Tisherman, Samuel A; Kaplan, Lewis; Gracias, Vicente H; Beilman, Gregory J; Toevs, Christine; Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M
Providing optimal care for critically ill and injured surgical patients will become more challenging with staff shortages for surgeons and intensivists. This white paper addresses the historical issues behind the present situation, the need for all intensivists to engage in dedicated critical care per the intensivist model, and the recognition that intensivists from all specialties can provide optimal care for the critically ill surgical patient, particularly with continuing involvement by the surgeon of record. The new acute care surgery training paradigm (including trauma, surgical critical care, and emergency general surgery) has been developed to increase interest in trauma and surgical critical care, but the number of interested trainees remains too few. Recommendations are made for broadening the multidisciplinary training and practice opportunities in surgical critical care for intensivists from all base specialties and for maintaining the intensivist model within acute care surgery practice. Support from academic and administrative leadership, as well as national organizations, will be needed.
Tsai, Thomas C; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K
The relationship between patient satisfaction and surgical quality is unclear for US hospitals. Using national data, we examined if hospitals with high patient satisfaction have lower levels of performance on accepted measures of the quality and efficiency of surgical care. Federal policymakers have made patient satisfaction a core measure for the way hospitals are evaluated and paid through the value-based purchasing program. There is broad concern that performance on patient satisfaction may have little or even a negative correlation with the quality of surgical care, leading to potential trade-offs in efforts to improve patient experience with other surgical quality measures. We used the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey data from 2010 and 2011 to assess performance on patient experience. We used national Medicare data on 6 common surgical procedures to calculate measures of surgical efficiency and quality: risk-adjusted length of stay, process score, risk-adjusted mortality rate, risk-adjusted readmission rate, and a composite z score across all 4 metrics. Multivariate models adjusting for hospital characteristics were used to assess the independent relationships between patient satisfaction and measures of surgical efficiency and quality. Of the 2953 US hospitals that perform one of these 6 procedures, the median patient satisfaction score was 69.5% (interquartile range, 63%-75.5%). Length of stay was shorter in hospitals with the highest levels of patient satisfaction (7.1 days vs 7.7 days, P patient satisfaction had the higher process of care performance (96.5 vs 95.5, P patient satisfaction also had a higher composite score for quality across all measures (P patient satisfaction provided more efficient care and were associated with higher surgical quality. Our findings suggest there need not be a trade-off between good quality of care for surgical patients and ensuring a positive patient experience.
Smith, Francis Duval
Body piercing, a type of body modification that is practiced in many cultures, creates an unnatural tract through tissue that is then held open by artificial means. Today, professional body piercing is often performed in piercing establishments that are subject to dissimilar forms of regulation. The most frequently reported medical complication of body piercing and similar body modifications, such as dermal implantation, is infection. Patients with piercings who undergo surgery may have additional risks for infection, electrical burns, trauma, or airway obstruction. The published research literature on piercing prevalence, complications, regulations, education, and nursing care is outdated. The purpose of this article is to educate nurses on topics related to nursing care for patients with piercings and similar body modifications, including the history, prevalence, motivations for, and perceptions of body piercings as well as possible complications, devices used, locations, healing times, regulations, patient education, and other health concerns. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Critical care admission of South African (SA) surgical patients: Results of the SA Surgical Outcomes Study. D.L. Skinner, K de Vasconcellos, R Wise, T.M. Esterhuizen, C Fourie, A Goolam Mahomed, P.D. Gopalan, I Joubert, H Kluyts, L.R. Mathivha, B Mrara, J.P. Pretorius, G Richards, O Smith, M.G.L. Spruyt, R.M. Pearse, ...
David Lee Skinner
Full Text Available Background. Appropriate critical care admissions are an important component of surgical care. However, there are few data describing postoperative critical care admission in resource-limited low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To describe the demographics, organ failures, organ support and outcomes of non-cardiac surgical patients admitted to critical care units in South Africa (SA. Methods. The SA Surgical Outcomes Study (SASOS was a 7-day national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of all patients ≥16 years of age undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery between 19 and 26 May 2014 at 50 government-funded hospitals. All patients admitted to critical care units during this study were included for analysis. Results. Of the 3 927 SASOS patients, 255 (6.5% were admitted to critical care units; of these admissions, 144 (56.5% were planned, and 111 (43.5% unplanned. The incidence of confirmed or strongly suspected infection at the time of admission was 35.4%, with a significantly higher incidence in unplanned admissions (49.1 v. 24.8%, p<0.001. Unplanned admission cases were more frequently hypovolaemic, had septic shock, and required significantly more inotropic, ventilatory and renal support in the first 48 hours after admission. Overall mortality was 22.4%, with unplanned admissions having a significantly longer critical care length of stay and overall mortality (33.3 v. 13.9%, p<0.001. Conclusion. The outcome of patients admitted to public sector critical care units in SA is strongly associated with unplanned admissions. Adequate ‘high care-dependency units’ for postoperative care of elective surgical patients could potentially decrease the burden on critical care resources in SA by 23%. This study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02141867.
Despite the significant advances in the medical management of inflammatory bowel disease over the last decade, surgery continues to play a major role in the management of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). While adult and pediatric Crohn's disease may share many clinical characteristics, pediatric Crohn's patients often have a more aggressive phenotype, and the operative care given by the pediatric surgeon to the newly diagnosed Crohn's patient is very different in nature to the surgical needs of adult patients after decades of disease progression. Children also have the unique surgical indication of growth failure to consider in the overall clinical decision making. While surgery is never curative in CD, it has the ability to transform the disease process in children, and appropriately timed operations may have tremendous impact on a child's physical and mental maturation. This monograph aims to address the surgical care of Crohn's disease in general, with a specific emphasis on the surgical treatment of small intestinal and ileocecal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomsen, Thordis; Vester-Andersen, Morten; Nielsen, Martin Vedel
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elicit knowledge of patient experiences of postoperative intermediate care in an intensive care unit and standard postoperative care in a surgical ward after emergency abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is common, but little is known about how patie......, intermediate care patients felt hindered in doing so by continuous monitoring of vital signs. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Intermediate care may increase patient perceptions of quality and safety of care.......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elicit knowledge of patient experiences of postoperative intermediate care in an intensive care unit and standard postoperative care in a surgical ward after emergency abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is common, but little is known about how...... patients experience postoperative care. The patient population is generally older with multiple comorbidities, and the short-term postoperative mortality rate is 15-20%. Thus, vigilant surgeon and nursing attention is essential. The present study is a qualitative sub-study of a randomised trial evaluating...
Marshall, Amy; Kitson, Alison; Zeitz, Kathryn
To report a study of patients' views of patient-centred care. The study aimed to explore patients' understanding and conceptualization of patient-centred care and link it to existing literature on the topic. Patient-centred care currently lacks a widely accepted definition, with much of the literature based on definitions formulated by health professionals and researchers. Qualitative research study grounded in phenomenology. Interpersonal interviews were conducted with ten participants who were patients in a surgical ward in a large metropolitan hospital in South Australia in 2010. Participants were unfamiliar with the concept of patient-centred care, but despite this, were able to describe what the term meant to them and what they wanted from their care. Patients equated the type and quality of care they received with the staff that provided it and themes of connectedness, involvement and attentiveness were prevalent in their descriptions of what they wanted from their care. Ensuring that patients have a voice in the definition and conceptualization of patient-centred care is essential and further and regular consultation with patients about their needs and priorities will ensure an integrated approach to patient-centred care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kubatbek S. Urmanbetov
Full Text Available Objective: A study of accessibility of surgical care to elderly patients (aged 60 and above with valvular heart disease has been conducted at the BSCCS "Bakulev Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery» of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Methods: A retrospective analysis of structure of hospitalizations of 1726 patients, that were hospitalized between 2009 and 2010 at the BSCCS for surgical correction of valvular heart disease was performed. Results: Our study demonstrated that age, on one hand, is not the most significant barrier in the geographical accessibility of cardiac surgical care. On the other hand, it can influence the availability in general, taking into account other factors (urban / rural areas, the presence of cardiac surgical clinics, and clinical status. Provision of cardiac surgical care for patients with heart defects at the BSCCS per 1 million population varies considerably in the context of federal districts and is 0.4 for the Siberian Federal District 30 for the Central Federal District (the highest is 42 for the Moscow Region. Conclusion: Thus, our study demonstrated accessibility of surgical care for elderly patients is the highest for the urban areas with specialized cardiac surgery centers, where patients referred from rural regions
Methods. The SA Surgical Outcomes Study (SASOS) was a 7-day national, multicentre, prospective, ...... L R Math ivha, T R Mokoena, S Monokoane, R Moreno, D F Morrell, ... stone Hospital: L Friedman, D Schmidt*, S Venter; Nelson Mandela.
Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Haas, Barbara; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Amaral, Andre C; Coburn, Natalie; Nathens, Avery B
This ethnography explores communication around critically ill surgical patients in three surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in Canada. A boundary framework is used to articulate how surgeons', intensivists', and nurses' communication practices shape and are shaped by their respective disciplinary perspectives and experiences. Through 50 hours of observations and 43 interviews, these health care providers are found to engage in seven communication behaviors that either mitigate or magnify three contested symbolic boundaries: expertise, patient ownership, and decisional authority. Where these boundaries are successfully mitigated, experiences of collaborative, high-quality patient care are produced; by contrast, boundary magnification produces conflict and perceptions of unsafe patient care. Findings reveal that high quality and safe patient care are produced through complex social and cultural interactions among surgeons, intensivists, and nurses that are also expressions of knowledge and power. This enhances our understanding of why current quality improvement efforts targeting communication may be ineffective. © The Author(s) 2015.
Simianu, Vlad V.; Morris, Arden M.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Porter, Michael P.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Flum, David R.; Javid, Sara H.
Background American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients with cancer have the lowest survival rates of all racial and ethnic groups, possibly because they are less likely to receive “best practice” surgical care than patients of other races. Methods Prospective cohort study comparing adherence to generic and cancer-specific guidelines on processes of surgical care between AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients in Washington State (2010–2014). Results 156 AI/AN and 6,030 NHW patients underwent operations for 10 different cancers, and had similar mean adherence to generic surgical guidelines (91.5% vs 91.9%, p=0.57). AI/AN patients with breast cancer less frequently received preoperative diagnostic core-needle biopsy (81% versus 94%, p=0.004). AI/AN patients also less frequently received care adherent to prostate cancer-specific guidelines (74% versus 92%,p=0.001). Conclusions While AI/ANs undergoing cancer operations in Washington receive similar overall best practice surgical cancer care to NHW patients, there remain important, modifiable disparities that may contribute to their lower survival. PMID:26846176
Sebastiani, Ricardo Werner; Maia, Eulália Maria Chaves
The present article show some contributions to the Health Psychology at the chirurgical patient attention, with the interdisciplinary intervention propose, under the biopsychosocial paradigm. Show some points about the relationships above the chirurgeon, health team and patient and presents some psychological and psychopathologic answers to the patient under the trinomial illness-hospitalization-care in the period a long the diagnosis and chirurgical indication at the rehabilitation proceedings. Psicologist must conquist, by knowledge and dedication, his space in surgical teams.
Rahman, A. S.; Jamal, Q.; Riaz, M.
Objective: To observe the prevalence of recognised and unrecognised depression among in-patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, and comprised patients admitted in the Medicine and Surgical departments at the time. Patients with known history of depression or on anti-depressants or on anti-psychotics, or with suicidal attempt were excluded. The prevalence of unrecognised depression was then perceived using Patient Health Qurstionnaire-9. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20. Results: Of the 1180 patients, 432(36.6 percent) either had history of depression or on were on anti-depressants. The study sample, as such, comprised 748(65 percent), and of them 399(53 percent) were from the Medicine and 349(47 percent) patients were from Surgery department. Prevalence of recognised depression was 36.6 percent; 48 percent in Medical and 14 percent in Surgical patients. Unrecognised depression was 51.2 percent; 45.3 percent in Medical and 53.6 in Surgical patients. Overall prevalence was 87.9 percent; 93.4 percent in Medical and 53 percent in Surgical patients. Gender was not found to be significantly associated with depression in Medical (p= 0.367) and Surgical (p=0.606) patients. No depression was found in 48(12 percent) Medical patients and 131(37.5 percent) Surgical patients. Conclusion: More than one-third of in-patients had co-morbid depression diagnoses, mostly unrecognised by their clinicians. (author)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....
Gershengorn, Hayley B; Garland, Allan; Gong, Michelle N
Published studies suggest hospital costs on Day 1 in the intensive care unit (ICU) far exceed those of subsequent days, when costs are relatively stable. Yet, no study stratified patients by ICU type. To determine whether daily cost patterns differ by ICU type. We performed a retrospective study of adults admitted to five ICUs (two surgical: quaternary surgical ICU [SICU quat] and quaternary cardiac surgical ICU [CSICU quat]; two medical: tertiary medical ICU [MICU tertiary] and quaternary medical ICU [MICU quat]; one general: community medical surgical ICU [MSICU comm]) at Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, New York during 2013. After excluding costs clearly accrued outside the ICU, daily hospital costs were merged with clinical data. Patterns of daily unadjusted costs were evaluated in each ICU using median regression. Generalized estimating equations with first-order autocorrelation were used to identify factors independently associated with daily costs. Unadjusted daily costs were higher on Day 1 than on subsequent days only for surgical ICUs-SICU quat (median [interquartile range], $2,636 [$1,834-$4,282] on Day 1 vs. $1,840 [$1,501-$2,332] on Day 2; P cost from Days 1 to 2. After multivariate adjustment, there remained a significant decrease in cost from ICU Day 1 to 2 in surgical units with statistically similar Day 1 and 2 costs for other ICUs. Higher Day 1 costs are not seen in patients admitted to medical/nonsurgical ICUs.
Brown, Evans K H; Harder, Kathleen A; Apostolidou, Ioanna; Wahr, Joyce A; Shook, Douglas C; Farivar, R Saeid; Perry, Tjorvi E; Konia, Mojca R
The cardiac operating room is a complex environment requiring efficient and effective communication between multiple disciplines. The objectives of this study were to identify and rank critical time points during the perioperative care of cardiac surgical patients, and to assess variability in responses, as a correlate of a shared mental model, regarding the importance of these time points between and within disciplines. Using Delphi technique methodology, panelists from 3 institutions were tasked with developing a list of critical time points, which were subsequently assigned to pause point (PP) categories. Panelists then rated these PPs on a 100-point visual analog scale. Descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages, medians, and interquartile ranges (IQRs). We defined low response variability between panelists as an IQR ≤ 20, moderate response variability as an IQR > 20 and ≤ 40, and high response variability as an IQR > 40. Panelists identified a total of 12 PPs. The PPs identified by the highest number of panelists were (1) before surgical incision, (2) before aortic cannulation, (3) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation, (4) before CPB separation, and (5) at time of transfer of care from operating room (OR) to intensive care unit (ICU) staff. There was low variability among panelists' ratings of the PP "before surgical incision," moderate response variability for the PPs "before separation from CPB," "before transfer from OR table to bed," and "at time of transfer of care from OR to ICU staff," and high response variability for the remaining 8 PPs. In addition, the perceived importance of each of these PPs varies between disciplines and between institutions. Cardiac surgical providers recognize distinct critical time points during cardiac surgery. However, there is a high degree of variability within and between disciplines as to the importance of these times, suggesting an absence of a shared mental model among disciplines caring for
Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; van Duijn-Bakker, Nanny; Kievit, Job
Previous research has shown that sicker patients are less satisfied with their healthcare, but specific effects of adverse health outcomes have not been investigated. The present study aimed to assess whether patients who experience adverse outcomes, in hospital or after discharge, differ in their evaluation of quality of care compared with patients without adverse outcomes. In hospital adverse outcomes were prospectively recorded by surgeons and surgical residents as part of routine care. Four weeks after discharge, patients were interviewed by telephone about the occurrence of post-discharge adverse outcomes, and their overall evaluation of quality of hospital care and specific suggestions for improvements in the healthcare provided. Of 2145 surgical patients admitted to the Leiden University Medical Center in 2003, 1876 (88%) agreed to be interviewed. Overall evaluation was less favourable by patients who experienced post-discharge adverse outcomes only (average 19% lower). These patients were also more often dissatisfied (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.31) than patients without adverse outcomes, and they more often suggested that improvements were needed in medical care (OR 2.07, 1.45 to 2.95) and that patients were discharged too early (OR 3.26, 1.72 to 6.20). The effect of in hospital adverse outcomes alone was not statistically significant. Patients with both in hospital and post-discharge adverse outcomes also found the quality of care to be lower (on average 33% lower) than patients without adverse outcomes. Post-discharge adverse outcomes negatively influence patients' overall evaluation of quality of care and are perceived as being discharged too early, suggesting that patients need better information at discharge.
Marilia Moura Luvisotto
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the administrative and nursing care activities most performed by nurses in clinical/surgical units and to determine which are most and least pleasant to them. Methods: A descriptive-exploratory field study, with a quantitative approach and with a sample made up of 40 nurses working in clinical/surgical units who answered a three-part questionnaire composed of identification data and characterization of the professional; a list of nursing and administrative activities for the nurse to grade according to the numbers: “0 = I do not perform it”, “1 = I perform it occasionally”, “2 = I perform it often”, “3 = I perform it daily”; two open-ended questions, in which the nurse listed the activities he/she enjoyed the most and the least. Results: The administrative activities most performed by the nurses were: changing work shifts, preparing employee daily task charts and managing tests; the most performed nursing care activities were related to the stages of the Nursing Care Systematization and the interaction with the multi-professional team; the most enjoyable activities were direct patient care, patient evaluation and implementation of the systematization; the least enjoyable activities were administrative and bureaucratic routines, justification of complaints/problem-solving and preparation of employee task charts. Conclusion: Compared to administrative activities, nursing activities were performed most during the daily routine of the nurse, and the most enjoyable activities were those related to patient care, according to the opinions of the professionals.
Godil, Saniya S; Parker, Scott L; Zuckerman, Scott L; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Devin, Clinton J; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J
Given the unsustainable costs of the US health-care system, health-care purchasers, payers, and hospital systems are adopting the concept of value-based purchasing by shifting care away from low-quality providers or hospitals. Legislation now allows public reporting of these quality rankings. True measures of quality, such as surgical morbidity and validated questionnaires of effectiveness, are burdensome and costly to collect. Hence, patients' satisfaction with care has emerged as a commonly used metric as a proxy for quality because of its feasibility of collection. However, patient satisfaction metrics have yet to be validated as a measure of overall quality of surgical spine care. We set out to determine whether patient satisfaction is a valid measure of safety and effectiveness of care in a prospective longitudinal spine registry. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. All patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative conditions over a 6-month period at a single medical center. Patient-reported outcome instruments (numeric rating scale [NRS], Oswestry disability index [ODI], neck disability index [NDI], short-form 12-item survey [SF-12], Euro-Qol-5D [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, and Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire [MSPQ] anxiety scale), return to work, patient satisfaction with outcome, and patient satisfaction with provider care. All patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative conditions over a 6-month period at a single medical center were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. Data collected on all patients included demographics, disease characteristics, treatment variables, readmissions/reoperations, and all 90-day surgical morbidity. Patient-reported outcome instruments (NRS, ODI, NDI, SF-12, EQ-5D, Zung depression scale, and MSPQ anxiety scale), return to work, patient satisfaction with outcome, and patient satisfaction with provider care were recorded at baseline and 3 months after treatment
Suzan Demir Pektas
Full Text Available Background: Intensive Care Units (ICUs are places where critically ill patients are managed. Aim: We aimed to investigate skin disorders that developed in critically ill surgical patients during their stay in the ICU. Methods: The prevalence of dermatological disorders and factors affecting their clinical features was prospectively analyzed in surgical ICU patients. We recorded age, sex, type of ICU, comorbidities, skin disorders, time to consultation, duration of ICU stay, and mortality rate. Results: Our study included 605 patients (mean age of 60.1 ± 20.2 years; 56.4% males. Seventy-three (12.1% patients were consulted with the Dermatology Department, among which 28.8% had infectious dermatological lesions, 26% dermatoses, and 45.2% drug reactions. The most common infectious dermatological disorder was wound infection (55.6%, the most common drug reaction was maculopapular drug eruption (75.8%, and the most common dermatosis was frictional blisters (47.4%. Multiple comorbidities, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, Parkinson disease, and stroke increased dermatological disorders (P < 0.05. The consulted patients had a median ICU stay of 7 days (range 2–53 days; consultation was significantly more common when it exceeded 10 days (74% vs. 26%, P < 0.05. The consulted patients died more commonly (P < 0.05. Infectious dermatological disorders and dermatoses were more common in patients older and younger than 50 years, respectively (P < 0.05. Dermatoses were more common among women (P < 0.05. The median time to consultation was 6 (2–30 days; it was longest for dermatological infections and shortest for dermatoses (P < 0.05. Infectious dermatological disorders were significantly more common among the deceased patients (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Multiple factors including multiple comorbidities, duration of ICU stay, time to consultation, and mortality increase dermatological disorders among surgical ICU patients.
Hertel-Joergensen, Michala; Abrahamsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Carsten
patients were screened for eligibility; 215 were included. The full-scale model fit estimates were moderate. Factor loadings typically ranged from 0.65 to 0.97, except for the questions concerning Technical Skills (0.38-0.63) and Nursing Process (0.28). The Cronbach's alpha value for the total scale score......AIM: To test the psychometric validity of the Good Perioperative Nursing Care Scale (GPNCS), a self-administered questionnaire, following translation and adaptation. INTRODUCTION: Patients' satisfaction with and experience of nursing care in orthopaedic or perioperative settings are currently...... was 0.92, with subfactors ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. CONCLUSION: Providing evidence for quality, or lack thereof, the Danish version of the GPNCS is a valid tool for measuring surgical patients' experiences with perioperative nursing care. The electronic version proved practical. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL...
Sobolev, Boris; Harel, David; Vasilakis, Christos; Levy, Adrian
Computer simulation of patient flow has been used extensively to assess the impacts of changes in the management of surgical care. However, little research is available on the utility of existing modeling techniques. The purpose of this paper is to examine the capacity of Statecharts, a system of graphical specification, for constructing a discrete-event simulation model of the perioperative process. The Statecharts specification paradigm was originally developed for representing reactive systems by extending the formalism of finite-state machines through notions of hierarchy, parallelism, and event broadcasting. Hierarchy permits subordination between states so that one state may contain other states. Parallelism permits more than one state to be active at any given time. Broadcasting of events allows one state to detect changes in another state. In the context of the peri-operative process, hierarchy provides the means to describe steps within activities and to cluster related activities, parallelism provides the means to specify concurrent activities, and event broadcasting provides the means to trigger a series of actions in one activity according to transitions that occur in another activity. Combined with hierarchy and parallelism, event broadcasting offers a convenient way to describe the interaction of concurrent activities. We applied the Statecharts formalism to describe the progress of individual patients through surgical care as a series of asynchronous updates in patient records generated in reaction to events produced by parallel finite-state machines representing concurrent clinical and managerial activities. We conclude that Statecharts capture successfully the behavioral aspects of surgical care delivery by specifying permissible chronology of events, conditions, and actions.
Arnaoutakis, George J; Bittle, Gregory J; Allen, Jeremiah G; Weiss, Eric S; Alejo, Jennifer; Baumgartner, William A; Shah, Ashish S; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Efron, David T; Conte, John V
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become common as a bridge to heart transplant as well as destination therapy. Acute care surgical (ACS) problems in this population are prevalent but remain ill-defined. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with ACS interventions in LVAD patients. A total of 173 patients who received HeartMate(®) XVE or HeartMate(®) II (HMII) LVADs between December 2001 and March 2010 were studied. Patient demographics, presentation of ACS problem, operative intervention, co-morbidities, transplantation, complications, and survival were analyzed. A total of 47 (27 %) patients underwent 67 ACS procedures at a median of 38 days after device implant (interquartile range 15-110), with a peri-operative mortality rate of 5 % (N = 3). Demographics, device type, and acuity were comparable between the ACS and non-ACS groups. A total of 21 ACS procedures were performed emergently, eight were urgent, and 38 were elective. Of 29 urgent and emergent procedures, 28 were for abdominal pathology. In eight patients, the cause of the ACS problem was related to LVADs or anticoagulation. Cumulative survival estimates revealed no survival differences if patients underwent ACS procedures (p = 0.17). Among HMII patients, transplantation rates were unaffected by an ACS intervention (p = 0.2). ACS problems occur frequently in LVAD patients and are not associated with adverse outcomes in HMII patients. The acute care surgeon is an integral member of a comprehensive approach to effective LVAD management.
Hsu, Min-Hui; Yu, Ying E; Tsai, Yueh-Miao; Lee, Hui-Chen; Huang, Ying-Che; Hsu, Han-Shui
For intensive care unit (ICU) patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction and in need of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support, the benefit of additional enteral feeding is not clear. This study aimed to investigate whether combined TPN with enteral feeding is associated with better outcomes in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. Clinical data of 88 patients in SICU were retrospectively collected. Variables used for analysis included route and percentage of nutritional support, total caloric intake, age, gender, body weight, body mass index, admission diagnosis, surgical procedure, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications, blood glucose values and hospital mortality. Wound dehiscence and central catheter infection were observed more frequently in the group of patients receiving TPN calories less than 90% of total calorie intake (p = 0.004 and 0.043, respectively). APACHE II scores were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (p = 0.001). More nonsurvivors received TPN calories exceeding 90% of total calorie intake and were in need of dialysis during ICU admission (p = 0.005 and 0.013, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of TPN calories over total calories and APACHE II scores were independent predictors of ICU mortality in patients receiving supplementary TPN after surgery. In SICU patients receiving TPN, patients who could be fed enterally more than 10% of total calories had better clinical outcomes than patients receiving less than 10% of total calorie intake from enteral feeding. Enteral feeding should be given whenever possible in severely ill patients. 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V
Full Text Available Objective: Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB is an important cause of hospital acquired infection and leads to an increasing morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICU. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of MRAB infection in surgical ICU patients. Material and Method: The charts of the patients who were admitted to the ICU between January 2008 and August 2010 were reviewed to identify patients with MRAB infection. Recorded data were as follows: age, sex, medical history, underlying surgical pathology, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (APACHE II and Glasgow Coma Score on ICU admission,presence of invasive procedures (intubation, arterial, central venous lines, urinary catheters, and renal replacement therapy, days in ICU and white blood cells (WBC and lactate count on infection day, infection site, complications (such as organ/system failure, length of stay (LOS in the ICU and hospital, and final outcome. Results: During the study period 25 patients with MRAB infection were identified. When compared with their matched control group (n=25, patients with MRAB infection had a significantly higher mean APACHE II score (p=0.001 and more frequently had an open wound (p=0.002 or required mechanical ventilation (p=0.005, with respiratory system disease (p=0.03, arterial catheterization (p=0.006, and central venous catheterization (p=0.004. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that APACHE II score (OR,1.155; CI, 1.008-1.324; p= 0.038 and open wound (OR, 27.77; CI, 2.020-333.333; p=0.018 were predictors of MRAB infection in these patients. Compared to their controls, patients with MRAB infection hand a longer LOS in ICU (36.44±30.44 days vs 7.80±8.13 days, p<0.000 and hospital (55.12±40.81 days vs 19.04±13.44 days, p<0.000. In hospital mortality rates for patients with MRAB infection and their controls were 56% and 32%, respectively (p=0.154. Conclusion: Our results indicate
Golob, Joseph F; Fadlalla, Adam M A; Kan, Justin A; Patel, Nilam P; Yowler, Charles J; Claridge, Jeffrey A
We developed a prototype electronic clinical information system called the Surgical Intensive Care-Infection Registry (SIC-IR) to prospectively study infectious complications and monitor quality of care improvement programs in the surgical and trauma intensive care unit. The objective of this study was to validate SIC-IR as a successful health information technology with an accurate clinical data repository. Using the DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success as a framework, we evaluated SIC-IR in a 3-month prospective crossover study of physician use in one of our two surgical and trauma intensive care units (SIC-IR unit versus non SIC-IR unit). Three simultaneous research methodologies were used: a user survey study, a pair of time-motion studies, and an accuracy study of SIC-IR's clinical data repository. The SIC-IR user survey results were positive for system reliability, graphic user interface, efficiency, and overall benefit to patient care. There was a significant decrease in prerounding time of nearly 4 minutes per patient on the SIC-IR unit compared with the non SIC-IR unit. The SIC-IR documentation and data archiving was accurate 74% to 100% of the time depending on the data entry method used. This accuracy was significantly improved compared with normal hand-written documentation on the non SIC-IR unit. SIC-IR proved to be a useful application both at individual user and organizational levels and will serve as an accurate tool to conduct prospective research and monitor quality of care improvement programs.
Saadat, Lily V; Dahlke, Allison R; Rajaram, Ravi; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Love, Remi; Odell, David D; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Yang, Anthony D
The Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial was a national, cluster-randomized, pragmatic, noninferiority trial of 117 general surgery programs, comparing standard ACGME resident duty hour requirements ("Standard Policy") to flexible, less-restrictive policies ("Flexible Policy"). Participating program directors (PDs) were surveyed to assess their perceptions of patient care, resident education, and resident well-being during the study period. A survey was sent to all PDs of the general surgery residency programs participating in the FIRST trial (N = 117 [100% response rate]) in June and July 2015. The survey compared PDs' perceptions of the duty hour requirements in their arm of the FIRST trial during the study period from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015. One hundred percent of PDs in the Flexible Policy arm indicated that residents used their additional flexibility in duty hours to complete operations they started or to stabilize a critically ill patient. Compared with the Standard Policy arm, PDs in the Flexible Policy arm perceived a more positive effect of duty hours on the safety of patient care (68.9% vs 0%; p care (98.3% vs 0%; p care (71.8%), continuity of care (94.0%), quality of resident education (83.8%), and resident well-being (55.6%) would be improved with a hypothetical permanent adoption of more flexible duty hours. Program directors involved in the FIRST trial perceived improvements in patient safety, continuity of care, and multiple aspects of resident education and well-being with flexible duty hours. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macleod Jana B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical nature of medical education has been thought necessary for the safe care of patients. In this setting, medical students in particular have limited opportunities for experiential learning. We report on a student-faculty collaboration that has successfully operated an annual, short-term surgical intervention in Haiti for the last three years. Medical students were responsible for logistics and were overseen by faculty members for patient care. Substantial planning with local partners ensured that trip activities supplemented existing surgical services. A case review was performed hypothesizing that such trips could provide effective surgical care while also providing a suitable educational experience. Findings Over three week-long trips, 64 cases were performed without any reported complications, and no immediate perioperative morbidity or mortality. A plurality of cases were complex urological procedures that required surgical skills that were locally unavailable (43%. Surgical productivity was twice that of comparable peer institutions in the region. Student roles in patient care were greatly expanded in comparison to those at U.S. academic medical centers and appropriate supervision was maintained. Discussion This demonstration project suggests that a properly designed surgical trip model can effectively balance the surgical needs of the community with an opportunity to expose young trainees to a clinical and cross-cultural experience rarely provided at this early stage of medical education. Few formalized programs currently exist although the experience above suggests the rewarding potential for broad-based adoption.
Mohammad A. Abusedera
Conclusions: Bedside IVUS-guided filter placement in medical-surgical critically ill patient in intensive care unit is a feasible, safe and reliable technique for IVC interruption. IVUS may be the most appropriate tool to guide filter insertion in obese patient.
Ubbink, Dirk Th; Vermeulen, Hester; van Hattem, Jarne
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the material and nursing costs and outcome of wound care at home comparing two dressing groups (occlusive vs. gauze-based) in surgical patients after hospital dismissal. BACKGROUND: The large variety in dressing materials and lack of convincing evidence make the choice
Jangland, Eva; Nyberg, Berit; Yngman-Uhlin, Pia
Surgical care plays an important role in the acute hospital's delivery of safe, high-quality patient care. Although demands for effectiveness are high in surgical wards quality of care and patient safety must also be secured. It is therefore necessary to identify the challenges and barriers linked to quality of care and patient safety with a focus on this specific setting. To explore situations and processes that support or hinder good safe patient care on the surgical ward. This qualitative study was based on a strategic sample of 10 department and ward leaders in three hospitals and six surgical wards in Sweden. Repeated reflective interviews were analysed using systematic text condensation. Four themes described the leaders' view of a complex healthcare setting that demands effectiveness and efficiency in moving patients quickly through the healthcare system. Quality of care and patient safety were often hampered factors such as a shift of care level, with critically ill patients cared for without reorganisation of nurses' competencies on the surgical ward. There is a gap between what is described in written documents and what is or can be performed in clinical practice to achieve good care and safe care on the surgical ward. A shift in levels of care on the surgical ward without reallocation of the necessary competencies at the patient's bedside show consequences for quality of care and patient safety. This means that surgical wards should consider reviewing their organisation and implementing more advanced nursing roles in direct patient care on all shifts. The ethical issues and the moral stress on nurses who lack the resources and competence to deliver good care according to professional values need to be made more explicit as a part of the patient safety agenda in the surgical ward. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Full Text Available Background: Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission creates barriers in the surgical health care of patients with HIV infection. Poor awareness, prevalent misconceptions, and associated stigma lead to discrimination against HIV-infected patients. This study was carried out to assess effectiveness of a “HIV awareness program” (HAP to educate and motivate health-care workers to provide equitable and ethical health care to HIV-infected patients. Methodology: An interventional study was conducted at a secondary level mission hospital in Central India from April 2014 to August 2015. Change in knowledge, awareness, and attitude following a multimedia “HAP” was analyzed with a “pre- and posttest design.” Seventy-four staffs and trainees participated in the program. Z-test and t-test were used to check the statistical significance of the data. Results: The mean pretest score was 19.31 (standard deviation [SD]: 6.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.923–20.697 and the mean posttest score was 30.84 (SD: 4.8, 95% CI: 29.714–31.966. This difference was statistically significant at the 5% level with P < 0.001. Conclusions: “HAP” was effective in changing the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of the staffs and trainees of the secondary hospital toward surgical care of HIV-infected patients.
Mayr, Andreas; Ritsch, Nicole; Knotzer, Hans; Dünser, Martin; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Ulmer, Hanno; Mutz, Norbert; Hasibeder, Walter
To evaluate primary success rate and effectiveness of direct-current cardioversion in postoperative critically ill patients with new-onset supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Prospective intervention study. Twelve-bed surgical intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital. Thirty-seven consecutive, adult surgical intensive care unit patients with new-onset supraventricular tachyarrhythmias without previous history of tachyarrhythmias. Direct-current cardioversion using a monophasic, damped sinus-wave defibrillator. Energy levels used were 50, 100, 200, and 300 J for regular supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (n = 6) and 100, 200, and 360 J for irregular supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (n = 31). None of the patients was hypoxic, hypokalemic, or hypomagnesemic at onset of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. Direct-current cardioversion restored sinus rhythm in 13 of 37 patients (35% primary responders). Most patients responded to the first or second direct-current cardioversion shock. Only one of 25 patients requiring more than two direct-current cardioversion shocks converted into sinus rhythm. Primary responders were significantly younger and demonstrated significant differences in arterial Po2 values at onset of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias compared with nonresponders. At 24 and 48 hrs, only six (16%) and five (13.5%) patients remained in sinus rhythm, respectively. In contrast to recent literature, direct-current cardioversion proved to be an ineffective method for treatment of new-onset supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and, in particular, atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response in surgical intensive care unit patients.
van Oostveen, Catharina J.; Vermeulen, Hester; Gouma, Dirk J.; Bakker, Piet J.; Ubbink, Dirk T.
Hospitals provide care for patients with a variety of diseases, co-morbidities and complications. The actual amount of care these patients need is unclear. Given the recent developments such as ageing, multi-morbidity and budgetary restraints, a practical explanatory model would avail healthcare
Papas, Anne; Caillard, Laurence; Nion, Nathalie
For over a year Professor Marc Verny's geriatric department at Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital in Paris has had ten beds set aside for the perioperative care of elderly people. This geriatric perioperative unit (UPOG) offers patients the skills of a multidisciplinary team trained in the specificities of caring for elderly patients often suffering from polypathology. The team works closely together around a common goal: the rapid return of the patient's autonomy during the postoperative period, crucial for the future of elderly people. So far UPOG's results have been very positive, as more than 90% of patients regain their autonomy after a short and uncomplicated period of postoperative care.
Heggland, Liv-Helen; Hausken, Kjell
The aim of this article is to identify how health care professionals and patients experience patient participation in decision-making processes in hospitals. Eighteen semi-structured interviews with experts from different disciplines such as medicine and nursing in surgical departments as well as patients who have undergone surgical treatment constitute the data. By content analysis four categories of patient participation were identified: information dissemination, formulation of options, integration of information, and control. To meet the increasing demands of patient participation, this categorization with four identified critical areas for participation in decision-making has important implications in guiding information support for patients prior to surgery and during hospitalization.
Optimisation of surgical care means weighing the risk of treatment related morbidity against the patients’ potential benefits of a surgical intervention. The first part of this thesis focusses on the anaemic patient undergoing colorectal surgery. Hypothesizing that a more profound haemoglobin
Özlü, Zeynep Karaman; Bilican, Pınar
Surgical pain is experienced by inpatients with clinical, disease-related concerns, unknown encounters after surgery, quality of sleep, restrictions in position after surgery is known to be serious. The study was conducted to determine the effect of aromatherapy massage on quality of sleep and physiological parameters in surgical intensive care patients. This is an experimental study. The sample of this study consisted of 60 patients who were divided into two groups as experimental group and control group including 30 patients in each one. The participants were postoperative patients, absent complications, who were unconscious and extubated. A data collection form on personal characteristics of the patients, a registration form on their physical parameters and the Richards-Campbell Sleep Scale (RCSQ) were used to collect the data of the study. The Richards-Campbell Sleep Scale indicated that while the experimental group had a mean score of 53.80 ± 13.20, the control group had a mean score of 29.08 ± 9.71 and there was a statistically significant difference between mean scores of the groups. In a comparison of physiologic parameters, only diastolic blood pressure measuring between parameters in favor of an assembly as a statistically significant difference was detected. Results of the study showed that aromatherapy massage enhanced the sleep quality of patients in a surgical intensive care unit and resulted in some positive changes in their physiological parameters.
Lukish, J R; Gill, G G; McCoy, T R
To maintain the health of service members and their families throughout the world, the Department of Defense has established several isolated military hospitals (IHs). The operational environment of IHs is such that illness and traumatic injury requiring surgical intervention is common. This study sought to examine the general and orthopedic surgical experience at an IH to determine whether surgical care could be provided in an effective and safe manner. All patients evaluated by the general and orthopedic surgeon at Guantanamo Bay Naval Hospital from October 1, 1998, to April 1, 1999, were included in this study. The following data were retrospectively reviewed: patient demographic data, diagnosis, initial and follow-up care, medical evacuation data, operative procedures, and complications. There were 336 patients who presented for surgical evaluation, resulting in 660 follow-up appointments during the study period. There were 31 medical evacuations (3 emergent). The surgical services performed 122 major operative procedures. There were 58 inpatient admissions. There was 1 death, and surgical complications occurred in 2 patients, for an overall morbidity and mortality of 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Our data show that an IH is capable of providing surgical care, including care for traumatic injuries, in a safe manner. This is the first study that provides objective evidence that general and orthopedic surgery at an IH can be provided within the standard of care.
Møller, M H; Larsson, Heidi Jeanet; Rosenstock, S
Mortality and morbidity are considerable after treatment for perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). Since 2003, a Danish nationwide quality-of-care (QOC) improvement initiative has focused on reducing preoperative delay, and improving perioperative monitoring and care for patients with PPU. The present...... study reports the results of this initiative....
The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. January 2016 Volume 13 Issue 1 1. EDITORIAL. Access to Specialized Surgical Care. Saidi H. University of Nairobi. Correspondence to: Prof Hassan Saidi, P.O Box 30196-00100, Nairobi. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Ann Afr Surg. 2016;13(1):1-2. The narrative of surgical disease in ...
Full Text Available Aim: improving the results of the complex treatment of patients with surgical pathology of abdominal organs by improving prevention and treatment of motor-evacuation disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in the postoperative period. Results: the article presents data on the use of metoclopramide, L- ar¬ginine, simethicone for the prevention of postoperative dysmotility development. It is proved that L-arginine use reduces the effects of peripheral vasospasm by improving microcirculation of the intestinal wall and this leads to a more rapid recovery of motor-evacuation function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Younas, Ahtisham; Sundus, Amara
Nursing is predominantly a female profession and caring has been considered an attribute of female nurses, which could imply a noncaring image of male nurses. To determine patients' experiences and satisfaction from care provided by male nurses in a private hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study included a purposive sample of 50 patients admitted to medical surgical units for at least 2 days and who had at least three professional interactions with a male nurse. The Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scale was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The total score for experience and satisfaction was 81 and 51, respectively. A statistically significant difference existed between experience and satisfaction scores of male and female participants, indicating that males were more pleased and satisfied with their experience of receiving care from male nurses compared to the female participants. The male nurses were concerned for their patients, they were knowledgeable about the patients' condition and care, and provided them with clear explanations of the medical and nursing procedures. However, they seem to lack interpersonal relationship with patients and did not take initiative in understanding their patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kastrup, Marc; Seeling, Matthes; Barthel, Stefan; Bloch, Andy; le Claire, Marie; Spies, Claudia; Scheller, Matthias; Braun, Jan
There is an increasing demand for intensive care in hospitals, which can lead to capacity limitations in the intensive care unit (ICU). Due to postponement of elective surgery or delayed admission of emergency patients, outcome may be negatively influenced. To optimize the admission process to intensive care, the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) was staffed with intensivist coverage around the clock. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the impact of the PACU on the structure of ICU-patients and the contribution to overall hospital profit in terms of changes in the case mix index for all surgical patients. The administrative data of all surgical patients (n = 51,040) 20 months prior and 20 months after the introduction of a round-the-clock intensivist staffing of the PACU were evaluated and compared. The relative number of patients with longer length of stay (LOS) (more than seven days) in the ICU increased after the introduction of the PACU. The average monthly number of treatment days of patients staying less than 24 hours in the ICU decreased by about 50% (138.95 vs. 68.19 treatment days, P case mix index (CMI) per hospital day for all surgical patients was significantly higher after the introduction of a PACU: 0.286 (± 0.234) vs. 0.309 (± 0.272) P case mix index of the patients per hospital day, increased after the implementation of a PACU and more patients can be treated in the same time, due to a better use of resources.
Korošec Jagodič, Helena; Jagodič, Klemen; Podbregar, Matej
Introduction Our aim was to determine long-term survival and quality of life of patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) because of sepsis or trauma. Methods This was an observational study conducted in an 11-bed, closed surgical ICU at a 860-bed teaching general hospital over a 1-year period (January 2003 to December 2003). Patients were divided into two groups according to admission diagnoses: group 1 included patients with sepsis; and group 2 included patients with trauma ...
Çelik, Sevim; Yildirim, Ismail; Arslan, Ibrahim; Yildirim, Sinan; Erdal, Fatih; Yandi, Yunus Emre
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fever and nursing interventions to lower fever on hemodynamic values and oxygenation in febrile (temperature greater than 38.3°C) surgical intensive care unit patients. This retrospective study was conducted in 53 febrile patients out of 519 patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit at a university hospital. Data were obtained from the medical records, laboratory files and nursing notes. Statistical analysis of the data was analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance and a paired sample t-test. The average hourly urine output (F = 5.46; P = 0.002) and systolic blood pressure (F = 2.87; P = 0.03) were significantly lower after fever onset. Heart rate, respiratory rate, positive end-expiratory pressure settings and FiO(2) settings were unchanged after the development of fever. Diastolic blood pressure and oxygen saturation had non-statistically significant decreases. Nursing interventions for febrile patients consisted of medication administration (69.8%), ice (62.3%) and sponging with tepid water (62.3%). The present results showed that fever was associated with an increase in heart rate, decreased systolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation and hourly urine output. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Konrad Jarosz,1 Bartosz Kubisa,2 Agata Andrzejewska,3 Katarzyna Mrówczyńska,3 Zbigniew Hamerlak,4 Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska5 1Department of Clinical Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, 2Thoracic Surgery and Transplantation Department, Pomeranian Medical University, 3Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Department, Pomeranian Medical University, 4Stomatology Department, Pomeranian Medical University, 5Anaesthesiology and Pediatric Intensive Care Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Szczecin, Poland Abstract: Tracheostomy is a routinely done procedure in the setting of intensive care unit (ICU in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. There are two ways of making a tracheostomy: an open surgical tracheostomy and percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is associated with fewer complications than open tracheostomy. In this study, we would like to compare both techniques of performing a tracheostomy in ICU patients and to present possible complications, methods of diagnosing and treating and minimizing their risk. Keywords: tracheostomy, percutaneous tracheostomy, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy, bronchoscopy, surgical tracheostomy, tracheoesophageal fistula, tracheostomy complications
Full Text Available Background and goals of study: Patient satisfaction in relation to perioperative anesthesia care represents essential aspect of quality health-care management. We analyzed the influence of multi-level anesthesia care exposure and patient profile on perioperative patient satisfaction in short-stay surgical inpatients. Methods : 120 short-stay surgical inpatients who underwent laparoscopic surgery have been included in this prospective study. Pertaining to demographic parameters (age, gender, education, profession, duration of stay (preoperative room, recovery room, various patient problems and patient satisfaction (various levels, overall were recorded by an independent observer and analyzed. Overall, adults, male and uneducated patients experienced more problems. Conversely, elderly, females and educated patients were more dissatisfied. Female patients suffered more during immediate postoperative recovery room stay and were more dissatisfied than their male counterparts (p< 0.05. However, patient′s professional status had no bearing on the problems encountered and dissatisfaction levels. Preoperative and early postoperative period accounted for majority of the problems encountered among the study population. There was a positive correlation between problems faced and dissatisfaction experienced at respective levels of anesthesia care (p< 0.05. Conclusion(s : Patient′s demographic profile and problems faced during respective level of anesthesia care has a correlation with dissatisfaction. Interestingly, none of the above stated factors had any effect on overall satisfaction level.
Plant, Mathew A; Fish, Joel S
The use of smartphones, e-mail, and the Internet has affected virtually all areas of patient care. Current university and hospital policies concerning the use of devices may be incongruent with day-to-day patient care. The goal was to assess the current usage patterns of the Internet, e-mail, and personal electronics for clinical purposes by surgical residents as well as their communication habits and preferences. Also assessed was residents' knowledge regarding the institutional policies surrounding these issues. Surgical residents (n = 294) at a large teaching institution were surveyed regarding their knowledge of university policies as well as daily use of various communication technologies. Communication preferences were determined using theoretical clinical scenarios. Our survey with a response rate of 54.7% (n = 161) revealed that 93.8% of participants indicated daily Internet use for clinical duties. Most respondents (72%) were either completely unaware of the existence of guidelines for its use or aware but had no familiarity with their content. Use of e-mail for clinical duties was common (85%), and 74% of the respondents rated e-mail as "very important" or "extremely important" for patient care. Everyone who responded had a mobile phone with 98.7% being "smartphones," which the majority (82.9%) stated was "very important" or "extremely important" for patient care. Text messaging was the primary communication method for 57.8% of respondents. The traditional paging system was the primary communication method for only 1.3% of respondents and the preferred method for none. Daily use of technology is the norm among residents; however, knowledge of university guidelines was exceedingly low. Residents need better education regarding current guidelines. Current guidelines do not reflect current clinical practice. Hospitals should consider abandoning the traditional paging system and consider facilitating better use of residents' mobile phones.
Byrnes, Angela; Banks, Merrilyn; Mudge, Alison; Young, Adrienne; Bauer, Judy
Older patients are at increased risk of malnutrition and reduced physical function. Using Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) guidelines as an auditing framework, this study aimed to determine adherence of nutrition care to perioperative best practice in older patients. A single researcher retrieved data via chart review. Seventy-five consenting patients ≥65 years (median 72 (range 65-95) years, 61% male) admitted postoperatively to general surgical wards were recruited. Sixty per cent had a primary diagnosis of cancer and 51% underwent colorectal resection. Seventeen per cent and 4% of patients met fasting targets of 2-4 h for fluid and 6-8 h for food, respectively. Fifty-five per cent were upgraded to full diet by first postoperative day. Nil received preoperative carbohydrate loading. Minimally invasive surgery (p = 0.01) and no anastomosis formation (p = 0.05) were associated with receiving ERAS-concordant nutrition care. This study highlights areas for improvement in perioperative nutrition care of older patients at our facility.
Seher Ünver; Meltem Yıldırım
A child’s surgical period usually contains unpleasant and difficult experiences, for the child and the parents. The child in this period experiences greater anxiety and distress. On the other hand, pediatric patients have complex states that directly effects their perioperative care during. Because their perioperative care includes not only the knowledge of general surgical procedure and care of a patient in the operating room. It also includes the specific understanding of a child’s airway, ...
Sustic, A.; Miletic, D.; Cicvaric, T.
Background. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of abnormal ultrasonographic (US) findings of gallbladder (GB) in surgical patients with the prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to correlate these findings with the severity of illness. Methods. In the prospective study fifty-seven (57) adult surgical patients (male 66%; age 49±18 yr.) with the prolonged stay in ICU (>14 days) were analyzed. In all patients the US examination was performed on the 15th day of their stay in ICU. The presence of the following US findings was analyzed: GB wall thickening (?4 mm), biliary sludge, GB hydrops, striated GB wall and pericholecystitic fluid. The severity of illness was also evaluated on the 15th day of the stay in ICU using Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II). Results. At least one abnormal US finding was found in 36 (63%), patients with GB wall thickening in 32 (56%), biliary sludge in 23 (40%), pericholecystitic fluid in 9 (16%), hydrops of GB in 7 (12%), and striated GB wall in 4 (7%) cases, respectively. Two to five US findings were found in 20 (35%) patients, three to five in 12 (21%), four to five in 10 (18%), while all five US findings were present in 4 (7%) cases. The patients with one and more US findings had significantly higher SAPS II than the patients who presented regular US findings of the GB (36±9 vs. 28±7; p < 0.01). The patients with two and more US findings had higher SAPS II than those with one or none US criteria (40±8 vs. 29±6; p < 0.001), while the patients with three and more had higher SAPS II than those with two, one or none (41±8 vs. 31±9; p < 0.001). The patients with four or five US findings had higher SAPS II than those with three or less (42±11 vs. 31±6; p < 0.001) while the patients with all five had higher SAPS II than all others (45±10 vs. 32±9; p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation between the number of US findings and SAPS II was present (r 0.57; p < 0.001). Conclusions. More than
Sepucha, Karen; Atlas, Steven J; Chang, Yuchiao; Dorrwachter, Janet; Freiberg, Andrew; Mangla, Mahima; Rubash, Harry E; Simmons, Leigh H; Cha, Thomas
Patient decision aids are effective in randomized controlled trials, yet little is known about their impact in routine care. The purpose of this study was to examine whether decision aids increase shared decision-making when used in routine care. A prospective study was designed to evaluate the impact of a quality improvement project to increase the use of decision aids for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis, lumbar disc herniation, or lumbar spinal stenosis. A usual care cohort was enrolled before the quality improvement project and an intervention cohort was enrolled after the project. Participants were surveyed 1 week after a specialist visit, and surgical status was collected at 6 months. Regression analyses adjusted for clustering of patients within clinicians and examined the impact on knowledge, patient reports of shared decision-making in the visit, and surgical rates. With 550 surveys, the study had 80% to 90% power to detect a difference in these key outcomes. The response rates to the 1-week survey were 70.6% (324 of 459) for the usual care cohort and 70.2% (328 of 467) for the intervention cohort. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in any patient characteristic between the 2 cohorts. More patients received decision aids in the intervention cohort at 63.6% compared with the usual care cohort at 27.3% (p = 0.007). Decision aid use was associated with higher knowledge scores, with a mean difference of 18.7 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.4 to 26.1 points; p < 0.001) for the usual care cohort and 15.3 points (95% CI, 7.5 to 23.0 points; p = 0.002) for the intervention cohort. Patients reported more shared decision-making (p = 0.009) in the visit with their surgeon in the intervention cohort, with a mean Shared Decision-Making Process score (and standard deviation) of 66.9 ± 27.5 points, compared with the usual care cohort at 62.5 ± 28.6 points. The majority of patients received their preferred treatment, and this did not differ
Smink, Agnes J; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Schers, Henk J; Swierstra, Bart A; Kortland, Joke H; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; Teerenstra, Steven; Voorn, Theo B; Dekker, Joost; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van den Ende, Cornelia H M
To improve the management of hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), a stepped care strategy (SCS) has been developed that presents the optimal sequence for care in three steps. This study evaluates the extent to which clinical practice is consistent with the strategy after implementation and identifies determinants of SCS-consistent care. A 2-year observational prospective cohort study. General practices in the region of Nijmegen in the Netherlands. Three hundred and thirteen patients with hip or knee OA and their general practitioner (GP). Multifaceted interventions were developed to implement the strategy. Consistency between clinical practice and the strategy was examined regarding three aspects of care: (i) timing of radiological assessment, (ii) sequence of non-surgical treatment options and (iii) making follow-up appointments. Out of the 212 patients who reported to have had an X-ray, 92 (44%) received it in line with the SCS. The sequence of treatment was inconsistent with the SCS in 58% of the patients, which was mainly caused by the underuse of lifestyle advice and dietary therapy. In 57% of the consultations, the patient reported to have been advised to make a follow-up appointment. No determinants that influenced all three aspects of care were identified. Consistency with the SCS was found in about half of the patients for each of the three aspects of care. Health care can be further optimized by encouraging GP s to use X-rays more appropriately and to make more use of lifestyle advice, dietary therapy and follow-up appointments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. The definition of prolonged length of stay (LOS during acute care remains unclear among surgically and conservatively treated patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Methods. Using a population-based quality assessment registry, we calculated change points in LOS for surgically and conservatively treated patients with ICH. The influence of comorbidities, baseline characteristics at admission, and in-hospital complications on prolonged LOS was evaluated in a multivariate model. Results. Overall, 13272 patients with ICH were included in the analysis. Surgical therapy of the hematoma was documented in 1405 (10.6% patients. Change points for LOS were 22 days (CI: 8, 22; CL 98% for surgically treated patients and 16 days (CI: 16, 16; CL: 99% for conservatively treated patients. Ventilation therapy was related to prolonged LOS in surgically (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5–3.1; P<0.001 and conservatively treated patients (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 2.2–2.9; P<0.001. Two or more in-hospital complications in surgical patients (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 2.1–3.5 and ≥1 in conservative patients (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 2.7–3.3 were predictors of prolonged LOS. Conclusion. The definition of prolonged LOS after ICH could be useful for several aspects of quality management and research. Preventing in-hospital complications could decrease the number of patients with prolonged LOS.
Stallings-Welden, Lois M; Doerner, Mary; Ketchem, Elizabeth Libby; Benkert, Laura; Alka, Susan; Stallings, Jonathan D
To determine effectiveness of aromatherapy (AT) compared with standard care (SC) for postoperative and postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PONV/PDNV) in ambulatory surgical patients. Prospective randomized study. Patients (n = 254) received either SC or AT for PONV and interviewed for effectiveness of PDNV. Machine learning methods (eight algorithms) were used to evaluate. Of patients (64 of 221) that experienced PONV, 52% were in the AT group and 48% in the SC group. The majority were satisfied with treatment (timely, P = .60; effectiveness, P = .86). Of patients that experienced PDNV, treatment was 100% effective in the AT group and 67% in the SC group. The cforest algorithm was used to develop a model for predicting PONV with literature-based risk factors (0.69 area under the curve). AT is an effective way to manage PONV/PDNV. Gender and age were the most important predictors of PONV. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. All rights reserved.
Isitt, Catherine E; McCloskey, Kayleigh A; Caballo, Alvaro; Sharma, Pranev; Williams, Andrew; Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Vizcaychipi, Marcela P
Skin graft failure is a recognised complication in the treatment of major burns. Little research to date has analysed the impact of the complex physiological management of burns patients on the success of skin grafting. We analysed surgical and anaesthetic variables to identify factors contributing to graft failure. Inclusion criteria were admission to our Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) between January 2009 and October 2013 with a major burn. After exclusion for death before hospital discharge or prior skin graft at a different hospital, 35 patients remained and were divided into those with successful autografts (n=16) and those with a failed autograft (n=19). For the purposes of this study, we defined poor autograft viability as requiring at least one additional skin graft to the same site. Logistic regression of variables was performed using SPSS (Version 22.0 IBMTM). Age, Sex, %Total Burn Surface Area or Belgian Outcome Burns Injury score did not significantly differ between groups. No differences were found in any surgical factor at logistic regression (graft site, harvest site, infection etc.). When all operations were analysed, the use of colloids was found to be significantly associated with graft failure (p=0.035, CI 95%) and this remained significant when only split thickness skin grafts (STSGs) and debridement operations were included (p=0.034, CI 95%). No differences were found in crystalloid use, intraoperative temperature, pre-operative haemoglobin and blood products or vasopressor use. This analysis highlights an independent association between colloids and graft failure which has not been previously documented.
Pucher, Philip H; Darzi, Ara; Aggarwal, Rajesh
The role of simulation in surgical education, initially confined to technical skills and procedural tasks, increasingly includes training nontechnical skills including communication, crisis management, and teamwork. Research suggests that many preventable adverse events can be attributed to nontechnical error occurring within a ward context. Ward rounds represent the primary point of interaction between patient and physician but take place without formalized training or assessment. The simulated ward should provide an environment in which processes of perioperative care can be performed safely and realistically, allowing multidisciplinary assessment and training of full ward rounds. We review existing literature and describe our experience in setting up our ward simulator. We examine the facilities, equipment, cost, and personnel required for establishing a surgical ward simulator and consider the scenario development, assessment, and feedback tools necessary to integrate it into a surgical curriculum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aslakson, Rebecca A; Wyskiel, Rhonda; Thornton, Imani; Copley, Christina; Shaffer, Dauryne; Zyra, Marylou; Nelson, Judith; Pronovost, Peter J
Integration of palliative care for intensive care unit (ICU) patients is important but often challenging, especially in surgical ICUs (SICUs), in part because many surgeons equate palliative care with terminal care and failure of restorative care. SICU nurses, who are key front-line clinicians, can provide insights into barriers for delivery of optimal palliative care in their setting. We developed a focus group guide to identify barriers to two key components of palliative care-optimal communication regarding prognosis and optimal end-of-life care-and used the tool to conduct focus groups of nurses providing bedside care in three SICUs at a tertiary care, academic, inner city hospital. Using content analysis technique, responses were organized into thematic domains that were validated by independent observers and a subset of participating nurses. Four focus groups included a total of 32 SICU nurses. They identified 34 barriers to optimal communication regarding prognosis, which were summarized into four domains: logistics, clinician discomfort with discussing prognosis, inadequate skill and training, and fear of conflict. For optimal end-of-life care, the groups identified 24 barriers in four domains: logistics, inability to acknowledge an end-of-life situation, inadequate skill and training, and cultural differences relating to end-of-life care. Nurses providing bedside care in SICUs identify barriers in several domains that may impede optimal discussions of prognoses and end-of-life care for patients with surgical critical illness. Consideration of these perceived barriers and the underlying SICU culture is relevant for designing interventions to improve palliative care in this setting.
Korosec Jagodic, Helena; Jagodic, Klemen; Podbregar, Matej
Our aim was to determine long-term survival and quality of life of patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) because of sepsis or trauma. This was an observational study conducted in an 11-bed, closed surgical ICU at a 860-bed teaching general hospital over a 1-year period (January 2003 to December 2003). Patients were divided into two groups according to admission diagnoses: group 1 included patients with sepsis; and group 2 included patients with trauma (polytrauma, multiple trauma, head injury, or spinal injury). Quality of life was assessed after 2 years following ICU admission using the EuroQol 5D questionnaire. A total of 164 patients (98 trauma patients and 66 patients with sepsis) were included in the study. Trauma patients were younger than patients with sepsis (53 +/- 21 years versus 64 +/- 13 years; P Trauma patients stayed longer on the general ward (35 +/- 44 days versus 17 +/- 24 days; P trauma group (surgical ICU survival: 60% versus 74%; in-hospital survival: 42% versus 62%; post-hospital survival: 78% versus 92%; cumulative 2-year survival: 33% versus 57%; P quality of life in all five dimensions of the EuroQol 5D between groups: 60% of patients had signs of depression, almost 60% had problems in usual activities and 56% had pain. Patients with sepsis treated in a surgical ICU have higher short-term and long-term mortality than do trauma patients. However, quality of life is reduced to the same level in both groups.
Udo, Camilla; Danielson, Ella; Henoch, Ingela; Melin-Johansson, Christina
The aim of this study was to describe surgical nurses' perceived work-related stress in the care of severely ill and dying patients with cancer after participating in an educational intervention on existential issues. This article reports a mixed methods pilot study of an education programme consisting of lectures and supervised discussions conducted in 2009-2010 in three surgical wards in a county hospital in Sweden. The concurrent data collections consisted of repeated interviews with eleven nurses in an educational group, and questionnaires were distributed to 42 nurses on four occasions. Directly after the educational intervention, the nurses described working under high time pressure. They also described being hindered in caring because of discrepancies between their caring intentions and what was possible in the surgical care context. Six months later, the nurses described a change in decision making, and a shift in the caring to make it more in line with their own intentions and patients' needs rather than the organizational structure. They also reported decreased feelings of work-related stress, decreased stress associated with work-load and feeling less disappointed at work. Results indicate that it may be possible to influence nurses' work-related stress through an educational intervention. According to nurses' descriptions, reflecting on their ways of caring for severely ill and dying patients, many of whom had cancer, from an existential perspective, had contributed to enhanced independent decision making in caring. This in turn appears to have decreased their feelings of work-related stress and disappointment at work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdul Rahman, Hamzah; Jarrar, Mu'taman; Don, Mohammad Sobri
Nursing knowledge and skills are required to sustain quality of care and patient safety. The numbers of nurses with Bachelor degrees in Malaysia are very limited. This study aims to predict the impact of nurse level of education on quality of care and patient safety in the medical and surgical wards in Malaysian private hospitals. A cross-sectional survey by questionnaire was conducted. A total 652 nurses working in the medical and surgical wards in 12 private hospitals were participated in the study. Multistage stratified simple random sampling performed to invite nurses working in small size (less than 100 beds), medium size (100-199 beds) and large size (over than 200) hospitals to participate in the study. This allowed nurses from all shifts to participate in this study. Nurses with higher education were not significantly associated with both quality of care and patient safety. However, a total 355 (60.9%) of respondents participated in this study were working in teaching hospitals. Teaching hospitals offer training for all newly appointed staff. They also provide general orientation programs and training to outline the policies, procedures of the nurses' roles and responsibilities. This made the variances between the Bachelor and Diploma nurses not significantly associated with the outcomes of care. Nursing educational level was not associated with the outcomes of care in Malaysian private hospitals. However, training programs and the general nursing orientation programs for nurses in Malaysia can help to upgrade the Diploma-level nurses. Training programs can increase their self confidence, knowledge, critical thinking ability and improve their interpersonal skills. So, it can be concluded that better education and training for a medical and surgical wards' nurses is required for satisfying client expectations and sustaining the outcomes of patient care.
Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques
Technological innovations of the twentieth century have provided medicine and surgery with new tools for education and therapy definition. Thus, by combining Medical Imaging and Virtual Reality, patient-specific applications providing preoperative surgical simulation have become possible.
Boyd, Jennifer B; McGrath, Mary H; Maa, John
As total health care expenditures are expected to constitute an increasing portion of the US gross domestic product during the coming years, the US health care system is anticipating a historic spike in the need for care. Outsourcing medical and surgical care to other nations has expanded rapidly, and several ethical, legal, and financial considerations require careful evaluation. Ultimately, the balance between cost savings, quality, and patient satisfaction will be the key determinant in the future of medical outsourcing.
de Vries, E.N.
One in every 150 patients admitted to a hospital will die as a result of an ‘adverse event’: an unintended injury or complication caused by health care management, rather than by the patient’s underlying disease. More than half of these adverse events can be attributed to a surgical discipline. The
Hartzler, Andrea L; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Fey, Brett C; Flum, David R; Lavallee, Danielle
The collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) draws attention to issues of importance to patients-physical function and quality of life. The integration of PRO data into clinical decisions and discussions with patients requires thoughtful design of user-friendly interfaces that consider user experience and present data in personalized ways to enhance patient care. Whereas most prior work on PROs focuses on capturing data from patients, little research details how to design effective user interfaces that facilitate use of this data in clinical practice. We share lessons learned from engaging health care professionals to inform design of visual dashboards, an emerging type of health information technology (HIT). We employed human-centered design (HCD) methods to create visual displays of PROs to support patient care and quality improvement. HCD aims to optimize the design of interactive systems through iterative input from representative users who are likely to use the system in the future. Through three major steps, we engaged health care professionals in targeted, iterative design activities to inform the development of a PRO Dashboard that visually displays patient-reported pain and disability outcomes following spine surgery. Design activities to engage health care administrators, providers, and staff guided our work from design concept to specifications for dashboard implementation. Stakeholder feedback from these health care professionals shaped user interface design features, including predefined overviews that illustrate at-a-glance trends and quarterly snapshots, granular data filters that enable users to dive into detailed PRO analytics, and user-defined views to share and reuse. Feedback also revealed important considerations for quality indicators and privacy-preserving sharing and use of PROs. Our work illustrates a range of engagement methods guided by human-centered principles and design recommendations for optimizing PRO Dashboards for patient
Hartzler, Andrea L.; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Fey, Brett C.; Flum, David R.; Lavallee, Danielle
Introduction: The collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) draws attention to issues of importance to patients—physical function and quality of life. The integration of PRO data into clinical decisions and discussions with patients requires thoughtful design of user-friendly interfaces that consider user experience and present data in personalized ways to enhance patient care. Whereas most prior work on PROs focuses on capturing data from patients, little research details how to design effective user interfaces that facilitate use of this data in clinical practice. We share lessons learned from engaging health care professionals to inform design of visual dashboards, an emerging type of health information technology (HIT). Methods: We employed human-centered design (HCD) methods to create visual displays of PROs to support patient care and quality improvement. HCD aims to optimize the design of interactive systems through iterative input from representative users who are likely to use the system in the future. Through three major steps, we engaged health care professionals in targeted, iterative design activities to inform the development of a PRO Dashboard that visually displays patient-reported pain and disability outcomes following spine surgery. Findings: Design activities to engage health care administrators, providers, and staff guided our work from design concept to specifications for dashboard implementation. Stakeholder feedback from these health care professionals shaped user interface design features, including predefined overviews that illustrate at-a-glance trends and quarterly snapshots, granular data filters that enable users to dive into detailed PRO analytics, and user-defined views to share and reuse. Feedback also revealed important considerations for quality indicators and privacy-preserving sharing and use of PROs. Conclusion: Our work illustrates a range of engagement methods guided by human-centered principles and design
Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Cvetkovska, Emilija; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Jankulovski, Nikola; Shosholcheva, Mirjana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Spirovska, Tatjana
Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of injury of skeletal muscles associated with myoglobinuria, muscle weakness, electrolyte imbalance and often, acute kidney injury as severe complication. of this study is to detect the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), and to raise awareness of this medical condition and its treatment among the clinicians. A retrospective review of all surgical and trauma patients admitted to surgical ICU of the University Surgical Clinic "Mother Teresa" in Skopje, Macedonia, from January 1 st till December 31 st 2015 was performed. Patients medical records were screened for available serum creatine kinase (CK) with levels > 200 U/l, presence of myoglobin in the serum in levels > 80 ng/ml, or if they had a clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis by an attending doctor. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data. Out of totally 1084 patients hospitalized in the ICU, 93 were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis during the course of one year. 82(88%) patients were trauma patients, while 11(12%) were surgical non trauma patients. 7(7.5%) patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that required dialysis. Average values of serum myoglobin levels were 230 ng/ml, with highest values of > 5000 ng/ml. Patients who developed AKI had serum myoglobin levels above 2000 ng/ml. Average values of serum CK levels were 400 U/l, with highest value of 21600 U/l. Patients who developed AKI had serum CK levels above 3000 U/l. Regular monitoring and early detection of elevated serum CK and myoglobin levels in critically ill surgical and trauma patients is recommended in order to recognize and treat rhabdomyolysis in timely manner and thus prevent development of AKI.
Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is often not diagnosed in patients presenting for surgical procedures thereby increasing the incidence of adverse perioperative course. Early diagnosis of this disease is important in modifying anesthetic management as well as utilizing specific means which may decrease the complications and improve the patient outcome. Methods: Patients greater than eighteen years of age, ASA I-III scheduled for elective surgical procedures under anesthesia were randomly selected. Their demographic data, diagnosis and nature of surgery were noted in a semi-structured performa. They were then screened for the presence of OSA with the help of a STOP BANG questionnaire. Results : This study included two hundred four patients randomly selected. Slight female predominance was seen in this sample (55.4%. Mean age of the subjects was 42.7 years (SD=15.08. 24.5% subjects were at high risk for OSA (STOP-BANG>3 with a male predominance (72% versus 37% in low risk group; X 2 =18.62; P<0.001. High risk OSA subjects had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (57% vs. 11.7% in low risk group; X 2 =33.35; P<0.001. Similarly, this group had a higher prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (14% versus 3.8% in low risk group; X 2 =6.54; P=0.03. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (22% and hypothyroidism (6% was also higher in this group (5.2% and 1.9% in low risk group respectively; X 2 =15.42; P<0.001. Conclusion : High degree of suspicion and knowledge of association of OSA and medical diseases may help in detection of such cases and decrease the rate of perioperative complications thus improving patients safety.
Edmiston, Charles E; Krepel, Candace J; Leaper, David; Ledeboer, Nathan A; Mackey, Tami-Lea; Graham, Mary Beth; Lee, Cheong; Rossi, Peter J; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Seabrook, Gary R
Ceftaroline is a new parenteral cephalosporin agent with excellent activity against methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Critically ill surgical patients are susceptible to infection, often by multi-drug-resistant pathogens. The activity of ceftaroline against such pathogens has not been described. Three hundred thirty-five consecutive microbial isolates were collected from surgical wounds or abscesses, respiratory, urine, and blood cultures from patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a major tertiary medical center. Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standard methodology and published breakpoints, all aerobic, facultative anaerobic isolates were tested against ceftaroline and selected comparative antimicrobial agents. All staphylococcal isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline at a breakpoint of ≤1.0 mcg/mL. In addition, ceftaroline exhibited excellent activity against all streptococcal clinical isolates and non-ESBL-producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae (93.5%) recovered from SICU patients. Ceftaroline was inactive against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and selective gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. At present, ceftaroline is the only cephalosporin agent that is active against community and healthcare-associated MRSA. Further studies are needed to validate the benefit of this novel broad-spectrum anti-infective agent for the treatment of susceptible serious infections in the SICU patient population.
Full Text Available Background: A cell injury from surgical stress in a trauma or a non-trauma case will induce a hyper metabolic response in which the protein degradation increases, the somatic protein synthesis decreases and the amino acid catabolism increases. Thus, the pyper metabolic response contributes to nitrogen loss in urine. This response, without an adequate nutrition, will lead an iatrogenic malnutrition and deterioration. A balance nitrogen formula through urinary urea nitrogen is one of many nutrition evaluation methods. This method aids in evaluating the daily nutrition status and it can be the baseline data for daily intake. Objective: To find a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of the surgical patients in anesthesiology and intensive care installation, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali. Methods: Fifty-one surgical patients with trauma and non-trauma cases were observed for their protein intake for 2-3 days continuously. Moreover, they were evaluated for their nitrogen balance based on the urinary urea nitrogen per 24 hours for 2-3 days. For statistical analysis, we utilized Shapiro-Francia, Shapiro-Wilk, Spearman Frank correlation, two-sample t test, and multivariate regression analysis in Strata SE 12.1. Results: The correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance on the first day was ra=0.50 (p<0.05, on the second day ra=0.70 (p<0,05, and on the third day ra=0.740 (p<0,05. Conclusions: There is a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of surgical patients in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Installation Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar.
Lee, Seul; Oh, HyunSoo; Suh, YeonOk; Seo, WhaSook
To develop and examine a relocation stress intervention programme tailored for the family caregivers of patients scheduled for transfer from a surgical intensive care unit to a general ward. Family relocation stress syndrome has been reported to be similar to that exhibited by patients, and investigators have emphasised that nurses should make special efforts to relieve family relocation stress to maximise positive contributions to the well-being of patients by family caregivers. A nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronised pretest-post-test design was adopted. The study subjects were 60 family caregivers of patients with neurosurgical or general surgical conditions in the surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Relocation stress and family burden were evaluated at three times, that is before intervention, immediately after transfer and four to five days after transfer. This relocation stress intervention programme was developed for the family caregivers based on disease characteristics and relocation-related needs. In the experimental group, relocation stress levels significantly and continuously decreased after intervention, whereas in the control group, a slight nonsignificant trend was observed. Family burden levels in the control group increased significantly after transfer, whereas burden levels in the experimental group increased only marginally and nonsignificantly. No significant between-group differences in relocation stress or family burden levels were observed after intervention. Relocation stress levels of family caregivers were significantly decreased after intervention in the experimental group, which indicates that the devised family relocation stress intervention programme effectively alleviated family relocation stress. The devised intervention programme, which was tailored to disease characteristics and relocation-related needs, may enhance the practicality and efficacy of relocation stress
Lopes, Ana Martins; Silva, Diana; Sousa, Gabriela; Silva, Joana; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando José
Haematocrit has been studied as an outcome predictor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between low haematocrit at surgical intensive care unit admission and high disease scoring system score and early outcomes. This retrospective study included 4398 patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between January 2006 and July 2013. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation and simplified acute physiology score II values were calculated and all variables entered as parameters were evaluated independently. Patients were classified as haematocrit if they had a haematocrit < 30% at surgical intensive care unit admission. The correlation between admission haematocrit and outcome was evaluated by univariate analysis and linear regression. A total of 1126 (25.6%) patients had haematocrit. These patients had higher rates of major cardiac events (4% vs 1.9%, p < 0.001), acute renal failure (11.5% vs 4.7%, p < 0.001), and mortality during surgical intensive care unit stay (3% vs 0.8%, p < 0.001) and hospital stay (12% vs 5.9%, p < 0.001). A haematocrit level < 30% at surgical intensive care unit admission was frequent and appears to be a predictor for poorer outcome in critical surgical patients. Patients with haematocrit had longer surgical intensive care unit and hospital stay lengths, more postoperative complications, and higher surgical intensive care unit and hospital mortality rates.
Objectives:The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has improved patient outcome in complex surgeries while the costs of maintaining services are high. ICU services in developing countries are often inadequate due to lack of funds. This study reviews the pattern and outcomes of General Surgical patients admitted to the ICU of our ...
Full Text Available Survival in rectal cancer has been related mainly to clinical and pathological staging. Recurrence is by far the most challenging issue when surgical treatment of rectal cancer is concerned. This study aims to establish a recurrence pattern for rectal adenocarcinoma submitted to surgical treatment between March 2003 and July 2016. After exclusion criteria were applied, one hundred twenty two patients were analyzed. Global recurrence was found in 22% of them, while 13.1% have had local recurrence. Disease-free survival was 23.9 months, in average, and medium follow-up was 34.13 months, varying from 6 to 115 months. Recurrence, in literature, is usually between 3 and 35% in 5 years, and shows a 5-years survival rate of only 5%. Around 50% of cases, recurrence is local, confined to pelvis. This data followed literature in most aspects evaluated, although finding a high rate of local recurrence remains a challenge in the seek for better surgical outcomes. Resumo: A sobrevida de pacientes com câncer retal tem sido relacionada, sobretudo, aos estadiamentos clínico e patológico. De longe a recorrência é o problema mais desafiador, no que concerne ao tratamento cirúrgico do câncer retal. Esse estudo pretende estabelecer um padrão de recorrência para pacientes com adenocarcinoma retal submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico entre março de 2003 e julho de 2016. Após a aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, foram analisados 122 pacientes. Recorrência global foi constatada em 22% dos pacientes, enquanto que 13,1% tiveram recorrência localizada. A média para sobrevida livre de doença foi de 23,9 meses, e o acompanhamento médio foi de 34,13 meses, com variação entre 6-115 meses. Na literatura, em geral a recorrência se situa entre 3-35% após 5 anos, com um percentual de sobrevida após 5 anos de apenas 5%. Em cerca de 50% dos casos a recorrência é localizada, ficando confinada à pelve. Os presentes dados acompanharam os achados da
Livingston, David H; Tripp, Tovah; Biggs, Carina; Lavery, Robert F
Trauma centers successfully save lives of severely injured patients who would have formerly died. However, survivors often have multiple complications and morbidities associated with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stays. Because the reintegration of patients into the society to lead an active and a productive life is the ultimate goal of trauma center care, we questioned whether our "success" may condemn these patients to a fate worse than death? Charts on all patients > or =18 years with ICU stay > or =10 days, discharged alive between June 1, 2002, and May 31, 2005, were reviewed. Patients with complete spinal cord injuries were excluded. Demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), presence of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI; Head Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score = 4 or 5), presence of extremity fractures, need for operative procedures, ventilator days, complications, and discharge disposition were collected. Glasgow Outcome Scale score was calculated on discharge. Patients were contacted by phone to determine general health, work status, and using this data, Glasgow Outcome Scale score and a modified Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score were calculated. Two hundred and forty-one patients met inclusion criteria. Thirty-three patients died postdischarge from the hospital and 39 were known to be alive from the electronic medical records but were unable to be contacted. Sixty-nine patients could not be tracked down and were ultimately considered as lost to follow-up. The remaining 100 patients who were successfully contacted participated in the study. Eighty-one percent were men with a mean age of 42 years, mean and median ISS of 28. Severe TBI was present in 50 (50%) patients. Mean and median follow-up was 3.3 years from discharge. At the time of follow-up, 92 (92%) patients were living at home, 5 in nursing homes, and 3 in assisted living, a shelter, or halfway house. FIM scores ranged from 6 to 12 with 55% reached a maximal FIM score of 12. One
Walker, Sarah; Datta, Ankur; Massoumi, Roxanne L; Gross, Erica R; Uhing, Michael; Arca, Marjorie J
There is significant diversity in the utilization of antibiotics for neonates undergoing surgical procedures. Our institution standardized antibiotic administration for surgical neonates, in which no empiric antibiotics were given to infants with surgical conditions postnatally, and antibiotics are given no more than 72 hours perioperatively. We compared the time periods before and after implementation of antibiotic protocol in an institution review board-approved, retrospective review of neonates with congenital surgical conditions who underwent surgical correction within 30 days after birth. Surgical site infection at 30 days was the primary outcome, and development of hospital-acquired infections or multidrug-resistant organism were secondary outcomes. One hundred forty-eight infants underwent surgical procedures pre-protocol, and 127 underwent procedures post-protocol implementation. Surgical site infection rates were similar pre- and post-protocol, 14% and 9% respectively, (P = .21.) The incidence of hospital-acquired infections (13.7% vs 8.7%, P = .205) and multidrug-resistant organism (4.7% vs 1.6%, P = .143) was similar between the 2 periods. Elimination of empiric postnatal antibiotics did not statistically change rates of surgical site infection, hospital-acquired infections, or multidrug-resistant organisms. Limiting the duration of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis to no more than 72 hours after surgery did not increase the rate of surgical site infection, hospital-acquired infections, or multidrug-resistant organism. Median antibiotic days were decreased with antibiotic standardization for surgical neonates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Besselink, MG; de Bruijn, MT; Rutten, JP; Boermeester, MA; Hofker, HS; Gooszen, HG
Background: This study evaluated the various surgical strategies for treatment of (suspected) infected necrotizing pancreatitis (INP) and patient referrals for this condition in the Netherlands. Methods: This retrospective study included all 106 consecutive patients who had surgical treatment for
Kaier, Klaus; von Kampen, Frederike; Baumbach, Hardy; von Zur Mühlen, Constantin; Hehn, Philip; Vach, Werner; Zehender, Manfred; Bode, Christoph; Reinöhl, Jochen
This study presents data on post-discharge costs of care among patients treated with transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement over a two year period. Based on a prospective clinical trial, post-discharge utilization of health services and status of assistance were collected for 151 elderly patients via 2250 monthly telephone interviews, valued using standardized unit costs and analysed using two-part regression models. At month 1 post-discharge, total costs of care are substantially elevated (monthly mean: €3506.7) and then remain relatively stable over the following 23 months (monthly mean: €622.3). As expected, the majority of these costs are related to in-hospital care (~98% in month 1 post-discharge and ~72% in months 2-24). Patients that died during follow-up were associated with substantially higher cost estimates of in-hospital care than those surviving the two-year study period, while patients' age and other patient characteristics were of minor relevance. Estimated costs of outpatient care are lower at month 1 than during the rest of the study period, and not affected by the event of death during follow-up. The estimated costs of nursing care are, in contrast, much higher in year 2 than in year 1 and differ substantially by gender and type of procedure as well as by patients' age. Overall, these monthly cost estimates add up to €10,352 for the first and €7467.6 for the second year post-discharge. Substantial cost increases at month 1 post-discharge and in case of death during follow-up are the main findings of the study, which should be taken into account in future economic evaluations on the topic. Application of standardized unit costs in combination with monthly patient interviews allows for a far more precise estimate of the variability in post-discharge health service utilization in this group of patients than the ones given in previous studies. German Clinical Trial Register Nr. DRKS00000797 .
Background. Acute appendicitis in rural South Africa is associated with significant morbidity due to prolonged delays before definitive surgical care. Objective. This audit aimed to quantify the delay in our healthcare system. Methods. From September 2010 to September 2012, all patients with confirmed acute appendicitis ...
Understanding the reasons for delay to definitive surgical care of patients with acute appendicitis in rural South Africa. V Y Kong,1 MB ChB; C Aldous,2 PhD; D L Clarke,1 FCS ... Acute appendicitis in rural South Africa is associated with significant morbidity due to prolonged delays before definitive .... telemedicine support.
Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong
To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care Study
Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others
To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care
Smink, A.J.; Ende, C.H.; Vliet-Vlieland, Th.P.M.; Swierstra, B.A.; Kortland, J.H.; Bijlsma, J.W.; Voorn, T.B.; Schers, H.J.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.; Dekker, J.
Inadequacies in health care practices have been reported despite existing guidelines to manage hip or knee osteoarthritis. To facilitate guideline implementation and improve utilization of non-surgical treatment options a care strategy should be developed. This study describes the development of an
Smink, A.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Swierstra, B.A.; Kortland, J.H.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Voorn, T.B.; Schers, H.J.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.; Dekker, J.
Inadequacies in health care practices have been reported despite existing guidelines to manage hip or knee osteoarthritis. To facilitate guideline implementation and improve utilization of non-surgical treatment options a care strategy should be developed. This study describes the development of an
Ziegelmann, Matt; Köhler, Tobias S; Bailey, George C; Miest, Tanner; Alom, Manaf; Trost, Landon
The objectives of patient selection and counseling are ultimately to enhance successful outcomes. However, the definition for success is often narrowly defined in published literature (ability to complete surgery, complications, satisfaction) and fails to account for patient desires and expectations, temporal changes, natural history of underlying diseases, or independent validation. Factors associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction are often surgery-specific, although correlation with pre-operative expectations, revisions, and complications are common with most procedures. The process of appropriate patient selection is determined by the integration of patient and surgeon factors, including psychological capacity to handle unsatisfactory results, baseline expectations, complexity of case, and surgeon volume and experience. Using this model, a high-risk scenario includes one in which a low-volume surgeon performs a complex case in a patient with limited psychological capacity and high expectations. In contrast, a high-volume surgeon performing a routine case in a male with low expectations and abundant psychiatric reserve is more likely to achieve a successful outcome. To further help identify patients who are at high risk for dissatisfaction, a previously published mnemonic is recommended: CURSED Patient (compulsive/obsessive, unrealistic, revision, surgeon shopping, entitled, denial, and psychiatric). Appropriate patient counseling includes setting appropriate expectations, reviewing the potential and anticipated risks of surgery, post-operative instruction to limit complications, and long-term follow-up. As thorough counseling is often a time-consuming endeavor, busy practices may elect to utilize various resources including educational materials, advanced practice providers, or group visits, among others. The consequences for poor patient selection and counseling may range from poor surgical outcomes and patient dissatisfaction to lawsuits, loss of
Jarosz, Konrad; Kubisa, Bartosz; Andrzejewska, Agata; Mr?wczy?ska, Katarzyna; Hamerlak, Zbigniew; Bartkowska-?niatkowska, Alicja
Konrad Jarosz,1 Bartosz Kubisa,2 Agata Andrzejewska,3 Katarzyna MrówczyÅska,3 Zbigniew Hamerlak,4 Alicja Bartkowska-Åniatkowska5 1Department of Clinical Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, 2Thoracic Surgery and Transplantation Department, Pomeranian Medical University, 3Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Department, Pomeranian Medical University, 4Stomatology Department, Pomeranian Medical University, 5Anaesthesiology and Pediatric Intensive Care Department, Poznan Universit...
Dimovska, E O F; Sharma, S; Trebble, T M
Knowing what patients think about their care is fundamental to the provision of an effective, quality service, and it can help to direct change and reduce costs. Much of the work in oral and maxillofacial departments concerns the treatment of outpatients, but as little is known about what they think about their care, we aimed to find out which aspects were associated with satisfaction. Consecutive patients (n=244) who attended the oral and maxillofacial outpatient department at Southampton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust over a 7-day period were given a questionnaire to complete before and after their consultation. It included questions with Likert scale responses on environmental, procedural, and interactive aspects of the visit, and a 16-point scale to rank their priorities. A total of 187 patients (77%) completed the questionnaires. No association was found between expected (p=0.93) or actual (p=0.41) waiting times, and 90% of patients were satisfied with their visit. Seeing the doctor, having confidence in the treatment plan, being listened to, and the ability of the doctor to recognise their personal needs, were ranked as important. Environmental and procedural aspects were considered the least important. These findings may be of value in the development of services to improve patient-centred care. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chu, Kathryn M; Ford, Nathan P; Trelles, Miguel
Somalia is one of the most political unstable countries in the world. Ongoing insecurity has forced an inconsistent medical response by the international community, with little data collection. This paper describes the "remote" model of surgical care by Medecins Sans Frontieres, in Guri-El, Somalia. The challenges of providing the necessary prerequisites for safe surgery are discussed as well as the successes and limitations of task shifting in this resource-limited context. In January 2006, MSF opened a project in Guri-El located between Mogadishu and Galcayo. The objectives were to reduce mortality due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth and from violent and non-violent trauma. At the start of the program, expatriate surgeons and anesthesiologists established safe surgical practices and performed surgical procedures. After January 2008, expatriates were evacuated due to insecurity and surgical care has been provided by local Somalian doctors and nurses with periodic supervisory visits from expatriate staff. Between October 2006 and December 2009, 2086 operations were performed on 1602 patients. The majority (1049, 65%) were male and the median age was 22 (interquartile range, 17-30). 1460 (70%) of interventions were emergent. Trauma accounted for 76% (1585) of all surgical pathology; gunshot wounds accounted for 89% (584) of violent injuries. Operative mortality (0.5% of all surgical interventions) was not higher when Somalian staff provided care compared to when expatriate surgeons and anesthesiologists. The delivery of surgical care in any conflict-settings is difficult, but in situations where international support is limited, the challenges are more extreme. In this model, task shifting, or the provision of services by less trained cadres, was utilized and peri-operative mortality remained low demonstrating that safe surgical practices can be accomplished even without the presence of fully trained surgeon and anesthesiologists. If security improves
Inserra, Alessandro; Narciso, Alessandra; Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Messina, Raffaella; Crocoli, Alessandro
Survival rate for childhood cancer has increased in recent years, reaching as high as 70% in developed countries compared with 54% for all cancers diagnosed in the 1980s. In the remaining 30%, progression or metastatic disease leads to death and in this framework palliative care has an outstanding role though not well settled in all its facets. In this landscape, surgery has a supportive actor role integrated with other welfare aspects from which are not severable. The definition of surgical palliation has moved from the ancient definition of noncurative surgery to a group of practices performed not to cure but to alleviate an organ dysfunction offering the best quality of life possible in all the aspects of life (pain, dysfunctions, caregivers, psychosocial, etc.). To emphasize this aspect a more modern definition has been introduced: palliative therapy in whose context is comprised not only the care assistance but also the plans of care since the onset of illness, teaching the matter to surgeons in training and share paths. Literature is very poor regarding surgical aspects specifically dedicated and all researches (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane) with various meshing terms result in a more oncologic and psychosocial effort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cole, Sheela Pai
The patient with thoracic aortic disease can present for open or endovascular repair. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has emerged as a minimally invasive option for a multitude of aortic pathology, including dissections, aneurysms, traumatic injuries, and ulcers. Postoperative management of these patients depends on the extent of procedure, whether it was open or endovascular, and, finally, on the preoperative comorbidities present. While procedural success has catapulted TEVAR to popularity, midterm results have been mixed. Additionally, periprocedural complications such as paraplegia and renal failure remain a significant morbidity in these patients. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rappaport, David I; Rosenberg, Rebecca E; Shaughnessy, Erin E; Schaffzin, Joshua K; O'Connor, Katherine M; Melwani, Anjna; McLeod, Lisa M
Comanagement of surgical patients is occurring more commonly among adult and pediatric patients. These systems of care can vary according to institution type, comanagement structure, and type of patient. Comanagement can impact quality, safety, and costs of care. We review these implications for pediatric surgical patients. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Full Text Available Background & Aims: Patient safety is one of the indicators of risk management in clinical governance system. Surgical care is one of the most sophisticated medical care in the hospitals. So it is not surprising that nearly half of the adverse events, 66% were related to surgery. Pre-flight aircraft Inspection model is starting point for designing surgical safety checklist that use for audit procedure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the use of surgical safety checklist on surgical patients mortality and complications. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study. This study was conducted in 2012 in the North West of Iran. The population consisted of patients who had undergoing surgery in α university of medical science`s hospital which have surgical department. In this study, 1125 patients underwent surgery within 3 months were studied. Data collection tool was designed based on WHO model and Surgcical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program(SCOAP. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS-20 statistical software and logistic regression analysis was used to calculate P values for each comparison. Results: No significant differences between patients in the two periods (before and after There was. All complications rate reduced from 11 percent to 4 percent after the intervention by checklist (p<0.001. In the all hospitals mortality rate was decreased from 3.44% to 1.3% (p <0.003. Overall rate of surgical site infection and unplanned return to the operating room was reduced (p<0.001 and p<0.046. Conclusion: Many people every year due to lack of safety in hospitals, lose their lives. Despite the risks, such as leaving surgery sets in patient body and wrong surgery is due to lack of proper safety programs during surgery. By using safety checklist in all hospitals mortality rate and complications was reduced but this reduction was extremely in α3 hospital (from 5.2% to 1.48%.
Surgical site infection among patients undergone orthopaedic surgery at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... of surgical site infection at Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute was high. This was associated with more than 2 hours length of surgery, lack of prophylaxis use, and pre-operative hospital stay.
Różańska, Anna; Jarynowski, Andrzej; Kopeć-Godlewska, Katarzyna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Misiewska-Kaczur, Agnieszka; Lech, Marzena; Rozwadowska, Małgorzata; Karwacka, Marlena; Liberda, Joanna; Domańska, Joanna
Caesarean sections (CSs) are associated with a high infection risk. Surgical site infection (SSI) incidence is among the markers of effectiveness of infection prevention efforts. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for SSI, incidence, and microbiology in patients who underwent CS. The study was conducted during 2013-2015 using active infection surveillance in 5 Polish hospitals according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control surveillance network known as HAI-Net. For each procedure, the following data were registered: age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, procedure time, elective or emergency procedure, use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, microbiology, the treatment used, and other information. SSI incidence was 0.5% and significant differences were noted among hospitals (between 0.1% and 1.8%), for different American Society of Anesthesiologists scales (between 0.2% and 4.8%) and different values of standardized SSI risk index (between 0.0% and 0.8%). In 3.1% of procedures, with no antibiotic prophylaxis, SSI risk was significantly higher. Deep infections dominated: 61.5% with superficial infections in only approximately 30% of cases and 2.6% of infections were detected postdischarge without readmissions. Results showed high incidence of SSI in Poland without perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, and secondly, ineffective surveillance according to CS status, considering outpatient obstetric care. Without postdischarge surveillance, it is not possible to recognize the epidemiologic situation, and further, to set priorities and needs when it comes to infection prophylaxis, especially because such low incidence may indicate no need for improvement in infection control. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schultz, Marcus J.; Abreu, Marcelo Gama de; Pelosi, Paolo
Purpose of review To summarize clinical evidence for intraoperative ventilation settings, which could protect against postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in surgical patients with uninjured lungs. Recent findings There is convincing evidence for protection against PPCs by low tidal volumes:
Abelha, Fernando J; Castro, Maria A; Neves, Aida M; Landeiro, Nuno M; Santos, Cristina C
Inadvertent hypothermia is not uncommon in the immediate postoperative period and it is associated with impairment and abnormalities in various organs and systems that can lead to adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, the predictive factors and outcome of core hypothermia on admission to a surgical ICU. All consecutive 185 adult patients who underwent scheduled or emergency noncardiac surgery admitted to a surgical ICU between April and July 2004 were admitted to the study. Tympanic membrane core temperature (Tc) was measured before surgery, on arrival at ICU and every two hours until 6 hours after admission. The following variables were also recorded: age, sex, body weight and height, ASA physical status, type of surgery, magnitude of surgical procedure, anesthesia technique, amount of intravenous fluids administered during anesthesia, use of temperature monitoring and warming techniques, duration of the anesthesia, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay and SAPS II score. Patients were classified as either hypothermic (Tc 35 degrees C). Univariate analysis and multiple regression binary logistic with an odds ratio (OR) and its 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) were used to compare the two groups of patients and assess the relationship between each clinical predictor and hypothermia. Outcome measured as ICU length of stay and mortality was also assessed. Prevalence of hypothermia on ICU admission was 57.8%. In univariate analysis temperature monitoring, use of warming techniques and higher previous body temperature were significant protective factors against core hypothermia. In this analysis independent predictors of hypothermia on admission to ICU were: magnitude of surgery, use of general anesthesia or combined epidural and general anesthesia, total intravenous crystalloids administrated and total packed erythrocytes administrated, anesthesia longer than 3 hours and SAPS II scores. In multiple logistic regression analysis
Landeiro Nuno M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadvertent hypothermia is not uncommon in the immediate postoperative period and it is associated with impairment and abnormalities in various organs and systems that can lead to adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, the predictive factors and outcome of core hypothermia on admission to a surgical ICU. Methods All consecutive 185 adult patients who underwent scheduled or emergency noncardiac surgery admitted to a surgical ICU between April and July 2004 were admitted to the study. Tympanic membrane core temperature (Tc was measured before surgery, on arrival at ICU and every two hours until 6 hours after admission. The following variables were also recorded: age, sex, body weight and height, ASA physical status, type of surgery, magnitude of surgical procedure, anesthesia technique, amount of intravenous fluids administered during anesthesia, use of temperature monitoring and warming techniques, duration of the anesthesia, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay and SAPS II score. Patients were classified as either hypothermic (Tc ≤ 35°C or normothermic (Tc> 35°C. Univariate analysis and multiple regression binary logistic with an odds ratio (OR and its 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI were used to compare the two groups of patients and assess the relationship between each clinical predictor and hypothermia. Outcome measured as ICU length of stay and mortality was also assessed. Results Prevalence of hypothermia on ICU admission was 57.8%. In univariate analysis temperature monitoring, use of warming techniques and higher previous body temperature were significant protective factors against core hypothermia. In this analysis independent predictors of hypothermia on admission to ICU were: magnitude of surgery, use of general anesthesia or combined epidural and general anesthesia, total intravenous crystalloids administrated and total packed erythrocytes administrated, anesthesia longer
Drs. Marvella E. Ford and Nestor F. Esnaola were awarded a five-year NIH/NIMHD R01 grant to evaluate a patient navigation intervention to reduce barriers to surgical cancer care and improving surgical resection rates in African Americans with lung cancer.
Tevis, Sarah E; Kennedy, Gregory D
Patient satisfaction is an increasing area of interest due to implications of pay for performance and public reporting of results. Although scores are adjusted for patient factors, little is known about the relationship between hospital structure, postoperative outcomes, and patient satisfaction with the hospital experience. Hospitals participating in the University HealthSystem Consortium database from 2011-2012 were included. Patients were restricted to those discharged by general surgeons to isolate surgical patients. Hospital data were paired with Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) results from the Hospital Compare website. Postoperative outcomes were dichotomized based on the median for all hospitals and stratified based on surgical volume. The primary outcome of interest was high on overall patient satisfaction, whereas other HCAHPS domains were assessed as secondary outcomes. Chi square and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate whether postoperative outcomes or surgical volume more significantly influenced high patient satisfaction. The study population consisted of 171 hospitals from the University HealthSystem Consortium database. High surgical volume was a more important predictor of overall patient satisfaction regardless of hospital complication (P patient satisfaction on the HCAHPS survey than postoperative outcomes, whereas volume was less predictive in other HCAHPS domains. Patients may require more specific questioning to identify high quality, safe hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bibi F. Gurreebun
Full Text Available Moderate induced hypothermia has become standard of care for children with peripartum hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. However, children with congenital abnormalities and conditions requiring surgical intervention have been excluded from randomised controlled trials investigating this, in view of concerns regarding the potential side effects of cooling that can affect surgery. We report two cases of children, born with congenital conditions requiring surgery, who were successfully cooled and stabilised medically before undergoing surgery. Our first patient was diagnosed after birth with duodenal atresia after prolonged resuscitation, while the second had an antenatal diagnosis of left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia and suffered an episode of hypoxia at birth. They both met the criteria for cooling and after weighing the pros and cons, this was initiated. Both patients were medically stabilised and successfully underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Potential complications were investigated for and treated as required before they both underwent surgery successfully. We review the potential side effects of cooling, especially regarding coagulation defects. We conclude that newborns with conditions requiring surgery need not be excluded from therapeutic hypothermia if they might benefit from it.
Gender-Based Differences in Surgical Residents' Perceptions of Patient Safety, Continuity of Care, and Well-Being: An Analysis from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial.
Ban, Kristen A; Chung, Jeanette W; Matulewicz, Richard S; Kelz, Rachel R; Shea, Judy A; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Yang, Anthony D; Bilimoria, Karl Y
Little is known about gender differences in residency training experiences and whether duty hour policies affect these differences. Using data from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial, we examined gender differences in surgical resident perceptions of patient safety, education, health and well-being, and job satisfaction, and assessed whether duty hour policies affected gender differences. We compared proportions of male and female residents expressing dissatisfaction or perceiving a negative effect of duty hours on aspects of residency training (ie patient safety, resident education, well-being, job satisfaction) overall and by PGY. Logistic regression models with robust clustered SEs were used to test for significant gender differences and interaction effects of duty hour policies on gender differences. Female PGY2 to 3 residents were more likely than males to be dissatisfied with patient safety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.29-4.84) and to perceive a negative effect of duty hours on most health and well-being outcomes (OR = 1.51-2.10; all p duty hours reduced gender differences in career dissatisfaction among interns (p = 0.028), but widened gender differences in negative perceptions of duty hours on patient safety (p duty hour policies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dizon, Matthew P; Linos, Eleni; Arron, Sarah T; Hills, Nancy K; Chren, Mary-Margaret
The Institute of Medicine has identified serious deficiencies in the measurement of cancer care quality, including the effects on quality of life and patient experience. Moreover, comparisons of quality in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VA) and other sites are timely now that many Veterans can choose where to seek care. To compare quality of ambulatory surgical care for keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) between a VA and fee-for-service (FFS) practice, we used unique clinical and patient-reported data from a comparative effectiveness study. Patients were enrolled in 1999-2000 and followed for a median of 7.2 years. The practices differed in a few process measures (e.g., median time between biopsy and treatment was 7.5 days longer at VA) but there were no substantial or consistent differences in clinical outcomes or a broad range of patient-reported outcomes. For example, 5-year tumor recurrence rates were equally low (3.6% [2.3-5.5] at VA and 3.4% [2.3-5.1] at FFS), and similar proportions of patients reported overall satisfaction at one year (78% at VA and 80% at FFS, P = 0.69). These results suggest that the quality of care for KC can be compared comprehensively in different health care systems, and suggest that quality of care for KC was similar at a VA and FFS setting.
Rosenberger, Laura H; Politano, Amani D; Sawyer, Robert G
In response to inconsistent compliance with infection prevention measures, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services collaborated with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the Surgical Infection Prevention (SIP) project, introduced in 2002. Quality improvement measures were developed to standardize processes to increase compliance. In 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) developed out of the SIP project and its process measures. These initiatives, published in the Specifications Manual for National Inpatient Quality Measures, outline process and outcome measures. This continually evolving manual is intended to provide standard quality measures to unify documentation and track standards of care. Seven of the SCIP initiatives apply to the peri-operative period: Prophylactic antibiotics should be received within 1 h prior to surgical incision (1), be selected for activity against the most probable antimicrobial contaminants (2), and be discontinued within 24 h after the surgery end-time (3); (4) euglycemia should be maintained, with well-controlled morning blood glucose concentrations on the first two post-operative days, especially in cardiac surgery patients; (6) hair at the surgical site should be removed with clippers or by depilatory methods, not with a blade; (9) urinary catheters are to be removed within the first two post-operative days; and (10) normothermia should be maintained peri-operatively. There is strong evidence that implementation of protocols that standardize practices reduce the risk of surgical infection. The SCIP initiative targets complications that account for a significant portion of preventable morbidity as well as cost. One of the goals of the SCIP guidelines was a 25% reduction in the incidence of surgical site infections from implementation through 2010. Process measures are becoming routine, and as we practice more evidence-based medicine, it falls to us, the surgeons and scientists, to be active
Kuo, Calvin C; Robb, William J
The prevention of medical and surgical harm remains an important public health problem despite increased awareness and implementation of safety programs. Successful introduction and maintenance of surgical safety programs require both surgeon leadership and collaborative surgeon-hospital alignment. Documentation of success of such surgical safety programs in orthopaedic practice is limited. We describe the scope of orthopaedic surgical patient safety issues, define critical elements of orthopaedic surgical safety, and outline leadership roles for orthopaedic surgeons needed to establish and sustain a culture of safety in contemporary healthcare systems. We identified the most common causes of preventable surgical harm based on adverse and sentinel surgical events reported to The Joint Commission. A comprehensive literature review through a MEDLINE(®) database search (January 1982 through April 2012) to identify pertinent orthopaedic surgical safety articles found 14 articles. Where gaps in orthopaedic literature were identified, the review was supplemented by 22 nonorthopaedic surgical references. Our final review included 36 articles. Six important surgical safety program elements needed to eliminate preventable surgical harm were identified: (1) effective surgical team communication, (2) proper informed consent, (3) implementation and regular use of surgical checklists, (4) proper surgical site/procedure identification, (5) reduction of surgical team distractions, and (6) routine surgical data collection and analysis to improve the safety and quality of surgical patient care. Successful surgical safety programs require a culture of safety supported by all six key surgical safety program elements, active surgeon champions, and collaborative hospital and/or administrative support designed to enhance surgical safety and improve surgical patient outcomes. Further research measuring improvements from such surgical safety systems in orthopaedic care is needed.
Idenburg, Floris J; van Dongen, Thijs T C F; Tan, Edward C T H; Hamming, Jaap H; Leenen, Luke P H; Hoencamp, Rigo
From August 2006-August 2010, as part of the ISAF mission, the Armed Forces of the Netherlands deployed a role 2 enhanced Medical Treatment Facility (R2E-MTF) to Uruzgan province, Afghanistan. Although from the principle doctrine not considered a primary task, care was delivered to civilians, including many children. Humanitarian aid accounted for a substantial part of the workload, necessitating medical, infrastructural, and logistical adaptations. Particularly pediatric care demanded specific expertise and equipment. In our pre-deployment preparations this aspect had been undervalued. Because these experiences could be influential in future mission planning, we analyzed our data and compared them with international reports. This is a retrospective, descriptive study. Using the hospital's electronic database, all pediatric cases, defined as patients Afghanistan were analyzed. Of the 2736 admissions, 415 (15.2 %) were pediatric. The majority (80.9 %, 336/415) of these admissions were for surgical, often trauma-related, pathology and required 610 surgical procedures, being 26 % of all procedures. Mean length of stay was 3.1 days. The male to female ratio was 70:30. Girls were significantly younger of age than boys. In-hospital mortality was 5.3 %. Pediatric patients made up a considerable part of the workload at the Dutch R2E-MTF in Uruzgan, Afghanistan. This is in line with other reports from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, but used definitions in reported series are inconsistent, making comparisons difficult. Our findings stress the need for a comprehensive, prospective, and coalition-wide patient registry with uniformly applied criteria. Civilian disaster and military operational planners should incorporate reported patient statistics in manning documents, future courses, training manuals, logistic planning, and doctrines, because pediatric care is a reality that cannot be ignored.
Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A
To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.
Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Fennema, Hein; Schulman, Sam; Klimscha, Walter; Przemeck, Michael; Blobner, Manfred; Wulf, Hinnerk; Speek, Marcel; McCrary Sisk, Christine; Williams-Herman, Debora; Woo, Tiffany; Szegedi, Armin
Previous studies show a prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in healthy volunteers after treatment with sugammadex. The authors investigated the effect of sugammadex on postsurgical bleeding and coagulation variables. This randomized, double-blind trial enrolled patients receiving thromboprophylaxis and undergoing hip or knee joint replacement or hip fracture surgery. Patients received sugammadex 4 mg/kg or usual care (neostigmine or spontaneous recovery) for reversal of rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method, stratified by thromboprophylaxis and renal status, was used to estimate relative risk and 95% confidence interval (CI) of bleeding events with sugammadex versus usual care. Safety was further evaluated by prespecified endpoints and adverse event reporting. Of 1,198 patients randomized, 1,184 were treated (sugammadex n = 596, usual care n = 588). Bleeding events within 24 h (classified by an independent, blinded Adjudication Committee) were reported in 17 (2.9%) sugammadex and 24 (4.1%) usual care patients (relative risk [95% CI], 0.70 [0.38 to 1.29]). Compared with usual care, increases of 5.5% in activated partial thromboplastin time (P sugammadex occurred 10 min after administration and resolved within 60 min. There were no significant differences between sugammadex and usual care for other blood loss measures (transfusion, 24-h drain volume, drop in hemoglobin, and anemia), or risk of venous thromboembolism, and no cases of anaphylaxis. Sugammadex produced limited, transient (<1 h) increases in activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time but was not associated with increased risk of bleeding versus usual care.
Wang, Miao; Bünger, Cody E; Li, Haisheng
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Choosing the best surgical treatment for patients with spinal metastases remains a significant challenge for spine surgeons. There is currently no gold standard for surgical treatments. The Aarhus Spinal Metastases Algorithm (ASMA) was established to help surgeons choose...... the most appropriate surgical intervention for patients with spinal metastases. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of stratified surgical interventions based on the ASMA, which combines life expectancy and the anatomical classification of patients with spinal metastases...... survival times in the five surgical groups determined by the ASMA were 2.1 (TS 0-4, TC 1-7), 5.1 (TS 5-8, TC 1-7), 12.1 (TS 9-11, TC 1-7 or TS 12-15, TC 7), 26.0 (TS 12-15, TC 4-6), and 36.0 (TS 12-15, TC 1-3) months. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.5%. Postoperative neurological function was maintained...
essential surgical staff, inadequate funding, poor state of ... individuals interested in surgical care in the developing world has been ... 5.69 per 100,000 in the United States . ... categorical variables e.g gender, the percentage of the ... lack of materials and supplies to be used, inability to pay ... Confirming a big gap in.
Ertugrul, Bulent M; Yildirim, Ayse; Ay, Pinar; Oncu, Serkan; Cagatay, Atahan; Cakar, Nahit; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Ozsut, Halit; Eraksoy, Haluk; Calangu, Semra
To investigate the incidence, risk factors and the etiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in surgical emergency intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We conducted this prospective cohort study in the surgical emergency ICU of Istanbul Medical Faculty between December 1999 and May 2001. We included 100 mechanically ventilated patients in this study. We diagnosed VAP according to the current diagnostic criteria. We identified the etiology of VAP cases by both quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspiration and blood cultures. To analyze the predisposing factors for the development of VAP, we recorded the following variables: age, gender, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, serum albumin level, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) prior to the development of VAP, and underlying diseases. We determined the VAP incidence rate as 28%. We found the APACHE II score and the duration of MV to be statistically significant variables for the development of VAP. There were no significant differences regarding age, gender, GCS, SOFA score, albumin level, or underlying diseases for the development of VAP. The isolated bacteria among VAP cases were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (n=12, 43%), Acinetobacter spp. (n=6, 21%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (n=4, 15%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=3, 10.7%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=3, 10.7%). Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a common infection, and certain interventions might affect the incidence of VAP. The ICU clinicians should be aware of the risk factors for VAP, which could prove useful in identifying patients at high risk for VAP, and modifying patient care to minimize the risk of VAP.
Patients with orofacial defects, inborn or acquired, isolated or in combination with other handicaps in syndroms, suffer from various problems including psychological problems. Morphological changes within these handicaps burden not only the patients themselves, but also their families. Among the main problems are difficulties with feeding, speech or breathing. Anomalies in number or position of deciduous and permanent teeth, development of jaws and dental arches are often present. Multidisci...
Ng, K J; Yii, M K
Comparative surgical audit to monitor quality of care should be performed with a risk-adjusted scoring system rather than using crude morbidity and mortality rates. A validated and widely applied risk adjusted scoring system, P-POSSUM (Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality) methodology, was applied to a prospective series of predominantly general surgical patients at the Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching over a six months period. The patients were grouped into four risk groups. The observed mortality rates were not significantly different from predicted rates, showing that the quality of surgical care was at par with typical western series. The simplicity and advantages of this scoring system over other auditing tools are discussed. The P-POSSUM methodology could form the basis of local comparative surgical audit for assessment and maintenance of quality care.
Pugliese, Omar Talhouk; Solari, Juan Lombardi; Ferreres, Alberto R
The notion that consent to surgery must be informed implies not only that information should be provided by the surgeon but also that the information should be understood by the patient in order to give a foundation to his or her decision to accept or refuse treatment and thus, achieve autonomy for the patient. Nonetheless, this seems to be an idyllic situation, since most patients do not fully understand the facts offered and thus the process of surgical informed consent, as well as the patient's autonomy, may be jeopardized. Informed consent does not always mean rational consent.
Kajosaari, Lauri; Mäkitie, Antti; Salminen, Päivi; Klockars, Tuomas
Second branchial cleft anomalies predispose to recurrent infections, and surgical resection is recommended as the treatment of choice. There is no clear consensus regarding the timing or surgical technique in the operative treatment of these anomalies. Our aim was to compare the effect of age and operative techniques to patient characteristics and treatment outcome. A retrospective study of pediatric patients treated for second branchial sinuses or fistulae during 1998-2012 at two departments in our academic tertiary care referral center. Comparison of patient characteristics, preoperative investigations, surgical techniques and postoperative sequelae. Our data is based on 68 patients, the largest series in the literature. One-fourth (24%) of patients had any infectious symptoms prior to operative treatment. Patient demographics, preoperative investigations, use of methylene blue, or tonsillectomy had no effect on the surgical outcome. There were no re-operations due to residual disease. Three complications were observed postoperatively. Our patient series of second branchial cleft sinuses/fistulae is the largest so far and enables analyses of patient characteristics and surgical outcomes more reliably than previously. Preoperative symptoms are infrequent and mild. There was no difference in clinical outcome between the observed departments. Performing ipsilateral tonsillectomy gave no outcome benefits. The operation may be delayed to an age of approximately three years when anesthesiological risks are and possible harms are best avoided. Considering postoperative pain and risk of postoperative hemorrhage a routine tonsillectomy should not be included to the operative treatment of second branchial cleft fistulae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
DeKeyser Ganz, Freda; Berkovitz, Keren
To describe surgical nurses' perceived levels of ethical dilemmas, moral distress and perceived quality of care and the associations among them. Nurses are committed to providing quality care. They can experience ethical dilemmas and moral distress while providing patient care. Little research has focused on the effect of moral distress or ethical dilemmas on perceived quality of care. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. After administration and institutional Research Ethics Committee approval, a researcher requested 119 surgical nurses working in two Israeli hospitals to fill out three questionnaires (personal background characteristics; Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing and Quality of Nursing Care). Data collection took place from August 2007 to January 2008. Participant mean age was 39·7 years. The sample consisted mostly of women, Jewish and married staff nurses. The majority of nurses reported low to moderate levels of ethical dilemma frequency but intermediate levels of ethical dilemma intensity. Frequency of ethical dilemmas was negatively correlated with level of nursing skill, meeting patient's needs and total quality of care. No important correlations were found between intensity of ethical dilemmas and quality of care. Levels of ethical dilemma frequency were higher than intensity. Nurses tended to be satisfied with their level of quality of care. Increased frequency of ethical dilemmas was associated with some aspects of perceived quality of care. Quality of care is related to ethical dilemmas and moral distress among surgical nurses. Therefore, efforts should be made to decrease the frequency of these feelings to improve the quality of patient care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Zelić, Marko; Bender, Darija Vranesić; Kelecić, Dina Ljubas; Zupan, Zeljko; Cicvarić, Tedi; Maldini, Branka; Durut, Iva; Rahelić, Velimir; Skegro, Mate; Majerović, Mate; Perko, Zdravko; Sustić, Alan; Madzar, Tomislav; Kovacić, Borna; Kekez, Tihomir; Krznarić, Zeljko
Nutritional status of patients significantly affects the outcome of surgical treatment, whether it's about being obese or malnutrition with loss of muscle mass. Inadequate nutritional support in the perioperative period compromises surgical procedures even in patients who are adequately nourished. In this paper, particular attention was paid to malnourished patients, and their incidence in population hospitalized in surgical wards can be high up to 30%. Special emphasis was paid to the appropriateness of preoperative fasting and to the acceptance of new knowledge in this area of treatment. The aim of this working group was to make guidelines for perioperative nutritional support with different modalities of enteral nutrition. The development of these guidelines was attended by representatives of Croatian Medical Association: Croatian Society for Digestive Surgery, Croatian Society for Clinical Nutrition, Croatian Society of Surgery, Croatian Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Croatian Trauma Society and the Croatian Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care. The guidelines are designed as a set of questions that arise daily in clinical practice when preparing patients for surgery and after the surgical treatment, which relate to the assessment of nutritional status, perioperative nutritional support, duration of preoperative fasting period and the selection of food intake route. Assessment of nutritional status and the use of different modes of enteral nutrition should enter into standard protocols of diagnosis and treatment in the Croatian hospitals.
Full Text Available Background. Endometriosis is nowadays probably the most frequent cause of infertility or subfertility and is revealed in approximately 30–40% of infertile women. The association between fertility and minimal or mild endometriosis remains unclear and controversial. Moderate and severe forms of the disease distort anatomical relations in the minor pelvis, resulting in infertility. The goals of endometriosis treatment are relief of pain symptoms, prevention of the disease progression and fertility improvement. Treatment of stages I and II endometriosis (according to the R-AFS classification may be expectative, medical or surgical. In severely forms of the disease (stage III and IV the method of choice is surgical treatment. Combined medical and surgical treatment is justified only in cases, in which the complete endometriotic tissue removal is not possible or recurrence of pain symptoms occur. Nowadays, laparoscopic surgical treatment is the golden standard being the diagnostic and therapeutic tool during the same procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility rate after surgical treatment of different stages of endometriosis.Patients and methods. In prospectively designed study 100 infertile women were included. The only known cause of infertility was endometriosis. In group A there were 51 patients with stage I and II endometriosis, whereas in group B there were 49 patients with stage III and IV of the disease. Endometriosis was diagnosed and treated laparoscopically. Endometriotic implants were removed either with bipolar coagulation or CO2 laser vaporisation, whereas adhesions were sharp or blunt dissected, and endometriomas stripped out of ovaries. Pregnancy rates were calculated for both groups of patients, and statistically compared between the groups.Results. Mean age of patients was 29.25 (SD ± 4.08 years and did not significantly differ between the groups of patients (29.5 years in group A and 29 years in group B. In
Ledwidge, S F C; Bryden, E; Halestrap, P; Galland, R B
Continuity of patient care is an important component of surgical education. This study assesses continuity of care in the current working climate. Data were collected prospectively on consecutive emergency general surgical admissions during one month. Our SpR rota is a partial shift 24 hour on call with the SpR's own consultant. The SpR is free of commitments the next day following post-take work. The on call general surgery SpR was designated the 'assessor'. Data were analysed according to involvement of the 'assessor' at subsequent stages of the admission--consent, operation, review during admission and review on discharge. Data were also collected defining whether the 'assessor' and operator followed-up the patient. There were 200 admissions; 108 female and 92 male. Overall 23% admissions had the same 'assessor' for all stages of patient care. The 'assessor' dealt with an aspect of patient care in 11% of admissions who underwent an operation and 29% of admissions who were conservatively managed. SpR follow-up of admissions on whom they operated was 70% but only 41% of admissions who were conservatively managed were followed-up by the assessing SpR. Complete in-hospital continuity of care was poor, although SpR follow-up of patients on whom they had operated was better. Introduction of shift patterns has reduced continuity of patient care. This will have a negative impact on both surgical training and patient care.
Full Text Available Brucella endocarditis is a Tare but serious complication ofbrucellosis and is the main cause of death reuuedto thisdisease: Itis not rare in the endemic areas and aaualiy accounts for up to 8~lO% ofendocarditis infections: We report seven adult cases of brucella endocarditis in lmam-Khorneini Hospual: Contrary to previous independent reports, female patients were not rare in this study and accountedfor three out ofseven. Four patients were cared for by combined medical and surgical treatment and were recovered Three of the patients that did not receive the combined theraPl could not he saved This report confirms the necessity of prompt combined medical and surgical treatment ofbrucella endocarditis.
Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the care practices of nursing staff caring older people with dementia in a surgical ward. Methods: The data were collected from nursing staff (n = 191 working in surgical wards in one district area in Finland during October to November 2015. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed statistically. The instrument consists of a total number of 141 items and four dimensions. The dimensions were as follows: background information (12 of items, specific characteristics of older people with dementia in a surgical ward (24 of items, specific characteristics of their care in a surgical ward (66 of items and use of physical restraints and alternative models for use of restraints for people with dementia (39 of items. Results: The questions which measure the nursing staff’s own assessment of care practices when caring for people with dementia in surgical wards were selected: counseling people with dementia, reaction when a surgical patient with dementia displays challenging behavior and use of alternative approach instead of physical restraints. Most commonly the nursing staff pay attention to patient’s state of alertness before counseling older people with dementia. Instead of using restraints, nursing staff gave painkillers for the patient and tried to draw patients’ attention elsewhere. The nursing staff with longer work experience estimate that they can handle the patients’ challenging behavior. They react by doing nothing more often than others. They pretend not to hear, see or notice anything. Conclusion: The findings of this study can be applied in nursing practice and in future studies focusing on the care practices among older people with dementia in acute care environment. The results can be used while developing patient treatments process in surgical ward to meet future needs.
Dokter, E.M.J.; Moues, C.M.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Biezen, J.J. van der
Background: Hypospadias is a congenital malformation in which surgical correction is indicated in most cases. Postoperative patient satisfaction is important because of its influence on the child's psychological development. Objective: To evaluate patient satisfaction with surgical outcome after
Roche, Stephanie; Hall-Clifford, Rachel
Each year, thousands of Guatemalans receive non-emergent surgical care from short-term medical missions (STMMs) hosted by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and staffed by foreign visiting medical teams (VMTs). The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of individuals based in NGOs involved in the coordination of surgical missions to better understand how these missions articulate with the larger Guatemalan health care system. During the summers of 2011 and 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 representatives from 11 different Guatemalan NGOs with experience with surgical missions. Transcripts were analysed for major themes using an inductive qualitative data analysis process. NGOs made use of the formal health care system but were limited by several factors, including cost, issues of trust and current ministry of health policy. Participants viewed the government health care system as a potential resource and expressed a desire for more collaboration. The current practices of STMMs are not conducive to health system strengthening. The role of STMMs must be defined and widely understood by all stakeholders in order to improve patient safety and effectively utilise health resources. Priority should be placed on aligning the work of VMTs with that of the larger health care system.
Putnam, Luke R; Levy, Shauna M; Kellagher, Caroline M; Etchegaray, Jason M; Thomas, Eric J; Kao, Lillian S; Lally, Kevin P; Tsao, KuoJen
Effective communication and patient safety practices are paramount in health care. Surgical residents play an integral role in the perioperative team, yet their perceptions of patient safety remain unclear. We hypothesized that surgical residents perceive the perioperative environment as more unsafe than their faculty and operating room staff despite completing a required safety curriculum. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, and perioperative nurses in a large academic children's hospital participated in multifaceted, physician-led workshops aimed at enhancing communication and safety culture over a 3-y period. All general surgery residents from the same academic center completed a hospital-based online safety curriculum only. All groups subsequently completed the psychometrically validated safety attitudes questionnaire to evaluate three domains: safety culture, teamwork, and speaking up. Results reflect the percent of respondents who slightly or strongly agreed. Chi-square analysis was performed. Sixty-three of 84 perioperative personnel (75%) and 48 of 52 surgical residents (92%) completed the safety attitudes questionnaire. A higher percentage of perioperative personnel perceived a safer environment than the surgical residents in all three domains, which was significantly higher for safety culture (68% versus 46%, P = 0.03). When stratified into two groups, junior residents (postgraduate years 1-2) and senior residents (postgraduate years 3-5) had lower scores for all three domains, but the differences were not statistically significant. Surgical residents' perceptions of perioperative safety remain suboptimal. With an enhanced safety curriculum, perioperative staff demonstrated higher perceptions of safety compared with residents who participated in an online-only curriculum. Optimal surgical education on patient safety remains unknown but should require a dedicated, systematic approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mata-Miranda, María del Pilar; Cano-Matus, Norberto; Rodriguez-Murrieta, Margarita; Guarneros-Zapata, Idalia; Ortiz, Mario
To question the usefulness of the lab analysis considered routine testing for the identification of abnormalities in the surgical care. To determine the percentage of unnecessary laboratory tests in the preoperative assessment as well as to estimate the unnecessary expenses. A descriptive, cross-sectional study of patients referred for surgical evaluation between January 1st and March 31st 2013. The database of laboratory testing and electronic files were reviewed. Reference criteria from surgical services were compared with the tests requested by the family doctor. In 65% of the patients (n=175) unnecessary examinations were requested, 25% (n=68) were not requested the tests that they required, and only 10% of the patients were requested laboratory tests in accordance with the reference criteria (n=27). The estimated cost in unnecessary examinations was $1,129,552 in a year. The results were similar to others related to this theme, however, they had not been revised from the perspective of the first level of attention regarding the importance of adherence to the reference criteria which could prevent major expenditures. It is a priority for leaders and operational consultants in medical units to establish strategies and lines of action that ensure compliance with institutional policies so as to contain spending on comprehensive services, and which in turn can improve the medical care. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Bro Brask, Kirsten; Birkelund, Regner
The aim of this study was to research how the staff experience care expressed during the brief encounter with the patients in a diagnostic imaging department. This was a qualitative study with a phenomenological and hermeneutical frame of reference. The data were collected using field observation...... was electronically forwarded. And, care expressed in between was perceived as care in the traditional sense and termed as “patient care in radiology.”...
O'Neill, J A; Caldwell, M D; Meng, H C
Parenteral nutrition may protect patients unable to eat from malnutrition almost indefinitely. If fat is not also given EFAD will occur. This outlines a prospective study of 28 surgical patients on total intravenous fat-free nutrition to determine the developmental course of EFAD and the response to therapy. Twenty-eight patients ranging from newborn to 66 years receiving parenteral nutrition without fat had regular determinations of the composition of total plasma fatty acids and the triene/tetraene ratio using gas liquid chromatography. Physical signs of EFAD were looked for also. Patients found to have evidence of EFAD were treated with 10% Intralipid. Topical safflower oil was used in three infants. Total plasma fatty acid composition was restudied following therapy. In general, infants on fat-free intravenous nutrition developed biochemical EFAD within two weeks, but dermatitis took longer to become evident. Older individuals took over four weeks to develop a diagnostic triene/tetraene ratio (greater than 0.4; range 0.4 to 3.75). Therapeutic correction of biochemical EFAD took 7 to 10 days but dermatitis took longer to correct. Cutaneous application of safflower oil alleviated the cutaneous manifestations but did not correct the triene/tetraene ratio of total plasma fatty acids. These studies indicate that surgical patients who are unable to eat for two to four weeks, depending upon age and expected fat stores, should receive fat as a part of their intravenous regimen. Images Fig. 7. PMID:404973
Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.
This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography
Stokes, Matthew A R; Guest, Glenn D; Mamadi, Perista; Seta, Westin; Yaubihi, Noel; Karawiga, Grace; Naidi, Billy; Watters, David A K
Timely access to emergency and essential surgical care (EESC) and anaesthesia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) prevents premature death, minimises lifelong disability and reduces their economic impact on families and communities. Papua New Guinea is one of the poorest countries in the Pacific region, and provides much of its surgical care at a district hospital level. We aimed to evaluate the surgical capacity of a district hospital in PNG and estimate the effectiveness of surgical interventions provided. We performed a prospective study to calculate the number of DALYs averted for 465 patients treated with surgical care over a 3-month period (Sep-Nov 2013) in Alotau Hospital, Milne Bay Province, PNG (pop 210,000). Data were also collected on infrastructure, workforce, interventions provided and equipment available using the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Emergency and Essential Surgical Care Toolkit, a survey to assess EESC and surgical capacity. We also performed a retrospective one-year audit of surgical, obstetric and anaesthetic care to provide context with regards to annual disease burden treated and surgical activity. EESC was provided by 11 Surgeons/Anaesthetists/Obstetricians (SAO) providers, equating to 5.7 per 100,000 population (including 4 nurse anaesthetists). They performed 783/100,000 procedures annually. Over the 3-month prospective study period, 4954 DALYs were averted by 465 surgical interventions, 52 % of which were elective. This equates to 18,330 DALYs averted annually or, approximately 18 % of the published but estimated disease burden in the Province in the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study. The overall peri-operative mortality rate was 1.29 %, with 0.41 % for elective procedures and 2.25 % for emergencies. Much of the burden of surgical disease in Papua New Guinea presenting to Alotau General Hospital serving Milne Bay Province can be effectively treated by a small team providing emergency and
Abelha, Fernando J; Santos, Cristina C; Maia, Paula C; Castro, Maria A; Barros, Henrique
In addition to mortality, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has increasingly been claimed as an important outcome variable. The aim of this study was to assess HRQOL and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) six months after discharge from an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and to study its determinants. All post-operative adult patients admitted to a surgical ICU between October 2004 and July 2005, were eligible for the study. The following variables were recorded on admission: age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS), type and magnitude of surgical procedure, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), mortality and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II). Six months after discharge, a Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) and a questionnaire to assess dependency in ADL were sent to all survivors. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize data. Patient groups were compared using non-parametric tests. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify covariate effects of each variable on dependency in personal and instrumental ADL, and for the change-in-health question of SF-36. Out of 333 hospital survivors, 226 completed the questionnaires. Fifty-nine percent reported that their general level of health was better on the day they answered the questionnaire than 12 months earlier. Patients with greater co-morbidities (ASA-PS III/IV), had lower SF-36 scores in all domains and were more frequently dependent in instrumental and personal ADL. Logistic regression showed that SAPS II was associated with changes in general level of health (OR 1.06, 95%CI, 1.01-1.11, p = 0,016). Six months after ICU discharge, 60% and 34% of patients, respectively, were dependent in at least one activity in instrumental ADL (ADLI) and personal ADL (ADLP). ASA-PS (OR 3.00, 95%CI 1.31-6.87, p = 0.009) and age (OR 2.36, 95%CI, 1.04-5.34, p = 0.04) were associated with dependency in ADLI. For ADLP, only ASA-PS (OR 4.58, 95%CI, 1
Allen, Jennifer; North, John B; Ware, Robert S
Objectives It is assumed that increased age signifies increased surgical care. Few surgical studies describe the differences in care provided to older patients compared with younger patients. We aimed to examine the relationships between increasing age, preoperative factors and markers of postoperative care in adults who died in-hospital after surgery in Australia. Design This retrospective cross-sectional study extracted data from a national surgical mortality audit—an independent, peer-reviewed process. Setting From January 2009 to December 2012, 111 public and 61 private Australian hospitals notified the audit of in-hospital deaths after general anaesthetic surgery or if the patient was admitted under a surgeon. Participants Notified deaths totalled 19 723. We excluded deaths if patients were brain dead, younger than 17 years or never had an operation (n=11 376). From this baseline population, we divided 11 201 deaths into three patient age groups: youngest (17–64 years), medium (65–79 years) and oldest (≥80 years). Outcome measures Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses determined the relationships between increasing age and the measured preoperative factors and postoperative variables. Results The baseline population's median age was 78 years (IQR 66–85), 43.7% (4892/11 201) were 80 years or older and 83.4% (9319/11 173) had emergency admissions. The oldest group had increased trauma and emergency admissions than the medium and youngest age groups. Seven of the eight measured markers of postoperative care demonstrate strong and significant relationships with increasing age. The oldest group compared with the medium group had decreased rates of: unplanned returns to theatre (11.2% (526/4709) vs 20.2% (726/3586)), unplanned intensive care admissions (16.3% (545/3350) vs 24.0% (601/2504)) and treatment in intensive care units (59.7% (2689/4507) vs 76.7% (2754/3590)). Conclusions The oldest patients received
Liakhovs'kyĭ, V I; Dem'ianiuk, D H; Kravtsiv, M I; Borkunov, A L; Sapun, L V
In a modern professional literature the diseases, which undoubtedly threaten the patient's health and life, are called an urgent, special, emergent, fixed-date, etc. Not rare these terms are used simultaneously. Such a plurality of names of a quite dangerous state causes sometimes in these conditions uncertainty to seek help of a specialists and loss of a time. Modern dictionaries of a foreign languages words, of a foreign languages words in Ukrainian language, medical, big explanatory dictionary of a modern Ukrainian language definitely explains, that these terms are synonyms. All of them mean unconditional, timing. And every expression may be used in this context. The above mentioned suggestions and thoughts do not promote a secure fixing in the citizens consciousness the undoubtedness, the disease consequences danger, a threat to health and life. To deposit this in their awareness it is possible not by amorphous depiction, but using a singular, brief, firm term - an urgent.
Barg, A; Morris, S C; Schneider, S W; Phisitkul, P; Saltzman, C L
In haemophilia, the ankle joint is one of the most common and earliest joints affected by recurrent bleeding, commonly resulting in end-stage ankle osteoarthritis during early adulthood. The surgical treatment of haemophilic ankle arthropathy is challenging. This review aims to highlight the literature addressing clinical outcomes following the most common approaches for different stages of haemophilia-induced ankle osteoarthritis: arthroscopic debridement, joint distraction arthroplasty, supramalleolar osteotomies, total ankle replacement, and ankle arthrodesis. A systematic literature review was performed using established medical literature databases. The following information was retrieved from the literature: patients' demographics, surgical technique, duration of follow-up, clinical outcome including pain relief and complication rate. A total of 42 clinical studies published between 1978 and 2015 were included in the systematic literature review. Eight and 34 studies had prospective and retrospective design, respectively. The most common studies were level IV studies (64.3%). The orthopaedic treatment of patients with haemophilic ankle osteoarthritis is often challenging and requires complete and careful preoperative assessment. In general, both joint-preserving and joint non-preserving procedure types can be performed. All specific relative and absolute contraindications should be considered to achieve appropriate postoperative outcomes. The current literature demonstrated that orthopaedic surgeries, with appropriate indication, in patients with haemophilic ankle arthropathy result in good postoperative results comparable to those observed in non-haemophiliacs. The surgical treatment should be performed in a setting with the ability to have multidisciplinary management, including expertise in haematology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hainsworth, Alison J; Gatenby, Piers A
Hospital inpatients are frequently hypokalaemic. Low plasma potassium levels may cause life threatening complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias. Potassium supplementation may be administered parenterally or enterally. Oral potassium supplements have been associated with oesophageal ulceration, strictures and gastritis. An alternative to potassium salt tablets or solution is dietary modification with potassium rich food stuffs, which has been proven to be a safe and effective method for potassium supplementation. The potassium content of one medium banana is equivalent to a 12 mmol potassium salt tablet. Potassium supplementation by dietary modification has been shown to be equally efficacious to oral potassium salt supplementation and is preferred by the majority of patients. Subsequently, it is our practice to replace potassium using dietary modification, particularly in surgical patients having undergone oesophagogastrectomy or in those with peptic ulcer disease.
J.M. van Oostrum (Jeroen)
textabstractOn a daily basis surgeons, nurses, and managers face cancellation of surgery, peak demands on wards, and overtime in operating rooms. Moreover, the lack of an integral planning approach for operating rooms, wards, and intensive care units causes low resource utilization and makes patient
Leucoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-HMPAO is an important diagnostic modality for localizing of the site of infection. It has distinct advantages over gallium 67 and indium-111 labelled leukocytes, in terms of better image quality, less cell activation and the choice of using Technetium instead of In-111. This study was designed to set up the technique in AEMC, Multan Pakistan, to assess the practicality of using the procedure, and to see if the results offered additional clinical information that could affect patient management in our clinical environment. 27 patients were studied using the technique. There were 17 post-surgical patients, 4 post-partal patients and 6 patients who did no fit into the above categories. An accuracy of 81%, sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100 % were achieved. The spectrum of clinical presentation was broad and included post-operative infections, intra-abdominal haematoms, brain abscesses, localized peritonitis, sterile and infected intraperitoneal collections, infected pleural effusions and pyrexia of unknown origin. It was concluded that this technique is practicable in our conditions and gives important clinical information. (author)
Feiner, David E; Rayan, Ghazi M
To assess how much information communicated to patients is understood and retained after preoperative discussion of upper extremity procedures. A prospective study was designed by recruiting patients prior to undergoing upper extremity surgical procedures after a detailed discussion of their operative technique, postoperative care and treatment outcomes. Patients were given the same 20-item questionnaire to fill out twice, at two pre operative visits. An independent evaluator filled out a third questionnaire as a control. Various discussion points of the survey were compared among the 3 questionnaires and retained information and perceived comprehension were evaluated. The average patients' age was 50.3 (27-75) years The average time between the two surveys preoperative 1 and preoperative 2 was 40.7 (7-75) days,. The average patient had approximately 2 years of college or an associate's degree. Patients initially retained 73% (52-90%) of discussion points presented during preoperative 1 and 61% (36-85%) of the information at preoperative 2 p = .002. 50% of patients felt they understood 100% of the discussion, this dropped to only 10% at their preoperative 2 visit. 15% of our patients did not know what type of anesthesia they were having at preoperative 2. A communication barrier between patients and physicians exists when patients are informed about their preoperative surgical discussion. The retention of information presented is worsened with elapsing time from the initial preoperative discussion to the second preoperative visit immediately prior to surgery. Methods to enhance patients' retention of information prior to surgery must be sought and implemented which will improve patients' treatment outcome.
Chimento, George F; Thomas, Leslie C
The perioperative surgical home (PSH) is a patient-centered, physician-led, multidisciplinary care pathway developed to deliver value-based care based on shared decision-making. Physician and hospital reimbursement will be tied to providing quality care at lower cost, and the PSH model has been used in providing care to patients undergoing lower extremity arthroplasty. The purpose of this review is to discuss the rationale, definition, development, current state, and future direction of the PSH. The PSH model guides the patient throughout the pre and perioperative process and into the postoperative phase. It has been shown in multiple studies to decrease length of stay, improve functional outcomes, allow more home discharges, and lower costs. There is no increase in complications or readmission rates. The PSH pathway is a safe and effective method of providing value-based care to patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty.
Hobson, Deborah B; Chang, Tracy Y; Aboagye, Jonathan K; Lau, Brandyn D; Shihab, Hasan M; Fisher, Betsy; Young, Samantha; Sujeta, Nancy; Shaffer, Dauryne L; Popoola, Victor O; Kraus, Peggy S; Knorr, Gina; Farrow, Norma E; Streiff, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of static graduated compression stocking (sGCS)-associated pressure injury among patients in surgical intensive care units (ICUs). We retrospectively reviewed data from wound care rounds between April 2011 and June 2012 at 3 surgical ICUs at an urban, tertiary care hospital. Patients with sGCS-associated pressure injury were identified and descriptive analysis was performed on their demographic, perioperative, and postoperative characteristics. We examined 1787 individual patients during 2391 patient encounters. A total of 129 (7.2%) of patients developed pressure injuries. Forty patients (2.2%) developed sGCS-associated pressure injury. Static GCS-associated pressure injury accounted for 31% (40/129) of all pressure injuries and 74% (40/54) of all medical device-related pressure injury. Eighteen (45%) and 6 (15%) developed stage 1 and 2 pressure injury, respectively, and 16 (40%) developed deep tissue injuries. The mean age of our patients was 64.7 years, about half (47.5%) were male, and their mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 18.8. Many had comorbid conditions, including obesity (44.5%) and diabetes (42.5%), and required mechanical ventilation (45%). Pressure injuries are a notable complication of sGCS in surgical ICU patients. Appropriate measures are required to help avoid this potentially preventable harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cigna, Emanuele; Tarallo, Mauro; Fino, Pasquale; De Santo, Liliana; Scuderi, Nicolò
Gynecomastia refers to a benign enlargement of the male breast. This article describes the authors' method of using power-assisted liposuction and gland removal through a subareolar incision for thin patients. Power-assisted liposuction is performed for removal of fatty breast tissue in the chest area to allow skin retraction. The subareolar incision is used to remove glandular tissue from a male subject considered to be within a normal weight range but who has bilateral grade 1 or 2 gynecomastia. Gynecomastia correction was successfully performed for all the patients. The average volume of aspirated fat breast was 100-200 ml on each side. Each breast had 5-80 g of breast tissue removed. At the 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up assessments, all the treated patients were satisfied with their aesthetic results. Liposuction has the advantages of reducing the fat tissue where necessary to allow skin retraction and of reducing the traces left by surgery. The combination of surgical excision and power-assisted lipoplasty also is a valid choice for the treatment of thin patients.
Winsett, Rebecca P; Rottet, Kendra; Schmitt, Abby; Wathen, Ellen; Wilson, Debra
The purpose of the study was to explore the nurse work environment by evaluating the self-report of missed nursing care and the reasons for the missed care. A convenience sample of medical surgical nurses from four hospitals was invited to complete the survey for this descriptive study. The sample included 168 nurses. The MISSCARE survey assessed the frequency and reason of 24 routine nursing care elements. The most frequently reported missed care was ambulation as ordered, medications given within a 30 minute window, and mouth care. Moderate or significant reasons reported for the missed care were: unexpected rise in volume/acuity, heavy admissions/discharges, inadequate assistants, inadequate staff, meds not available when needed, and urgent situations. Identifying missed nursing care and reasons for missed care provides an opportunity for exploring strategies to reduce interruptions, develop unit cohesiveness, improve the nurse work environment, and ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cotton, Michael; Henry, Jaymie Ang; Hasek, Lauren
Limited resources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) drive tremendous innovation in medicine, as well as in other fields. It is not often recognized that several important surgical tools and methods, widely used in high-income countries, have their origins in LMICs. Surgical care around the world stands much to gain from these innovations. In this paper, we provide a short review of some of these successful innovations and their origins that have had an important impact in healthcare delivery worldwide. Examples of LMIC innovations that have been adapted in high-income countries include the Bogotá bag for temporary abdominal wound closure, the orthopaedic external fixator for complex fractures, a hydrocephalus fluid valve for normal pressure hydrocephalus, and intra-ocular lens and manual small incision cataract surgery. LMIC innovations that have had tremendous potential global impact include mosquito net mesh for inguinal hernia repair, and a flutter valve for intercostal drainage of pneumothorax. Surgical innovations from LMICs have been shown to have comparable outcomes at a fraction of the cost of tools used in high-income countries. These innovations have the potential to revolutionize global surgical care. Advocates should actively seek out these innovations, campaign for the financial gains from these innovations to benefit their originators and their countries, and find ways to develop and distribute them locally as well as globally.
Fernandez, Gladys L; Lee, Patrick C; Page, David W; D'Amour, Elizabeth M; Wait, Richard B; Seymour, Neal E
Simulated patient care has gained acceptance as a medical education tool but is underused in surgical training. To improve resident clinical management in critical situations relevant to the surgical patient, high-fidelity full patient simulation training was instituted at Baystate Medical Center in 2005 and developed during successive years. We define surgical patient simulation as clinical management performed in a high fidelity environment using a manikin simulator. This technique is intended to be specifically modeled experiential learning related to the knowledge, skills, and behaviors that are fundamental to patient care. We report 3 academic years' use of a patient simulation curriculum. Learners were PGY 1-3 residents; 26 simulated patient care experiences were developed based on (1) designation as a critical management problem that would otherwise be difficult to practice, (2) ability to represent the specific problem in simulation, (3) relevance to the American Board of Surgery (ABS) certifying examination, and/or (4) relevance to institutional quality or morbidity and mortality reports. Although training started in 2005, data are drawn from the period of systematic and mandatory training spanning from July 2006 to June 2009. Training occurred during 1-hour sessions using a computer-driven manikin simulator (METI, Sarasota, Florida). Educational content was provided either before or during presimulation briefing sessions. Scenario areas included shock states, trauma and critical care case management, preoperative processes, and postoperative conditions and complications. All sessions were followed by facilitated debriefing. Likert scale-based multi-item assessments of core competency in medical knowledge, patient care, diagnosis, management, communication, and professionalism were used to generate a performance score for each resident for each simulation (percentage of best possible score). Performance was compared across PGYs by repeated
Hjort Jakobsen, Dorthe; Rud, Kirsten; Kehlet, Henrik
guidelines based on the principles of fast-track surgery-i.e. patient information, surgical stress reduction, effective analgesia, early mobilisation and rapid return to normal eating. Fast-track surgery was introduced systematically in Denmark by the establishment of the Unit of Perioperative Nursing (UPN...
Tevis, Sarah E.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Kent, K. Craig
Summary Satisfaction of patients with their health care is gaining importance as a measure of hospital quality due to public reporting of these values and an increasing connection between hospital reimbursement and scores on the current tool to measure satisfaction, the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey. We found that high hospital and surgical volume and low rates of risk-adjusted mortality are associated with high patient satisfaction. However, other favorable patient outcomes are not consistently associated with positive satisfaction scores on HCAHPS. Contributors to patients' perceptions of their care are likely multifactorial and not related just to outcomes traditionally assessed by surgeons or hospitals. Moving in a direction of patient centered care, with a focus on increased understanding and involvement of patients in the care process, will likely strengthen the relationship between surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:26299501
Caljouw, Monique A A; Hogendorf-Burgers, Marja E H J
To investigate in surgical gynaecological patients the types of health problems arising or persisting up to six weeks after discharge and the effectiveness of telephone advice. The decreasing length of hospital stay has increased the need for specific instructions about the postdischarge period. Telephone advice could be a valuable tool to address this problem. To our knowledge, postdischarge health problems and the value of telephone advice have not been investigated among gynaecological patients. Randomised controlled trial. Gynaecological patients expected to stay in the ward longer than 24 hour were invited to participate. A pilot study showed that wound healing, pain, mobility, urination, defecation and vaginal bleeding were the most common health problems postdischarge. Based on that information, guidelines were formulated that were used by trained nurses to give telephone advice to the intervention group (n=235), in addition to the usual care. The control group of gynaecological patients (n=233) received usual care only. Of all 468 participants, about 50% were operated for general gynaecology. At discharge, wound pain (56%), mobility problems (54%) and constipation (27%) were the most frequently mentioned problems in both groups. Participants who completely followed the advice with regard to wound healing (p=0.02), pain (p=0.01), vaginal bleeding (p=0.03) and mobility (p=0.04) experienced greater improvement than participants who did not follow, or only partly followed, the advice. The telephone advice appears to make a significant contribution to help gynaecological surgical patients to solve or reduce their postdischarge health problems. The positive effect of such advice can be interpreted as an improvement in the quality of life of the postoperative gynaecological patient. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Barajas-Fregoso, Elpidio Manuel; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio Rogelio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv
Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The most common symptoms are: dysphagia, chest pain, reflux and weight loss. The esophageal manometry is the standard for diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of the surgical management in patients with achalasia in a tertiary care hospital. A case series consisting of achalasia patients, treated surgically between January and December of 2011. Clinical charts were reviewed to obtain data and registries of the type of surgical procedure, morbidity and mortality. Fourteen patients were identified, with an average age of 49.1 years. The most common symptoms were: dysphagia, vomiting, weight loss and pyrosis. Eight open approaches were performed and six by laparoscopy, with an average length of cardiomyotomy of 9.4 cm. Eleven patients received an antireflux procedure. The effectiveness of procedures performed was 85.7 %. Surgical management offered at this tertiary care hospital does not differ from that reported in other case series, giving effectiveness and safety for patients with achalasia.
Substitution of Usual Perioperative Care by eHealth to Enhance Postoperative Recovery in Patients Undergoing General Surgical or Gynecological Procedures: Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Meij, E.; Huirne, J.A.F.; Bouwsma, E.V.A.; van Dongen, J.M.; Terwee, Caroline B; van de Ven, P.M.; Bakker, C.M.; van der Meij, S.; van Baal, W.M.; Leclercq, W.K.G.; Geomini, P.M.; Consten, E.C.; Schraffordt Koops, S.E.; van Kesteren, P.J.; Stockmann, H.B.; Ten Cate, A.D.; Davids, P.H.P.; Scholten, P.C.; van den Heuvel, B.; Schaafsma, Frederieke G.; Meijerink, W.J.; Bonjer, H.J.; Anema, J.R.
BACKGROUND: Due to the strong reduction in the length of hospital stays in the last decade, the period of in-hospital postoperative care is limited. After discharge from the hospital, guidance and monitoring on recovery and resumption of (work) activities are usually not provided. As a consequence,
Demir, Yurdanur; Korhan, Esra Akin; Eser, Ismet; Khorshid, Leyla
To determine the factors affecting a patient's intensive care experience. The descriptive study was conducted at an intensive care unit in the Aegean Region of Turkey, and comprised 158 patients who spent at least 48 hours at the unit between June and November 2009. A questionnaire form and the Intensive Care Experience Scale were used as data collection tools. SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis of the data. Of the total, 86 (54.4%) patients related to the surgical unit, while 72 (45.5%) spent time at the intensive care unit. Most of the subjects (n=113; 71.5%) reported that they constantly experienced pain during hospitalisation. Patients receiving mechanical ventilation support and patients reporting no pain had significantly higher scores on the intensive care experience scale. Patients who reported pain remembered their experiences less than those having no pain. Interventions are needed to make the experiences of patients in intensive care more positive.
Fuller, Jennifer C; Shaye, David A
The field of global surgery is undergoing rapid transformation, owing to several recent prominent reports positioning it as a cost-effective means of relieving global disease burden. The purpose of this article is to review the recent advances in the field of global surgery. Efforts to grow the global surgical workforce and procedural capacity have focused on innovative methods to increase surgeon training, enhance international collaboration, leverage technology, optimize existing health systems, and safely implement task-sharing. Computer modeling offers a novel means of informing policy to optimize timely access to care, equitably promote health and financial protection, and efficiently grow infrastructure. Tools and checklists have recently been developed to enhance data collection and ensure methodologically rigorous publications to inform planning, benchmark surgical systems, promote accurate modeling, track key health indicators, and promote safety. Creation of institutional partnerships and trainee exchanges can enrich training, stimulate commitment to humanitarian work, and promote the equal exchange of ideas and expertise. The recent body of work creates a strong foundation upon which work toward the goal of universal access to safe, affordable surgical care can be built; however, further collection and analysis of country-specific data is necessary for accurate modeling and outcomes research into the efficacy of policies such as task-sharing is greatly needed.
Devine, Elizabeth C.; And Others
A three-hour, two-stage workshop for staff nurses on providing education and psychological support to 148 patients who had abdominal surgery. After the workshop the patients used fewer sedatives or antiemetics, fewer hypnotics, and were discharged from the hospital on the average half a day sooner. (Author/BJV)
upsurge of medical tourism, the need for ... The highest subscale score was 8.8107. (76.21%) in the area ... Patients' satisfaction is a critical health care outcome ..... major limiting factor to many persons seeking medical ... the cost of medical care is low when compared with that ... mentioned above even though this subscale.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate the surgical outcome in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH after surgical intervention, in respect to the initial clinical conditions, age, sex, hemispheric side and anatomic localization of ICH. Thirty-eight surgically treated patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage were included in the study. The surgical outcome was evaluated three months after the initial admission, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. The surgical treatment was successful in 14 patients (37%, whereas it was unsuccessful in 24 patients (63%. We have detected a significant negative correlation between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores on admission and the GOS scores after three months, suggesting worse neurological outcome in patients with initially lower GCS scores. The surgical outcome in patients with ICH was not affected by the sex, the hemispheric side and the anatomic localization of ICH, but the age of the patients was estimated as a significant factor for their functional outcome, with younger patients being more likely to be treated successfully. The surgical outcome is affected from the initial clinical state of the patients and their age. The treatment of ICH is still an unsolved clinical problem and the development of new surgical techniques with larger efficiency in the evacuation of the hematoma is necessary, thus making a minimal damage to the normal brain tissue, as well as decreasing the possibility of postoperative bleeding.
Yi Lin Lee
Full Text Available Aim: Progress in medical care and technology has led to patients with more advanced illnesses being admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. The practice of approaching end-of-life (EOL care decisions and limiting care is well documented in Western literature but unknown in Singapore. We performed a retrospective cohort study to describe the practice of EOL care in patients dying in a Singapore surgical ICU (SICU. The surgical critical care population was chosen as it is unique because surgeons are frequently involved in the EOL process. Methods: All consecutive patients aged 21 and above admitted to the SICU from July 2011 to March 2012, and who passed away in the ICU or within 7 days of discharge from the ICU (to account for transferred patients out of the ICU after end-of life care decisions were made and subsequently passed away were included in the study. Results: There were 473 SICU admissions during this period, out of which 53 were included with a mean age of 67.2 ± 11.1 years. EOL discussions were held in 81.1% of patients with a median time from admission to first discussion at 1 day (IQR 0–2.75 and a median number of ICU discussion of 1 (IQR 1–2. As most patients lacked decision-making capacity (inability to retain and process information secondary to the underlying disease pathology or sedative use, a surrogate was involved: group decision in 27.9%, child in 25.6% and an unclear family nominated member in 20.9%. 28.3% of patients were managed as for full active with resuscitation, 39.6% nonescalation of care, and 32.1% for withdrawal. The main reasons for conservative management (nonescalation and withdrawal of care were certain death in 52.3%, medical futility with minimal response to maximal care (27.3%, and the presence of underlying malignancy (18.2%. There was no significant difference between race or religion among patients for active or conservative management. Conclusion: 71.7% of patients who passed away in the ICU or
with surgical site infection at Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute. ... Determination of the relationship between outcome and exposure variables ... determined by more than 2 hours length of surgical procedure (AOR= 1.4; 95%CI 1.14-6.69; ... hospital, those with metastatic fractures, back, spine were not included as they fall under.
McKellar, Stephen H; Morris, David S; Mauermann, William J; Park, Soon J; Zietlow, Scott P
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used to treat patients with end-stage heart failure. These patients may develop acute noncardiac surgical problems around the time of LVAD implantation or, as survival continues to improve, chronic surgical problems as ambulatory patients remote from the LVAD implant. Previous reports of noncardiac surgical problems in LVAD patients included patients with older, first-generation devices and do not address newer, second-generation devices. We describe the frequency and management of noncardiac surgical problems encountered during LVAD support with these newer-generation devices to assist noncardiac surgeons involved in the care of patients with LVADs. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients receiving LVADs at our institution. We collected data for any consultation by noncardiac surgeons within the scope of general surgery during LVAD support and subsequent treatment. Ninety-nine patients received implantable LVADs between 2003 and 2009 (first-generation, n = 19; second-generation, n = 80). Excluding intestinal hemorrhage, general surgical opinions were rendered for 34 patients with 49 problems, mostly in the acute recovery phase after LVAD implantation. Of those, 27 patients underwent 28 operations. Respiratory failure and intra-abdominal pathologies were the most common problems addressed, and LVAD rarely precluded operation. Patients with second-generation LVADs were more likely to survive hospitalization (P = .04) and develop chronic, rather than emergent, surgical problems. Patients with LVADs frequently require consultation from noncardiac surgeons within the scope of general surgeons and often require operation. Patients with second-generation LVADs are more likely to become outpatients and develop more elective surgical problems. Noncardiac surgeons will be increasingly involved in caring for patients with LVADs and should anticipate the problems unique to this patient
Rochon, Andrea; Heale, Roberta; Hunt, Elena; Parent, Michele
The literature suggests that effective teamwork among patient care teams can positively impact work environment, job satisfaction and quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived level of nursing teamwork by registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers and unit clerks working on patient care teams in one acute care hospital in northern Ontario, Canada, and to determine if a relationship exists between the staff scores on the Nursing Teamwork Survey (NTS) and participant perception of adequate staffing. Using a descriptive cross-sectional research design, 600 staff members were invited to complete the NTS and a 33% response rate was achieved (N=200). The participants from the critical care unit reported the highest scores on the NTS, whereas participants from the inpatient surgical (IPS) unit reported the lowest scores. Participants from the IPS unit also reported having less experience, being younger, having less satisfaction in their current position and having a higher intention to leave. A high rate of intention to leave in the next year was found among all participants. No statistically significant correlation was found between overall scores on the NTS and the perception of adequate staffing. Strategies to increase teamwork, such as staff education, among patient care teams may positively influence job satisfaction and patient care on patient care units. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.
[Problems in the admission to in-hospital oral surgical care from the patient's viewpoint--results of patient interviews in the hospital for dental and maxillo-facial surgery of the Karl Marx University, Leipzig].
Erpenbeck, F; Birnbaum, K; Langanke, B; Niemand, B; Thomzyk, I
The author deals with the results from the interviewing of oral surgery patients on their problems concerning the sending and the admission to the hospital, with special attention to the problems of waiting for admission, the familiarization with the clinical environment and the improvement suggestions of the patients. The conclusions concern tasks arising from the medical and dental care for inpatients as well as for outpatients.
Lusignani, Maura; Giannì, Maria Lorella; Re, Luca Giuseppe; Buffon, Maria Luisa
To assess the frequency, intensity and level of moral distress perceived by nurses working in medical, surgical and intensive care units. Moral distress among nurses compromises their ability to provide optimal patient care and may cause them to leave their job. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 283 registered nurses was conducted to evaluate the frequency, intensity and levels of moral distress. A revised version of the Moral Distress Scale (MDS-R) was used. The highest level of moral distress was associated with the provision of treatments and aggressive care that were not expected to benefit the patients and the competency of the health-care providers. Multivariate regression showed that nurses working in medical settings, nurses with lower levels of experience working in medical, surgical or intensive care settings, and nurses who intend to leave their job experienced the highest levels of moral distress. The present study indicates that nurses experience an overall moderate level of moral distress. Gaining further insight into the issue of moral distress among nurses and the clinical situations that most frequently cause this distress will enable development of strategies to reduce moral distress and to improve nurse satisfaction and, consequently, patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mulsow, Jürgen J W
Little is known of the actual understanding that underlies patient choices with regard to their surgical treatment. This review explores current knowledge of patient understanding and techniques that may be used to improve this understanding.
Leem, So Yeon
This study is based on ethnographic fieldwork at a plastic surgery clinic in Seoul, South Korea. Examining the three phases of plastic--consultation, operation and recovery--I show how surgeons work to shape not only patients' bodies but also expectations and satisfaction. Surgeons do so in part to assuage their own anxieties, which arise from the possibility of misaligned beauty standards and unforeseen anatomies, as well as the possible dissatisfaction of the patient. I offer the concept of 'surgical anxiety', which occurs in relation to inherently unruly patient bodies in which worries, fear, frustration, self-pity, cynicism, anger and even loneliness are symptomatic. The unpredictability and uncontrollability of patients' bodies, which generates anxiety for both patients and surgeons, work to constrain the power of plastic surgery and making it inherently vulnerable. This study also pays attention to the invisible work of taking care of surgical anxiety, as practised by female staff members, and surgeons' dependence on these workers. My focus on anxiety is a kind of remedy for the predominant concern with 'ambivalence' in constructivist science and technology studies; rather than continue to highlight the power differentials between experts/practitioners and lay people/patients, this study illuminates surgical anxiety as their shared vulnerability. Thus, this study proposes a new politics of care in technoscience and medicine, which begins with anxiety.
Keller, Bastiaan Paul Johan Aart
With prevalence figures of 13% for university hospitals and 23% for general hospitals, pressure ulcers are a major health care issue in The Netherlands. Pressure ulcers in surgical patients are frequently encountered, as is illustrated by reported incidence rates up to 66%. The number of patients at
Gruen, Russell L; Knox, Stephanie; Britt, Helena; Bailie, Ross S
Background The interface between primary care and specialist medical services is an important domain for health services research and policy. Of particular concern is optimising specialist services and the organisation of the specialist workforce to meet the needs and demands for specialist care, particularly those generated by referral from primary care. However, differences in the disease classification and reporting of the work of primary and specialist surgical sectors hamper such research. This paper describes the development of a bridging classification for use in the study of potential surgical problems in primary care settings, and for classifying referrals to surgical specialties. Methods A three stage process was undertaken, which involved: (1) defining the categories of surgical disorders from a specialist perspective that were relevant to the specialist-primary care interface; (2) classifying the 'terms' in the International Classification of Primary Care Version 2-Plus (ICPC-2 Plus) to the surgical categories; and (3) using referral data from 303,000 patient encounters in the BEACH study of general practice activity in Australia to define a core set of surgical conditions. Inclusion of terms was based on the probability of specialist referral of patients with such problems, and specialists' perception that they constitute part of normal surgical practice. Results A four-level hierarchy was developed, containing 8, 27 and 79 categories in the first, second and third levels, respectively. These categories classified 2050 ICPC-2 Plus terms that constituted the fourth level, and which covered the spectrum of problems that were managed in primary care and referred to surgical specialists. Conclusion Our method of classifying terms from a primary care classification system to categories delineated by specialists should be applicable to research addressing the interface between primary and specialist care. By describing the process and putting the bridging
abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, affect ... timely surgical intervention is crucial. Key words: .... On the second postoperative day, he was noted to be restless ... Although surgery is very effective in managing ACS.
Medical surgical nurses may not have the time or resources to provide effective pre- and post-operative instructions for patients in today's healthcare system. And, making timely physical assessments following discharge from the hospital is not always straightforward. Therefore, the risk for readmission associated with post-surgical complications is a concern. At present, mobile healthcare technologies and patient care are precipitously evolving and may serve as a resource to enhance communication between the healthcare provider and patient. A mobile telephone text message (short message service [SMS]) intervention for abdominal surgical patients may foster effective education (communication) and timely self-reported physical assessment in the home environment hence preventing deleterious outcomes. The aim of this research proposal is to identify the feasibility of using a SMS intervention via smart phones to improve health outcomes via timely communication, reach large numbers of at-risk surgical patients and, establish and sustain uniform protocols in a cost-efficient manner.
Is the Internet a useful and relevant source for health and health care information retrieval for German cardiothoracic patients? First results from a prospective survey among 255 Patients at a German cardiothoracic surgical clinic
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear how prevalent Internet use among cardiopathic patients in Germany is and what impact it has on the health care utilisation. We measured the extent of Internet use among cardiopathic patients and examined the effects that Internet use has on users' knowledge about their cardiac disease, health care matters and their use of the health care system. Methods We conducted a prospective survey among 255 cardiopathic patients at a German university hospital. Results Forty seven respondents (18 % used the internet and 8,8 % (n = 23 went online more than 20 hours per month. The most frequent reason for not using the internet was disinterest (52,3 %. Fourteen patients (5,4 % searched for specific disease-related information and valued the retrieved information on an analogous scale (1 = not relevant, 5 = very relevant on median with 4,0. Internet use is age and education dependent. Only 36 (14,1 % respondents found the internet useful, whereas the vast majority would not use it. Electronic scheduling for ambulatory visits or postoperative telemedical monitoring were rather disapproved. Conclusion We conclude that Internet use is infrequent among our study population and the search for relevant health and disease related information is not well established.
Baeza-Bacab, Manuel Antonio
Here, two papers are presented, which constitute the first reports of surgical procedures in Mexican children performed at the 19 th century. The two publications refer to surgical operations for the extraction of bladder stones. At that time, there was no anesthesia, so part of the description alludes to the suffering of the patients and the operative difficulties. The first case, is referred to as a lithotomy in a 17-year-old girl, performed by surgeon José Victoriano Guerrero in Guadalajara in 1822. The publication is not an academic report, but a pamphlet written as a gift to Emperor Augustin I to celebrate his ascension to the throne. The second work, is a lateral lithotomy in a 5-year-old boy, published by Dr. Luis Jecker in the first issue of the Periódico de la Academia de Medicina de Mégico in 1836. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.
Zhou, Feng; Gou, Shan-Miao; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You; Liu, Tao
The main treatment strategies for chronic pancreatitis in young patients include therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) intervention and surgical intervention. Therapeutic ERCP intervention is performed much more extensively for its minimally invasive nature, but a part of patients are referred to surgery at last. Historical and follow-up data of 21 young patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection were analyzed to evaluate the outcomes of therapeutic ERCP intervention and surgical intervention in this study. The surgical complications of repeated therapeutic ERCP intervention and surgical intervention were 38% and 19% respectively. During the first therapeutic ERCP intervention to surgical intervention, 2 patients developed diabetes, 5 patients developed steatorrhea, and 5 patients developed pancreatic type B pain. During the follow-up of surgical intervention, 1 new case of diabetes occurred, 1 case of steatorrhea recovered, and 4 cases of pancreatic type B pain were completely relieved. In a part of young patients with chronic pancreatitis, surgical intervention was more effective than therapeutic ERCP intervention on delaying the progression of the disease and relieving the symptoms.
McElroy, L M; Woods, D M; Yanes, A F; Skaro, A I; Daud, A; Curtis, T; Wymore, E; Holl, J L; Abecassis, M M; Ladner, D P
Efforts to improve patient safety are challenged by the lack of universally agreed upon terms. The International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS) was developed by the World Health Organization for this purpose. This study aimed to test the applicability of the ICPS to a surgical population. A web-based safety debriefing was sent to clinicians involved in surgical care of abdominal organ transplant patients. A multidisciplinary team of patient safety experts, surgeons and researchers used the data to develop a system of classification based on the ICPS. Disagreements were reconciled via consensus, and a codebook was developed for future use by researchers. A total of 320 debriefing responses were used for the initial review and codebook development. In total, the 320 debriefing responses contained 227 patient safety incidents (range: 0-7 per debriefing) and 156 contributing factors/hazards (0-5 per response). The most common severity classification was 'reportable circumstance,' followed by 'near miss.' The most common incident types were 'resources/organizational management,' followed by 'medical device/equipment.' Several aspects of surgical care were encompassed by more than one classification, including operating room scheduling, delays in care, trainee-related incidents, interruptions and handoffs. This study demonstrates that a framework for patient safety can be applied to facilitate the organization and analysis of surgical safety data. Several unique aspects of surgical care require consideration, and by using a standardized framework for describing concepts, research findings can be compared and disseminated across surgical specialties. The codebook is intended for use as a framework for other specialties and institutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Wilson, Thomas J; Franz, Eric; Vollmer, Carolyn F; Chang, Kate W-C; Upadhyaya, Cheerag; Park, Paul; Yang, Lynda J-S
Patients frequently have misconceptions regarding diagnosis, surgical indication, and expected outcome following spinal surgery for degenerative spinal disease. In this study, we sought to understand the relationship between patient-perceived surgical indications and patient expectations. We hypothesized that patients reporting appendicular symptoms as a primary surgical indication would report a higher rate of having expectations met by surgery compared to those patients reporting axial symptoms as a primary indication. Questionnaires were administered to patients who had undergone surgery for degenerative spinal disease at 2 tertiary care institutions. Questions assessed perception of the primary indication for undergoing surgery (radicular versus axial), whether the primary symptom improved after surgery, and whether patient expectations were met with surgery. Outcomes of interest included patient-reported symptomatic improvement following surgery and expectations met by surgery. Various factors were assessed for their relationship to these outcomes of interest. There were 151 unique survey respondents. Respondents were nearly split between having a patient-perceived indication for surgery as appendicular symptoms (55.6%) and axial symptoms (44.4%). Patient-perceived surgical indication being appendicular symptoms was the only factor predictive of patient-reported symptomatic improvement in our logistic regression model (OR 2.614; 95% CI 1.218-5.611). Patient-perceived surgical indication being appendicular symptoms (OR 3.300; 95% CI 1.575-6.944) and patient-reported symptomatic improvement (OR 33.297; 95% CI 12.186-90.979) were predictive of patients reporting their expectations met with surgery in both univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling. We found that patient-reported appendicular symptoms as the primary indication for surgery were associated with a higher rate of both subjective improvement following surgery and having expectations met
This thesis addresses several aspects of the surgical treatment of diplopia in patients with Graves’ Orbitopathy (GO). We evaluated retrospectively the surgical outcome of different types of surgery on eye muscles to correct the diplopia. Each operated muscle seems to have its own dose-effect
Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of surgical assistance in conflict is often associated with care for victims of violence. However, there is an increasing appreciation that surgical care is needed for non-traumatic morbidities. In this paper we report on surgical interventions carried out by Médecins sans Frontières in Masisi, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo to contribute to the scarce evidence base on surgical needs in conflict. Methods We analysed data on all surgical interventions done at Masisi district hospital between September 2007 and December 2009. Types of interventions are described, and logistic regression used to model associations with violence-related injury. Results 2869 operations were performed on 2441 patients. Obstetric emergencies accounted for over half (675, 57% of all surgical pathology and infections for another quarter (160, 14%. Trauma-related injuries accounted for only one quarter (681, 24% of all interventions; among these, 363 (13% were violence-related. Male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 20.0, p Conclusions In this study, most surgical interventions were unrelated to violent trauma and rather reflected the general surgical needs of a low-income tropical country. Programs in conflict zones in low-income countries need to be prepared to treat both the war-wounded and non-trauma related life-threatening surgical needs of the general population. Given the limited surgical workforce in these areas, training of local staff and task shifting is recommended to support broad availability of essential surgical care. Further studies into the surgical needs of the population are warranted, including population-based surveys, to improve program planning and resource allocation and the effectiveness of the humanitarian response.
Chu, Kathryn; Havet, Philippe; Ford, Nathan; Trelles, Miguel
The provision of surgical assistance in conflict is often associated with care for victims of violence. However, there is an increasing appreciation that surgical care is needed for non-traumatic morbidities. In this paper we report on surgical interventions carried out by Médecins sans Frontières in Masisi, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo to contribute to the scarce evidence base on surgical needs in conflict. We analysed data on all surgical interventions done at Masisi district hospital between September 2007 and December 2009. Types of interventions are described, and logistic regression used to model associations with violence-related injury. 2869 operations were performed on 2441 patients. Obstetric emergencies accounted for over half (675, 57%) of all surgical pathology and infections for another quarter (160, 14%). Trauma-related injuries accounted for only one quarter (681, 24%) of all interventions; among these, 363 (13%) were violence-related. Male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 20.0, p violence-related injury. Immediate peri-operative mortality was 0.2%. In this study, most surgical interventions were unrelated to violent trauma and rather reflected the general surgical needs of a low-income tropical country. Programs in conflict zones in low-income countries need to be prepared to treat both the war-wounded and non-trauma related life-threatening surgical needs of the general population. Given the limited surgical workforce in these areas, training of local staff and task shifting is recommended to support broad availability of essential surgical care. Further studies into the surgical needs of the population are warranted, including population-based surveys, to improve program planning and resource allocation and the effectiveness of the humanitarian response.
Cuidados de enfermagem realizados ao paciente cirúrgico no período pré-operatório Cuidados de enfermería realizados en el paciente quirúrgico en el período preoperatorio Nursing care applied to surgical patient in the pre-surgical period
Berendina Elsina Bouwman Christóforo
orientaciones relacionadas con el procedimiento quirúrgico y con los cuidados de enfermería efectuados. Se percibe que algunos de estos cuidados incomodan a los pacientes, por ejemplo: la colocación de la camisa quirúrgica, la retirada de la ropa íntima y de la prótesis dentaria. En fin, este estudio permitió que se identificasen fragilidades en el cuidado del paciente quirúrgico, en el sentido de contribuir para la reflexión sobre la necesidad de introducir cambios en las prácticas de la enfermería en el ambiente hospitalario.This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, qualitative study performed at the surgical units of two hospitals in the city of Ponta Grossa. The purpose was to characterize the nursing care provided to patients in the pre-surgical period of elective surgeries. The studied population, chosen as a convenience sample, consisted of 129 patients, aged 18 to 70 years. Data collection was performed through structured interviews carried out at the hospital after the surgery. The results show that the care provided is mainly focused on the physical preparation of the patient, in which few instructions are provided about the surgical procedure and the nursing care delivered. It was also observed that some types of nursing care embarrass the patients, such as wearing the surgical gown and removing their underwear and dental prosthetics. Eventually, this study allowed for the identification of weaknesses in the care provided to the surgical patients, so as to contribute for the reflection about the need to make changes in the nursing practices performed in the hospital.
Clec'h, Christophe; Fosse, Jean-Philippe; Karoubi, Philippe; Vincent, Francois; Chouahi, Imad; Hamza, Lilia; Cupa, Michel; Cohen, Yves
To assess whether different diagnostic and prognostic cutoff values of procalcitonin should be considered in surgical and in medical patients with septic shock. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of the Avicenne teaching hospital, France. All patients with septic shock or noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome within 48 hrs after admission. None. Patients were allocated to one of the following groups: group 1 (surgical patients with septic shock), group 2 (surgical patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome), group 3 (medical patients with septic shock), and group 4 (medical patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome). Procalcitonin at study entry was compared between group 1 and group 2 and between group 3 and group 4 to determine the diagnostic cutoff value in surgical and in medical patients, respectively. Procalcitonin was compared between survivors and nonsurvivors from group 1 and group 3 to determine its prognostic cutoff value. One hundred forty-three patients were included: 31 in group 1, 36 in group 2, 36 in group 3, and 40 in group 4. Median procalcitonin levels (ng/mL [interquartile range]) were higher in group 1 than in group 3 (34.00 [7.10-76.00] vs. 8.40 [3.63-24.70], p = .01). In surgical patients, the best diagnostic cutoff value was 9.70 ng/mL, with 91.7% sensitivity and 74.2% specificity. In medical patients, the best diagnostic cutoff value was 1.00 ng/mL, with 80% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Procalcitonin was a reliable early prognostic marker in medical but not in surgical patients with septic shock. A cutoff value of 6.00 ng/mL had 76% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity for separating survivors from nonsurvivors. The diagnostic cutoff value of procalcitonin was higher in surgical than in medical patients. Early procalcitonin was of prognostic interest in medical patients.
Latinos comprise nearly 16 percent of the U.S. population, and this proportion is anticipated to increase to 30 percent by 2050. Latinos are a diverse ethnic group that includes many different cultures, races, and nationalities. Barriers to care have resulted in striking disparities in quality of health care for these patients. These barriers include language, lack of insurance, different cultural beliefs, and in some cases, illegal immigration status, mistrust, and illiteracy. The National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services address these concerns with recommendations for culturally competent care, language services, and organizational support. Latinos have disproportionately higher rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Other health problems include stress, neurocysticercosis, and tuberculosis. It is important to explore the use of alternative therapies and belief in traditional folk illnesses, recognizing that health beliefs are dependent on education, socioeconomic status, and degree of acculturation. Many-but not all-folk and herbal treatments can be safely accommodated with conventional therapy. Physicians must be sensitive to Latino cultural values of simpatia (kindness), personalismo (relationship), respeto (respect), and modestia (modesty). The LEARN technique can facilitate cross-cultural interviews. Some cultural barriers may be overcome by using the "teach back" technique to ensure that directions are correctly understood and by creating a welcoming health care environment for Latino patients.
Katzel, Evan B; Basile, Patrick; Koltz, Peter F; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Girotto, John A
The purpose of this study was to objectively report practices commonly used in cleft palate repair in the United States. This study investigates current surgical techniques, postoperative care, and complication rates for cleft palate repair surgery. All 803 surgeon members of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association were sent online and/or paper surveys inquiring about their management of cleft palate patients. Three-hundred six surveys were received, a 38 percent response rate. This represented responses of surgeons from 100 percent of American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association registered cleft teams. Ninety-six percent of respondents perform a one-stage repair. Eighty-five percent of surgeons perform palate surgery when the patient is between 6 and 12 months of age. The most common one-stage repair techniques are the Bardach style (two flaps) with intravelar veloplasty and the Furlow palatoplasty. After surgery, 39 percent of surgeons discharge patients within 24 hours. Another 43 percent discharge patients within 48 hours. During postoperative management, 92 percent of respondents implement feeding restrictions. Eighty-five percent of physicians use arm restraints. Surgeons' self-reported complications rates are minimal: 54 percent report a fistula in less than 5 percent of cases. The reported need for secondary speech surgery varies widely. The majority of respondents repair clefts in one stage. The most frequently used repair techniques are the Furlow palatoplasty and the Bardach style with intravelar veloplasty. After surgery, the majority of surgeons discharge patients in 1 or 2 days, and nearly all surgeons implement feeding restrictions and the use of arm restraints. The varying feeding protocols are reviewed in this article.
Full Text Available Today, hospitals offer surgical treatment within a short hospital admission. This brief interaction may challenge the well-being of old patients. The aim of this study was to explore how the well-being of old hospitalized patients was affected by the interaction with staff during a fast-track surgical treatment and hospital admission for colon cancer. We used an ethnographic methodology with field observations and unstructured interviews focusing on one patient at a time (n=9 during a full day; the hours ranging from 7:45 a.m. to 8 p.m. Participants were between 74 and 85 years of age and of both sexes. The study was reported to the Danish Data Protection Agency with reference number (2007-58-0010. The encounter between old patients and the staff was a main theme in our findings elucidating a number of care challenges. The identified care challenges illustrated “well-being as a matter of different perspectives,” “vulnerability in contrast to well-being,” and “staff mix influencing the care encounter.” The experience of well-being in old cancer patients during hospital admission was absent or challenged when staff did not acknowledge their individual vulnerability and needs.
Urschel, Harold C; Urschel, Betsey Bradley
Dr Robert R. Shaw arrived in Dallas to practice Thoracic Surgery in 1937, as John Alexander's 7th Thoracic Surgical Resident from Michigan University Medical Center. Dr Shaw's modus operandi was, "You can accomplish almost anything, if you don't care who gets the credit." He was a remarkable individual who cared the most about the patient and very little about getting credit for himself. From 1937 to 1970, Dr Shaw established one of the largest lung cancer surgical centers in the world in Dallas, Texas. It was larger than M.D. Anderson and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospitals put together regarding the surgical treatment of lung cancer patients. To accomplish this, he had the help of Dr Donald L. Paulson, who trained at the Mayo Clinic and served as Chief of Thoracic Surgery at Brook Army Hospital during the Second World War. Following the War, because of his love for Texas, he ended up as a partner of Dr Shaw in Dallas. Together, they pursued the development of this very large surgical lung cancer center. Dr Shaw and his wife Ruth went to Afghanistan with Medico multiple times to teach men modern cardiac and thoracic surgery. They also served as consultants on Medico's Ship of Hope in Africa. Dr Shaw initiated multiple new operations including: 1) resection of Pancoast's cancer of the lung after preoperative irradiation; 2) upper lobe of the lung bronchoplasty, reattaching (and saving) the lower lobe to prevent the "disabling" pneumonectomy; and 3) resections of pulmonary mucoid impaction of the lung in asthmatics. Because of his humility and giving "the credit to others," Dr Shaw was never President of a major medical or surgical association. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Arthrosis of the hip is the most common cause of a hip joint disorders. The aim of this study was to present our experience in the application of a safe surgical dislocation of the hip in patients with minor morphological changes in the hip joint, which, through the mechanism of femoroacetabular impingement, cause damage to the acetabular labrum and adjacent cartilage as an early sign of the hip arthrosis. Methods. We have operated 51 patients with different morphological bone changes in the hip area and resultant soft tissue damage of the acetabular labrum and its adjacent cartilage. Surgical technique that we applied in this group of patients, was adapted to our needs and capabilities and it was minimaly modified compared to the original procedure. Results. The surgical technique presented in this paper, proved to be a good method of treatment of bone and soft tissue pathomorphological changes of the hip in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. We had no cases with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, and two patients had nonunion of the greater trochanter, 9 patients developed paraarticular ossification, without subjective symptoms, while 3 patients suffered from postoperative pain in the groin during more energetic physical activities. Conclusion. Utilization of our partly modified surgical technique of controlled and safe dislocation of the hip can solve all the bone and soft tissue problems in patients with femoroacetibular impingement to stop already developed osteoarthritis of the hip or to prevent mild form of it.
Siletz, Anaar E.; Singer, Emily S.; Faltermeier, Claire; Hu, Q. Lina; Ko, Clifford Y.; Golladay, Gregory J.; Kates, Stephen L.; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda
Background: Use of enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) can improve patient outcomes, yet national implementation of these pathways remains low. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ; funder), the American College of Surgeons, and the Johns Hopkins Medicine Armstrong Institute for Patent Safety and Quality have developed the Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery—a national effort to catalyze implementation of practices to improve perioperative care and enhance recovery of surgical patients. This review synthesizes evidence that can be used to develop a protocol for elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). Study Design: This review focuses on potential components of the protocol relevant to surgeons; anesthesia components are reported separately. Components were identified through review of existing pathways and from consultation with technical experts. For each, a structured review of MEDLINE identified systematic reviews, randomized trials, and observational studies that reported on these components in patients undergoing elective TKA/THA. This primary evidence review was combined with existing clinical guidelines in a narrative format. Results: Sixteen components were reviewed. Of the 10 preoperative components, most were focused on risk factor assessment including anemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, obesity, nutrition, immune-modulating therapy, and opiates. Preoperative education, venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis, and bathing/Staphylococcus aureus decolonization were also included. The routine use of drains was the only intraoperative component evaluated. The 5 postoperative components included early mobilization, continuous passive motion, extended duration VTE prophylaxis, early oral alimentation, and discharge planning. Conclusion: This review synthesizes the evidence supporting potential surgical components of an ERP for elective TKA/THA. The AHRQ Safety Program for Improving
Childers, Christopher P; Siletz, Anaar E; Singer, Emily S; Faltermeier, Claire; Hu, Q Lina; Ko, Clifford Y; Golladay, Gregory J; Kates, Stephen L; Wick, Elizabeth C; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda
Use of enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) can improve patient outcomes, yet national implementation of these pathways remains low. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ; funder), the American College of Surgeons, and the Johns Hopkins Medicine Armstrong Institute for Patent Safety and Quality have developed the Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery-a national effort to catalyze implementation of practices to improve perioperative care and enhance recovery of surgical patients. This review synthesizes evidence that can be used to develop a protocol for elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). This review focuses on potential components of the protocol relevant to surgeons; anesthesia components are reported separately. Components were identified through review of existing pathways and from consultation with technical experts. For each, a structured review of MEDLINE identified systematic reviews, randomized trials, and observational studies that reported on these components in patients undergoing elective TKA/THA. This primary evidence review was combined with existing clinical guidelines in a narrative format. Sixteen components were reviewed. Of the 10 preoperative components, most were focused on risk factor assessment including anemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, obesity, nutrition, immune-modulating therapy, and opiates. Preoperative education, venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis, and bathing/ Staphylococcus aureus decolonization were also included. The routine use of drains was the only intraoperative component evaluated. The 5 postoperative components included early mobilization, continuous passive motion, extended duration VTE prophylaxis, early oral alimentation, and discharge planning. This review synthesizes the evidence supporting potential surgical components of an ERP for elective TKA/THA. The AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery aims to guide hospitals and
Anantha, Ram Venkatesh; Parry, Neil; Vogt, Kelly; Jain, Vipan; Crawford, Silvie; Leslie, Ken
Acute care surgical services provide comprehensive emergency general surgical care while potentially using health care resources more efficiently. We assessed the volume and distribution of emergency general surgery (EGS) procedures before and after the implementation of the Acute Care and Emergency Surgery Service (ACCESS) at a Canadian tertiary care hospital and its effect on surgeon billings. This single-centre retrospective case-control study compared adult patients who underwent EGS procedures between July and December 2009 (pre-ACCESS), to those who had surgery between July and December 2010 (post-ACCESS). Case distribution was compared between day (7 am to 3 pm), evening (3 pm to 11 pm) and night (11 pm to 7 am). Frequencies were compared using the χ(2) test. Pre-ACCESS, 366 EGS procedures were performed: 24% during the day, 55% in the evening and 21% at night. Post-ACCESS, 463 operations were performed: 55% during the day, 36% in the evening and 9% at night. Reductions in night-time and evening EGS were 57% and 36% respectively (p cost-modelling analysis, post-ACCESS surgeon billing for appendectomies, segmental colectomies, laparotomies and cholecystectomies all declined by $67 190, $125 215, $66 362, and $84 913, respectively (p Cost-modelling analysis demonstrates that these services have cost-savings potential for the health care system without reducing overall surgeon billing.
Full Text Available Introduction: Patient satisfaction was important aspect that must be considered by health service providers, patients who were not satisfied will leave the hospital and be a competitor's customers so be able caused a decrease in sales of products/services and in turn could reduce and even loss of profit, therefore, the hospital must provided the best service so that it could increase patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to exams the effect of Islamic caring model on increase patient satisfaction.. Method: This study was used pre-experimental design, the respondents were 31 patients in the treatment group assigned Islamic caring and 31 patients with a kontrol group that were not given Islamic caring Inpatient Surgical Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang by using consecutive sampling techniques, patient satisfaction data collected through questionnaires and analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, as for finding out the Islamic caring for patient satisfaction were analyzed with spearmen's rho test. Result: The results showed that there was a significant influence of Islamic caring for perceived disconfirmation (p=0,000 there was a perceived disconfirmation influence on patient satisfaction significantly (p=0,000, there was a significant influence of Islamic caring for patient satisfaction in the treatment group with a kontrol group (p=0.001. Discussion: Discussion of this study was Islamic caring model effect on the increase perceived disconfirmation and patient satisfaction, Perceived disconfirmation effect on patient satisfaction, patient satisfaction who given Islamic caring was increase, patients given Islamic caring had higher satisfaction levels than patients who not given Islamic caring. Suggestions put forward based on the results of the study of Islamic caring model could be applied in Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital as a model of nursing care, Islamic caring behavior can be learned and improved through training and commitment and
Johnston, Maximilian J; Arora, Sonal; King, Dominic; Darzi, Ara
This study aimed to explore the impact of a human factors intervention bundle on the quality of ward-based surgical care in a UK hospital. Improving the culture of a surgical team is a difficult task. Engagement with stakeholders before intervention is key. Studies have shown that appropriate supervision can enhance surgical ward safety. A pre-post intervention study was conducted. The intervention bundle consisted of twice-daily attending ward rounds, a "chief resident of the week" available at all times on the ward, an escalation of care protocol and team contact cards. Twenty-seven junior and senior surgeons completed validated questionnaires assessing supervision, escalation of care, and safety culture pre and post-intervention along with interviews to further explore the impact of the intervention. Patient outcomes pre and postintervention were also analyzed. Questionnaires revealed significant improvements in supervision postintervention (senior median pre 5 vs post 7, P = 0.002 and junior 4 vs 6, P = 0.039) and senior surgeon approachability (junior 5 vs 6, P = 0.047). Both groups agreed that they would feel safer as a patient in their hospital postintervention (senior 3 vs 4.5, P = 0.021 and junior 3 vs 4, P = 0.034). The interviews confirmed that the safety culture of the department had improved. There were no differences in inpatient mortality, cardiac arrest, reoperation, or readmission rates pre and postintervention. Improving supervision and introducing clear protocols can improve safety culture on the surgical ward. Future work should evaluate the effect these measures have on patient outcomes in multiple institutions.
Full Text Available In rural India most of the surgical patients become impoverished due to surgical treatment pushing several families below poverty line. We describe the various methods that we tried to help these patients pay for the surgical procedures without becoming impoverished. Some of them were successful and many of them were not so successful. The large turnover and innovative methods helped the mission hospitals to serve the poor and the marginalized. Some of these methods might not be relevant in areas other than Northeast India while many could be used in other areas.
Ozdogan, Hatice Kaya; Karateke, Faruk; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Cetinalp, Sibel; Ozyazici, Sefa; Gezercan, Yurdal; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Muge; Satar, Salim
Since the civilian war in Syria began, thousands of seriously injured trauma patients from Syria were brought to Turkey for emergency operations and/or postoperative intensive care. The aim of this study was to present the demographics and clinical features of the wounded patients in Syrian civil war admitted to the surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care centre. The records of 80 trauma patients admitted to the Anaesthesia, General Surgery and Neurosurgery ICUs between June 1, 2012 and July 15, 2014 were included in the study. The data were reviewed regarding the demographics, time of presentation, place of reference, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical procedures, complications, length of stay and mortality. A total of 80 wounded patients (70 males and 10 females) with a mean age of 28.7 years were admitted to surgical ICUs. The most frequent cause of injury was gunshot injury. The mean time interval between the occurrence of injury and time of admission was 2.87 days. Mean ISS score on admission was 21, and mean APACHE II score was 15.7. APACHE II scores of non-survivors were significantly increased compared with those of survivors (P=0.001). No significant differences was found in the age, ISS, time interval before admission, length of stay in ICU, rate of surgery before or after admission. The most important factor affecting mortality in this particular trauma-ICU patient population from Syrian civil war was the physiological condition of patients on admission. Rapid transport and effective initial and on-road resuscitation are critical in decreasing the mortality rate in civil wars and military conflicts.
Bruno, Emily; White, Michelle C; Baxter, Linden S; Ravelojaona, Vaonandianina Agnès; Rakotoarison, Hasiniaina Narindria; Andriamanjato, Hery Harimanitra; Close, Kristin L; Herbert, Alison; Raykar, Nakul; Saluja, Saurabh; Shrime, Mark G
The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) described the lack of access to safe, affordable, timely surgical, and anesthesia care. It proposed a series of 6 indicators to measure surgery, accompanied by time-bound targets and a template for national surgical planning. To date, no sub-Saharan African country has completed and published a nationwide evaluation of its surgical system within this framework. Mercy Ships, in partnership with Harvard Medical School and the Madagascar Ministry of Health, collected data on the 6 indicators from 22 referral hospitals in 16 out of 22 regions of Madagascar. Data collection was by semi-structured interviews with ministerial, medical, laboratory, pharmacy, and administrative representatives in each region. Microsimulation modeling was used to calculate values for financial indicators. In Madagascar, 29% of the population can access a surgical facility within 2 h. Surgical workforce density is 0.78 providers per 100,000 and annual surgical volume is 135-191 procedures per 100,000 with a perioperative mortality rate of 2.5-3.3%. Patients requiring surgery have a 77.4-86.3 and 78.8-95.1% risk of incurring impoverishing and catastrophic expenditure, respectively. Of the six LCoGS indicator targets, Madagascar meets one, the reporting of perioperative mortality rate. Compared to the LCoGS targets, Madagascar has deficits in surgical access, workforce, volume, and the ability to offer financial risk protection to surgical patients. Its perioperative mortality rate, however, appears better than in comparable countries. The government is committed to improvement, and key stakeholder meetings to create a national surgical plan have begun.
Samad, Lubna; Iqbal, Mehreen; Tariq, Ahson; Shahzad, Wasif; Khan, Aamir J
Equitable access to surgical care is necessary for improving global health. We report on the performance, financial sustainability, and policy impact of a free-of-cost multispecialty surgical delivery program in Karachi, Pakistan built upon local private philanthropy. We evaluated trends in surgical service delivery, expenditures, and philanthropic donations from Indus Hospital's first 5 years of operation (2007-2012), projected these over the hospital's current expansion phase, compared these to publicly accessible records of other philanthropic hospitals providing surgical care, and documented the government's evolving policies toward this model. Between 2007 and 2012, Indus Hospital treated 40,012 in-patients free of cost, 33,606 (84 %) of them for surgical procedures. Surgical procedures increased fivefold to 9,478 during 2011-2012 from 1,838 during 2007-2008. Bed occupancy increased to 91 % from 65 % over the same period. External surgical missions accounted for less than 0.5 % of patients served. Ninety-eight percent (98 %) of all philanthropic donations--totaling USD 26.6 million over 2007-2012--were locally generated. Zakat (obligatory annual religious alms in the Islamic faith) constituted 34 % of all donations, followed by unrestricted funds (24 %) and donations-in-kind (24 %), buildings (12 %), grants (5 %), and return on investments (1 %). Overall, donations received between 2007 and 2012 increased sevenfold, with Zakat increasing 12-fold. During 2013-2014, the Government of Pakistan provided land lease and annual operational grants totaling USD 9 million. Local philanthropy can sustain and grow the provision of free, high-quality surgical care in low-income settings, and encourage the development of hybrid government-philanthropic models of surgical care.
Jangland, Eva; Teodorsson, Therese; Molander, Karin; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa
To explore the delivery of care from the perspective of patients with acute abdominal pain focusing on the contextual factors at system level using the Fundamentals of Care framework. The Fundamentals of Care framework describes several contextual and systemic factors that can impact the delivery of care. To deliver high-quality, person-centred care, it is important to understand how these factors affect patients' experiences and care needs. A focused ethnographic approach. A total of 20 observations were performed on two surgical wards at a Swedish university hospital. Data were collected using participant observation and informal interviews and analysed using deductive content analysis. The findings, presented in four categories, reflect the value patients place on the caring relationship and a friendly atmosphere on the ward. Patients had concerns about the environment, particularly the high-tempo culture on the ward and its impact on their integrity, rest and sleep, access to information and planning, and need for support in addressing their existential thoughts. The observers also noted that missed nursing care had serious consequences for patient safety. Patients with acute abdominal pain were cared for in the high-tempo culture of a surgical ward with limited resources, unclear leadership and challenges to patients' safety. The findings highlight the crucial importance of prioritising and valuing the patients' fundamental care needs for recovery. Nursing leaders and nurses need to take the lead to reconceptualise the value of fundamental care in the acute care setting. To improve clinical practice, the value of fundamentals of care must be addressed regardless of patient's clinical condition. Providing a caring relationship is paramount to ensure a positive impact on patient's well-being and recovery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Beck, Anne Marie; Holst, Mette; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard
To estimate the effectiveness of oral nutritional support compared to placebo or usual care in improving clinical outcome in older (65 years+) medical and surgical patients after discharge from hospital. Outcome goals were: re-admissions, survival, nutritional and functional status, quality of life...
An assessment of the psychological impact of losing a breast in this patient was not possible as patient was lost to follow up. Optimal clinical examination by the surgeon and preoperative cytological diagnosis would ensure that the patient is spared unnecessary mutilating surgery. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research Vol.
Athanasios K. Petridis
Full Text Available In incidental aneurysms, endovascular treatment can lead to post-procedural headaches. We studied the difference of surgical clipping vs. endovascular coiling in concern to post-procedural headaches in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Sixtyseven patients with aneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage were treated in our department from September 1st 2015 - September 1st 2016. 43 Patients were included in the study and the rest was excluded because of late recovery or highgrade subarachnoid bleedings. Twenty-two were surgical treated and twenty-one were interventionally treated. We compared the post-procedural headaches at the time points of 24 h, 21 days, and 3 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (VAS for pain. After surgical clipping the headache score decreased for 8.8 points in the VAS, whereas the endovascular treated population showed a decrease of headaches of 3.3 points. This difference was highly statistical significant and remained significant even after 3 weeks where the pain score for the surgically treated patients was 0.68 and for the endovascular treated 1.8. After 3 months the pain was less than 1 for both groups with surgically treated patients scoring 0.1 and endovascular treated patients 0.9 (not significant. Clipping is relieving the headaches of patients with aneurysm rupture faster and more effective than endovascular coiling. This effect stays significant for at least 3 weeks and plays a crucial role in stress relieve during the acute and subacute ICU care of such patients.
Lee, Eugenia E; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A; Groen, Thomas A; Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L
Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide. Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed. The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People's Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies.
Moore, An'Nita; Fisher, Kathleen
Healthcare information technology in US hospitals and ambulatory care centers continues to expand, and nurses are expected to effectively and efficiently utilize this technology. Researchers suggest that clinical information systems have expanded the realm of nursing to integrate technology as an element as important in nursing practice as the patient or population being served. This study sought to explore how medical surgical nurses make use of healthcare information technology in their current clinical practice and to examine the influence of healthcare information technology on nurses' clinical decision making. A total of eight medical surgical nurses participated in the study, four novice and four experienced. A conventional content analysis was utilized that allowed for a thematic interpretation of participant data. Five themes emerged: (1) healthcare information technology as a care coordination partner, (2) healthcare information technology as a change agent in the care delivery environment, (3) healthcare information technology-unable to meet all the needs, of all the people, all the time, (4) curiosity about healthcare information technology-what other bells and whistles exist, and (5) Big Brother is watching. The results of this study indicate that a new care partnership has emerged as the provision of nursing care is no longer supplied by a single practitioner but rather by a paired team, consisting of nurses and technology, working collaboratively in an interdependent relationship to achieve established goals.
Schulz, Kristine A; Rhee, John S; Brereton, Jean M; Zema, Carla L; Witsell, David L
To describe the feasibility and initial results of the implementation of a continuous quality improvement project using the newly available Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Surgical Care Survey (S-CAHPS), in a small cohort of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery practices. Prospective observational study using a newly validated health care consumer survey. Two community-based and 2 university-based otolaryngology-head and neck surgery outpatient clinic practices. Fourteen board-certified otolaryngology, head and neck surgeons from 4 practice sites voluntarily participated in this project. All adult patients scheduled for surgery during a 12-month period were asked to complete the S-CAHPS survey through an electronic data capture (EDC) system 7 to 28 days after surgery. The surgeons were not directly involved in administration or collection of survey data. Three sites successfully implemented the S-CAHPS project. A 39.9% response rate was achieved for the cohort of surgical patients entered into the EDC system. While most patients rated their surgeons very high (mean of 9.5 or greater out of 10), subanalysis revealed there is variability among sites and surgeons in communication practices. From these data, a potential surgeon Quality Improvement report was developed that highlights priority areas to improve surgeon-patient rapport. The S-CAHPS survey can be successfully implemented in most otolaryngology practices, and our initial work holds promise for how the survey can be best deployed and analyzed for the betterment of both the surgeon and the patient.
Raykar, Nakul P; Yorlets, Rachel R; Liu, Charles; Greenberg, Sarah L M; Kotagal, Meera; Goldman, Roberta; Roy, Nobhojit; Meara, John G; Gillies, Rowan D
Billions of people worldwide are without access to safe, affordable, and timely surgical care. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) conducted a qualitative study to understand the contextual challenges to surgical care provision in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), and how providers overcome them. A semi-structured interview was administered to 143 care providers in 21 LMICs using stratified purposive sampling to include both urban and rural areas and reputational case selection to identify individual providers. Interviews were conducted in Argentina (n=5), Botswana (3), Brazil (10), Cape Verde (4), China (14), Colombia (4), Ecuador (6), Ethiopia (10), India (15), Indonesia (1), Mexico (9), Mongolia (4), Namibia (2), Pakistan (13), Peru (5), Philippines (1), Sierra Leone (11), Tanzania (5), Thailand (2), Uganda (9), and Zimbabwe (15). Local collaborators of LCoGS conducted interviews using a standardised implementation manual and interview guide. Questions revolved around challenges or barriers in the area of access to care for patients; challenges or barriers in the area of in-hospital care for patients; and challenges or barriers in the area of governance or health policy. De-identified interviews were coded and interpreted by an independent analyst. Providers across continent and context noted significant geographical, financial, and educational barriers to access. Surgical care provision in the rural hospital setting was hindered by a paucity of trained workforce, and inadequacies in basic infrastructure, equipment, supplies, and access to banked blood. In urban areas, providers face high patient volumes combined with staff shortages, minimal administrative support, and poor interhospital care coordination. At a policy level, providers identified regulations that were inconsistent with the realities of low-resource care provision (eg, a requirement to provide 'free' care to certain populations but without any guarantee for funding
Hall, Mary E; Oyesanya, Tola; Cameron, Anne P
Here, we present the clinical presentation and surgical outcomes of women with symptomatic urethral prolapse presenting to our institution over 20 years, and seek to provide treatment recommendations for management of symptomatic urethral prolapse and caruncle. A retrospective review of medical records from female patients who underwent surgery for symptomatic urethral prolapse from June 1995 to August 2015 was performed. Surgical technique consisted of a four-quadrant excisional approach for repair of urethral prolapse. A total of 26 patients were identified with a mean age of 38.8 years (range 3-81). The most common presentations were vaginal bleeding, hematuria, pain, and dysuria. All patients underwent surgical excision of urethral prolapse via a standard approach. Follow-up data was available in 24 patients. Six patients experienced temporary postoperative bleeding, and one patient required placement of a Foley catheter for tamponade. One patient experienced temporary postoperative urinary retention requiring Foley catheter placement. Three patients had visible recurrence of urethral prolapse, for which one later underwent re-excision. Surgical excision of urethral prolapse is a reasonable treatment option in patients who have tried conservative management without relief, as well as in those who present with severe symptoms. Possible complications following excision include postoperative bleeding and recurrence, and patients must be counseled accordingly. In this work, we propose a treatment algorithm for symptomatic urethral prolapse. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Jehovah's Witnesses is a religious association, who refuses blood transfusions even in life-threatening conditions. There are several alternative methods, implemented for use with patients that religion, whose task is to reduce the risk of bleeding and hemorrhage in the perioperative period. Good cooperation of the therapeutic team, the selection of appropriate treatment, the use of recommended methods of anesthesia, surgical techniques and proper nursing care with careful monitoring of post-operative complications and quick response if they leave, they contribute to the improvement of health.
Uemura, Keiko; Inoue, Satoki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko
Perioperative physicians occasionally encounter situations where central venous catheters placed preoperatively turn out to be unnecessary. The purpose of this retrospective study is to identify the unnecessary application of central venous catheter placement and determine the factors associated with the unnecessary application of central venous catheter placement. Using data from institutional perioperative central venous catheter surveillance, we analysed data from 1,141 patients who underwent central venous catheter placement. We reviewed the central venous catheter registry and medical charts and allocated registered patients into those with the proper or with unnecessary application of central venous catheter according to standard indications. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with the unnecessary application of central venous catheter placement. In 107 patients, representing 9.38% of the overall population, we identified the unnecessary application of central venous catheter placement. Multivariate analysis identified emergencies at night or on holidays (odds ratio [OR] 2.109, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.021-4.359), low surgical risk (OR=1.729, 95% CI 1.038-2.881), short duration of anesthesia (OR=0.961/10min increase, 95% CI 0.945-0.979), and postoperative care outside of the intensive care unit (OR=2.197, 95% CI 1.402-3.441) all to be independently associated with the unnecessary application of catheterization. Complications related to central venous catheter placement when the procedure consequently turned out to be unnecessary were frequently observed (9/107) compared with when the procedure was necessary (40/1034) (p=0.032, OR=2.282, 95% CI 1.076-4.842). However, the subsequent multivariate logistic model did not hold this significant difference (p=0.0536, OR=2.115, 95% CI 0.988-4.526). More careful consideration for the application of central venous catheter is required in cases of emergency surgery at night or on
Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; van Lent, Wineke A.M.; van Lent, W.A.M.; van Harten, Wim H.; van Harten, Willem H.
No other department influences the workload of a hospital more than the Department of Surgery and in particular, the activities in the operating room. These activities are governed by the master surgical schedule (MSS), which states which patient types receive surgery on which day. In this paper we
Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; van Lent, W.A.M.; van Harten, Willem H.
No other department influences the workload of a hospital more than the Department of Surgery and in particular, the activities in the operating room. These activities are governed by the master surgical schedule (MSS), which states which patient types receive surgery on which day. In this paper, we
Albutt, Katherine; Yorlets, Rachel R; Punchak, Maria; Kayima, Peter; Namanya, Didacus B; Anderson, Geoffrey A; Shrime, Mark G
Five billion people lack access to safe, affordable, and timely surgical and anesthesia care. Significant challenges remain in the provision of surgical care in low-resource settings. Uganda is no exception. From September to November 2016, we conducted a mixed-methods countrywide surgical capacity assessment at 17 randomly selected public hospitals in Uganda. Researchers conducted 35 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders to understand factors related to the provision of surgical care. The framework approach was used for thematic and explanatory data analysis. The Ugandan public health care sector continues to face significant challenges in the provision of safe, timely, and affordable surgical care. These challenges can be broadly grouped into preparedness and policy, service delivery, and the financial burden of surgical care. Hospital staff reported challenges including: (1) significant delays in accessing surgical care, compounded by a malfunctioning referral system; (2) critical workforce shortages; (3) operative capacity that is limited by inadequate infrastructure and overwhelmed by emergency and obstetric volume; (4) supply chain difficulties pertaining to provision of essential medications, equipment, supplies, and blood; (5) significant, variable, and sometimes catastrophic expenditures for surgical patients and their families; and (6) a lack of surgery-specific policies and priorities. Despite these challenges, innovative strategies are being used in the public to provide surgical care to those most in need. Barriers to the provision of surgical care are cross-cutting and involve constraints in infrastructure, service delivery, workforce, and financing. Understanding current strengths and shortfalls of Uganda's surgical system is a critical first step in developing effective, targeted policy and programming that will build and strengthen its surgical capacity.
Niederbichler, A D; Ipaktchi, K; Jokuszies, A; Hirsch, T; Altintas, M A; Handschin, A E; Busch, K H; Gellert, M; Steinau, H-U; Vogt, P M; Steinsträsser, L
The clinical appearance of septic disorders is characterized by an enormous dynamic. The sepsis-induced dysbalance of the immune system necessitates immediate and aggressive therapeutic interventions to prevent further damage progression of the disease to septic shock and multiple organ failure. This includes supportive therapy to normalize and maintain organ and tissue perfusion as well as the identification of the infection focus. In cases where an infectious focus is identified, surgical source control frequently is a key element of the treatment strategy besides pharmacologic and supportive measures. The integrative approach of the management of septic patients requires rapid communication between the involved medical disciplines and the nursing personnel. Therefore, this article outlines current therapeutic concepts of septic diseases as well as central nursing aspects.
Cook, David J; Thompson, Jeffrey E; Suri, Rakesh; Prinsen, Sharon K
The absence of standardization in surgical care process, exemplified in a "solution shop" model, can lead to unwarranted variation, increased cost, and reduced quality. A comprehensive effort was undertaken to improve quality of care around indwelling bladder catheter use following surgery by creating a "focused factory" model within the cardiac surgical practice. Baseline compliance with Surgical Care Improvement Inf-9, removal of urinary catheter by the end of surgical postoperative day 2, was determined. Comparison of baseline data to postintervention results showed clinically important reductions in the duration of indwelling bladder catheters as well as marked reduction in practice variation. Following the intervention, Surgical Care Improvement Inf-9 guidelines were met in 97% of patients. Although clinical quality improvement was notable, the process to accomplish this-identification of patients suitable for standardized pathways, protocol application, and electronic systems to support the standardized practice model-has potentially greater relevance than the specific clinical results. © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality.
Yamazaki, F; Shimamoto, M; Fujita, S; Nakai, M; Aoyama, A; Chen, F; Nakata, T; Yamada, T
Without treatment, the life expectancy of patients with Marfan syndrome is reduced by the associated cardiovascular abnormalities. In this study, we reviewed our experience of the patients with Marfan syndrome who required multiple surgical interventions to identify the optimal treatment for these patients. Between January 1986 and December 2000, 44 patients with Marfan syndrome were operated on at Shizuoka City Hospital (SCH). Among them, 10 patients (22.7%) underwent multiple surgical interventions. There were 5 male and 5 female patients with a mean age of 40.6 +/- 16.1 years at the initial surgery. Only one patient was operated on at another hospital for his first, second, and third operations. His fourth operation was carried out at SCH. The remaining 9 patients underwent a total of 14 additional surgical procedures at SCH. Computed tomography (CT) scans were taken every 6 months postoperatively, and aortic diameter greater than 60 mm was considered as the indication for the additional surgery. There were no early death and one late death. The causes of additional surgery were enlargement of true aneurysm in 6, enlargement of residual dissection in 4, new dissection in 4, false aneurysm at the coronary anastomosis of Bentall procedure in 1. In 9 patients, both ascending and descending aorta were replaced. Among these 9 patients, only 3 patients underwent total arch replacement, and remaining 6 patients had their arch left in place with or without dissection. Our current strategy of the treatment of Marfan patients with acute type A dissection is total arch replacement with an elephant trunk at the initial emergent surgery.
D. Talon; C. Rouget; V. Cailleaux; P. Bailly; M. Thouverez; F. Barale; Y. Michel-Briand
textabstractA six month prospective study was carried out in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a university hospital to assess the incidence and routes of exogenous colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 157 patients were included in the study. One thousand one hundred and eleven
Eyelade, Olayinka; Sanusi, Arinola; Adigun, Tinuola; Adejumo, Olufemi
Presence of comorbidity in surgical patients may be associated with adverse perioperative events and increased the risk of morbidity and mortality. This audit was conducted to determine the frequencies of comorbidities in elective surgical patients and the outcome of anesthesia in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. Observational study of a cross-section of adult patients scheduled for elective surgery over a 6-month period. A standardized questionnaire was used to document patients' demographics, the presence of comorbidity and type, surgical diagnosis, anesthetic technique, intraoperative adverse events, and outcome of anesthesia. The questionnaire was administered pre- and post-operatively to determine the effects of the comorbidities on the outcome of anesthesia. One hundred and sixty-five adult patients aged between 18 and 84 years were studied. There were 89 (53.9%) females and 76 (46.1%) males. Forty-five (27.3%) have at least one comorbidity. Hypertension was the most common (48.8%) associated illness. Other comorbidities identified include anemia (17.8%), asthma (8.9%), diabetes mellitus (6.7%), chronic renal disease (6.7%), and others. The perioperative period was uneventful in majority of patients (80.6%) despite the presence of comorbidities. Intraoperative adverse events include hypotension, hypertension, shivering, and vomiting. No mortality was reported. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity in this cohort of patients. The presence of comorbidity did not significantly affect the outcome of anesthesia in elective surgical patients.
Full Text Available In the past few decades, surgery has advanced greatly because of an improved understanding of perioperative pathophysiology, development of minimally invasive operative techniques and advanced anaesthetic techniques. Fewer operations are requiring extended periods of hospital stay and a growing number of procedures are performed on an ambulatory basis. The pressure on medical systems is continuously growing as a result of economic constraints, increasing numbers of patients undergoing surgical procedures and greater patient autonomy. Patient awareness is steadily increasing along with their participation in their own care, leading to expectations of a higher standard of care. This has led to the development of a new concept of fast-track surgery.
Hwang, Sang Il; Kim, Hyung Ook; Son, Byung Ho; Yoo, Chang Hak; Kim, Hungdai; Shin, Jun Ho
AIM: To determine if surgical biliary bypass would provide improved quality of residual life and safe palliation in elderly patients with unresectable pancreatic head cancer. METHODS: Nineteen patients, 65 years of age or older, were managed with surgical biliary bypass (Group A). These patients were compared with 19 patients under 65 years of age who were managed with surgical biliary bypass (Group B). In addition, the results for group A were compared with those obtained from 17 patients, 65 years of age or older (Group C), who received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage to evaluate the quality of residual life. RESULTS: Five patients (26.0%) in Group A had complications, including one intraabdominal abscess, one pulmonary atelectasis, and three wound infections. One death (5.3%) occurred on postoperative day 3. With respect to morbidity, mortality, and postoperative hospitalization, no statistically significant difference was noted between Groups A and B. The number of readmissions and the rate of recurrent jaundice were lower in Group A than in Group C, to a statistically significant degree (P = 0.019, P = 0.029, respectively). The median hospital-free survival period and the median overall survival were also significantly longer in Group A (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Surgical palliation does not increase the morbidity or mortality rates, but it does increase the survival rate and improve the quality of life in elderly patients with unresectable pancreatic head cancer. PMID:19248198
Steinthorsdottir, Kristin J; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske K
The immediate postoperative course in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) remains a challenge across surgical procedures. Postoperative pain, sedation/cognitive dysfunction, nausea and vomiting (PONV), circulatory and respiratory problems and orthostatic intolerance constitute the bulk of the di......-anesthesia care unit (PACU), but with a scarcity of intervention studies using glucocorticoids to control inflammation. We, therefore, suggest a future research focus on the role of inflammation and effect of glucocorticoids in the PACU setting to improve patient recovery....
This chapter deals with important aspects of patient care, which may become the radiographer's responsibility in the absence of dedicated nursing staff. Although large pediatric centers usually employ nurses for bedside patient management, the general radiographer should be familiar with some aspects of routine patient care. This knowledge guarantees the safety and well-being of children entrusted to the technologist
Kim, BoYeoul; Park, SungHee; Park, KyuJoo; Ryoo, SeungBum
To investigate the effects of a standardised care protocol as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme on the management of patients who underwent open colon surgery at the University Hospital, South Korea. Patients who undergo open colon surgery often have concerns about their care as they prepare for hospitalisation. By shortening hospital stay lengths, enhanced recovery after surgery programmes could reduce the number of opportunities for patient education and communication with nurses. Therefore, our surgical team developed an enhanced recovery after surgery programme, applied using a care protocol for patients with colorectal cancer, that spans the entire recovery process. A retrospective, comparative study was conducted using a care protocol as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme. Comparisons were made before and after the implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme with a care protocol. Records of 219 patients who underwent open colon surgery were retrospectively audited. The records were grouped according to the care protocol used (enhanced recovery after surgery programme with a care protocol or traditional care programme). The outcomes, including postoperative bowel function recovery, postoperative pain control, recovery time and postoperative complications, were compared between two categories. Patients who were managed using the programme with a care protocol had shorter hospital stays, fewer complications, such as postoperative ileus wound infections, and emergency room visits than those who were managed using the traditional care programme. The findings can be used to facilitate the implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme with a care protocol following open colon surgery. We present a care protocol that enables effective management using consistent and standardised education providing bedside care for patients who undergo open colon surgery. This care protocol empowers long
Full Text Available Health Behaviors are one of the most important factors that determine health. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of diseases i.e. hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes type 2, stroke and overweight and obesity. In the study this in the clinic of cardiac surgery University Hospital # 1 in Bydgoszcz in the period from October to November 2016 uses the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ. Encouraging patients coronary artery bypass grafting for physical activity before the procedure should be to educate patients about the importance of traffic before the operations and promote health promoting behaviors i.e.. correct diet and maintain a proper body weight, control blood pressure and glucose levels, and appropriate form traffic adapted to the needs and capabilities of the patient.
Block, Ernest F J; Rudloff, Beth; Noon, Charles; Behn, Bruce
There is a national loss of access to surgeons for emergencies. Contributing factors include reduced numbers of practicing general surgeons, superspecialization, reimbursement issues, emphasis on work and life balance, and medical liability. Regionalizing acute care surgery (ACS), as exists for trauma care, represents a potential solution. The purpose of this study is to assess the financial and resources impact of transferring all nontrauma ACS cases from a community hospital (CH) to a trauma center (TC). We performed a case mix and financial analysis of patient records with ACS for a rural CH located near an urban Level I TC. ACS patients were analyzed for diagnosis, insurance status, procedures, and length of stay. We estimated physician reimbursement based on evaluation and management codes and procedural CPT codes. Hospital revenues were based on regional diagnosis-related group rates. All third-party remuneration was set at published Medicare rates; self-pay was set at nil. Nine hundred ninety patients were treated in the CH emergency department with 188 potential surgical diseases. ACS was necessary in 62 cases; 25.4% were uninsured. Extrapolated to 12 months, 248 patients would generate new TC physician revenue of >$155,000 and hospital profits of >$1.5 million. CH savings for call pay and other variable costs are >$100,000. TC operating room volume would only increase by 1%. Regionalization of ACS to TCs is a viable option from a business perspective. Access to care is preserved during an approaching crisis in emergency general surgical coverage. The referring hospital is relieved of an unfavorable payer mix and surgeon call problems. The TC receives a new revenue stream with limited impact on resources by absorbing these patients under its fixed costs, saving the CH variable costs.
Kaye, Deborah R; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Carter, H Ballentine; Bivalacqua, Trinity J
Surgical robotic use has grown exponentially in spite of limited or uncertain benefits and large costs. In certain situations, adoption of robotic technology provides value to patients and society. In other cases, however, the robot provides little or no increase in surgical quality, with increased expense, and, therefore, does not add value to health care. The surgical robot is expensive to purchase, maintain and operate, and can contribute to increased consumerism in relation to surgical procedures, and increased reliance on the technology, thus driving future increases in health-care expenditure. Given the current need for budget constraints, the cost-effectiveness of specific procedures must be evaluated. The surgical robot should be used when cost-effective, but traditional open and laparoscopic techniques also need to be continually fostered.
Safavi, Kyan C; Dai, Feng; Gilbertsen, Todd A; Schonberger, Robert B
Objective To determine whether surgical quality measures that Medicare publicly reports provide a basis for patients to choose a hospital from within their geographic region. Data Source The Department of Health and Human Services' public reporting website, Medicare Claims Processing Manual Baltimore, MD CMS http://www.medicare.gov/hospitalcompare. Study Design We identified hospitals (n = 2,953) reporting adherence rates to the quality measures intended to reduce surgical site infections (Surgical Care Improvement Project, 1–3) in 2012. We defined regions within which patients were likely to compare hospitals using the hospital referral regions (HRRs) from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care Project. We described distributions of reported SCIP adherence within each HRR, including medians, interquartile ranges (IQRs), skewness, and outliers. Principal Findings Ninety-seven percent of HRRs had median SCIP-1 scores ≥95 percent. In 93 percent of HRRs, half of the hospitals in the HRR were within 5 percent of the median hospital's score. In 62 percent of HRRs, hospitals were skewed toward the higher rates (negative skewness). Seven percent of HRRs demonstrated positive skewness. Only 1 percent had a positive outlier. SCIP-2 and SCIP-3 demonstrated similar distributions. Conclusions Publicly reported quality measures for surgical site infection prevention do not distinguish the majority of hospitals that patients are likely to choose from when selecting a surgical provider. More studies are needed to improve public reporting's ability to positively impact patient decision making. PMID:24611578
Mallick, M.S.; Jado, A.M.; Al-Bassam, A.R.
Transferring unstable, ill neonates to and from the operating rooms carries significant risks and can lead to morbidity. We report on our experience in performing certain procedures in critically ill neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We examined the feasibility and safety for such an approach. All surgical procedures performed in the NICU between January 1999 and December 2005 were analyzed in terms of demographic data, diagnosis, preoperative stability of the patient, procedures performed, complications and outcome. Operations were performed at beside in the NICU in critically ill, unstable neonates who needed emergency surgery, in neonates of low birth weight (<1000 gm) and in neonates on special equipments like higher frequency ventilators and nitrous oxide. Thirty-seven surgical procedures were performed including 12 laparotomies, bowel resection and stomies, 7 repairs of congenital diaphragmatic hernias, 4 ligations of patent ductus arteriosus and various others. Birth weights ranged between 850 gm and 3500 gm (mean 2000 gm). Gestational age ranged between 25 to 42 weeks (mean, 33 weeks). Age at surgery was between 1 to 30 days (mean, 30 days). Preoperatively, 19 patients (51.3%) were on inotropic support and all were intubated and mechanically ventilated. There was no mortality related to surgical procedures. Postoperatively, one patient developed wound infection and disruption. Performing major surgical procedures in the NICU is both feasible and safe. It is useful in very low birth weight, critically ill neonates who have definite risk attached to transfer to the operating room. No special area is needed in the NICU to perform complication-free surgery, but designing an operating room within the NICU will be ideal. (author)
Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics and surgical effects in patients with Duane retraction syndrome(DRS.METHODS: Totally 13 patients with DRS during June 2011 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The data including clinical types and manifestations, surgical methods and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 11 male cases and 2 female cases who all had no ocular and systemic anomalies. The left eye was involved in 9 cases, the right eye was involved in 3 cases and 1 case involved in both eyes. Six cases were type Ⅰ,1 case was typeⅡand 6 cases were type Ⅲ. Eleven cases had abnormal head posture(AHP, 9 cases had the up- or down-shoot phenomenon. The surgical treatment was designed according to subtypes and clinical features which included medial rectus recession, lateral rectus recession, recession of both horizontal rectus muscles and lateral rectus recession combined with Y splitting. After surgery, horizontal deviation was less than ±10△ in all patients, and AHP disappeared in 4 cases and improved in 7 cases. The up- or down-shoot and global retraction disappeared in 5 cases and improved in 4 cases. Simultaneously, the restriction of ocular motility was improved in all patients. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of DRS are variant in different types. Detailed examination before surgery and reasonable surgical design are important in treatment of patients with DRS.
Li, L M; Cendes, F; Andermann, F; Watson, C; Fish, D R; Cook, M J; Dubeau, F; Duncan, J S; Shorvon, S D; Berkovic, S F; Free, S; Olivier, A; Harkness, W; Arnold, D L
High-resolution MRI can detect dual pathology (an extrahippocampal lesion plus hippocampal atrophy) in about 5-20% of patients with refractory partial epilepsy referred for surgical evaluation. We report the results of 41 surgical interventions in 38 adults (mean age 31 years, range 14-63 years) with dual pathology. Three patients had two operations. The mean postoperative follow-up was 37 months (range 12-180 months). The extrahippocampal lesions were cortical dysgenesis in 15, tumour in 10, contusion/infarct in eight and vascular malformation in five patients. The surgical approach aimed to remove what was considered to be the most epileptogenic lesion, and the 41 operations were classified into lesionectomy (removal of an extrahippocampal lesion); mesial temporal resection (removal of an atrophic hippocampus); and lesionectomy plus mesial temporal resection (removal of both the lesion and the atrophic hippocampus). Lesionectomy plus mesial temporal resection resulted in complete freedom from seizures in 11/15 (73%) patients, while only 2/10 (20%) patients who had mesial temporal resection alone and 2/16 (12.5%) who had a lesionectomy alone were seizure-free (P dual pathology removal of both the lesion and the atrophic hippocampus is the best surgical approach and should be considered whenever possible.
Young, John; Geraci, Travis; Milman, Steven; Maslow, Andrew; Jones, Richard N; Ng, Thomas
To reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection, Surgical Care Improvement Project 9 mandates the removal of urinary catheters within 48 hours postoperatively. In patients with thoracic epidural anesthesia, we sought to determine the rate of catheter reinsertion, the complications of reinsertion, and the factors associated with reinsertion. We conducted a prospective observational study of consecutive patients undergoing major pulmonary or esophageal resection with thoracic epidural analgesia over a 2-year period. As per Surgical Care Improvement Project 9, all urinary catheters were removed within 48 hours postoperatively. Excluded were patients with chronic indwelling catheter, patients with urostomy, and patients requiring continued strict urine output monitoring. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for urinary catheter reinsertion. Thirteen patients met exclusion criteria. Of the 275 patients evaluated, 60 (21.8%) required reinsertion of urinary catheter. There was no difference in the urinary tract infection rate between patients requiring reinsertion (1/60 [1.7%]) versus patients not requiring reinsertion (1/215 [0.5%], P = .389). Urethral trauma during reinsertion was seen in 1 of 60 patients (1.7%). After reinsertion, discharge with urinary catheter was required in 4 of 60 patients (6.7%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis found esophagectomy, lower body mass index, and benign prostatic hypertrophy to be independent risk factors associated with catheter reinsertion after early removal in the presence of thoracic epidural analgesia. When applying Surgical Care Improvement Project 9 to patients undergoing thoracic procedures with thoracic epidural analgesia, consideration to delayed removal of urinary catheter may be warranted in patients with multiple risk factors for reinsertion. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
S N Oak
Full Text Available Background: Surgical care is an essential component of health care of children worldwide. Incidences of congenital anomalies, trauma, cancers and acquired diseases continue to rise and along with that the impact of surgical intervention on public health system also increases. It then becomes essential that the surgical teams make the procedures safe and error proof. The World Health Organization (WHO has instituted the surgical checklist as a global initiative to improve surgical safety. Aims: To assess the acceptance, application and adherence to the WHO Safe Surgery Checklist in Pediatric Surgery Practice at a university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, spanning 2 years, the checklist was implemented for all patients who underwent operative procedures under general anesthesia. The checklist identified three phases of an operation, each corresponding to a specific period in the normal flow of work: Before the induction of anesthesia ("sign in", before the skin incision ("time out" and before the patient leaves the operating room ("sign out". In each phase, an anesthesiologist,-"checklist coordinator," confirmed that the anesthesia, surgery and nursing teams have completed the listed tasks before proceeding with the operation and exit. The checklist was used for 3000 consecutive patients. Results: No major perioperative errors were noted. In 54 (1.8% patients, children had the same names and identical surgical procedure posted on the same operation list. The patient identification tag was missing in four (0.1% patients. Mention of the side of procedures was missing in 108 (3.6% cases. In 0.1% (3 of patients there was mix up of the mention of side of operation in the case papers and consent forms. In 78 (2.6% patients, the consent form was not signed by parents/guardians or the side of the procedure was not quoted. Antibiotic orders were missing in five (0.2% patients. In 12 (0.4% cases, immobilization of the
Dayane Cristine Issaho
Full Text Available Purpose: Myelomeningocele is one of the most common birth defects. It is associated with severe neurological deficiencies, and ocular changes, such as strabismus, are very common. The purpose of this study was to describe indications for strabismus surgery in patients with myelomeningocele and to evaluate the results achieved with surgical correction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients with myelomeningocele who underwent surgery for strabismus correction in a 5-year period in an institution for disabled children. Results: The main indications for strabismus surgery were esotropia and A-pattern anisotropia. Excellent surgical results were achieved in 60.9% of patients, satisfactory in 12.2%, and unsatisfactory in 26.9%. Conclusion: Patients with myelomeningocele and strabismus had a high incidence of esotropia and A-pattern anisotropia. Strabismus surgery in these patients had an elevated percentage of excellent and satisfactory results, not only for the ocular deviation, but also for improvement of head posture.
Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Münter, Kristine Husum; Østergaard, Doris
management system tasks, 26% of anaesthesia record tasks, 24% of medication tasks, 14% of blood test tasks and 12% of patient record tasks. In two workshops held for each of four specialties, a total of 21 participants mapped the preoperative patient journey with related responsibilities, tasks and written......, workshops including table simulations involving the various professions and specialties were held. RESULTS: In total, 314 surgical procedures were performed of which 196 were eligible for analysis. Emergency procedures showed the poorest results with non-completed tasks comprising 58% of electronic patient...... documentation. Furthermore, challenges and suggestions for solutions were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Completion of mandatory tasks for surgical patient preparation was poor. Workshops with table simulations actively involved the stakeholders from various professions and specialties in describing the patient...
Full Text Available Rostislav Horacek,1 Barbora Krnacova,2 Jan Prasko,2 Klara Latalova2 1Department of Central Intensive Care Unit for Surgery, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Hospital Olomouc, Palacky University Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of somatic illnesses, electrolyte imbalance, red blood cell count, hypotension, and antipsychotic and opioid treatment on the duration of delirium in Central Intensive Care Unit for Surgery.Patients and methods: Patients who were admitted to the Department of Central Intensive Care Unit for Surgery in the University Hospital Olomouc from February 2004 to November 2008 were evaluated using Riker sedation–agitation scale. Their blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral blood oxygen saturation were measured continually, and body temperature was monitored once in an hour. The laboratory blood tests including sodium, potassium, chlorides, phosphorus, urea and creatinine, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red and white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein, albumin levels and laboratory markers of renal and liver dysfunction were done every day. All measurements were made at least for ten consecutive days or longer until the delirium resolved.Results: The sample consisted of 140 consecutive delirious patients with a mean age of 68.21±12.07 years. Delirium was diagnosed in 140 of 5,642 patients (2.48% admitted in CICUS in the last 5 years. The median duration of delirium was 48 hours with a range of 12–240 hours. Statistical analysis showed that hyperactive subtype of delirium and treatment with antipsychotics were associated with prolonged delirium duration (hyperactive 76.15±40.53 hours, hypoactive 54.46±28.44 hours, mixed 61.22±37.86 hours; Kruskal–Wallis test: 8.022; P<0.05. The duration of delirium was significantly correlated also with blood potassium levels (Pearson’s r=0.2189, P<0.05, hypotension
Gillespie, Jacqueline; Kacikanis, Anna; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Gallinger, Steven; Ruthig, Elke
A marked knowledge gap exists concerning the information needs of hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgical oncology patients. We investigated the comprehensive information needs of this patient population, including the type and amount of information desired, as well as the preferred method of receiving information. A questionnaire was administered to patients being treated surgically for cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, or bile ducts at Toronto General Hospital, part of the University Health Network, in Toronto, Canada. The questionnaire examined patients' information needs across six domains of information: medical, practical, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual. Among 36 respondents, the importance of information and amount of information desired differed significantly by domain (both p < 0.001). This group of patients rated information in the medical and physical domains as most important, though they also desired specific items of information from the emotional, practical, and social domains. Patients' overwhelming preference was to receive information via a one-on-one consultation with a healthcare provider. It is important for healthcare providers working with HPB surgical oncology patients to be comprehensive when providing information related to patients' cancer diagnosis, prognosis, associated symptoms, and side effects of treatment. Certain emotional, practical, and social issues (e.g., fears of cancer recurrence, drug coverage options, relationship changes) should be addressed as well. Face-to-face interactions should be the primary mode of delivering information to patients. Our findings are being used to guide the training of healthcare providers and the development of educational resources specific to HPB surgical oncology patients.
Van Esbroeck, Alexander; Rubinfeld, Ilan; Hall, Bruce; Syed, Zeeshan
To investigate the use of machine learning to empirically determine the risk of individual surgical procedures and to improve surgical models with this information. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data from 2005 to 2009 were used to train support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to learn the relationship between textual constructs in current procedural terminology (CPT) descriptions and mortality, morbidity, Clavien 4 complications, and surgical-site infections (SSI) within 30 days of surgery. The procedural risk scores produced by the SVM classifiers were validated on data from 2010 in univariate and multivariate analyses. The procedural risk scores produced by the SVM classifiers achieved moderate-to-high levels of discrimination in univariate analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.871 for mortality, 0.789 for morbidity, 0.791 for SSI, 0.845 for Clavien 4 complications). Addition of these scores also substantially improved multivariate models comprising patient factors and previously proposed correlates of procedural risk (net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement: 0.54 and 0.001 for mortality, 0.46 and 0.011 for morbidity, 0.68 and 0.022 for SSI, 0.44 and 0.001 for Clavien 4 complications; P risk for individual procedures. This information can be measured in an entirely data-driven manner and substantially improves multifactorial models to predict postoperative complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McHugh, Seamus Mark; Corrigan, Mark; Dimitrov, Borislav; Cowman, Seamus; Tierney, Sean; Humphreys, Hilary; Hill, Arnold
Introduction: Surgical site infection accounts for 20% of all health care-associated infections (HCAIs); however, a program incorporating the education of surgeons has yet to be established across the specialty. Methods: An audit of surgical practice in infection prevention was carried out in Beaumont Hospital from July to November 2009. An…
Bayer, Alina D; Blum, Andrew S; Asaad, Wael F; Roth, Julie; Toms, Steven A; Deck, Gina M
While antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) provide adequate seizure control for most patients with epilepsy, ~30% continue to have seizures despite treatment with two or more AEDs.1 In addition to direct harm from seizures, poor epilepsy control correlates with higher mortality, morbidity, 2, 3 and cost to the healthcare system.4 In the subset of patients with persistent seizures despite medical management, surgical intervention and neuromodulation may be more effective. Primary care physicians and general neurologists should be aware of non-AED treatment options that are standard of care for drug- resistant epilepsy (DRE). [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-03.asp].
Kreeft, Anne Marijn; Smeele, Ludwig E.; Rasch, Coen R. N.; Hauptmann, Michael; Rietveld, Derk H. F.; Leemans, C. René; Balm, Alfons J. M.
Background High rates of positive surgical margins are reported after a maxillectomy. A large part of tumors that are preoperatively considered operable can thus not be resected with tumor-free margins. Methods This was a retrospective study on medical files of 69 patients that underwent
Background: Homologous blood transfusion carries a well-documented array of risks especially in an HIV endemic environment like Nigeria. It is therefore imperative to consider other forms of restoring blood volume in surgical patients. Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) is one of the ways the problem of HIV transmission ...
Objective: To detect the ability of surgical management of porencephalic cyst to control intractable epilepsy. Methods: Five patients diagnosed with porencephalic cyst causing epilepsy that could not be controlled with adequate dosing of three anti-epileptic drugs were included in the study. The study included four males ...
Abelha, Fernando José; Castro, Maria Ana; Landeiro, Nuno Miguel; Neves, Aida Maria; Santos, Cristina Costa
Outcome in intensive care can be categorized as mortality related or morbidity related. Mortality is an insufficient measure of ICU outcome when measured alone and length of stay may be seen as an indirect measure of morbidity related outcome. The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence and predictive factors for intrahospitalar outcome measured by mortality and LOS in patients admitted to a surgical ICU. In this prospective study all 185 patients, who underwent scheduled or emergency surgery admitted to a surgical ICU in a large tertiary university medical center performed during April and July 2004, were eligible to the study. The following variables were recorded: age, sex, body weight and height, core temperature (Tc), ASA physical status, emergency or scheduled surgery, magnitude of surgical procedure, anesthesia technique, amount of fluids during anesthesia, use of temperature monitoring and warming techniques, duration of the anesthesia, length of stay in ICU and in the hospital and SAPS II score. The mean length of stay in the ICU was 4.09 +/- 10.23 days. Significant risk factors for staying longer in ICU were SAPS II, ASA physical status, amount of colloids, fresh frozen plasma units and packed erythrocytes units used during surgery. Fourteen (7.60%) patients died in ICU and 29 (15.70%) died during their hospitalization. Statistically significant independent risk factors for mortality were emergency surgery, major surgery, high SAPS II scores, longer stay in ICU and in the hospital. Statistically significant protective factors against the probability of dying in the hospital were low body weight and low BMI. In conclusion, prolonged ICU stay is more frequent in more severely ill patients at admission and it is associated with higher hospital mortality. Hospital mortality is also more frequent in patients submitted to emergent and major surgery.
Stamp, A J; Dorman, M L; Vernazza, C R; Deeming, G; Reid, C; Wilson, K E; Girdler, N M
Background Surgical dentistry during orthodontic care often occurs in adolescence and may involve surgical removal or exposure of teeth. The invasive nature of treatment, combined with dental anxiety, means care can often be provided under general anaesthesia (GA). Best-practice guidelines however endorse conscious sedation as an alternative, where appropriate. Although a limited number of studies have shown safe and effective use of intravenous conscious sedation (IVCS) with midazolam in this cohort, robust evidence to support routine use is lacking. Aim To assess whether IVCS with midazolam can effectively facilitate surgical dentistry in adolescent orthodontic patients in primary care.Method A retrospective service evaluation was undertaken reviewing clinical records of adolescents (aged 12-15 years) undergoing surgical exposure and/or surgical removal of teeth under IVCS with midazolam.Results A total of 174 adolescents (mean age 14.2 years) attended for treatment between 2009 and 2015. Of these adolescents, 98.9% (N = 172) allowed cannulation, with all surgical dentistry completed during a single visit. Midazolam dose ranged from 2-7 mg with 79.1% of patients having good or excellent cooperation and three minor adverse events occurring.Conclusion This service evaluation shows IVCS with midazolam can effectively facilitate surgical orthodontics in carefully selected adolescents. There is however a distinct need to further explore potential for this technique to provide a viable alternative to GA.
Liu, Vincent X; Rosas, Efren; Hwang, Judith; Cain, Eric; Foss-Durant, Anne; Clopp, Molly; Huang, Mengfei; Lee, Derrick C; Mustille, Alex; Kipnis, Patricia; Parodi, Stephen
Novel approaches to perioperative surgical care focus on optimizing nutrition, mobility, and pain management to minimize adverse events after surgical procedures. To evaluate the outcomes of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program among 2 target populations: patients undergoing elective colorectal resection and patients undergoing emergency hip fracture repair. A pre-post difference-in-differences study before and after ERAS implementation in the target populations compared with contemporaneous surgical comparator groups (patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery and emergency orthopedic surgery). Implementation began in February and March 2014 and concluded by the end of 2014 at 20 medical centers within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California integrated health care delivery system. A multifaceted ERAS program designed with a particular focus on perioperative pain management, mobility, nutrition, and patient engagement. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, home discharge, 30-day readmission rates, and complication rates. The study included a total of 3768 patients undergoing elective colorectal resection (mean [SD] age, 62.7 [14.1] years; 1812 [48.1%] male) and 5002 patients undergoing emergency hip fracture repair (mean [SD] age, 79.5 [11.8] years; 1586 [31.7%] male). Comparator surgical patients included 5556 patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery and 1523 patients undergoing emergency orthopedic surgery. Most process metrics had significantly greater changes in the ERAS target populations after implementation compared with comparator surgical populations, including those for ambulation, nutrition, and opioid use. Hospital length of stay and postoperative complication rates were also significantly lower among ERAS target populations after implementation. The rate ratios for postoperative complications were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P = .04) for patients
Hartl, Wolfgang H; Wolf, Hilde; Schneider, Christian P; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter
Various cohort studies have shown that acute (short-term) mortality rates in unselected critically ill patients may have improved during the past 15 years. Whether these benefits also affect acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill patients is unclear, as are determinants relevant to prognosis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from March 1993 to February 2005. A cohort of 390 consecutive surgical patients requiring intensive care therapy for more than 28 days was analyzed. The intensive care unit (ICU) survival rate was 53.6%. Survival rates at one, three and five years were 61.8%, 44.7% and 37.0% among ICU survivors. After adjustment for relevant covariates, acute and long-term survival rates did not differ significantly between 1993 to 1999 and 1999 to 2005 intervals. Acute prognosis was determined by disease severity during ICU stay and by primary diagnosis. However, only the latter was independently associated with long-term prognosis. Advanced age was an independent prognostic determinant of poor short-term and long-term survival. Acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill surgical patients has remained unchanged throughout the past 12 years. After successful surgical intervention and intensive care, long-term outcome is reasonably good and is mainly determined by age and underlying disease.
Bordeianou, Liliana; Cauley, Christy E; Antonelli, Donna; Bird, Sarah; Rattner, David; Hutter, Matthew; Mahmood, Sadiqa; Schnipper, Deborah; Rubin, Marc; Bleday, Ronald; Kenney, Pardon; Berger, David
Two systems measure surgical site infection rates following colorectal surgeries: the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services pay-for-performance initiatives use National Healthcare Safety Network data for hospital comparisons. This study aimed to compare database concordance. This is a multi-institution cohort study of systemwide Colorectal Surgery Collaborative. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program requires rigorous, standardized data capture techniques; National Healthcare Safety Network allows 5 data capture techniques. Standardized surgical site infection rates were compared between databases. The Cohen κ-coefficient was calculated. This study was conducted at Boston-area hospitals. National Healthcare Safety Network or National Surgical Quality Improvement Program patients undergoing colorectal surgery were included. Standardized surgical site infection rates were the primary outcomes of interest. Thirty-day surgical site infection rates of 3547 (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program) vs 5179 (National Healthcare Safety Network) colorectal procedures (2012-2014). Discrepancies appeared: National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database of hospital 1 (N = 1480 patients) routinely found surgical site infection rates of approximately 10%, routinely deemed rate "exemplary" or "as expected" (100%). National Healthcare Safety Network data from the same hospital and time period (N = 1881) revealed a similar overall surgical site infection rate (10%), but standardized rates were deemed "worse than national average" 80% of the time. Overall, hospitals using less rigorous capture methods had improved surgical site infection rates for National Healthcare Safety Network compared with standardized National Surgical Quality Improvement Program reports. The correlation coefficient
Since one of the main challenges in treating acute burn injuries is preventing infection, early excising of the eschar and covering of the wound becomes critical. Non-viable tissue is removed by initial aggressive surgical debridement. Many surgical options for covering the wound bed have been described, although split-thickness skin grafts remain the standard for the rapid and permanent closure of full-thickness burns. Significant advances made in the past decades have greatly improved burns patient care, as such that major future improvements in survival rates seem to be more difficult. Research into stem cells, grafting, biomarkers, inflammation control, and rehabilitation will continue to improve individualized care and create new treatment options for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Levin, S; Dittus, R; Aronsky, D; Weinger, M; France, D
To determine how increases in surgical patient volume will affect emergency department (ED) access to inpatient cardiac services. To compare how strategies to increase cardiology inpatient throughput can either accommodate increases in surgical volume or improve ED patient access. A stochastic discrete event simulation was created to model patient flow through a cardiology inpatient system within a US, urban, academic hospital. The simulation used survival analysis to examine the relationship between anticipated increases in surgical volume and ED patient boarding time (ie, time interval from cardiology admission request to inpatient bed placement). ED patients boarded for a telemetry and cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) bed had a mean boarding time of 5.3 (median 3.1, interquartile range 1.5-6.9) h and 2.7 (median 1.7, interquartile range 0.8-3.0) h, respectively. Each 10% incremental increase in surgical volume resulted in a 37 and 33 min increase in mean boarding time to the telemetry unit and CVICU, respectively. Strategies to increase cardiology inpatient throughput by increasing capacity and decreasing length of stay for specific inpatients was compared. Increasing cardiology capacity by one telemetry and CVICU bed or decreasing length of stay by 1 h resulted in a 7-9 min decrease in average boarding time or an 11-19% increase in surgical patient volume accommodation. Simulating competition dynamics for hospital admissions provides prospective planning (ie, decision making) information and demonstrates how interventions to increase inpatient throughput will have a much greater effect on higher priority surgical admissions compared with ED admissions.
Mueck, Krislynn M; Kao, Lillian S
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant healthcare quality issue, resulting in increased morbidity, disability, length of stay, resource utilization, and costs. Identification of high-risk patients may improve pre-operative counseling, inform resource utilization, and allow modifications in peri-operative management to optimize outcomes. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. High-risk surgical patients may be identified on the basis of individual risk factors or combinations of factors. In particular, statistical models and risk calculators may be useful in predicting infectious risks, both in general and for SSIs. These models differ in the number of variables; inclusion of pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative variables; ease of calculation; and specificity for particular procedures. Furthermore, the models differ in their accuracy in stratifying risk. Biomarkers may be a promising way to identify patients at high risk of infectious complications. Although multiple strategies exist for identifying surgical patients at high risk for SSIs, no one strategy is superior for all patients. Further efforts are necessary to determine if risk stratification in combination with risk modification can reduce SSIs in these patient populations.
Eui Sun Shin
Full Text Available Background Oncoplastic surgery is being increasingly performed in Korean women; however, unlike Westerners, Korean women usually have small to moderate-sized breasts. To achieve better outcomes in reconstructed breasts, several factors should be considered to determine the optimal surgical method. Methods A total of 108 patients who underwent oncoplastic surgery from January 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively investigated. We used various methods, including glandular tissue reshaping, latissimus dorsi (LD flap transposition, and reduction oncoplasty, to restore the breast volume and symmetry. Results The mean weight of the tumor specimens was 40.46 g, and the ratio of the tumor specimen weight to breast volume was 0.12 g/mL in the patients who underwent glandular tissue reshaping (n=59. The corresponding values were 101.47 g and 0.14 g/mL, respectively, in the patients who underwent reduction oncoplasty (n=17, and 82.54 g and 0.20 g/mL, respectively, in those treated with an LD flap (n=32. Glandular tissue reshaping was mostly performed in the upper outer quadrant, and LD flap transposition was mostly performed in the lower inner quadrant. No major complications were noted. Most patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. Conclusions We report satisfactory outcomes of oncoplastic surgical procedures in Korean patients. The results regarding specimen weight and the tumor-to-breast ratio of Asian patients will be a helpful reference point for determining the most appropriate oncoplastic surgical technique.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intellectually disabled patients have various comorbidities, but their risks of adverse surgical outcomes have not been examined. This study assesses pre-existing comorbidities, adjusted risks of postoperative major morbidities and mortality in intellectually disabled surgical patients. METHODS: A nationwide population-based study was conducted in patients who underwent inpatient major surgery in Taiwan between 2004 and 2007. Four controls for each patient were randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Preoperative major comorbidities, postoperative major complications and 30-day in-hospital mortality were compared between patients with and without intellectual disability. Use of medical services also was analyzed. Adjusted odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analyses with 95% confidence intervals were applied to verify intellectual disability's impact. RESULTS: Controls were compared with 3983 surgical patients with intellectual disability. Risks for postoperative major complications were increased in patients with intellectual disability, including acute renal failure (odds ratio 3.81, 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 6.37, pneumonia (odds ratio 2.01, 1.61 to 2.49, postoperative bleeding (odds ratio 1.35, 1.09 to 1.68 and septicemia (odds ratio 2.43, 1.85 to 3.21 without significant differences in overall mortality. Disability severity was positively correlated with postoperative septicemia risk. Medical service use was also significantly higher in surgical patients with intellectual disability. CONCLUSION: Intellectual disability significantly increases the risk of overall major complications after major surgery. Our findings show a need for integrated and revised protocols for postoperative management to improve care for intellectually disabled surgical patients.
Morgan, David J R; Ho, Kwok Ming; Ong, Yang Jian; Kolybaba, Marlene L
The 'weekend' effect is a controversial theory that links reduced staffing levels, staffing seniority and supportive services at hospitals during 'out-of-office hours' time periods with worsening patient outcomes. It is uncertain whether admitting elective surgery patients to intensive care units (ICU) during 'out-of-office hours' time periods mitigates this affect through higher staffing ratios and seniority. Over a 3-year period in Western Australia's largest private hospital, this retrospective nested-cohort study compared all elective surgical patients admitted to the ICU based on whether their admission occurred 'in-office hours' (Monday-Friday 08.00-18.00 hours) or 'out-of-office hours' (all other times). The main outcomes were surgical complications using the Dindo-Clavien classification and length-of-stay data. Of the total 4363 ICU admissions, 3584 ICU admissions were planned following elective surgery resulting in 2515 (70.2%) in-office hours and 1069 (29.8%) out-of-office hours elective ICU surgical admissions. Out-of-office hours ICU admissions following elective surgery were associated with an increased risk of infection (P = 0.029), blood transfusion (P = 0.020), total parental nutrition (P office hours ICU admissions were also associated with an increased hospital length-of-stay, with (1.74 days longer, P office hours ICU admissions following elective surgery is common and associated with serious post-operative complications culminating in significantly longer hospital length-of-stays and greater transfers with important patient and health economic implications. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Pardhan, A.; Mazahir, S.; Alvi, A.R.; Murtaza, G.
Objective: To determine the incidence proportion of surgical site infection following hernia repair in a daycare setting at a tertiary care hospital of a low-income country. Methods: The retrospective audit was done at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from June 1, 2008 to May 30, 2009. Patients with age >15 years who underwent Lichenstein's open mesh repair in daycare were included. Surgical Site Infection was labelled if the records revealed any of the following: opening of the wound by the primary surgeon; pain, tenderness and raised temperature of skin; purulent discharge from the wound; if the surgeon had documented it as a surgical site infection. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results: After reviewing the retrieved files, 104 patients were found eligible. Of them, 102 (98%) were males. Overall wound-related complications were found in 13 (12.5%), whereas surgical site infection was found in 8 (7.7%) patients. The mean age of those with infections was 38.7+-18 year, while that of those with no surgical site infection was 47.8+-18 years. Smoking was found significantly associated with surgical site infection with 5.8 times higher incidence as compared to the non-smokers (OR with 95% CI: 5.6 (1.2, 25.3)). Conclusions: The incidence of surgical site infection after hernia repair with mesh in a daycare setting at a tertiary care hospital of a low-income country was higher than internationally reported incidence. Smoking was found to be a significant risk factor. (author)
Full Text Available Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI is the presence of gas within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and represents a tremendous spectrum of conditions and outcomes, ranging from benign diseases to abdominal sepsis and death. It is seen with increased frequency in patients who are immunocompromised because of steroids, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or AIDS. PI may result from intraluminal bacterial gas entering the bowel wall due to increased mucosal permeability caused by defects in bowel wall lymphoid tissue. We present a case of PI who was treated conservatively and in whom PI resolved completely and we present a literature review of conservative management. It is not difficult to make a precise diagnosis of PI and to prevent unnecessary surgical intervention, especially when PI presents without clinical evidence of peritonitis. Conservative treatment is possible and safe for selected patients. Awareness of these rare causes of PI and close observation of selected patients without peritonitis may prevent unnecessary invasive surgical explorations.
Wu, Jia-qi; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Zou, Wei; Bai, Yun-yang; Jiang, Jiu-hui
To evaluate the treatment time and the anterior and posterior teeth movement pattern as closing extraction space for the Class III surgical patients facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment. There were 10 skeletal Class III patients in accelerated osteogenic orthodontic group (AOO) and 10 patients in control group. Upper first premolars were extracted in all patients. After leveling and alignment (T2), corticotomy was performed in the area of maxillary anterior teeth to accelerate space closing.Study models of upper dentition were taken before orthodontic treatment (T1) and after space closing (T3). All the casts were laser scanned, and the distances of the movement of incisors and molars were digitally measured. The distances of tooth movement in two groups were recorded and analyzed. The alignment time between two groups was not statistically significant. The treatment time in AOO group from T2 to T3 was less than that in the control group (less than 9.1 ± 4.1 months). The treatment time in AOO group from T1 to T3 was less than that in the control group (less than 6.3 ± 4.8 months), and the differences were significant (P 0.05). Accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment could accelerate space closing in Class III surgical patients and shorten preoperative orthodontic time. There were no influence on the movement pattern of anterior and posterior teeth during pre-surgical orthodontic treatment.
Full Text Available Abstract Despite remarkable developments in the use of surgical techniques, ergonomic advancements in the operating room, and implementation of bundles, surgical site infections (SSIs remain a substantial burden, associated with increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. National and international recommendations to prevent SSIs have been published, including recent guidelines by the World Health Organization, but implementation into clinical practice remains an unresolved issue. SSI improvement programs require an integrative approach with measures taken during the pre-, intra- and postoperative care from the numerous stakeholders involved. The current SSI prevention strategies have focused mainly on the role of healthcare workers (HCWs and procedure related risk factors. The importance and influence of patient participation is becoming an increasingly important concept and advocated as a means to improve patient safety. Novel interventions supporting an active participative role within SSI prevention programs have not been assessed. Empowering patients with information they require to engage in the process of SSI prevention could play a major role for the implementation of recommendations. Based on available scientific evidence, a panel of experts evaluated options for patient involvement in order to provide pragmatic recommendations for pre-, intra- and postoperative activities for the prevention of SSIs. Recommendations were based on existing guidelines and expert opinion. As a result, 9 recommendations for the surgical patient are presented here, including a practice brief in the form of a patient information leaflet. HCWs can use this information to educate patients and allow patient engagement.
Tartari, E; Weterings, V; Gastmeier, P; Rodríguez Baño, J; Widmer, A; Kluytmans, J; Voss, A
Despite remarkable developments in the use of surgical techniques, ergonomic advancements in the operating room, and implementation of bundles, surgical site infections (SSIs) remain a substantial burden, associated with increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. National and international recommendations to prevent SSIs have been published, including recent guidelines by the World Health Organization, but implementation into clinical practice remains an unresolved issue. SSI improvement programs require an integrative approach with measures taken during the pre-, intra- and postoperative care from the numerous stakeholders involved. The current SSI prevention strategies have focused mainly on the role of healthcare workers (HCWs) and procedure related risk factors. The importance and influence of patient participation is becoming an increasingly important concept and advocated as a means to improve patient safety. Novel interventions supporting an active participative role within SSI prevention programs have not been assessed. Empowering patients with information they require to engage in the process of SSI prevention could play a major role for the implementation of recommendations. Based on available scientific evidence, a panel of experts evaluated options for patient involvement in order to provide pragmatic recommendations for pre-, intra- and postoperative activities for the prevention of SSIs. Recommendations were based on existing guidelines and expert opinion. As a result, 9 recommendations for the surgical patient are presented here, including a practice brief in the form of a patient information leaflet. HCWs can use this information to educate patients and allow patient engagement.
Wahl, Wendy L; Zalewski, Christy; Hemmila, Mark R
Pneumonia is a major complication for hospitalized patients and has come under the scrutiny of health care regulating bodies, which propose that hospital-acquired pneumonia should not be reimbursed and potentially be a "never event." We hypothesized that many of our acutely injured patients develop pneumonia at the time of their initial traumatic event despite aggressive measures to prevent pneumonia during hospitalization. This retrospective review included all mechanically ventilated patients admitted to a mixed surgical intensive care units (ICU; trauma, general surgery, and burns) who developed pneumonia from 2006 to 2008. All pneumonia diagnosed by culture were obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens with ≥ 10(4) colony forming united (CFU)/mL considered a positive result. Criteria for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) applied only to those patients ventilated mechanically for >48 hours at the time of a positive BAL culture. Aspiration organisms included Streptococcus species, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and oral flora. This was an institutional review board-approved study. There were 208 mechanically ventilated who patients underwent BAL, half of which were performed in the first 48 hours after admission for fever, infiltrate on chest radiograph, or increasing white blood cell count (early BAL group). Of these patients, 58% had positive BAL cultures (pneumonia) but did not have VAP. Only 10% of patients studied with early BAL had no growth on culture. Although the predominant organisms in the early BAL group were aspiration-type organisms, 17% had resistant pathogens, and 16% had other Gram-negative rods (GNR). This percentage was compared with the VAP group in whom 33% of patients had resistant organisms (P = .04) and 8% other GNR (P = NS). Twenty-five patients with ≤ 10(4) CFU/mL on early BAL underwent repeat BAL, and 16 (64%) were later diagnosed with VAP. Many intubated patients in the surgical
Okiyama, Koichi; Nagano, Osamu; Machida, Toshio; Serizawa, Toru; Ono, Junichi; Higuchi, Yoshinori
The management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is controversial. We aimed to assess the natural history of UIAs and evaluate the surgical results. We analyzed 154 patients (181 saccular UIAs) with no history of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a different aneurysm. Aneurysms were detected by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or by 3-dimensional CT angiography. Although the most frequent reason for the diagnosis was routine brain examinations of healthy patients or a vague symptom such as headache or dizziness, 15 patients were symptomatic. The natural history in patients who did not have surgery (follow-up group: 76 cases, 95 aneurysms) was assessed, and the surgical outcome of UIAs (surgical group: 78 cases, 86 aneurysms) was evaluated. Among 76 patients in the follow-up group, 7 had SAH. The mean latency period to aneurysm rupture was 3.2 months. The aneurysms with subsequent bleeding ranged from 5 to 25 mm (19.3 mm on average), whereas those without ranged from 1 to 28 mm (4.5 mm on average). The rupture rates of UIAs in anterior and posterior circulation were 6.2% and 14.3%, respectively. All ruptured cases were females. Mortality and morbidity associated with UIAs in the follow-up group were 3.9% and 3.9%, respectively. In the surgical group, no mortality was noted. Permanent morbidity associated with prospective repair of UIAs was 5.1%, although the morbidity of the patients with preoperative Rankin scores of 0 or 1 was 1.3%. Transient morbidity was observed in 6 patients (7.7%) with the size of the aneurysm 19.8 mm on average. The natural history and surgical results in patients with UIAs are modified by several factors including aneurysm size and location, the patient's age and gender, the medical status and the patient's preoperative Rankin score. The present results indicated that these factors should be considered in deciding whether to treat UIAs, and that careful assessment of the surgical benefits might be essential
Tsang, Julian S
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events. Certain chemotherapeutic agents have also been associated with the development of thrombosis. Reported cases of acute arterial ischemic episodes in cancer patients are rare. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for acute limb ischemia associated with malignancy in a university teaching hospital over a 10-year period were identified. Patient demographics, cancer type, chemotherapy use, site of thromboembolism, treatment and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Four hundred nineteen patients underwent surgical intervention for acute arterial ischemia, 16 of these patients (3.8%) had associated cancer. Commonest cancer sites were the urogenital tract (n = 5) and the lungs (n = 5). Eight patients (50%) had been recently diagnosed with cancer, and four (25%) of these cancers were incidental findings after presentation with acute limb ischemia. Four patients (25%) developed acute ischemia during chemotherapy. The superficial femoral artery was the most frequent site of occlusion (50%), followed by the brachial (18%) and popliteal (12%) arteries. All patients underwent thromboembolectomy, but two (12%) patients subsequently required a bypass procedure. Six patients (37%) had limb loss, and in-patient mortality was 12%. Histology revealed that all occlusions were due to thromboembolism, with no tumor cells identified. At follow-up, 44% of patients were found to be alive after 1 year. CONCLUSION: Cancer and chemotherapy can predispose patients to acute arterial ischemia. Unlike other reports that view this finding as a preterminal event most appropriately treated by palliative measures, in this series, early diagnosis and surgical intervention enabled limb salvage and patient survival.
Poirier, Therese I
The value of the arts and humanities in becoming an "educated" pharmacist is reviewed in this commentary. The term "patient care literacy" is defined as becoming a more humane pharmacist. This implies not only using heads but HARTSS (humanities, arts and social sciences) for developing the necessary skills. A conceptual framework for curricular reform that focuses on using the arts and humanities is proposed for advancing patient care literacy. Methods for enhancing use of arts and humanities for developing pharmacy graduates is specifically proposed. The need for more empiric research to demonstrate the value of the arts and humanities in developing a patient care literate professional is highlighted.
Introduction: Globally, increasing consideration has been given to the assessment of patient satisfaction as a method of monitor of the quality of health care provision in the health institutions. Perioperative patient satisfaction has been contemplated to be related with the level of postoperative pain intensity, patients' ...
Croft, Chasen A; Moore, Frederick A; Efron, Philip A; Marker, Peggy S; Gabrielli, Andrea; Westhoff, Lynn S; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Jordan, Janeen; Klink, Victoria; Sailors, R Matthew; McKinley, Bruce A
A system to provide surveillance, diagnosis, and protocolized management of surgical intensive care unit (SICU) sepsis was undertaken as a performance improvement project. A system for sepsis management was implemented for SICU patients using paper followed by a computerized system. The hypothesis was that the computerized system would be associated with improved process and outcomes. A system was designed to provide early recognition and guide patient-specific management of sepsis including (1) modified early warning signs-sepsis recognition score (MEWS-SRS; summative point score of ranges of vital signs, mental status, white blood cell count; after every 4 hours) by bedside nurse; (2) suspected site assessment (vascular access, lung, abdomen, urinary tract, soft tissue, other) at bedside by physician or extender; (3) sepsis management protocol (replicable, point-of-care decisions) at bedside by nurse, physician, and extender. The system was implemented first using paper and then a computerized system. Sepsis severity was defined using standard criteria. In January to May 2012, a paper system was used to manage 77 consecutive sepsis encounters (3.9 ± 0.5 cases per week) in 65 patients (77% male; age, 53 ± 2 years). In June to December 2012, a computerized system was used to manage 132 consecutive sepsis encounters (4.4 ± 0.4 cases per week) in 119 patients (63% male; age, 58 ± 2 years). MEWS-SRS elicited 683 site assessments, and 201 had sepsis diagnosis and protocol management. The predominant site of infection was abdomen (paper, 58%; computer, 53%). Recognition of early sepsis tended to occur more using the computerized system (paper, 23%; computer, 35%). Hospital mortality rate for surgical ICU sepsis (paper, 20%; computer, 14%) was less with the computerized system. A computerized sepsis management system improves care process and outcome. Early sepsis is recognized and managed with greater frequency compared with severe sepsis or septic shock. The system
Dresser, Caleb; Periyanayagam, Usha; Dreifuss, Brad; Wangoda, Robert; Luyimbaazi, Julius; Bisanzo, Mark
Acute surgical care services in rural Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from human resource and systemic constraints. Developing emergency care systems and task sharing aspects of acute surgical care addresses many of these issues. This paper investigates the degree to which specialized non-physicians practicing in a dedicated Emergency Department contribute to the effective and efficient management of acute surgical patients. This is a retrospective review of an electronic quality assurance database of patients presenting to an Emergency Department in rural Uganda staffed by non-physician clinicians trained in emergency care. Relevant de-identified clinical data on patients admitted directly to the operating theater from 2011 to 2014 were analyzed in Microsoft Excel. Overall, 112 Emergency Department patients were included in the analysis and 96% received some form of laboratory testing, imaging, medication, or procedure in the ED, prior to surgery. 72% of surgical patients referred by ED received preoperative antibiotics, and preoperative fluid resuscitation was initiated in 65%. Disposition to operating theater was accomplished within 3 h of presentation for 73% of patients. 79% were successfully followed up to assess outcomes at 72 h. 92% of those with successful follow-up reported improvement in their clinical condition. The confirmed mortality rate was 5%. Specialized non-physician clinicians practicing in a dedicated Emergency Department can perform resuscitation, bedside imaging and laboratory studies to aid in diagnosis of acute surgical patients and arrange transfer to an operating theater in an efficient fashion. This model has the potential to sustainably address structural and human resources problems inherent to Sub-Saharan Africa's current acute surgical care model and will benefit from further study and expansion.
Bui, Lan N; Pham, Vy P; Shirkey, Beverly A; Swan, Joshua T
This study compares the proportions of surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients with delirium detected using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) who received administrative documentation for delirium using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, stratified by delirium motoric subtypes. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a surgical ICU from 06/2012 to 05/2013. Delirium was assessed twice daily and was defined as having ≥1 positive CAM-ICU rating. Delirious patients were categorized into hyperactive/mixed and hypoactive subtypes using corresponding Richmond Agitation Sedation Scales. Administrative documentation of delirium was defined as having ≥1 of 32 unique ICD-9-CM codes. Proportions were compared using Pearson's Chi-square test. Of included patients, 40 % (423/1055) were diagnosed with delirium, and 17 % (183/1055) had an ICD-9-CM code for delirium. The sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9-CM codes for delirium were 36 and 95 %. ICD-9-CM codes for delirium were available for 42 % (95 % CI 35-48 %; 105/253) of patients with hyperactive/mixed delirium and 27 % (95 % CI 20-34 %; 46/170) of patients with hypoactive delirium (relative risk = 1.5; 95 % CI 1.2-2.0; p = 0.002). ICD-9-CM codes yielded a low sensitivity for identifying patients with CAM-ICU positive delirium and were more likely to identify hyperactive/mixed delirium compared with hypoactive delirium.
Brett G Marshall
Full Text Available Background: Patients who had received surgical services at Bellin Hospital reported anxiety with the surgical flow. This study tested the hypothesis that the introduction of a surgical navigator, someone who guided the patient and their accompanying others throughout the surgical process, would improve patient satisfaction. Methods: Ambulatory surgical patients were randomized to control and study groups. The study group patients were assigned a surgical navigator. Prior to discharge from the hospital, patients were asked to complete a patient satisfaction survey. Results: The study group had significantly higher mean scores (P value ≤ 0.026, top box scores (P value ≤ 0.021, and positive comments. Conclusion: The addition of a surgical navigator to the perioperative process significantly enhanced patient satisfaction in ambulatory surgical patients.
Schäfer, W.L.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Schellevis, F.G.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: So far, studies about people’s appreciation of primary care services has shown that patient satisfaction seems to be lower in health care systems with regulated access to specialist services by gate keeping. Nevertheless, international comparative research about patients’ expectations
Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Logan, Caroline; Cronenwett, Jack; Foster, Tina C; Freeman, Richard; Godfrey, Marjorie; Vidal, Dale Collins
Pressures are increasing for clinicians to provide high-quality, efficient care, leading to increased concerns about staff burnout. This study asks whether staff well-being can be achieved in ways that are also beneficial for the patient's experience of care. It explores whether relational coordination can contribute to both staff well-being and patient satisfaction in outpatient surgical clinics where time constraints paired with high needs for information transfer increase both the need for and the challenge of achieving timely and accurate communication. We studied relational coordination among surgeons, nurses, residents, administrators, technicians, and secretaries in 11 outpatient surgical clinics. Data were combined from a staff and a patient survey to conduct a cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using ordinary least squares and random effects regression models. Relational coordination among all workgroups was significantly associated with staff outcomes, including job satisfaction, work engagement, and burnout. Relational coordination was also significantly associated with patients' satisfaction with staff and their overall visit, though the association between relational coordination and patients' satisfaction with their providers did not reach statistical significance. Even when patient-staff interactions are relatively brief, as in outpatient settings, high levels of relational coordination among interdependent workgroups contribute to positive outcomes for both staff and patients, and low levels tend to have the opposite effect. Clinical leaders can increase the expectation of positive outcomes for both staff and their patients by implementing interventions to strengthen relational coordination.
Arruda, Ana Paula Nappi; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Lopes, Luciane C; Bergamaschi, Cristiane C; Guimarães, Caio; Grossi, Mariana Del; Righesso, Leonardo A R; Agarwal, Arnav; El Dib, Regina
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) affect approximately 80% of surgical patients and is associated with increased length of hospital stay and systemic costs. Preoperative and postoperative pain, anxiety and depression are also commonly reported. Recent evidence regarding their safety and effectiveness has not been synthesised. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medications for the treatment and prevention of anxiety, depression, pain and PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic, obstetrical/gynaecological and cardiovascular surgical procedures. The following electronic databases will be searched up to 1 October 2016 without language or publication status restrictions: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and LILACS. Randomised clinical trials enrolling adult surgical patients undergoing laparoscopic, obstetrical/gynaecological and cardiovascular surgeries and managed with herbal medication versus a control group (placebo, no intervention or active control) prophylactically or therapeutically will be considered eligible. Outcomes of interest will include the following: anxiety, depression, pain, nausea and vomiting. A team of reviewers will complete title and abstract screening and full-text screening for identified hits independently and in duplicate. Data extraction, risk of bias assessments and evaluation of the overall quality of evidence for each relevant outcome reported will be conducted independently and in duplicate using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation classification system. Dichotomous data will be summarised as risk ratios; continuous data will be summarised as standard average differences with 95% CIs. This is one of the first efforts to systematically summarise existing evidence evaluating the use of herbal medications in laparoscopic, obstetrical/gynaecological and cardiovascular surgical patients. The findings of this review will be disseminated
Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Patient Care Database (NPCD), located at the Austin Information Technology Center, is part of the National Medical Information Systems (NMIS). The NPCD...
Wright, C. D.; Jilka, J.; Gentry, W. B.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting frequently complicate outpatient anesthesia and surgery. The duration of treatment for this complication must occasionally extend beyond discharge from the hospital. In this study, we evaluated the commonly used anti-emetic promethazine for its efficacy in the post-discharge period. Adult outpatient surgical patients who had excessive postoperative nausea and vomiting in the recovery room, or who were at risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting following discharge were given two promethazine suppositories (25 mg) for home use. All patients were contacted by our recovery room nurses on the first business day after their surgery and questioned as to their use of the suppositories and, if used, their efficacy. We found that 55 percent of patients given promethazine suppositories for home use had nausea and vomiting in the post-discharge period. Of the patients given promethazine, 89 percent used the suppositories. All of these patients reported improvement in their symptoms following use of the suppositories. None reported adverse effects from the promethazine suppositories. In conclusion, we found promethazine suppositories to be an inexpensive and efficacious treatment for nausea and vomiting in adult outpatient surgical patients following discharge from the hospital. Side-effects were minimal, and our patients voiced no complaints about this mode of therapy. We recommend this therapy for treatment of nausea and vomiting after hospital discharge following adult outpatient surgery. PMID:10527366
2016 CAPS ethics session/Ein debate: 1. Regionalization of pediatric surgical care 2. Ethical introduction of surgical innovation 3. Addressing stress in a surgical practice: resiliency, well-being, and burnout.
Bagwell, Charles E; Chiu, Priscilla; Fecteau, Annie; Gow, Kenneth W; Mueller, Claudia M; Price, David; Zigman, Andrew F
The following is the conference proceeding of the Second Ein Debate from the 48th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Paediatric Surgeons held in Vancouver, BC, from September 22 to 24, 2016. The three main topics for debate, as prepared by the members of the CAPS Ethics Committee, are: 1. Regionalization of care: pros and cons, 2. Innovation in clinical care: ethical considerations, and 3. Surgeon well-being: caring for the caregiver. The authors of this paper, as participants in the debate, were assigned their positions at random. Therefore, the opinions they express within this summary might not reflect their own viewpoints. In the first discussion, arguments for and against the regionalization of pediatric surgical care are discussed, primarily in the context of a case of BA. In the pro argument, the evidence and lessons learned from different European countries are explored as well as different models to provide the best BA care outside of large teaching centers. In the counterargument, the author explains how regionalization of care could be detrimental for the patient, the family, the regional center, and for the health care system in general. In the debate on surgical innovation the authors define surgical innovation. They review the pertinent ethical principles, explore a model for its implementation, and the role of the institution at which the innovation is proposed. In the third section, surgeon well-being is examined, and recent literature on surgeon resiliency and burnout both at the attending and resident level is reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bachoura, Abdo; Guitton, Thierry G; Smith, R Malcolm; Vrahas, Mark S; Zurakowski, David; Ring, David
Orthopaedic surgical-site infections prolong hospital stays, double rehospitalization rates, and increase healthcare costs. Additionally, patients with orthopaedic surgical-site infections (SSI) have substantially greater physical limitations and reductions in their health-related quality of life. However, the risk factors for SSI after operative fracture care are unclear. We determined the incidence and quantified modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for SSIs in patients with orthopaedic trauma undergoing surgery. We retrospectively indentified, from our prospective trauma database and billing records, 1611 patients who underwent 1783 trauma-related procedures between 2006 and 2008. Medical records were reviewed and demographics, surgery-specific data, and whether the patients had an SSI were recorded. We determined which if any variables predicted SSI. Six factors independently predicted SSI: (1) the use of a drain, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-3.8); (2) number of operations OR 3.4, 95% CI (2.0-6.0); (3) diabetes, OR 2.1, 95% CI (1.2-3.8); (4) congestive heart failure (CHF), OR 2.8, 95% CI (1.3-6.5); (5) site of injury tibial shaft/plateau, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-4.2); and (6) site of injury, elbow, OR 2.2, 95% CI (1.1-4.7). The risk factors for SSIs after skeletal trauma are most strongly determined by nonmodifiable factors: patient infirmity (diabetes and heart failure) and injury complexity (site of injury, number of operations, use of a drain). Level II, prognostic study. See the Guideline for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Backer Mogensen, Christian
The Danish health care system is currently establishing emergency departments (EDs) with an observation unit nationwide. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with acute abdominal pain and their experiences upon arrival and stay in an acute surgical ward (ASW) versus an ED with an obse......The Danish health care system is currently establishing emergency departments (EDs) with an observation unit nationwide. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with acute abdominal pain and their experiences upon arrival and stay in an acute surgical ward (ASW) versus an ED...... was that the ED included a multidisciplinary team with nurses, who mainly had interactions with the patients before surgical assessment. In all, it resulted in fragmentation of care and a patient experience of repetition. In ASW, focus was on assessment by a senior physician, only, and the nurses' interaction...... with the patients took place after surgical assessment. In all, patients experienced long waiting times. The study shows a need to define the roles of the professionals in units receiving patients with acute abdominal pain in order to fulfil the medical as well as the experienced needs of the acute patient....
Prophet, Colleen M.
The INFORMM Patient Care Planning System provides interdepartmental communication and individualized patient care plans based upon current standards of care. This interdisciplinary system facilitates the identification of patient problems and nursing diagnoses as well as patient care orders. The selected nurses' and physicians' orders are integrated and organized by care plan categories in printouts. As a system by-product, Patient Care Planning automatically generates and calculates patient ...
Yelena V. Skryabina
Full Text Available Recently, akanthamoeba keratitis (AK is seen more and more often in ophthalmological practice. However, today there are no standard guidelines concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with AK. In the article, the experience in care for such patients is presented. Purpose: to estimate the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of patients with AK. Materials and methods. Case histories of patients, who received treatment for akanthamoeba keratitis in the Eye Microsurgery Department No. 4, City Ophthalmologic Center of the City Hospital No. 2, from 2011 to 2016, were analyzed. Under observation, there were 25 patients (26 eyes with akanthamoeba keratitis aged from 18 to 77 years; there were 15 men and 10 women. Patients were observed during 1 year. Full ophthalmologic examination was conducted in all patients. Additional diagnostic methods included microbiological investigation of corneal scrapes and washings, culturing them on innutritious agar (with E. сoli covering, confocal corneal microscopy (HRT 3 with cornea module, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Rostock Cornea Module. A superficial punctate keratits (AK stage 2 was found in one patient. All other patients were divided into two groups. Stromal ring-shaped keratitis was diagnosed in patients of the first group (7 patients, AK stage 3. The 2nd group consisted of 17 patients with corneal ulcer (AK stage 4. All patients received medicamentous treatment. However patients of the 2nd group required different kinds of surgical treatment. Results. In AK diagnosis, corneal confocal microscopy is the most informative method. In patients with AK stages 2 and 3, there was an improvement in visual functions as a result of medicamentous therapy. As a result of treatment at the discharge from the hospital, the best corrected visual acuity was 0.5-1.0 for most patients. In the 2nd group patients, who were subjects to different types of surgical treatment visual functions stabilized. However non
Dmitriev, N S; Mileshina, N A
The article concerns peculiarities of surgery for chronic exudative otitis media (CEOM). The significance of miringotomy, tympanostomy, tympanotomy and tympanoantrotomy is demonstrated. The experience of the authors in surgical treatment and postoperative management of CEOM is reviewed. Of primary importance is valid selection of patients for each operation and choice of ventilatory tubes depending on the disease stage. Incidence rate and causes of recurrences in respect to the patients' age are presented and the role of follow-up in prevention of CEOM recurrences is shown. Use of temporal bone computed tomography in CEOM is specified. Key words: exudative otitis media, tympanostomy, ventilation tubes, CT of the temporal bone.
Glintborg, Bente; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Spang-Hanssen, Eva
and discharge letters were examined. RESULTS: In totally, 83 surgical and 117 medical patients were included (n=200). Whereas the home inventories of 187 patients comprised 587 OTCs, 13 patients (7%) stored no OTCs. Of the patients, 134 (67%) used OTCs daily and 132 patients (66%) used OTCs on demand; 79...... patients (40%) stored a total of 157 OTCs not currently used. Analgesics were used by 138 patients (78%). Acetaminophen was the OTC used most frequently. Of the 240 OTCs used daily, 238 (99%) had been purchased from pharmacies and 169 (70%) had been prescribed. Of the 430 OTCs used daily or on demand, 348...... daily. Most OTCs are used with the consent of health care professionals and are purchased from pharmacies. Pre-admission OTC use is incompletely recorded in the hospital files. If information was systematically collected from pharmacies and general practitioners, the number of recall biases concerning...
unpublished ... not in the hospital. Similarly, most ... pre-term labour being significant causes. Care of ... refer most patients, there was uncertainty at the time of the move around ... mobile surgical unit while its main operating theatres were renovated.3 ...
Samokhvalov, I M; Zavrazhnov, A A; Fakhrutdinov, A M; Sychev, M I
The results of rendering of the medical care (the first aid, qualified and specialized) obtained in 172 servicemen with neck injuries who stayed in Republic of Chechnya during the period from 09.08.1999 to 28.07.2000 were analyzed. Basing on the results of analysis and experience of casualties' treatment the authors discuss the problems of sequence and volume of surgical care in this group of casualties with reference to available medical evacuation system, surgical tactics at the stage of specialized care. They also consider the peculiarities of operative treatment of the casualties with neck injuries.
S. G. Shapovalov
Full Text Available The greatest weight neurodystrophic process develops in traumatic spinal cord injury, appears as neurotrophic decubitus (bedsores. There is a high risk of wound infection in the event of pressure ulcers. Surgical repair of the skin integrity in spinal patients of 3 and 4 grade is a basic prerequisite for the further complex of the rehabilitation measures. Work objective: to develop the concept of innovative technologies of treatment of local physical impacts and to implement it in surgical system of rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord lesion with neurotrophic decubitus of 3 and 4 grade. Clinical studies subjected 49 (100% patients with spinal cord lesions and neurotrophic decubitus of 3 and 4 grade. All patients were divided into two groups: 1– (study group 1 29 patients; 2 – (control group 2 20 patients. The managed negative pressure system S042 NPWT VivanoTec (Hartmann, a method of ultrasonic cavitation (Sonoca%180, the system for the hydro surgery Versajet Smith and Nephew were used in the 1%st group. Traditional dressings for the preparation of a plastic closure of the wound defect neurotrophic decubitus of the grade 3%4 were used in the 2nd group. Statistical analysis was performed using package of Microsoft Excel%97 Statistica for Windows 6.0, SPSS 10.0 for Windows. The study showed that the use of complex methods of vacuum therapy, ultrasound cavitation and hydro surgical in the 1st group significantly reduces the duration of treatment compared with conservative methods in the 2nd group. In group 1, the mean duration of treatment was 19.9±13.9 days, in group 2 (comparison group – 40.0±28.2 days (p<0.05. The usage of physical methods (managed negative pressure system, ultrasonic processing method, hydro surgical system local treatment is a highly effective method of preparation neurotrophic decubitus grade 3 and 4 to the early recovery of the skin. Physical methods of local treatment have a positive effect on tissue
Lampropoulos, Pavlos; Rizos, Spyros; Marinis, Athanasios
Acute suppurative parotitis (ASP) is a severe infection seen particularly in elderly surgical patients. Factors that increase the risk of ASP include post-operative dehydration, debilitating conditions, and immunosuppressed states. Case report and literature review. An 82-year-old female patient was admitted because of paralytic ileus, dehydration, and poor oral hygiene, and was in distress. After two days of hospitalization, the patient developed a progressive painful swelling of her right parotid gland and fever up to 39.0°C. Computed tomography scanning showed an abscess in the parotid gland. Because of her progressive clinical deterioration, the patient underwent operative drainage of the abscess and removal of the necrotic material. Unfortunately, she suffered multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and died. Acute suppurative parotitis requires prompt aggressive treatment that nevertheless may fail.
Sandy-Hodgetts, Kylie; Carville, Keryln; Leslie, Gavin D
This paper presents a conceptual framework which outlines the risk factors associated with surgical wound dehiscence (SWD) as identified in the literature. The purpose for the development of the conceptual framework was to derive an evidence-based, informed understanding of factors associated with SWD, in order to inform a programme of research on the aetiology and potential risk factors of SWD. Incorporated within the patient-centric conceptual framework are patient related comorbidities, intraoperative and postoperative risk factors related to SWD. These are categorised as either 'mechanical' or 'physiological mechanisms' posited to influence these relationships. The use of the conceptual model for assessment of patients has particular clinical relevance for identification of risk and the management of patients in the pre-, intra- and postoperative period.
Van Slyck, A; Johnson, K R
This article describes actual reported uses for patient acuity data that go beyond historical uses in determining staffing allocations. These expanded uses include managing patient care outcomes and health care costs. The article offers the patient care executive examples of how objective, valid, and reliable data are used to drive approaches to effectively influence decision making in an increasingly competitive health care environment.
Dickerson, Elliot C; Alam, Hasan B; Brown, Richard K J; Stojanovska, Jadranka; Davenport, Matthew S
The aim of this study was to determine if direct in-person communication between an acute care surgical team and radiologists alters surgical decision making. Informed consent was waived for this institutional review board-exempt, HIPAA-compliant, prospective quality improvement study. From January 29, 2015 to December 10, 2015, semiweekly rounds lasting approximately 60 min were held between the on-call acute care surgery team (attending surgeon, chief resident, and residents) and one of three expert abdominal radiologists. A comprehensive imaging review was performed of recent and comparison examinations for cases selected by the surgeons in which medical and/or surgical decision making was pending. All reviewed examinations had available finalized reports known to the surgical team. RADPEER interradiologist concordance scores were assigned to all reviewed examinations. The impression and plan of the attending surgeon were recorded before and after each in-person review. One hundred patients were reviewed with 11 attending surgeons. The in-person meetings led to changes in surgeons' diagnostic impressions in 43% (43 of 100) and changes in medical and/or surgical planning in 43% (43 of 100; 20 acute changes, 23 nonacute changes, 19 changes in operative management) of cases. There were major discrepancies (RADPEER score ≥3) between the impression of the reviewing radiologist and the written report in 11% of cases (11 of 100). Targeted in-person collaboration between radiologists and acute care surgeons is associated with substantial and frequent changes in patient management, even when the original written report contains all necessary data. The primary mechanism seems to be promotion of a shared mental model that facilitates the exchange of complex information. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Liu, Yun-Hen; Chao, Yin-Kai; Lu, Ming-Shian; Liu, Hui-Ping; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Lu, Hung-I; Chu, Yen
Although elderly patients with thoracic disease were considered to be poor candidates for thoracotomy before, recent advances in preoperative and postoperative care as well as surgical techniques have improved outcomes of thoracotomies in this patient group. The aim of this study was to investigate surgical risk factors and results in elderly patients (aged > or =70 years) with thoracic empyema. Seventy-one elderly patients with empyema thoracis were enrolled and evaluated from July 2000 to April 2003. The following characteristics and clinical data were analysed: age, sex, aetiology of empyema, comorbid diseases, preoperative conditions, postoperative days of intubation, length of hospital stay after surgery, complications and mortality. Surgical intervention, including total pneumonolysis and evacuation of the pleura empyema cavity, was carried out in all patients. Possible influent risk factors on the outcome were analysed. The sample group included 54 men and 17 women with an average age of 76.8 years. The causes of empyema included parapneumonic effusion (n = 43), lung abscess (n = 8), necrotizing pneumonitis (n = 8), malignancy (n = 5), cirrhosis (n = 2), oesophageal perforation (n = 2), post-traumatic empyema (n = 2) and post-thoracotomy complication (n = 1). The 30-day mortality rate was 11.3% and the in-hospital mortality rate was 18.3% (13 of 71). Mean follow up was 9.4 months and mean duration of postoperative hospitalization was 35.8 days. Analysis of risk factors showed that patients with necrotizing pneumonitis or abscess had the highest mortality rate (10 of 18, 62.6%). The second highest risk factor was preoperative intubation or ventilator-dependency (8 of 18, 44.4%). This study presents the clinical features and outcomes of 71 elderly patients with empyema thoracis who underwent surgical treatment. The 30-day surgical mortality rate was 11.3%. Significant risk factors in elderly patients with empyema thoracis were necrotizing pneumonitis, abscess
Anna Maria Kostka
Full Text Available Everyone has the right to equal treatment irrespective of color, culture, origin or religion. Jewish patients obey many rules. The use of proper diet, adherence to the principles of purity, prayer, performing rituals is very important for them. Medical staff is committed to providing patients with safety, regardless of the differences. Understanding the most important values, ethics and practices of Judaism will help to provide professional care for the patient of Jewish faith. Appropriate communication, understanding and tolerance are essential for creating a relationship with the patient, through which it will be possible to achieve the desired therapeutic effect and improve the quality of life of patients.
Schwarze, Margaret L; Bradley, Ciaran T; Brasel, Karen J
There is a general consensus by intensivists and nonsurgical providers that surgeons hesitate to withdraw life-sustaining therapy on their operative patients despite a patient's or surrogate's request to do so. The objective of this study was to examine the culture and practice of surgeons to assess attitudes and concerns regarding advance directives for their patients who have high-risk surgical procedures. A qualitative investigation using one-on-one, in-person interviews with open-ended questions about the use of advance directives during perioperative planning. Consensus coding was performed using a grounded theory approach. Data accrual continued until theoretical saturation was achieved. Modeling identified themes and trends, ensuring maximal fit and faithful data representation. Surgical practices in Madison and Milwaukee, WI. Physicians involved in the performance of high-risk surgical procedures. None. We describe the concept of surgical "buy-in," a complex process by which surgeons negotiate with patients a commitment to postoperative care before undertaking high-risk surgical procedures. Surgeons describe seeking a commitment from the patient to abide by prescribed postoperative care, "This is a package deal, this is what this operation entails," or a specific number of postoperative days, "I will contract with them and say, 'look, if we are going to do this, I am going to need 30 days to get you through this operation.'" "Buy-in" is grounded in a surgeon's strong sense of responsibility for surgical outcomes and can lead to surgeon unwillingness to operate or surgeon reticence to withdraw life-sustaining therapy postoperatively. If negotiations regarding life-sustaining interventions result in treatment limitation, a surgeon may shift responsibility for unanticipated outcomes to the patient. A complicated relationship exists between the surgeon and patient that begins in the preoperative setting. It reflects a bidirectional contract that is assumed by
Hughes, Byron D; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Sieloff, Eric; Shan, Yong; Senagore, Anthony J
Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) migration, DRG 331 to 330, is defined by the assignment to a higher cost DRG due only to post admission comorbidity or complications (CC). We assessed the 5% national Medicare data set (2011-2014) for colectomy (DRG's 331/330), excluding present on admission CC's and selecting patients with one or more CC's post-admission to define the impact on payments, cost, and length of stay (LOS). The incidence of DRG migration was 14.2%. This was associated with statistically significant increases in payments, hospital cost, and LOS compared to DRG 331 patients. When DRG migration rate was extrapolated to the entire at risk population, the results were an increase of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) cost by $98 million, hospital cost by $418 million, and excess hospital days equaling 68,669 days. These negative outcomes represent potentially unnecessary variations in the processes of care, and therefore a unique economic concept defining inefficient surgical care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Bo-Nan; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Liao, Quan; Dai, Meng-Hua; Zhan, Han-Xiang
Pancreatic duct stone (PDS) is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis. Surgery is a common therapeutic option for PDS. In this study we assessed the surgical procedures for PDS in patients with chronic pancreatitis at our hospital. Between January 2004 and September 2009, medical records from 35 patients diagnosed with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis were retrospectively reviewed and the patients were followed up for up to 67 months. The 35 patients underwent ultrasonography, computed tomography, or both, with an overall accuracy rate of 85.7%. Of these patients, 31 underwent the modified Puestow procedure, 2 underwent the Whipple procedure, 1 underwent simple stone removal by duct incision, and 1 underwent pancreatic abscess drainage. Of the 35 patients, 28 were followed up for 4-67 months. There was no postoperative death before discharge or during follow-up. After the modified Puestow procedure, abdominal pain was reduced in patients with complete or incomplete stone clearance (P>0.05). Steatorrhea and diabetes mellitus developed in several patients during a long-term follow-up. Surgery, especially the modified Puestow procedure, is effective and safe for patients with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis. Decompression of intraductal pressure rather than complete clearance of all stones predicts postoperative outcome.
Zamora Elson, M; Serón Arbeloa, C; Labarta Monzón, L; Garrido Ramírez de Arellano, I; Lander Azcona, A; Marquina Lacueva, M I; López Claver, J C; Escós Orta, J
To assess the nutritional response of a group of critically ill patients, as well as the differences in the response to nutritional support between medical and surgical patients. One-year long retrospective study including critically ill patients on artificial nutrition for 7 days. Throughout the first week, three nutritional biochemical controls were done that included albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, cholesterol, and electrolytes. Other data gathered were: nutritional risk index, age, gender, weight, height, APACHE, delay of onset of nutritional support, access route, predicted and real caloric intake, medical or surgical patient, hospital stay, duration of the central venous catheter, urinary tube, and/or mechanical ventilation, incidence and density of incidence of nosocomial infections. Sixty-three patients were studied, 30 (47%) medical and 33 (53%) surgical/trauma patients, with a usage of EN higher among medical patients (16/30, 53% vs. 5/33, 15%), PN higher among surgical patients (25/33, 76%), and mixed nutrition similar in both groups (5 medical and 3 surgical patients) (p = 0.001). There were no differences between medical and surgical patients regarding: both predicted and real caloric and nitrogenous intake, APACHE, delay of onset of nutrition, phosphorus, magnesium or glucose levels, mortality and incidence of nosocomial infections. There were no differences either in hospital stay or use of mechanical ventilation, although these tended to be lower in surgical patients. The baseline biochemical parameters did not show differences between both groups, although they were worse among surgical patients. These patients presented during the study period steady albumin levels with improvement in the remaining parameters, whereas medical patients showed a decrease in albumin and transferrin levels, steady prealbumin levels, and slightly improvement in cholesterol levels. We have observed higher usage of PN among surgical patients, which showed worse
Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies (ESS) 2006, and to examine to what extent the ESS have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death...... comprising 61 questions based on the ESS and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: Organization...... of stroke services, Management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and Secondary prevention. RESULTS: Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hours after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start...
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, clinical skills centers are important structural components of authentic universities in the world. These centers can be use for tuition of cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills. In this study we have designed a surgical course, consist of 19 theoretical knowledge (cognitive skills and 10 procedural skills. Purpose: teaching and testing the designed course. Methods: This study has been conducted on 678 medical students at clerkship stage. Pre and post-self assessment technique has been used to assess learning progress. A multivariate statistical comparison were adapted for Judgments of learning achievement, Hotelling’s T-square has been used to ascertain the differences between pre and post tests score. For measuring the reliability of the test items. Cronbach's Alpha has been used to measure the reliability of test item. Results: The reliability of the test was 0.84 for cognitive skills and 0.92 for procedural skills. The two tailed test for comparing each pairs of score of 19 cognitive items showed a significant statistical difference between 13 items (P=0.000. For procedural skills the differences between the mean score of 9 items were significant (P=0.000. These results indicate learning achievements by students. Conclusion: This study suggests that, the ability of trainees in both cognitive and psychomotor skills can be improved by tuition of basic surgical skills in skill Lab. (without use of patients. Key words: BASIC SURGICAL SKILLS, CSC, (CLINICAL SKILLS CENTER PRE AND POST SELF-ASSESSMENT
Nolan, Margaret; Leischow, Scott; Croghan, Ivana; Kadimpati, Sandeep; Hanson, Andrew; Schroeder, Darrell; Warner, David O
Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for postoperative complications. Quitting or cutting down on cigarettes around the time of surgery may reduce these risks. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to help patients achieve this goal, regardless of their intent to attempt long-term abstinence. An open-label observational study was performed of cigarette smoking adults scheduled for elective surgery at Mayo Clinic Rochester and seen in the pre-operative evaluation clinic between December 2014 and June 2015. Subjects were given a supply of ENDS to use prior to and 2 weeks after surgery. They were encouraged to use them whenever they craved a cigarette. Daily use of ENDS was recorded, and patients were asked about smoking behavior and ENDS use at baseline, 14 days and 30 days. Of the 105 patients approached, 80 (76%) agreed to participate; five of these were later excluded. Among the 75, 67 (87%) tried ENDS during the study period. At 30-day follow-up, 34 (51%) who had used ENDS planned to continue using them. Average cigarette consumption decreased from 15.6 per person/d to 7.6 over the study period (P < .001). At 30 days, 11/67 (17%) reported abstinence from cigarettes. ENDS use is feasible in adult smokers scheduled for elective surgery and is associated with a reduction in perioperative cigarette consumption. These results support further exploration of ENDS as a means to help surgical patients reduce or eliminate their cigarette consumption around the time of surgery. Smoking in the perioperative period increases patients' risk for surgical complications and healing difficulties, but new strategies are needed to help patients quit or cut down during this stressful time. These pilot data suggest that ENDS use is feasible and well-accepted in surgical patients, and worthy of exploration as a harm reduction strategy in these patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of
Pasha, I.; Haider, I.Z.; Qureshi, M.A.; Malik, A.S.
Background: Spondylolithesis is forward slipping of upper vertebra in relation to its lower one, which at times requires surgery. The objective of present study is to document the outcome of surgical treatment in spondylolisthesis of lumbosacral region. Methods: We reviewed outcome of surgery in 45 patients with spondylolisthesis. Improvement in pain intensity, neurological status and union achieved after surgery was studied. All patients requiring surgical treatment were included in the study. The patients were operated by single spine surgeon. A proforma was made for each patient and records were kept in a custom built Microsoft access database. Results: Majority of our patient were in 4th and 5th decade with some male domination. Pain was main indication for surgery which was excruciating in 6, severe in 33, and moderate in 6 cases. The neurological status was normal in 34 cases while 11 patients had some deficit. L5-S1 was affected in 26, L4-L5 in 13 and multi or high level was found in rest of cases. Slip grade was measured with Meyerding grades, 18 had grade II, 15 had I, 9 had III and 3 had IV spondylolisthesis. Posterior lumbar inter body fusion (PLIF) was done in 24 patients, posterolateral, transforaminal lumbar inter body and anterior inter body fusion in others. Translaminar screw fixation, transpedicular transdiscal transcorporial and Delta fixation in some cases. Pedicle screw fixation was done in most cases, AO fixator internae and 4.5 mm screw in others. Average follow up was 2 years and 5 months, max 5 years and minimum 6 months. Pain relief was achieved in 82%, neurological improvement 60% and union in 91% cases. There was no deterioration of neurological status, two implant failure and one wound infection. Conclusion: Surgical procedure for Spondylolisthesis must be individualised. Young patients with spondylolysis can be treated with osteosynthesis and sparing of motion segment. PLIF provides satisfactory results in majority of low to moderate
Campbell, Alex; Restrepo, Carolina; Mackay, Don; Sherman, Randy; Varma, Ajit; Ayala, Ruben; Sarma, Hiteswar; Deshpande, Gaurav; Magee, William
The Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center (GCCCC) utilizes a high-volume, subspecialized institution to provide safe, quality, and comprehensive and cost-effective surgical care to a highly vulnerable patient population. The GCCCC utilized a diagonal model of surgical care delivery, with vertical inputs of mission-based care transitioning to investments in infrastructure and human capital to create a sustainable, local care delivery system. Over the first 2.5 years of service (May 2011-November 2013), the GCCCC made significant advances in numerous areas. Progress was meticulously documented to evaluate performance and provide transparency to stakeholders including donors, government officials, medical oversight bodies, employees, and patients. During this time period, the GCCCC provided free operations to 7,034 patients, with improved safety, outcomes, and multidisciplinary services while dramatically decreasing costs and increasing investments in the local community. The center has become a regional referral cleft center, and governments of surrounding states have contracted the GCCCC to provide care for their citizens with cleft lip and cleft palate. Additional regional and global impact is anticipated through continued investments into education and training, comprehensive services, and research and outcomes. The success of this public private partnership demonstrates the value of this model of surgical care in the developing world, and offers a blueprint for reproduction. The GCCCC experience has been consistent with previous studies demonstrating a positive volume-outcomes relationship, and provides evidence for the value of the specialty hospital model for surgical delivery in the developing world.
Kurzynske, Frank C; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Brock, Andrew S
Single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) was introduced in 2007 to diagnose and treat small-bowel disorders. No study to date has evaluated SBE in patients with surgically altered anatomy outside of ERCP. To evaluate the efficacy, yield, and safety of SBE in patients with surgically altered anatomy. Retrospective study. Tertiary-care academic medical center. All patients with altered surgical anatomy who underwent SBE at the Medical University of South Carolina from July 2007 to September 2013. SBE. Diagnostic yield, therapeutic yield, technical success, and adverse events. A total of 48 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 56 years (77% female). Eleven patients underwent single-balloon PEG placement, 8 single-balloon ERCP, 22 non-PEG/non-ERCP anterograde SBE, and 7 retrograde SBE. Previous surgeries included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=26), small-intestine resection (n=6), colon resection (n=5), Whipple procedure (n=4), choledochojejunostomy (n=3), hepaticojejunostomy (n=1), Billroth I (n=1), Billroth II (n=1), and Puestow procedure (n=1). Procedural indications were PEG tube placement (n=11), choledocholithiasis (n=2), biliary stricture (n=2), obstructive jaundice (n=1), cholangitis (n=1), ampullary mass (n=1), sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (n=1), anemia and/or bleeding (n=15), abdominal pain (n=9), radiologic evidence of obstruction (n=3), and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (n=2). The technical success rate was 73% in single-balloon PEG placement, 88% in single-balloon ERCP, 82% in other anterograde SBEs, and 86% in retrograde SBEs. No intraprocedural or postprocedural adverse events were observed. Single center, retrospective study. SBE is safe and effective in patients with surgically altered anatomy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taware, C P; Kulkarni, S R
The Present article describes in short etiology of cleft lip and cleft palate. With this in-born defect, patient develops crucial problems with feeding, phonation, overall growth and development of affected and allied soft and hard tissue structures. This in turn results in deformity and asymmetry which is going to affect functional requirements as well as aesthetic outlook. Hence it really becomes mandatory to correct this defect surgically as early as possible, at stipulated timings so as to avoid present and future anticipated problems.
Khan, Anjum; Lampitoc, Marianita; Salaripour, Maryam; McKernan, Patricia; Devlin, Roslyn; Muller, Matthew P
Outbreaks of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the intensive care unit setting can be prolonged and difficult to control. This report describes the rapid control of an outbreak of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a 24-bed open-concept medical surgical intensive care unit with a baseline methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisition rate of 1.5 cases per 1000 patient days. This institution's infection control policy mandates an outbreak investigation if two cases of hospital-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection are identified in an intensive care unit within a four-week period. In July 2007, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified in the sputum of two patients within a one-week period. Screening of all patients in the intensive care unit identified one additional case and a fourth case was identified from a clinical specimen before control measures were implemented. Initial control measures included healthcare worker education, enhanced surveillance, patient cohorting, and enhanced environmental cleaning. Despite these measures, three more cases occurred. All patients were then placed in contact isolation, healthcare workers were screened, and the nursing staff was cohorted. After two weeks without a case, two additional cases were identified. Decolonization of all positive patients was initiated. No further cases occurred over a five-week period and the outbreak was declared over. The outbreak resulted in nine cases of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization (n = 8) or infection (n = 1) over an 11-week period. Only one of 175 healthcare workers was colonized and it was not the outbreak strain. Early detection and the stepwise addition of infection control measures resulted in the rapid control of an outbreak of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a medical surgical intensive care unit without unit closure. A low threshold of suspicion and
Martina Ribič Pucelj
Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovaries (PCO are manifested either independently or as a syndrome (PCOS. They are one of the commonest endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Despite a variable clinical picture one of the leading symptoms is infertility for anovulation. Surgical treatment of the disease witnessed a revival after the introduction of minimally invasive operative laparoscopy. Various techniques of ovarian tissue destruction have been applied, the most common being laparoscopic electrocoagulation of the ovaries (LECO. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes following LECO.Patients and methods. From 1993 and 2000 inclusive LECO was performed at the Reproductive Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ljubljana in 222 infertile patients with PCO(S, in whom previous medical ovulation induction failed or in whom overreaction of the ovaries to gonadotropin treatment occurred. To the questionnaire, mailed to the patients, 185 (83.3% responded. The evaluation of the outcome of LECO treatment involved 157 patients, since the patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF-ET treatment for other causes of infertility prior to LECO, were exclude from the analysis. LECO was performed under general endotracheal anesthesia using a 3-puncture technique. On each ovary 5– 15 (mean 10 punctures were made with a monopolar electric needle, energy of 300 W, and duration of 4 seconds. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and odds ratios.Results. After LECO 99 (63.3% of the 157 patients conceived, 56 (54.6% spontaneously and 43 (45.4% after additional postoperative ovarian stimulation. Pregnancy was registered in 58 (59.0% patients with primary, and in 41 (41% patients with secondary infertility, in 20 (57% patients with PCO, 79 (65% with PCOS, in 71 (64.1% patients with a normal partner’s spermiogram, and in 28 (46.1% patients with the partner’s oligoasthenoteratospermia of
Bjerså, Kristofer; Stener Victorin, Elisabet; Fagevik Olsén, Monika
Previous studies show an increased interest and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the general population and among health care workers both internationally and nationally. CAM usage is also reported to be common among surgical patients. Earlier international studies have reported that a large amount of surgical patients use it prior to and after surgery. Recent publications indicate a weak knowledge about CAM among health care workers. However the current situation in Sweden is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore perceived knowledge about CAM among registered healthcare professions in surgical departments at Swedish university hospitals. A questionnaire was distributed to 1757 registered physicians, nurses and physiotherapists in surgical wards at the seven university hospitals in Sweden from spring 2010 to spring 2011. The questionnaire included classification of 21 therapies into conventional, complementary, alternative and integrative, and whether patients were recommended these therapies. Questions concerning knowledge, research, and patient communication about CAM were also included. A total of 737 (42.0%) questionnaires were returned. Therapies classified as complementary; were massage, manual therapies, yoga and acupuncture. Alternative therapies; were herbal medicine, dietary supplements, homeopathy and healing. Classification to integrative therapy was low, and unfamiliar therapies were Bowen therapy, iridology and Rosen method. Therapies recommended by > 40% off the participants were massage and acupuncture. Knowledge and research about CAM was valued as minor or none at all by 95.7% respectively 99.2%. Importance of possessing knowledge about it was valued as important by 80.9%. It was believed by 61.2% that more research funding should be addressed to CAM research, 72.8% were interested in reading CAM-research results, and 27.8% would consider taking part in such research. Half of the participants (55.8%) were
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies show an increased interest and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the general population and among health care workers both internationally and nationally. CAM usage is also reported to be common among surgical patients. Earlier international studies have reported that a large amount of surgical patients use it prior to and after surgery. Recent publications indicate a weak knowledge about CAM among health care workers. However the current situation in Sweden is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore perceived knowledge about CAM among registered healthcare professions in surgical departments at Swedish university hospitals. Method A questionnaire was distributed to 1757 registered physicians, nurses and physiotherapists in surgical wards at the seven university hospitals in Sweden from spring 2010 to spring 2011. The questionnaire included classification of 21 therapies into conventional, complementary, alternative and integrative, and whether patients were recommended these therapies. Questions concerning knowledge, research, and patient communication about CAM were also included. Result A total of 737 (42.0% questionnaires were returned. Therapies classified as complementary; were massage, manual therapies, yoga and acupuncture. Alternative therapies; were herbal medicine, dietary supplements, homeopathy and healing. Classification to integrative therapy was low, and unfamiliar therapies were Bowen therapy, iridology and Rosen method. Therapies recommended by > 40% off the participants were massage and acupuncture. Knowledge and research about CAM was valued as minor or none at all by 95.7% respectively 99.2%. Importance of possessing knowledge about it was valued as important by 80.9%. It was believed by 61.2% that more research funding should be addressed to CAM research, 72.8% were interested in reading CAM-research results, and 27.8% would consider taking part in
Stoicea, Nicoleta; Baddigam, Ramya; Wajahn, Jennifer; Sipes, Angela C; Arias-Morales, Carlos E; Gastaldo, Nicholas; Bergese, Sergio D
The elderly population in the United States is increasing exponentially in tandem with risk for frailty. Frailty is described by a clinically significant state where a patient is at risk for developing complications requiring increased assistance in daily activities. Frailty syndrome studied in geriatric patients is responsible for an increased risk for falls, and increased mortality. In efforts to prepare for and to intervene in perioperative complications and general frailty, a universal scale to measure frailty is necessary. Many methods for determining frailty have been developed, yet there remains a need to define clinical frailty and, therefore, the most effective way to measure it. This article reviews six popular scales for measuring frailty and evaluates their clinical effectiveness demonstrated in previous studies. By identifying the most time-efficient, criteria comprehensive, and clinically effective scale, a universal scale can be implemented into standard of care and reduce complications from frailty in both non-surgical and surgical settings, especially applied to the perioperative surgical home model. We suggest further evaluation of the Edmonton Frailty Scale for inclusion in patient care.
Full Text Available The elderly population in the United States is increasing exponentially in tandem with risk for frailty. Frailty is described by a clinically significant state where a patient is at risk for developing complications requiring increased assistance in daily activities. Frailty syndrome studied in geriatric patients is responsible for an increased risk for falls, and increased mortality. In efforts to prepare for and to intervene in perioperative complications and general frailty, a universal scale to measure frailty is necessary. Many methods for determining frailty have been developed, yet there remains a need to define clinical frailty and therefore the most effective way to measure it. This article reviews six popular scales for measuring frailty and evaluates their clinical effectiveness demonstrated in previous studies. By identifying the most time-efficient, criteria comprehensive, and clinically effective scale, a universal scale can be implemented into standard of care and reduce complications from frailty in both non-surgical and surgical settings, especially applied to the perioperative surgical home model. We suggest further evaluation of the Edmonton Frailty Scale for inclusion in patient care.
Aamir, Muhammad; Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Shakeel, Faisal; Asim, Syed Muhammad
Background Unlicensed and off-label prescribing practice is global dilemma around the world. This pioneering study was designed to determine unlicensed and off-label use of drug in surgical wards of tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan. Objective To assess unlicensed and off-label use of drugs in pediatric surgical unit at three tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan. Setting Two government and one private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. Method Drug profiles of 895 patients from three different clinical settings were evaluated for unlicensed and off-label use of drugs using Micromedex DRUGDEX. Main outcome measure Characteristics of the unlicensed and off-label drug prescriptions. Result Total of 3168 prescribed drugs were analyzed in this study. Indication (38.7%) and dose (34.8%) were the most frequent off-label categories. In comparison with the corresponding reference categories, infants and children, male patients and having less than five prescribed drugs were significant predictors of unlicensed prescriptions. In comparison with the corresponding reference categories, significant predictors of off-label drug prescribing were children younger than two year, children between 2-12 years, patient staying at hospital less than 5 days and patients having less than five prescribed drugs. Conclusion The prevalence of unlicensed and off-label drug prescriptions are high at pediatric surgical ward of tertiary care hospitals. More awareness of the efficacy and safety of drugs are required in pediatrics. In addition, new formulations with advanced dosing for children are also required to minimize the risk of adverse outcomes.
Jayaraman, Sudha P; Klompas, Michael; Bascom, Molli; Liu, Xiaoxia; Piszcz, Regina; Rogers, Selwyn O; Askari, Reza
Our institution had a major outbreak of multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter (MDRA) in its general surgical and trauma intensive care units (ICUs) in 2011, requiring implementation of an aggressive infection-control response. We hypothesized that poor hand-hygiene compliance (HHC) may have contributed to the outbreak of MDRA. A response to the outbreak including aggressive environmental cleaning, cohorting, and increased hand hygiene compliance monitoring may have led to an increase in HHC after the outbreak and to a consequent decrease in the rates of infection by the nosocomial pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and Clostridium difficile. Hand-hygiene compliance, tracked in monthly audits by trained and anonymous observers, was abstracted from an infection control database. The incidences of nosocomial MRSA, VRE, and C. difficile were calculated from a separate prospectively collected data base for 6 mo before and 12 mo after the 2011 outbreak of MDRA in the institution's general surgical and trauma ICUs, and data collected prospectively from two unaffected ICUs (the thoracic surgical ICU and medical intensive care unit [MICU]). We created a composite endpoint of "any resistant pathogen," defined as MRSA, VRE, or C. difficile, and compared incidence rates over time, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient to measure the correlations among these rates. Rates of HHC before and after the outbreak of MDRA were consistently high in both the general surgical (median rates: 100% before and 97.6% after the outbreak, p=0.93) and trauma ICUs (median rates: 90% before and 96.75% after the outbreak, p=0.14). In none of the ICUs included in the study did the rates of HHC increase in response to the outbreak of MDRA. The incidence of "any resistant pathogen" decreased in the general surgical ICU after the outbreak (from 6.7/1,000 patient-days before the outbreak to 2
Still, Mary D; Cross, Linda C; Dunlap, Martha; Rencher, Rugenia; Larkins, Elizabeth R; Carpenter, David L; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M
Pressure ulcers cause significant morbidity and mortality in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). The purpose of this study was to determine if a dedicated team tasked with turning and repositioning all hemodynamically stable SICU patients could decrease the formation of pressure ulcers. A total of 507 patients in a 20-bed SICU in a university hospital were assessed for pressure ulcers using a point prevalence strategy, between December 2008 and September 2010, before and after implementation of a team tasked with turning and repositioning all hemodynamically stable patients every 2 hours around the clock. At baseline, when frequent turning was encouraged but not required, a total of 42 pressure ulcers were identified in 278 patients. After implementation of the turn team, a total of 12 pressure ulcers were identified in 229 patients (p < 0.0001). The preintervention group included 34 stage I and II ulcers and 8 higher stage ulcers. After implementation of the turn team, there were 7 stage I and II ulcers and 5 higher stage ulcers. The average Braden score was 16.5 in the preintervention group and 13.4 in the postintervention group (p = 0.04), suggesting that pressure ulcers were occurring in higher risk patients after implementation of the turn team. A team dedicated to turning SICU patients every 2 hours dramatically decreased the incidence of pressure ulcers. The majority of stage I and stage II ulcers appear to be preventable with an aggressive intervention aimed at pressure ulcer prevention. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iurkevich, V V; Fidarov, E Z; Bauér, V A
Experience of organization of the surgical care in the military hospital to 438 wounded in extremities during armed conflict in Republic of Chechnya is generalized. Maximum reduction of stages of medical evacuation of the wounded in extremities, approaching of the qualified and urgent specialized surgical care directly to the region of battle actions, use of opportunities for it one-moment rendering corresponded to principles of the modern military-medical doctrine. Due to realization of the requirements of the doctrine life of many wounded ++ was saved, terms of treatment, medical and social rehabilitation are reduced. Besides lethality, treatment cost and numbers of transferring to the reserve from the Armed Forces were reduced.
Newkirk, Michelle; Pamplin, Jeremy C; Kuwamoto, Roderick; Allen, David A; Chung, Kevin K
Combat casualty care is distributed across professions and echelons of care. Communication within it is fragmented, inconsistent, and prone to failure. Daily checklists used during intensive care unit (ICU) rounds have been shown to improve compliance with evidence-based practices, enhance communication, promote consistency of care, and improve outcomes. Checklists are criticized because it is difficult to establish a causal link between them and their effect on outcomes. We investigated how checklists used during ICU rounds affect communication. We conducted this project in two military ICUs (burn and surgical/trauma). Checklists contained up to 21 questions grouped according to patient population. We recorded which checklist items were discussed during rounds before and after implementation of a "must address" checklist and compared the frequency of discussing items before checklist prompting. Patient discussions addressed more checklist items before prompting at the end of the 2-week evaluation compared with the 2-week preimplementation period (surgical trauma ICU, 36% vs. 77%, p communication patterns. Improved communication facilitated by checklists may be one mechanism behind their effectiveness. Checklists are powerful tools that can rapidly alter patient care delivery. Implementing checklists could facilitate the rapid dissemination of clinical practice changes, improve communication between echelons of care and between individuals involved in patient care, and reduce missed information.
Salkeld, G; Solomon, M; Butow, P; Short, L
Establishing trust between a patient and his or her surgeon is of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of the 'attributes of trust' between surgeon and patient with colorectal cancer. A discrete-choice questionnaire was conducted with 60 men and 43 women who had completed primary treatment for colorectal cancer in two teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Forty-seven of the 103 patients based their choice of surgical management on a single attribute and the remainder were willing to trade between different attributes. In order of importance, patients based their choice of surgical management on specialty training (beta coefficient = 0.83), surgeon's communication (beta = 0.82), type of hospital (beta = 0.72) and who decides treatment (beta = 0.01). Patients who were vigilant in their decision-making style and those who did not have tertiary education were more likely to change their preferences in the repeat interview. Clinicians may have a better chance of meeting a patient's expectations about the process of care if they assess the patient's desire for knowledge and give those who do not have tertiary education more time to assimilate information about their treatment. Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cho, Sumi; Lee, Eunjoo
Recently, the patient's role in preventing adverse events has been emphasized. Patients who are more knowledgeable about safety issues are more likely to engage in safety initiatives. Therefore, nurses need to develop techniques and tools that increase patients' knowledge in preventing adverse events. For this reason, an educational smartphone application for patient safety called "Safe Patients" was developed through an iterative process involving a literature review, expert consultations, and pilot testing of the application. To determine the effect of "Safe Patients," it was implemented for patients in surgical units in a tertiary hospital in South Korea. The change in patients' knowledge about patient safety was measured using seven true/false questions developed in this study. A one-group pretest and posttest design was used, and a total of 123 of 190 possible participants were tested. The percentage of correct answers significantly increased from 64.5% to 75.8% (P effectively improve patients' knowledge of safety issues. This will ultimately empower patients to engage in safe practices and prevent adverse events related to surgery.
Full Text Available Comanagement is defined as shared responsibility, authority and accountability for the management of a hospitalized patient, and represents a fundamentally different model from traditional medical consultation. Medical comanagement has rapidly proliferated and is now a dominant model of care in American hospitals. Comanagement is most effective when patients are appropriately selected, processes are predetermined and systems are implemented to ensure rigorous and continuous improvement. This article provides a structured approach for conceptualizing and implementing medical comanagement.
Comanagement is defined as shared responsibility, authority and accountability for the management of a hospitalized patient, and represents a fundamentally different model from traditional medical consultation. Medical comanagement has rapidly proliferated and is now a dominant model of care in American hospitals. Comanagement is most effective when patients are appropriately selected, processes are predetermined and systems are implemented to ensure rigorous and continuous improvement. This ...
Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel; Ozawa, Sherri; Theusinger, Oliver M; Gombotz, Hans; Spahn, Donat R
Blood utilization has long been suspected to consume more health care resources than previously reported. Incomplete accounting for blood costs has the potential to misdirect programmatic decision making by health care systems. Determining the cost of supplying patients with blood transfusions requires an in-depth examination of the complex array of activities surrounding the decision to transfuse. To accurately determine the cost of blood in a surgical population from a health system perspective, an activity-based costing (ABC) model was constructed. Tasks and resource consumption (materials, labor, third-party services, capital) related to blood administration were identified prospectively at two US and two European hospitals. Process frequency (i.e., usage) data were captured retrospectively from each hospital and used to populate the ABC model. All major process steps, staff, and consumables to provide red blood cell (RBC) transfusions to surgical patients, including usage frequencies, and direct and indirect overhead costs contributed to per-RBC-unit costs between $522 and $1183 (mean, $761 +/- $294). These exceed previously reported estimates and were 3.2- to 4.8-fold higher than blood product acquisition costs. Annual expenditures on blood and transfusion-related activities, limited to surgical patients, ranged from $1.62 to $6.03 million per hospital and were largely related to the transfusion rate. Applicable to various hospital practices, the ABC model confirms that blood costs have been underestimated and that they are geographically variable and identifies opportunities for cost containment. Studies to determine whether more stringent control of blood utilization improves health care utilization and quality, and further reduces costs, are warranted.
Yurdakul, Nazife Sefi; Ugurlu, Seyda; Maden, Ahmet
To evaluate the effectiveness of surgical treatment performed in patients with double elevator palsy (DEP). Patients diagnosed with congenital DEP between April 2003 and March 2007 were included in the study. The cases with positive traction test had inferior rectus (IR) recession followed by full tendon width muscle transposition Knapp surgery or partial tendon width transposition operation, while those without positive traction test underwent transposition procedure alone. Transposition surgery was combined with recession and resection of horizontal rectus muscles in patients with exotropia according to the amount of horizontal deviation. Eyelid surgery was applied in patients with ptosis following strabismus surgery. The average age of 13 patients was 14+/-32.5 years (range, 3-60 years). Five patients (38%) were female and 8 patients (62%) were male. The mean preoperative hypotropia was decreased from 29.2+/-3.5 prism diopters (PD) (range, 16-45 PD) to 2.6+/-2.8 PD (range, 0-6 PD) postoperatively. The median amount of horizontal deviation in patients with exotropia (n=4) was 30 PD (range, 25-45 PD) preoperatively; it was reduced to 2 PD (range, 0-8 PD) postoperatively. Mean follow-up period was 14.1+/-2.8 months (range, 6-31 months). Five patients (38%) underwent eyelid surgery, and all achieved cosmetically satisfactory results. Transposition surgery alone or combined with IR recession is an effective procedure in treatment of double elevator palsy. In patients with moderate horizontal deviations, recession and resection of horizontal rectus muscles combined with transposition provide correction of the horizontal deviation at the same time.
Atci Ibrahim Burak
Full Text Available Background: In this study, the patients who were operated in two clinics due to traumatic cranial epidural hematoma (EDH were assessed retrospectively and the factors that increase the costs were tried to be revealed through conducting cost analyses. Methods: The patients who were operated between 2010 and 2016 with the diagnosis of EDH were assessed in terms of age, sex, trauma etiology, Glasgow coma scale (GCS at admission, the period from trauma to hospital arrival, trauma-related injury in other organs, the localization of hematoma, the size of hematoma, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU, length of antibiotherapy administration, number of consultations conducted, total cost of in-hospital treatments of the patients and prognosis. Results: Distribution of GCS were, between 13-15 in 18 (36% patients, 9-13 in 23 (46% patients and 3-8 in 9 (18% patients. The reasons for emergency department admissions were fall from high in 29 (58% patients, assault in 11 (22% patients and motor vehicle accident in 10 (20% patients. The average cost per ICU stay was 2838 $ (range=343-20571 $. The average cost per surgical treatment was 314 $. ICU care was approximately 9 times more expensive than surgical treatment costs. The mortality rate of the study cohort was 14% (7 patients. Conclusion: The prolonged period of stay in the ICU, antibiotherapy and repeat head CTs increase the costs for patients who are surgically treated for EDH.
Newcomb, Anna; Trickey, Amber W; Lita, Elena; Dort, Jonathan
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to assess communication skills and provide feedback to residents. We aimed to develop a feasible data collection process that generates objective clinical performance information to guide training activities, inform ACGME milestone evaluations, and validate assessment instruments. Residents care for patients in the surgical clinic and in the hospital, and participate in a communication curriculum providing practice with standardized patients (SPs). We measured perception of resident communication using the 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT), collecting data from patients at the surgery clinic and surgical wards in the hospital, and from SP encounters during simulated training scenarios. We developed a handout of CAT example behaviors to guide patients completing the communication assessment. Independent academic medical center. General surgery residents. The primary outcome is the percentage of total items patients rated "excellent;" we collected data on 24 of 25 residents. Outpatient evaluations resulted in significantly higher scores (mean 84.5% vs. 68.6%, p communication assessments in their concurrent patient population (p = 0.017), and (2) receiving CAT example instructions was associated with a lower percentage of excellent ratings by 9.3% (p = 0.047). Our data collection process provides a model for obtaining meaningful information about resident communication proficiency. CAT evaluations of surgical residents by the inpatient population had not previously been described in the literature; our results provide important insight into relationships between the evaluations provided by inpatients, clinic patients, and SPs in simulation. Our example behaviors guide shows promise for addressing a common concern, minimizing ceiling effects when measuring physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by
Williams, Mallory; Alban, Rodrigo F; Hardy, James P; Oxman, David A; Garcia, Edward R; Hevelone, Nathanael; Frendl, Gyorgy; Rogers, Selwyn O
Staff coverage strategies of intensive care units (ICUs) impact clinical outcomes. High-intensity staff coverage strategies are associated with lower morbidity and mortality. Accessible clinical expertise, team work, and effective communication have all been attributed to the success of this coverage strategy. We evaluate the impact of in-hospital fellow coverage (IHFC) on improving communication of cardiorespiratory events. A prospective observational study performed in an academic tertiary care center with high-intensity staff coverage. The main outcome measure was resident to fellow communication of cardiorespiratory events during IHFC vs home coverage (HC) periods. Three hundred twelve cardiorespiratory events were collected in 114 surgical ICU patients in 134 study days. Complete data were available for 306 events. One hundred three communication errors occurred. IHFC was associated with significantly better communication of events compared to HC (Pcommunicated 89% of events during IHFC vs 51% of events during HC (PCommunication patterns of junior and midlevel residents were similar. Midlevel residents communicated 68% of all on-call events (87% IHFC vs 50% HC, Pcommunicated 66% of events (94% IHFC vs 52% HC, PCommunication errors were lower in all ICUs during IHFC (Pcommunication errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rathert, Cheryl; Huddleston, Nicole; Pak, Youngju
Patient safety has been a highly researched topic in health care since the year 2000. One strategy for improving patient safety has been to encourage patients to take an active role in their safety during their health care experiences. However, little research has shed light on how patients view their roles. This study attempted to address this deficit by inductively exploring the results of a qualitative study in which patients reported their ideas about what they believe their roles should be. Patients with an overnight stay in the previous 90 days at one of three hospitals were surveyed using a mailing methodology. Of 1,040 respondents, 491 provided an open-ended response regarding what they believe the patient role should be. Qualitative analysis found several prominent themes. The largest proportion of responses (23%) suggested that patients should follow instructions given by care providers. Other prominent themes were that patients should ask questions and become informed about their conditions and treatments, and many implied that they should expect competent care. Our results suggest that patients believe they should be able to trust that they are being provided competent care, as opposed to assuming a leadership role in their safety. Our results suggest that engaging patients in safety efforts may be complex, requiring a variety of strategies. Managers must provide environments conducive to staff and patient interactions to support patients in this effort. Different types of patients may require different engagement strategies.
Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Brault, Isabelle; Pineault, Raynald; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Prud'homme, Alexandre; D'Amour, Danielle
Nurses are identified as a key provider in the management of patients in primary care. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' experience of care in primary care as it pertained to the nursing role. The aim was to test the hypothesis that, in primary health care organizations (PHCOs) where patients are systematically followed by a nurse, and where nursing competencies are therefore optimally used, patients' experience of care is better. Based on a cross-sectional analysis combining organizational and experience of care surveys, we built 2 groups of PHCOs. The first group of PHCOs reported having a nurse who systematically followed patients. The second group had a nurse who performed a variety of activities but did not systematically follow patients. Five indicators of care were constructed based on patient questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariate linear mixed models with random intercepts and with patients nested within were used to analyze the experience of care indicators in both groups. Bivariate analyses revealed a better patient experience of care in PHCOs where a nurse systematically followed patients than in those where a nurse performed other activities. In multivariate analyses that included adjustment variables related to PHCOs and patients, the accessibility indicator was found to be higher. Results indicated that systematic follow-up of patients by nurses improved patients' experience of care in terms of accessibility. Using nurses' scope of practice to its full potential is a promising avenue for enhancing both patients' experience of care and health services efficiency.
Floyd, Shawn; Craig, Sarah W; Topley, Darla; Tullmann, Dorothy
Cardiothoracic surgical patients are at high risk for complications related to immobility, such as increased intensive care and hospital length of stay, intensive care unit readmission, pressure ulcer development, and deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolus. A progressive mobility protocol was started in the thoracic cardiovascular intensive care unit in a rural academic medical center. The purpose of the progressive mobility protocol was to increase mobilization of postoperative patients and decrease complications related to immobility in this unique patient population. A matched-pairs design was used to compare a randomly selected sample of the preintervention group (n = 30) to a matched postintervention group (n = 30). The analysis compared outcomes including intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, intensive care unit readmission occurrence, pressure ulcer prevalence, and deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism prevalence between the 2 groups. Although this comparison does not achieve statistical significance (P mobility. This study has implications for nursing, hospital administration, and therapy services with regard to staffing and cost savings related to fewer complications of immobility. Future studies with a larger sample size and other populations are warranted.
Haider, Adil H; Schneider, Eric B; Sriram, N; Dossick, Deborah S; Scott, Valerie K; Swoboda, Sandra M; Losonczy, Lia; Haut, Elliott R; Efron, David T; Pronovost, Peter J; Lipsett, Pamela A; Cornwell, Edward E; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Cooper, Lisa A; Freischlag, Julie A
, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.57-0.75]) relative to men (mean IAT D scores, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.37-0.52] and 0.82 [95% CI, 0.75-0.89], respectively). In univariate analyses, we found an association between race/social class bias and 3 of 27 possible patient-care decisions. Multivariable analyses revealed no association between the IAT D scores and vignette-based clinical assessments. Unconscious social class and race biases were not significantly associated with clinical decision making among acute care surgical clinicians. Further studies involving real physician-patient interactions may be warranted.
Ugas, Mohamed Ali; Cho, Hyongyu; Trilling, Gregory M; Tahir, Zainab; Raja, Humaera Farrukh; Ramadan, Sami; Jerjes, Waseem; Giannoudis, Peter V
Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive.
Patel, Santosh; Lutz, Jan M; Panchagnula, Umakanth; Bansal, Sujesh
Colorectal surgery is commonly performed for colorectal cancer and other pathology such as diverticular and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite significant advances, such as laparoscopic techniques and multidisciplinary recovery programs, morbidity and mortality remain high and vary among surgical centers. The use of scoring systems and assessment of functional capacity may help in identifying high-risk patients and predicting complications. An understanding of perioperative factors affecting colon blood flow and oxygenation, suppression of stress response, optimal fluid therapy, and multimodal pain management are essential. These fundamental principles are more important than any specific choice of anesthetic agents. Anesthesiologists can significantly contribute to enhance recovery and improve the quality of perioperative care.
Legg, Julian; Davies, Evan; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Sherry, Ned
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of nonprogressive syndromes of posture and motor impairment associated with lesions of the immature brain. Spastic quadriplegia is the most severe form with a high incidence of scoliosis, back pain, respiratory compromise, pelvic obliquity, and poor sitting balance. Surgical stabilization of the spine is an effective technique for correcting deformity and restoring sitting posture. The decision to operate in this group of patients is challenging. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of surgical correction of scoliosis in children with spastic quadriplegia, the adverse effects of this treatment, and what preoperative factors affect patient outcome after surgical correction. A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies describing benefits and adverse effects of surgery in spastic quadriplegia. Factors affecting patient outcome following surgical correction of scoliosis were assessed. Studies involving adults and nonspastic quadriplegia were excluded. A total of 10 case series and 1 prospective and 3 retrospective cohort studies met inclusion criteria. There was significant variation in the overall risk of complications (range, 10.9-70.9%), mortality (range, 2.8-19%), respiratory/pulmonary complications (range, 26.9-57.1%), and infection (range, 2.5-56.8%). Factors associated with a worse outcome were a significant degree of thoracic kyphosis, days in the intensive care unit, and poor nutritional status. Caregivers report a high degree of satisfaction with scoliosis surgery for children with spastic quadriplegia. There is limited evidence of preoperative factors that can predict patient outcome after scoliosis. There is a need for well-designed prospective studies of scoliosis surgery in spastic quadriplegia.
Boltz, Melissa M; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Julian, Kathleen G; Ortenzi, Gail; Dillon, Peter W
Although much has been written about excess cost and duration of stay (DOS) associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after cardiothoracic surgery, less has been reported after vascular and general surgery. We used data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to estimate the total cost and DOS associated with SSIs in patients undergoing general and vascular surgery. Using standard NSQIP practices, data were collected on patients undergoing general and vascular surgery at a single academic center between 2007 and 2009 and were merged with fully loaded operating costs obtained from the hospital accounting database. Logistic regression was used to determine which patient and preoperative variables influenced the occurrence of SSIs. After adjusting for patient characteristics, costs and DOS were fit to linear regression models to determine the effect of SSIs. Of the 2,250 general and vascular surgery patients sampled, SSIs were observed in 186 inpatients. Predisposing factors of SSIs were male sex, insulin-dependent diabetes, steroid use, wound classification, and operative time (P surgery. Although the excess costs and DOS associated with SSIs after general and vascular surgery are somewhat less, they still represent substantial financial and opportunity costs to hospitals and suggest, along with the implications for patient care, a continuing need for cost-effective quality improvement and programs of infection prevention. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Prochorov, Alexandermiddle Victorovich; Oldhafer, Karl-Jurgen; Tretyak, Stanislaw Ivanovich; Rashchynski, Siarhei Markovich; Donati, Marcello; Rashchynskaya, Nina Timofeevna; Audzevich, Dzmitry Anatolyevich
The objectives of the research were to compare the outcomes of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) (Kausch-Whipple or Traverso-Longmire) and resection with drainage operations (RDO) (Frey or Partingtone-Rochelle) in patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis (CP), in management of pain syndrome and quality of life provided by these kinds of surgical procedures. From 2002 to 2008 sixteen patients suffering from CP underwent PD and 16 underwent RDO. Treatment results for the two groups were analyzed with respect to postoperative complications and results of the questionnaire MOS SF-36 v.2(TM). In the immediate postoperative period more complications were observed in the PD group (a<0.05). In both groups a positive effect on removing the painful syndrome and improvement of the quality of life (p<0.01) were observed. In the PD group there were the best results of management by General Health difference criterion (a<0.01). A greater improvement of Physical Functiong value (a<0.01) was noticed in patients who underwent RDO. Both PD and RDO adequately remove pain syndrome and improve the quality of life in patients suffering from CP. Under equal conditions the preference should be given to RDO, as improvement in life quality of operated patients is greater.
Pedro Miguel Marques
Full Text Available Aim: Cross-sectional study that aims to evaluate the results of cervical spine surgeries due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA instability, between January of 2000 and of 2012 in a main Portuguese centre Methods: Patients followed on Rheumatology submitted to cervical spine fusion due to atlantoaxial (AAI, sub-axial (SAI or cranio-cervical (CCI instabilities between 2000-2012 were included. Information about the surgical procedure and associated complications was gathered and imagiologic and clinical indexes before and after surgery (as anterior and posterior atlanto-axial interval and Ranawat index were evaluated and compared using adequate statistics. Results: Forty-five patients with RA were included: 25 with AAI, 13 with CCI and 7 with SAI. Ten AAI and 4 CCI patients were submitted to wiring stabilization techniques; 15 AAI and 9 CCI patients to rigid ones; and in all patients with SAI an anterior cervical arthrodesis was chosen. There is a significant increase in PADI and a decrease in AADI in the postoperative evaluation (p
Unti, James A
In this issue of the Bulletin, the leadership of the American College of Surgeons has published a Statement on Medical and Surgical Tourism (see page 26). The statement addresses a number of concerns about this new industry and some of the safety and quality issues that patients may encounter if they seek health care services outside of the U.S. On June 16, 2008, the American Medical Association adopted its own first set of guidelines on medical tourism to help ensure the safety of patients who are considering traveling abroad for medical care. The American College of Surgeons' statement and the American Medical Association's guidelines together provide an important set of principles for consideration by patients, employers, insurers, and other third-party groups responsible for coordinating such travel outside of the country.
Full Text Available The use of modern surgical dressings to prevent wound complications and surgical site infection (SSI after minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty (MIS-TKA is lacking. In a prospective, randomized, controlled study, 240 patients were randomized to receive either AQUACEL Ag Surgical dressing (study group or a standard dressing (control group after MIS-TKA. The primary outcome was wound complication (SSI and blister. The secondary outcomes were wear time and number of dressing changes in the hospital and patient satisfaction (pain, comfort, and ease of use. In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of superficial SSI (0.8%, 95% CI∶ 0.00–2.48 in the study group compared to 8.3% (95% CI∶ 3.32–13.3 in the control group (p=0.01. There were no differences in blister and deep/organ-space SSIs between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that AQUACEL Ag Surgical dressing was an independent risk factor for reduction of SSI (odds ratio: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01–0.58, p=0.01. The study group had longer wear time (5.2±0.7 versus 1.7±0.4 days, p<0.0001 and lower number of dressing changes (1.0±0.2 versus 3.6±1.3 times, p<0.0001. Increased patient satisfaction (p<0.0001 was also noted in the study group. AQUACEL Ag Surgical dressing is an ideal dressing to provide wound care efficacy, patient satisfaction, reduction of SSI, and cost-effectiveness following MIS-TKA.
Full Text Available Francisco José Tarazona-Santabalbina,1,2 Ángel Belenguer-Varea,1,2 Eduardo Rovira,1,2 David Cuesta-Peredó1,21Geriatric Medicine Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario de la Ribera, 2Medical School, Universidad Católica de Valencia San vicente Mártir, Valencia, SpainAbstract: Hip fractures are a very serious socio-economic problem in western countries. Since the 1950s, orthogeriatric units have introduced improvements in the care of geriatric patients admitted to hospital because of hip fractures. During this period, these units have reduced mean hospital stays, number of complications, and both in-hospital mortality and mortality over the middle term after hospital discharge, along with improvements in the quality of care and a reduction in costs. Likewise, a recent clinical trial has reported greater functional gains among the affected patients. Studies in this field have identified the prognostic factors present upon admission or manifesting themselves during admission and that increase the risk of patient mortality or disability. In addition, improved care afforded by orthogeriatric units has proved to reduce costs. Nevertheless, a number of management issues remain to be clarified, such as the optimum anesthetic, analgesic, and thromboprophylactic protocols; the type of diagnostic and therapeutic approach best suited to patients with cognitive problems; or the efficiency of the programs used in convalescence units or in home rehabilitation care. Randomized clinical trials are needed to consolidate the evidence in this regard. Keywords: hip fractures, geriatric assessment, orthogeriatric care, recovery of function, mortality
Sudlow, A; Tuffaha, H; Stearns, A T; Shaikh, I A
Introduction An increasing proportion of the population is living into their nineties and beyond. These high risk patients are now presenting more frequently to both elective and emergency surgical services. There is limited research looking at outcomes of general surgical procedures in nonagenarians and centenarians to guide surgeons assessing these cases. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients aged ≥90 years undergoing elective and emergency general surgical procedures at a tertiary care facility between 2009 and 2015. Vascular, breast and endocrine procedures were excluded. Patient demographics and characteristics were collated. Primary outcomes were 30-day and 90-day mortality rates. The impact of ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade, operation severity and emergency presentation was assessed using multivariate analysis. Results Overall, 161 patients (58 elective, 103 emergency) were identified for inclusion in the study. The mean patient age was 92.8 years (range: 90-106 years). The 90-day mortality rates were 5.2% and 19.4% for elective and emergency procedures respectively (p=0.013). The median survival was 29 and 19 months respectively (p=0.001). Emergency and major gastrointestinal operations were associated with a significant increase in mortality. Patients undergoing emergency major colonic or upper gastrointestinal surgery had a 90-day mortality rate of 53.8%. Conclusions The risk for patients aged over 90 years having an elective procedure differs significantly in the short term from those having emergency surgery. In selected cases, elective surgery carries an acceptable mortality risk. Emergency surgery is associated with a significantly increased risk of death, particularly after major gastrointestinal resections.
E De Plecker
Full Text Available In a rural district hospital in Burundi offering Emergency Obstetric care-(EmOC, we assessed the a characteristics of women at risk of, or with an obstetric complication and their types b the number and type of obstetric surgical procedures and anaesthesia performed c human resource cadres who performed surgery and anaesthesia and d hospital exit outcomes.A retrospective analysis of EmOC data (2011 and 2012.A total of 6084 women were referred for EmOC of whom 2534(42% underwent a major surgical procedure while 1345(22% required a minor procedure (36% women did not require any surgical procedure. All cases with uterine rupture(73 and extra-uterine pregnancy(10 and the majority with pre-uterine rupture and foetal distress required major surgery. The two most prevalent conditions requiring a minor surgical procedure were abortions (61% and normal delivery (34%. A total of 2544 major procedures were performed on 2534 admitted individuals. Of these, 1650(65% required spinal and 578(23% required general anaesthesia; 2341(92% procedures were performed by 'general practitioners with surgical skills' and in 2451(96% cases, anaesthesia was provided by nurses. Of 2534 hospital admissions related to major procedures, 2467(97% were discharged, 21(0.8% were referred to tertiary care and 2(0.1% died.Overall, the obstetric surgical volume in rural Burundi is high with nearly six out of ten referrals requiring surgical intervention. Nonetheless, good quality care could be achieved by trained, non-specialist staff. The post-2015 development agenda needs to take this into consideration if it is to make progress towards reducing maternal mortality in Africa.
Richter, Vered; Cohen, Matan J; Benenson, Shmuel; Almogy, Gideon; Brezis, Mayer
Availability of surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance rates challenges clinicians, healthcare administrators and leaders and the public. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the consequences patient self-assessment strategies have on SSI reporting rates. We performed SSI surveillance among patients undergoing general surgery procedures, including telephone follow-up 30 days after surgery. Additionally we undertook a separate validation study in which we compared patient self-assessments of SSI with surgeon assessment. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis of similar validation studies of patient self-assessment strategies. There were 22/266 in-hospital SSIs diagnosed (8.3%), and additional 16 cases were detected through the 30-day follow-up. In total, the SSI rate was 16.8% (95% CI 10.1-18.5). In the validation survey, we found patient telephone surveillance to have a sensitivity of 66% (95% CI 40-93%) and a specificity of 90% (95% CI 86-94%). The meta-analysis included five additional studies. The overall sensitivity was 83.3% (95% CI 79-88%), and the overall specificity was 97.4% (95% CI 97-98%). Simulation of the meta-analysis results divulged that when the true infection rate is 1%, reported rates would be 4%; a true rate of 50%, the reported rates would be 43%. Patient self-assessment strategies in order to fulfill 30-day SSI surveillance misestimate SSI rates and lead to an erroneous overall appreciation of inter-institutional variation. Self-assessment strategies overestimate SSIs rate of institutions with high-quality performance and underestimate rates of poor performance. We propose such strategies be abandoned. Alternative strategies of patient follow-up strategies should be evaluated in order to provide valid and reliable information regarding institutional performance in preventing patient harm.
Kier, R; Chambers, S K
Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.
Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K.
Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications
Full Text Available As technology and medications have improved and increased, survival rates are also increasing in intensive care units (ICUs, so it is now important to focus on improving the patient outcomes and recovery. To do this, ICU patients need to be assessed and started on an early mobility program, if stable. While the early mobilization of the ICU patients is not without risk, the current literature has demonstrated that patients can be safely and feasibly mobilized, even while requiring mechanical ventilation. These patients are at a high risk for muscle deconditioning due to limited mobility from numerous monitoring equipment and multiple medical conditions. Frequently, a critically ill patient only receives movement from nurses; such as, being turned side to side, pulled up in bed, or transferred from bed to a stretcher for a test. The implementation of an early mobility protocol that can be used by critical care nurses is important for positive patient outcomes minimizing the functional decline due to an ICU stay. This paper describes a pilot study to evaluate an early mobilization protocol to test the safety and feasibility for mechanically ventilated patients in a surgical trauma ICU in conjunction with the current unit standards.
Mason, Virginia M; Leslie, Gail; Clark, Kathleen; Lyons, Pat; Walke, Erica; Butler, Christina; Griffin, Martha
Preparation for replacing the large proportion of staff nurses reaching retirement age in the next few decades in the United States is essential to continue delivering high-quality nursing care and improving patient outcomes. Retaining experienced critical care nurses is imperative to successfully implementing the orientation of new inexperienced critical care nurses. It is important to understand factors that affect work engagement to develop strategies that enhance nurse retention and improve the quality of patient care. Nurses' experience of moral distress has been measured in medical intensive care units but not in surgical trauma care units, where nurses are exposed to patients and families faced with sudden life-threatening, life-changing patient consequences.This pilot study is a nonexperimental, descriptive, correlational design to examine the effect of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, moral distress, and level of nursing education on critical care nurses' work engagement. This is a partial replication of Lawrence's dissertation. The study also asked nurses to describe sources of moral distress and self-care strategies for coping with stress. This was used to identify qualitative themes about the nurse experiences. Jean Watson's theory of human caring serves as a framework to bring meaning and focus to the nursing-patient caring relationship.A convenience sample of 26 of 34 eligible experienced surgical intensive care unit trauma nurses responded to this survey, indicating a 77% response rate. Twenty-seven percent of the nurses scored high, and 73% scored average on compassion satisfaction. On compassion fatigue, 58% scored average on burnout and 42% scored low. On the secondary traumatic stress subscale, 38% scored average, and 62% scored low. The mean moral distress situations subscale score was 3.4, which is elevated. The mean 9-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale total score, measuring work engagement, was 3.8, which is considered low
Jan 25, 2012 ... reasons were high cost and fear of surgery, distance of eye clinics from patients. Conclusions: Regular ... Cataract accounts for approximately 50% of the world. 37 million blind; ..... Asia to sub-Saharan Africa? Glob Public ...
M. A. Sadovoy
Full Text Available Patients’ evaluation of medical care is becoming more and more important due to expanding patient-centered care. For this purpose a complex index of patient satisfaction with healthcare is used. This parameter reflects the correspondence of actual healthcare services to patient’s expectations that were formed under the influence of cultural, social, economic factors, and personal experience of each patient. Satisfaction is a subjective parameter, thus, a grade of satisfaction is barely connected with quality of healthcare services itself. Moreover, medical organizations should always take into account specific features of each patient, since they can have an influence on customer attitude to medical services.This article comprises the review of publications studying determinants of patient satisfaction. In the course of the study, we analyzed data received by research teams from different countries.According to the review, we made some conclusions. First, determinants of patient satisfaction with healthcare can be divided in two groups. The first group of factors includes patients’ characteristics such as age, gender, ethnical and cultural features. However, researches from different countries revealed that there is a difference in the importance of factors belonging to this group and their influence on satisfaction of certain patient cohorts. The second group includes factors that belong to the process of healthcare services delivery and its organization. Moreover, it was found that patient satisfaction level is changing in a waveform. Thus, medical organization should not only try to increase patient satisfaction level but also maintain it. AS a result, it necessary to monitor patient satisfaction with healthcare services. That is why there is a distinct need for the development of a new tool or adaptation of existing instrument of satisfaction measurement, which would be unitized for all medical organizations in the Russian Federation
Segers, Patrique; de Jong, Antonius P.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Ubbink, Dirk T.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.
Surgical site infection (SSI) remains an important complication of cardiac surgery. Prevention is important, as SSI is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Incisional care is an important daily issue for surgeons. However, there is still scant scientific evidence on which guidelines
Graat, Marleen E; Choi, Goda; Wolthuis, Esther K; Korevaar, Johanna C; Spronk, Peter E; Stoker, Jaap; Vroom, Margreeth B; Schultz, Marcus J
The clinical value of daily routine chest radiographs (CXRs) in critically ill patients is unknown. We conducted this study to evaluate how frequently unexpected predefined major abnormalities are identified with daily routine CXRs, and how often these findings lead to a change in care for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This was a prospective observational study conducted in a 28-bed, mixed medical-surgical ICU of a university hospital. Over a 5-month period, 2,457 daily routine CXRs were done in 754 consecutive ICU patients. The majority of these CXRs did not reveal any new predefined major finding. In only 5.8% of daily routine CXRs (14.3% of patients) was one or more new and unexpected abnormality encountered, including large atelectases (24 times in 20 patients), large infiltrates (23 in 22), severe pulmonary congestion (29 in 25), severe pleural effusion (13 in 13), pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum (14 in 13), and malposition of the orotracheal tube (32 in 26). Fewer than half of the CXRs with a new and unexpected finding were ultimately clinically relevant; in only 2.2% of all daily routine CXRs (6.4% of patients) did these radiologic abnormalities result in a change to therapy. Subgroup analysis revealed no differences between medical and surgical patients with regard to the incidence of new and unexpected findings on daily routine CXRs and the effect of new and unexpected CXR findings on daily care. In the ICU, daily routine CXRs seldom reveal unexpected, clinically relevant abnormalities, and they rarely prompt action. We propose that this diagnostic examination be abandoned in ICU patients.
Nordin, Anna; Theander, Kersti; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Nordström, Gun
Vitenskapelig, fagfellevurdert artikkel Many hospital patients are affected by adverse events. Managers are important when improving safety. The perception of patient safety culture varies among health care staff. Health care staff (n = 1023) working in medical, surgical or mixed medical-surgical health care divisions answered the 51 items (14 dimensions) Swedish Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (S-HSOPSC). Respondents with a managerial func- tion scored higher than non-managers f...
The literature suggests that acts of bullying are a root cause of new nurses leaving their units or the profession entirely and have the potential to worsen the nursing shortage. As an effective way to address bullying in the perioperative setting, mentoring benefits the nursing profession. Mentoring can have a direct influence on nurses' longevity in a health care organization, thereby strengthening the nursing workforce. Magnet-designated hospitals support the importance of mentor-mentee relationships for positive employee retention and positive recruitment outcomes. One of the most important tasks that a mentor should undertake is that of a role model. Establishing a culture of mentoring requires authentic leadership, genuine caring and respect for employees, and open communication. The entire nursing profession benefits from a culture of mentoring, as do the patients and families who receive care. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skou, Søren Thorgaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Laursen, Mogens Berg
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of a 12-week non-surgical treatment program with usual care in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) not eligible for total knee replacement (TKR). METHOD: This two-arm parallel group assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) included 100 adults from...... secondary care with knee OA, confirmed by radiography (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥1), but not eligible for a TKR. The 12-week non-surgical treatment program consisted of individualized progressed neuromuscular exercise, patient education, insoles, dietary advice and prescription of pain medication...... if indicated, while usual care comprised two leaflets with information and advice on knee OA and recommended treatments. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 12 months in the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)4 defined as the average score for the KOOS subscales of pain...
Kugar, Meredith A; Cohen, Adam C; Wooden, William; Tholpady, Sunil S; Chu, Michael W
Patient education is increasingly accessed with online resources and is essential for patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. The average American adult reads at a seventh grade level, and the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA) recommend that information be written at a sixth-grade reading level. Health literacy plays an important role in the disease course and outcomes of all patients, including those with depression and likely other psychiatric disorders, although this is an area in need of further study. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze written, online mental health resources on the Veterans Health Administration (VA) website, and other websites, using readability assessment instruments. An internet search was performed to identify written patient education information regarding mental health from the VA (the VA Mental Health Website) and top-rated psychiatric hospitals. Seven mental health topics were included in the analysis: generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse, and suicide. Readability analyses were performed using the Gunning Fog Index, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, the Coleman-Liau Index, the SMOG Readability Formula, and the Automated Readability Index. These scores were then combined into a Readability Consensus score. A two-tailed t-test was used to compare the mean values, and statistical significance was set at P readability consensus than six of the top psychiatric hospitals (P readability consensus for mental health information on all websites analyzed was 9.52. Online resources for mental health disorders are more complex than recommended by the NIH and AMA. Efforts to improve readability of mental health and psychosocial wellness resources could benefit patient understanding and outcomes, especially in patients with lower literacy. Surgical outcomes are correlated with patient mental
Kevin P Browne
Full Text Available The medical records of 19 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids were reviewed in an attempt to estimate their health care costs. The patients were all male, members of high risk groups and diagnosed between April 1985 and February 1988. Twelve of the patients died; they lived a mean of 240 days (range 0 to 580 after diagnosis, were admitted three times (range one to six to hospital for 65 total days (range one to 148 for a cost per patient of $33,721 (range $2,768 to $64,981 for inpatient care. They made five (range zero to 25 office visits per patient costing $196 per patient (range $0 to $4,999 for outpatient care. The seven survivors (one was lost to follow-up have lived 375 days (range 186 to 551 since diagnosis, have been admitted to hospital two times (range zero to seven for 30 total days (range zero to 86 for a total cost per patient of $14,223 (range $0 to $39,410 for inpatient care. They have made 11 office/emergency room visits (range zero to 46 costing in total $4322 (range $0 to $13,605 for outpatient care. The total expenditure was $546,332 ($28,754 per patient, of which total fees to physicians were $37,210 (6.8%, and estimated costs of laboratory tests $117,917 (21.6%, drugs $36,930 (6.7%, and medical imaging $20,794 (3.8%. Patients now deceased cost $416,445 (mean $34,704 per patient, accounting for 76.2% of overall expenditures. The average medical/surgical and drug costs per patient day in hospital were greater for aids patients than for the average medical/surgical patient in the authors’ institution.
Premkumar, Ajay; Ying, Xiaohan; Mack Hardaker, W; Massawe, Honest H; Mshahaba, David J; Mandari, Faiton; Pallangyo, Anthony; Temu, Rogers; Masenga, Gileard; Spiegel, David A; Sheth, Neil P
The global burden of musculoskeletal disease and resulting disability is enormous and is expected to increase over the next few decades. In the world's poorest regions, the paucity of information defining and quantifying the current state of access to orthopaedic surgical care is a major problem in developing effective solutions. This study estimates the number of individuals in Northern Tanzania without adequate access to orthopaedic surgical services. A chance tree was created to model the probability of access to orthopaedic surgical services in the Northern Tanzanian regions of Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Singida, and Manyara, with respect to four dimensions: timeliness, surgical capacity, safety, and affordability. Timeliness was estimated by the proportion of people living within a 4-h driving distance from a hospital with an orthopaedic surgeon, capacity by comparing number of surgeries performed to the number of surgeries indicated, safety by applying WHO Emergency and Essential Surgical Care infrastructure and equipment checklists, and affordability by approximating the proportion of the population protected from catastrophic out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. We accounted for uncertainty in our model with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Data sources included the Tanzanian National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Finance, World Bank, World Health Organization, New Zealand Ministry of Health, Google Corporation, NASA population estimator, and 2015 hospital records from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Machame Hospital, Nkoroanga Hospital, Mt. Meru Hospital, and Arusha Lutheran Medical Center. Under the most conservative assumptions, more than 90% of the Northern Tanzanian population does not have access to orthopaedic surgical services. There is a near absence of access to orthopaedic surgical care in Northern Tanzania. These findings utilize more precise country and region-specific data and are consistent with prior published
Matsumoto, Fumihiko; Mori, Taisuke; Matsumura, Satoko; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Fukasawa, Masahiko; Teshima, Masanori; Kobayashi, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Seiichi
Lymph node metastasis with extranodal extension represents one of the most important adverse prognostic factors for survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We propose that extranodal extension occurs to differing extents. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of extranodal extension in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Two hundred and ninety-eight patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who underwent surgical resection and neck dissection were included. Cervical lymph nodes were classified into four categories: (i) pathological N negative, (ii) extranodal extension negative, (iii) non-surgical extranodal extension and (iv) surgical extranodal extension. Lymph node metastases were detected in 67.1% of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer patients and 52.7% of oral cancer patients. The 3-year disease-specific survival rates for patients in the pathological N negative, extranodal extension negative, non-surgical extranodal extension and surgical extranodal extension groups were 90.9%, 79.6%, 63.8% and 48.3%, respectively. In laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer patients, surgical extranodal extension was associated with a significantly poorer disease-specific survival than a pathological N negative, extranodal extension negative or non-surgical extranodal extension status. In oral cancer patients, no significant differences were observed between the non-surgical and surgical extranodal extension groups. However, non-surgical extranodal extension was associated with a poorer disease-specific survival than a pathological N negative or extranodal extension negative status. Surgical extranodal extension was a poor prognostic factor in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The prognostic significance of surgical extranodal extension differed between laryngeal/hypopharyngeal and oral cancer patients. The clinical significance of surgical extranodal extension was much greater for
Sacks, Greg D; Lawson, Elise H; Dawes, Aaron J; Russell, Marcia M; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Zingmond, David S; Ko, Clifford Y
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services include patient experience as a core component of its Value-Based Purchasing program, which ties financial incentives to hospital performance on a range of quality measures. However, it remains unclear whether patient satisfaction is an accurate marker of high-quality surgical care. To determine whether hospital performance on a patient satisfaction survey is associated with objective measures of surgical quality. Retrospective observational study of participating American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS NSQIP) hospitals. We used data from a linked database of Medicare inpatient claims, ACS NSQIP, the American Hospital Association annual survey, and Hospital Compare from December 2, 2004, through December 31, 2008. A total of 103 866 patients older than 65 years undergoing inpatient surgery were included. Hospitals were grouped by quartile based on their performance on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey. Controlling for preoperative risk factors, we created hierarchical logistic regression models to predict the occurrence of adverse postoperative outcomes based on a hospital's patient satisfaction scores. Thirty-day postoperative mortality, major and minor complications, failure to rescue, and hospital readmission. Of the 180 hospitals, the overall mean patient satisfaction score was 68.0% (first quartile mean, 58.7%; fourth quartile mean, 76.7%). Compared with patients treated at hospitals in the lowest quartile, those at the highest quartile had significantly lower risk-adjusted odds of death (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99), failure to rescue (odds ratio = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96), and minor complication (odds ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99). This translated to relative risk reductions of 11.1% (P = .04), 12.6% (P = .02), and 11.5% (P = .04), respectively. No significant relationship was noted between patient satisfaction
McCaughan, Dorothy; Sheard, Laura; Cullum, Nicky; Dumville, Jo; Chetter, Ian
unrealistic, posing challenges for the clinicians caring for them. Participants expressed dissatisfaction with a perceived lack of continuity and consistency of care in relation to wound management. Surgical wounds healing by secondary intention can have a devastating effect on patients, both physical and psychosocial. Repercussions for patients' family members can also be extremely detrimental, including financial pressures. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with these wounds face multiple, complex challenges, compounded by the limited evidence base regarding cost-effectiveness of different treatment regimens for these types of wounds. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Beltran, Ralph J; Kako, Hiromi; Chovanec, Thomas; Ramesh, Archana; Bissonnette, Bruno; Tobias, Joseph D
First generation cephalosporins are commonly used as antibiotic prophylaxis prior to surgery. Patients labeled as penicillin-allergic are often precluded from receiving cephalosporins because of an allergic cross-reactivity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical practice for surgical prophylaxis at Nationwide Children's Hospital and to determine the incidence of adverse effects and allergic reactions when using cephalosporins in patients labeled as penicillin-allergic. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who were allergic to penicillin, penicillin antibiotic family, who required surgical treatment for an existing medical condition, and received an antibiotic to prevent surgical site infection. Five hundred thirteen penicillin-allergic patients were identified, encompassing 624 surgical cases. Cephalosporins were administered in 153 cases (24.5%) with cefazolin used 83% of the time. Only one documented case of nonanaphylactic reaction was reported. Clindamycin was the most common cephalosporin substitute (n=387), and the reported adverse reaction rate was 1.5%. No cases of anaphylaxis were documented. Our data suggest that the administration of cephalosporins for surgical prophylaxis following induction of anesthesia in a patient with a known or reported penicillin-allergy appears appropriate and results in a lower adverse event rate that when clindamycin is administered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohamed Samir Shaaban; Tamer Mohammed Abou Youssif; Ahmed Mostafa; Hossam Eldin Hegazy; Mohammed Adel Atta
Purpose: The study was designed to validate the value of preoperative planning using RENAL nephrometry scoring system in patients having organ confined renal tumors and undergoing surgical intervention and to assess its correlation with the surgical technique. Patient and methods: Forty patients with organ-confined renal masses underwent RENAL nephrometry scoring which was correlated with the surgical technique either radical or nephron-sparing surgery. Result: RENAL nephrometry scoring...
Anum Irfan Khan
Full Text Available Introduction: There has been a growing emphasis on the use of integrated care plans to deliver cancer care. However little is known about how integrated care plans for cancer patients are developed including featured core activities, facilitators for uptake and indicators for assessing impact. Methods: Given limited consensus around what constitutes an integrated care plan for cancer patients, a scoping review was conducted to explore the components of integrated care plans and contextual factors that influence design and uptake. Results: Five types of integrated care plans based on the stage of cancer care: surgical, systemic, survivorship, palliative and comprehensive (involving a transition between stages are described in current literature. Breast, esophageal and colorectal cancers were common disease sites. Multi-disciplinary teams, patient needs assessment and transitional planning emerged as key features. Provider buy-in and training alongside informational technology support served as important facilitators for plan uptake. Provider-level measurement was considerably less robust compared to patient and system-level indicators. Conclusions: Similarities in design features, components and facilitators across the various types of integrated care plans indicates opportunities to leverage shared features and enable a management lens that spans the trajectory of a patient’s journey rather than a phase-specific silo approach to care.
Gramlich, Leah M; Sheppard, Caroline E; Wasylak, Tracy; Gilmour, Loreen E; Ljungqvist, Olle; Basualdo-Hammond, Carlota; Nelson, Gregg
Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs have been shown to have a positive impact on outcome. The ERAS care system includes an evidence-based guideline, an implementation program, and an interactive audit system to support practice change. The purpose of this study is to describe the use of the Theoretic Domains Framework (TDF) in changing surgical care and application of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) model to analyze end-to-end implementation of ERAS in colorectal surgery across multiple sites within a single health system. The ultimate intent of this work is to allow for the development of a model for spread, scale, and sustainability of ERAS in Alberta Health Services (AHS). ERAS for colorectal surgery was implemented at two sites and then spread to four additional sites. The ERAS Interactive Audit System (EIAS) was used to assess compliance with the guidelines, length of stay, readmissions, and complications. Data sources informing knowledge translation included surveys, focus groups, interviews, and other qualitative data sources such as minutes and status updates. The QUERI model and TDF were used to thematically analyze 189 documents with 2188 quotes meeting the inclusion criteria. Data sources were analyzed for barriers or enablers, organized into a framework that included individual to organization impact, and areas of focus for guideline implementation. Compliance with the evidence-based guidelines for ERAS in colorectal surgery at baseline was 40%. Post implementation compliance, consistent with adoption of best practice, improved to 65%. Barriers and enablers were categorized as clinical practice (22%), individual provider (26%), organization (19%), external environment (7%), and patients (25%). In the Alberta context, 26% of barriers and enablers to ERAS implementation occurred at the site and unit levels, with a provider focus 26% of the time, a patient focus 26% of the time, and a system focus 22% of the time. Using the
Pitt, Henry A; Tsypenyuk, Ella; Freeman, Susan L; Carson, Steven R; Shinefeld, Jonathan A; Hinkle, Sally M; Powers, Benjamin D; Goldberg, Amy J; DiSesa, Verdi J; Kaiser, Larry R
Patient value (V) is enhanced when quality (Q) is increased and cost (C) is diminished (V = Q/C). However, calculating value has been inhibited by a lack of risk-adjusted cost data. The aim of this analysis was to measure patient value before and after implementation of quality improvement and cost reduction programs. Multidisciplinary efforts to improve patient value were initiated at a safety-net hospital in 2012. Quality improvement focused on adoption of multiple best practices, and minimizing practice variation was the strategy to control cost. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) risk-adjusted quality (patient mortality + safety + satisfaction + effectiveness) and cost (length of stay + direct cost) data were used to calculate patient value over 3 fiscal years. Normalized ranks in the UHC Quality and Accountability Scorecard were used in the value equation. For all hospital patients, quality scores improved from 50.3 to 66.5, with most of the change occurring in decreased mortality. Similar trends were observed for all surgery patients (42.6 to 48.4) and for general surgery patients (30.9 to 64.6). For all hospital patients, cost scores improved from 71.0 to 2.9. Similar changes were noted for all surgical (71.6 to 27.1) and general surgery (85.7 to 23.0) patients. Therefore, value increased more than 30-fold for all patients, 3-fold for all surgical patients, and almost 8-fold for general surgery patients. Multidisciplinary quality and cost efforts resulted in significant improvements in value for all hospitalized patients as well as general surgery patients. Mortality improved the most in general surgery patients, and satisfaction was highest among surgical patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hsia, Renee Y; Mbembati, Naboth A; Macfarlane, Sarah; Kruk, Margaret E
The effort to increase access to emergency and surgical care in low-income countries has received global attention. While most of the literature on this issue focuses on workforce challenges, it is critical to recognize infrastructure gaps that hinder the ability of health systems to make emergency and surgical care a reality. This study reviews key barriers to the provision of emergency and surgical care in sub-Saharan Africa using aggregate data from the Service Provision Assessments and Demographic and Health Surveys of five countries: Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. For hospitals and health centres, competency was assessed in six areas: basic infrastructure, equipment, medicine storage, infection control, education and quality control. Percentage of compliant facilities in each country was calculated for each of the six areas to facilitate comparison of hospitals and health centres across the five countries. The percentage of hospitals with dependable running water and electricity ranged from 22% to 46%. In countries analysed, only 19-50% of hospitals had the ability to provide 24-hour emergency care. For storage of medication, only 18% to 41% of facilities had unexpired drugs and current inventories. Availability of supplies to control infection and safely dispose of hazardous waste was generally poor (less than 50%) across all facilities. As few as 14% of hospitals (and as high as 76%) among those surveyed had training and supervision in place. No surveyed hospital had enough infrastructure to follow minimum standards and practices that the World Health Organization has deemed essential for the provision of emergency and surgical care. The countries where these hospitals are located may be representative of other low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the results suggest that increased attention to building up the infrastructure within struggling health systems is necessary for improvements in global access to medical care.
Johnson-Obaseki, Stephanie; Veljkovic, Andrea; Javidnia, Hedyeh
In the setting of critical care, the most common indications for tracheostomy include: prolonged intubation, to facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation, and for pulmonary toileting. In this setting, tracheostomy can be performed either via open surgical or percutaneous technique. Advantages for percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) include: simplicity, smaller incision, less tissue trauma, lower incidence of wound infection, lower incidence of peristomal bleeding, decreased morbidity from patient transfer, and cost-effectiveness. Despite many studies comparing surgical tracheostomy (ST) versus PDT, there remains no consensus on which of these techniques minimizes complications in critically ill patients. To provide an updated meta-analysis to answer the following question: Is there a difference in complication rates between ST and PDT in the setting of critically ill patients? Our secondary outcome of interest was to examine the difference in procedure time in the ST versus PDT groups. We conducted a literature search using the following databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Studies from 1985 until October 2014 published in French or English languages in peer-reviewed journals were included. With regard to rates of mortality, intraoperative hemorrhage, and postoperative hemorrhage, there was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques. Evaluation of infections rates and operative time, however, revealed a statistically significant difference, favoring PDT over ST. In critically ill patients, PDT appears to be a safe and efficient alternative to open ST. NA Laryngoscope, 126:2459-2467, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Ernesto Koehler Chavez
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess heart rhythm and predictive factors associated with sinus rhythm after one year in patients with rheumatic valve disease undergoing concomitant surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. Operative mortality, survival and occurrence of stroke after one year were also evaluated. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal observational study of 103 patients undergoing rheumatic mitral valve surgery and ablation of atrial fibrillation using uni- or bipolar radiofrequency between January 2013 and December 2014. Age, gender, functional class (NYHA, type of atrial fibrillation, EuroSCORE, duration of atrial fibrillation, stroke, left atrial size, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiopulmonary bypass time, myocardial ischemia time and type of radiofrequency were investigated. Results: After one year, 66.3% of patients were in sinus rhythm. Sinus rhythm at hospital discharge, lower left atrial size in the preoperative period and bipolar radiofrequency were associated with a greater chance of sinus rhythm after one year. Operative mortality was 7.7%. Survival rate after one year was 92.3% and occurrence of stroke was 1%. Conclusion: Atrial fibrillation ablation surgery with surgical approach of rheumatic mitral valve resulted in 63.1% patients in sinus rhythm after one year. Discharge from hospital in sinus rhythm was a predictor of maintenance of this rhythm. Increased left atrium and use of unipolar radiofrequency were associated with lower chance of sinus rhythm. Operative mortality rate of 7.7% and survival and stroke-free survival contribute to excellent care results for this approach.
Conclusions: Prevalence of hyponatremia is significant in palliative care patients. A prospective study looking at the causes and clinical outcomes associated with hyponatremia in palliative care patients is needed.
Fitzmaurice, Gerard J; Brown, Robin; Cranley, Brian; Conlon, Enda F; Todd, R Alan J; O'Donnell, Mark E
Radiological investigations have become a key adjunct in patient management and consequently radiation exposure to patients is increasing. The study objectives were to examine the use of radiological investigations in the management of acute surgical patients and to assess whether a guideline-based radiation exposure risk/benefit analysis can aid in the choice of radiological investigation used. A prospective observational study was completed over a 12-week period from April to July 2008 for all acute surgical admissions. Data recorded included demographics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, investigations, surgical interventions, and final clinical outcome. The use of radiological investigative modalities as an adjunct to clinical assessment was then evaluated against The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines. A total of 380 acute surgical admissions (M = 174, F = 185, children = 21) were assessed during the study period. Seven hundred thirty-four radiological investigations were performed with a mean of 1.93 investigations per patient. Based on the RCR guidelines, 680 (92.6%) radiological investigations were warranted and included 142 CT scans (19.3%), 129 chest X-rays (17.6%), and 85 abdominal X-rays (11.6%). Clinically, radiological imaging complemented surgical management in 326 patients (85.8%) and the management plan remained unchanged for the remaining 54 patients (14.2%). This accounted for an average radiation dose of 4.18 millisievert (mSv) per patient or 626 days of background radiation exposure. CT imaging was responsible for the majority of the radiation exposure, with a total of 1310 mSv (82.6%) of the total radiation exposure being attributed to CT imaging in 20.8% of acute admissions. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that 92.8% of the CT scans performed were appropriate. Radiation exposure was generally low for the majority of acute surgical admissions. However, it is recommended that CT imaging requests be evaluated carefully
Filho, Gerardo Maria de Araújo; Mazetto, Lenon; Gomes, Francinaldo Lobato; Marinho, Murilo Martinez; Tavares, Igor Melo; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas
Psychiatric outcomes of patients submitted to epilepsy surgery have gained particular interest given the high prevalence of pre-surgical psychiatric disorders (PD) in this population. The present study aimed to verify the possible pre-surgical predictors for psychiatric disorders following epilepsy surgery in a homogeneous series of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS). Data from 115 TLE-MTS patients (65 females; 56.5%) who underwent cortico-amygdalohippocampectomy were included. Pre- and post-surgical psychiatric evaluations were performed using DSM-IV criteria. Pre-surgical PD - particularly mood, anxiety and psychotic disorders - were diagnosed in 47 patients (40.8%). Twenty-seven patients (54% of those with pre-surgical PD) demonstrated a remission of psychiatric symptoms on post-surgical psychiatric evaluation. Eleven patients (9.6%) developed de novo PD. The presence of pre-surgical depression (OR=3.32; p=0.008), pre-surgical interictal psychosis (OR=4.39; p=0.009) and epileptiform discharges contralateral to the epileptogenic zone (OR=2.73; p=0.01) were risk factors associated with post-surgical PD. Although epilepsy surgery is considered to be the best treatment option for patients with refractory TLE-MTS, the relatively high psychiatric comorbidities observed in surgical candidates and their possible negative impact on post-surgical outcomes require a careful pre-surgical evaluation of clinical, sociodemographic and psychiatric factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maldonado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Cajigas-Feliciano, Yanniris; Torres-Torres, Nancy
Diabetes predisposes patients to multiple complications, such as osteomyelitis, which, if not managed adequately, may result in amputation, sepsis, or death. This study aimed to compare the rates of amputation associated with two different treatment plans for osteomyelitis being utilized with a group of Puerto Ricans with diabetes. We reviewed the medical records of adult patients with diabetes and osteomyelitis who had been admitted to a community hospital within a two-year timeframe; a total of 169 records were reviewed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, odds ratios, and multivariate logistic regression to compare the amputation rate of patients receiving conservative management (antibiotics and/or local care alone) with that of patients receiving combined surgical treatment (any modality consisting of an initial surgical treatment plus antibiotics and/or local care). We found a general amputation rate of 34.5%. Amputation was less likely in patients undergoing combined surgical treatment (OR: 0.22; 95% IC: 0.08-0.59) than it was in those patients whose disease management was conservative. In addition, men (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.04-4.23) and non-geriatric patients (OR: 3.38; 95% CI: 1.65-6.94) had higher probabilities of amputation than did women and geriatric patients, respectively. This study revealed an amputation rate among patients with diabetes that is higher than that reported in the United States (34.5% vs. 11.0% to 20.0%). We also found that the probability of amputation secondary to osteomyelitis among patients with diabetes is two times higher for men and three times higher for non-geriatric patients; combined surgical treatment was associated with a significant reduction (78%) of the probability of amputation.
Mangiante, Gerardo; Padoan, Roberto; Mengardo, Valentina; Bencivenga, Maria; de Manzoni, Giovanni
The acute abdomen (AA) still remains a challenging situation for surgeons. New pathological conditions have been imposed to our attention in this field in recent years. The definition of abdominal compartmental syndrome (ACS) in surgical practice and the introduction of new biological matrices, with the concepts of tension-free (TS) repair of incisional hernias, prompted us to set up new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with AA. Thus we reviewed the cases of AA that we observed in recent years in which we performed a laparostomy in order to prevent or to treat an ACS. They are all cases of acute abdomen (AA), but from different origin, including chronic diseases, as in the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and acute pancreatitis. In all the cases, the open abdominal cavity was covered with a polyethylene sheet. The edges of the wound were sutured to the plastic sheet, and a traction exerted by a device that causes a negative pressure was added. This method was adopted in several cases without randomization, and resulted in excellent patient's outcomes. Abdominal compartmental syndrome, Acute abdomen, Laparostomy.
Hendershot, Kimberly M; Bollins, John P; Armen, Scott B; Thomas, Yalaunda M; Steinberg, Steven M; Cook, Charles H
To efficiently capture evaluation and management (E&M) and procedural billing in our surgical intensive care unit (SICU), we have developed an electronic billing system that links to the electronic medical record (EMR). In this system, only notes electronically signed and coded by an attending generate billing charges. We hypothesized that capture of missed billing during nighttime and weekends might be sufficient to subsidize 24/7 in-house attending coverage. A retrospective chart EMR review was performed of the EMRs for all SICU patients during a 2-month period. Note type, date, time, attending signature, and coding were analyzed. Notes without attending signature, diagnosis, or current procedural terminology (CPT) code were considered incomplete and identified as "missed billing." Four hundred and forty-three patients had 465 admissions generating 2,896 notes. Overall, 76% of notes were signed and coded by an attending and billed. Incomplete (not billed) notes represented an overall missed billing opportunity of $159,138 for the 2-month time period (approximately $954,000 annually). Unbilled E&M encounters during weekdays totaled $54,758, whereas unbilled E&M and procedures from weeknights and weekends totaled $88,408 ($44,566 and $43,842, respectively). Missed billing after-hours thus represents approximately $530K annually, extrapolating to approximately $220K in collections from our payer mix. Surprisingly, missed E&M and procedural billing during weekdays totaled $70,730 (approximately $425K billing, approximately $170K collections annually), and typically represented patients seen, but transferred from the SICU before attending documentation was completed. Capture of nighttime and weekend ICU collections alone may be insufficient to add faculty or incentivize in-house coverage, but could certainly complement other in-house derived revenues to such ends. In addition, missed daytime billing in busy modern ICUs can be substantial, and use of an EMR to identify
Bacon, Cynthia Thornton; Mark, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between hospital context, nursing unit structure, and patient characteristics and patients' satisfaction with nursing care in hospitals. Although patient satisfaction has been widely researched, our understanding of the relationship between hospital context and nursing unit structure and their impact on patient satisfaction is limited. The data source for this study was the Outcomes Research in Nursing Administration Project, a multisite organizational study conducted to investigate relationships among nurse staffing, organizational context and structure, and patient outcomes. The sample for this study was 2,720 patients and 3,718 RNs in 286 medical-surgical units in 146 hospitals. Greater availability of nursing unit support services and higher levels of work engagement were associated with higher levels of patient satisfaction. Older age, better health status, and better symptom management were also associated with higher levels of patient satisfaction. Organizational factors in hospitals and nursing units, particularly support services on the nursing unit and mechanisms that foster nurses' work engagement and effective symptom management, are important influences on patient satisfaction.
Patil, Nivritti G; Cheng, Stephen W K; Wong, John
Recent high-profile cases have heightened the need for a formal structure to monitor achievement and maintenance of surgical competence. Logbooks, morbidity and mortality meetings, videos and direct observation of operations using a checklist, motion analysis devices, and virtual reality simulators are effective tools for teaching and evaluating surgical skills. As the operating theater is also a place for training, there must be protocols and guidelines, including mandatory standards for supervision, to ensure that patient care is not compromised. Patients appreciate frank communication and honesty from surgeons regarding their expertise and level of competence. To ensure that surgical competence is maintained and keeps pace with technologic advances, professional registration bodies have been promoting programs for recertification. They evaluate performance in practice, professional standing, and commitment to ongoing education.
Faeda, Marília Silveira; Perroca, Márcia Galan
analyze agreement between nursing prescriptions recorded in medical files and patients' care needs; investigate the correlation between the nurses' professional background and agreement of prescriptions. descriptive study with quantitative and documentary approach conducted in the medical clinic, surgical, and specialized units of a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The new validated version of a Patient Classification Instrument was used and 380 nursing prescriptions written at the times of hospital admission and discharge were assessed. 75% of the nursing prescriptions items were compatible with the patients' care needs. Only low correlation between nursing prescription agreement and professional background was found. the nursing prescriptions did not fully meet the care needs of patients. The care context and work process should be analyzed to enable more effective prescriptions, while strategies to assess the care needs of patients are recommended. analisar a concordância entre prescrições de enfermagem, registradas nos prontuários, e as necessidades de cuidados dos pacientes; investigar a correlação entre o perfil profissional dos enfermeiros e a concordância das prescrições. estudo descritivo com abordagem quantitativa e documental, realizado em unidades de clínica médica, cirúrgica e especializada de um hospital de ensino, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Foi aplicada a nova versão validada do Instrumento de Classificação de Pacientes e, posteriormente, investigadas 380 prescrições de enfermagem no momento da admissão e alta hospitalar. foi identificado que 75% dos itens das prescrições de enfermagem estavam compatíveis com as necessidades cuidativas dos pacientes. Encontrou-se baixa correlação entre a concordância da prescrição de enfermagem e o perfil profissional. as prescrições de enfermagem não estão sendo realizadas, em sua totalidade, em consonância com as necessidades dos pacientes. Para
Schonberger, Robert B; Barash, Paul G; Lagasse, Robert S
Since 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) has promoted 3 perioperative antibiotic recommendations designed to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections. Despite good evidence for the efficacy of these recommendations, the efforts of SCIP have not measurably improved the rates of surgical site infections. We offer 3 arguments as to why SCIP has fallen short of expectations. We then suggest a reorientation of quality improvement efforts to focus less on reporting, and incentivizing adherence to imperfect metrics, and more on creating local and regional quality collaboratives to educate clinicians about how to improve practice. Ultimately, successful quality improvement projects are behavioral interventions that will only succeed to the degree that they motivate individual clinicians, practicing within a particular context, to do the difficult work of identifying failures and iteratively working toward excellence.
Rodrigues, Jussara Aparecida Souza do Nascimento; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito
to analyze the occurrence and predisposing factors for surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation, evaluating the relationship between cases of infections and the variables related to the patient and the surgical procedure. retrospective cohort study, with review of the medical records of patients older than 18 years submitted to heart transplantation. The correlation between variables was evaluated by using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. the sample consisted of 86 patients, predominantly men, with severe systemic disease, submitted to extensive preoperative hospitalizations. Signs of surgical site infection were observed in 9.3% of transplanted patients, with five (62.5%) superficial incisional, two (25%) deep and one (12.5%) case of organ/space infection. There was no statistically significant association between the variables related to the patient and the surgery. there was no association between the studied variables and the cases of surgical site infection, possibly due to the small number of cases of infection observed in the sample investigated. analisar a ocorrência e os fatores predisponentes para infecção de sítio cirúrgico em pacientes submetidos a transplante cardíaco e verificar a relação entre os casos de infecção e as variáveis referentes ao paciente e ao procedimento cirúrgico. estudo de coorte retrospectivo, com exame dos prontuários médicos de pacientes maiores de 18 anos, submetidos a transplante cardíaco. A correlação entre variáveis foi realizada por meio dos testes exato de Fischer e de Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon. a amostra foi constituída por 86 pacientes, predominantemente homens, com doença sistêmica grave, submetidos a internações pré-operatórias extensas. Apresentaram sinais de infecção do sítio cirúrgico 9,3% dos transplantados, sendo cinco (62,5%) incisionais superficiais, duas (25%) profundas e um (12,5%) caso de infecção de órgão/espaço. Não houve associa
Ellison, S; Lamb, J; Haines, A; O'Dell, S; Thomas, G; Sethi, S; Ratcliffe, J; Chisholm, S; Vaughan, J; Mahadevan, V S
Surgical and other advances in the treatment and care of congenital heart disease have resulted in a significant increase in the number of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD), many of whom have no regular cardiology follow-up. Optimised care for ACHD patients requires continuity of specialist and shared care and education of practitioners and patients. The challenges for managing ACHD were identified by a Health Needs Assessment in the North West and are addressed within the UK Department of Health's ACHD Commissioning Guide. An ACHD model of care was recommended in the North West of England and developed by the three North West Cardiac & Stroke Networks. Within this, a Task Group focused on the role of primary care in the identification and continuing care of ACHD patients. A feasibility study demonstrated that existing diagnostic Read Codes can identify ACHD patients on general practice registers. An ACHD Toolkit was developed to provide algorithms to guide the appropriate management of ACHD patients through primary, secondary and/or specialist ACHD care and to improve education/knowledge amongst primary care staff about ACHD and its wider implications. Early findings during the development of this Toolkit illustrate a wide disparity of provision between current and optimal management strategies. Patients lost to follow-up have already been identified and their management modified. By focusing on identifying ACHD patients in primary care and organising/delivering ACHD services, the ACHD Toolkit could help to improve quality, timeliness of care, patient experience and wellbeing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A total of 50 children (mean age 7, range 2-12 years), undergoing minor to major surgical operations were evaluated for hormonal changes induced by anaesthesia 15 hormones i.e. GH, ACTH, OH, FISH, TSH, PTH, FT4, T3, prolactin, insulin estradiol, testosterone, aldosterone, progesterone, and cortisol were studies results obtained showed significant increase in the levels of GH, cortisol, aldosterone, prolactin, progesterone, and PTH at the time of induction of anaesthesia. Of these GH, prolactin and aldosterone levels showed further increase during surgery (maintenance of anaesthesia). Values of TSH, LH, FSH, FT4 and testosterone levels remained essentially unaffected at induction of anaesthesia, but showed significant rise during surgery (maintenance of anaesthesia). Serum levels of ACTH, insulin, estradiol, and T3 were basically unaffected by anaesthesia and surgery. Furthermore, increase in cortisol and PTH levels was more prominent in patients anaesthetized with halothane alone. In this group ACTH level recorded a decrease while in thiopentone, halothane+nitrous oxide anaesthesia group ACTH showed a significantly rise. Growth hormone and insulin response was significantly more prominent in patients undergoing major surgery as compared to others. These findings under score the importance of stress response resulting from general anaesthesia and surgical trauma in children, and brings into focus the need of careful pre and post operative monitoring of patients in this age group. (author)
Tanaka, Hideharu; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Yamaguti, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Syoichiro; Goto, Hideaki; Matsuda, Hiroharu; Shimazaki, Syuji
We compared the clinical efficacy of surgical stabilization and internal pneumatic stabilization in severe flail chest patients who required prolonged ventilatory support. Thirty-seven consecutive severe flail chest patients who required mechanical ventilation were enrolled in this study. All the patients received identical respiratory management, including end-tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, continuous epidural anesthesia, analgesia, bronchoscopic aspiration, postural drainage, and pulmonary hygiene. At 5 days after injury, surgical stabilization with Judet struts (S group, n = 18) or internal pneumatic stabilization (I group, n = 19) was randomly assigned. Most respiratory management was identical between the two groups except the surgical procedure. Statistical analysis using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test was used to compare the groups. Age, sex, Injury Severity Score, chest Abbreviated Injury Score, number of rib fractures, severity of lung contusion, and Pao2/Fio2 ratio at admission were all equivalent in the two groups. The S group showed a shorter ventilatory period (10.8 +/- 3.4 days) than the I group (18.3 +/- 7.4 days) (p < 0.05), shorter intensive care unit stay (S group, 16.5 +/- 7.4 days; I group, 26.8 +/- 13.2 days; p < 0.05), and lower incidence of pneumonia (S group, 24%; I group, 77%; p < 0.05). Percent forced vital capacity was higher in the S group at 1 month and thereafter (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients who had returned to full-time employment at 6 months was significantly higher in the S group (11 of 18) than in the I group (1 of 19). This study proved that in severe flail chest patients, surgical stabilization using Judet struts has beneficial effects with respect to less ventilatory support, lower incidence of pneumonia, shorter trauma intensive care unit stay, and reduced medical cost than internal fixation. Moreover, surgical stabilization with Judet struts improved percent forced vital capacity from the
Laflamme, Maxime; Perrault, Louis P; Carrier, Michel; Elmi-Sarabi, Mahsa; Fortier, Annik; Denault, André Y
To retrospectively evaluate the effects of combined inhaled prostacyclin and milrinone to reduce the severity of pulmonary hypertension when administered prior to cardiopulmonary bypass. Retrospective case control analysis of high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Single cardiac center. Sixty one adult cardiac surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension, 40 of whom received inhalation therapy. Inhaled milrinone and inhaled prostacyclin were administered before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Administration of both inhaled prostacyclin and milrinone was associated with reductions in central venous pressure, and mean pulmonary artery pressure, increases in cardiac index, heart rate, and the mean arterial-to-mean pulmonary artery pressure ratio (p milrinone before CPB was associated with a reduction in the severity of pulmonary hypertension. In addition, a significant reduction in vasoactive support in the intensive care unit during the first 24 hours after cardiac surgery was observed. The impact of this strategy on postoperative survival needs to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kork, Felix; Balzer, Felix; Spies, Claudia D.; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Ginde, Adit A.; Jankowski, Joachim; Eltzschig, Holger K.
Background Surgical patients frequently experience postoperative increases in creatinine levels. The authors hypothesized that even small increases in postoperative creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Methods The authors examined the association of postoperative changes from preoperative baseline creatinine with all-cause in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay (HLOS) in a retrospective analysis of surgical patients at a single tertiary care center between January 2006 and June 2012. Results The data of 39,369 surgical patients (noncardiac surgery n = 37,345; cardiac surgery n = 2,024) were analyzed. Acute kidney injury (AKI)—by definition of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome group—was associated with a five-fold higher mortality (odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% CI, 4.1 to 5.7; P creatinine, exposure to radiocontrast agent, type of surgery, and surgical AKI risk factors. Importantly, even minor creatinine increases (Δcreatinine 25 to 49% above baseline but creatinine increases had a five-fold risk of death (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 20.3; P creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. These results emphasize the importance to find effective therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat even mild forms of postoperative kidney dysfunction to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:26492475
Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM is rapidly gaining acceptance in the healthcare sector. Three-dimensional (3D virtual surgical planning, fabrication of anatomical models, and patient-specific implants (PSI are well-established processes in the surgical fields. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK has been used, mainly in the reconstructive surgeries as a reliable alternative to other alloplastic materials for the fabrication of PSI. Recently, it has become possible to fabricate PEEK PSI with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF technology. 3D printing of PEEK using FFF allows construction of almost any complex design geometry, which cannot be manufactured using other technologies. In this study, we fabricated various PEEK PSI by FFF 3D printer in an effort to check the feasibility of manufacturing PEEK with 3D printing. Based on these preliminary results, PEEK can be successfully used as an appropriate biomaterial to reconstruct the surgical defects in a “biomimetic” design.
Honigmann, Philipp; Sharma, Neha; Okolo, Brando; Popp, Uwe; Msallem, Bilal; Thieringer, Florian M
Additive manufacturing (AM) is rapidly gaining acceptance in the healthcare sector. Three-dimensional (3D) virtual surgical planning, fabrication of anatomical models, and patient-specific implants (PSI) are well-established processes in the surgical fields. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been used, mainly in the reconstructive surgeries as a reliable alternative to other alloplastic materials for the fabrication of PSI. Recently, it has become possible to fabricate PEEK PSI with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technology. 3D printing of PEEK using FFF allows construction of almost any complex design geometry, which cannot be manufactured using other technologies. In this study, we fabricated various PEEK PSI by FFF 3D printer in an effort to check the feasibility of manufacturing PEEK with 3D printing. Based on these preliminary results, PEEK can be successfully used as an appropriate biomaterial to reconstruct the surgical defects in a "biomimetic" design.
T B Singh
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in hospitalized patients. There are few comparative studies on hospital-acquired AKI (HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU patients. This study was conducted to compare the epidemiological characteristics, clinical profiles, and outcomes of HAAKI among these three units. All adult patients (>18 years of either gender who developed AKI based on RIFLE criteria (using serum creatinine, 48 h after hospitalization were included in the study. Patients of acute on chronic renal failure and AKI in pregnancy were excluded. Incidence of HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU wards were 0.54%, 0.72%, and 2.2% respectively ( P < 0.0001. There was no difference in age distribution among the groups, but onset of HAAKI was earliest in the medical ward ( P = 0.001. RIFLE-R was the most common AKI in medical (39.2% and ICU (50% wards but in the surgical ward, it was RIFLE-F that was most common (52.6%. Acute tubular necrosis was more common in ICU ( P = 0.043. Most common etiology of HAAKI in medical unit was drug induced (39.2%, whereas in surgical and ICU, it was sepsis (34% and 35.2% respectively. Mortality in ICU, surgical and medical units were 73.5%, 43.42%, and 37.2%, respectively ( P = 0.003. Length of hospital stay in surgical, ICU and medical units were different ( P = 0.007. This study highlights that the characters of HAAKI are different in some aspects among different hospital settings.
Anderson, Deverick J.; Podgorny, Kelly; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I.; Bratzler, Dale W.; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Greene, Linda; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Saiman, Lisa; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Maragakis, Lisa L.; Kaye, Keith S.
PURPOSE Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,”1 published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.2 PMID:24799638
Full Text Available Does the Finneson-Cooper score reflect the true value of predicting surgical success before discectomy? The aim of this study was to identify reliable predictors for surgical success two year after surgery for patients with LDH. Prospective analysis of 154 patients with LDH who underwent single-level lumbar discectomy was performed. Pre- and post-surgical success was assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI over a 2-year period. The Finneson-Cooper score also was used for evaluation of the clinical results. Using the ODI, surgical success was defined as a 30% (or more improvement on the ODI score from the baseline. The ODI was considered the gold standard in this study. Finally, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power of the Finneson-Cooper score in predicting surgical success were calculated. The mean age of the patients was 49.6 (SD = 9.3 years and 47.4% were male. Significant improvement from the pre- to post-operative ODI scores was observed (P < 0.001. Post-surgical success was 76.0% (n = 117. The patients' rating on surgical success assessments by the ODI discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed with respect to the Finneson-Cooper score. Regarding patients' surgical success, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the Finneson-Cooper ratings correlated with success rate. The findings indicated that the Finneson-Cooper score was reflective of surgical success before discectomy.
Fogel, Sandy L; Baker, Christopher C
The use of computerized decision support systems (CDSS) in glucose control for critically ill surgical patients has been reported in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Prospective studies evaluating its effect on glucose control are, however, lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate patient-specific computerized IV insulin dosing on blood glucose levels (BGLs) by comparing patients treated pre-CDSS with those treated post-CDSS. A prospective study was performed in 4 surgical ICUs and 1 progressive care unit comparing patient data pre- and post-implementation of CDSS. The primary outcomes measures were the impact of the CDSS on glycemic control in this population and on reducing the incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Data on 1,682 patient admissions were evaluated, which corresponded to 73,290 BGLs post-CDSS compared with 44,972 BGLs pre-CDSS. The percentage of hyperglycemic events improved, with BGLs of >150 mg/dL decreasing by 50% compared with 6-month historical controls during the 18-month study period from July 2010 through December 2011. This was true for all 5 units individually (p < 0.0001, by one sample sign test). In addition, severe hypoglycemia (defined as BGL <40 mg/dL) decreased from 1% to 0.05% after implementing CDSS (p < 0.0001 by 2-sided binomial test). Patients whose BGLs were managed using CDSS were statistically significantly more likely to have a glucose reading under control (<150 mg/dL) than in the 6-month historical controls and to avoid serious hypoglycemia (p < 0.0001). Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jie, Bin; Jiang, Zhu-Ming; Nolan, Marie T
This multicenter, prospective cohort study evaluated the effect of preoperative nutritional support in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk as defined by the Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002).......This multicenter, prospective cohort study evaluated the effect of preoperative nutritional support in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk as defined by the Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002)....
Frid, I.A.; Berntstejn, M.I.; Evtyukhin, A.I.; Shul'ga, N.I.
The functional state of the adrenal glands during surgical and combinated treatment was examined in 38 radically operated patients with pulmonary cancer. Irradiation of lung cancer patients was found to stimulate the adrenal glands activity followed by reduction of their potentialities, manifested in a less marked increase of the catecholamines level and decreased 11-OCS level in blood during surgical treatment
Reardon, Michael J; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Popma, Jeffrey J
BACKGROUND: Although transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is an accepted alternative to surgery in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk, less is known about comparative outcomes among patients with aortic stenosis who are at intermediate surgical risk. METHO...
Ernst, Katherine M; McComb, Sara A; Ley, Cathaleen
To qualitatively investigate the medical-surgical nurse shift handoff as a process within the workflow of the exchanging nurses. Specifically, this study sought to identify the ideal handoff, ways the handoff deviated from ideal, and subsequent effect on nursing care. The functions as well as information content of the handoff have been studied. However, typical studies look at the handoff as an isolated activity utilising nurse perceptions as the primary measure of quality. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted to discuss nurses' perspectives on ideal handoffs, ways handoffs deviate from the ideal including frequent and significant deviations and the effects on subsequent care. Twenty-one medical-surgical nurses participated in one of five audio-taped focus group sessions. Three sessions were conducted at hospital A; two sessions at unaffiliated hospital B. The general inductive approach was used to analyse verbatim transcripts. Transcript segments relevant for answering the research questions were coded as ideal or not ideal. Conceptual themes were then developed. Two major themes were identified: teams/teamwork and constructing and communicating a shared understanding of the patients' conditions. The importance of nurse preparatory activities was revealed including the incoming nurses reading patients' health records and outgoing nurses rounding on patients. The impact of shared expectations was identified across the team, where teams include, in addition to the two nurses, the electronic health record, other hospital staff and patients/families with a bedside handoff. New potential nurse-centred process and outcome measures were proposed. Evaluating handoffs by their effect on the nursing performance both during and after the handoff offers a new framework to objectively assess handoff effectiveness. The handoff is a process which may significantly affect the incoming nurse's transition into and administration of nursing care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons
Gemmill, Robin; Kravits, Kathy; Ortiz, Mildred; Anderson, Casandra; Lai, Lily; Grant, Marcia
For most patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, dealing with the adjustment and rehabilitation after treatment can be overwhelming. There is a significant need for expert educational and counseling support, especially for the patient with a new ostomy. This pilot study describes acute care oncology staff nurses' knowledge about and attitudes toward providing direct ostomy care support and education. This study is part of a larger project assessing gaps in education and services in support of patients with colorectal cancer. The Survey on Ostomy Care questionnaire designed to assess nurses' knowledge about and attitudes toward ostomy care was administered to oncology staff nurses at a comprehensive cancer center. Only 30% of staff nurses surveyed strongly agreed or agreed with the statement, "I care for ostomy patients often enough to keep up my skills in ostomy care." Maintaining staff nurses' ability to teach and demonstrate to patients complex care such as ostomy care depends on the ability to practice both education and hands-on skills. Staff nurses identify that lack of opportunity to care for the new ostomy patient influences their ability to maintain skill expertise. The results show the need to explore the provision of ongoing staff education for low-volume patient populations using creative teaching strategies, such as clinical simulation and short videos. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Miles, Anna; McLellan, Naomi; Machan, Rochelle; Vokes, David; Hunting, Alexandra; McFarlane, Mary; Holmes, Jennifer; Lynn, Kelly
Cardiothoracic surgery is known to result in dysphagia and laryngeal injury. While prevalence has been explored, extent, trajectory and longevity of symptoms are poorly understood. This retrospective, observational study explored dysphagia and laryngeal injury in patients following cardiothoracic surgery referred for instrumental swallowing assessment. Clinical notes and endoscopic recordings of 106 patients (age range 18-87yrs; mean 63yrs; SD 15yrs) (including 190 endoscopes) at one large tertiary centre were reviewed by two speech-language pathologists and a laryngologist. Standardized measures of laryngeal anatomy and physiology, New Zealand Secretion Scale, Penetration-Aspiration scale and Yale Residue Scale were rated. Prevalence of abnormality included 39% silent aspiration, 65% laryngeal edema and 61% vocal paralysis. The incidence of pneumonia was 36% with a post-operative stroke rate of 14%. Forty percent of patients were receiving a standard diet by discharge from acute care; while, 24% continued to require enteral feeding and 8% received laryngeal surgery within twelve months of discharge. Vocal fold motion impairment was significantly associated with ventilation time and tracheostomy tube duration (pdysphagia and laryngeal injury in patients following cardiothoracic surgery may allow early management and prevention of secondary complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Egerod, Ingrid; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Berit
: Nordic intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS: Patients in Nordic intensive care units. METHODS: We performed a literature search of qualitative studies of the patient experience of intensive care based on Nordic publications in 2000-2013. We searched the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Psyc...
Zahoor, B A; Piercey, J E; Wall, D R; Tetsworth, K D
Mucormycosis as a consequence of trauma is a devastating complication; these infections are challenging to control, with a fatality rate approaching 96% in immunocompromised patients. We present a case where a proactive approach was successfully employed to treat mucormycosis following complex polytrauma. Aggressive repeated surgical debridement, in combination with appropriate antifungal therapy, proved successful in this instance. In our opinion, mucormycosis in trauma mandates an aggressive surgical approach. This prevents ascending dissemination of mucormycosis and certainly reduces the risk of patient mortality as a direct result. Anti-fungal therapy should be used secondarily as an adjunct together with surgical debridement, or as an alternative when surgical intervention is not feasible.
Tran Dinh Ha; Szilvasi, J.
Results of the radioisotope esophageal motility studies in patients after surgical treatment of achalasia are presented. 28 patients were studied. In both group of the patients (after Belsey-Mark and modified Nissen antireflux surgical techniques) slightly delayed esophageal transit time was found. Mean transit time of the esophagus proved to be a useful practical parameter. This simple, noninvasive, physiological radioisotope technique is recommended for follow-up studies of patients after gastroesophageal surgery. (N.T.). 10 refs., 2 figs
Ohnuma, Tetsu; Shinjo, Daisuke; Brookhart, Alan M; Fushimi, Kiyohide
Reducing the 30-day unplanned hospital readmission rate is a goal for physicians and policymakers in order to improve quality of care. However, data on the readmission rate of critically ill patients in Japan and knowledge of the predictors associated with readmission are lacking. We investigated predictors associated with 30-day rehospitalization for medical and surgical adult patients separately. Patient data from 502 acute care hospitals with intensive care unit (ICU) facilities in Japan were retrospectively extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) database between April 2012 and February 2014. Factors associated with unplanned hospital readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge among medical and surgical ICU survivors were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 486,651 ICU survivors, we identified 5583 unplanned hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge following 147,423 medical hospitalizations (3.8% readmitted) and 11,142 unplanned readmissions after 339,228 surgical hospitalizations (3.3% readmitted). The majority of unplanned hospital readmissions, 60.9% of medical and 63.1% of surgical case readmissions, occurred within 15 days of discharge. For both medical and surgical patients, the Charlson comorbidity index score; category of primary diagnosis during the index admission (respiratory, gastrointestinal, and metabolic and renal); hospital length of stay; discharge to skilled nursing facilities; and having received a packed red blood cell transfusion, low-dose steroids, or renal replacement therapy were significantly associated with higher unplanned hospital readmission rates. From patient data extracted from a large Japanese national database, the 30-day unplanned hospital readmission rate after ICU stay was 3.4%. Further studies are required to improve readmission prediction models and to develop targeted interventions for high-risk patients.
Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals experience significant health disparities. They are more likely to use drugs and alcohol, smoke, be diagnosed with HIV infection or other sexually transmitted infections, and experience depression or attempt suicide. Many also experience discrimination within the health care system. Office-level strategies to create a safe and affirming space for gender-expansive patients include posting of a nondiscrimination statement, use of intake forms that ask about current gender identity and birth-assigned sex, provision of gender-neutral restrooms, and staff training in use of appropriate language. Hormone or surgical therapy can be initiated for patients with persistent gender dysphoria who are of age and have the capacity to make informed decisions, and have reasonable control of coexisting medical and psychiatric conditions. Estrogens, antiandrogens, and progestins are used for feminization, and testosterone for masculinization. Hormone treatment should be followed by careful monitoring for potential adverse effects. Surgical options include male-to-female and female-to-male procedures. The family physician may need to provide a referral letter, preoperative and postoperative examinations and care, and advocacy with health insurance providers. Preventive care for transgender patients includes counseling for cardiovascular health, cancer screening, provision of appropriate contraception, and screening for sexually transmitted infections. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Prins, M.A.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Meer, K. van der; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bensing, J.M.
Many anxiety and depression patients receive no care, resulting in unnecessary suffering and high costs. Specific beliefs and the absence of a perceived need for care are major reasons for not receiving care. This study aims to determine the specific perceived need for care in primary care patients
Clarke, D L; Kong, V Y; Naidoo, L C; Furlong, H; Aldous, C
Acute surgical patients are particularly vulnerable to human error. The Acute Physiological Support Team (APST) was created with the twin objectives of identifying high-risk acute surgical patients in the general wards and reducing both the incidence of error and impact of error on these patients. A number of error taxonomies were used to understand the causes of human error and a simple risk stratification system was adopted to identify patients who are particularly at risk of error. During the period November 2012-January 2013 a total of 101 surgical patients were cared for by the APST at Edendale Hospital. The average age was forty years. There were 36 females and 65 males. There were 66 general surgical patients and 35 trauma patients. Fifty-six patients were referred on the day of their admission. The average length of stay in the APST was four days. Eleven patients were haemo-dynamically unstable on presentation and twelve were clinically septic. The reasons for referral were sepsis,(4) respiratory distress,(3) acute kidney injury AKI (38), post-operative monitoring (39), pancreatitis,(3) ICU down-referral,(7) hypoxia,(5) low GCS,(1) coagulopathy.(1) The mortality rate was 13%. A total of thirty-six patients experienced 56 errors. A total of 143 interventions were initiated by the APST. These included institution or adjustment of intravenous fluids (101), blood transfusion,(12) antibiotics,(9) the management of neutropenic sepsis,(1) central line insertion,(3) optimization of oxygen therapy,(7) correction of electrolyte abnormality,(8) correction of coagulopathy.(2) CONCLUSION: Our intervention combined current taxonomies of error with a simple risk stratification system and is a variant of the defence in depth strategy of error reduction. We effectively identified and corrected a significant number of human errors in high-risk acute surgical patients. This audit has helped understand the common sources of error in the general surgical wards and will inform
Manoj Kumar Sahu
Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU. Patients and Methods: After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Results: Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6% developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs accounted for most of the infections (44.2% followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%, bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%, urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9% and infections from combined sources (29.8%. Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp.
Zheng, Chaoyi; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Shara, Nawar M; Langan, Russell C; Hong, Young; Johnson, Lynt B; Al-Refaie, Waddah B
BACKGROUND Despite national emphasis on care coordination, little is known about how fragmentation affects cancer surgery outcomes. Our study examines a specific form of fragmentation in post-discharge care—readmission to a hospital different from the location of the operation—and evaluates its causes and consequences among patients readmitted after major cancer surgery. STUDY DESIGN We used the State Inpatient Database of California (2004 to 2011) to identify patients who had major cancer surgery and their subsequent readmissions. Logistic models were used to examine correlates of non-index readmissions and to assess associations between location of readmission and outcomes, measured by in-hospital mortality and repeated readmission. RESULTS Of 9,233 readmissions within 30 days of discharge after major cancer surgery, 20.0% occurred in non-index hospitals. Non-index readmissions were associated with emergency readmission (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63; 95% CI, 2.26–3.06), rural residence (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.61–2.04), and extensive procedures (eg hepatectomy vs proctectomy; OR = 2.77; CI, 2.08–3.70). Mortality was higher during non-index readmissions than index readmissions independent of patient, procedure, and hospital factors (OR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03–1.66), but was mitigated by adjusting for conditions present at readmission (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 0.98–1.58). Non-index readmission predicted higher odds of repeated readmission within 60 days of discharge from the first readmission (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02–1.32), independent of all covariates. CONCLUSIONS Non-index readmissions constitute a substantial proportion of all readmissions after major cancer surgery. They are associated with more repeated readmissions and can be caused by severe surgical complications and increased travel burden. Overcoming disadvantages of non-index readmissions represents an opportunity to improve outcomes for patients having major cancer surgery. PMID:27016905
Gaarder, Christine; Skaga, Nils Oddvar; Eken, Torsten; Pillgram-Larsen, Johan; Buanes, Trond; Naess, Paal Aksel
Some of the problems faced in trauma surgery are increasing non-operative management of abdominal injuries, decreasing work hours and increasing sub-specialisation. We wanted to document the experience of trauma team leaders at the largest trauma centre in Norway, hypothesising that the patient volume would be inadequate to secure optimal trauma care. Patients registered in the hospital based Trauma Registry during the 2-year period from 1 August 2000 to 31 July 2002 were included. Of a total of 1667 patients registered, 645 patients (39%) had an Injury Severity Score (ISS)>15. Abdominal injuries were diagnosed in 205 patients with a median ISS of 30. An average trauma team leader assessed a total of 119 trauma cases a year (46 patients with ISS>15) and participated in 10 trauma laparotomies. Although the total number of trauma cases seems adequate, the experience of the trauma team leaders with challenging abdominal injuries is limited. With increasing sub-specialisation and general surgery vanishing, fewer surgical specialties provide operative competence in dealing with complicated torso trauma. A system of additional education and quality assurance measures is a prerequisite of high quality, and has consequently been introduced in our institution.
Full Text Available Aim. Analyzing the vegetative tensity of organism» functional systems before and after surgical treatment of elderly patients with metabolic-and-dystrophic gonarthrosis. Methods. The evaluation of vegetative homeostasis, reactivity of the vegetative nervous system by the data of variation pulsometry («REAN-POLY» RGPA-6/12, Taganrog in 60 patients with gonarthrosis at the age of 50-72 years and the disease duration — 9+1.5 years before and after surgical treatment: total tunnelization (Group I, tunnelization with osteotomy of leg bones for correction of limb biomechanical axis (Group II, treatment-and-diagnostic arthroscopy (Group III. Results. The reduction of the level of hypoxia tolerance and the decrease of the processes of general adaptation one month after surgery in Group I was registered in 40% of patients. As for patients of Group II, by the end of the period of fixation with the llizarov device — in 50%. As for those of Group III after arthroscopy — in 10% of patients. Among the patients whose 1С / 1С calculated parameter after surgical treatment was registered <1.0, its values were >10.0 before treatment in 70% of cases. At rest, marked vagotonia was registered with hypersympathicotonic reaction to orthotest, as well as with sharp decrease of the proportion of second-order slow waves while transition to standing position (VLF proportion <10.0%, thereby reflecting organism»s energy deficiency state. Conclusion. Preoperative examination. When VLF proportion after orthotest is registered <10.0%, such patients should be referred to risk group and prescribed in-depth examination. The index of centralization (1С dynamics for orthotest (1С test/1С rest is one of the criteria of functional recovery level for the particular patient: its increase points to the positive dynamics of restorative rehabilitative process, and the values <1.0 —to the negative one.
Eamer, Gilgamesh; Saravana-Bawan, Bianka; van der Westhuizen, Brenden; Chambers, Thane; Ohinmaa, Arto; Khadaroo, Rachel G
Seniors presenting with surgical disease face increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality and have increased treatment costs. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is proposed to reduce morbidity, mortality, and the cost after surgery. A systematic review of CGA in emergency surgical patients was conducted. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness; secondary outcomes were length of stay, return of function, and mortality. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database were performed. Text screening, bias assessment, and data extraction were performed by two authors. There were 560 articles identified; abstract review excluded 499 articles and full-text review excluded 53 articles. Eight studies were included; one nonorthopedic trauma and seven orthopedic trauma studies. Bias assessment revealed moderate to high risk of bias for all studies. Economic evaluation assessment identified two high-quality studies and six moderate or low quality studies. Pooled analysis from four studies assessed loss of function; loss of function decreased in the experimental arm (odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.97). Pooled results for length of stay from five studies found a significant decrease (mean difference: -1.17, 95% CI: -1.63 to -0.71) after excluding the nonorthopedic trauma study. Pooled mortality was significantly decreased in seven studies (risk ratio: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67-0.90). All studies decreased cost and improved health outcomes in a cost-effective manner. CGA improved return of function and mortality with reduced cost or improved utility. Our review suggests that CGA is economically dominant and the most cost-effective care model for orthogeriatric patients. Further research should examine other surgical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To improve the efficiency of surgical rehabilitation of patients with traumas, their effects. Materials and methods: Short-term and follow-up results of the surgical treatment of patients with traumas and their effects have been analyzed. Statistical research methods have been used. Results: the efficiency of medical technologies during the early rehabilitation of patients has been demonstrated. Conclusion: Adoption of the most efficient medical technologies of general surgical treatment and postoperative rehabilitation of patients with traumas and their effects in daily practice provides high-grade restoration of the extremity's function, shortening of treatment period, decrease in number of complications and invalidism
Abdullah, Fizan; Choo, Shelly; Hesse, Afua A J; Abantanga, Francis; Sory, Elias; Osen, Hayley; Ng, Julie; McCord, Colin W; Cherian, Meena; Fleischer-Djoleto, Charles; Perry, Henry
For most of the population in Africa, district hospitals represent the first level of access for emergency and essential surgical services. The present study documents the number and availability of surgical and obstetrical care providers as well as the types of surgical and obstetrical procedures being performed at 10 first-referral district hospitals in Ghana. After institutional review board and governmental approval, a study team composed of Ghanaian and American surgeons performed on-site surveys at 10 district hospitals in 10 different regions of Ghana in August 2009. Face-to-face interviews were conducted documenting the numbers and availability of surgical and obstetrical personnel as well as gathering data relating to the number and types of procedures being performed at the facilities. A total of 68 surgical and obstetrical providers were interviewed. Surgical and obstetrical care providers consisted of Medical Officers (8.5%), nurse anesthetists (6%), theatre nurses (33%), midwives (50.7%), and others (4.5%). Major surgical cases represented 37% of overall case volumes with cesarean section as the most common type of major surgical procedure performed. The most common minor surgical procedures performed were suturing of lacerations or episiotomies. The present study demonstrates that there is a substantial shortage of adequately trained surgeons who can perform surgical and obstetrical procedures at first-referral facilities. Addressing human resource needs and further defining practice constraints at the district hospital level are important facets of future planning and policy implementation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Veiga, Dalila; Luis, Clara; Parente, Daniela; Fernandes, Vera; Botelho, Miguela; Santos, Patricia; Abelha, Fernando
Postoperative delirium (POD) in Surgical Intensive Care patients is an important independent outcome determinant. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the incidence and determinants of POD. Prospective cohort study conducted during a period of 10 months in a Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) with five intensive care beds. All consecutive adult patients submitted to major surgery were enrolled. Demographic data, perioperative variables, length of stay (LOS) and the mortality at PACU, hospital and at 6-months follow-up were recorded. Postoperative delirium was evaluated using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC). Descriptive analyses were conducted and the Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for comparisons. Logistic regression analysis evaluated the determinants of POD with calculation of odds ratio (OR) and its confidence interval 95% (95% CI). There were 775 adult PACU admissions and 95 patients had exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 680 patients, 128 (18.8%) developed POD. Independent determinants of POD identified were age, ASA-PS, emergency surgery and total amount of fresh frozen plasma administered during surgery. Patients with delirium had higher mortality rates, were more severely ill and stayed longer at the PACU and in the hospital. POD was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality There was a high incidence of delirium had a high incidence in intensive care surgical patients. POD was associated with worse severity of disease scores, longer LOS in hospital, and in PACU and higher mortality rates. The independent risk factors for POD were age, ASAPS, emergency surgery and the amount of plasma administered during surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
To, Masako; Tajima, Makoto; Ogawa, Cyuhei; Otomo, Mamoru; Suzuki, Naohito; Sano, Yasuyuki
Stimulation to bronchial mucosa is one of the major risk factor of asthma attack. When patients receive surgical intervention and general anesthesia, they are always exposed to stimulation to bronchial mucosa. Prevention method of bronchial asthma attack during surgical intervention is not established yet. We investigated that clinical course of patients with bronchial asthma who received general anesthesia and surgical intervention. Seventy-six patients with bronchial asthma were received general anesthesia and surgical intervention from 1993 to 1998. Twenty-four patients were mild asthmatic patients, 39 were moderate asthmatic patients and 13 were severe asthmatic patients. Preoperative treatment for preventing asthma attack was as follows; Eight patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline before operation. Fifty-two patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline and hydrocortisone before operation. Three patients were given intravenous infusion of hydrocortisone for consecutive 3 days before operation. Thirteen patients were given no treatment for preventing asthma attack. One patient was suffered from asthma attack during operation. She was given no preventing treatment for asthma attack before operation. Three patients were suffered from asthma attack after operation. No wound dehiscence was observed in all patients. To prevent asthma attack during operation, intravenous infusion of steroid before operation is recommended, when patients with asthma receive general anesthesia and surgical intervention.
Background A constructive patient safety culture is a main prerequisite for patient safety and improvement initiatives. Until now, patient safety culture (PSC) research was mainly focused on hospital care, however, it is of equal importance in primary care. Measuring PSC informs practices on their
Full Text Available Colorectal surgery is commonly performed for colorectal cancer and other pathology such as diverticular and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite significant advances, such as laparoscopic techniques and multidisciplinary recovery programs, morbidity and mortality remain high and vary among surgical centers. The use of scoring systems and assessment of functional capacity may help in identifying high-risk patients and predicting complications. An understanding of perioperative factors affecting colon blood flow and oxygenation, suppression of stress response, optimal fluid therapy, and multimodal pain management are essential. These fundamental principles are more important than any specific choice of anesthetic agents. Anesthesiologists can significantly contribute to enhance recovery and improve the quality of perioperative care.
Smith, Francis Duval
Transgender patients are individuals whose gender identity is not related to their biological sex. Assuming a new gender identity that does not conform to societal norms often results in discrimination and barriers to health care. The exact number of transgender patients is unknown; however, these patients are increasingly seen in health care. Transgender individuals may experience provider-generated discrimination in health care facilities, including refusal of service, disrespect, and abuse, which contribute to depression and low self-esteem. Transgender therapies include mental health counseling for depression and low self-esteem, hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery. Health care professionals require cultural competence, an understanding of the different forms of patient identification, and adaptive approaches to care for transgender patients. VA (Veterans Affairs) hospitals provide a model for the care for transgender patients and staff. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Osinowo, H O; Olley, B O; Adejumo, A O
Surgical paients have been known to benefit immensely from psychological interventions. This study set out to assess the pre and postoperative anxiety levels and depression and the effect of cognitive therapy among Nigerian surgical patients. The effects of gender and educational status on perioperative anxiety and depression were also evaluated. The study utilized a controlled outcome design to evaluate the efficacy of self-instructional training (SIT) and rational emotive therapy (RET) in surgical patients. Preoperative anxiety and depression scores were used as co-variants. Thirty-three (33) elective surgical patients were sampled randomly, divided into 3 groups of eleven (11) patients each. Eight (8) subjects underwent gynaecological procedures while the remaining 25 subjects had general surgical procedures. The mean age was 32.72 +/- 15.83 years (range = 17-16 years.) The major instruments used in the study were the State Anxiety Subscale of the Speilberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Inventory. SIT had the potential to reduce anxiety level among subjects postoperatively (t = 2.06; df = 10; p < 0.05). The use of RET reduced depression among surgical patients (t = 1.23; df = 10; p < 0.05). It was concluded that surgical patients manifest varying degrees of anxiety preoperatively and postoperatively. Patient's pre and postoperative anxiety and depression can be reduced by the introduction of SIT and RET.
Gordon, G H; Baker, L; Levinson, W
The quality of physician-patient communication affects important health care outcomes. Managed care presents a number of challenges to physician-patient communication, including shorter visits, decreased continuity, and lower levels of trust. Good communication skills can help physicians create and maintain healthy relationships with patients in the face of these challenges. We describe 5 communication dilemmas that are common in managed care and review possible solutions suggested by recent ...
Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency, pattern and management of surgical complications among patients with dengue fever. Design: Cross sectional study design was used. Settings: Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore. Methods: From March - 2009 to December - 2011 total of 875 patients of dengue fever with positive anti-dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology were included in this study. Complete blood count, liver function test, blood urea, serum creatinin, serum amylase were determined in all patients admitted with the diagnosis of dengue fever. All the patients were evaluated for the presence of surgical complications by physical examination and real time ultrasound abdomen. Patient had CT - abdomen and brain where it was required. Patients having surgical complications were managed in dengue ward and ICU with multidisciplinary approach. Data entry and analysis was done by using SPSS 16. Results: Among 875 patients with dengue fever, 491 (43.9%) patients were men and 384 (48.9%) were women with age range (18 - 70) years. Surgical complications were detected in 121 (13.8%) patients: acute cholecystitis in 46 (5.26%); acute pancreatitis in 19 (2.17%); injection abscess in 14 (1.6%); gastrointestinal bleed in 24 (2.74%); forearm compartment syndrome in 3 (0.34%); abdominal compartment syndrome in 2 (0.23%) and acute appendicitis, 4 (0.46%) patients. Cerebral bleed, retroperitoneal hematoma, abdominal wall hematoma and splenic rupture was seen among 3 (0.34%), 2 (0.23%), 3 (0.34%), and 1 (0.11%) patients, respectively. Out of 121 patients surgery was done in 20 (16.5%) patients while rest of 101 (83.5%) patients were managed conservatively. Two patients died. Conclusion: Surgical complications are common and should be suspected in every patient with dengue fever. Majority of surgical manifestations of dengue fever were managed conservatively however surgical intervention was done in certain cases with favorable outcome. (author)
Bjerså, Kristofer; Forsberg, Anna; Fagevik Olsén, Monika
There is increasing interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among healthcare professions. However, no studies have been conducted in Sweden or in a surgical context. The aim of this study is to describe different perceptions of complementary therapies among registered healthcare professions in Swedish surgical care. Sixteen interviews were conducted with registered physicians, nurses, physiotherapists and clinical dieticians at a Swedish university hospital. Analysis was made with a phenomenographic research approach. The findings showed variations in perceptions of the definition of complementary therapies. A constructive approach toward use was observed, but there was a conflict in matters of indications and contraindications, and also criticism over a lack of knowledge. There was seen to be a need for education to be able to act professionally. Scepticism over high costs of treatment was highlighted. In conclusion, a need for policies on management, education and research in the field of CAM should be addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cui, Cui; Wang, Ling-Xiao; Li, Qi; Zaslansky, Ruth; Li, Li
To investigate the effect of introducing a standardised pain management nursing protocol in orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery. Postoperative pain is a common phenomenon but is still undertreated in hospitalised patients. Nurses' lack of sufficient knowledge and skills about pain management may be a contributing factor to poor outcomes. An interventional, separate sample pre- and post-test. A pain management nursing protocol was introduced and a handbook and training sessions regarding management of postsurgical pain were provided to the nurses on a Joint Orthopaedic ward at a university-affiliated general hospital in Guangzhou, China. Before and after the intervention, nurses' knowledge about pain management and attitudes were assessed, and perioperative management practices and pain-related patient-reported outcomes were evaluated. Sixteen and 15 registered nurses, and 77 and 71 patients participated in the study before and after the intervention, respectively. Nurses' scores related to knowledge and skills increased significantly after the protocol was introduced but were still insufficient with regard to pharmacological-related items. The proportion of patients receiving a combined opioid and nonopioid increased after the intervention. Clinically significant changes were observed in some patient-reported outcomes, such as worst pain since surgery, percentage of time experiencing severe pain, and pain interference with activities out of bed. There were significant changes in nonpharmacological methods administered by nurses to patients or used by patients to relieve pain. Implementation of a pain management nursing protocol combined with education in one surgical ward was associated with nurses' increased knowledge and attitudes regarding pain, a change in some management practices, and improvement in a number of pain-related patient-reported outcomes. It was feasible to develop and implement a standardised pain management nursing protocol and use it in the
Campbell, Alex; Restrepo, Carolina; Mackay, Don; Sherman, Randy; Varma, Ajit; Ayala, Ruben; Sarma, Hiteswar; Deshpande, Gaurav; Magee, William
With an estimated backlog of 4,000,000 patients worldwide, cleft lip and cleft palate remain a stark example of the global burden of surgical disease. The need for a new paradigm in global surgery has been increasingly recognized by governments, funding agencies, and professionals to exponentially expand care while emphasizing safety and quality. This three-part article examines the evolution of the Operation Smile Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center (GCCCC) as an innovative model for sustainable cleft care in the developing world. The GCCCC is the result of a unique public-private partnership between government, charity, and private enterprise. In 2009, Operation Smile, the Government of Assam, the National Rural Health Mission, and the Tata Group joined together to work towards the common goal of creating a center of excellence in cleft care for the region. This partnership combined expertise in medical care and training, organizational structure and management, local health care infrastructure, and finance. A state-of-the-art surgical facility was constructed in Guwahati, Assam which includes a modern integrated operating suite with an open layout, advanced surgical equipment, sophisticated anesthesia and monitoring capabilities, central medical gases, and sterilization facilities. The combination of established leaders and dreamers from different arenas combined to create a synergy of ambitions, resources, and compassion that became the backbone of success in Guwahati.
Thoburn, E; Norris, P; Flores, R; Goode, S; Rodriguez, E; Adams, V; Campbell, S; Albrink, M; Rosemurgy, A
A review of 452 trauma deaths in Hillsborough County, Florida, in 1984 documented that 23% of non-CNS trauma deaths were preventable and occurred because of inadequate resuscitation or delay in proper surgical care. In late 1988 Hillsborough County organized a County Trauma Agency (HCTA) to coordinate trauma care among prehospital providers and state-designated trauma centers. The purpose of this study was to review county trauma deaths after the inception of the HCTA to determine the frequency of preventable deaths. 504 trauma deaths occurring between October 1989 and April 1991 were reviewed. Through committee review, 10 deaths were deemed preventable; 2 occurred outside the trauma system. Of the 10 deaths, 5 preventable deaths occurred late in severely injured patients. The preventable death rate has decreased to 7.0% with system care. The causes of preventable deaths have changed from delayed or inadequate intervention to postoperative care errors.
Bødker, Susanne; Schroll, Jeremiah; Groth, Kristina
Medical Information Systems often need to be custom designed to fit the organization where they will be implemented. Participatory Design (PD) is a well known method for eliciting the user input that is necessary during this process. Recently it has been suggested that PD as it is often practiced...... will better meet these evolving needs. In this paper we present a case study of design as it is practiced at a gastro-surgical department at a University hospital in Sweden. The experiences of the department are used as a framework for discussing this issue and its implications for the CSCW/HCI community....
McTier, Lauren; Botti, Mari; Duke, Maxine
Patient participation in medication management during hospitalization is thought to reduce medication errors and, following discharge, improve adherence and therapeutic use of medications. There is, however, limited understanding of how patients participate in their medication management while hospitalized. To explore patient participation in the context of medication management during a hospital admission for a cardiac surgical intervention of patients with cardiovascular disease. Single institution, case study design. The unit of analysis was a cardiothoracic ward of a major metropolitan, tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Multiple methods of data collection were used including pre-admission and pre-discharge patient interviews (n = 98), naturalistic observations (n = 48) and focus group interviews (n = 2). All patients had changes made to their pre-operative cardiovascular medications as a consequence of surgery. More patients were able to list and state the purpose and side-effects of their cardiovascular medications at pre-admission than prior to discharge from hospital. There was very little evidence that nurses used opportunities such as medication administration times to engage patients in medication management during hospital admission. Failure to engage patients in medication management and provide opportunities for patients to learn about changes to their medications has implications for the quality and safety of care patients receive in hospital and when managing their medications once discharged. To increase the opportunity for patients to participate in medication management, a fundamental shift in the way nurses currently provide care is required. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial
Piredda, Michela; Matarese, Maria; Mastroianni, Chiara; D'Angelo, Daniela; Hammer, Marilyn J; De Marinis, Maria Grazia
Care dependence can be associated with suffering and humiliation. Nurses' awareness of patients' perception of care dependence is crucial to enable them in helping the dependent persons. This study aimed to describe adult patients' experience of nursing care dependence. A metasynthesis was conducted to integrate qualitative findings from 18 studies published through December 2014 on adult patients' experiences of care dependency. Procedures included the Johanna Briggs Institute approach for data extraction, quality appraisal, and integration of findings. The experience of dependence revealed the concept of the embodied person, particularly in relation to care of the physical body. The relationship between the individual and nurses within the context of care had a major impact for dependent patients. When the care relation was perceived as positive, the experience led to the development of the person in finding new balances in life, but when it was perceived as negative, it increased patient' suffering. Care dependence is manifested mostly as bodily dependence and is consistent with its relational nature. The nurse-patient relationship is important to the dependent patients' experience. A greater understanding of patients' experiences of dependence is crucial to enable nurses in improving care and decreasing patient suffering. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Brea-Rivero, Pilar; Herrera-Usagre, Manuel; Rojas-de-Mora-Figueroa, Ana; Esposito, Thomas
. The accreditation of professional competence: the analysis of nursing interventions to control anxiety in surgical patients. The preoperative anxiety is a state of discomfort or unpleasant tension resulting from concerns about illness, hospitalization, anesthesia, surgery or the unknown. Nurses play a vital role reducing preoperative anxiety. An accreditation program was developed in Andalusia (Spain) to measure nurses' competences in this and others fields. To analyze the accredited nurses' interventions spectrum to reduce anxiety in surgical patients and to check if their range of interventions depends upon their professional skills accreditation level. Cross-sectional study. From 20016 to 2014, 1.282 interventions performed by 303 operating room nurses accredited through the Professional Skills Accreditation Program of the Andalusian Agency for Health Care Quality (ACSA) were analyzed with the latent class analysis (LCA) and multinomial logistic regression. Two-thirds of the sample was accredited in Advanced level, about 31% in Expert level and 2.6% in Excellent level. Mean age of patients was 58.5±19.8 years. Three professional profiles were obtained from the LCA. Those nurses classified in Class I (22.4% of the sample) were more likely to be women, to can for younger patients, and to be accredited in Expert or Excellent Level and to perform the larger range of interventions, becoming therefore the most complete professional profile. Those nurses who perform a wider range of interventions and specifically two evidence based interventions such Calming Technique and Coping Enhancement are those who have a higher level of accreditation level.
McKendy, Katherine M; Posel, Nancy; Fleiszer, David M; Vassiliou, Melina C
To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a learner-created virtual patient (VP) curriculum for postgraduate year 2 surgical residents. Using a social-constructivist model of learning, we designed a learner-created VP curriculum to help postgraduate year 2 residents prepare for their in-training surgical examination. Each resident was assigned to create a VP curriculum based on the learning objectives for this examination, and VP cases were then disseminated to all residents for completion. To measure the learning effects of the curriculum, participants completed 2 simulated in-training examinations, both at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Study participants also participated in a focus group and completed an online questionnaire about the perceived learning value of the curriculum. The study was conducted at the McGill University Health Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Montreal, Canada. In total, 24 residents from 7 surgical specialties completed both the pretest and posttest, as well as took part in the creation of a VP curriculum. Of those 24 residents, only 19 residents completed the cases created by their peers, with 7 completing greater than 50% of the cases and 12 completing less than 50%. In all 17 residents responded to the online questionnaire and 11 residents participated in the focus group. The VP curriculum failed to improve scores from pretest (59.6%, standard deviation = 8.1) to posttest (55.4%, standard deviation = 6.6; p = 0.01) on the simulated in-training examination. Nonetheless, survey results demonstrated that most residents felt that creating a VP case (89%) and completing cases created by their peers (71%) had educational value. Overall, 71% preferred active participation in a curriculum to traditional didactic teaching. The focus group identified time-related constraints, concern about the quality of the peer-created cases, and questioning of the relationship between the curriculum and the Surgical Foundations
Bonetti, Loris; Terzoni, Stefano; Lusignani, Maura; Negri, Marina; Froldi, Marco; Destrebecq, Anne
To determine and compare the prevalence of malnutrition in medical and surgical hospital units; to assess quality of nutritional care and patients' perception about quality of food and nutritional care. Hospital malnutrition in older people leads to increased mortality, length of stay, risk of infections and pressure ulcers. Several studies show that malnutrition is often caused by hospitalisation and related to poor nutritional care. Few studies report data on surgical older patients. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in 12 hospitals in northern Italy. Malnutrition prevalence was determined according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment full-version. Head nurses were interviewed in 80 units, through a validated questionnaire regarding quality of nutritional care. Semi-structured interviews were administered to a sample of patients, to investigate their perception about quality of food and nutritional care. Two hundred twenty-eight patients of 1,066 were malnourished (21.4%). Medical patients were at higher risk, so were women, patients aged 85 or more, with impaired autonomy, pressure ulcers or taking more than three drugs. The lack of personnel impacts on quality of care: in 55% of the units, no nutritional screening is performed; nutritional history is investigated in 48% only. No protocols for nutritional problems exist in 70% of the wards; hardly ever the intake is measured. Patients are mostly satisfied, even though they report that food has no taste and is not well presented. They remark the need for more personnel. Prevalence was high, as found in other studies. Medical patients were at higher risk. Nutritional care was inadequate, and often no measures were adopted to prevent malnutrition. Staffing should be increased during meals. These findings will provide indications on the strategies needed to overcome such barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Anne N. Flynn, MD
Conclusions: This study shows high patient satisfaction and low complication risk associated with surgical correction of clitoral phimosis and lysis of vulvar adhesions for VGF caused by LS. Patients reported improvement in clitoral sensation and ability to achieve orgasm, as well as decreased dyspareunia. Surgical correction of vulvar scarring is a viable option to restore vulvar anatomy and sexual function in appropriate candidates with anogenital LS. Flynn AN, King M, Rieff M, Krapf J, and Goldstein AT. Patient satisfaction of surgical treatment of clitoral phimosis and labial adhesions caused by lichen sclerosus. Sex Med 2015;3:251–255.
Tran Dinh Ha; Szilvasi, J.
Results of a radioisotope method of the gastro-esophageal reflux are presented in patients with achalasia cardiae after different types of surgical treatment. Both Belsey-Mark and modified Nissen techniques are effective in preventing spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux, however 2 patients after Nissen fundoplication demonstrated gastro-esophageal reflux provoked by abdominal compression. This simple, noninvasive and physiologic method is an appropriate diagnostic tool for evaluating the efficiency of different anti reflux surgical techniques and is recommended for follow-up studies of patients after gastro-esophageal surgical intervention. (N.T.). 8 refs., 1 fig
Wongkietkachorn, Apinut; Boonyawong, Pangpoom; Rhunsiri, Peera; Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya
Most patient education involves passive learning. To improve patient education regarding surgery, an active learning workshop-based teaching method is proposed. The objective of this study was to assess level of patient surgical knowledge, achievement of workshop learning objectives, patient apprehension about future surgery, and participant workshop satisfaction after completing a surgical training workshop. A four-station workshop (surgical scrub, surgical suture, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery) was developed to teach four important components of the surgical process. Healthy, surgery-naive adolescents were enrolled to attend this 1-h workshop-based training program. Training received by participants was technically and procedurally identical to training received by actual surgeons. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were used to assess learning outcomes. There were 1312 participants, with a mean age 15.9 ± 1.1 years and a gender breakdown of 303 males and 1009 females. For surgical knowledge, mean pre-workshop and post-workshop scores were 6.1 ± 1.5 and 7.5 ± 1.5 (out of 10 points), respectively (p education is an effective way to improve understanding of surgery-related processes. This teaching method may also decrease apprehension that patients or potential patients harbor regarding a future surgical procedure.
Fumagalli, Uberto; Rosati, Riccardo; De Pascale, Stefano; Porta, Matteo; Carlani, Elisa; Pestalozza, Alessandra; Repici, Alessandro
Surgical myotomy of the lower esophageal sphincter has a 5-year success rate of approximately 91 %. Peroral endoscopic myotomy can provide similar results for controlling dysphagia. Some patients experience either persistent or recurrent dysphagia after myotomy. We present here a retrospective analysis of our experience with redo myotomy for recurrent dysphagia in patients with achalasia. From March 1996 to February 2015, 234 myotomies for primary or recurrent achalasia were performed in our center. Fifteen patients (6.4 %) had had a previous myotomy and were undergoing surgical redo myotomy (n = 9) or endoscopic redo myotomy (n = 6) for recurrent symptoms. Patients presented at a median of 10.4 months after previous myotomy. Median preoperative Eckardt score was 6. Among the nine patients undergoing surgical myotomy, three esophageal perforations occurred intraoperatively (all repaired immediately). Surgery lasted 111 and 62 min on average (median) in the surgical and peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) groups, respectively. No postoperative complications occurred in either group. Median postoperative stay was 3 and 2.5 days in the surgical and POEM groups, respectively. In the surgical group, Eckardt score was dysphagia. Preliminary results using POEM indicate that the technique can be safely used in patients who have undergone previous surgical myotomy.
Gandhi, K; Sahni, N; Padhy, S K; Mathew, P J
The residents undergoing training at hospitals in our country face challenges in terms of infrastructure and high workload with undefined working hours. The aim of the study was to compare the stress and burnout levels in trainee doctors doing residency in surgical fields and anesthesia at a tertiary care academic center in North India. A comparative, observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. After Ethics Committee approval, 200 residents (100 each from surgical branches and anesthesia) were required to fill a questionnaire with information about age, sex, year of residency, marital status, and the Perceived Stress Scale-10, and Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire-12. Burnout and perceived stress were compared between residents of anesthesia and surgical specialties. Residents of both surgical and anesthesia branches scored high in perceived stress, namely 21 and 18, respectively. The score was significantly higher in surgical residents (P = 0.03) and increased progressively with the year of residency. The majority of residents (90% surgical, 80% anesthesia) felt that they were being overloaded with work. However, only 20%-30% of respondents felt that there was lack of development of individual skills and still fewer (<10%) reported giving up in view of difficulties. There is high level of stress and overload dimension of burnout among the residents of anesthesia and surgical branches at our tertiary care academic institution and the surgical residents score marginally higher than anesthesia residents.
Full Text Available Background: A supportive needs assessment is an essential component of any care program. There is no research evidence regarding the supportive care needs of cancer patients in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a referral medical center in the northwest of Iran. A total of 274 cancer patients completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-59. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In 18 items of the SCNS, more than 50% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet. Most frequently, unmet needs were related to the health system, information, physical, and daily living domains, and most met needs were related to sexuality, patient care, and support domains. Conclusions: Iranian cancer patients experience many unmet needs and there is an urgent need for establishing additional supportive care services in Iran.
Girotti, M J; Leslie, K; Chinnick, B; Butcher, C; Holliday, R L
Surgical residents (n = 330) registered in training programs in the province of Ontario, Canada were surveyed about their attitudes toward trauma care related issues. Questionnaires were returned by 48%. Overall, 84% felt that their clinical exposure to trauma was adequate; 78% noted that the emphasis placed on trauma topics in their educational programs was appropriate; 50% spend > 10% of their current clinical time in trauma care. Orthopedic residents (n = 43) were different; 79% devoted > 10% and 29% > or = 30% of their time to trauma. Future clinical activity in trauma as practicing surgeons was expressed by 83% of the trainees: 31% intended 30% of their future practices to be related to trauma. The major positive factors of trauma were the scope and excitement of trauma care. The major negative factors were the night/weekend activity and the time away from family. We are encouraged by the results of this survey in that a significant number of residents perceive trauma as a clinical endeavor to be incorporated into their future surgical practices.
Abbott, T E F; Ahmad, T; Phull, M K; Fowler, A J; Hewson, R; Biccard, B M; Chew, M S; Gillies, M; Pearse, R M
The surgical safety checklist is widely used to improve the quality of perioperative care. However, clinicians continue to debate the clinical effectiveness of this tool. Prospective analysis of data from the International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS), an international observational study of elective in-patient surgery, accompanied by a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature. The exposure was surgical safety checklist use. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and the secondary outcome was postoperative complications. In the ISOS cohort, a multivariable multi-level generalized linear model was used to test associations. To further contextualise these findings, we included the results from the ISOS cohort in a meta-analysis. Results are reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. We included 44 814 patients from 497 hospitals in 27 countries in the ISOS analysis. There were 40 245 (89.8%) patients exposed to the checklist, whilst 7508 (16.8%) sustained ≥1 postoperative complications and 207 (0.5%) died before hospital discharge. Checklist exposure was associated with reduced mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 (0.32-0.77); P<0.01], but no difference in complication rates [OR 1.02 (0.88-1.19); P=0.75]. In a systematic review, we screened 3732 records and identified 11 eligible studies of 453 292 patients including the ISOS cohort. Checklist exposure was associated with both reduced postoperative mortality [OR 0.75 (0.62-0.92); P<0.01; I 2 =87%] and reduced complication rates [OR 0.73 (0.61-0.88); P<0.01; I 2 =89%). Patients exposed to a surgical safety checklist experience better postoperative outcomes, but this could simply reflect wider quality of care in hospitals where checklist use is routine. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Negarandeh, Reza; Hooshmand Bahabadi, Abbas; Aliheydari Mamaghani, Jafar
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of regular nursing rounds on patient satisfaction with nursing care. This was a controlled clinical trial in which 100 hospitalized patients in a medical surgical ward were allocated to control and experimental groups through convenience sampling. The experimental group received regular nursing rounds every 1-2 hours. Routine care was performed for the control group. Patient satisfaction with the quality of nursing care was assessed on the second and fifth days of hospitalization in both groups using Patient Satisfaction with Nursing Care Quality Questionnaire. On the second day, patient satisfaction scores of the two groups had no significant difference (p = .499). However, the intervention was associated with statistically significant increased patient satisfaction in the experimental group compared to the control group (p patient satisfaction. This method may hence improve patient-nurse interactions and promote the quality of nursing care and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Butt, U. I.; Khan, A.; Nawaz, A.; Mansoor, R.; Malik, A. A.; Sher, F.; Ayyaz, M.
Objective: To compare the frequency of surgical site infections in patients with type II diabetes undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared with non-diabetic patients. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Unit 2, Services Hospital, Lahore, from May to October 2012. Methodology: Patients were divided into two groups of 60 each, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Group A comprised non-diabetic patients and group B comprised type II diabetic patients. Patients were followed postoperatively upto one month for the development of SSIs. Proportion of patients with surgical site infections or otherwise was compared between the groups using chi-square test with significance of p < 0.05. Results: In group A, 35 patients were above the age of 40 years. In group B, 38 patients were above the age of 40 years. Four patients in group A developed a surgical site infection. Seven patients in group B developed SSIs (p = 0.07). Conclusion: Presence of diabetes mellitus did not significantly affect the onset of surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (author)
Camp, Mark W; Gross, Allan E; McKneally, Martin F
Over the past decade, revelations of inappropriate financial relationships between surgeons and surgical device manufacturers have challenged the presumption that surgeons can collaborate with surgical device manufacturers without damaging public trust in the surgical profession. We explored postoperative Canadian patients' knowledge and opinions about financial relationships between surgeons and surgical device manufacturers. This complex issue was explored using qualitative methods. We conducted semistructured face-to-face interviews with postoperative patients in follow-up arthroplasty clinics at an academic hospital in Toronto, Canada. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed. Patient-derived concepts and themes were uncovered. We interviewed 33 patients. Five major themes emerged: 1) many patients are unaware of the existence of financial relationships between surgeons and surgical device manufacturers; 2) patients approve of financial relationships that support innovation and research but are opposed to relationships that involve financial incentives that benefit only the surgeon and the manufacturer; 3) patients do not support disclosure of financial relationships during the consent process as it may shift focus away from the more important risks; 4) patients support oversight at the professional level but reject the idea of government involvement in oversight; and 5) patients entrust their surgeons to make appropriate patient-centred choices. This qualitative study deepens our understanding of financial relationships between surgeons and industry. Patients support relationships with industry that provide potential benefit to current or future patients. They trust our ability to self-regulate. Disclosure combined with appropriate oversight will strengthen public trust in professional collaboration with industry.
Conclusions; Surgery is the most effective treatment of gynecomastia. The most suitable surgical tecnique should be selected according to the skin redundancy. The target always must be breast reduction by the tecnique to provide the best symmetry and leave at least scar.
Have, Mads; Overgaard, Søren; Jensen, Carsten
Background: Preoperative patient characteristics may influence patient choice for participating in RCT’s. Purpose / Aim of Study: This study aimed to compare patient characteristics, level of pain, physical function and joint space width in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis (OA) who accepted...... or refused to participate in a RCT. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study a total of 137 patients with primary hip OA were asked to choose between surgical or non- surgical treatment. We then compared the characteristics of each patient cohort (demographics, pain level and duration......, analgesic use, exercise habits), the radiographic hip OA state and their responses to Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS, 0-100) and European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaires. Findings / Results: The between-group HOOS scores were significantly different in three out...
Full Text Available Else Cathrine Rustad,1–4 Bodil Furnes,1 Berit Seiger Cronfalk,2,5,6 Elin Dysvik1 1Department of Health Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway; 2Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Stord Haugesund University College, Stord, Norway; 3Research Network on Integrated Health Care in Western Norway, Helse Fonna Local Health Authority, Haugesund, Norway; 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Helse Fonna Local Health Authority, Haugesund, Norway; 5Palliative Research Center, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Background: A fragmented health care system leads to an increased demand for continuity of care across health care levels. Research indicates age-related differences during care transition, with the oldest patients having experiences and needs that differ from those of other patients. To meet the older patients’ needs and preferences during care transition, professionals must understand their experiences.Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore how patients ≥80 years of age experienced the care transition from hospital to municipal health care services.Methods: The study has a descriptive, explorative design, using semistructured interviews. Fourteen patients aged ≥80 participated in the study. Qualitative content analysis was used to describe the individuals’ experiences during care transition.Results: Two complementary themes emerged during the analysis: “Participation depends on being invited to plan the care transition” and “Managing continuity of care represents a complex and challenging process”.Discussion: Lack of participation, insufficient information, and vague responsibilities among staff during care transition seemed to limit the continuity of care. The patients are the vulnerable part of the care transition process, although they possess important
Pflugeisen, Bethann Mangel; Mou, Jin
Introduction The importance of patient satisfaction in US healthcare is increasing, in tandem with the advent of new patient care modalities, including virtual care. The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction of obstetric patients who received one-third of their antenatal visits in videoconference ("Virtual-care") compared to those who received 12-14 face-to-face visits in-clinic with their physician/midwife ("Traditional-care"). Methods We developed a four-domain satisfaction questionnaire; Virtual-care patients were asked additional questions about technology. Using a modified Dillman method, satisfaction surveys were sent to Virtual-care (N = 378) and Traditional-care (N = 795) patients who received obstetric services at our institution between January 2013 and June 2015. Chi-squared tests of association, t-tests, logistic regression, and ANOVA models were used to evaluate differences in satisfaction and self-reported demographics between respondents. Results Overall satisfaction was significantly higher in the Virtual-care cohort (4.76 ± 0.44 vs. 4.47 ± 0.59; p Virtual-care selection (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5-3.8; p Virtual-care respondents was not significantly impacted by the incorporation of videoconferencing, Doppler, and blood pressure monitoring technology into their care. The questionnaire demonstrated high internal consistency as measured by domain-based correlations and Cronbach's alpha. Discussion Respondents from both models were highly satisfied with care, but those who had selected the Virtual-care model reported significantly higher mean satisfaction scores. The Virtual-care model was selected by significantly more women who already have children than those experiencing pregnancy for the first time. This model of care may be a reasonable alternative to traditional care.
Trillsch, Fabian; Ruetzel, Jan David; Herwig, Uwe; Doerste, Ulrike; Woelber, Linn; Grimm, Donata; Choschzick, Matthias; Jaenicke, Fritz; Mahner, Sven
Surgery is the cornerstone for clinical management of patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOT). As these patients have an excellent overall prognosis, perioperative morbidity is the critical point for decision making when the treatment strategy is developed and the primary surgical approach is defined. Clinical and surgical parameters of patients undergoing surgery for primary BOT at our institutions between 1993 and 2008 were analyzed with regard to perioperative morbidity depending on the surgical approach (laparotomy vs. laparoscopy). A total of 105 patients were analyzed (44 with primary laparoscopy [42%], 61 with primary laparotomy [58%]). Complete surgical staging was achieved in 33 patients at primary surgical approach (31.4%) frequently leading to formal indication of re-staging procedures. Tumor rupture was significantly more frequent during laparoscopy compared to laparotomy (29.5% vs. 13.1%, p = 0.038) but no other intraoperative complications were seen in laparoscopic surgery in contrast to 7 of 61 laparotomies (0% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.020). Postoperative complication rates were similar in both groups (19.7% vs. 18.2%, p = 0.848). Irrespective of the surgical approach, surgical management of BOT has acceptable rates of perioperative complications and morbidity. Choice of initial surgical approach can therefore be made independent of complication-concerns. As the recently published large retrospective AGO ROBOT study observed similar oncologic outcome for both approaches, laparoscopy can be considered for staging of patients with BOT if this appears feasible. An algorithm for the surgical management of BOT patients has been developed.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety... voluntary relinquishment from the Surgical Safety Institute of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act) authorizes the...
Balbale, Salva Najib; Turcios, Stephanie; LaVela, Sherri L
Given the importance of health care employees in the delivery of patient-centered care, understanding their unique perspectives is essential for quality improvement. The purpose of this study was to use photovoice to evaluate perceptions and experiences around patient-centered care among U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) health care employees. We asked participants to take photographs of salient features in their environment related to patient-centered care. We used the photographs to facilitate dialogue during follow-up interviews. Twelve VA health care employees across two VA sites participated in the project. Although most participants felt satisfied with their work environment and experiences at the VA, they identified several areas for improvement. These included a need for more employee health and wellness initiatives and a need for enhanced opportunities for training and professional growth. Application of photovoice enabled us to learn about employees' unique perspectives around patient-centered care while engaging them in an evaluation of care delivery. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nardo, Bruno; Cannistrà, Marco; Diaco, Vincenzo; Naso, Agostino; Novello, Matteo; Zullo, Alessandra; Ruggiero, Michele; Grande, Raffaele; Sacco, Rosario
Smartphones changed the method by which doctors communicate with each other, offer modern functionalities sensitive to the context of use, and can represent a valuable ally in the healthcare system. Studies have shown that WhatsApp™ application can facilitate communication within the healthcare team and provide the attending physician a constant oversight of activities performed by junior team members. The aim of the study was to use WhatsApp between two distant surgical teams involved in a program of elective surgery to verify if it facilitates communication, enhances learning, and improves patient care preserving their privacy. We conducted a focused group of surgeons over a 28-month period (from March 2013 to July 2015), and from September 2014 to July 2015, a group of selected specialists communicated healthcare matters through the newly founded "WhatsApp Surgery Group." Each patient enrolled in the study signed a consent form to let the team communicate his/her clinical data using WhatsApp. Communication between team members, response times, and types of messages were evaluated. Forty six (n = 46) patients were enrolled in the study. A total of 1,053 images were used with an average of 78 images for each patient (range 41-143). 125 h of communication were recorded, generating 354 communication events. The expert surgeon had received the highest number of questions (P, 0.001), while the residents asked clinical questions (P, 0.001) and were the fastest responders to communications (P, 0.001). Our study investigated how two distant clinical teams may exploit such a communication system and quantifies both the direction and type of communication between surgeons. WhatsApp is a low cost, secure, and fast technology and it offers the opportunity to facilitate clinical and nonclinical communications, enhance learning, and improve patient care preserving their privacy.
Jung, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu; Jeong, Han Saem; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Sung Jae
Although medical treatment has advanced, surgical treatment is needed to control symptoms of Takayasu's arteritis (TA), such as angina, stroke, hypertension, or claudication. Endovascular or open surgical intervention is performed; however, there are few comparative studies on these methods. This meta-analysis and systematic review aimed to examine the outcome of surgical treatment of TA. A meta-analysis comparing outcomes of endovascular and open surgical intervention was performed using MEDLINE and Embase. This meta-analysis included only observational studies, and the evidence level was low to moderate. Data were pooled and analysed using a fixed or random effects model with the I 2 statistic. The included studies involved a total of 770 patients and 1363 lesions, with 389 patients treated endovascularly and 420 treated by surgical revascularization. Restenosis was more common with endovascular than open surgical intervention (odds ratio [OR] 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-9.62; p open surgical intervention patients in the coronary artery, supra-aortic branches, and renal artery. In both the active and inactive stages, restenosis was more common in those treated endovascularly than in those treated by open surgery. However, stroke occurred less often with endovascular intervention than with open surgical intervention (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.90; p = .003). Mortality and complications other than stroke and mortality did not differ between endovascular and open surgical intervention. This meta-analysis has shown a lower risk of restenosis with open surgical intervention than with endovascular intervention. Stroke was generally more common with open surgical intervention than with endovascular intervention. However, there were differences according to the location of the lesion, and the risk of stroke in open surgery is higher when the supra-aortic branches are involved rather than the renal arteries. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Vascular
Full Text Available Successful implementation of treatment in cancer care partially depends on how patients' perspectives are taken into account, as preferences of health care professionals and patients may differ. Objectives of this exploratory research were (I to identify patient preferences and values (PPVs in cancer care as indicated by patient organizations (POs, (II to determine how these PPVs are captured in cancer care guidelines and (III to review how guidelines take into account these PPVs. Based on a survey developed and completed by 19 POs, a literature review was conducted to analyse how patient perspectives are incorporated in oncology treatment guidelines. Based on survey results traditional health technology assessment value propositions of oncology care, such as extended life, treatment-free remission and pain reduction, were also highly rated by POs. However, the heterogeneity of cancer PPVs were clearly reflected in the survey results. PPVs in cancer care guidelines were mostly limited to those micro-level aspects that are strictly related to health care provision, such as side-effects and comorbidities. Patient experience, emotional support and convenience of care were relatively neglected fields in the reviewed guidelines. Patient engagement was rarely presented in the guideline development phase. POs believe that patients should be encouraged to take an active role in their own care due to the heterogeneity of cancer patients and PPVs. Even if patient-centricity is a leading paradigm in cancer policy, based on our research it is not yet standard practice to include patients or POs at all appropriate levels of decision-making processes that are related to their health and well-being. Patient engagement should be an integral part of cancer care decision-making. This complexity must be reflected throughout policy making, avoiding a population level “one-size-fits-all” solution.
Full Text Available Background: Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutation in ATB 7B gene, which is a membrane-bound copper-transporting ATPase. The impaired excretion of copper results in an increase in serum levels and accumulation of copper in the body. Various signs can be observed in liver, nervous system, kidneys, eyes, heart. There are also changes in blood chemistry. Objective: A forty-six-year-old female patient presents with Wilson’s disease in the treatment rooms at the Faculty of Dentistry in Plovdiv. She needs complete dental care. She has also had an ischaemic stroke. Methods and results: As the treatment plan started with extraction, of teeth under local anesthesia, a complete blood count and INR test were performed. Oral mucosa and bone were obtained by biopsy for evidence of pigments in these tissues. The biopsy results showed accumulation of copper in them as well. Conclusion: It’s a rare disorder, approximately 1 in 40 000, severely affecting the liver and nervous system. It requires in-depth analysis and discussion over the clinical and paraclinical approach with a view to avoid possible complications and achieve the desired results.
Ahmed, Armin; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Azim, Afzal; Marak, Rungmei S. K.; Yadav, Reema; Sharma, Preeti; Gurjar, Mohan; Poddar, Banani; Singh, Ratender Kumar
Background: The aim of this study was to conduct external validation of risk prediction scores for invasive candidiasis. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study in a 12-bedded adult medical/surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to evaluate Candida score >3, colonization index (CI) >0.5, corrected CI >0.4 (CCI), and Ostrosky's clinical prediction rule (CPR). Patients' characteristics and risk factors for invasive candidiasis were noted. Patients were divided into two groups; invasive candidiasis and no-invasive candidiasis. Results: Of 198 patients, 17 developed invasive candidiasis. Discriminatory power (area under receiver operator curve [AUROC]) for Candida score, CI, CCI, and CPR were 0.66, 0.67, 0.63, and 0.62, respectively. A large number of patients in the no-invasive candidiasis group (114 out of 181) were exposed to antifungal agents during their stay in ICU. Subgroup analysis was carried out after excluding such patients from no-invasive candidiasis group. AUROC of Candida score, CI, CCI, and CPR were 0.7, 0.7, 0.65, and 0.72, respectively, and positive predictive values (PPVs) were in the range of 25%–47%, along with negative predictive values (NPVs) in the range of 84%–96% in the subgroup analysis. Conclusion: Currently available risk prediction scores have good NPV but poor PPV. They are useful for selecting patients who are not likely to benefit from antifungal therapy. PMID:28904481
The Global Spine Care Initiative: a consensus process to develop and validate a stratification scheme for surgical care of spinal disorders as a guide for improved resource utilization in low- and middle-income communities.
Acaroğlu, Emre; Mmopelwa, Tiro; Yüksel, Selcen; Ayhan, Selim; Nordin, Margareta; Randhawa, Kristi; Haldeman, Scott
The purpose of this study was to develop a stratification scheme for surgical spinal care to serve as a framework for referrals and distribution of patients with spinal disorders. We used a modified Delphi process. A literature search identified experts for the consensus panel and the panel was expanded by inviting spine surgeons known to be global opinion leaders. After creating a seed document of five hierarchical levels of surgical care, a four-step modified Delphi process (question validation, collection of factors, evaluation of factors, re-evaluation of factors) was performed. Of 78 invited experts, 19 participated in round 1, and of the 19, 14 participated in 2, and 12 in 3 and 4. Consensus was fairly heterogeneous for levels of care 2-4 (moderate resources). Only simple assessment methods based on the clinical skills of the medical personnel were considered feasible and safe in low-resource settings. Diagnosis, staging, and treatment were deemed feasible and safe in a specialized spine center. Accurate diagnostic workup was deemed feasible and safe for lower levels of care complexity (from level 3 upwards) compared to non-invasive procedures (level 4) and the full range of invasive procedures (level 5). This study introduces a five-level stratification scheme for the surgical care of spinal disorders. This stratification may provide input into the Global Spine Care Initiative care pathway that will be applied in medically underserved areas and low- and middle-income countries. These slides can be retri