professionalism. Methods Design-based research provided the structure for an iterative approach to curriculum change which we undertook over a 3 year period. The learning environment of the Personal and Professional Development Theme (PPD) was analysed through the sociocultural lens of Activity Theory. Lave and Wenger’s and Mezirow’s learning theories informed curriculum reform to support student development of a patient-centred and critically reflective professional identity. The renewed pedagogical outcomes were aligned with curriculum content, learning and teaching processes and assessment, and intense staff education was undertaken. We analysed qualitative data from tutor interviews and free-response student surveys to evaluate the impact of curriculum reform. Results Students’ and tutors’ reflections on learning in PPD converged on two principle themes - ‘Developing a philosophy of medicine’ and ‘Becoming an ethical doctor’- which corresponded to the overarching PPD theme aims of communicative learning. Students and tutors emphasised the importance of the unique learning environment of PPD tutorials for nurturing personal development and the positive impact of the renewed assessment programme on learning. Conclusions A theory-led approach to curriculum reform resulted in student engagement in the PPD curriculum and facilitated a change in student perspective about the epistemological foundation of medicine. PMID:26845777

  13. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  14. Engineering the curriculum: Towards an adaptive curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns-Boast, Lynette Frances

    The curriculum is one of the most important artefacts produced by higher education institutions, yet it is one of the least studied. Additionally, little is known about the decision-making of academics when designing and developing their curricula, nor how they make use of them. This research investigates how 22 Australian higher education engineering, software engineering, computer science, and information systems academics conceive of curriculum, what approaches they take when designing, and developing course and program curricula, and what use they make of the curriculum. It also considers the implications of these conceptions and behaviour upon their curricula. Data were collected through a series of one-to-one, in-depth, qualitative interviews as well as small focus group sessions and were analysed following Charmaz’ (2006) approach to grounded theory. In this thesis, I argue that the development of curricula for new higher degree programs and courses and / or the updating and innovating of an existing curriculum is a design problem. I also argue that curriculum is a complex adaptive system. Surrounding the design and development of a curriculum is a process of design that leads to the creation of a designed object - the official-curriculum. The official-curriculum provides the guiding principles for its implementation, which involves the design and development of the curriculum-in-use, its delivery, and evaluation. Data show that while the participants conceive of curriculum as a problem of design involving a design process leading to the development of the official-curriculum, surprisingly, their behaviour does not match their conceptions. Over a very short period, their behaviour leads to a process I have called curriculum drift where the official-curriculum and the curriculum-in-use drift away from each other causing the curriculum to lose its integrity. Curricular integrity is characterised through the attributes of alignment, coherence, and

  15. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  16. Alcohol skin preparation causes surgical fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocos, B; Donaldson, L J

    2012-03-01

    Surgical fires are a rare but serious preventable safety risk in modern hospitals. Data from the US show that up to 650 surgical fires occur each year, with up to 5% causing death or serious harm. This study used the National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS) database at the National Patient Safety Agency to explore whether spirit-based surgical skin preparation fluid contributes to the cause of surgical fires. The NRLS database was interrogated for all incidents of surgical fires reported between 1 March 2004 and 1 March 2011. Each report was scrutinised manually to discover the cause of the fire. Thirteen surgical fires were reported during the study period. Of these, 11 were found to be directly related to spirit-based surgical skin preparation or preparation soaked swabs and drapes. Despite manufacturer's instructions and warnings, surgical fires continue to occur. Guidance published in the UK and US states that spirit-based skin preparation solutions should continue to be used but sets out some precautions. It may be that fire risk should be included in pre-surgical World Health Organization checklists or in the surgical training curriculum. Surgical staff should be aware of the risk that spirit-based skin preparation fluids pose and should take action to minimise the chance of fire occurring.

  17. A Curriculum and Software Design Scaffolding Goal Directed Teaching in Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    , the tool itself, and selected findings from qualitative and quantitative studies in the project. 2. International trends in goal oriented and data driven teaching The Danish curriculum reform builds on recent trends in school development and curriculum research suggesting the importance of a competence...... development and curriculum research suggesting the importance of a competence framework, learning goals and aggregation of classroom data to efficient teaching (Earl & Fullan 2003). Learning goals are supposed to support the student’s pace and sense of progression, inform classroom decisions, structure...... student has knowledge of text structure”). The curriculum can be presented in a number of graphical modes, e.g. in a matrix or in a hypertext structure. The curriculum reform was implemented in order to promote a goal oriented teaching and learning practice based heavily on research around data driven...

  18. Educational Borrowing and Mathematics Curriculum: Realistic Mathematics Education in the Dutch and Indonesian Primary Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintia Revina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s, Indonesian mathematics educators have considered Realistic Mathematics Education (RME, the Dutch approach to mathematics instruction, to be the basis for educational reform. In the National curriculum development, RME has, therefore, been reviewed as among the theoretical references to the curriculum goals and content. In the present study, an analysis of the consistency between RME and the curriculum descriptors and contents in Indonesia is presented. This is supplemented with some comparisons to that in the Netherlands. Findings in this study revealed that while most of RME principles are reflected in the Indonesian curriculum, the descriptions were often very general and less explicit compared to the Dutch curriculum. They were also limited by the content-based approach as well as by the centralized decision making process of the contents to be taught which have been pre-determined at the national level. This study suggests future research to see how the curriculum may influence teachers’ enactment of RME at classroom level.

  19. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  20. Surgical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nivritti G; Cheng, Stephen W K; Wong, John

    2003-08-01

    Recent high-profile cases have heightened the need for a formal structure to monitor achievement and maintenance of surgical competence. Logbooks, morbidity and mortality meetings, videos and direct observation of operations using a checklist, motion analysis devices, and virtual reality simulators are effective tools for teaching and evaluating surgical skills. As the operating theater is also a place for training, there must be protocols and guidelines, including mandatory standards for supervision, to ensure that patient care is not compromised. Patients appreciate frank communication and honesty from surgeons regarding their expertise and level of competence. To ensure that surgical competence is maintained and keeps pace with technologic advances, professional registration bodies have been promoting programs for recertification. They evaluate performance in practice, professional standing, and commitment to ongoing education.

  1. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  2. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  3. Development and reform research of English teaching theory and practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Guo

    2015-01-01

    The course is the core of education, which is the basic way to achieve educational goals, an educational content and value orientation are mainly expressed and implemented through the curriculum. English courses are the core of English education, which is a concrete manifestation of the value of English education, and it is basic carrier to achieve the goal of English education. This paper analyzes the development of English teaching practice, development and reform of English teaching methods.

  4. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  5. Action Research for Curriculum Development: An Alternative Approach in the Algerian Centralised Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas GHERZOULI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of curriculum is debating the extent to which teachers should or could participate in the developmental process of the curriculum they enact. Being the practitioners, teachers are the ones who transmit theory into practice. However, they are not only consumers of curriculum knowledge, but also significant producers of it. Thus, teachers’ active participation as primary stakeholders in the curriculum development process is a necessity. The paper outlines one approach for teacher participation in curriculum development, which is action research. The main aim of this paper is twofold; first: it explores literature about ‘curriculum’, ‘curriculum development’ and ‘action research’; and second, it emphasizes the prominence of teachers’ involvement and research in curriculum development, paying specific attention to the Algerian secondary school educational reform, which is highly controlled and centralised.

  6. A Comparative Study of Surgical Training in South East Asia, Australia and The United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kheong Lum

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: Quality of training can be improved by changing to a curriculum and competency based model, utilization of continuous assessment methods, reducing service requirements and better compensation for trainers. Southeast Asia has the potential to provide centres of excellence for surgical training. Surgical educators in SEA will find useful information in this paper to improve their programs which will hopefully evolve into a common core curriculum and enable cross border exchange of surgical trainees in SEA for broader exposure.

  7. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  8. "Making Connections" at the University of North Carolina: Moving toward a Global Curriculum at a Flagship Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jay M.; Kruse, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has reformed its undergraduate curriculum to create connections across disciplines and advance efforts to internationalize its campus. As a result, global issues, experiential learning, study abroad, and international course clusters have become an integral part of a curriculum that emphasizes…

  9. Go Ask Alice: Uncovering the Role of a University Partner in an Informal Science Curriculum Support Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study from the Linking Instructors Networks of Knowledge in Science Education project, which aims to examine the informal science curriculum support networks of teachers in a school-university curriculum reform partnership. We used social network analysis and qualitative methods to reveal characteristics of the informal…

  10. Music Education Curriculum and Social Change: A Study of Popular Music in Secondary Schools in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese society over the last two decades, modernisation and globalisation, together with the transition to a market economy, have created new imperatives and challenges for the school music curriculum. As a result, the 2011 reform of the Curriculum Standards for Primary Education and Junior Secondary Education marks the first time that the…

  11. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indicatio...

  12. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  13. Simulation-based surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgeniou, Evgenios; Loizou, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The reduction in time for training at the workplace has created a challenge for the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Simulation offers the opportunity for repeated practice in a safe and controlled environment, focusing on trainees and tailored to their needs. Recent technological advances have led to the development of various simulators, which have already been introduced in surgical training. The complexity and fidelity of the available simulators vary, therefore depending on our recourses we should select the appropriate simulator for the task or skill we want to teach. Educational theory informs us about the importance of context in professional learning. Simulation should therefore recreate the clinical environment and its complexity. Contemporary approaches to simulation have introduced novel ideas for teaching teamwork, communication skills and professionalism. In order for simulation-based training to be successful, simulators have to be validated appropriately and integrated in a training curriculum. Within a surgical curriculum, trainees should have protected time for simulation-based training, under appropriate supervision. Simulation-based surgical education should allow the appropriate practice of technical skills without ignoring the clinical context and must strike an adequate balance between the simulation environment and simulators. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Sacred Choices: Adolescent Relationships and Sexual Ethics--The Reform Movement's Response to the Need for Faith-Based Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Rabbi Laura Novak

    2011-01-01

    "Sacred Choices: Adolescent Relationships and Sexual Ethics" is a sexual ethics curriculum for middle school and high school students developed by the Union for Reform Judaism. Sacred Choices strives to teach Reform Jewish teens that their bodies are gifts from God and that Judaism provides relevant guidance on how to use and care for that gift…

  15. [Chicano Counselor Training: Curriculum and Beyond Curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ramon

    The particulars of the evolved curriculum and how the training has evolved around the change-agent concept are stressed in this presentation. The measure of success achieved in attempting to influence the staff and course of studies of the regular guidance department is also emphasized. The curriculum of this counselor training institute has, from…

  16. Global financial crisis and surgical practice: the Greek paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karidis, Nikolaos P; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2011-11-01

    Apart from the significant implications of recent financial crisis in overall health indices and mortality rates, the direct effect of health resources redistribution in everyday clinical practice is barely recognized. In the case of Greece, health sector reform and health spending cuts have already had a major impact on costly interventions, particularly in surgical practice. An increase in utilization of public health resources, lack of basic and advanced surgical supplies, salary deductions, and emerging issues in patient management have contributed to serious dysfunction of a public health system unable to sustain current needs. In this context, significant implications arise for the surgeons and patients as proper perioperative management is directly affected by reduced public health funding. The surgical community has expressed concerns about the quality of surgical care and the future of surgical progress in the era of the European Union. Greek surgeons are expected to support reform while maintaining a high level of surgical care to the public. The challenge of cost control in surgical practice provides, nevertheless, an excellent opportunity to reconsider health economics while innovation through a more traditional approach to the surgical patient should not be precluded. A Greek case study on the extent of the current situation is presented with reference to health policy reform, serving as an alarming paradigm for the global community under the pressure of a profound financial recession.

  17. Sociology of Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.

  18. Curriculum Development in Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the context of present curriculum development in geomorphology and the way in which it has developed in recent years. Discusses the content of the geomorphology curriculum in higher education and the consequences of curriculum development together with a consideration of future trends and their implications. (GEA)

  19. impact of the curriculum reform on problem solving ability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    that “learning is problem solving”. Therefore, teaching problem solving is teaching people how to learn, so is problem solving in chemistry education. Kalbag (4) states that problem solving orientation in chemistry education has an importance in that problem solving converts information into knowledge. Kalbag further states.

  20. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching experience Participation in LEESP workshops. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H ... interviews, but two, were audio-recorded and later transcribed by one of the authors. .... centred activities such as participating in class discussions, finding ...

  1. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    initiative: the case of the Lesotho Environmental Education .... Teachers' prior beliefs and practices can pose challenges not only because tea- .... Teachers' profile ... lustrated by the high frequency of soil erosion and vegetation as common ...

  2. Nursing and Health Care Reform: Implications for Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Mary; Lyons, Kevin J.; Young, Barbara E.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of registered nurses who graduated in 1986 (n=50) and 1991 (n-58) revealed these opinions: insurance companies increasingly control patient care; workload and paperwork have increased; and there are fewer jobs and less job security. A significant number reported decreased job satisfaction. (SK)

  3. Acquiring surgical skills: the history of surgical teaching at the University of Sydney 1883-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kilian G M; Storey, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    There have been at least 10 major revisions of the medical curriculum since the inauguration of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Sydney in 1883. This study traced the evolution of the teaching of surgery at our institution by examination of the set curriculum of each period; the expectations of student knowledge in the final examination as well as examining some of the insights provided by past students of their surgical experience through their writings. In the early years, medical graduates were qualified to perform operative surgery without any further training, whereas the modern postgraduate medical curriculum provides students with the basis for further surgical training. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  5. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  6. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  7. Incorporating simulation into gynecologic surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrab, Kyle; Jelovsek, J Eric; Myers, Deborah

    2017-11-01

    Today's educational environment has made it more difficult to rely on the Halstedian model of "see one, do one, teach one" in gynecologic surgical training. There is decreased surgical volume, but an increased number of surgical modalities. Fortunately, surgical simulation has evolved to fill the educational void. Whether it is through skill generalization or skill transfer, surgical simulation has shifted learning from the operating room back to the classroom. This article explores the principles of surgical education and ways to introduce simulation as an adjunct to residency training. We review high- and low-fidelity surgical simulators, discuss the progression of surgical skills, and provide options for skills competency assessment. Time and money are major hurdles when designing a simulation curriculum, but low-fidelity models, intradepartmental cost sharing, and utilizing local experts for simulation proctoring can aid in developing a simulation program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  9. Bourdieu, Department Chairs and the Reform of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Hardy, Ian; Bartley, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Using the insights of the French sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu, this article considers the role of the science department chair in the reform of school science education. Using Bourdieu's 'thinking tools' of 'field', 'habitus' and 'capital', we case study the work of two teachers who both actively pursue the teaching and learning of science as inquiry. One teacher, Dan, has been a department chair since 2000, and has actively encouraged his department to embrace science as inquiry. The other teacher, Leslie, worked for one year in Dan's department before being transferred to another school where science teaching continues to be more traditional. Our work suggests that there are three crucial considerations for chairs seeking to lead the reform of science teaching within their department. The first of these is the development of a reform-minded habitus, as this appears to be foundational to the capital that can be expended in the leadership of reform. The second is an understanding of how to wield power and position in the promotion of reform. The third is the capacity to operate simultaneously and strategically within, and across, two fields; the departmental field and the larger science education field. This involves downplaying administrative logics, and foregrounding more inquiry-focused logics as a vehicle to challenge traditional science-teaching dispositions-the latter being typically dominated by concerns about curriculum 'coverage'.

  10. Learning Not Borrowing from the Queensland Education System: Lessons on Curricular, Pedagogical and Assessment Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…

  11. Success for All and Comprehensive School Reform: Evidence-Based Policies for Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.

    This paper discusses comprehensive school reform (CSR), which accepts the importance of standards and accountability but adds to these strategies for introducing innovations in curriculum, instruction, school organization, governance, parent interactions, and other core features of practice. The paper reviews research on the nature and quality of…

  12. Learner Autonomy as an Element in Chinese Education Reform: A Case of English Language Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinjin; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing students' learning autonomy has been emphasized in the current round of English curriculum reforms by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in China. The initial aim of the new guidelines was developed to enhance students' English proficiency to better fulfil their basic education (Nine-year compulsory education). However, up until now, very…

  13. Using Assessment to Drive the Reform of Schooling: Time to Stop Pursuing the Chimera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, over the last 20-30 years, changing the procedures and processes of assessment has come to be seen, by many educators as well as policy-makers, as a way to frame the curriculum and drive the reform of schooling. Such developments have often been manifested in large scale, high stakes testing programmes. At the same time…

  14. Education, Culture and Indigenous Rights: The Case of Educational Reform in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comboni Salinas, Sonia; Juarez Nunez, Jose Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Examines the implementation of intercultural bilingual education throughout Bolivia and its relationship to the linguistic and cultural rights of the majority indigenous population. Discusses institutional and curriculum reforms, particularly in rural schools; a new emphasis on students' learning needs; relationship to indigenous…

  15. Creating a Comprehensive School Reform Model: The Talent Development High School with Career Academies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Will J.; McPartland, James M.; Legters, Nettie E.; Balfanz, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for comprehensive reforms in school organization, curriculum and instruction, and professional development to address the problems of large urban high schools. Describes the Talent Development High School with Career Academies model being developed to meet the needs of such schools. (SLD)

  16. Teachers' Innovative Change within Countrywide Reform: A Case Study in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uworwabayeho, Alphonse

    2009-01-01

    This article presents practical perspectives on mathematics teacher change through results of collaborative research with two mathematics secondary school teachers in order to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics in Rwanda. The 2006 national mathematics curriculum reform stresses pedagogies that enhance problem-solving, critical…

  17. Drivers for renewal and reform of contemporary nursing curricula: a blueprint for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Cheryl Denise; Rochester, Suzanne Freda; McMillan, Margaret Anna

    2012-06-01

    The creation of a curriculum blueprint appropriate to the development of a professional nurse who is practice-ready for the current and future context of health service delivery must take account of the extant context as well as an unpredictable and sometimes ambiguous future. The curriculum renewal process itself ought to challenge existing long held ideals, practices, and sacred cows within the health and higher education sectors. There is much to consider and importantly curriculum developers need to be mindful of reform within the health sector and health workforce education, as well as the concomitant vision and requirements of the nursing profession. Curriculum must develop more than discipline knowledge and skills: it must provide an infrastructure for generic abilities both social and intellectual in order to better prepare students for the registered nurse role. This paper discusses a number of forces that are essential to consider in curriculum development in undergraduate nursing education.

  18. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  19. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  20. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  1. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  2. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  3. Welfare Reform and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  4. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  5. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  6. Learning from the best: Overcoming barriers to reforms-based elementary science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchi, Heather May

    This study explored the characteristics of elementary science teachers who employ reforms-based practices. Particular attention was paid to the consistency of teachers' practices and their beliefs, the impact of professional development experiences on practices, and how teachers mitigated barriers to reforms-based instruction. Understanding how successful elementary science teachers develop fills a gap in the science reforms literature. Participants included 7 upper elementary science teachers from six different schools. All schools were located within two suburban school districts in the south-Atlantic United States and data was collected during the spring of 2008. Data collection included use of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to evaluate the level of reforms-based instruction, as well as 35 hours of classroom observation field notes and 21 hours of audio-taped teacher interviews. The variety of data sources allowed for triangulation of evidence. The RTOP was analyzed using descriptive statistics and classroom observations and interview data were analyzed using Erickson's (1986) guidelines for analytic induction. Findings indicated (a) reforms-based elementary science teaching was attainable, (b) beliefs and practices were consistent and both reflected reforms-based philosophies and practices, (c) formal professional development experiences were limited and did not foster reforms-based practices, (d) informal professional development pursued by teachers had a positive impact on practices, (e) barriers to reforms-based instruction were present but mitigated by strong beliefs and practical strategies like curriculum integration. These findings suggest that there are common, salient characteristics of reforms-based teachers' beliefs, practices, and professional development experiences. These commonalities contribute to an understanding of how reforms-based teachers develop, and inform efforts to move all elementary teachers in the direction of

  7. A case study of systemic curricular reform: A forty-year history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy Alan

    What follows is a description of the development of a particular inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum program and how its theoretical underpinnings positively influenced a school district's (K-12) science program and also impacted district- and state-wide curriculum reform initiatives. The district's science program has evolved since the inception of the inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum reform forty years ago. Therefore, a historical case study, which incorporated grounded theory methodology, was used to convey the forty-year development of a science curriculum reform effort and its systemic influences. Data for this study were collected primarily through artifacts, such as technical and non-technical documents, and supported and augmented with interviews. Fifteen people comprised the interview consortium with professional responsibilities including (a) administrative roles, such as superintendents, assistant superintendents, principals, and curriculum consultants/coordinators; (b) classroom roles, such as elementary and secondary school teachers who taught science; (c) partnership roles, such as university faculty who collaborated with those in administrative and classroom positions within the district; and (d) the co-director of SCIS who worked with the SCIS trial center director. Data were analyzed and coded using the constant comparative method. The analysis of data uncovered five categories or levels in which the curriculum reform evolved throughout its duration. These themes are Initiation, Education, Implementation, Confirmation, and Continuation. These five categories lead to several working hypotheses that supported the sustaining and continuing of a K-12 science curriculum reform effort. These components are a committed visionary; a theory base of education; forums promoting the education of the theory base components; shared-decision making; a university-school partnership; a core group of committed educators and teachers

  8. The 'reformation' of counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Lotter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  9. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  10. Incorporation of peer learning in first MBBS curriculum to enhance metacognition skills

    OpenAIRE

    Manas Kanti Ray; Suranjana Ray

    2012-01-01

    Peer learning can be incorporated in the first MBBS curriculum along with didactic lectures and tutorials. Peer learning is when a student learns from another student who has been trained to explain the topic and discuss it. Peer learning improves domain-specific inquiry skills, supports self-directed learning, and improves metacognition skills. Metacognition is the ability to plan, reason, judge and regulate ways to approach learning a skill or concept. In the midst of curriculum reforms tha...

  11. Discussion on teaching reform of environmental planning and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiugen; Chen, Suhua; Xie, Yu; Wei, Li'an; Ding, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    The curriculum of environmental planning and management is an environmental engineering major curriculum established by the teaching steering committee of environmental science and engineering of Education Ministry, which is the core curriculum of Chinese engineering education professional certification. It plays an important role in cultivating environmental planning and environmental management ability of environmental engineering major. The selection and optimization of the course teaching content of environmental planning and management were discussed which including curriculum teaching content updating and optimizing and teaching resource system construction. The comprehensive application of teaching method was discussed which including teaching method synthesis and teaching method. The final combination of the assessment method was also discussed which including the formative assessment normal grades and the final result of the course examination. Through the curriculum comprehensive teaching reform, students' knowledge had been broadened, the subject status and autonomy of learning had been enhanced, students' learning interest had been motivated, the ability of students' finding, analyzing and solving problems had been improved. Students' innovative ability and positive spirit had been well cultivated.

  12. Teologie kroniek/Theology Chronicle: The Politics of Salvation: Values, Ideology and the South African National Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jansen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The South African experience offers dramatic examples of how the curriculum remains a lightning rod for the values contestation in divided societies. Despite its overwhelming election mandate, the ruling party found that changing the curriculum required the consent of powerful and less powerful sections of society - whose opposition extended across racial lines. This essay reports on research into attempts� by the post- apartheid state to introduce values explicitly into the school curriculum, and how communities - mobilised� primarily on the common front of religious values - combined to decelerate if not reverse radical curriculum reforms. The most important finding from this work is that underestimating the power of faith-based communities is likely to undermine curriculum reforms that touch on matters of values, conscience and religious commitment.

  13. 品德教育現況及因應十二年國教課程改革之調查研究 Survey on Current Implementation of Character and Moral Education and Response to the Curriculum Reform of 12-Year Basic Education in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    劉秀嫚 Show-Mann Liou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 本研究針對525 位學校教育人員、學生家長與民間團體代表進行全國性問卷調查,以瞭解其對於我國品德教育實施現況與問題及面臨十二年國教課程改革之看法。結果顯示:一、品德教育在各教育階段採多元但隨機方式實施,其中個人品德修養與團體規範的教育成效尚佳,但較缺乏公民意識與道德思辨能力之養成;二、品德教育實施之主要困難來自媒體與家庭負面影響,以及師生未予以積極重視;三、受試者對於應著重的品德核心價值與道德議題有所共識;四、單獨設科為多數教育人員與家長期望之品德課程模式;五、十二年國教品德教育須強化的配套措施含師資、教材、網路資源、行政支援與親職教育等。最後,根據分析結果,本研究提出相關的討論與初探性的建議。 A national survey of 525 educators, parents, and civic groups was conducted to determine their perception of the status quo of character and moral education in Grades 1 to 12 as well as their suggestions for the curriculum reform of 12-year basic education. The results indicate that (1 the implementation of character and moral education is diverse and nonsystematic, (2 negative influences of media and family and the ignorance of teachers and students are among the major difficulties in implementing moral and character education, (3 a consensus on the core values and moral issues that should be addressed in 12-year basic education has been attained, (4 most educators and parents prefer that character and moral education be taught as a timetabled subject, and (5 accompanying measures related to the implementation of 12-year basic education include teacher education, instructional materials, Internet resources, administrative support, and parent education. Finally, the results are discussed, and preliminary recommendations for character and moral education in 12-year

  14. Writing Across the Curriculum -- An Online Course in Computer Security

    OpenAIRE

    Neelu Sinha

    2006-01-01

    Writing fosters both critical thinking and student learning, serving as one of the most effective ways to understand a topic. Writing across the Curriculum (WAC) began in the late 1970’s, as a pedagogical reform movement in response to a perceived deficiency in literacy among college students. Over the past two decades universities have worked to broaden the scope of student writing from composition classes to classes in the students’ major. This paper chronicles the application of WAC into t...

  15. Curriculum Reforms and Physical Education: the Theoretical-Conceptual knowledge of the Spanish School Population Reformas Curriculares y Educación Física: los Conocimientos Teórico-Conceptuales de la Población Escolar Española.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Hernández Álvarez

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the changes generated by the implementation of a new curriculum in the context of the new Law of Education in Spain. In that context, our interest is centered in the reflection about the influence of educational policies in the development of Physical Education as a subject matter. We use a historical perspective to analyze some of the changes introduced by the Ley de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo Español (LOGSE, 1990, and the curricular reform. In particular, we base our analysis on the introduction of the theoretical-conceptual contents (“to know” in the curricular area of Physical Education, which has traditionally centered in the “know how”. In order to carry out our analysis, we took as a point of departure the results obtained from the research on what the Spanish school population knows about the theoretical-conceptual contents. The focus of the investigation was the Spanish school population between the ages of 10 and 16. A Questionnaire on the Learning of Concepts in PE was applied to a representative sample (n=2,721 of the said school population. Results show that, in general, the students of both primary and secondary education have a poor theoretical and conceptual knowledge, reaching worrying proportions in some cases. The results also show the need to develop strategies that lead the improvement of the “PE culture” among students of both primary and secondary education. The learning of these contents is a fundamental factor in the education of autonomous citizens, committed to caring for their bodies and their health, and thus achieving a good quality of life. The study shows that the curricular reform by itself is insufficient to introduce new contents. Thus it is also necessary to implement measures of support to teachers so that the proposed changes become a reality. El objeto central de este artículo es realizar una reflexión sobre la influencia de las pol

  16. Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: science teachers' experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jim; Lidar, Malena; Lundqvist, Eva; Östman, Leif

    2018-03-01

    We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in 'implementing' reform practices.

  17. The Impact of High School Science Teachers' Beliefs, Curricular Enactments and Experience on Student Learning during an Inquiry-Based Urban Ecology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Pimentel, Diane Silva; Strauss, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Inquiry-based curricula are an essential tool for reforming science education yet the role of the teacher is often overlooked in terms of the impact of the curriculum on student achievement. Our research focuses on 22 teachers' use of a year-long high school urban ecology curriculum and how teachers' self-efficacy, instructional practices,…

  18. A triple innovation in The Netherlands : supporting a new curriculum with new technologies through a new kind of strategy for teacher support and stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty

    1994-01-01

    This article is about how one country, The Netherlands, is attempting to reform school curriculum, integrate information technology into the new curriculum, and implement new approaches to teacher support and inservice, all a t the same time. The article overviews the triple innovation in The

  19. Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Creativity, Communication and Problem-Solving in the School Curriculum: Hong Kong Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Chan, Nim Chi; Xu, Huixuan; Chun, Derek Wai-sun

    2017-01-01

    The development of generic skills is a focal issue in education policy and school curriculum reform across countries. This study in the Hong Kong context explores the sources of formal and non-formal curriculum and learning activities related to senior secondary students' perceptions of learning outcomes in creativity, communication, and problem…

  20. A pilot curriculum in international surgery for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moren, Alexis; Cook, Mackenzie; McClain, Molly; Doberne, Julie; Kiraly, Laszlo; Perkins, Rosina Serene; Kwong, Karen

    2015-01-01

    As medical student interest in global surgical care grows, a comprehensive curriculum is necessary to understand surgical care in resource-limited environments. We developed a surgical elective encompassing a multiyear medical student curriculum, with the goal of improving students' understanding of global surgical care, consisting of a junior seminar and a senior clerkship. This student elective focused on the global burden of surgical disease, ethics of care in low-resource settings, and care of marginalized U.S. Students who participated in the fourth year clerkship at a tertiary center in Northern India completed a reflective essay on their experience. Qualitative analysis was conducted using constant comparison and axial coding to establish a grounded theory. Medical students showed a desire to serve the poor, build collaborative relationships, and integrate international health into their future career. This novel curriculum provides students a clinical and public health basis to understand challenges of surgical care in low-resource environments while laying the groundwork for students with a future career in global health. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reforming process. Reformierungsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, C.S.

    1982-05-19

    A naphta fraction is subjected to a catalytic reforming process in several series-connected reactors. The first reactor is equipped with a moving catalyst bed containing not more the 30% of volume of the total catalyst amount. The other reactors are designed as packed-bed systems. The content of coke deposited on the catalyst of the first reactor owing to the reforming process is maintained at below 1% of weight. This is effected by periodic removal of a proportion of the contaminated catalyst from the bottom part of the bed, by its regeneration and re-feeding to the top part of the bed. This results in prolonged service life of the catalyst and simultaneous improvement of the anti-knock value of the product.

  2. Environmental fiscal reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Chaturvedi; Manjeet S. Saluja; Abhijit Banerjee; Rachna Arora

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR) and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of imp...

  3. Implementing Security Sector Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-04

    ownership and genuine reform. His experience in Diyala Province indicated that the most effective means of pursuing transition and transformation among...that I have no solution to the security situation in Afghanistan, or to the questions of violence, crime, insurrection, or militias vs . army vs ...than to merge those interests into a greater whole. Franchising of problems or solutions is often the result. In Afghanistan, problems and

  4. Revidert læreplan i naturfag – Økt fokus på grunnleggende ferdigheter og forskerspirenRevised Norwegian science curriculum – Increased focus on literacy and inquiry skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M. Mork

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main consequences of the large Norwegian curriculum reform in 2006 is that teachers in all subjects are now responsible for focusing on the basic skills of reading, writing, oral, arithmetic and the use of digital tools. However, research following the implementation of the reform report a gap between curriculum intentions and classroom practice regarding basic skills. Hence the curriculum in science and four other subjects are now revised to clarify basic skills. This article describes some of the background for the revision, the revision process and some main changes in the revised curriculum.

  5. Curriculum Policy Implementation: How Schools Respond to Government's "Soft" Policy in the Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jacqueline K. S.

    2012-01-01

    "Soft" policy has newly emerged as a policy implementation concept in relation to governance. Non-binding in character, "soft" policy is designed for multi-level systems of governance in which there is relative autonomy at different levels of collective decision-making. "Soft" policy has gained attention since the…

  6. Electromechanical Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train electromechanical engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of electromechanical engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard…

  7. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  8. Solar Technology Curriculum, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This curriculum guide contains lecture outlines and handouts for training solar technicians in the installation, maintenance, and repair of solar energy hot water and space heating systems. The curriculum consists of four modular units developed to provide a model through which community colleges and area vocational/technical schools can respond…

  9. The Galapagos Jason Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, VA.

    The JASON Curriculum Project materials are designed to prepare teachers and students for an exploration around the Galapagos Islands via satellite transmission of live images and sound. This curriculum package contains five units, 25 lesson plans, and over 50 activities, along with teacher background material, student worksheets and readings, a…

  10. Equasions for Curriculum Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrod, James S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Technology in Curriculum (TIC) program resource guides which will be distributed to California schools in the fall of 1986. These guides match available instructional television programs and computer software to existing California curriculum guides in order to facilitate teachers' classroom use. (JDH)

  11. Economic Reforms and Constitutional Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...

  12. Security Sector Reform in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...

  13. Implementing a robotics curriculum at an academic general surgery training program: our initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Joshua S; Juza, Ryan M; Sasaki, Jennifer; Rogers, Ann M; Pauli, Eric M; Haluck, Randy S; Estes, Stephanie J; Lyn-Sue, Jerome R

    2016-09-01

    The robotic surgical platform is being utilized by a growing number of hospitals across the country, including academic medical centers. Training programs are tasked with teaching their residents how to utilize this technology. To this end, we have developed and implemented a robotic surgical curriculum, and share our initial experience here. Our curriculum was implemented for all General Surgical residents for the academic year 2014-2015. The curriculum consisted of online training, readings, bedside training, console simulation, participating in ten cases as bedside first assistant, and operating at the console. 20 surgical residents were included. Residents were provided the curriculum and notified the department upon completion. Bedside assistance and operative console training were completed in the operating room through a mix of biliary, foregut, and colorectal cases. During the fiscal years of 2014 and 2015, there were 164 and 263 robot-assisted surgeries performed within the General Surgery Department, respectively. All 20 residents completed the online and bedside instruction portions of the curriculum. Of the 20 residents trained, 13/20 (65 %) sat at the Surgeon console during at least one case. Utilizing this curriculum, we have trained and incorporated residents into robot-assisted cases in an efficient manner. A successful curriculum must be based on didactic learning, reading, bedside training, simulation, and training in the operating room. Each program must examine their caseload and resident class to ensure proper exposure to this platform.

  14. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  15. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  16. Ensino da enfermagem psiquiátrica/saúde mental: sua interface com a Reforma Psiquiátrica e diretrizes curriculares nacionais La enseñanza de la enfermería psiquiátrica/salud mental: su conexión con la Reforma Psiquiátrica y las directrices curriculares nacionales Teaching psychiatric nursing/mental health: its interface with the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and national curriculum guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josicelia Dumêt Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    étodos y técnicas pedagógicas; es necesario superar desafíos e implementar los cambios, guiándose por una nueva perspectiva, y osando colocar en cuestión la naturaleza del saber y de las prácticas institucionales psiquiátricas.This theoretical study addresses the education system for Psychiatric Nursing in an increasingly changing world of accelerated scientific and technological modernization. The objective is to discuss the pedagogy in Psychiatric Nursing, and its interface with the principles of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses. The theoretical foundation of the study consisted of constructs of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses and their relationship to factors constituting the pedagogy in psychiatric nursing. The study shows that it is not enough to identify technical issues regarding contents and teaching, didactic procedures, methods and pedagogical techniques; it is necessary to implement changes, using a new perspective and by daring to question the nature of knowledge and institutional psychiatric practices.

  17. Key Aspects of Current Educational Reforms in Islamic Educational Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hashim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the premise that Islamic education plays a significant role in producing an integrated personality of young generation in order to fulfil the needs of present society. This study is important to address the key educational changes in pedagogy, curricular and teaching approach that relate directly to the effectiveness of the implementation of Islamic Education in Islamic schools. Questions raised in this writing is whether and how Muslim schools have transformed to meet the changes and challenges of the globalizing world and what should be done to ensure Islamic schools meet current needs. Thus, it argues that there is a need for reform in contemporary Islamic schools with particular reference to the changes in the curriculum, teaching style, role of Islamic schools and gender participation. The paper considers the possibility of integrating new perspectives across the curriculum and outlines the integrated approach to ensure the quality and excellence of their graduates.

  18. Improving core surgical training in a major trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel L J; Bryson, David J; Ollivere, Ben J; Forward, Daren P

    2016-06-01

    English Major Trauma Centres (MTCs) were established in April 2012. Increased case volume and complexity has influenced trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) core surgical training in these centres. To determine if T&O core surgical training in MTCs meets Joint Committee on Surgical Training (JCST) quality indicators including performance of T&O operative procedures and consultant supervised session attendance. An audit cycle assessing the impact of a weekly departmental core surgical trainee rota. The rota included allocated timetabled sessions that optimised clinical and surgical learning opportunities. Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme (ISCP) records for T&O core surgical trainees at a single MTC were analysed for 8 months pre and post rota introduction. Outcome measures were electronic surgical logbook evidence of leading T&O operative procedures and consultant validated work-based assessments (WBAs). Nine core surgical trainees completed a 4 month MTC placement pre and post introduction of the core surgical trainee rota. Introduction of core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of T&O operative procedures led by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 20.2 to 34.0 (pcore surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement was significantly increased (0.3 vs 2.4 [p=0.04]). Those of dynamic hip screw fixation (2.3 vs 3.6) and ankle fracture fixation (0.7 vs 1.6) were not. Introduction of a core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of consultant validated WBAs completed by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 1.7 to 6.6 (pcore surgical trainee rota utilising a 'problem-based' model can significantly improve T&O core surgical training in MTCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Teaching STEM through Horticulture: Implementing an Edible Plant Curriculum at a STEM-Centric Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Leila A.; Hughes, Harrison; Balgopal, Meena M.

    2016-01-01

    School gardens are ideal places for students to ask and answer questions about science. This paper describes a case study of two 3rd grade teachers and two STEM coordinators who were recruited to implement and evaluate a horticultural-based curriculum developed for this study. Informed by the Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform model we conducted a…

  20. Teachers and the Implementation of a New English Curriculum in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Jan; A-Rahman, Norhaslynda

    2014-01-01

    In the light of a recent curriculum reform to improve the teaching of English in primary schools in Malaysia, this study set out to investigate the extent to which teachers are adopting a communicative language teaching (CLT) approach in their teaching. A mixed-method approach incorporating systematic observation, stimulated recall and interviews…

  1. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  2. Total Teacher Effectiveness: Implication for Curriculum Change (TOC) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Kwok Tung; Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper introduces the concept of total teacher effectiveness for facilitating educational reform and improvement, using target oriented curriculum (TOC) change in Hong Kong as an example. TOC change is a complex process that involves preparing, changing, and reinforcing teachers in multiple domains at multiple levels. Teacher effectiveness…

  3. Knowledge that Counts in a Global Community: Exploring the Contribution of Integrated Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Leonie J.; Venville, Grady; Wallace, John

    2011-01-01

    As the third millennium progresses, we are faced with increasing pressures relating to climate change and the sustainability of life on Earth. Concerned citizens are realizing that the responsibility to respond is both local and global. There is an increasing sense of urgency about the need to reform the processes of schooling and curriculum to…

  4. Learning Effectiveness and Satisfaction of International Medical Students: Introducing a Hybrid-PBL Curriculum in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiu; Ma, Li; Zhu, Lina; Zhang, Wenli

    2017-01-01

    A biochemistry course is a fundamental but important subject in medical education in China. In recent years, the number of international medical students has increased. Curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching is needed because of the knowledge limitations of students, a close linkage of biochemical content with clinics, the shortcomings of…

  5. Mapping Physical Sciences Teachers' Concerns Regarding the New Curriculum in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudyanga, Remeredzayi; Jita, Loyiso C.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating physical sciences teachers' stages of concern (SoC) profiles during the implementation of the curriculum and assessment policy statement (CAPS) in South Africa. Throughout reform implementation, it is conceivable that teachers go through different SoC, ranging from giving low priority to the reform…

  6. Life Sciences Teachers Negotiating Professional Development Agency in Changing Curriculum Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Samuel, Michael Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This article probes teacher responses to three curricular reform initiatives from a South African situated contextual perspective. It focuses on Life Sciences teachers who have initially reported feeling overwhelmed by this rapidly changing curriculum environment: adopting and re-adapting to the many expected shifts. The research question posed…

  7. The use of innovation and practice profiles in the evaluation of curriculum implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Jan; Voogt, Joke

    1994-01-01

    Most generic curriculum reform efforts have to deal with a gap between the innovative aspirations of the initial designers and the daily reality of the intended audience of teachers. That tension is not alarming in itself. One might even say that without it no compelling reason for starting

  8. The "Curriculum for Excellence": A Major Change for Scottish Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The Curriculum for Excellence and new National Qualifications offer innovative reform, based on widely supported ideas and aims, for Scottish preschool, primary and secondary education levels. "Objectives and syllabuses" for science are replaced by "experiences and outcomes". Most strikingly, central prescription makes way for…

  9. The Future Curriculum for School Science: What Can Be Learnt from the Past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s, major reforms of the curriculum for school science education occurred that set a future for school science education that has been astonishingly robust at seeing off alternatives. This is not to say that there are not a number of good reasons for such alternative futures. The sciences, their relation to the socio-scientific context,…

  10. (Re)Defining the Filipino: Notions of Citizenship in the New K+12 Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Reyes, Elizer Jay

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, the Philippine government implemented what it called the K+12 Curriculum which reformed its basic education system by adding two more years of schooling to the then existing 10-year structure. Complicated by the long experience and participation of the Filipinos in the diaspora, the constantly lingering thought of leaving for greener…

  11. Interacting with a Suite of Educative Features: Elementary Science Teachers' Use of Educative Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Anna Maria; Bismack, Amber Schultz; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    New reform documents underscore the importance of learning both the practices and content of science. This integration of practices and content requires sophisticated teaching that does not often happen in elementary classrooms. Educative curriculum materials--materials explicitly designed to support teacher and student learning--have been posited…

  12. Teaching Economics in the Former Soviet Union: New Curriculum, Old Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests that the reform of economic instruction in the Former Soviet Union should focus on both learning and action. The incorporation of mathematical methods into the new economic curriculum will occur based on close cooperation among mathematicians and economists. The new economic instruction will have an interdisciplinary…

  13. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present....... Institutional inertia entails that large-scale management reform tends to be crisis driven....

  14. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  15. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  16. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  17. Teaching surgical exposures to undergraduate medical students: an integration concept for anatomical and surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Hepp, Pierre; Löffler, Sabine; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Steinke, Hanno; Klima, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Decreasing numbers of students are interested in starting a surgical career, posing substantial challenges to patient care in the next years. The anatomy course is one of the key subjects in medical training, especially in surgical disciplines. Innovative teaching concepts that integrate surgically relevant anatomy and manual dexterity might help boost student interest in surgery. A preclinical workshop entitled "Surgical exposures" was developed. A team of anatomists and surgeons introduced the surgical exposures, demonstrating the procedures on Thiel-fixed body donors. Following this introduction, students practiced the exposures in an operating room-like manner. A six-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the workshop and to compare it to the first-year dissection course. The overall evaluation result for the surgical exposures was excellent, proving to be a significantly better result when compared to the first-year dissection course. The students were more satisfied with the teaching time invested by the peers and regarded the workshop as clinically highly relevant. Furthermore, they felt that questions were addressed better and that the overall atmosphere was better than in the gross anatomy course. Subject to criticism was the course size and practicing time in both cases. The surgical exposures workshop provides preclinical students with clinically relevant anatomy and manual dexterity. It may positively influence the decision to follow a surgical career. This course, however, requires extensive teaching resources. The given concept may help implement practical medical skills in the preclinical curriculum, strengthening the professional identity of surgeons and anatomists.

  18. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy presents an overview of social policy reforms currently ... It shows how some experimental approaches to reform have worked in different ... and students in development studies and social sciences; policymakers and ...

  19. Thematic curriculum approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Jasmina P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thematic curriculum combines disciplines and media. The process is problem-oriented and the scenario most often follows the logic of exploring or storytelling. Those two approaches to teaching are appropriate because they fit into interdisciplinary and creative open-ended problem solving through play, as insisted upon by thematic curriculum. The matrix, where seven types of abilities intersect with five types of problems according to their degree of openness, defines well the outcomes of teaching. However, it did not prove to be suitable for planning the majority of activities in thematic curriculum, for it follows with difficulty the process of exploring or storytelling i.e. it disrupts the subject matter coherence of thematic curriculum. Therefore, it is suggested that matrix should be used for disciplinary curriculum planning but for that of thematic curriculum only in exclusive cases. The matrix should be used primarily as a framework for evaluating the distribution of various types of abilities and problem situations in teaching. The logic of diverse approaches to teaching reflects itself in the manner of planning and organizing the teaching process. Conceptual, visual-graphic, structural and other aids employed during educational process planning should suit the nature of the approach chosen. On the basis of qualitative investigations of educational process, in the present paper considerations are given to various approaches to teaching development of various drafts for the planning of teaching, and recognition of the logic of storytelling and exploring in thematic curriculum.

  20. Simulation for ward processes of surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, Philip H; Darzi, Ara; Aggarwal, Rajesh

    2013-07-01

    The role of simulation in surgical education, initially confined to technical skills and procedural tasks, increasingly includes training nontechnical skills including communication, crisis management, and teamwork. Research suggests that many preventable adverse events can be attributed to nontechnical error occurring within a ward context. Ward rounds represent the primary point of interaction between patient and physician but take place without formalized training or assessment. The simulated ward should provide an environment in which processes of perioperative care can be performed safely and realistically, allowing multidisciplinary assessment and training of full ward rounds. We review existing literature and describe our experience in setting up our ward simulator. We examine the facilities, equipment, cost, and personnel required for establishing a surgical ward simulator and consider the scenario development, assessment, and feedback tools necessary to integrate it into a surgical curriculum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jo Nell

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the importance of parent and community engagement in curriculum development, along with curriculum leadership, engaging stakeholders, and the importance of curriculum. Parent and community member engagement is examined in light of curriculum committee participation as reported by Missouri superintendents. Survey responses…

  2. Teacher collaboration and curriculum construction: Political, cultural, and structural contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterle, Rochelle Eda Penn

    This longitudinal case study is the story of one high school's efforts to implement curriculum reform and the profound effect of local circumstances on reform ideologies. What began as a study of inter- and intradisciplinary collaborative science curriculum integration became the study of a systemic failure to modify cultural practices. Poritical, economic, and structural measures initiated to facilitate reform ultimately represent inherent conflicts of interest which undermine the reform effort. This research exposes obstacles that are deeply embedded within the school's governance, the beliefs and knowledge of teachers, and the culture of schools. The study site is both a new entity and a new concept: a specialized math/science high school located on a state university campus; the school recruits underrepresented students to become acclimated to university coursework and culture. To date, the school has maintained an exceptional record of college and university placements. The school is governed by a partnership representing the university, the corporate sector, and 11 surrounding K-12 school districts. Free from the regularities of a traditional high school, the school appears to be ideally situated for innovation. The principle innovations at this school relate to its organizational structure--heterogeneous student groupings, cooperative group work, curriculum integration, block scheduling, and concurrent university coursework. For teachers, grade level teams replace departments as the dominant unit for professional, curricular, and social interactions. Within teacher teams, collaboration centers around ongoing student problems and policies, subordinating academic content and significant interdisciplinary connections. Without active discipline-based departments and curricular leadership, however, this research finds an absence of academic direction and accountability.

  3. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  4. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  5. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  6. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  7. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  8. An anticipatory quality improvement process for curricular reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Harry; Loeser, Helen; Irby, David

    2002-09-01

    Over half of American medical schools are currently engaged in significant curricular reform. Traditionally, evaluation of the efficacy of educational changes has occurred well after the implementation of curricular reform, resulting in significant time elapsed before modification of goals and content can be accomplished. We were interested in establishing a process by which a new curriculum could be reviewed and refined before its actual introduction. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine embarked upon a new curriculum for the class entering in September 2001. Two separate committees coordinated plans for curricular change. The Essential Core Steering Committee was responsible for the first two years of training, and the Integrated Clinical Steering Committee guided the development of the third-and fourth-year curriculum. Both groups operated under guidelines of curricular reform, established by the School's Committee on Curriculum and Educational Policy, that emphasized integration of basic, clinical, and social sciences; longitudinal inclusion of themes such as behavior, culture, and ethics; use of clinical cases in teaching; and inclusion of small-group and problem-based learning. In early 2001, the deans of education and curricular affairs appointed an ad hoc committee to examine the status of the first-year curriculum, which had been entirely reformulated into a series of new multidisciplinary block courses. This ad hoc committee was composed of students and clinical faculty members who had not been substantially involved in the detailed planning of the blocks. The charge to the committee was to critique the progress of individual courses, and the first year as a whole, in meeting the goals outlined above, and to make recommendations for improving the preparation of students for the clinical years. To accomplish these goals, the committee reviewed background planning documents; interviewed each course director using a

  9. Common morality and moral reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  10. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  11. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  12. One year audit of surgical admissions at Gondar university medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The new University of Gondar enrolled surgeons for post graduate training in November 2003. A new surgical curriculum was designed in partnership with the Leicester Gondar Link. Admissions to the Department of Surgery over twelve months were subject to audit. The objectives of the audit study were to ...

  13. 面向新高中課程改革:學校政策制定者的觀點和決定The New Senior Secondary School Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong: School Policy Makers’ Perspectives and Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳健生(通訊作者)Jacqueline Kin-Sang Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 自2009年開始,香港高中課程進行大規模的改革,所有適齡的中學生,須接受六年免費的中學教育,在初中至高中期間,無需經歷任何公開考試,直至完成中六,才接受一次中學文憑考試,以作為升學或就業的依據。在這改革背景之下,香港的高中課程和教學須面對有史以來最重要的改革和挑戰。在課程路向方面,新高中課程從以往的菁英主義走向普及主義;在教學路向方面,它須走向多元化的教學方向,才能處理新高中課程會出現的學生個別差異的問題。面對這種種的挑戰,究竟學校政策制定者對新高中課程所持的觀點,與官方課程是否相同,抑或有異?在他們工作的學校環境中,建構新課程時又有何決定?本研究以香港新高中課程改革為背景,以實徵研究為本,探討香港中學的政策制定者對新高中課程的觀點和決定,問題有三:一、香港的學校政策制定者對新高中課程持哪些觀點?二、學校政策制定者在學校課程的建構方面有何決定?三、哪些因素影響學校政策制定者的決定?Since 2009, the senior secondary school curriculum in Hong Kong has undergone a large scale of change. Instead of taking two public examinations, all students will receive free six-year secondary school education and sit the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination at their exit point. With such a change, the Hong Kong senior secondary school curriculum faces its greatest challenge that has ever met. In terms of curriculum orientations, the new secondary school curriculum espouses compulsory education instead of elitist education. In terms of teaching and learning, the new secondary school curriculum needs to adopt various teaching methods in order to solve the problems of individual differences. With this challenge, it is interesting to explore how school policy makers

  14. Public Administration reforms and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on administrative reforms during the past thirty years indicates that reform efforts of countries differ. The Anglo Saxon states were at the forefront of the New Public Management movement while countries on mainland Europe were more hesitant and moved further towards the Neo-Weberian state. Academics have tried to explain different reform efforts within countries by looking at political, historical and cultural issues, values and economic factors to name just a few. Three hypotheses are put forward to explain reform efforts in different states. This research involves analysing the implementation of two different reform trends, New Public Management and the Neo-Weberian tradition. The analysis indicates that countries vary in their commitment to reform rather than in the emphasis on either New Public Management or the Neo-Weberian State. Decentralization, clear objectives and consultation with communities and experts are closely related to national reform efforts. However, Iceland does distinguish itself from Europe and the Nordic countries. The analysis reveals that although decentralization is high in the Icelandic system, autonomy of agencies does not have a strong relation to a varied use of administrative instruments. The second part of the article focuses on the results and achievements of reform programmes. The achievement of reform programmes are examined in relation to theories of bounded rationality, street level bureaucracy (bottom up and consensus decision making. Three hypotheses are presented and tested to explain what causes reforms programmes to be successful in some countries and not in others. The analysis reveals that countries are more likely to succeed if bounded rationality is applied with careful preparation and when stakeholders are consulted.

  15. Graduates from a traditional medical curriculum evaluate the effectiveness of their medical curriculum through interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmough, Simon; O'Sullivan, Helen; Taylor, David

    2009-10-26

    In 1996 The University of Liverpool reformed its medical course from a traditional lecture-based course to an integrated PBL curriculum. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. Part of this project has involved gathering retrospective views on the relevance of both types of undergraduate education according to graduates. This paper focuses on the views of traditional Liverpool graduates approximately 6 years after graduation. From February 2006 to June 2006 interviews took place with 46 graduates from the last 2 cohorts to graduate from the traditional Liverpool curriculum. The graduates were generally happy with their undergraduate education although they did feel there were some flaws in their curriculum. They felt they had picked up good history and examination skills and were content with their exposure to different specialties on clinical attachments. They were also pleased with their basic science teaching as preparation for postgraduate exams, however many complained about the overload and irrelevance of many lectures in the early years of their course, particular in biochemistry. There were many different views about how they integrated this science teaching into understanding disease processes and many didn't feel it was made relevant to them at the time they learned it. Retrospectively, they felt that they hadn't been clinically well prepared for the role of working as junior doctor, particularly the practical aspects of the job nor had enough exposure to research skills. Although there was little communication skills training in their course they didn't feel they would have benefited from this training as they managed to pick up had the required skills on clinical attachments. These interviews offer a historical snapshot of the views of graduates from a traditional course before many courses were reformed. There was some conflict in the interviews about the doctors enjoying their undergraduate education but then saying that they

  16. Graduates from a traditional medical curriculum evaluate the effectiveness of their medical curriculum through interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 The University of Liverpool reformed its medical course from a traditional lecture-based course to an integrated PBL curriculum. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. Part of this project has involved gathering retrospective views on the relevance of both types of undergraduate education according to graduates. This paper focuses on the views of traditional Liverpool graduates approximately 6 years after graduation. Methods From February 2006 to June 2006 interviews took place with 46 graduates from the last 2 cohorts to graduate from the traditional Liverpool curriculum. Results The graduates were generally happy with their undergraduate education although they did feel there were some flaws in their curriculum. They felt they had picked up good history and examination skills and were content with their exposure to different specialties on clinical attachments. They were also pleased with their basic science teaching as preparation for postgraduate exams, however many complained about the overload and irrelevance of many lectures in the early years of their course, particular in biochemistry. There were many different views about how they integrated this science teaching into understanding disease processes and many didn't feel it was made relevant to them at the time they learned it. Retrospectively, they felt that they hadn't been clinically well prepared for the role of working as junior doctor, particularly the practical aspects of the job nor had enough exposure to research skills. Although there was little communication skills training in their course they didn't feel they would have benefited from this training as they managed to pick up had the required skills on clinical attachments. Conclusion These interviews offer a historical snapshot of the views of graduates from a traditional course before many courses were reformed. There was some conflict in the interviews about the doctors

  17. With Bologna in Mind and the Sword in the Hand: The German Bachelor/Master Reform Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mause, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, many European countries have adapted their traditional one-cycle curriculum structure in higher education to the two-cycle structure employed in the Anglo-American world. In the large social science literature dealing with this reform phenomenon, the Bologna Process -- starting with the 1999 Declaration of Bologna -- is…

  18. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines describe the interrelationships of this and other dental fields, give an overview of the curriculum and its primary educational objectives, and outline the suggested prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, and faculty requirements. (MSE)

  19. Curriculum and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    Paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf held in Philadelphia, June 24-27, 1970. Discussed are concepts of curriculum development, cognitive development, and educational methods with implications for the handicapped. (CB)

  20. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  1. [Issue of population quality under economic reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1991-02-01

    Under the current economic reform program, various problems about the quality of the population have emerged; dropping out of school is one such problem. In recent years, dropping out of school, has become a prevalent phenomenon. It was estimated that between 1980 and 1987, 40 million primary and middle school students dropped out of school. Drop-outs occurred mostly in primary and middle schools and in rural areas. The reasons for dropping out can be summarized as follows: 1) families could not afford to pay for tuition, 2) students were not able to keep up with school work, and 3) families or students were influenced by other students who had dropped out. In weighing the cost and benefit of attending school, parents would decide whether or not and for how many years to send their children to school. The costs included both direct costs and opportunity costs. Children in urban areas have practically no opportunity costs, while those in rural areas do. Dropping out has been more prevalent among girls than boys. Since girls marry into other families, parents were less willing to invest in their education. On the other hand, the school curriculum gave more emphasis to preparing students for advanced studies than to relaying practical knowledge. Parents did not feel there was any advantage for their children to spend more time in school. Rural economic reform had strengthened the decision-making function of the family in the area of investment. It has also widened the gap between the rich and the poor. For less affluent families, it has become more and more difficult to bear the increasing cost of education. To deal with this problem, the author made several suggestions: 1) persuade parents to continue sending children to school 2) set regulations forbidding the employment of school age children 3) forbid schools to collect unauthorized feeds and establish scholarships to help economically disadvantaged students, 4) develop more vocational schools and change the

  2. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  3. The influence of different curriculum designs on students' dropout rate: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, John; Quintero, Gustavo A; Isaza-Restrepo, Andrés; Ortiz-Fonseca, Martha; Latorre-Santos, Catalina; Pardo-Oviedo, Juan Mauricio

    2018-12-01

    The relationship between students' withdrawal and educational variables has generated a considerable number of publications. As the explosion of information in sciences and integration theories led to creating different curriculum designs, it has been assumed that differences among designs explain academic success and, therefore, students' retention. However, little attention has been given to examine explicitly how diverse designs influence dropout rates in practice, which questions if decisions to reform curricula are sufficiently informed. This article describes our curriculum reform, which exposes our former and current curriculum designs as having had dissimilar dropout percentages. Furthermore, we aimed to explore the influence of different curriculum designs on students' dropout rates. The conclusion is that dropout variations may be explained not only because of the curriculum design itself, but also because of the power relationship changes between teachers and students that brought out the design change. Consequently, more research is needed to fully understand the political implications of different curriculum designs and their influence on dropout rates.

  4. The influence of different curriculum designs on students’ dropout rate: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, John; Quintero, Gustavo A.; Isaza-Restrepo, Andrés; Ortiz-Fonseca, Martha; Latorre-Santos, Catalina; Pardo-Oviedo, Juan Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The relationship between students’ withdrawal and educational variables has generated a considerable number of publications. As the explosion of information in sciences and integration theories led to creating different curriculum designs, it has been assumed that differences among designs explain academic success and, therefore, students’ retention. However, little attention has been given to examine explicitly how diverse designs influence dropout rates in practice, which questions if decisions to reform curricula are sufficiently informed. This article describes our curriculum reform, which exposes our former and current curriculum designs as having had dissimilar dropout percentages. Furthermore, we aimed to explore the influence of different curriculum designs on students’ dropout rates. The conclusion is that dropout variations may be explained not only because of the curriculum design itself, but also because of the power relationship changes between teachers and students that brought out the design change. Consequently, more research is needed to fully understand the political implications of different curriculum designs and their influence on dropout rates. PMID:29392996

  5. On being African and Reformed? Towards an African Reformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... It is furthermore our contention that the notion of culture and African worldviews was always perceived negatively ..... dean of the South East Asia Graduate School of Theology. He later .... Another Reformed church for Indian.

  6. on the accra document, reformed theology and reformed ecclesiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-14

    Dec 14, 2009 ... Many churches and ecumenical bodies have already responded, in diverse ways ..... and contains a number of practical commitments and appeals. (par. ..... rhetorical power and emotion that it seemingly has for Reformed.

  7. Programas de Educacion Inicial en America Latina y los Curriculos Nacionales en el siglo XXI. [Latin American Early Childhood Educational Programs and National Curriculum in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Maria Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Describes the history of early childhood education in Chile and recent educational reforms. Offers an overview of the Chilean Early Childhood Education program and discusses the new national curriculum and issues arising from its implementation. Describes methods taken to help implement the new curriculum nationwide and to assist teachers in…

  8. Surgical resident education in patient safety: where can we improve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Luke R; Levy, Shauna M; Kellagher, Caroline M; Etchegaray, Jason M; Thomas, Eric J; Kao, Lillian S; Lally, Kevin P; Tsao, KuoJen

    2015-12-01

    Effective communication and patient safety practices are paramount in health care. Surgical residents play an integral role in the perioperative team, yet their perceptions of patient safety remain unclear. We hypothesized that surgical residents perceive the perioperative environment as more unsafe than their faculty and operating room staff despite completing a required safety curriculum. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, and perioperative nurses in a large academic children's hospital participated in multifaceted, physician-led workshops aimed at enhancing communication and safety culture over a 3-y period. All general surgery residents from the same academic center completed a hospital-based online safety curriculum only. All groups subsequently completed the psychometrically validated safety attitudes questionnaire to evaluate three domains: safety culture, teamwork, and speaking up. Results reflect the percent of respondents who slightly or strongly agreed. Chi-square analysis was performed. Sixty-three of 84 perioperative personnel (75%) and 48 of 52 surgical residents (92%) completed the safety attitudes questionnaire. A higher percentage of perioperative personnel perceived a safer environment than the surgical residents in all three domains, which was significantly higher for safety culture (68% versus 46%, P = 0.03). When stratified into two groups, junior residents (postgraduate years 1-2) and senior residents (postgraduate years 3-5) had lower scores for all three domains, but the differences were not statistically significant. Surgical residents' perceptions of perioperative safety remain suboptimal. With an enhanced safety curriculum, perioperative staff demonstrated higher perceptions of safety compared with residents who participated in an online-only curriculum. Optimal surgical education on patient safety remains unknown but should require a dedicated, systematic approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  10. The Knowledge Society and the Reform of Creative Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Emanuela DASCĂLU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with how major top-down reforms in the Romanian higher education system have affected and will continue to affect student writing and have forever challenged and changed teachers’ and students’ traditional roles. The reform of student writing in Romania is initially due to the implementation in the Romanian education system of the Bologna Declaration of 2002 and continues ever stronger due to the extraordinary new Education Law passed by the Romanian Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation in 2011. One of the initial outcomes of the adherence of the Romanian education system to Bologna Declaration was that, while previously to this change Romanian universities demanded very little undergraduate writing especially the original, research-oriented one and, thus, grades relied heavily on the results of the traditional sit-down final examinations, most courses now in the Romanian higher education system include student essay writing and other types of writing and systematic teacher feedback. Creative writing has started to appear here and there, too in the university curriculum especially at private universities. As a result of Romania’s adherence to Bologna Declaration of 2002, Portfolio Assessment, which demands extended writing, has been also introduced in Romania, both at state universities and private ones. As a result of the new 2011 Education Law, even more emphasis will be placed on writing, research, competences and abilities, included practical ones, and creativity at all levels of education, higher education included therefore. The article presents some results from an evaluation of the educational reforms in Romania, mostly of the initial reforms following Romania’s adherence to Bologna Declaration of 2002, but the study considers some of the reforms that follow from the newly passed Romanian Education Law. Mainly the following questions are addressed in this research study (1 Why did the initial reforms

  11. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  12. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  13. Incorporating the Tuning Approach in Higher Education curricular reforms and course design in Tanzania for enhancing graduates’ competencies: stakeholders’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Muchunguzi Ishengoma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Available documentary and research evidences reveal that the majority of Tanzania universities’ graduates (public and private universities lack competencies or technical skills (employability skills required for the job market and by potential employers, despite massive curricular reforms implemented in the public higher education sector since the early 1990s. Lack of employability skills which consequently leads to graduate unemployment or un-employability is attributable to the fact that curricular reforms and design in Tanzania public universities undertaken by lecturers and professors do not incorporate basic Tuning principles of competence-based teaching and learning which puts emphasis on competencies and skills by identifying generic and specific competencies during course design or curriculum reform. This study using the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM’s School of Education sought to: (1 explore faculty and students’ views on the application of the Tuning approach in curricular reforms and degree/course design as a mitigation of university graduates’ unemployment and un-employability, (2 solicit stakeholders’(academic staff and students perceptions of Tuning approach and its relevance in higher education curriculum reforms and design to make higher education more competence-based, and (3 find out students perceived causes of graduate unemployment and un-employability and whether the application of Tuning approach in curriculum reforms and design in universities can be a solution to graduate unemployment. Findings from the study reveal that both faculty and students concur that application of Tuning approach in higher education reforms and curricular design could enhance graduates competences and skills and reduce graduate unemployment.First published online: 30 November 2017

  14. Financial reform lessons and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio Jr, Gerard; Atiyas, Izak; Hanson, James

    1993-01-01

    The argument in favor of gradual - but sustained - financial reform is based on two factors. First, the development of borrower net worth will determine the health of the real and, ultimately, the financial sector. Thus, speeding up reforms when borrower net worth is subject to positive shocks - or slowing them when it is subject to negative shocks - appears sensible and appears to have worked better in practice. Second, the initial conditions of the banking sector - not just its net worth bu...

  15. Reforming health care in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Császi, L; Kullberg, P

    1985-01-01

    Over the past two decades Hungary has initiated a series of social and economic reforms which have emphasized decentralization of control and the reintroduction of market mechanisms into the socialized economy. These reforms both reflect and reinforce a changing social structure, in particular the growing influence of upper class special interest groups. Market reforms are an expression of concurrent ideological shifts in Hungarian society. We examined the political significance of three recent proposals to reform health services against the backdrop of broader social and economic changes taking place. The first proposes a bureaucratic reorganization, the second, patient co-payments, and the third, a voucher system. The problems each proposal identifies, as well as the constituency each represents, reveal a trend toward consolidation of class structure in Hungary. Only one of these proposals has any potential to democratize the control and management of the heath care system. Moreover, despite a governmental push toward decentralization, two of these proposals would actually increase centralized bureaucratic control. Two of the reforms incorporate market logic into their arguments, an indication that the philosophical premises of capitalism are re-emerging as an important component of the Hungarian world-view. In Hungary, as well as in other countries, social analysis of proposed health care reforms can effectively illuminate the social and political dynamics of the larger society.

  16. EDUCATION POLICY AND EFL CURRICULUM IN INDONESIA: BETWEEN THE COMMITMENT TO COMPETENCE AND THE QUEST FOR HIGHER TEST SCORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Lie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Education policies and curricula provide the context and specific expectations that drive student learning and achievement towards a sustainable future. The underlying policies and practices in the EFL classrooms do not always match consistently. There is an emerging need to counterbalance the power of policymakers in ensuring that balanced, pedagogically sound education policies and EFL curriculum are produced, carried out, and monitored. As one of civil society organizations, TEFLIN is well positioned to serve that mission. TEFLIN may take the initiative to engage in the EFL curriculum review project, EFL curriculum design, and reform in EFL teacher education and certification.

  17. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  18. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  19. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedures performed to treat pelvic floor disorders with surgical mesh: Transvaginal mesh to treat POP Transabdominal mesh to treat ... address safety risks Final Order for Reclassification of Surgical Mesh for Transvaginal Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair Final Order for Effective ...

  20. Reforming the European Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ezra Bigio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An unbridled globalization based on a simple premise about earnings and profit may be detrimental to the livelihood of many thousands of individuals. The greed and utter selfishness that result from the adherence to this sort of business practice are the two things that generate more unemployment, misery and degradation than most other characteristics of the human species. These considerations present the challenge for Western societies and call for the implementation of other principles, standards and procedures, such as cooperation, cohesion, development objectives and social responsibility. In the first part of the paper this approach is tested in the case of the EU-US foreign exchange relationships. The second part of the paper raises more general and fundamental issues. While adhering to the Schumpeter-type innovation environment, it aims to introduce the social dimension ahead of the immediate competitiveness and, therefore, argues for the fundamental reform of the catechism of the capitalist manager. The EU, due to its advanced integration, is relatively well-equipped to move towards the new economic system.  

  1. Curricular Revision and Reform: The Process, What Was Important, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkiw, Jan E; Nelson, Richard W; Watson, Johanna L; Conley, Alan J; Raybould, Helen E; Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen

    Beginning in 2005, the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program at the University of California underwent major curricular review and reform. To provide information for others that follow, we have documented our process and commented on factors that were critical to success, as well as factors we found surprising, difficult, or problematic. The review and reform were initiated by the Executive Committee, who led the process and commissioned the committees. The planning stage took 6 years and involved four faculty committees, while the implementation stage took 5 years and was led by the Curriculum Committee. We are now in year 2 of the institutionalizing stage and no longer refer to our reform as the "new curriculum." The change was driven by a desire to improve the curriculum and the learning environment of the students by aligning the delivery of information with current teaching methodologies and implementing adult learning strategies. We moved from a department- and discipline-based curriculum to a school-wide integrated block curriculum that emphasized student-centered, inquiry-based learning. A limit was placed on in-class time to allow students to apply classroom knowledge by solving problems and cases. We found the journey long and arduous, requiring tremendous commitment and effort. In the change process, we learned the importance of adequate planning, leadership, communication, and a reward structure for those doing the "heavy lifting." Specific to our curricular design, we learned the importance of the block leader role, of setting clear expectations for students, and of partnering with students on the journey.

  2. Rethinking the mathematics curriculum

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyles, Celia; Woodhouse, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    At a time when political interest in mathematics education is at its highest, this book demonstrates that the issues are far from straightforward. A wide range of international contributors address such questions as: What is mathematics, and what is it for? What skills does mathematics education need to provide as technology advances? What are the implications for teacher education? What can we learn from past attempts to change the mathematics curriculum? Rethinking the Mathematics Curriculum offers stimulating discussions, showing much is to be learnt from the differences in culture, national expectations, and political restraints revealed in the book. This accessible book will be of particular interest to policy makers, curriculum developers, educators, researchers and employers as well as the general reader.

  3. Learners, teachers and curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    of virtual e-learning, interviews with teachers and 10 learner participants in a virtual classroom setting, and discourse analysis of curriculum developed for the particular e-learning course The research has taken place in the context of a study of e-learning and virtual teaching of Danish as a Second...... language for adults. The research results indicate that teachers seem to compensate by trying to create virtual communities of learning. Learners, however, experience disembedded relations. Conversely, curriculum development, on tends to ‘exploit’ the conditions of disembedding social relations in e-learning......, locationally distant”. The aim of the paper is to analyse and discuss how different positions in e-learning settings result in different answers to modernity. These settings can be applied to either teacher, learner or curriculum positions. The research was based on a qualitative longitudinal case study...

  4. Mastery-Based Virtual Reality Robotic Simulation Curriculum: The First Step Toward Operative Robotic Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Melissa E; Tam, Vernissia; Zenati, Mazen; Novak, Stephanie; Miller, Jennifer; Zureikat, Amer H; Zeh, Herbert J

    Hepatobiliary surgery is a highly complex, low-volume specialty with long learning curves necessary to achieve optimal outcomes. This creates significant challenges in both training and measuring surgical proficiency. We hypothesize that a virtual reality curriculum with mastery-based simulation is a valid tool to train fellows toward operative proficiency. This study evaluates the content and predictive validity of robotic simulation curriculum as a first step toward developing a comprehensive, proficiency-based pathway. A mastery-based simulation curriculum was performed in a virtual reality environment. A pretest/posttest experimental design used both virtual reality and inanimate environments to evaluate improvement. Participants self-reported previous robotic experience and assessed the curriculum by rating modules based on difficulty and utility. This study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (Pittsburgh, PA), a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. A total of 17 surgical oncology fellows enrolled in the curriculum, 16 (94%) completed. Of 16 fellows who completed the curriculum, 4 fellows (25%) achieved mastery on all 24 modules; on average, fellows mastered 86% of the modules. Following curriculum completion, individual test scores improved (p < 0.0001). An average of 2.4 attempts was necessary to master each module (range: 1-17). Median time spent completing the curriculum was 4.2 hours (range: 1.1-6.6). Total 8 (50%) fellows continued practicing modules beyond mastery. Survey results show that "needle driving" and "endowrist 2" modules were perceived as most difficult although "needle driving" modules were most useful. Overall, 15 (94%) fellows perceived improvement in robotic skills after completing the curriculum. In a cohort of board-certified general surgeons who are novices in robotic surgery, a mastery-based simulation curriculum demonstrated internal validity with overall score improvement. Time to complete the

  5. Curriculum at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This Symposium presents curriculum design and content issues in a Scandinavian business school at its Centenary. The aim is an exploration of an educational institution at the interface of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) within the historical trends of the European Union. We hope...... of interdisciplinarity, use of text production as a tool in support of project and thesis writing, and the use of plurilingual content based teaching in a cooperative learning model for European studies. The history of one curriculum model initiated to educate better citizens, combining interdisciplinary methods...

  6. Instituting a Surgical Skills Competition Increases Technical Performance of Surgical Clerkship Students Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leraas, Harold J; Cox, Morgan L; Bendersky, Victoria A; Sprinkle, Shanna S; Gilmore, Brian F; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka M; Tracy, Elisabeth T; Sudan, Ranjan

    2017-10-04

    Surgical skills training varies greatly between institutions and is often left to students to approach independently. Although many studies have examined single interventions of skills training, no data currently exists about the implementation of surgical skills assessment as a component of the medical student surgical curriculum. We created a technical skills competition and evaluated its effect on student surgical skill development. Second-year medical students enrolled in the surgery clerkship voluntarily participated in a surgical skills competition consisting of knot tying, laparoscopic peg transfer, and laparoscopic pattern cut. Winning students were awarded dinner with the chair of surgery and a resident of their choice. Individual event times and combined times were recorded and compared for students who completed without disqualification. Disqualification included compromising cutting pattern, dropping a peg out of the field of vision, and incorrect knot tying technique. Timed performance was compared for 2 subsequent academic years using Mann-Whitney U test. Overall, 175 students competed and 71 students met qualification criteria. When compared by academic year, 2015 to 2016 students (n = 34) performed better than 2014 to 2015 students (n = 37) in pattern cut (133s vs 167s, p = 0.040), peg transfer (66s vs 101s, p skills competition improves student technical performance. Further research is needed regarding long-term benefits of surgical competitions for medical students. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Y. Naritoku MD, PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s. To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1 reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2 identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3 prioritize training accordingly.

  8. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne Z.; Black-Schaffer, W. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s). To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1) reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2) identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3) prioritize training accordingly. PMID:28725779

  9. El Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas, en el currículo de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia Problem based learning as the ba- basis sis of a medical curricul curriculum um reform in Medellín, , Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available El aprendizaje basado en problemas es un modelo de enseñanza y aprendizaje que transforma las prácticas de la educación médica. En la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia su implementación está en la base de la reforma curricular que ha permitido superar algunas deficiencias del proceso de formación de médicos y proponer un modelo que se centra en el aprendizaje significativo, social y cooperativo a través de la resolución de problemas. Problem based learning is a teaching-learning model that may transform medical education practices. This model is the basis of a curricular reform at the Medical School, University of Antioquia, in Medellín, Colombia. Such reform has allowed to overcome some of the difficulties and deficiencies commonly found in the process of training doctors; besides, it has been possible to propose a curricular model centered on meaningful, social and cooperative learning through problem solving.

  10. Environmentalization of the Physical Education Curriculum in Brazilian Universities: Culturally Comparative Lessons from Critical Outdoor Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Cae; Payne, Phillip G.

    2017-01-01

    'Environmentalizing' curriculum in Brazil is a worthy goal of global educational reform for sustainability but is challenging given the limits to rational change thesis already argued in critical social science and post-structural deconstructionism. The federal government mandate to environmentalize undergraduate physical education programs poses…

  11. Using Michael Young's Analysis on Curriculum Studies to Examine the Effects of Neoliberalism on Curricula in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavale, Nelson Casimiro

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to examine the effects of neoliberalism on curricula in Mozambique. Despite the fact that the introduction of neoliberal policies in Mozambique has affected the whole system of education, the focus in this article is only on curriculum reforms in secondary and technical/vocational education. The description and…

  12. Novel Dissection of the Central Nervous System to Bridge Gross Anatomy and Neuroscience for an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavac, Rebecca J.; Klaus, Rachel; Betts, Kourtney; Smith, Shilo M.; Stabio, Maureen E.

    2018-01-01

    Medical schools in the United States continue to undergo curricular change, reorganization, and reformation as more schools transition to an integrated curriculum. Anatomy educators must find novel approaches to teach in a way that will bridge multiple disciplines. The cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (CNS) provides an…

  13. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Community as Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim; Chow, Patricia; Schechter, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a project involving teachers, parents, and university researchers in collaborations to support multilingual children's development and use of language. Strategies for fostering an inclusive climate included building on the interests and resources of the local community, involving community members in curriculum development,…

  15. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIALS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. FORTY UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED IN SUCH AREAS AS COGNITIVE STUDIES, VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION, INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, SCIENCE STUDIES, AND…

  16. Classical Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Judith W.

    2009-01-01

    The article identifies some key findings in pedagogical research over recent decades, placing them within a framework of logical curriculum development and current practice in quality assurance and enhancement. Throughout, the ideas and comments are related to the practice of teaching classics in university. (Contains 1 figure and 3 notes.)

  17. The Corporate Law Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofsky, James S.

    1976-01-01

    On the premise that corporate counsel must be an able diagnostician before he can focus on highly specialized and interrelated issues of business law, the author suggests an approach to corporate law curriculum in which the basic course balances the quality and quantity of material designed to create the needed sensitivity. (JT)

  18. School Curriculum in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, Chie

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Japanese education system especially relevant to the school curriculum, which might support Japanese high performance in the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), mainly through Japanese policy documents. The Japanese education systems have been constructed by the local context of society and politics,…

  19. Latin Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Instructional Services.

    North Carolina's Latin curriculum guide describes the overarching concepts for Latin study, particularly at the secondary level, and outlines what students should know and be able to do at the beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels. It is designed to provide directions to school districts as they plan and/or continue to improve their Latin…

  20. Box City Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  1. Fashion Merchandising Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthrop Coll., Rock Hill, SC. School of Home Economics.

    The curriculum guide (developed by the South Carolina Office of Vocational Education, the School of Home Economics of Winthrop College, business leaders, and distributive educators) is designed for the teaching of a one-year distributive education specialty program for 12th grade students interested in pursuing a career in fashion merchandising.…

  2. Graphic Communications. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This guide provides the basic foundation to develop a one-semester course based on the cluster concept, graphic communications. One of a set of six guides for an industrial arts curriculum at the junior high school level, it suggests exploratory experiences designed to (1) develop an awareness and understanding of the drafting and graphic arts…

  3. Curriculum Development Through Delphi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Gary; Jauch, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    The basic Delphi methodology is outlined along with possible goals and objectives in a Delphi study. The results of an actual case study in the use of the Delphi method for higher education curriculum development are reported, and attention is given to the problem of selecting participants for a Delphi exercise. (Author/LBH)

  4. A Cooking Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wynn D., Ed.

    This cooking curriculum, issued by the Washington District Early Childhood Council, details specific ways in which language arts, math, science, and social studies may be taught through cooking specific recipes. Cooking activities and recipes are presented for the fall, winter, and spring months, and guidelines are provided for preparing…

  5. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    A unified science approach is incorporated in this K-6 curriculum mode. The program is organized into six major cycles. These include: (1) science, math, and technology cycle; (2) universe cycle; (3) life cycle; (4) water cycle; (5) plate tectonics cycle; and (6) rock cycle. An overview is provided of each cycle's major concepts. The topic…

  6. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  7. Across the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marilyn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Across-the-curriculum articles focus on four areas. A math activity describes optical illusions and the properties of shapes. A hands-on science activity presents the chemistry of secret messages. A writing lesson helps students capture the essence of character. An art lesson presents a project on medieval castles. (SM)

  8. Rethinking the MSW Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Ira C.

    2013-01-01

    The foundation year and specialization year of study are the accepted framework for graduate social work education. A common belief among educators is that accreditation standards are prescriptive by design, resulting in a rigidity that neither encourages nor supports curricular innovation. This article outlines a newly developed curriculum model…

  9. Community-oriented Curriculum Design for Medical Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duu-Jian Tsai

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Various recent surveys in Taiwan show physicians' decreasing satisfaction and increasing frustration with their working environment. Their major complaints are stress, long hours, salary, management's disrespect, and lack of trust from patients and society. To move towards restoration of social trust, this paper proposes incorporating the concept of “doctor as mediator in the changing relationship with patients” into the medical curriculum, as will be described in detail. This paper argues that structured community service for medical students facilitates self-learning, and will not only motivate them to develop good clinical and communication skills, but will also lead them to realize that the essence of medicine must be social trust. These effects have been seen after several years of an experimental curriculum involving more than 800 students. A program using methodology for community empowerment has been realized in a two-stage curriculum design. Students' self-assessment of achievements in these courses included further improvement in communication skills, courage to express own position, appropriate planning in advance, management of human resources, ability to deal with limited space and time, and experience of a profoundly moving learning process. In conclusion, community-based curriculum designs that facilitate self-learning for medical students should be the key element of reformed humanities education in Taiwan medical schools. Moreover, medical humanities continues to be a key element contributing to ongoing intellectual movements in Taiwan for building civil society and rooting democracy in the community.

  10. Curriculum, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Studies? Problematising Theoretical Ambiguities in Doctoral Theses in the Education Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Petro; Simmonds, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical ambiguities in curriculum studies result in conceptual mayhem. Accordingly, they hinder the development of the complicated conversation on curriculum as a verb. This article aims to contribute to reconceptualizing curriculum studies as a dynamic social practice that aspires to thinking and acting with intelligences and sensitivity so…

  11. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  12. Status of Medical Education Reform at Saga Medical School 5 Years After Introducing PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Oda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  13. 2006 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Surgical Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0909 - Surgical Technology/Technologist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Tonya; Elliott, Jessica; Gandy, Zielda; Wilkerson, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  14. Otolaryngology sleep medicine curriculum objectives as determined by sleep experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Nathan; Kominsky, Alan; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    (1) Ascertain the most important concepts and topics for otolaryngology resident education in sleep medicine and surgery, as determined by faculty who teach sleep medicine to otolaryngology residents. (2) Create learning objectives within the area of otolaryngologic sleep medicine in order to design a sleep medicine curriculum for otolaryngology residents. Two web-based surveys were sent to 163 academic otolaryngologists who teach sleep medicine. The first survey determined the topics, and their relative importance, considered most vital to learn during otolaryngology training. Using the Delphi method, the second clarified questions regarding topics determined by the first survey. Sleep medicine learning objectives for residents were ascertained from responses. The response rate of first and second surveys were 24.5% and 19%, respectively. Topics ranked most important for resident education included upper airway anatomy, polysomnogram interpretation, and understanding the range of medical and surgical therapies used to treat sleep disorders. Respondents listed surgical therapy as the most critical topic that most residents do not understand well. The second survey clarified the specific anatomic features, surgical techniques, and polysomnography data points deemed most critical for resident learning. Academic otolaryngology sleep experts hold opinions regarding relative value of different topics for teaching sleep medicine, which is useful in creating a curriculum for otolaryngology residents. Otolaryngology learning objectives related to sleep medicine identified during this study are being used to create an online curriculum to supplement resident education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do we need to change the medical curriculum: regarding the pain of others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Mishra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current curriculum is behind its time and urgently requires to be reformed. The changes required are not only in the amount and type of desired information but also in the way this knowledge is acquired. Further, literature, art and philosophy require to be integrated in the curriculum so that a medical student can find his/her bearings in the society. Finally, but most importantly focus must be on developing empathy so that a prospective physician can correlate with the pain of patients and act towards relieving it rather than intellectualizing it.

  16. The evolving integrated vascular surgery residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brigitte K; Greenberg, Jacob A; Mitchell, Erica L

    2014-10-01

    Since their introduction several years ago, integrated (0 + 5) vascular surgery residency programs are being increasingly developed across the country. To date, however, there is no defined "universal" curriculum for these programs and each program is responsible for creating its own curriculum. The aim of this study was to review the experiences of current 0 + 5 program directors (PDs) to determine what factors contributed to the curricular development within their institution. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 0 + 5 PDs to explore their experiences with program development, factors influencing the latter, and rationale for current curricula. The interview script was loosely structured to explore several factors including time of incoming residents' first exposure to the vascular surgical service, timing and rationale behind the timing of core surgical rotations throughout the 5 year program, educational value of nonsurgical rotations, opportunities for leadership and scholarly activity, and influence the general surgery program and institutional climate had on curricular structure. All interviews were conducted by a single interviewer. All interviews were qualitatively analyzed using emergent theme analysis. Twenty-six 0 + 5 PDs participated in the study. A total of 69% believed establishing professional identity early reduces resident attrition and recommend starting incoming trainees on vascular surgical services. Sixty-two percent spread core surgical rotations over the first 3 years to optimize general surgical exposure and most of the programs have eliminated specific rotations, as they were not considered valuable to the goals of training. Factors considered most important by PDs in curricular development include building on existing institutional opportunities (96%), avoiding rotations considered unsuccessful by "experienced" programs (92%), and maintaining a good working relationship with general surgery (77%). Fifty-eight percent of

  17. Arktisk Reform i Ukraines Skygge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål.......USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål....

  18. Florence Nightingale and healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudzma, Elizabeth Connelly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the work of Florence Nightingale in light of her collaboration with William Farr, the eminent medical statistician. Nightingale's epidemiological investigations supported by Farr illustrated that attention to environmental cleanliness was an important factor in preventing spread of disease. Nightingale channeled her investigations to support hospital reforms and the need for an educated nurse who could provide better management of the hospital environment. Statistical support and solicited criticism allowed Nightingale to argue more forcefully for her reforms.

  19. The Economic Effects of Comprehensive Tax Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study analyzes the major economic effects of several tax reform plans and finds that much uncertainty surrounds the likelihood and magnitude of the economic gains from tax reform...

  20. TAX-REFORM - DREAMING ABOUT TOUGH REALITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKAM, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses four papers concerned with tax reform. It is concluded that tax reform has had a rather limited impact on behaviour so far but that governments should press ahead with gradual improvement and not expect dramatic results.

  1. INSTITUTIONAL THEORY OF ECONOMIC REFORMS: BASIC IMPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeevich SUKHAREV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of institutional economic theory to explain various kinds of economic reforms (changes on the basis of theoretical ideas about the dysfunction of institutions and systems are investigated. A number of classifications of reforms and dysfunctions is introduced and kinds of institutional efficiency of economic systems are defined. Qualitative regularities of various reforms of the twentieth century in different countries are generalized. A number of criteria of effective institutional reforms, capable to lower the depth and the scale of dysfunctions of the functioning economic subsystems is formed. System approach to the analysis of economic systems reforming with underlining the importance of reform “management” factor which defines productivity of economic development is elaborated. Life cycle of institution and economic system in the process of its reforming is presented and correction of J. Hellmann’s model, describing the reforming logic of economy is made.

  2. On being African and Reformed? Towards an African Reformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, the notions of being African and Reformed are interrogated. The research notes that these notions are rarely used in the same vein. It is admitted that notions tend to pick up different meanings as they evolve, so these notions are especially seen in that light. The theological hegemony, which in the South African ...

  3. Political Parties, Clientelism, and Bureaucratic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cesi; Keefer, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of public administration reform is well-known: politicians often have little interest in the efficient implementation of government policy. Using new data from 439 World Bank public sector reform loans in 109 countries, we demonstrate that such reforms are significantly less likely to succeed in the presence of non-programmatic political parties. Earlier research uses evidence from a small group of countries to conclude that clientelistic politicians resist reforms that restrict...

  4. Perspectives in medical education 9. Revisiting the blueprint for reform of medical education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Harsha; Rao, Kanchan H

    2010-01-01

    Reform of medical education at Keio University has been underway since 2003. We measure the progress made since then in five specific categories that span fifteen recommendations presented in our "Blueprint for Reform" at the outset of the effort. These are effectiveness of leadership, curriculum reform, recognition of teaching, clinical competence, and comprehensive training in general internal medicine (GIM). First, effective leadership is being sustained through a succession of Deans, although a potentially crippling loss of leadership in the Department of Medical Education must be offset through timely appointment. Second, curriculum reform is awaiting the implementation in 2012 of an integrated, organ system-based curriculum with an emphasis on ward clerkships, but the introduction of PBL has been delayed indefinitely. Third, teaching is being recognized through the use of student feedback to reward good teachers and through funds for six full-time equivalent salaries dedicated to medical education, but promotions still depend exclusively on research, without consideration of teaching ability. Fourth, clinical skills training is still lacking, although enthusiasm for it seems to be building, thanks to the presence on the wards of a (still miniscule) cadre of dedicated teachers. Finally, exposure to GIM remains non-existent; however, visionary leadership in a newly-independent Emergency Department and the wide variety of medical problems seen there provide a remarkable opportunity to craft a uniquely Japanese solution to the problem. The changes implemented to date are impressive, and we remain enthusiastic about the future, even as we recognize the magnitude of the task that lies ahead.

  5. Image of Applied university English teaching curriculum design under the influence of internet plus smart phones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan; Wang

    2015-01-01

    With the high speed development of modern information technology and the popularity of smart phones among college students, internet plus smart phones have become the main means of communication between youngsters.Those simple and handy features make them easily rank top one of today’s college students’ standard necessities.Internet plus smart phones have occupied most of college students’ time confetti; In light of the popularity, we can’t deny the fact that this trend also provides a new option for the college English curriculum design reformation.This article will discuss how to reform the college English course in the current internet and smart phones environment, and strength the application of language curriculum design as the preliminary program.

  6. Designing a Mathematics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peng Yee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A decade of PMRI saw the changes in the classroom in some of the primary schools in Indonesia. Based on observation, we can say that though the mathematics syllabus in Indonesia did not change, its curriculum has changed under the movement of PMRI. In this article, we put in writing some of the experience gained through the involvement in designing curricula since 1971. Hopefully, some of the observations made may be of use to the colleagues in Indonesia. The discussion below will cover some deciding factors in designing a curriculum, some practices, and the latest trends. For convenience, we keep the discussion general, and do not refer to a specific syllabus. Also, in many cases, we refer mainly to secondary schools, that is, Grade 7 to Grade 10.

  7. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  8. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  9. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriations, direct payment of a Credit Risk Premium by the Applicant or a non-Federal infrastructure partner... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act...

  10. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  11. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  12. Agrarian Reform and Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Margaret R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the plight of the world's poor, which was discussed at The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in July, 1979. Urban bias is attributed to the failure of rural development. More participation of rural people is needed. Progress is being made. Examples of literary programs in Iraq and the Sudan are included.…

  13. Free-Market School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1997-01-01

    In Uxbridge, Massachusetts, a small working-class mill town, free-market reform rhetoric has become reality. The tiny district has adopted controversial changes, such as giving vouchers to parents of Title I students, reimbursing home-schooling parents, lengthening the school day and year, adopting flexible scheduling, allowing credit for Internet…

  14. Law Reform and Child Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Cormacain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Editorial Ronan Cormacain (Editor-in-Chief, ISLRev, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies welcomes you to the third issue of the IALS Student Law Review. He explains the background to this special edition focusing on Law Reform and Child Protection and introduces the articles featured in this issue of the journal.

  15. Education Reform: A Managerial Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; Conley, Sharon C.

    1986-01-01

    Education reform has wrongly focused on teacher motivation and rewards, when the organizational system itself is at fault. Research shows that effective school management hinges on increased individual discretion and decision-making opportunities for teachers and less controlling behavior by administrators. Ten characteristics of effective…

  16. EIA: Educational Reform or Repression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Dianne S.

    A recent study (Cook, 1989) involving 58 randomly selected South Carolina elementary schools indicated that none of these schools could be characterized as having an "open climate." This paper suggests that this situation may have its origins in the educational reform movement of the 1980s, first ignited by the publication of "A…

  17. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  18. Reforming the Russian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, Mayra Rodriguez

    1999-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview; Russian energy markets; Evolution of the power sector; The electricity market; Regulation and proposed reforms; Politics in the power sector; Economics of the power sector; Regional differences; Foreign involvement; Valuation and company management; Conclusions. (Author)

  19. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  20. Reforming technology for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    Methane forming reactions using either steam or CO 2 have been known to industry for a long time. These endothermic reactions require the investment of a relatively large amount of energy. German researchers, in the 1970's, conceived and developed the idea to use this reaction and the reverse methanation reaction in a closed loop for the transportation and distribution of nuclear heat. The idea was also adopted for use with solar energy as a heat source. Utilizing solar energy as the heat source, the Weismann Institute of Science has fabricated, installed and operated a complete loop capable of the conversion and transportation of over 400 kW of heat. This system can be operated with a wide range of CO 2 /H 2 O/CH 4 feed mixtures. Steam reforming is the common reforming reaction in the ''open loop'' mode for the purpose of synthesis gas production. This is accomplished with a large excess of steam on a nickel catalyst. However, it has only recently been recognized that there is also a substantial market for CO 2 reforming. The CO 2 /CH 4 mixture in various proportions exists in many places and has, so far, not been used efficiently. The sources for this mixture are biogas produced in anaerobic digestion processes and gas resources such as the NATUNA gas field in Indonesia, and many others. Therefore, the system of CO 2 /CH 4 deserves more attention. Commercial catalysts used for steam reforming based on nickel are not suitable for this system. Therefore, other catalysts based on Rhodium and Ruthenium have been developed and some performance data is presented in this paper. Also presented is a conceptual schematic layout of a CO 2 reforming plant and matching methanator. A computer code for a detailed design of the entire loop in a commercial size system has been prepared where optimized operational conditions as well as equipment parameters can be determined. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Deriving DICOM surgical extensions from surgical workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, O.; Neumuth, T.; Gessat, M.; Jacobs, S.; Lemke, H. U.

    2007-03-01

    The generation, storage, transfer, and representation of image data in radiology are standardized by DICOM. To cover the needs of image guided surgery or computer assisted surgery in general one needs to handle patient information besides image data. A large number of objects must be defined in DICOM to address the needs of surgery. We propose an analysis process based on Surgical Workflows that helps to identify these objects together with use cases and requirements motivating for their specification. As the first result we confirmed the need for the specification of representation and transfer of geometric models. The analysis of Surgical Workflows has shown that geometric models are widely used to represent planned procedure steps, surgical tools, anatomical structures, or prosthesis in the context of surgical planning, image guided surgery, augmented reality, and simulation. By now, the models are stored and transferred in several file formats bare of contextual information. The standardization of data types including contextual information and specifications for handling of geometric models allows a broader usage of such models. This paper explains the specification process leading to Geometry Mesh Service Object Pair classes. This process can be a template for the definition of further DICOM classes.

  2. The Problem with Reform from the Bottom up: Instructional practises and teacher beliefs of graduate teaching assistants following a reform-minded university teacher certificate programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Tracie M.; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2010-05-01

    Reform-minded practices are widely encouraged during pre-service science teacher education in concert with national reform documents. This contrasts to the nature of instruction within university science laboratories in which pre-service teachers enrol, which are largely confirmatory in nature. Undergraduate science laboratories are taught predominantly by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) with minimal teacher preparation. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate the instructional practices and teacher beliefs of eight GTAs at a university with very high research activity who completed a reform-minded Teacher Certificate Programme, asking: What are their beliefs about teaching? How are their practices described? Do their beliefs and practices differ from one another? Do their teaching beliefs correspond with their practices? Findings indicate that GTAs held moderately reform-minded "transitional" beliefs of teaching following the programme, yet displayed fairly traditional instruction. Cross-case findings highlight similar patterns across subscales of the RTOP that draw attention to underlying constraints of the laboratory curriculum structure. We suggest that GTA professional development is best undertaken concurrent with laboratory course revision.

  3. Recognizing surgical patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year over 1700 patients die from preventable surgical errors. Numerous initiatives to improve surgical practice have had some impact, but problems persist. Despite the introduction of checklists and protocols, patient safety in surgery remains a continuing challenge. This is

  4. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  5. The cutting-edge training modalities and educational platforms for accredited surgical training: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Antonello; Guraya, Salman Y

    2017-01-01

    Historically, operating room (OR) has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training. However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. This research aimed to explore the value of currently available modern surgical tools that can be used outside the OR and also elaborates the existing laparoscopic surgical training programs in world-class centers across the globe with a view to formulate a blended and unified structured surgical training program. Several data sources were searched using MeSH terms "Laparoscopic surgery" and "Surgical training" and "Surgical curriculum" and "fundamentals of endoscopic surgery" and "fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery" and "Telementoring" and "Box trainer." The eligibility criteria used in data extraction searched for original and review articles and by excluding the editorial articles, short communications, conference proceedings, personal view, and commentaries. Data synthesis and data analysis were done by reviewing the initially retrieved 211 articles. Irrelevant and duplicate and redundant articles were excluded from the study. Finally, 12 articles were selected for this systematic review. Data results showed that a myriad of cutting-edge technical innovations have provided modern surgical training tools such as the simulation-based mechanical and virtual reality simulators, animal and cadaveric labs, telementoring, telerobotic-assisted surgery, and video games. Surgical simulators allow the trainees to acquire surgical skills in a tension-free environment without supervision or time constraints. The existing world-renowned surgical training centers employ various clusters of training

  6. Effects of comprehensive educational reforms on academic success in a diverse student body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Steven A; Ainsworth, Michael A; Asimakis, Gregory K; Thomas, Lauree; Cain, Lisa D; Mancuso, Melodee G; Rabek, Jeffrey P; Zhang, Ni; Frye, Ann W

    2010-12-01

    Calls for medical curriculum reform and increased student diversity in the USA have seen mixed success: performance outcomes following curriculum revisions have been inconsistent and national matriculation of under-represented minority (URM) students has not met aspirations. Published innovations in curricula, academic support and pipeline programmes usually describe isolated interventions that fail to affect curriculum-level outcomes. United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 performance and graduation rates were analysed for three classes of medical students before (matriculated 1995-1997, n=517) and after (matriculated 2003-2005, n=597) implementing broad-based reforms in our education system. The changes in pipeline recruitment and preparation programmes, instructional methods, assessment systems, academic support and board preparation were based on sound educational principles and best practices. Post-reform classes were diverse with respect to ethnicity (25.8% URM students), gender (51.8% female), and Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) score (range 20-40; 24.1% scored ≤ 25). Mean±standard deviation MCAT scores were minimally changed (from 27.2±4.7 to 27.8±3.6). The Step 1 failure rate decreased by 69.3% and mean score increased by 14.0 points (effect size: d=0.67) overall. Improvements were greater among women (failure rate decreased by 78.9%, mean score increased by 15.6 points; d=0.76) and URM students (failure rate decreased by 76.5%, mean score increased by 14.6 points; d=0.74), especially African-American students (failure rate decreased by 93.6%, mean score increased by 20.8 points; d=1.12). Step 1 scores increased across the entire MCAT range. Four- and 5-year graduation rates increased by 7.1% and 5.8%, respectively. The effect sizes in these performance improvements surpassed those previously reported for isolated interventions in curriculum and student support. This success is likely to have resulted from the broad

  7. Educational Reform and Educational Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Author argues that education has increasingly become dominated by economic interest that can lead not to enhancing equality but to its opposite. Important ideological shifts are occurring in what education is for and in the content and control of curriculum, with an increased emphasis on making education an economic product. Author predicts a…

  8. The GenDev Curriculum Development Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'cunha, J

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the second Curriculum Development Workshop held in May 1997 at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Bangkok, Thailand. The workshop aimed to review critically and restructure the Gender and Development Studies (GenDev) curriculum and to assess AIT's role in training gender experts for the region. Participants included 22 people from 16 countries in Asia, Europe, and the US who were teaching graduate students about gender issues and who were activists with nongovernmental organizations working on gender issues. It was determined that the following were required courses: Culture, Knowledge and Gender Relations; Gender, Technology, and Development; Principles of Gender Research and Methodology in Science and Technology; and Gender Analysis and Field Methods. Other suggested core courses included: Gender and Natural Resource Management; Enterprise Management, Technology, and Gender; Gender and Agrarian Reform; Urbanization: A Gender Perspective; Gender-Responsive Development Planning; and Gender and Economic Change: Past and Present Concerns. Participants distinguished between GenDev courses offered to anyone attending AIT and training courses designed to produce gender experts in the region. The aim of training courses for AIT graduate students was to sensitize potential managers, technologists, and others on gender issues and to create awareness of the importance of including gender perspectives within decision-making, policy formation, and implementation. Training courses to produce gender experts should be directed to those with a prior background in gender studies and include gender analysis in field methods. Participants agreed that there should be an independent and autonomous field of gender and development studies. Participants made six recommendations for such a field of study.

  9. Reforming the reform: the Greek National Health System in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Karnaki, Panagiota; Pavi, Elpida

    2002-10-01

    The National Health System (ESY) in Greece, which was established in 1983, is in a state of continuous crisis. This situation is caused mainly by the system's problematic administration, low productivity and inadequate Primary Health Care. These have led the re-elected PASOK government to introduce by the end of 2000 a radical reform of the health system. The 200 reform measures announced by the new Minister of Health and Welfare include changes aiming at: the decentralization of the ESY, the creation of a unified financing system for the social insurance funds, a new management structure in public hospitals, the organization of a Primary Health System in urban areas, and the strengthening of Public Health and Health Promotion. These changes are presented and discussed in this paper.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: The development of a curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach to environmental education and curriculum innovation. ... transition from an external and rational strategy of curriculum ... 'scientific' approaches to curriculum development .... 'get the conservation message across' so as to foster.

  11. Engendering Curriculum History. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Petra

    2011-01-01

    How can curriculum history be re-envisioned from a feminist, poststructuralist perspective? "Engendering Curriculum History" disrupts dominant notions of history as linear, as inevitable progress, and as embedded in the individual. This conversation requires a history that seeks "rememberance" not representation, "reflexivity" not linearity, and…

  12. Whatever Happened to Curriculum Theory? Critical Realism and Curriculum Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In the face of what has been characterised by some as a "crisis" in curriculum--an apparent decline of some aspects of curriculum studies combined with the emergence of new types of national curricula which downgrade knowledge--some writers have been arguing for the use of realist theory to address these issues. This article offers a…

  13. Curriculum Online Review System: Proposing Curriculum with Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinehart, Marilyn; Barlow, Rhonda; Shafer, Stu; Hassur, Debby

    2009-01-01

    The Curriculum Online Review System (CORS) at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) uses SharePoint as a Web platform for the JCCC Curriculum Proposals Process. The CORS application manages proposals throughout the approval process using collaboration tools and workflows to notify all stakeholders. This innovative new program has changed the way…

  14. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  15. Sustainability Infused Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong established a sustainability policy in 2015, which explicitly states, "an experimentally integrated, environmentally and ethically sustainable system of science education and conservation practices based on the 2012 Jeju Declaration of the World Conservation Congress will be implemented through the school". ISF Academy is a private Chinese bilingual school in Hong Kong serving over 1500 students K-12, following the framework and curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). The strategy behind the implementation of this policy includes: development of a scientific sustainable curriculum that is age appropriate; establish a culture of sustainability within the ISF community and beyond to the wider HK community; install sustainable infrastructure that allows students to learn; and learn first hand sustainable living practices. It is well understood that solutions to the environmental challenges facing Hong Kong and our planet will require multiple disciplines. The current sustainability programs at ISF include: a) a whole school aerobic food waste composting system and organic farming, b) energy consumption monitoring of existing buildings, c) upcoming installation of an air pollution monitoring equipment that will correlate with the AQHI data collected by the Hong Kong government, d) a Renewable Energy Education Center (REEC) that will teach students about RE and also produce solar energy for classroom consumption, and e) student lead environmental group that manages the paper and used cooking oil recycling on campus. The Shuyuan Science and Sustainability faculty work closely with classroom teachers to ensure that the above mentioned projects are incorporated into the curriculum throughout the school. Interdisciplinary units (IDU) of study are being developed that encourage faculty and students to work across subject areas. Projects include Personal Projects, Extended Essays

  16. Integrated Curriculum and Subject-based Curriculum: Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casady, Victoria

    The research conducted for this mixed-method study, qualitative and quantitative, analyzed the results of an academic year-long study to determine whether the use of an integrated fourth grade curriculum would benefit student achievement in the areas of English language arts, social studies, and science more than a subject-based traditional curriculum. The research was conducted based on the international, national, and state test scores, which show a slowing or lack of growth. Through pre- and post-assessments, student questionnaires, and administrative interviews, the researcher analyzed the phenomenological experiences of the students to determine if the integrated curriculum was a beneficial restructuring of the curriculum. The research questions for this study focused on the achievement and attitudes of the students in the study and whether the curriculum they were taught impacted their achievement and attitudes over the course of one school year. The curricula for the study were organized to cover the current standards, where the integrated curriculum focused on connections between subject areas to help students make connections to what they are learning and the world beyond the classroom. The findings of this study indicated that utilizing the integrated curriculum could increase achievement as well as students' attitudes toward specific content areas. The ANOVA analysis for English language arts was not determined to be significant; although, greater growth in the students from the integrated curriculum setting was recorded. The ANOVA for social studies (0.05) and the paired t-tests (0.001) for science both determined significant positive differences. The qualitative analysis led to the discovery that the experiences of the students from the integrated curriculum setting were more positive. The evaluation of the data from this study led the researcher to determine that the integrated curriculum was a worthwhile endeavor to increase achievement and attitudes

  17. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  18. The hidden curriculum in undergraduate medical education: qualitative study of medical students' perceptions of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Heidi; Seale, Clive

    2004-10-02

    To study medical students' views about the quality of the teaching they receive during their undergraduate training, especially in terms of the hidden curriculum. Semistructured interviews with individual students. One medical school in the United Kingdom. 36 undergraduate medical students, across all stages of their training, selected by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity, with the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Medical students' experiences and perceptions of the quality of teaching received during their undergraduate training. Students reported many examples of positive role models and effective, approachable teachers, with valued characteristics perceived according to traditional gendered stereotypes. They also described a hierarchical and competitive atmosphere in the medical school, in which haphazard instruction and teaching by humiliation occur, especially during the clinical training years. Following on from the recent reforms of the manifest curriculum, the hidden curriculum now needs attention to produce the necessary fundamental changes in the culture of undergraduate medical education.

  19. Determining and prioritizing competencies in the undergraduate internal medicine curriculum in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoallim, H

    2011-08-01

    To determine knowledge and skills competencies in internal medicine for the undergraduate curriculum in Saudi Arabia, competencies were identified based on group work utilizing common textbooks. The Delphi Technique was used as a consensus method to determine and prioritize competencies in internal medicine. A group of 20 clinicians rated the identified competencies from 0-3 (0: no need to know, 1: interesting to know, 2: should know and 3: must know). After formulating the results, a second Delphi round was conducted with 5 experts in internal medicine. A total of 1513 knowledge competencies and 189 skills competencies were determined and prioritized. The competencies corresponded to the 12 systems in internal medicine. All competencies rated 2.2-3.0 were produced separately and considered core competencies for the undergraduate internal medicine curriculum. Determining and prioritizing competencies should influence the curriculum reform process.

  20. Advanced Texas Studies: Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.

    The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating curriculum concepts in Texas studies to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and audio-visual and resource materials. Career information is included on 24 related occupations. Space is provided for teachers' notes which…

  1. Rethinking the Tertiary Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Reid, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics curriculum at the tertiary level is located within a range of social and cultural theories, and is often constructed by academics seeking to promulgate a particular view of mathematics. We argue that such a curriculum should incorporate a real acknowledgement of the different ways in which students understand the nature of mathematics…

  2. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  3. Guidelines for Curriculum Development. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, K.; And Others

    The curriculum development process explained in this booklet was first implemented at College of the Redwoods in May 1986 and then revised in June 1989. First, information on the college's Curriculum Committee is provided, indicating that the committee was formed to plan credit/non-credit courses; evaluate and approve additions, modifications, or…

  4. Models for Instruction and Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth L.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes three models of course-specific curricula and a content-curriculum model for undergraduate public-relations education, and proposes core and elective areas for a master's of public-relations curriculum. Agrees that public-relations curricula should have a broad liberal arts and science basis, and recommended more attention to ethics,…

  5. Curriculum theory in physical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Ann E.

    1989-03-01

    Primary current concerns of curriculum theorists in sport and physical education relate to clarification of value orientations underlying curricular decision-making, selection and statement of curriculum goals, identification and organization of programme content, and the process of curriculum change. Disciplinary mastery is the most traditional value orientation and that which is most frequently found in practice. Curriculum theorists have identified four other value orientations for study: social reconstruction, self-actualization, learning process, and ecological validity. Health-related fitness and the development of motor skills have long been the primary goals of physical education. In recent years, however, curriculum specialists have begun to assign higher priorities to goals of personal integration and challenge, of social development and multicultural understanding. There is general agreement that human movement activities constitute the subject-matter of the sport and physical education curriculum. Differences exist, however, as to how learning activities should be selected for particular programmes. The current trend in seeking better understanding of content is toward studying the operational curriculum with particular attention to the historical and social contexts. An important contemporary focus is the need to translate short-term results into lifestyle changes. The curriculum in sports and physical education should be viewed as a multitude of possibilities.

  6. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  7. Customizing Curriculum with Digital Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    To effectively use digital resources in the classroom, teachers must customize the information, merge it with pre-existing curriculum, differentiate it for diverse student populations, and still meet standards-based learning goals. This article describes a solution to these challenges: the Curriculum Customization Service, which provides access to…

  8. Curriculum Change Management and Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Aishah

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which Saudi teachers have responded or are responding to the challenges posed by a new curriculum. It also deals with issues relating to workload demands which affect teachers' performance when they apply a new curriculum in a Saudi Arabian secondary school. In addition, problems such as scheduling and sharing space…

  9. The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne

    This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…

  10. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  11. The Consequences of Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenthal, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the effects of tax reforms for an economy in a welfare state. I do this by a macroeconomic model, which includes not only households, firms and a government but also a monopoly labour union. The households are of two types, workers and entrepreneurs. The workers are employed by the firms, which are owned by the entrepreneurs. This paper shows that decreasing labour taxation and increasing consumption taxation would have a number of positive effects. These include incr...

  12. The california electricity reform debacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccard, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, California launched a dramatic reform of its electricity sector, vertically de-integrating its major utilities and establishing a competitive generation market, with separate entities responsible for grid control and power exchange. After two uneventful years, wholesale prices rose dramatically in the summer of 2000 and have remained high into 2001. An imbalance between the high wholesale prices and frozen retail rates caused a financial crisis for the electric utilities and power shortages have been a chronic threat. Several factors contributed to this crisis: capacity has not expanded in step with demand either in California or its larger trading region; extreme weather and poorly timed plant outages further increased demand and decreased supply; market design flaws allowed significant suppliers to influence the market while frozen retail rates limited the demand response that would have mitigated the supply-demand imbalance. State and federal agencies have taken corrective action but the situation may remain critical for some time. Longer term solutions involve recognizing the special characteristics of electricity in designing marking reform. Because electricity supply and demand must be instantaneously balanced at all times, market reform must ensure that someone has the responsibility and effective tools to ensure that this occurs, in spite of unforeseen circumstances, and to prevent the exercise of market power. Because a competitive commodity market must work in concert with a monopoly delivery system, someone must be responsible and have the means to develop and operate the grid in ways that are amenable to effective competition. Finally, reform design must ensure that the cyclical investment and price patterns of normal commodity markets are minimized in the electricity market and that when they do occur, market volatility does not compromise reliability and price stability for those who value these highly and would pay a premium for them

  13. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  14. The teacher and the curriculum;

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priestley, M.; Biesta, G.; Philippou, Stavroula

    2015-01-01

    A key debate in the curriculum field has centred on the extent to which teachers should or could achieve agency over the curriculum they enact. Risks to teacher agency have come from top-down control of curricula, either through input regulation (prescription of content, methods and/or teaching m...... with a discussion of why it is important to understand and take into account teacher agency, when formulating and developing curriculum policy.......A key debate in the curriculum field has centred on the extent to which teachers should or could achieve agency over the curriculum they enact. Risks to teacher agency have come from top-down control of curricula, either through input regulation (prescription of content, methods and/or teaching...

  15. Nucleonics across the curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrano, Rich

    2005-01-01

    Many within the ''nuclear'' community are interested in attracting young people to careers in nuclear related fields while they are at the age when they are considering career choices. High school is a good to introduce students to ideas that may lead them to investigate careers in nuclear science. However, they may not even be exposed to those ideas for various reasons. For example, many teachers may not see the connection between nuclear issues and other areas of instruction. In addition, most teachers already have a full curriculum, and adding another topic is unlikely. As a result many students will not see some of the practical applications of nuclear science in other fields of study unless they take a class where nuclear science is a specified topic of study. A good alternative is to incorporate nuclear examples across the curriculum to illustrate concepts already included in other classes. This would be a simple step that teachers may find interesting and would expose a variety of students to nuclear issues. (author)

  16. The perception of the hidden curriculum on medical education: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Manabu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major curriculum reform of undergraduate medical education occurred during the past decades in the United Kingdom (UK; however, the effects of the hidden curriculum, which influence the choice of primary care as a career, have not been sufficiently recognized. While Japan, where traditionally few institutions systematically foster primary care physicians and very few have truly embraced family medicine as their guiding discipline, has also experienced meaningful curriculum reform, the effect of the hidden curriculum is not well known. The aim of this study is to identify themes pertaining to the students' perceptions of the hidden curriculum affecting undergraduate medical education in bedside learning in Japan. Methods Semi-structured interviews with thematic content analysis were implemented. Undergraduate year-5 students from a Japanese medical school at a Japanese teaching hospital were recruited. Interview were planned to last between 30 to 60 minutes each, over an 8-month period in 2007. The interviewees' perceptions concerning the quality of teaching in their bedside learning and related experiences were collected and analysed thematically. Results Twenty five medical students (18 males and 7 females, mean age 25 years old consented to participate in the interviews, and seven main themes emerged: "the perception of education as having a low priority," "the prevalence of positive/negative role models," "the persistence of hierarchy and exclusivity," "the existence of gender issues," "an overburdened medical knowledge," "human relationships with colleagues and medical team members," and "first experience from the practical wards and their patients." Conclusions Both similarities and differences were found when comparing the results to those of previous studies in the UK. Some effects of the hidden curriculum in medical education likely exist in common between the UK and Japan, despite the differences in their demographic

  17. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decrease the inflammatory response Vasodilatation leads to better perfusion and ... Must NOT be allowed to come in contact with brain, meninges, eyes or .... project (SCIP): Evolution of National Quality Measure. Surgical. Infection 2008 ...

  18. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  19. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  20. Surgical Management of Hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are common human afflictions known since the dawn of history. Surgical management of this condition has made tremendous progress from complex ligation and excision procedures in the past to simpler techniques that allow the patient to return to normal life within a short period. Newer techniques try to improve on the post-operative complications of older ones. The surgical options for the management of hemorrhoids today are many. Capturing all in a single article may be difficult if not impossible. The aim of this study therefore is to present in a concise form some of the common surgical options in current literature, highlighting some important post operative complications. Current literature is searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. The conclusion is that even though there are many surgical options in the management of hemorrhoids today, most employ the ligature and excision technique with newer ones having reduced post operative pain and bleeding. PMID:22413048

  1. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has ... deep tissue is found on clinical examination, re-opening, histopathological or radiological investigation ..... Esposito S, Immune system and SSI, Journal of Chemotherapy, 2001.

  2. Surgical management of pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If these therapies fail, and with a thorough multidisciplinary approach involving carefully ... Generally, surgical pain management is divided into neuro- modulative .... 9 suggested. It is important to be sure that the underlying instability or.

  3. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  4. Teaching medicine and allied disciplines in the 21st century--lessons from Ireland on the continuing need for reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies the imperatives behind the need to move away from teaching based on the transmission of a lot of facts to teaching that enables students to become lifelong learners. It reminds us that the over-riding goal is an education process that maximizes the ability of teachers to teach well and of students to learn effectively. It argues that the necessary reform process can only be successful if the three components of an education programme--the curriculum, teaching strategies and assessment--are reformed simultaneously to ensure that each is designed to produce more effective teaching and learning. It points to the literature that tells us what we know about factors affecting student behaviour and, in particular, notes the crucial factor of student perception of the requirement of the assessment regime. It recommends that Biggs' model of constructive alignment is used as the organizing principle of continuing reform

  5. Mathematics training for the teaching of basic knowledge in times of teaching school reform of Parana (Year 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara da Silva França

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article discusses the mathematical training of primary teachers in Paraná and aims to understand how elementary mathematical knowledge was included in the reform carried out by Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa, in the 1920’s and directed by Prieto Martinez for the modernization of the state’s primary education. Supported by theoretical and methodological framework of cultural history, this study is guided by the question: Considering the Reform of teaching school and thinking about the mathematics education of Paraná teachers, what has changed, why has it changed and what for? With the reform subjects more focused on practical teaching in primary school were introduced, and that favored the renewal of teaching methods and teaching resources, curriculum reorganization which reflected in the quality of Math education of future teachers in the state’s primary education. Keywords: Mathematics Teaching. Primary Education Teacher. History of Education.

  6. Founders' Weekend. North Country Workshop on Science, Technology and the Undergraduate Curriculum. Proceedings (Potsdam, New York, November 9-10, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Potsdam. Coll. at Potsdam.

    Proceedings of the North Country Workshop on Science, Technology, and the Undergraduate Curriculum are presented. The Sloan Foundation's call for reform of the liberal arts and coverage of mathematics, science, and technology is noted in welcoming remarks by State University of New York, Potsdam, President Humphrey Tonkin. Stephen H. Cutcliffe…

  7. The Rise and Fall of the Social Science Curriculum Project in Iceland, 1974-1984: Reflections on Reason and Power in Educational Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Wolfgang

    1987-01-01

    Examines the demise of the Icelandic Social Science Curriculum Project (SSCP) as an example of progressive educational reform thwarted by neofundamentalist ideologies. States that the paper goes beyond Jerome Bruner's 1984 account of the rise and fall of "Man: A Course of Study" to provide a deeper analysis of the politics of…

  8. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  9. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, J.; Yoshino, Y.; Kuwabara, T.; Fujisima, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Maruko, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  10. High temperature ceramic-tubed reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Rosenberg, Robert A.; McDonough, Lane J.

    1990-03-01

    The overall objective of the HiPHES project is to develop an advanced high-pressure heat exchanger for a convective steam/methane reformer. The HiPHES steam/methane reformer is a convective, shell and tube type, catalytic reactor. The use of ceramic tubes will allow reaction temperature higher than the current state-of-the-art outlet temperatures of about 1600 F using metal tubes. Higher reaction temperatures increase feedstock conversion to synthesis gas and reduce energy requirements compared to currently available radiant-box type reformers using metal tubes. Reforming of natural gas is the principal method used to produce synthesis gas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, H2 and CO) which is used to produce hydrogen (for refinery upgrading), methanol, as well as several other important materials. The HiPHES reformer development is an extension of Stone and Webster's efforts to develop a metal-tubed convective reformer integrated with a gas turbine cycle.

  11. 面向新高中課程改革:學校政策制定者的觀點和決定The New Senior Secondary School Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong: School Policy Makers’ Perspectives and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    陳健生(通訊作者)Jacqueline Kin-Sang Chan; 林智中Chi-Chung Lam

    2012-01-01

    自2009年開始,香港高中課程進行大規模的改革,所有適齡的中學生,須接受六年免費的中學教育,在初中至高中期間,無需經歷任何公開考試,直至完成中六,才接受一次中學文憑考試,以作為升學或就業的依據。在這改革背景之下,香港的高中課程和教學須面對有史以來最重要的改革和挑戰。在課程路向方面,新高中課程從以往的菁英主義走向普及主義;在教學路向方面,它須走向多元化的教學方向,才能處理新高中課程會出現的學生個別差異的問題。面對這種種的挑戰,究竟學校政策制定者對新高中課程所持的觀點,與官方課程是否相同,抑或有異?在他們工作的學校環境中,建構新課程時又有何決定?本研究以香港新高中課程改革為背景,以實徵研究為本,探討香港中學的政策制定者對新高中課程的觀點和決定,問題有三:一、香港的學校政策制定者對新高中課程持哪些觀點?二、學校政策制定者在學校課程的建構方面有何決定?三、哪些因素影響學校政策制定者的決定?Since 2009, the senior secondary school curriculum in Hong Kong has undergone a large scale of change...

  12. Post surgical complications from students' large animal surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of post surgical complications was conducted on records of students' Large Animal Surgical Laboratories in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (F.V.M.), Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U), Zaria from 1989 to 1993. Three hundred and eleven surgical complications were recorded from five surgical ...

  13. A structured self-directed basic skills curriculum results in improved technical performance in the absence of expert faculty teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew S; McKenzie, Jill; Tsigonis, Abraham; Jensen, Aaron R; Figueredo, Edgar J; Kim, Sara; Horvath, Karen

    2012-06-01

    We developed a novel curriculum teaching 20 open surgical skills in 5 general domains (instrument handling, knot tying, simple wound closure, advanced wound closure, and hemostasis). The curriculum includes online didactics, skills practice, and defined performance metrics, but is entirely self-guided with no expert oversight or teaching. Subjects included first- and second-year medical students (n = 9). Subjects first viewed a demonstration video depicting proper technique. The pretest was video-recorded performance of each skill. Subjects then completed the self-guided skills curriculum at their own pace, returning for posttesting once they met defined self-assessment criteria. Performance was evaluated through both self-assessment and blinded video review by 2 expert reviewers using previously validated scales. After completion of the curriculum, performance improved significantly by both self-assessment (3,754 ± 1,742 to 6,496 ± 1,337; P performance was significantly better for all domains by self-assessment (P instrument handling). Completion of a self-guided basic surgical skills curriculum allows novice learners to significantly improve performance in basic open surgical skills, without traditional expert teaching. This curriculum is useful for medical students and incoming junior residents. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Considerations and ideas on teaching reform of stomatology for cultivating innovative talents of high quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-wei; Cao, Xia; Feng, Xi-ping; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Jian-zhong

    2009-10-01

    The past decade has shown increasing demands for reforming dental education that would produce a graduate better equipped to work in the rapidly changing world of the twenty-first century. With the rapid development of social economy and more and more fierce competitive environment, teaching reform on stomatology is imperative nowadays. The existing curriculum of courses, teaching method, teaching medium, and mode of training must be improved and innovated based on cultivation of innovative talents with all-round development of moral, intellectual, physical, and aesthetic education. All the teaching should be student-centered rather than teacher-centered, with the purpose of enhancing the students' research ability, English ability, and clinical skills.

  15. Review of Judicial Reforms in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Dubgyur, Lungten

    2004-01-01

    This essay highlights the anomalies of judicial reforms in Bhutan. It presents a historical perspective of Bhutanese judicial reforms and addresses recent developments. It discusses court performance and experiences and approaches adopted in making the courts efficient. Much of the reform initiatives emanate from the throne. His Majesty the King has always advocated an efficient judicial system for the Kingdom. In obedience to the Royal Commands, the judicial system and judicial process in Bh...

  16. The English and Swedish health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M

    1994-01-01

    England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts.

  17. Improving the Business Trade Licensing Reform Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gamser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This case study of Kenyan business trade licensing shows that red-tape costs can be cut if reform is championed strongly and there is a strong case in terms of costs and benefits. The reform of business registration, trade licensing and other business entry procedures is a cost effective and progressive way to promote indigenous private sector development. But, reform needs more than good cost-benefit analysis and legal drafting; it also requires building constituencies and continuous advocacy.

  18. Interest Groups and Trade Reform in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sanchez-Mier

    2005-01-01

    Mexico experienced widespread economic reform in the last two decades. From being a protectionist economy with a policy of import substitution, it has turned into an export-oriented open economy. Why was protectionism a stable policy, and how was it overturned by a reform that went against entrenched interests? I apply a game theoretic model of political influence and economic reform to answer these questions using data to calculate the payoffs for the relevant interest groups. In the underly...

  19. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  20. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.