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Sample records for surgical findings methods

  1. Breast reconstruction: review of surgical methods and spectrum of imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel-Giroux, Fanny Maud; El Khoury, Mona M; Trop, Isabelle; Bernier, Christina; David, Julie; Lalonde, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is often requested by women with breast cancer who are ineligible for breast-conserving therapy and women with a high genetic risk for breast cancer. Current breast reconstruction techniques are diverse and may involve the use of an autologous tissue flap, a prosthetic implant, or both. Regardless of the technique used, cancer may recur in the reconstructed breast; in addition, in breasts reconstructed with autologous tissue flaps, benign complications such as fat necrosis may occur. To detect breast cancer recurrences at a smaller size than can be appreciated clinically and as early as possible without evidence of metastasis, radiologists must be familiar with the range of normal and abnormal imaging appearances of reconstructed breasts, including features of benign complications as well as those of malignant change. Images representing this spectrum of findings were selected from the clinical records of 119 women who underwent breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at the authors' institution between January 2009 and March 2011, after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. In 32 of 37 women with abnormal findings on MR images, only benign changes were found at further diagnostic workup; in the other five, recurrent breast cancer was found at biopsy. Four of the five had been treated initially for invasive carcinoma, and one, for multifocal ductal carcinoma; three of the five were carriers of a BRCA gene mutation. On the basis of these results, the authors suggest that systematic follow-up examinations with breast MR imaging may benefit women with a reconstructed breast and a high risk for breast cancer recurrence.

  2. Finding discriminative and interpretable patterns in sequences of surgical activities.

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    Forestier, Germain; Petitjean, François; Senin, Pavel; Riffaud, Laurent; Henaux, Pierre-Louis; Jannin, Pierre

    2017-09-21

    Surgery is one of the riskiest and most important medical acts that is performed today. Understanding the ways in which surgeries are similar or different from each other is of major interest to understand and analyze surgical behaviors. This article addresses the issue of identifying discriminative patterns of surgical practice from recordings of surgeries. These recordings are sequences of low-level surgical activities representing the actions performed by surgeons during surgeries. To discover patterns that are specific to a group of surgeries, we use the vector space model (VSM) which is originally an algebraic model for representing text documents. We split long sequences of surgical activities into subsequences of consecutive activities. We then compute the relative frequencies of these subsequences using the tf*idf framework and we use the Cosine similarity to classify the sequences. This process makes it possible to discover which patterns discriminate one set of surgeries recordings from another set. Experiments were performed on 40 neurosurgeries of anterior cervical discectomy (ACD). The results demonstrate that our method accurately identifies patterns that can discriminate between (1) locations where the surgery took place, (2) levels of expertise of surgeons (i.e., expert vs. intermediate) and even (3) individual surgeons who performed the intervention. We also show how the tf*idf weight vector can be used to both visualize the most interesting patterns and to highlight the parts of a given surgery that are the most interesting. Identifying patterns that discriminate groups of surgeon is a very important step in improving the understanding of surgical processes. The proposed method finds discriminative and interpretable patterns in sequences of surgical activities. Our approach provides intuitive results, as it identifies automatically the set of patterns explaining the differences between the groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Comparison of preoperative neuroradiographic findings and surgical findings in lumbar disc herniation

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    Takahara, Kazuhiro; Sera, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masakazu; Uchida, Takeshi [Nagasaki Mitsubishi Hospital (Japan); Ito, Nobuyuki

    1997-09-01

    Surgical findings in lumbar disc hernia were compared to pre-operative MRI, CTM and myelogram findings. Ninety-one cases were studied using Love`s method. The accuracy of hernia diagnosis in MRI was 59.3%, 41.2% in CTM, and 35.2% in myelogram. At the L5/S1 disc level, the accuracy of hernia diagnosis by CTM and myelogram was decreased. MRI was useful for the diagnosis and cure of lumbar disc herniation. (author)

  4. Ulnar neuropathy at Guyon's canal: electrophysiological and surgical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, E S; Loizides, A; Panayiotou, P; Papacostas, S S; Kleopa, K A

    2005-03-01

    Published correlations between electrophysiological and surgical findings are relatively rare in cases of ulnar nerve compression at the wrist, compared to the more common compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. We describe a patient who presented with clinical and electrodiagnostic findings of a pure motor ulnar neuropathy involving the territory of the deep branch. Surgical exploration revealed that a ganglion cyst caused compression of the deep ulnar motor branch at Guyon's canal. This case illustrates the usefulness of electrodiagnostic studies in the localization of nerve entrapment prior to surgery.

  5. Surgical findings during exploratory laparotomy are closely related to mortality in premature infants with necrotising enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M L; Juhl, Sandra Meinich; Fonnest, G;

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated whether a correlation existed between surgical findings during the first laparotomy for necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and death and, or, disease progression. METHODS: We included infants admitted within one day of birth to our tertiary neonatal department at Rigshos......AIM: This study investigated whether a correlation existed between surgical findings during the first laparotomy for necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and death and, or, disease progression. METHODS: We included infants admitted within one day of birth to our tertiary neonatal department...... at Rigshospitalet, Denmark, from 2006 to 2015, who underwent a laparotomy for acute NEC. They were classified according to the locality and extent of intestinal necrosis by a paediatric surgeon, based on the surgical findings. We correlated the surgical findings with postoperative outcomes, namely death and, or...

  6. CT of lumbar disc herniation: correlation with surgical findings

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    Lee, Suk Yl; Lee, Dong Jin; Sung, Kyu Bo; Woo, Won Hyung [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    CT from forty nine patients with 53 surgical disc explorations were reviewed and correlated with surgical findings. The results were as follows: 1. Frequent locations of HNP were in L4-5 (65%) and L5-S1 (31%). The most common type of HNP was paramidine type (71%). 2. Focal protrusion of the posterior margin of disc and obliteration of epidural fat pad were observed in all of cases (100%) and other common findings were indentation of epidural sac in 46 cases (96%) and compression of nerve root sleeve in 33 cases (69%). 3. Cephalad and caudad extension of protruded soft tissue density in the spinal canal was observed in 15 cases (31%) with variable degree. And more than 6mm extension were provided to be extruded disc in 9 cases. 4. Vacuum phenomenon was demonstrated in 5 cases (10%) and was accompanied with bulging annulus. 5. Forty eight herniated nucleus (HNP) were confirmed surgically in 44 patients. Misinterpretations were made in 4 instances (4 patients); 1 because of lumbar scoliosis, 1 because of spondylolisthesis, and the other 2 because of calcified posterior longitudinal ligament and bulging annulus. One case of true negative examination was central and foraminal stenosis in spinal CT. Thus, sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of lumbar spine CT in HNP were 92%, 100% and 92%, respectively.

  7. CT of lumbar spine disk herniation: correlation with surgical findings

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    Firooznia, H.; Benjamin, V.; Kricheff, I.I.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.

    1984-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine was performed with selectively positioned 5-mm-thick axial cross sections to examine each disk level from the top of the neural foramen to the pedicle of the next caudad vertebra. One hundred consecutive patients with 116 surgical disk explorations were reviewed. There was agreement between the CT and surgical findings in 89 patients (104 explorations) in determination of presence or absence of a herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP). Discrepancy occurred in 12 instances (11 patients): two because of incorrect interpretations, five in previously operated patients, three in spondylolisthesis, and two in spinal stenosis. There were 97 true-positives, eight false-negatives, seven true-negatives, and four false-positives. If nine previously operated patients are excluded from the study, then CT was accurate in detection of presence or absence of an HNP in 93% of the disk explorations.

  8. Surgical Findings in Transfusion-Associated Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couselo, Miguel; Fonseca, Rosa; Mangas, Lucía; Vila, Juan José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The extent of intestinal damage in transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis (TNEC) has been scarcely studied. The aim of this investigation was to study surgical findings in TNEC and determine their severity considering the extent of the disease and risk of bowel perforation. Materials and Methods Neonates who required surgical treatment for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) were studied retrospectively. Patients who developed NEC within 48 hours after a red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) formed group TR48 and patients who did not receive a RBCT 48 hours before the diagnosis of NEC became group CN (conventional NEC). Both groups were compared: main outcomes were the extent of the disease (isolated, multifocal, or panintestinal), the existence of perforated NEC, and mortality. Categorical variables were analyzed with the chi-square test and continuous variables with the Mann-Whitney u-test. The relationship between RBCTs 48 hours before the diagnosis and the extent of intestinal disease was evaluated by ordinal logistic regression. Results Forty-seven patients were included in the study: 16 patients in TR48 and 31 in CN. The odds ratio of multifocal or panintestinal NEC for patients in TR48 was 0.5 (95% CI: 0.148-1.68). Neonates in TR48 had a relative risk (RR) of perforated NEC of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.76-1.85). The RR of death was 1.55 (95% CI: 0.76-3.14) in group TR48. Conclusion No differences in surgical findings between TR48 and CN could be demonstrated in this investigation; therefore, the hypothesis that intestinal damage might be more severe in TNEC was not confirmed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

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    Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

  10. Anatomical and surgical findings and complications in 100 consecutive maxillary sinus floor elevation procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, S.A.; van den Bergh, J.P.A.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; ten Bruggenkate, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prevalence of anatomical and surgical findings and complications in maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery, and to describe the clinical implications. Patients and Methods One hundred consecutive patients scheduled for maxillary sinus floor elevation were included. The pa

  11. Predicting Malignancy from Mammography Findings and Surgical Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro; Fonseca, Nuno A; Dutra, Inês; Woods, Ryan; Burnside, Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Breast screening is the regular examination of a woman's breasts to find breast cancer earlier. The sole exam approved for this purpose is mammography. Usually, findings are annotated through the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) created by the American College of Radiology. The BIRADS system determines a standard lexicon to be used by radiologists when studying each finding. Although the lexicon is standard, the annotation accuracy of the findings depends on the experience of the radiologist. Moreover, the accuracy of the classification of a mammography is also highly dependent on the expertise of the radiologist. A correct classification is paramount due to economical and humanitarian reasons. The main goal of this work is to produce machine learning models that predict the outcome of a mammography from a reduced set of annotated mammography findings. In the study we used a data set consisting of 348 consecutive breast masses that underwent image guided or surgical biopsy performed between October 2005 and December 2007 on 328 female subjects. The main conclusions are threefold: (1) automatic classification of a mammography, independent on information about mass density, can reach equal or better results than the classification performed by a physician; (2) mass density seems to be a good indicator of malignancy, as previous studies suggested; (3) a machine learning model can predict mass density with a quality as good as the specialist blind to biopsy, which is one of our main contributions. Our model can predict malignancy in the absence of the mass density attribute, since we can fill up this attribute using our mass density predictor.

  12. CT findings of surgically retained sponges and towels (gossypibomas)

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    Caprio, F. [Dipt. di Radiologia, Ospedale di Chiaravalle (Italy); Lanza, R. [Dipt. di Radiologia, INRCA (IRCCS), Ancona (Italy); Amoroso, L. [Dipt. di Radiologia, INRCA (IRCCS), Ancona (Italy); Cerioni, M. [Dipt. di Radiologia, INRCA (IRCCS), Ancona (Italy); Carotti, L. [Dipt. di Radiologia, INRCA (IRCCS), Ancona (Italy)

    1993-08-01

    The CT findings in three cases of abdominal gossypibomas are presented, two of which mimic solid tumours. CT is suggested as a useful diagnostic method in the evaluation of masses suspected of being gossypibomas, especially when the characteristic whirl-like spongiform pattern and opaque markers are absent on plain film. (orig.)

  13. Pancreatic tumor of mesenchymal origin--an unusual surgical finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskova, M; Fried, M

    1994-04-01

    Recently, a patient with an unusual pancreatic tumor of smooth muscle origin, presented at the First Surgical Clinic, Charles University Hospital, Prague. Leiomyosarcoma, a malignant smooth muscle tumor, may arise almost anywhere in the body. Pancreatic localization is very unusual. A number of authors have surveyed the literature on pancreatic tumors of mesenchymal origin. As many as fifty cases have been reported in autopsy studies since 1882. Only six operated cases of pancreatic sarcomas were found in surgical series.

  14. MRI findings in injured articular cartilage of the knee correlated with surgical findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-ming; PENG Wen-jia; WU Hua; Kacher Daniel; XIA Li-ming; AI Fei; LI Feng; XIONG Wei

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a strong need for quick noninvasive diagnostic technique that can give a valid estimate of the status of the cartilage reliably,discriminating intact cartilage from various grades of impaired cartilage.The goal of this study was to assess the incidence of knee cartilage injuries and compare the accuracy of two-dimension spin echo(2D SE)and fast spin echo(FSE)(conventional MRI),three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo(3D SPGR),three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady state acquisition(3D FIESTA)MR imaging sequences with surgical examination of the articular cartilage.Methods One hundred and thirty-eight knees with history of knee trauma received conventional MRI,3D SPGR and 3D FIESTA MRI examination before surgery,and surgical examination of articular cartilage was used as reference standard.A modified version of the Noyes classification system was applied for the evaluation of the lateral femoral condyle(LFC),medial femoral condyle(MFC),lateral tibial plateau(LTP),medial tibial plateau(MTP),trochlea and patella.The incidence and distributions of different injured grades at different articular surfaces of knee were assessed.A series of assessment indeces of 3D SPGR,3D FIESTA,and the combination of the conventional MRI and 3D SPGR imaging were calculated.Results The incidence of cartilage defects(grade 2 to 4)was 22%(183/828),according to surgical examination.Grade 3 and 4 lesions were absent at the medial tibial plateau.The rates of exact match between the grading results of different MRI procedures and surgical examination were 49% of 3D SPGR,61% of 3D FIESTA,and 82% of the combination of 3D SPGR and conventional MRI.Also,the combination of 3D SPGR and conventional MR imaging provided the highest sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive and negative predictive values,at 71%,97%,90%,90% and 90%,respectively.Conclusions For all the articular surfaces of the traumatic knees,about one fifth(22%)were cartilage defects.Both 3D SPGR and 3D

  15. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Fluorescence in High Grade Glioma Surgery: Surgical Outcome, Intraoperative Findings, and Fluorescence Patterns

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    Alessandro Della Puppa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA fluorescence is a validated technique for resection of high grade gliomas (HGG; the aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcome and the intraoperative findings in a consecutive series of patients. Methods. Clinical and surgical data from patients affected by HGG who underwent surgery guided by 5-ALA fluorescence at our Department between June 2011 and February 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Surgical outcome was evaluated by assessing the resection rate as gross total resection (GTR>98% and GTR>90%. We finally stratified data for recurrent surgery, tumor location, tumor size, and tumor grade (IV versus III grade sec. WHO. Results. 94 patients were finally enrolled. Overall GTR>98% and GTR>90% was achieved in 93% and 100% of patients. Extent of resection (GTR>98% was dependent on tumor location, tumor grade (P<0.05, and tumor size (P<0.05. In 43% of patients the boundaries of fluorescent tissue exceeded those of tumoral tissue detected by neuronavigation, more frequently in larger (57% (P<0.01 and recurrent (60% tumors. Conclusions. 5-ALA fluorescence in HGG surgery enables a GTR in 100% of cases even if selection of patients remains a main bias. Recurrent surgery, and location, size, and tumor grade can predict both the surgical outcome and the intraoperative findings.

  16. Veterinary Students' Recollection Methods for Surgical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...

  17. Histopathological finding as a prognostic factor of the surgical treatment outcome in colorectal cancer

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    Sečen Svetozar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Adenocarcinomas of the colon are the most common malignant colorectal tumors. Macroscopic and histopahtological features of colorectal cancer significantly affect its outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of histopahological finding as a prognostic factor on the surgical treatment outcome and the course of the disease. Methods. In the first part of this study the distribution (numerical and proportional of certain histopathological parameters in the examined groups of patients were reviewed; in the second part of the study the statistical significance of the impact of the certain elements of a histopahtological finding on the surgical treratment outcome was analyzed. The histopathological elements analyzed included: the hsitological tumor type grading according to Duke, ie Astler-Coller, and tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM staging in the examined sample of 100 patients. Results. Statistically significant prognostic factors of the outcome of surgical treatment were selected after multivariant analysis. These factors comprise Astler-Coller-Dukes stage D (revealed in 77.78% patients died, stage IV according TNM classification (T1-4, N0-2, M1, histological structure (poorly diferentiated adenocarcinoma in 85.2% patents died and type of tumor (mucynous adenocarcinoma was more often present in died, 77.78%. Since φ = 0.000 for four risk factors were formed using discriminant analysus, it was proved their significant influence on the outcome of surgical treatment. Discriminant coefficient showed that the greatest influence on surgical treatment were registred in patients with tumor of Astler-Coller-Dukes stage D (0.255, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (histological structure (0.139, mucynous adenocarcinoma (type of tumor (0.074 and stage IV according to the TNM elassification (T1-4, N0-2, M1 (0.39. Conclusion. The prognostic factors influencing the outcome of surgery for colorectal carcinoma were defined. Patients

  18. PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS FOR DIAGNOSING MENISCAL INJURIES: CORRELATION WITH SURGICAL FINDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Ricardo da Rocha; Rangel, Victor de Oliveira; Karam, Francisco Consoli; Pires, Luiz Antônio Simões

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A set of five maneuvers for meniscal injuries (McMurray, Apley, Childress and Steinmann 1 and 2) was evaluated and their sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood were calculated. The same methods were applied to each test individually. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two patients of both sexes who were going to undergo videoarthroscopy on the knee were examined blindly by one of five residents at this hospital, without knowledge of the clinical data and why the patient was going to undergo an operation. This examination was conducted immediately before the videoarthroscopy and its results were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet. The set of maneuvers was considered positive when one was positive. In the individual analysis, it was enough for the test to be positive. Results: The analysis showed that the set of five meniscal tests presented sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 42%, accuracy of 75%, positive likelihood of 1.53 and negative likelihood of 0.26. Individually, the tests presented accuracy of between 48% and 53%. Conclusion: The set of maneuvers for meniscal injuries presented a good accuracy and significant value, especially for ruling out injury. Individually, the tests had less diagnostic value, although the Apley test had better specificity. PMID:27047833

  19. Histological and clinical findings in different surgical strategies for focal axillary hyperhidrosis.

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    Bechara, Falk G; Sand, Michael; Hoffmann, Klaus; Boorboor, Pejman; Altmeyer, Peter; Stuecker, Markus

    2008-08-01

    Although a variety of different surgical strategies for focal axillary hyperhidrosis (FAH) have proven effective, little is known of intraoperative and postoperative histologies of different surgical methods. The objective was to use pre-, intra-, and postoperative histologic findings to evaluate different surgical procedures for FAH in establishing a possible correlation between the interventions and clinical outcome. A total of 40 patients underwent surgery with 15 undergoing liposuction-curettage (LC), 14 radical skin excision (RSE) with Y-plasty closure, and 11 a skin-sparing technique (SST). Before surgery, density and ratio of eccrine and apocrine sweat glands were evaluated with routine histology. Further biopsies were taken directly after surgery in the RSE and SST groups and 1 year postoperatively in all patients. Additionally, gravimetry was performed, side effects were documented, and patients were asked to evaluate the aesthetic outcome of the surgical method by using an analogue scale. Preoperatively, the mean density of eccrine glands was 11.1/cm(2) compared to 16.9/cm(2) apocrine glands (apocrine/eccrine ratio, 1.6). Biopsy specimen directly after surgery showed remaining sweat glands in 7/15 (46.7%) LC patients and in 4/11 (36.4%) of the SST patients. One year after surgery, sweat gland density was significantly reduced in the LC (79.1%) and the SST (74.9%) groups. In the RSE group, only scar formation was present. Gravimetry showed significantly reduced sweat rates 12 months after surgery in all groups (LC, 66.4%; SST, 62.9%; RSE, 65.3% [pRSE, n=3), subcutaneous fibrotic bridles (LC, n=8; SST, n=3; RSE, n=0), skin erosion (LC, n=3; SST, n=4; RSE, n=0), focal hair loss (LC, n=9; SST, n=11; RSE, n=14), and paresthesia (LC, n=4; SST, n=3; RSE, n=5). Histologic distribution and density of sweat glands were comparable to previous studies. All three surgical procedures evaluated are effective in the treatment of FAH. RSE and SST techniques are associated

  20. A new surgical method for penile girth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoge; Tao, Ling; Cao, Chuan; Shi, Haishan; Li, Le; Chen, Liang; Li, Shirong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We developed a new surgical model of penile girth enhancement in dog, with minimal damage, fewer complications, and high success rate, to enable the experimental investigation of penile implants. Methods: We obtained materials for penile girth enhancement by processing the pericardium and blood vessel wall collected from pigs. Incisions were made at the penile bulb for the implantation of the materials, and facilitate observation and data collection, based on the anatomical features of dog’s penis. We measured the girth of the flaccid penis before and after the operation, and erectile function at 1-month postoperation. In addition to evaluation of recovery from the incision and local pathological changes, ultrasonic examination was performed to monitor the long-term changes associated with implantation. Results: The mean girth of the flaccid penis significantly increased from 7.37±0.40 cm before the operation, to 8.70±0.56 cm postoperation. Dogs resumed normal mating at 1 month after the operation, without any significant change in the mating time. Ultrasonic examination clearly illustrated the implants, and helped in the measurement of the distance between the materials and the baculum. Conclusion: Chinese Rural dog is a promising animal model for penile girth enhancement surgery. The findings demonstrated that surgical implantation into penile bulb was associated with less damage, faster postoperative recovery, and higher success. For the first time, ultrasonic examination provided objective data on the surgical outcomes of penile girth enhancement. PMID:26379868

  1. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

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    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients.

  2. Computer-assisted myelography (CAM) in the diagnosis of cervical disk disease. Correlation with surgical findings

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    Kotwica, Z.; Kasprzak, P. (Medical Univ. of Lodz, Dept. of Neurosurgery (Poland)); Chmielowski, M. (Medical Univ. of Lodz, School of Medicine, Dept. of Medical Imaging (Poland))

    A comparison was made between results obtained from preoperative computer-assisted myelography (CAM), on the one hand, and surgical findings, on the other, for 45 patients with suspicion of cervical disk disease. Full and correct diagnosis, subsequently confirmed by surgery, was enabled by CAM in 98% of all cases. Only one case was left in which preoperative diagnosis had been extraspinal tumour, while surgery revealed prolapse of the nucleus pulposus, the latter lying exposed on the anterior wall of the dural sac. The authors feel CAM to be sufficient for planning of surgical treatment for cervical disk desease, with other neuroradiological investigations, myelography or magnetic resonance tomography usually not being necessary. (orig.).

  3. Evaluation of two surveillance methods for surgical site infection

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    M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical wound infection surveillance is an important facet of hospital infection control processes. There are several surveillance methods for surgical site infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two different surgical site infection surveillance methods. Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study 3020 undergoing surgey in general surgical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were included. Surveillance methods consisted of review of medical records for postoperative fever and review of nursing daily note for prescription of antibiotics postoperatively and during patient’s discharge. Review of patient’s history and daily records and interview with patient’s surgeon and the head-nurse of the ward considered as a gold standard for surveillance. Results: The postoperative antibiotic consumption especially when considering its duration is a proper method for surgical wound infection surveillance. Accomplishments of a prospective study with postdischarge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that postoperative antibiotic surveillance method specially with consideration of the antibiotic usage duration is a proper method for surgical site infection surveillance in general surgery wards. Accomplishments of a prospective study with post discharge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended.

  4. Symptomatic intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine: correlation of MR and surgical findings

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    Tillich, M.; Lindbichler, F. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Trummer, M.; Flaschka, G. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Karl-Franzens Medical School and University Hospital (Austria)

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of associated MR imaging findings in patients with symptomatic lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts, and to correlate MR with surgical findings. MR imaging studies of 18 patients with surgically and histopathologically proven lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with surgical findings. The diameters of the synovial cysts ranged from 10 mm to 28 mm, with a mean of 16 mm. A nonhemorrhagic cyst was found in 15 patients (83%), and a hemorrhagic cyst in three patients (17%). Degenerative spondylolisthesis was found in six patients (33%) at the level of the synovial cyst, with displacement ranging from 3 to 5 mm, mean 4 mm. Surgery revealed instability and hypermobility of the facet joint at the level of the synovial cyst in all patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, and in five additional patients. Symptomatic synovial cysts of the lumbar spine were associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis in six of 18 patients (33%) and with instability of the facet joint in 11 (61%). These findings may support the theory that increased segmental motion plays a role in the pathogenesis of synovial cysts. (orig.)

  5. Point estimation of root finding methods

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    This book sets out to state computationally verifiable initial conditions for predicting the immediate appearance of the guaranteed and fast convergence of iterative root finding methods. Attention is paid to iterative methods for simultaneous determination of polynomial zeros in the spirit of Smale's point estimation theory, introduced in 1986. Some basic concepts and Smale's theory for Newton's method, together with its modifications and higher-order methods, are presented in the first two chapters. The remaining chapters contain the recent author's results on initial conditions guaranteing convergence of a wide class of iterative methods for solving algebraic equations. These conditions are of practical interest since they depend only on available data, the information of a function whose zeros are sought and initial approximations. The convergence approach presented can be applied in designing a package for the simultaneous approximation of polynomial zeros.

  6. Surgical Release of the First Extensor Compartment for Refractory de Quervain's Tenosynovitis: Surgical Findings and Functional Evaluation Using DASH Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Aminata, Iman Widya; Hong, Han-Pyo; Yoon, Jong-Pil

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated surgical outcomes in patients with refractory de Quervain's disease using validated outcome measures. We assessed the clinical outcomes of dorsal release of the first extensor compartment for the treatment of de Quervain's disease using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score. Methods From October 2003 to May 2009, we retrospectively evaluated 33 patients (3 men and 30 women) who underwent surgical treatment for de Quervain's disease. All patients had a positive Finkelstein test and localized tenderness over the first dorsal compartment. All operations were performed under local anesthesia. A 2-cm-long transverse skin incision was made over the first extensor compartment and the dorsal retinaculum covering the extensor pollicis brevis was incised longitudinally. Preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation included the use of DASH score, Finkelstein test, and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results In 18 patients (55%), the extensor pollicis brevis tendon compartment was separated from the abductor pollicis longus compartment. Eight patients had intracompartmental ganglia in the extensor pollicis brevis subcompartment. All patients except one had negative sign on Finkelstein test at the last follow-up. The average VAS score decreased from 7.42 preoperatively to 1.33 postoperatively (p Quervain's disease. The release of the first extensor compartment for refractory de Quervain's disease resulted in good clinical outcomes with minimal morbidity. PMID:25436064

  7. MR imaging of intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord: comparison with surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Du Whan; Hwang, Hee Young; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In One; Kim, Hyen Jip; Chang, Kee Hyung [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-15

    To evaluate the capability of MR imaging to localize intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord and to distinguish solid from cystic components. MR images of 12 patients with surgically-proven intramedullary spinal cord tumor were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with surgical findings. Histologic diagnosis consisted of 3 astrocytomas, 4 ependymomas, 2 gangliogliomas, and one case of lipoma, lymphoma, and glioblastoma multiform each. MR scans were obtained on a 2.0T or a 0.5T with T1-and T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences in sagittal and axial planes. Contrast enhancement was performed with Gd-DTPA in 9 patients. All tumors expanded the spinal cord and showed an extent of involvement ranging from 2 to 5 vertebral heights, except for the gangliogliomas which involved the spinal cord more extensively. Contrast enhancement was seen in all 9 patients. Intratumoral cavities were observed in 1 out of 3 astrocytomas and 2 gangliogliomas. Peritumoral syringomyelia was seen in 2 out of 4 ependymonas and 2 gangliogliomas. In most cases, the MR findings correlated well with the surgical findings with respect to the extent, distinctness of the tumor margin, intratumoral cavity, and associated syringomyelia. It is concluded that MR imaging is a very useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of intramedullary spinal cord tumors.

  8. Flat foot: a comparison of surgical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, C; Chiozzi, F; Persiani, P; Costantini, A

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a comparative review of cases concerning the results obtained in the treatment of idiopathic flat foot: the methods compared were Castaman exosinotarsal arthrorisis and Giannini endosinotarsal arthrorisis. Between 1990 and 1198 a total of 80 patients, of which 40 with calcaneo-stop, and 40 with Giannini screws, were submitted to surgery at the Orthopaedic and Traumatology Department of the University of Rome "La Sapienza". The clinical, radiographic and functional results were classified as good, fair and poor. The authors agree on the effectiveness of both methods based on the results obtained and the facility of implantation techniques, however emphasizing the minor injury of the anatomical structures of the subtalar joint when the calcaneo-stop method with Castaman conical screws was used.

  9. A review of surgical repair methods and patient outcomes for gluteal tendon tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jay R; Bucher, Thomas A; Ball, Simon V; Janes, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hip imaging and surgical findings have demonstrated that a common cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is gluteal tendon tears. Conservative measures are initially employed to treat GTPS and manage gluteal tears, though patients frequently undergo multiple courses of non-operative treatment with only temporary pain relief. Therefore, a number of surgical treatment options for recalcitrant GTPS associated with gluteal tears have been reported. These have included open trans-osseous or bone anchored suture techniques, endoscopic methods and the use of tendon augmentation for repair reinforcement. This review describes the anatomy, pathophysiology and clinical presentation of gluteal tendon tears. Surgical techniques and patient reported outcomes are presented. This review demonstrates that surgical repair can result in improved patient outcomes, irrespective of tear aetiology, and suggests that the patient with "trochanteric bursitis" should be carefully assessed as newer surgical techniques show promise for a condition that historically has been managed conservatively.

  10. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with surgically proven rotator interval lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, Emily N.; Major, Nancy M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States); Higgins, Laurence D. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-05-15

    To identify shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings associated with surgically proven rotator interval abnormalities. The preoperative MRI examinations of five patients with surgically proven rotator interval (RI) lesions requiring closure were retrospectively evaluated by three musculoskeletal-trained radiologists in consensus. We assessed the structures in the RI, including the coracohumeral ligament, superior glenohumeral ligament, fat tissue, biceps tendon, and capsule for variations in size and signal alteration. In addition, we noted associated findings of rotator cuff and labral pathology. Three of three of the MR arthrogram studies demonstrated extension of gadolinium to the cortex of the undersurface of the coracoid process compared with the control images, seen best on the sagittal oblique images. Four of five of the studies demonstrated subjective thickening of the coracohumeral ligament, and three of five of the studies demonstrated subjective thickening of the superior glenohumeral ligament. Five of five of the studies demonstrated a labral tear. The MRI arthrogram finding of gadolinium extending to the cortex of the undersurface of the coracoid process was noted on the studies of those patients with rotator interval lesions at surgery in this series. Noting this finding - especially in the presence of a labral tear and/or thickening of the coracohumeral ligament or superior glenohumeral ligament - may be helpful in the preoperative diagnosis of rotator interval lesions. (orig.)

  12. COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT ESPRIT METHOD FOR DIRECTION FINDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a low complexity ESPRIT algorithm based on power method and Orthogonal-triangular (QR) decomposition is presented for direction finding, which does not require a priori knowledge of source number and the predetermined threshold (separates the signal and noise eigen-values). Firstly, according to the estimation of noise subspace obtained by the power method, a novel source number detection method without eigen-decomposition is proposed based on QR decomposition. Furthermore, the eigenvectors of signal subspace can be determined according to Q matrix,and then the directions of signals could be computed by the ESPRIT algorithm. To determine the source number and subspace, the computation complexity of the proposed algorithm is approximated as (2log2 n+ 2.67)M3, where n is the power of covariance matrix and M is the number of array elements. Compared with the Single Vector Decomposition (SVD) based algorithm, it has a substantial computational saving with the approximation performance. The simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness and robustness.

  13. Phase Segmentation Methods for an Automatic Surgical Workflow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryuhei; Yamazoe, Hirotake

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present robust methods for automatically segmenting phases in a specified surgical workflow by using latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and hidden Markov model (HMM) approaches. More specifically, our goal is to output an appropriate phase label for each given time point of a surgical workflow in an operating room. The fundamental idea behind our work lies in constructing an HMM based on observed values obtained via an LDA topic model covering optical flow motion features of general working contexts, including medical staff, equipment, and materials. We have an awareness of such working contexts by using multiple synchronized cameras to capture the surgical workflow. Further, we validate the robustness of our methods by conducting experiments involving up to 12 phases of surgical workflows with the average length of each surgical workflow being 12.8 minutes. The maximum average accuracy achieved after applying leave-one-out cross-validation was 84.4%, which we found to be a very promising result. PMID:28408921

  14. [Choice of surgical method of treatment of cholelithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timerbulatov, V M; Mekhdiev, D I; Timerbulatov, M V; Sagitov, R B; Iamalov, R A

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results of surgical treatment of 2963 patients with cholelithiasis. The majority of them (71.8%) had an elective surgery, though 28.2% of patients underwent an emergency operation. A comparative assessment of obligate treatment criteria was made in 2 groups. A first group consisted of 803 patients and it was before introduction of Roman selection criteria used for surgical treatment of patients. A second group included 2963 patients in the period after introduction of selection criteria. Preoperative planning of surgery with evaluation of technical complexity of all stages of intervention with prognosis for possible complications should be the base of reasonable choice of surgical method of treatment of cholelithiasis and safety protection of surgery. The study completed and results obtained allowed decrease of the rate of postoperative complications to 1.4% and lethality--to 0.3%, respectively.

  15. Vacuum sealing and cooling as methods to preserve surgical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Engvad, Birte; Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Recently, vacuum-based preservation of surgical specimens has been proposed as a safe alternative to formalin fixation at the surgical theater. The method seems feasible from a practical point of view, but no systematic study has examined the effect of vacuum sealing alone with respect to tissue...... preservation. In this study, we therefore subjected tissue samples from 5 different organs to treatments with and without vacuum sealing and cooling at 4°C to study the effect of vacuum sealing of surgical specimens with respect to tissue preservation and compare it with the effect of cooling. No preserving...... effect of vacuum sealing was observed with respect to cellular morphology, detection of immunohistochemical epitopes, or RNA integrity. In contrast, storage at 4°C was shown to preserve tissue to a higher degree than storage at room temperature for all included endpoints, independently of whether...

  16. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  17. Clinical, magnetic-resonance imaging and surgical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders - a survey of 47 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raustia, A.M. (Dept. of Prosthodontics and Stomatognathic Physiology, Inst. of Dentistry, Oulu Univ., Aapistie (Finland)); Pyhtinen, J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Pernu, H. (Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Inst. of Dentistry, Oulu Univ. (Finland))

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and correlate the clinical, magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical findings in 47 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. 51 TMJs (24 right, 27 left) were operated on, because 4 patients underwent treatment of both TMJs. The best correlation between MRI and surgical findings was noted in connection with position of the disk. This was surgically confirmed altogether in 88% of cases (45/51). The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings in 75% of cases of anterior dislocation of the disk with reduction and 89% of cases of anterior dislocation of the disk without reduction. Bone changes noted by MRI were confirmed by surgery in 71% of cases. MRI was excellent especially relating to disk position and changes in disk morphology. The results show also that there are findings using MRI, e.g. of joint effusion, which cannot be confirmed during surgery. (orig.)

  18. Septic osteitis of the distal phalanx: findings and surgical treatment in 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauvin, E R; Munroe, G A

    1998-11-01

    Eighteen cases of septic osteitis of the distal phalanx were diagnosed clinically and confirmed at surgery over a 6 year period (1990-1996). Focal bone lysis was the most common radiographic finding. Sequestra were identified in 4 horses, one of which was associated with a fractured plantar process. All the horses were treated surgically with open debridement. The septic process recurred in 4 horses: one was subjected to euthanasia due to navicular bursa infection, secondary to a pathological fracture, the other 3 horses responded to further debridement. A pathological fracture occurred in another horse. All the survivors were not lame 3 months post operatively, although complete healing took 1-12 months. Long term follow up was available in 14 cases. One was retired, all the other horses were back in work at a similar level of performance. This series indicates that surgical treatment of septic pedal osteitis carries a fair to good prognosis despite a high rate of post operative complications and convalescence period of up to 12 months.

  19. Ultrasonographic, Surgical, and Histopathological Findings of a Uterine Leiomyoma in a Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this case report was to describe the ultrasonographic, surgical, and histopathological findings of a rare clinical case of uterine leiomyoma in a 5-year-old Holstein crossbred cow presented for diagnosis and treatment of infertility. Transrectal palpation revealed a large nonpainful mass suspected to be an abscess or a tumor in the caudal abdomen on the right side. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed a round mass with irregular hypoechogenic/echogenic foci and a thin echogenic capsule around it. Ultrasonographic-guided centesis of the lesion under local analgesia did not yield any foul smelling aspirate leading to a tentative diagnosis of an intra-abdominal tumor. The lesion was later confirmed by exploratory laparotomy and histopathology as a case of uterine leiomyoma. The cow gave birth to a live normal calf 12 months following the surgery. Rectal examination after parturition revealed no evidence of the tumor at the surgical site. Ultrasonography enabled prompt, noninvasive diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma and proved to be a useful decision-making tool in the abdominal surgery of the cow. This is an interesting case which broadens the spectrum of the causes of infertility in cattle.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PREOPERATIVE ULTRASONOGRAPHY REPORTS WITH INTRAOPERATIVE SURGICAL FINDINGS IN CHOLELITHIASIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Flávio; Cunha, Daniel José Dias; Ferreira, Carolina Cavalcanti Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Thais Menezes; Fulco, Lucas Gomes de Morais; Godoy, Eduardo Sávio Nascimento

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely used for cholelithiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography often precedes this operation and can prove diagnosis, as well as helps in showing possible complications during the perioperative period. Evaluate the description of variables of gallbladder and bile ducts present in reports of preoperative abdominal ultrasonography in cholelithiasis comparing with surgical findings. Were studied 91 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy with previous abdominal ultrasonography. Variables such as identification and amount of gallstones involved were evaluated, both in preoperative ultrasonography and during surgery to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, concordance and positive and negative predictive values. The reports did not mention diameter of vesicular light (98.9%), organ distension (62.6%), gallstone sizes (58.2%), wall thickness (41.8%) and evaluation of the common bile duct (39.6%). Ultrasound had high values for sensitivity, consistency and positive predictive value for identifying the presence/absence of gallstones: 98.8%, 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. As for the amount of stones, ultrasonography showed agreement in 82.7%, negative predictive value in 89.1% and specificity in 87.7%, with lower values for sensitivity (68.2%) and positive predictive value (65.2%). The ultrasound reports were flawed in standardization. Significant percentage of them did not have variables that could predict perioperative complications and surgical conversion.

  1. [Ectopic parathyroid glands. Imaging methods and surgical access].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, M; Adámková, J; Adámek, S; Libánský, P; Kubinyi, J

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the benefits of imaging methods in localizing ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The ectopic localizations are discussed within the context of the orthotopic norm. In the sample of 123 patients, a 23% rate of ectopic parathyroid glands was detected. Three selected case studies are presented, supporting the benefit of SPECT/CT imaging in terms of surgical access strategy selection.

  2. Prospective Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Transrectal and Transperineal Sonography, and Surgical Findings in Complicated Perianal Crohn Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Renáta; Farkas, Klaudia; Bálint, Anita; Szűcs, Mónika; Ábrahám, Szabolcs; Milassin, Ágnes; Rutka, Mariann; Nagy, Ferenc; Milassin, Péter; Szepes, Zoltán; Molnár, Tamás

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transrectal sonography are the two accepted imaging modalities for evaluation of perianal fistulas and abscesses. Transperineal sonography is a new technique that is easy to learn and can be performed at any time. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRI, transrectal sonography, and transperineal sonography with surgical findings in patients with perianal Crohn disease. All patients with perianal Crohn disease underwent MRI, transrectal sonography, and transperineal sonography within a few days before surgery. Fistulas were classified as simple (43.8%) or complex (52.2%) based on surgical findings. Twenty-three patients with active perianal Crohn disease (12 women and 11 men; mean age, 29.9 years; current therapy: antibiotics, 69.6%; azathioprine, 56.5%; and biologics, 73.9%; previous surgery, 26.1%; and proportion of smokers, 39.1%) were included. Sensitivity values for MRI, transrectal sonography, and transperineal sonography for diagnosis of fistulas were 84.6%, 84.6%, and 100%, respectively. Transperineal sonography was more sensitive for diagnosis of perianal abscesses than MRI and transrectal sonography (100%, 58.8%, and 92.8%). Transperineal sonography is a very accurate diagnostic method with outstanding sensitivity compared with MRI and transrectal sonography for evaluation of complicated perianal Crohn disease. Due to its simplicity and low cost, it is recommended that transperineal sonography be the first diagnostic modality in these cases. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. The Use of Multislice Spiral CT to Predict the Resectability of Central Lung Cancer: Correlation with Pathologic and Surgical Findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Yu'e Sun; Naikang Zhou; Qiming Xu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the accuracy of multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) with imaging reconstruction in judging central pulmonary vascular involvement from central lung cancer, and to explore its ability to predict the resectability of lung cancer.METHODS MSCTs were conducted on 48 patients who were diagnosed preoperatively with central lung cancer. Images of pulmonary arteries and veins that might affect Iobectomy or pneumonectomy were reconstructed by means of imaging processing techniques. Then the relationship of the tumor to the vessels was assessed prospectively on both axial CT images and axial CT images plus reconstructed images(CT-RI) in comparison to subsequent pathologic and surgical findings.RESULTS MSCTs were obtained on all 48 patients whom 42 underwent thoracotomy, Iobectomy or pneumonectomy. Compared with the axial CT images,CT-RI was more accurate in judging the relationship of the central pulmonary vessels to the tumor based on subsequent pathologic 78 vessels studiedand surgical findings (186 vessels studied) (0.01 <P<0.05). The sensitivity and positive predictive value of unresectability of the vessels were all remarkably higher with CT-RI (P<0.01).CONCLUSION MSCT with imaging reconstruction can improve the recognition of neoplastic invasion of central pulmonary vessels. It can be used to predict preoperatively the resectability of central lung cancer and to plan surgery.

  4. The comparison of CT fistulography and MR imaging of perianal fistulae with surgical findings: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Gokhan; Gulek, Bozkurt; Yilmaz, Cengiz; Kaya, Omer; Arslan, Muhammet; Dilek, Okan; Gorur, Mustafa; Kuscu, Ferit; İrkorucu, Oktay

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacies of CT fistulography and MRI, in the diagnostic work-up of perianal fistula patients. All 41 patients who were included in the study (36 males and 5 females, with an average age of 41 years) underwent CT fistulography and MRI examinations prior to surgery. The fistula characteristics obtained from these examinations were compared with the surgical findings. The comparative results were evaluated by means of the Kappa analysis method. CT fistulography predicted the correct perianal fistula classification in 30 (73.1%) of the 41 patients, whereas MRI correctly defined fistula classification in 38 (92.7%) of these patients (the K values were 0.621 and 0.896, respectively; with p fistulography depicted 29 secondary extensions in 16 patients, whereas MR imaging revealed 28 secondary extensions in 15 patients. A substantial agreement was found between surgical findings and two modalities (K value was 0.789 and 0.793 for CT fistulography and MRI, respectively, with a p value fistulography was able to detect the locations in 28 patients (68.2%), whereas MRI was more successful in this aspect, with a number of 35 patients (85.3%). Granulation tissues, inflammation and edema around the fistula, abscesses, and fistular wall fibrosis were also evaluated. CT fistulography and MRI have different advantages in the diagnosis of perianal fistulas. A good command of knowledge concerning the issue may be a key factor in modality decision.

  5. The impact of surgical and pathological findings on radiotherapy of early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borger, J.H. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Treatment results in breast conserving therapy show considerable variation with local breast control rates from 1-13% at 5 yrs. of follow-up. This wide variation and reports on prognostic factors (age, extensive ductal carcinoma in situ component and margin involvement) having adverse effects on local control raise questions about the safety of this treatment. An attempt is made to identify surgical and pathological factors which make modifications in radio-therapeutic treatment necessary in order to reach perfect balance between good local control and optimal cosmic results. For this purpose literature is reviewed including 3 randomized trials on this subject and studies providing sufficient data on most of mentioned prognostic factors. Looking at treatment characteristics of above mentioned studies, considerable variation is observed with regard to surgical margins, boost dose and application of adjuvant systemic treatment. Microscopic margin evaluation and identification of extensive in situ component (EIC) is performed in half of these studies and the implications of the findings are very different. Although some authors perform multivariate analyses, this is rarely done on a complete set of variables. This results in different treatment results and conflicting data on prognostic factors. There is no agreement on even 1 prognostic factor and best results in terms of local control are seen in centres combining very wide excision with a moderate boost or a less wide excision with a high boost. These approaches are likely to result in less acceptable cosmesis and are unnecessarily aggressive in the majority of the patients. The incidence and volume of residual breast tumor can be estimated after careful pathologic evaluation of the tumor specimen and information provided by the surgeon with special attention to preoperative mammography. Treatment can be tailored for each individual patient providing consultation between surgeon, pathologist and radiotherapist.

  6. Surgical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging findings in piriformis muscle syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Boric, Igor [Clinical Hospital ' ' Sestre Milosrdnice' ' , Department of Radiology, Zagreb (Croatia); Smoljanovic, Tomislav; Pecina, Marko [University of Zagreb, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Zagreb (Croatia); Duvancic, Davor [Outpatients Clinic and Clinic for Diagnostic Procedures, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of the piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS). In ten patients, seven female and three male, with a long history of clinical symptoms of the PMS, an MRI was performed as the last preoperative diagnostic tool. All patients were imaged using 2T MR system (Elscint, Haifa, Israel). Axial and coronal spin-echo, fast spin-echo (FSE), and fat-suppressed FSE-weighted images were made through the pelvic region with 3-mm section thickness and a 0.5-mm gap to show the whole piriformis muscle and the course of sciatic nerve on its way out of the pelvis. A routine examination also included axial fast spin-echo T2, three-dimensional gradient echo. In seven cases, an MRI abnormality for the PMS was found. In two women, the MRI demonstrated a bigastric appearance of the piriformis muscle with a tendinous portion between the muscle heads and the course of the common peroneal nerve through the muscle between the tendinous portions of the muscle. In one female patient, the common peroneal nerve passed through the hypertrophied piriformis muscle. In four patients, the MRI showed a hypertrophied aspect of the piriformis muscle and an anteriorly displaced sciatic nerve. All MRI findings were confirmed surgically. In three patients, no apparent abnormalities could be observed, but after a surgical treatment, i.e., a tenotomy of the piriformis muscle and neurolysis of the sciatic nerve, all symptoms disappeared. In piriformis muscle syndrome, MRI may demonstrate signal abnormalities of the sciatic nerve as well as its relationship with the normal and abnormal piriformis muscle. (orig.)

  7. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-02-22

    BACKGROUND An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. RESULTS Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. CONCLUSIONS The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment.

  8. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  9. The Business Engineering Surgical Technologies (BEST) teaching method: incubating talents for surgical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, V; Halvax, P; Dallemagne, B; Swanström, L; Marescaux, J; Perretta, S

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation in surgical science and healthcare is vital and calls for close collaboration between engineering and surgery. To meet this objective, BEST was designed as a free sustainable innovative teaching method for young professionals, combining surgery, engineering, and business in a multidisciplinary, high-quality, low-cost, and learning-by-doing philosophy. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions of this innovative educational method. BEST educational method is delivered in two parts: the first component consisting of live streaming or pre-recorded online lectures, with an interdisciplinary profile focused on surgery, engineering, and business. The second component is an annual 5-day on-site course, organized at IRCAD-IHU, France. The program includes workshops in engineering, entrepreneurship team projects, and in-depth hands-on experience in laparoscopy, robotic surgery, interventional radiology, and flexible endoscopy with special emphasis on the interdisciplinary aspect of the training. A panel of surgeons, engineers, well-established entrepreneurs, and scientists assessed the team projects for potential patent application. From November 2011 till September 2013, 803 individual and institutional users from 79 different countries attended the online course. In total, 134 young professionals from 32 different countries applied to the onsite course. Sixty participants were selected each year for the onsite course. In addition, five participants were selected for a web-based team. Thirteen provisional patents were filed for the most promising projects. BEST proved to be a global talent incubator connecting students to high-quality education despite institutional and economical boundaries. Viable and innovative ideas arose from this revolutionary approach which is likely to spin-off significant technology transfer and lead the way for future interdisciplinary hybrid surgical

  10. Numerical Methods for Finding Stationary Gravitational Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Oscar J C; Way, Benson

    2015-01-01

    The wide applications of higher dimensional gravity and gauge/gravity duality have fuelled the search for new stationary solutions of the Einstein equation (possibly coupled to matter). In this topical review, we explain the mathematical foundations and give a practical guide for the numerical solution of gravitational boundary value problems. We present these methods by way of example: resolving asymptotically flat black rings, singly-spinning lumpy black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS), and the Gregory-Laflamme zero modes of small rotating black holes in AdS$_5\\times S^5$. We also include several tools and tricks that have been useful throughout the literature.

  11. A career in surgical oncology: finding meaning, balance, and personal satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait

    2008-02-01

    The practice of surgical oncology provides opportunities for both personal distress as well as personal satisfaction. While many surgical oncologists experience career burnout, others derive great meaning and satisfaction from their work. In this article, we review the literature on surgeon burnout, discuss potential personal and professional consequences, and consider steps individual surgeons can take to promote personal and professional satisfaction.

  12. The "we" and the "others" in an interprofessional surgical context: findings from a Portuguese study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anabela; Miguez, José; Lourenço, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    The social identity of an individual is defined by the recognition they make which belongs to a particular group (Tajfel, 1984). In this sense, will doctors and nurses, when together in the surgical team, recognize themselves as its members, thus leaving the background identities associated with their own professions? Using social identity theory of Tajfel (1984), this study explored the extent that profession-specific identity, present in the surgical team, acting as a barrier to a shared team identity. A case study design was adopted, and structured interviews were gathered from 20 clinicians based in a surgical unit in a single Portuguese hospital. The results indicated that the profession-specific identifies acted as a barrier to the surgical team identity as the participants defined themselves as its members of their profession, and not as surgical team members. Therefore, based on the results of this small study, there is a tendency of surgical clinicians to maintain the distinction between "us" (their own profession) and "others" (the other individuals in the surgical team).

  13. Surgical insertion of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rub, A. Michelle Wargo; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    ) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical...

  14. Internal Hernias in the Era of Multidetector CT: Correlation of Imaging and Surgical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doishita, Satoshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Uchima, Yasutake; Kawasaki, Masayasu; Shimono, Taro; Yamashita, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Michiko; Ninoi, Teruhisa; Shima, Hideki; Miki, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of internal hernias is challenging because of their nonspecific signs and symptoms. Many types of internal hernias have been defined: paraduodenal, small bowel mesentery-related, greater omentum-related, lesser sac, transverse mesocolon-related, pericecal, sigmoid mesocolon-related, falciform ligament, pelvic internal, and Roux-en-Y anastomosis-related. An internal hernia is a surgical emergency that can develop into intestinal strangulation and ischemia. Accurate preoperative diagnosis is crucial for appropriate management. Multidetector computed tomography (CT), with its thin-section axial images, high-quality multiplanar reformations, and three-dimensional images, currently plays an essential role in preoperative diagnosis of internal hernias. The diagnostic approach to internal hernias at multidetector CT includes detecting an intestinal closed loop, identifying the hernia orifice, and analyzing abnormal displacement of surrounding structures and key vessels around the hernia orifice and hernia sac. At each step, multidetector CT can depict pathognomonic findings. A saclike appearance suggests an intestinal closed loop in several types of internal hernias. Convergence, engorgement, and twisting of mesenteric vessels in the hernia orifice can be seen clearly at multidetector CT, especially with use of multiplanar reformations. For definitive diagnosis of an internal hernia, analysis of displacement of anatomic landmarks around the hernia orifice is particularly important, and thin-section images provide the required information. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy, etiology, and imaging landmarks of the various hernia types is also necessary. Familiarity with the appearances of internal hernias at multidetector CT allows accurate and specific preoperative diagnosis. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  15. High-resolution computed tomography findings of early mucinous adenocarcinomas and their pathologic characteristics in 22 surgically resected cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Naoko, E-mail: n.miyata@scchr.jp [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Endo, Masahiro [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Kojima, Hideaki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Shoji; Isaka, Mitsuhiro [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Kameya, Toru [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Ohde, Yasuhisa [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of early mucinous adenocarcinoma. • Radiologically, all cases showed solid or part-solid nodules. • Lobular-bounded margins were observed in 7 cases. • The radiological features could be histologically attributed to mucin production. • One-third of the cases were preoperatively misdiagnosed as inflammatory nodules. - Abstract: Background: The pathological criteria of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung have recently been defined; however, its characteristic radiologic imaging findings are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the radiologic and pathological findings of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: In this study, we clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of surgically resected mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimal invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and attempted to elucidate the characteristic radiologic features of early mucinous adenocarcinomas using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Results: Radiologically, the mean value of the maximum diameter of 22 tumours was 2.1 cm (range, 1.0–2.9 cm). Based on the HRCT findings, the tumours were divided into part-solid ground glass nodules (n = 11) and solid nodules (n = 11). The mean CT attenuation value was 25.7 HU (range, 17–35 HU). All tumours, except 3 tumours pathologically diagnosed as AIS, showed air-containing features. According to the preoperative CT findings, 7 (35%) cases were diagnosed as inflammatory nodules. Of these, 4 cases had lobular-bounded margins, and 3 showed vaguely outlined ground glass shadows. Conclusion: The characteristic HRCT findings of mucinous AIS and MIA were solid or part-solid nodules with air-containing spaces. However, some AIS and MIA nodules showed lobular-bounded margins or marginally vaguely outlined ground glass shadows, and were difficult to differentiate from inflammatory nodules.

  16. Value of CT findings to predict surgical ischemia in small bowel obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Taourel, Patrice; Ruyer, Alban [CHU Lapeyronie, From Department of Medical Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Molinari, Nicolas [CHU Montpellier, From Department of Medical Information, Montpellier (France)

    2015-06-01

    Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance in determining strangulation in small bowel obstruction (SBO) for five CT findings commonly considered in published small bowel obstruction (SBO) management guidelines. Medical databases were searched for ''bowel obstruction'', ''computed tomography'', ''strangulation'', and related terms. Two reviewers independently selected articles for CT findings investigated with surgical or histological reference standards for strangulation. Bivariate random-effects meta-analytical methods were used. A total of 768 patients, including 205 with strangulation from nine studies, were evaluated. The reduced bowel wall enhancement CT sign had the highest specificity (95 %, CI 75-99), with a positive LR of 11.07 (2.27-53.88) and DOR of 22.86 (4.99-104.61). The mesenteric fluid sign had the highest sensitivity (89 %, CI 75-96) with a negative LR of 0.16 (0.07-0.39) and a DOR of 13.9 (5.73-33.75). The bowel wall thickness had a sensitivity of 48 % (CI 41-54), a specificity of 83 % (CI 74-89), a positive LR of 2.84 (1.83-4.41) and a negative LR of 0.62 (0.53-0.72). The other CT findings had lower diagnostic performance. Two CT findings should be used in clinical practice: reduced enhanced bowel wall is highly predictive of ischemia, and absence of mesenteric fluid is a reliable finding to rule out strangulation. (orig.)

  17. SURGICAL METHODS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH FORMED PANCREATIC CYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: a comparative analysis of the results of the use of different surgical methods of treatment of patients with formed pancreatic cysts.Material and methods. 108 patients with formed pancreatic cysts were treated and analysis of shortand long-term results of their surgical treatment was performed. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the type of surgical intervention: I – external drainage – 44 (40.7%, II – internal drainage –33 (30.6%, III – resection operations – 31 (28.7%.Results and discussions. Marsupialization of cyst by laparotomy incision was performed in patients of I group (n = 44. 18 (40.9% complications, 9 (20.5% lethal cases were after operation. Anastomoses of cysts with the small intestine were mostly performed in II group (n = 33 – 21 (63.6%. 7 (21.2% complications, 1 (3.0% lethal case were after operation. Distal resections were performed in patients of III group (n = 31 in 16 (51.6% cases. Duodenum-preserving resections were introduced for treatment of cyst of pancreas head – 12 (38.7%. When performing this type of operations we proposed nikelid titanium stents for the prevention of anastomosis stenosis and preoperative retrograde stenting of the common bile duct for the prevention of damage. 10 (32.3% complications and no lethal cases were after operation. Immediate results were worse in patients of I group. 47 (43.5% patients were analyzed in long-term period. The number of recurrences of the disease (13.3% and long-term mortality (33.3% prevailed in the group of patients undergoing internal drainage of cysts. Quality of life, level of mental and physical health, that was assessed using SF-36, were higher in group of patients with reactionary treatment.Conclusion. The best immediate and long-term results were noted after resection operations, that enables to recommend their as the most optimal and radical method for treatment of patients with pancreatic cysts. Introducing of duodenum

  18. [Wound microbial sampling methods in surgical practice, imprint techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovanec, Z; Veverková, L; Votava, M; Svoboda, J; Peštál, A; Doležel, J; Jedlička, V; Veselý, M; Wechsler, J; Čapov, I

    2012-12-01

    The wound is a damage of tissue. The process of healing is influenced by many systemic and local factors. The most crucial and the most discussed local factor of wound healing is infection. Surgical site infection in the wound is caused by micro-organisms. This information is known for many years, however the conditions leading to an infection occurrence have not been sufficiently described yet. Correct sampling technique, correct storage, transportation, evaluation, and valid interpretation of these data are very important in clinical practice. There are many methods for microbiological sampling, but the best one has not been yet identified and validated. We aim to discuss the problem with the focus on the imprint technique.

  19. Imaging in chronic achilles tendinopathy: a comparison of ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings in 27 histologically verified cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastroem, M. [Department of Orthopaedics, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Gentz, C.F. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Nilsson, P. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Rausing, A. [Department of Pathology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Sjoeberg, S. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Westlin, N. [Department of Orthopaedics, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Objective. To compare information gained by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic achilles tendinopathy with regard to the nature and severity of the lesion. Design. Imaging of both achilles tendons with ultrasonography and MRI was performed prior to unilateral surgery. Operative findings and histological biopsies together served as a reference. Patients. Twenty-seven patients (22 men, 5 women; mean age 44 years; 21 athletes) suffering from chronic achilles tendinopathy participated in the study. Eighteen patients had unilateral and 9 had bilateral symptoms. Results and conclusions. Surgical findings included 4 partial ruptures, 21 degenerative lesions and 2 macroscopically normal cases. Microscopy revealed tendinosis (degeneration) in all tendon biopsies, including cases with a partial rupture, but only slight changes in the paratendinous tissues (paratenon). Ultrasonography was positive in 21 of 26 and MRI in 26 of 27 cases. Severe intratendinous abnormalities and a sagittal tendon diameter >10 mm suggested a partial rupture. In tendons with a false negative result histopathological changes were mild and a tendency towards a better clinical outcome was noted in the sonographic cases. Assessment of the paratenon was unreliable with both methods. Ultrasonography and MRI give similar information and may have their greatest potential as prognostic instruments. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The degree of satisfaction of women undergoing surgical repair of prolapse, compared with clinical and urodynamic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Vecchioli-Scaldazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obiective: To assess the degree of satisfaction of women undergoing surgical repair of prolapse, compared with the clinical and urodynamic findings. Materials and Methods: 72 women hospitalized for pelvic organ prolapse (POP were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients underwent clinical evaluation and urodynamic study before and 4 months after POP repair. Women were assessed for urinary symptoms by micturition diary and patient perception of intensity of urgency scale. Women were also questioned about defecation and sexual life. POP repair was performed in all cases without the use of a mesh. Subjective evaluation was performed by patient global impression of improvement questionnaire. Results: 56 women were evaluable. Improvements were found in all micturition symptoms and in particular in voiding symptoms. Feeling of vaginal bulging disappeared in all patients. A slight improvement was found in constipation; 62% of patients had a normal sexual life but 27% refrained from sexual activity. Judgement of patients was between “much improved” and “very much improved”. Conclusions: Disappearance of the feeling of vaginal bulging was by far the best result. Improvements were found in most of the symptoms particularly in voiding symptoms and urodynamic findings.

  1. Surgical outcome prediction in patients with advanced ovarian cancer using computed tomography scans and intraoperative findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Jeong Kim

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The combination of omental extension to the stomach or spleen and involvement of inguinal or pelvic lymph nodes in preoperative CT scans is considered predictive of suboptimal cytoreduction. These patients may be more appropriately treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical cytoreduction.

  2. Surgical insertion of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rub, A. Michelle Wargo; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    implantation procedures for fish. We also intend to provide insight into the unique challenges of field-based aquatic surgical studies. Within this context, 4 aspects of the process for surgical implantation of transmitters in fish (ie, handling, aseptic technique, anesthesia, and implantation...

  3. Pancreatic surgical biopsy in 24 dogs and 19 cats: postoperative complications and clinical relevance of histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratschke, K M; Ryan, J; McAlinden, A; McLauchlan, G

    2015-01-01

    To assess the immediate postoperative complications associated with pancreatic biopsy in dogs and cats and review the clinical relevance of biopsy findings. Retrospective review of clinical records from two referral institutions for cases undergoing pancreatic biopsy between 2000 and 2013. Twenty-four dogs and 19 cats that had surgical pancreatic biopsy had sufficient detail in their clinical records and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Postoperative complications were seen in 10 cases of which 5 were suggestive of post-surgical pancreatitis. Two patients were euthanased within 10 days of surgery because of the underlying disease; neither suffered postoperative complications. Pancreatic pathology was found in 19 cases, 7 cases showed no change other than benign pancreatic nodular hyperplasia, and no abnormalities were seen in 18 cases. Complications may be encountered following surgical pancreatic biopsy, although the risk should be minimal with good surgical technique. Pancreatic biopsy may provide a useful contribution to case management but it is not clear whether a negative pancreatic biopsy should be used to rule out pancreatic disease. Dogs were more likely to have no significant pathology found on pancreatic biopsy than cats, where chronic pancreatitis was the most common finding. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Current Status of Surgical Planning for Orthognathic Surgery: Traditional Methods versus 3D Surgical Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Hammoudeh, MD, DDS

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: It is our opinion that virtual model surgery will displace and replace traditional model surgery as it will become cost and time effective in both the private and academic setting for practitioners providing orthognathic surgical care in cleft and noncleft patients.

  5. Retained Intra-Abdominal Surgical Clamp Complicating Emergency Laparotomy: Incidental Finding on Hysterosalpingogram for Evaluation of Tubal Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of intraperitoneal foreign body complicating surgical intervention broadly remains as an issue of safety in the operative room, a source of emotive concern for the patient, and an upsetting but equally embarrassing situation to the surgeon and the team. However, in the media world, it is a source of sumptuous and captivating headline on the newspaper and to the legal profession, an attractive case to prosecute. A middle age teacher presented with secondary infertility. She had emergency laparotomy fifteen years ago for ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy in a private hospital and postoperative period was uneventful. Amongst other investigations to find out the cause of infertility, she had hysterosalpingography and a radio-opaque clamp was visualized on the films. She was counselled and had laparotomy. A pair of surgical Kocher clamps was retrieved buried in the mesentery.

  6. Surgical Site Infections Rates in More Than 13,000 Surgical Procedures in Three Cities in Peru: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Wong, Fernando M; Atencio-Espinoza, Teodora; Rosenthal, Victor D; Ramirez, Eliza; Torres-Zegarra, Socorro L; Díaz Tavera, Zoila Rosa; Sarmiento López, Favio; Silva Astete, Nazario; Campos Guevara, Francisco; Bazan Mendoza, Carlos; Valencia Ramírez, Augusto; Soto Pastrana, Javier

    2015-10-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a threat to patient safety. However, there are not available data on SSI rates stratified by surgical procedure (SP) in Peru. From January 2005 to December 2010, a cohort prospective surveillance study on SSIs was conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in four hospitals in three cities of Peru. Data were recorded from hospitalized patients using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) methods and definitions for SSI. Surgical procedures (SPs) were classified into 4 types, according to ICD-9 criteria. We recorded 352 SSIs, associated to 13,904 SPs (2.5%; CI, 2.3-2.8) SSI rates per type of SP were the following for this study's Peruvian hospitals, compared with rates of the INICC and CDC-NHSN reports, respectively: 2.9% for appendix surgery (vs. 2.9% vs. 1.4%); 2.8% for gallbladder surgery (vs. 2.5% vs. 0.6%); 2.2% for cesarean section (vs. 0.7% vs. 1.8%); 2.8% for vaginal hysterectomy (vs. 2.0% vs. 0.9%). Our SSIs rates were higher in all of the four analyzed types of SPs compared with CDC-NHSN, whereas compared with INICC, most rates were similar. This study represents an important advance in the knowledge of SSI epidemiology in Peru that will allow us to introduce targeted interventions.

  7. Uterine sparing surgical methods in pelvic organ prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Esra Nur; Erdemoğlu, Evrim; Erdemoğlu, Ebru

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is defined as the protrusion of pelvic organs to the vagen and is an important health problem in patients of older age. Today, most women with POP prefer uterine sparing surgery due to the changes in lifestyle, beliefs, pregnancy desire, and understanding the role of the uterus and cervix in sexual function. Therefore, the need for newer surgical procedures that involve less invasive surgery, reduced intraoperative and postoperative risks, and a faster healing time in POP surgery have gained importance. Vaginal, abdominal, laparoscopic, and robotic methods are defined in uterine preserving surgery but there is not yet a consensus on which of them should be chosen. In choosing the proper technique, the patient’s general status, accompanying disease, correct indication, and the surgeon’s experience are all important. In our practice we prefer laparoscopic mesh sacrohysteropexy in patients who prefer to preserve their uterus because of the lower costs and high success rates compared with abdominal and robotic techniques. PMID:28913063

  8. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants. PMID:22230200

  9. Disorganized care: the findings of an iterative, in-depth analysis of surgical morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl I; Nelson, Catherine S; Graham, Corey F; Mosher, Benjamin D; Gohil, Kartik N; Morrison, Chet A; Schneider, Paul D; Kepros, John P

    2012-09-01

    Performance improvement driven by the review of surgical morbidity and mortality is often limited to critiques of individual cases with a focus on individual errors. Little attention has been given to an analysis of why a decision seemed right at the time or to lower-level root causes. The application of scientific performance improvement has the potential to bring to light deeper levels of understanding of surgical decision-making, care processes, and physician psychology. A comprehensive retrospective chart review of previously discussed morbidity and mortality cases was performed with an attempt to identify areas where we could better understand or influence behavior or systems. We avoided focusing on traditional sources of human error such as lapses of vigilance or memory. An iterative process was used to refine the practical areas for possible intervention. Definitions were then created for the major categories and subcategories. Of a sample of 152 presented cases, the root cause for 96 (63%) patient-related events was identified as uni-factorial in origin, with 51 (34%) cases strictly related to patient disease with no other contributing causes. Fifty-six cases (37%) had multiple causes. The remaining 101 cases (66%) were categorized into two areas where the ability to influence outcomes appeared possible. Technical issues were found in 27 (18%) of these cases and 74 (74%) were related to disorganized care problems. Of the 74 cases identified with disorganized care, 42 (42%) were related to failures in critical thinking, 18 (18%) to undisciplined treatment strategies, 8 (8%) to structural failures, and 6 (6%) were related to failures in situational awareness. On a comprehensive review of cases presented at the morbidity and mortality conference, disorganized care played a large role in the cases presented and may have implications for future curriculum changes. The failure to think critically, to deliver disciplined treatment strategies, to recognize

  10. Surgical Regenerative Treatments for Peri-Implantitis: Meta-analysis of Recent Findings in a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Daugela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the surgical regenerative treatment of the peri-implantitis and to determine an effective therapeutic predictable option for their clinical management. Material and Methods: The study searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 2006 to 2016. Clinical human studies that had reported changes in probing depth (PD and/or bleeding on probing (BOP and/or radiologic marginal bone level (RBL changes after peri-implantitis surgical treatment at 12-month follow-up or longer were included accordingly to PRISMA guidelines. Results: The initial search obtained 883 citations. After screening and determination of eligibility, 18 articles were included in the review. The meta-analysis of selected studies revealed that the weighted mean RBL fill was 1.97 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58 to 2.35 mm, PD reduction was 2.78 mm (95% CI = 2.31 to 3.25 mm, and BOP reduced by 52.5% (95% CI = 41.6 to 63.1%. Defect fill in studies using and not using barrier membranes for graft coverage was 1.86 mm (95% CI = 1.36 to 2.36 mm and 2.12 mm (95% CI = 1.46 to 2.78 mm correspondingly. High heterogeneity among the studies regarding defects morphology, surgical protocols, and selection of biomaterials were found. Conclusions: All included studies underlined an improvement of clinical conditions after the surgical regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis, however, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the literature regarding the superiority of the regenerative versus non-regenerative surgical treatment. The presence of a barrier membrane or submergence in the regenerative procedure does not seem to be fundamental in order to obtain clinical success of the surgery.

  11. Cardio-thoracic surgical patients' experience on bedside nursing handovers: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupieri, Giulia; Creatti, Chiara; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of postoperative cardio-thoracic surgical patients experiencing nursing bedside handover. A descriptive qualitative approach was undertaken. A purposeful sampling technique was adopted, including 14 patients who went through cardio-thoracic surgery and witnessed at least two bedside handovers. The study was performed in a Cardio-thoracic ICU localised in a Joint Commission International accredited Academic Hospital in north-eastern Italy from August to November 2014. The experience of patients participating at the bedside handover is based on four main themes: (1) 'discovering a new nursing identity', (2) 'being apparently engaged in a bedside handover', (3) 'experiencing the paradox of confidentiality' and (4) 'having the situation under control'. With the handover performed at the bedside in a postoperative setting, two interconnected potential effects may be achieved with regard to patients, nurses and the nursing profession. Nurses have a great opportunity to express their closeness to patients and to promote awareness of the important growth that nursing has achieved over the years as a profession and discipline. Therefore, patients may better perceive nursing competence and feel safer during the postoperative care pathway. They can appreciate nurses' humanity in caring and trust their competence and professionalism.

  12. A Method for Finding Metabolic Pathways Using Atomic Group Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Lin, Hai Xiang; Wang, Jianyi

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental computational problem in metabolic engineering is to find pathways between compounds. Pathfinding methods using atom tracking have been widely used to find biochemically relevant pathways. However, these methods require the user to define the atoms to be tracked. This may lead to failing to predict the pathways that do not conserve the user-defined atoms. In this work, we propose a pathfinding method called AGPathFinder to find biochemically relevant metabolic pathways between two given compounds. In AGPathFinder, we find alternative pathways by tracking the movement of atomic groups through metabolic networks and use combined information of reaction thermodynamics and compound similarity to guide the search towards more feasible pathways and better performance. The experimental results show that atomic group tracking enables our method to find pathways without the need of defining the atoms to be tracked, avoid hub metabolites, and obtain biochemically meaningful pathways. Our results also demonstrate that atomic group tracking, when incorporated with combined information of reaction thermodynamics and compound similarity, improves the quality of the found pathways. In most cases, the average compound inclusion accuracy and reaction inclusion accuracy for the top resulting pathways of our method are around 0.90 and 0.70, respectively, which are better than those of the existing methods. Additionally, AGPathFinder provides the information of thermodynamic feasibility and compound similarity for the resulting pathways. PMID:28068354

  13. PET-Guided Surgery - High Correlation between Positron Emission Tomography with 11C-5-Hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP) and Surgical Findings in Abdominal Neuroendocrine Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlefors, Håkan; Sundin, Anders; Eriksson, Barbro; Skogseid, Britt; Oberg, Kjell; Akerström, Göran; Hellman, Per

    2012-02-08

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP) is a sensitive technique to visualize neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), due to high intracellular uptake of amine-precursors like L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and 5-HTP. NETs are often small and difficult to localize in spite of overt clinical symptoms due to hormonal excess. In our study, 38 consecutive NET patients underwent 11C-5-HTP-PET and morphological imaging by CT within 12 weeks prior to surgery. Surgical, histopathological and 5-HTP PET findings were correlated. 11C-5-HTP-PET corresponded to the surgical findings in 31 cases, was false negative in six, and true negative in one case resulting in 83.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Positive predicted value was 100%. In 11 patients 11C-5-HTP-PET was the only imaging method applied to localize the tumour. Thus, we could demonstrate that functional imaging by 11C-5-HTP-PET in many cases adds vital preoperative diagnostic information and in more than every fourth patient was the only imaging method that will guide the surgeon in finding the NET-lesion. Although the present results demonstrates that 11C-5-HTP may be used as an universal NET tracer, the sensitivity to visualize benign insulinomas and non functioning pancreatic NETs was lower.

  14. PET-Guided Surgery — High Correlation between Positron Emission Tomography with 11C-5-Hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP) and Surgical Findings in Abdominal Neuroendocrine Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örlefors, Håkan; Sundin, Anders; Eriksson, Barbro; Skogseid, Britt; Öberg, Kjell; Åkerström, Göran; Hellman, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP) is a sensitive technique to visualize neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), due to high intracellular uptake of amine-precursors like L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and 5-HTP. NETs are often small and difficult to localize in spite of overt clinical symptoms due to hormonal excess. In our study, 38 consecutive NET patients underwent 11C-5-HTP-PET and morphological imaging by CT within 12 weeks prior to surgery. Surgical, histopathological and 5-HTP PET findings were correlated. 11C-5-HTP-PET corresponded to the surgical findings in 31 cases, was false negative in six, and true negative in one case resulting in 83.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Positive predicted value was 100%. In 11 patients 11C-5-HTP-PET was the only imaging method applied to localize the tumour. Thus, we could demonstrate that functional imaging by 11C-5-HTP-PET in many cases adds vital preoperative diagnostic information and in more than every fourth patient was the only imaging method that will guide the surgeon in finding the NET-lesion. Although the present results demonstrates that 11C-5-HTP may be used as an universal NET tracer, the sensitivity to visualize benign insulinomas and non functioning pancreatic NETs was lower. PMID:24213229

  15. PET-Guided Surgery — High Correlation between Positron Emission Tomography with 11C-5-Hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP and Surgical Findings in Abdominal Neuroendocrine Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbro Eriksson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET with 11C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP is a sensitive technique to visualize neuroendocrine tumours (NETs, due to high intracellular uptake of amine-precursors like L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA and 5-HTP. NETs are often small and difficult to localize in spite of overt clinical symptoms due to hormonal excess. In our study, 38 consecutive NET patients underwent 11C-5-HTP-PET and morphological imaging by CT within 12 weeks prior to surgery. Surgical, histopathological and 5-HTP PET findings were correlated. 11C-5-HTP-PET corresponded to the surgical findings in 31 cases, was false negative in six, and true negative in one case resulting in 83.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Positive predicted value was 100%. In 11 patients 11C-5-HTP-PET was the only imaging method applied to localize the tumour. Thus, we could demonstrate that functional imaging by 11C-5-HTP-PET in many cases adds vital preoperative diagnostic information and in more than every fourth patient was the only imaging method that will guide the surgeon in finding the NET-lesion. Although the present results demonstrates that 11C-5-HTP may be used as an universal NET tracer, the sensitivity to visualize benign insulinomas and non functioning pancreatic NETs was lower.

  16. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Surgical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Valderrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Peri-implantitis is one of the major causes of implant failure. The detoxification of the implant surface is necessary to obtain reosseointegration. The aim of this review was to summarize in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials that have evaluated surgical approaches for detoxification of the implant body surfaces. Materials and Methods. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed from 1966 to 2013. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters, radiographic bone fill, and histological reosseointegration. Results. From 574 articles found, 76 were analyzed. The findings, advantages, and disadvantages of using mechanical, chemical methods and lasers are discussed. Conclusions. Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Partial reosseointegration after detoxification has been reported in animals. Combination protocols for surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical and radiographic results, but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed.

  17. Radiologic findings and curve progression 22 years after treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: comparison of brace and surgical treatment with matching control group of straight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, A J; Nachemson, A L

    2001-03-01

    This study is a follow-up investigation for a consecutive series of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated between 1968 and 1977. In this series, 156 patients underwent surgery with distraction and fusion using Harrington rods, and 127 were treated with brace. To determine the long-term outcome in terms of radiologic findings and curve progression at least 20 years after completion of the treatment. Radiologic appearance is important in comparing the outcome of different treatment options and in evaluating clinical results. Earlier studies have shown a slight increase of the Cobb angle in brace-treated patients with time, but not in fused patients. Of 283 patients, 252 attended a clinical and radiologic follow-up assessment by an unbiased observer (91% of the surgically treated and 87% of the brace-treated patients). This evaluation included chart reviews, validated questionnaires, clinical examination, and full-length standing frontal and lateral roentgenographs. Curve size was measured by the Cobb method on anteroposterior roentgenograms as well as by sagittal contour and balance on lateral films. The occurrence of any degenerative changes or other complications was noted. An age- and gender-matched control group of 100 individuals was randomly selected and subjected to the same examinations. The mean follow-up times were 23 years for surgically treated group and 22 years for brace-treated group. The deterioration of the curves was 3.5 degrees for all the surgically treated curves and 7.9 degrees for all the brace-treated curves (P flat back syndrome developed in four patients. Eight of the patients treated with fusion (5.1%) had undergone some additional curve-related surgical procedure. The lumbar lordosis was less in the surgically treated than in the brace-treated patients or the control group (mean, 33 degrees vs 45 degrees and 44 degrees, respectively). Both surgically treated and brace-treated patients had more degenerative disc changes than

  18. Arthroscopic grafting of scaphoid nonunion - surgical technique and preliminary findings from 23 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognet, J-M; Louis, P; Martinache, X; Schernberg, F

    2017-02-01

    We report our experience with the arthroscopic treatment of 23 cases of scaphoid nonunion. We explain the surgical technique and describe the different steps needed to achieve bone union. We report our initial clinical and radiological results. This was a prospective non-randomized study. Inclusion criteria were a scaphoid nonunion without radiocarpal arthritis, without any time limit and without any selection as to nonunion location. Before the operation, patients underwent an X-Ray and CT scan or MRI. Schernberg's classification was used to evaluate the location of the nonunion. Internal fixation was performed with a screw or K-wires. Bone grafts were taken from the dorsal side of the distal radius using a T-Lok™ bone marrow biopsy needle (Argon Medical Devices, Plano, TX, USA). A CT scan was performed 3 months after the operation to determine whether union was achieved. Pain, strength and range of motion were evaluated before and after the operation. The patients' smoking habits were also documented. The average follow-up was 17.3 months (4-41). There were 20 men and 3 women with an average age of 26 years (17-63). The average duration of nonunion before the operation was 17 months (6-60). Based on Schernberg's classification, there was one type I, 12 type II and 10 type III nonunions. Wrist strength increased from 32 to 41kg. Union was obtained in all patients after an average of 4 months (3-12). Numerous treatments have been described for treating scaphoid nonunion: Matti-Russe, Fisk-Fernadez bone graft, vascularized bone graft, bone substitutes, etc. The success rate varies depending on the technique and study design. We have described an arthroscopic technique for treating scaphoid nonunion with very promising preliminary results. Arthroscopic debridement is needed to ensure good quality bone at the graft site, while preserving extrinsic vascularization. Traction is used during the operation to restore the scaphoid height, once debridement has been

  19. Centroid finding method for position-sensitive detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeka, V.; Boie, R.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new centroid finding method for all detectors where the signal charge is collected or induced on strips of wires, or on subdivided resistive electrodes, is presented. The centroid of charge is determined by convolution of the sequentially switched outputs from these subdivisions or from the strips with a linear centroid finding filter. The position line width is inversely proportional to N/sup 3/2/, where N is the number of subdivisions.

  20. A new method for finding vacua in string phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, James [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris and APC, Universite de Paris 7, 98 bis, Bd. Arago 75014, Paris (France); He, Yang-Hui [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)]|[Merton College, Oxford, OX1 4JD and Mathematical Institute, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lukas, Andre [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    One of the central problems of string-phenomenology is to find stable vacua in the four dimensional effective theories which result from compactification. We present an algorithmic method to find all of the vacua of any given string-phenomenological system in a huge class. In particular, this paper reviews and then extends hep-th/0606122 to include various nonperturbative effects. These include gaugino condensation and instantonic contributions to the superpotential. (authors)

  1. A New Method for Finding Vacua in String Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, J; Ilderton, A; Lukas, A; Gray, James; He, Yang-Hui; Ilderton, Anton; Lukas, Andre

    2007-01-01

    One of the central problems of string-phenomenology is to find stable vacua in the four dimensional effective theories which result from compactification. We present an algorithmic method to find all of the vacua of any given string-phenomenological system in a huge class. In particular, this paper reviews and then extends hep-th/0606122 to include various non-perturbative effects. These include gaugino condensation and instantonic contributions to the superpotential.

  2. MRI findings in patients with defecatory dysfunction after surgical correction of anorectal malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yong; Shao, Guang-rui [Second Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Jinan (China); Wang, Ruo-yi [Second Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Jinan (China); Zhang, Yuan [Second Hospital of Shandong University, Evidence-based Medical Center, Jinan (China); Zhang, Shu-hui [Second Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Laboratory, Jinan (China)

    2013-08-15

    Postoperative anorectal malformation patients frequently have defecatory dysfunction. MRI may be useful in the management of these patients. To analyze static and dynamic MRI findings in patients with defecatory dysfunction after correction of anorectal malformation (ARM), and compare differences between patients with constipation and fecal incontinence. Pelvic MRI studies of 20 constipated and 32 incontinent postoperative ARM patients were analyzed retrospectively to determine the location and morphology of the neorectum, presence of peritoneal fat herniation, presence of scarring, development of the striated muscle complex (SMC) and any other abnormalities. The two groups were then compared using {chi} {sup 2}-test. Eighteen patients also underwent MRI defecography to evaluate pelvic floor function and abnormalities are reported. The children with incontinence were more likely to have abnormal location of the neorectum (P = 0.031), increased anorectal angle (ARA) (P = 0.031) and peritoneal fat herniation (P = 0.032), and less likely to have dilation of the neorectum (P = 0.027), than the children with constipation. There were no significant differences between the two groups in incidence of focal stenosis of the neorectum (P = 0.797), presence of extensive scarring (P = 0.591) and developmental agenesis of the SMC (P > 0.05). MRI defecography showed 6 anterior rectoceles, 6 cystoceles and 18 pelvic floor descents. MRI is a helpful imaging modality in postoperative ARM patients with defecatory dysfunction, and it shows distinct differences between the children with constipation and incontinence and provides individualized information to guide further treatment. (orig.)

  3. CT findings and surgical treatment of atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Akira; Harano, Hideyuki; Okumura, Terufumi (Fukuroi Municipal Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)); Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Tadamitsu

    1984-07-01

    A case of atlanto-axial rotatory fixation (AARF) was presented in a 19-year-old female who developed sudden onset of neck pain and limitation of neck movement after direct carotid angiography for seizure disorder. Neurological examination was negative except for cock-robin posture and mild hypesthesia and hypalgesia in left C/sub 2/ distribution. Plain films of the cervical spine disclosed abnormal alignment of C/sub 1/-C/sub 2/ and possible rotational dislocation. Bilateral selective vertebral angiography showed marked anterior and posterior displacement of left and right vertebral artery, respectively, at the level of C/sub 1/. On CT metrizamide myelography, there was clockwise rotation of C/sub 1/ on C/sub 2/ with locked facet on the left but no evidence of cord compression was found. With diagnosis of AARF, manual reduction under general anesthesia and with fluoroscopic control was first attempted without success. Therefore, the patient underwent open reduction by using high speed air-drill and posterior fusion of C/sub 1/ to C/sub 3/ with acryl and wire. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient went back to work as a computer operator in three months. The etiology of AARF was described by many authors, but in our case, congenital hypogenesis of transverse and alar ligaments plus minor trauma was most suggested. For neurological manifestations of AARF, occipital neuralgia, headache, neck pain, limitation of neck movement and cock-robin posture were reported, but the cock-robin posture was most characteristic and was an important symptom for the early diagnosis. In neuroradiological findings of AARF, plain CT and CT metrizamide myelography are very useful. Because they clearly demonstrate the degree of rotation and interlocking of atlanto-axial joints, and the presence of cord compression.

  4. Nail avulsion: Indications and methods (surgical nail avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nail is a subject of global importance for dermatologists, podiatrists and surgeons. Nail avulsion is a frequently undertaken, yet simple, intriguing procedure. It may either be surgical or chemical, using 40% urea. The former is most often undertaken using the distal approach. Nail avulsion may either be useful for diagnostic purposes like exploration of the nail bed, nail matrix and the nail folds and before contemplating a biopsy on the nail bed or for therapeutic purposes like onychocryptosis, warts, onychomycosis, chronic paronychia, nail tumors, matricectomy and retronychia. The procedure is carried out mostly under local anesthesia with or without epinephrine (1:2,00,000 dilution. Besides the above-mentioned indications, the contraindications and complications of nail avulsion are briefly outlined.

  5. Modified string method for finding minimum energy path

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Amit

    2010-01-01

    We present an efficient algorithm to calculate minimum energy path (MEP) and energy barriers between locally minimum points on the multidimensional potential energy surface (PES). Our method dwells the original idea of the String method [Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002)] to evolve a smooth string along a direction normal to the string. The algorithm works by identifying hyperplanes, at each discretized point, normal to path. The intermediate configurations at these discretized points are then relaxed with their motion confined to their corresponding hyperplanes. Thus the problem of finding MEP on the PES is remodeled as a set of constrained minimization problem. This provides the flexibility of using minimization algorithms faster than the steepest descent method used in the simplified string method [J. Chem. Phys.,126(16),164103 (2007)]. In our method, since each intermediate image relaxes independently, if their step lengths are not controlled kinks can form easily. We propose using a mixing scheme to advance...

  6. Genetics of Schizophrenia: Overview of Methods, Findings and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Frederiksen, Julie E Nordgaard; Jansson, Lennart Bertil

    2017-01-01

    -specialists in genetics (e.g., many clinicians and researchers) to get a proper understanding and appreciation of the genetic findings and their limitations. This study aims at facilitating such an understanding by providing a brief overview of some of the central methods and findings in schizophrenia genetics, from its...... historical origins to its current status, and also by addressing some limitations and challenges that confront this field of research. In short, the genetic architecture of schizophrenia has proven to be highly complex, heterogeneous and polygenic. The disease risk is constituted by numerous common genetic......Genetics constitute a crucial risk factor to schizophrenia. In the last decade, molecular genetic research has produced novel findings, infusing optimism about discovering the biological roots of schizophrenia. However, the complexity of the object of inquiry makes it almost impossible for non...

  7. Frequency of abnormal findings in lumbar MRI in patients With non traumatic and non surgical low back pain referred to Imam-Khomeini Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Aghaghazvini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of abnormal discal findings in lumbar MRI in patients with non traumatic non surgical low back pain who referred to Imam-Khomeini hospital Materials and methods: This study was conducted as a descriptive – analytical cross-sectional prospective survey among 280 consecutive patients who referred to Imam-Khomeini hospital in 2008 -2009. The data were collected by check list and analysis was done by SPSS 10 Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.98. 56.1% were female Abnormal MRI was seen in 83.2% and 72.9% had disc involvement including 40.7% central, 21.1% right and 36.3% left involvements, 25.75% had bulging, 62.85% protrusion, 11.05% extrusion and finally 0.35% had sequestration. Conclusion: It may be concluded that disc protrusion and bulging are the most common findings in MRI and according to excellent ability of MRI in diagnosis of herniation, MRI is recommended in patients with non surgical non traumatic low back pain.

  8. Another Method to Find the Derivative of Sine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuanyi

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction It is very important to find the derivative of sine in mathematics. For each derivative of trigonometric functions is begin with sine. The sketch of its proof is transforming two subtracted sine functions into the form of multiplication[1][2][3][4][5][6].But this method appears the form of fraction, so it is difficult for the beginners and the self - learners to understand the increment of the sine function △y[1

  9. THE METHOD OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF HUMERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Korolev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Method of treatment of epicondylitis of humeral bone is descripted. This metod is proposited to use if conservative therapy was not effective. Experience of use this method show excellent results.

  10. Monitoring Cataract Surgical Outcomes: 'Hand Written' Registration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Cook

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this hand written method of monitoring cataract surgery outcomes is to provide a practical method, assisting cataract surgeons and programme managers to monitor qualitatively the results of their cataract surgery. Such monitoring is the key to improving the quality and results of our cataract surgery.The hand registered method is quick, simple, and friendly to use!

  11. Somatic Dysfunction in the Diagnosis of Uncommon Ectopic Pregnancies: Surgical Correlation and Comparison With Related Pathologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martingano, Daniel; Canepa, Hannah; Fararooy, Setareh; Rybitskiy, Dmitriy; Shahem, Sam; Martingano, Francis X; Aglialoro, George

    2017-02-01

    Ectopic pregnancies occur when the implantation of a fertilized ovum occurs outside the endometrial cavity. Such pregnancies occur in approximately 1.5% to 2.0% of all pregnancies and cause 6% of maternal deaths. To evaluate osteopathic structural examination (OSE) findings in patients with ectopic pregnancies of uncommon locations and to establish the utility of these findings in the diagnosis of these ectopic pregnancies. In this prospective case series, a focused OSE was performed on each patient with an ectopic pregnancy at her initial presentation after the patient history but before other diagnostic or laboratory tests were performed and surgical treatment was initiated. Chapman reflex points (CRPs) were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. For comparison, patients who had otherwise normal first pregnancies, underwent elective postpartum bilateral tubal ligation, or had simple ovarian cysts were also included and received OSEs. Seven cases with ectopic pregnancies outside the fallopian tube were included. Two primary ovarian pregnancies and 1 heterotopic pregnancy (uterine and ovarian) had somatic dysfunction at the T10-T11 spinal levels and CRPs posterior for the ovary, 1 primary omental pregnancy with somatic dysfunction at the T9-T12 spinal levels and CRPs anterior and posterior for the ileum and jejunum, and 1 tubal pregnancy with somatic dysfunction at the T10-L1 spinal levels and CRPs anterior and posterior for the fallopian tube. Two cornual ectopic pregnancies were not associated with unique findings. These somatic dysfunctions and CRP findings appear to be distinct from those of comparison cases, including first pregnancies at any trimester, simple ovarian cysts, and elective bilateral tubal ligation. The OSE findings demonstrated in these cases aided in the final diagnosis and thus can potentially prove helpful in cases of ovarian, tubal, and omental pregnancies to provide clues to abnormal ectopic pregnancy locations where diagnostic imaging results

  12. Form-finding methods for deployable mesh reflector antennas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tuanjie; Jiang Jie; Deng Hanqing; Lin Zhanchao; Wang Zuowei

    2013-01-01

    Deployable high-frequency mesh reflector antennas for future communications and obser-vations are required to obtain high gain and high directivity. In order to support these new missions, reflectors with high surface accuracy are widely required. The form-finding analysis of deployable mesh reflector antennas becomes more vital which aims to determine the initial surface profile formed by the equilibrium prestress distribution in cables to satisfy the surface accuracy requirement. In this paper, two form-finding methods for mesh reflector antennas, both of which include two steps, are pro-posed. The first step is to investigate the prestress design only for the cable net structure as the circum-ferential nodes connected to the supporting truss are assumed fixed. The second step is to optimize the prestress distribution of the boundary cables connected directly to the supporting truss considering the elastic deformation of the antenna structure. Some numerical examples are carried out and the simu-lation results demonstrate the proposed form-finding methods can warrant the deformed antenna reflector surface matches the one by design and the cable tension forces fall in a specified range.

  13. A comparison of two anesthesia methods for the surgical removal of maxillary

    OpenAIRE

    Al Delayme, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PSA block injection with infiltration technique regarding local anesthesia for surgical extraction of upper third molar. Material and Methods: A prospective, intra individual, single-blind randomized controlled trial was designed to study the severity of pain during injection and after surgical extraction of the bilaterally and symmetrically similar upper third molar in a total of 53 patients, in addition to eva...

  14. Hypoplastic thumb type IIIB: An alternative method for surgical repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Onur Basat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoplastic thumb is the second most common congenital deformity of the thumb. Thumb hypoplasia is characterized by diminished thumb size, metacarpal adduction, metacarpophalangeal joint instability, and thenar muscle hypoplasia. In the literature, different classification types of hypoplastic thumb have been used and different treatment methods described. In this case we presented an alternative palliative treatment method for a ten-year-old patient with modified Blauth's classification type IIIB hypoplastic thumb and one-year follow-up results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(2.000: 59-61

  15. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Non-surgical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Mayra G; Cantu, Myrna G; Wilson, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of studies that have evaluated non-surgical approaches for detoxification of implant body surfaces in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate clinical trials on the use of these methodologies for treating peri-implant disease. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed) from 1966 to 2013. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on non-surgical therapy were evaluated. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing; radiographic bone fill and histological re-osseointegration. Results: From 134 articles found 35 were analyzed. The findings, advantages and disadvantages of using lasers as well as mechanical and chemical methods are discussed. Most of the in vivo and human studies used combination therapies which makes determining the efficacy of one specific method difficult. Most human studies are case series with short term longitudinal analysis without survival or failure reports. Conclusion: Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve using these approaches. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Re-osseointegration may be difficult to achieve if not impossible without surgical access to ensure thorough debridement of the defect and detoxification of the implant surface. Combination protocols for non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical results but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed. PMID:24894571

  16. Finding and characterising WHIM structures using the luminosity density method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jukka; Liivamägi, L. J.; Tempel, E.; Branchini, E.; Roncarelli, M.; Giocoli, C.; Heinämäki, P.; Saar, E.; Bonamente, M.; Einasto, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Kaastra, J.; Lindfors, E.; Nurmi, P.; Ueda, Y.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a new method to approach the missing baryons problem. We assume that the missing baryons reside in a form of Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium, i.e. the WHIM. Our method consists of (a) detecting the coherent large scale structure in the spatial distribution of galaxies that traces the Cosmic Web and that in hydrodynamical simulations is associated to the WHIM, (b) mapping its luminosity into a galaxy luminosity density field, (c) using numerical simulations to relate the luminosity density to the density of the WHIM, (d) applying this relation to real data to trace the WHIM using the observed galaxy luminosities in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF redshift surveys. In our application we find evidence for the WHIM along the line of sight to the Sculptor Wall, at redshifts consistent with the recently reported X-ray absorption line detections. Our indirect WHIM detection technique complements the standard method based on the detection of characteristic X-ray absorption lines, showing that the galaxy luminosity density is a reliable signpost for the WHIM. For this reason, our method could be applied to current galaxy surveys to optimise the observational strategies for detecting and studying the WHIM and its properties. Our estimates of the WHIM hydrogen column density N H in Sculptor agree with those obtained via the X-ray analysis. Due to the additional N H estimate, our method has potential for improving the constrains of the physical parameters of the WHIM as derived with X-ray absorption, and thus for improving the understanding of the missing baryons problem.

  17. Pilot study of design method for surgical robot using workspace reproduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Hiroto; Kawamura, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Recent development methods for surgical robots have an inherent problem. The user-friendliness of operating robot cannot be revealed until completion of the robot. To assist the design of a surgical robot that is user-friendly in terms of surgeon's operation, we propose a system that considers the operation manner of surgeon during the design phase of the robot. This system includes the following functionality: 1) a master manipulator that measures the operation manner of the surgeon (operator), and 2) a slave simulator in which the mechanical parameters can be configured freely. The operator can use the master manipulator to operate the slave simulator. Using this system, we investigate the necessity of considering the operator's manner when developing a surgical robot. In the experiment, we used three instruments with mechanisms that differed with respect to the length between bending joints and measured the trajectory of each instrument tip position during the surgical task. The results show that there are differences in the trajectories of each mechanism. Based on the results, changes in the mechanism of the surgical robot influenced the operator's manner. Therefore, when designing the mechanism for a surgical robot, there is a need to consider how this influences the operator's manner.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance arthography of the acetabular labrum: Comparison with surgical findings; Magnetresonanztomographie und Magnetresonanzarthrographie des Labrum acetabulare: Vergleich mit operativen Ergebnissen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Osteologie; Kramer, J. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Osteologie; Institut fuer bildgebende Diagnostik am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria); Neuhold, A. [Krankenhaus Rudolfinerhaus, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer bildgebende Diagnostik; Urban, M. [Krankenhaus Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Ost, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Radiodiagnostik; Tschauner, C. [Orthopaedisches Landeskrankenhaus Stolzalpe (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Krankenhaus Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Ost, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Radiodiagnostik; Orthopaedisches Landeskrankenhaus Stolzalpe (Austria)

    2001-08-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography in detecting acetabular labral lesions in correlation to surgical findings. Patients and methods: Forty patients (40 hips) with chronic hip pain and a strong clinical suspicion of labral lesions were examined with MRI in the coronal and axial plane by obtaining T{sub 1} weighted and proton density-weighted spin echo sequences. Additionally, MR arthrography of the high joint in the coronal oblique and sagittal oblique plane was performed by obtaining T{sub 1}-weighted three-dimensional gradient echo sequences after the intraarticular injection of gadopentate dimeglumine. The labra were prospectively evaluated on the basis of morphology, signal intensity, the presence or absence of a tear, and their attachment to the acetabulum. All patients underwent surgery, and the MRI findings and MR arthrography findings were compared with the surgical results. Results: Surgically, 34 labral lesions, and 6 normal labra were detected. MRI correctly depicted labral lesions in 24 patients and two normal labra, and MR arthrography correctly depicted labral lesions in 30 patients and 5 normal labra compared with the surgical results. The sensitivity of MRI was 80%, the accuracy of MRI was 65%, the sensitivity of MR arthrography was 95%, and the accuracy of MR arthgrography was 88%. Conclusions: MR arthrography enables considerably more accurate detection of acetabular labral lesions than MRI. MR arthrography should be the method of choice for the diagnosis of the presence or absence of acetabular labral lesions in patients with chronic hip pain and a strong clinical suspicion of labral lesions. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Bestimmung der Wertigkeit der konventionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und der Magnetresonanzarthrographie (MR-Arthrographie) in der Abklaerung von Laesionen des Labrum acetabulare im Vergleich mit Operationsbefunden (Goldstandard). Methode

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in adults with suspect brachial plexus lesions: A multicentre retrospective study with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tagliafico@unige.it [Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Succio, Giulia; Serafini, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure, Italy via XXV Aprile, 38- Pietra Ligure, 17027 Savona (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [Radiology Department, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16138 Genova (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To evaluate brachial plexus MRI accuracy with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard in a large multicentre study. Materials and methods: The research was approved by the Institutional Review Boards, and all patients provided their written informed consent. A multicentre retrospective trial that included three centres was performed between March 2006 and April 2011. A total of 157 patients (men/women: 81/76; age range, 18–84 years) were evaluated: surgical findings and clinical follow-up of at least 12 months were used as the reference standard. MR imaging was performed with different equipment at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. The patient group was divided in five subgroups: mass lesion, traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, post-treatment evaluation, and other. Sensitivity, specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), positive predictive value (PPV), pre-test-probability (the prevalence), negative predictive value (NPV), pre- and post-test odds (OR), likelihood ratio for positive results (LH+), likelihood ratio for negative results (LH−), accuracy and post-test probability (post-P) were reported on a per-patient basis. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs were: 0.810/0.914; (0.697–0.904). Overall PPV, pre-test probability, NPV, LH+, LH−, and accuracy: 0.823, 0.331, 0.905, 9.432, 0.210, 0.878. Conclusions: The overall diagnostic accuracy of brachial plexus MRI calculated on a per-patient base is relatively high. The specificity of brachial plexus MRI in patients suspected of having a space-occupying mass is very high. The sensitivity is also high, but there are false-positive interpretations as well.

  20. Surgical Site Infection Rates in Seven Cities in Vietnam: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet Hung, Nguyen; Anh Thu, Truong; Rosenthal, Victor D; Tat Thanh, Do; Quoc Anh, Nguyen; Le Bao Tien, Nguyen; Ngo Quang, Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in lower-income countries. This is the first study to report the results of surveillance on SSI stratified by surgical procedure in seven Vietnamese cities. This was a prospective, active SSI surveillance study conducted from November 2008-December 2010 in seven hospitals using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions and methods. Surgical procedures (SPs) were classified into 26 types according to the International Classification of Diseases Edition 9 criteria. We recorded 241 SSIs, associated with 4,413 SPs (relative risk [RR] 5.5%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.8-6.2). The highest SSI rates were found for limb amputation (25%), colon surgery (33%), and small bowel surgery (21%). Compared with CDC-NHSN SSI report, our SSI rates were higher for the following SPs: Limb amputation (25% vs. 1.3%; RR 20.0; p = 0.001); appendix surgery (8.8% vs. 3.5%; RR 2.54; 95% CI 1.3-5.1; p = 0.001); gallbladder surgery (13.7% vs. 1.7%; RR 7.76; 95% CI 1.9-32.1; p = 0.001); colon surgery (18.2% vs. 4.0%; RR 4.56; 95% CI 2.0-10.2; p = 0.001); open reduction of fracture (15.8% vs. 3.4%; RR 4.70, 95% CI 1.5-15.2; p = 0.004); gastric surgery (7.3% vs. 1.7%; RR 4.26; 95% CI 2.2-8.4, p = 0.001); kidney surgery (8.9% vs. 0.9%; RR 10.2; 95% CI 3.8-27.4; p = 0.001); prostate surgery (5.1% vs. 0.9%; RR 5.71; 95% CI 1.9-17.4; p = 0.001); small bowel surgery (20.8% vs. 6.7%; RR 3.07; 95% CI 1.7-5.6; p = 0.001); thyroid or parathyroid surgery (2.4% vs. 0.3%; RR 9.27; 95% CI 1.0-89.1; p = 0.019); and vaginal hysterectomy (14.3% vs. 1.2%; RR 12.3; 95% CI 1.7-88.4; p = 0.001). Our SSIs rates were significantly higher for 11 of the 26 types of SPs than for the CDC-NHSN. This study advances our knowledge of SSI epidemiology in Vietnam and will allow us to introduce targeted interventions.

  1. The assessment of surgical skills as a complement to the training method. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, J; Bachiller-Burgos, J; Serrano-Pascual, Á; Cózar-Olmo, J M; Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugués, I; Pérez-Duarte, F J; Hernández-Hurtado, L; Álvarez-Ossorio, J L; Sánchez-Margallo, F M

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition and improvement of surgical skills constitute a fundamental element in the training of any practitioner. At present, however, the assessment of these skills is a scarcely developed area of research. The aim of this study was to analyse the peculiarities of the various assessment systems and establish the minimum criteria that a skills and knowledge assessment system should meet as a method for assessing surgical skills in urological surgery. Scientific literature review aimed at the various currently available assessment systems for skills and competencies (technical and nontechnical), with a special focus on the systematic reviews and prospective studies. After conducting the review, we found that the various assessment systems for surgical competence have, in our opinion, a number of shortcomings. There is a certain degree of subjectivity in the assessment of surgeons by the evaluators. The assessment of nontechnical competencies is not formally recorded. There is no description of a follow-up assessment or any basic parameters associated with healthcare quality. There is no registration of associated competencies associated with the various surgical techniques. There is also no ranking of these competencies and the specific peculiarities for their application. We believe that the development of a new assessment system for surgical competencies (technical and nontechnical) aimed at assessing urologists in the various surgical techniques is necessary. To this end, our team has worked on developing the Evaluation System for Surgical Competencies on Laparoscopy, which is based on the definition, ranking and assessment of competencies demonstrated by surgeons. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Results of surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation using a modified Mitchell method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, M; Jarco, K; Sleczkowski, M; Delimat, J; Szot, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surgical treatment in acromioclavicular dislocation (grade III according to Tossy) in 53 patients. Joint reconstruction was performed using Mitchell's modified method--acromioclavicular reconstruction was achieved by applying a with Dallos poliester fiber prosthesis. Clinically in 90.5% of the cases a good or excellent result was achieved.

  3. Surgical body modification and altruistic individualism: a case for cyborg ethics and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2003-12-01

    Three cases of pediatric surgical body modification--limb lengthening, normalization of genitalia, and craniofacial surgery--are considered through the moral language used by those who experience these surgeries. This language has been described as altruistic individualism. Decision making remains individualist, but it also shows considerable concern for others; egoism is complementary with altruism. The altruistic individualist is one of many incompatible identities that are predicted and described by the figure of the cyborg. Cyborgs suggest both ethics and qualitative methods appropriate to surgically shaped children.

  4. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Large Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hodges, D. Greg [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada); White, Jr., Curt M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    United States. When abandoned, many wells were not adequately sealed and now provide a potential conduit for the vertical movement of liquids and gases. Today, groundwater aquifers can be contaminated by surface pollutants flowing down wells or by deep, saline water diffusing upwards. Likewise, natural gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), or radon can travel upwards via these wells to endanger structures or human health on the surface. Recently, the need to find and plug wells has become critical with the advent of carbon dioxide injection into geologic formations for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or carbon storage. The potential for natural gas or brine leakage through existing wells has also been raised as a concern in regions where shale resources are hydraulically fractured for hydrocarbon recovery. In this study, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) updated existing, effective well finding techniques to be able to survey large areas quickly using helicopter or ground-vehicle-mounted magnetometers, combined with mobile methane detection. For this study, magnetic data were collected using airborne and ground vehicles equipped with two boom-mounted magnetometers, or on foot using a hand-held magnetometer with a single sensor. Data processing techniques were employed to accentuate well-casing-type magnetic signatures. To locate wells with no magnetic signature (wells where the steel well casing had been removed), the team monitored for anomalous concentrations of methane, which could indicate migration of volatile compounds from deeper sedimentary strata along a well or fracture pathway. Methane measurements were obtained using the ALPIS DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) sensor for helicopter surveys and the Apogee leak detection system (LDS) for ground surveys. These methods were evaluated at a 100-year-old oilfield in Wyoming, where a helicopter magnetic survey accurately located 93% of visible wells. In addition, 20% of the wells found by the survey were

  5. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Large Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hodges, D. Greg [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada); White, Jr., Charles E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    More than 10 million wells have been drilled during 150 years of oil and gas production in the United States. When abandoned, many wells were not adequately sealed and now provide a potential conduit for the vertical movement of liquids and gases. Today, groundwater aquifers can be contaminated by surface pollutants flowing down wells or by deep, saline water diffusing upwards. Likewise, natural gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), or radon can travel upwards via these wells to endanger structures or human health on the surface. Recently, the need to find and plug wells has become critical with the advent of carbon dioxide injection into geologic formations for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or carbon storage. The potential for natural gas or brine leakage through existing wells has also been raised as a concern in regions where shale resources are hydraulically fractured for hydrocarbon recovery. In this study, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) updated existing, effective well finding techniques to be able to survey large areas quickly using helicopter or ground-vehicle-mounted magnetometers, combined with mobile methane detection. For this study, magnetic data were collected using airborne and ground vehicles equipped with two boom-mounted magnetometers, or on foot using a hand-held magnetometer with a single sensor. Data processing techniques were employed to accentuate well-casing-type magnetic signatures. To locate wells with no magnetic signature (wells where the steel well casing had been removed), the team monitored for anomalous concentrations of methane, which could indicate migration of volatile compounds from deeper sedimentary strata along a well or fracture pathway. Methane measurements were obtained using the ALPIS DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) sensor for helicopter surveys and the Apogee leak detection system (LDS) for ground surveys. These methods were evaluated at a 100-year-old oilfield in Wyoming, where a helicopter magnetic

  6. A new method of assessing the surgical margin in rectal carcinoma—using nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianhuang; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; Deng, Tongxin; Jiang, Liwei; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Xing; Jiang, Weizhong; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Guan, Guoxian; Chi, Pan; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, surgical resection is still the most effective treatment strategy for rectal carcinoma and one of the most important factors affecting whether the operation is successful or not is the surgical margin determination, especially in the distal rectal carcinoma which should take the sphincter-preserving issue into consideration. However, until recently no reliable evaluation method has been developed for this purpose. There are some shortcomings in intraoperative negative surgical margin assessment such as either lack of enough detailed information of biological tissues or the fact that it is time-consuming. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM)—nonlinear optical microscopy, which is based on the nonlinear optical process two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), has the ability to label freely and noninvasively visualize tissue micro-architecture at the sub-cellular level. The advantage of providing high contrast and high resolution biomedical image in real time makes MPM have a wide range of applications in life sciences. In this study, we introduced MPM to identify the boundary between normal and abnormal rectal tissues. MPM images clearly exhibit biological tissue microstructure and its morphological changes in the regions of our interest, which enable it to determine the surgical margin in rectal carcinoma. It can be foreseen that once MPM imaging system is used in clinical examination, it will greatly improve the accuracy of surgical resection.

  7. New Method of Reconstruction from Nonparallel Stereo and Application to Surgical Navigator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new method to reconstruct 3D scene points from nonparallel stereo is proposed. From a pair of conjugate images in an arbitrarily configured stereo system that has been calibrated, coordinates of 3D scene points can be computed directly using the method, bypassing the process of rectifying images or iterative solution involved in existing methods. Experiment results from both simulated data and real images validate the method. Practical application to surgical navigator shows that the method has advantages to improve efficiency and accuracy of 3D reconstruction from nonparallel stereo system in comparison with the conventional method that employs algorithm for standard parallel axes stereo geometry.

  8. New method of surgical treatment of patients with recurrent ingrown nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondulukov A.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the surgical treatment of ingrown nail in patients with recurrent disease. The advantages of a new method of operation have been explained in the article. It gives a detailed description of the operation. The clinical and additional methods of research have confirmed the fact that a new operation reduces the wound healing period and the number of ingrown nail recurrences

  9. Barriers and facilitators of surgical care in rural Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanna-Nzewunwa, Obieze C; Ajiko, Mary-Margaret; Kirya, Fred; Epodoi, Joseph; Kabagenyi, Fiona; Batibwe, Emmanuel; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Juillard, Catherine; Dicker, Rochelle

    2016-07-01

    Surgical care delivery is poorly understood in resource-limited settings. To effectively move toward universal health coverage, there is a critical need to understand surgical care delivery in developing countries. This study aims to identify the barriers and facilitators of surgical care delivery at Soroti Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. In this mixed methods study, we (1) applied the Surgeons OverSeas' Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies tool to assess surgical capacity; (2) retrospectively reviewed inpatient records; (3) conducted four semistructured focus group discussions with 18 purposively sampled providers involved in perioperative care; and (4) observed the perioperative process of care using a time and motion approach. Descriptive statistics were generated from quantitative data. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed. The Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies survey revealed severe deficiencies in workforce (P-score = 14) and infrastructure (I-score = 5). Equipment, supplies, and procedures were generally available. Male and female wards were overbooked 83% and 60% of the time, respectively. Providers identified lack of space, patient overload, and superfluous patients' attendants as barriers to surgical care. Workforce challenges were tackled using teamwork and task sharing. Inadequate equipment and processes were addressed using improvisations. All observed subjects (n = 31) received interventions. The median decision-to-intervention time was 2.5 h (Interquartile Range [IQR], 0.4, 21.4). However, 48% of subjects experienced delays. Median decision-to-intervention delay was 14.8 h (IQR, 0.9, 26.6). Despite severe workforce and physical infrastructural deficiencies at Soroti Regional Referral Hospital, providers are adjusting and innovating to deliver surgical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An integrating factor matrix method to find first integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputra, K V I [Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University Pelita Harapan, Jl. MH Thamrin Boulevard, Tangerang Banten, 15811 (Indonesia); Quispel, G R W [Department of Mathematics and Statistical Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3086 (Australia); Van Veen, L, E-mail: kie.saputra@staff.uph.ed [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St N., Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2010-06-04

    In this paper we develop an integrating factor matrix method to derive conditions for the existence of first integrals. We use this novel method to obtain first integrals, along with the conditions for their existence, for two- and three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with constant terms. The results are compared to previous results obtained by other methods.

  11. An integrating factor matrix method to find first integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Saputra, K V I; van Veen, L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we developed an integrating factor matrix method to derive conditions for the existence of first integrals. We use this novel method to obtain first integrals, along with the conditions for their existence, for two and three dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with constant terms. The results are compared to previous results obtained by other methods.

  12. Methods to Find the Number of Latent Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Behzad; Desmarais, Michel C.; Naceur, Rhouma

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the skills that determine the success or failure to exercises and question items is a difficult task. Multiple skills may be involved at various degree of importance, and skills may overlap and correlate. In an effort towards the goal of finding the skills behind a set of items, we investigate two techniques to determine the number of…

  13. Effect of surgical methods of cholecystectomy on immunity and stress reaction in patients with gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Gang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of the selection of surgical methods of cholecystectomy on the immunity and stress reaction in patients with gallstones.Methods:A total of 150 patients with gallstones merged with cholecystitis who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2013 to May, 2015 for cholecystectomy were included in the study and divided into LC group and MC group with 75 cases in each group. The patients in LC group were performed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, while the patients in MC group were performed with mini-incision cholecystectomy. The related indicators of immunological function and stress reaction in the two groups were compared.Results:The immunological functions 1d after operation in the two groups were reduced, and the reduced degree of CD3+ and CD4+ in MC group was more significant (P0.05).Conclusions:LC and MC have their own advantages and disadvantages. The two surgical methods have small effects on the immunological function, but MC has a great effect on the postoperative stress reaction; therefore, during the treatment process, the surgical method should be selected according to the patients practical physical conditions.

  14. Teaching methods and surgical training in North American graduate periodontics programs: exploring the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiabi, Edmond; Taylor, K Lynn

    2010-06-01

    This project aimed at documenting the surgical training curricula offered by North American graduate periodontics programs. A survey consisting of questions on teaching methods employed and the content of the surgical training program was mailed to directors of all fifty-eight graduate periodontics programs in Canada and the United States. The chi-square test was used to assess whether the residents' clinical experience was significantly (Pperiodontal plastic procedures, hard tissue grafts, and implants. Furthermore, residents in programs offering a structured preclinical component performed significantly more procedures (P=0.012) using lasers than those in programs not offering a structured preclinical program. Devising new and innovative teaching methods is a clear avenue for future development in North American graduate periodontics programs.

  15. Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2016-01-01

    Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC.

  16. Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal, E-mail: khasmidatul@siswa.um.edu.my; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T., E-mail: wat@um.edu.my; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin [National Centre for Particle Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC.

  17. Finding function: evaluation methods for functional genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Daniel R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of the quality of genomic or proteomic data and computational methods is vital to our ability to use them for formulating novel biological hypotheses and directing further experiments. There is currently no standard approach to evaluation in functional genomics. Our analysis of existing approaches shows that they are inconsistent and contain substantial functional biases that render the resulting evaluations misleading both quantitatively and qualitatively. These problems make it essentially impossible to compare computational methods or large-scale experimental datasets and also result in conclusions that generalize poorly in most biological applications. Results We reveal issues with current evaluation methods here and suggest new approaches to evaluation that facilitate accurate and representative characterization of genomic methods and data. Specifically, we describe a functional genomics gold standard based on curation by expert biologists and demonstrate its use as an effective means of evaluation of genomic approaches. Our evaluation framework and gold standard are freely available to the community through our website. Conclusion Proper methods for evaluating genomic data and computational approaches will determine how much we, as a community, are able to learn from the wealth of available data. We propose one possible solution to this problem here but emphasize that this topic warrants broader community discussion.

  18. Generalized method for finding community structures in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chang

    2013-01-01

    To date, most algorithms aiming to find community structures in networks mainly focus on unipartite or bipartite networks. However, to our knowledge, there is no algorithm specifically designed for the mixture network, a third type defined in our paper that represents a wide range of real-world networks. Interestingly, unipartite and bipartite networks can be viewed as limiting cases of a mixture network, suggesting that the mixture network can be considered as a general condition. Based on this observation, we propose a probabilistic model based on the link community model for a unipartite, undirected network [B. Ball, B. Karrer, and M. E. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 84, 036103 (2011)] by redefining this model in the context of a bipartite network and generalizing the bipartite network version model to a mixture network, the general condition, which can be used to find modules in unipartite, bipartite, and mixture networks in a unified framework. We show that both the model of Ball et al. (unipartite, undirected ne...

  19. CT angiography with three-dimensional techniques for the early diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. Comparison with intra-arterial DSA and the surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamessini, Maria T.; Kagadis, George C.; Petsas, Theodore; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Konstantinou, Dimitrios; Sakellaropoulos, George C.; Nikiforidis, George C.; Siablis, Dimitrios E-mail: siablis@med.upatras.gr

    2004-03-01

    Introduction: Cerebral CT angiography (CTA) is an established method applied to both the detection and treatment planning of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of our study was to compare CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings with the surgical results mainly in patients with acute SAH and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CTA. Materials and methods: During the last 2 years, 82 consecutive patients were admitted under clinical symptoms and signs suggestive of harboring an intracranial aneurysm. CT angiography performed immediately afterwards the plain CT, while DSA was performed within the first 48 h of admission. All aneurysms detected were confirmed during surgery or endovascular embolization. Repeat DSA was performed in all patients having both the initial CTA and the DSA 15 days after the onset of symptoms negative. CT angiograms and conventional angiographies were studied by a consensus of two radiologists for each technique, who performed aneurysm detection, morphological features characterization and evaluation of the technique. Results: Surgical or/and endovascular treatment was performed in 45 patients and 53 aneurysms were confirmed. Using 3D-CT angiography, we detected 47 aneurysms in 42 patients. Conventional angiography depicted 43 aneurysms in 39 patients. The sensitivity of CTA for the detection of all aneurysms versus surgery was 88.7%, the specificity 100%, the positive predictive value (PPV) 100%, the negative predictive value (NPV) 80.7% and the accuracy 92.3%. Accordingly, the sensitivity of DSA was 87.8%, the specificity 98%, the PPV 97.7%, the NPV 89.1% and the accuracy 92.9%. Considering aneurysms {>=}3 mm, CTA showed a sensitivity ranging from 93.3 to 100%, equal to that of DSA. Conclusion: Cerebral CT angiography has an equal sensitivity to DSA in the detection of intracranial aneurysms >3 mm. It has also 100% detection rate in AcoA and MCA bifurcation aneurysms, while some locations, like posterior communicating artery

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of periosteal interposition in a distal tibial Salter-Harris type I fracture with surgical correlation: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nara; Jung, Jee Young; Kang, Ki Ser [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The complication of growth disturbance after physeal fracture of the distal tibia has been well recognized. Although irreducible fractures of the physis due to trapped soft tissue, including periosteum, are not common, it could still cause growth disturbances. Therefore, the detection of periosteal interposition with physeal injury on imaging study is important. We present a case of a 10-year-old girl with surgically confirmed periosteal interposition in the distal tibial Salter-Harris type I fracture, through magnetic resonance imaging findings.

  1. A Hamiltonian method for finding broadband modal eigenvalues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haozhong; Wang, Ning; Gao, Dazhi

    2012-02-01

    For shallow water waveguides over a layered elastic bottom, modal eigenvalues can be determined by searching the locations in the complex plane of the horizontal wave number at which the complex phase function is a multiple of π [C. T. Tindle and N. R. Chapman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1777-1782 (1994)]. In this paper, a Hamiltonian method is introduced for tracing the path in the complex plane along which the phase function keeps real. The Hamiltonian method can also be extended to compute the broadband modal eigenvalues or the modal dispersion curves in the Pekeris waveguide with fluid/elastic bottoms. For each proper or leaky normal mode, a different Hamiltonian is constructed in the complex plane and used to trace automatically the complex dispersion curve with the eigenvalue in a reference frequency as the initial value. In contrast to the usual methods, the dispersion curve for each mode is determined individually. The Hamiltonian method shows good performance by comparing with KRAKEN.

  2. Treatment of physeal fractures of the distal radius by volar intrafocal Kapandji method: surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Guy; Orbach, Hagay; Chezar, Avi; Rozen, Nimrod

    2017-01-01

    Distal radial physeal fractures with volar displacement are rare. Several methods of operative treatment include volar plate without inserting distal screws, percutaneous technique using two anterior skin incisions and reversed Kapandji technique with pins introduced through a posterior approach and locked at the anterior cortex of the fracture. We report three cases along with a literature review of the surgical techniques described in the past and a novel surgical technique for this uncommon fracture termed "Volar Kapandji". All patients had anatomic reduction at the last follow-up radiography, and all patients had a full range of motion and VAS 0 at the last follow-up. No complications were recorded. This case study presents the minimally invasive option for treating rare cases of physeal distal radius fractures with volar displacement. V.

  3. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  4. Methods for identifying surgical wound infection after discharge from hospital: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Peter J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound infections are a common complication of surgery that add significantly to the morbidity of patients and costs of treatment. The global trend towards reducing length of hospital stay post-surgery and the increase in day case surgery means that surgical site infections (SSI will increasingly occur after hospital discharge. Surveillance of SSIs is important because rates of SSI are viewed as a measure of hospital performance, however accurate detection of SSIs post-hospital discharge is not straightforward. Methods We conducted a systematic review of methods of post discharge surveillance for surgical wound infection and undertook a national audit of methods of post-discharge surveillance for surgical site infection currently used within United Kingdom NHS Trusts. Results Seven reports of six comparative studies which examined the validity of post-discharge surveillance methods were located; these involved different comparisons and some had methodological limitations, making it difficult to identify an optimal method. Several studies evaluated automated screening of electronic records and found this to be a useful strategy for the identification of SSIs that occurred post discharge. The audit identified a wide range of relevant post-discharge surveillance programmes in England, Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland; however, these programmes used varying approaches for which there is little supporting evidence of validity and/or reliability. Conclusion In order to establish robust methods of surveillance for those surgical site infections that occur post discharge, there is a need to develop a method of case ascertainment that is valid and reliable post discharge. Existing research has not identified a valid and reliable method. A standardised definition of wound infection (e.g. that of the Centres for Disease Control should be used as a basis for developing a feasible, valid and reliable approach to defining post

  5. A Target-Orientated Marker Image Binarization Method for Orthopaedic Surgical Navigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shi-ju; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao; SU Ying-ying; XIA Qing

    2007-01-01

    Camera calibration is the key technique in a C-arm based orthopaedic surgical navigation system. The extraction of marker location information is a necessary step in the calibration process. Ideal marker images should possess uniform background and contain marker shadow only, but in fact marker images always possess nonuniform background and are contaminated by noise and unwanted anatomic information, making the extraction very difficult. A target-orientated marker shadow extraction method was proposed. With this method a proper threshold for marker image binarization can be determined.

  6. In vitro cleaning potential of three implant debridement methods. Simulation of the non-surgical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ronay, Valerie; Merlini, Andrea; ATTIN, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R.; Sahrmann, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the cleaning potential of commonly used implant debridement methods, simulating non-surgical peri-implantitis therapy in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS One-hundred-and-eighty dental implants were ink-stained and mounted in combined soft and hard tissue models, representing peri-implantitis defects with angulations of 30, 60, and 90° covered by a custom-made artificial mucosa. Implants were treated by a dental school graduate and a board-certified periodontist for 120 s w...

  7. Esthesioneuroblastoma methods of intracranial extension: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tian; Xu, Yi-Kai; Jia, Fei-Ge; Yang, Rui-Meng; Feng, Jie; Ye, Xiang-Hua; Qiu, Ying-Wei [Southern Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nan Fang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Li, Long [Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Department of Radiology, Guangdong Provincial Corps Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Duan, Gang; Wu, Yuan-Kui [Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nan Fang Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Li, Hua-Yu [No. 458 Hospital of PLA, Department of Medical Imaging Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2009-12-15

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is an aggressive neuroectodermal malignancy in the upper nasal cavity with local infiltration and lymphatic or hematogenous metastasis. The purpose of this paper is to document three types of direct intracranial extensions by ENB using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eleven patients with pathologically confirmed ENB were admitted in our hospital between December 2002 and December 2008. Their magnetic resonance (MR; n = 10) and CT (n = 8) images were retrospectively reviewed, and particular attention was paid to tumor location and extension, enhancement pattern, cervical lymph node metastasis, and Kadish stage. The majority of patients were male (8/11) with Kadish stage C tumor (10/11). Three types of direct intracranial extension by ENBs were put forward according to their MR and CT findings. The primary tumors were well-defined soft-tissue masses centered in the roof of the nasal cavity eroding into the paranasal sinuses (11/11), the contralateral nasal cavity (4/11), the cranial cavity (5/11), and the fossa orbitalis (3/11). The tumor parenchyma were hypointensity on T1-weighted images, heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, and isodensity or slight hyperdensity on CT images with scattered necroses (4/11) and marginal cysts(4/11). Their enhancements were significant and inhomogeneous. Cervical lymph nodes metastases were observed in four patients (4/11), but no pathologically proved distant metastasis was observed. Three types of direct intracranial extensions by ENB can be found on CT and MRI: cranio-orbital-nasal-communicating ENB, cranio-nasal-communicating ENB, and orbital-nasal-communicating ENB. (orig.)

  8. Our findings, my method: Framing science in televised interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Rony; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2016-06-03

    The public communication of science and technology largely depends on its framing in the news media, but scientists' role in this process has only been explored indirectly. This study focuses on storied accounts told by scientists when asked to present their research or provide expert advice in the course of a news interview. A total of 150 items from a current affairs talk show broadcast in the Israeli media were explored through a methodology combining narrative and conversation analysis. Using the concept of framing as originally proposed by Erving Goffman, we show that researchers use personal accounts as a way of reframing news stories introduced by the program hosts. Elements of method and rationale, which are usually considered technical and are shunned in journalistic reports, emerged as a crucial element in the accounts that experts themselves provided. The implications for framing research and science communication training are discussed.

  9. Planning Pharmacies: An Operational Method to Find the Best Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Tondelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the spatial distribution of the pharmacies on the territory is closely connected to urban planning and to services supply. In Italy, the regulatory change that took place in 2012, triggered partly by the need to adhere more to a constantly changing economic system, has led to a revision of the existing situation, consisting both on the method to quantify the pharmacies distribution and on the efficiency of the service. If Law 27/2012 has effectively allowed municipalities to increase the number of pharmacies that they can settle on the municipal territory, it has also started a process of rethinking the logic of pharmacies location and of their catchment areas. In this framework, the present paper aims to discuss the merits of a regulatory evolutions that sparked the process of liberalization of locations, integrating the law guidelines and goals with an operating logic process, usable and useful to translate goals into planning actions in a continuous dialogue between law and territory, constraints and opportunities, equity and accessibility of the care services. Following this logic operations, we have investigated the urban context of Castelfranco Emilia, assuming the location of new offices on the basis of pharmaceutical analyzes.

  10. Non-surgical sterilisation methods may offer a sustainable solution to feral horse (Equus caballus) overpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sally Elizabeth; Nixon, Brett; Aitken, R John

    2016-10-05

    Feral horses are a significant pest species in many parts of the world, contributing to land erosion, weed dispersal and the loss of native flora and fauna. There is an urgent need to modify feral horse management strategies to achieve public acceptance and long-term population control. One way to achieve this is by using non-surgical methods of sterilisation, which are suitable in the context of this mobile and long-lived species. In this review we consider the benefits of implementing novel mechanisms designed to elicit a state of permanent sterility (including redox cycling to generate oxidative stress in the gonad, random peptide phage display to target non-renewable germ cells and the generation of autoantibodies against proteins essential for conception via covalent modification) compared with that of traditional immunocontraceptive approaches. The need for a better understanding of mare folliculogenesis and conception factors, including maternal recognition of pregnancy, is also reviewed because they hold considerable potential in providing a non-surgical mechanism for sterilisation. In conclusion, the authors contend that non-surgical measures that are single shot and irreversible may provide a sustainable and effective strategy for feral horse control.

  11. Case of huge neurofibroma expanding extra- and intracranially through the enlarged jugular foramen. CT scan findings and surgical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanakita, Junya; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Handa, Hajime (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1984-01-01

    The surgical approach to the jugular foramen has been considered to be very difficult and troublesome, because of the location in which important structures, such as the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery and lower cranial nerves, converge in the narrow deep space. A case of huge neurofibroma, which extended from the tentorium cerebelli through the dilated jugular foramen to the level of the vertebral body of C/sub 3/ was presented. A 12-year-old girl was admitted with complaints of visual disturbance and palsy of the V-XII cranial nerves of the left side. Plain skull film showed prominent widening of the cranial sutures and enlargement of the sella turcica. Horizontal CT scan with contrast showed symmetrical ventricular dilatation and a heterogeneously enhanced mass, which was situated mainly in the left CP angle. Coronal CT scan with contrast revealed a huge mass and enlarged jugular foramen, through which the tumor extended to the level of the vertebral body of C/sub 3/. Occlusion of the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein of the left side was noticed in the vertebral angiography. Two-stage approach, the first one for removal of the intracranial tumor and the second one for extracranial tumor, was performed for its huge tumor. Several authors have reported excellent surgical approaches for the tumors situated in the jugular foramen. By our approach, modifying Gardner's original one, a wide operative field was obtained to remove the tumor around the jugular foramen with success. Our approach for the jugular foramen was described with illustrations.

  12. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    In 1919, the enthusiasm surrounding a short-lived gas play in Versailles Borough, Pennsylvania resulted in the drilling of many needless wells. The legacy of this activity exists today in the form of abandoned, unplugged gas wells that are a continuing source of fugitive methane in the midst of a residential and commercial area. Flammable concentrations of methane have been detected near building foundations, which have forced people from their homes and businesses until methane concentrations decreased. Despite mitigation efforts, methane problems persist and have caused some buildings to be permanently abandoned and demolished. This paper describes the use of magnetic and methane sensing methods by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to locate abandoned gas wells in Versailles Borough where site access is limited and existing infrastructure can interfere. Here, wells are located between closely spaced houses and beneath buildings and parking lots. Wells are seldom visible, often because wellheads and internal casing strings have been removed, and external casing has been cut off below ground level. The magnetic survey of Versailles Borough identified 53 strong, monopole magnetic anomalies that are presumed to indicate the locations of steel-cased wells. This hypothesis was tested by excavating the location of one strong, monopole magnetic anomaly that was within an area of anomalous methane concentrations. The excavation uncovered an unplugged gas well that was within 0.2 m of the location of the maximum magnetic signal. Truck-mounted methane surveys of Versailles Borough detected numerous methane anomalies that were useful for narrowing search areas. Methane sources identified during truck-mounted surveys included strong methane sources such as sewers and methane mitigation vents. However, inconsistent wind direction and speed, especially between buildings, made locating weaker methane sources (such as leaking wells) difficult. Walking surveys with

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of MRA in the diagnosis of neurovascular compression in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. A correlation of MRA and surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecher-Schwarz, H.G.; Bruehl, K.; Kessel, G.; Guenthner, M.; Perneczky, A.; Stoeter, P. [Neurosurgical Department, Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    The published rates of operatively confirmed neurovascular compression as the cause for trigeminal neuralgia range from 10 % to nearly 100 %. High-definition magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed in 27 consecutive patients (in 6 cases with 3D reconstructions) to show neurovascular compression preoperatively. The MRA findings were compared with the relationship between the Vth nerve and the surrounding vessels at surgery. In 23 patients MRA showed present neurovascular compression in accordance with surgical findings (18/27 in complete accordance of type and side of vessel, site and direction of compression). One woman had no neurovascular compression either on MRA or intraoperatively. One MRA prediction of neurovascular compression was false, and two results were false negative. The sensitivity of MRA was therefore 88.5 % but the specificity only 50 %, if surgical findings are the reference. In one patient with right trigeminal neuralgia MRA revealed bilateral neurovascular compression of the Vth nerves. Therefore, the overall specificity of MRA might be below 50 %. In one patient with multiple sclerosis, the decision to operate was markedly influenced by the clear finding of neurovascular compression on MRA. The patient has been free from trigeminal pain for 149 weeks after microvascular decompression. In 6 patients, 3D reconstructions of the MRA data were performed. The images helped in 3D visualisation of the operation, but did not yield new information about the nature of the vessels revealed, or the site, direction or side of the neurovascular compression. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs.

  14. An innovative method to evaluate the suture compliance in sealing the surgical wound lips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saleh, Beniamino Palmieri, Danielle Lodi, Khalid Al-Sebeih

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The increasing number of surgical procedures performed with local anesthesia, followed by immediate patient discharge from the hospital, emphasizes the need for a tight waterproof suture that is capable of maintaining its tensile strength in the postoperative phase when the wound tumescence, edema due to the anesthetic drug, and surgical trauma disappear. Moreover, the issue of having an accurate surgical wound closure is very relevant in vivo in order to prevent hemorrhage and exogenous microbial infections. This study aimed at designing a new a lab technique that could be used for evaluating the best surgical material. Using such a technique, we compared the wound-lip-sealing properties of three commonly-used suture threads, namely polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide. Materials and methods: The mechanical properties of same-size suture threads made from polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide, were compared in order to define the one that possess the best elastic properties by being able to counteract the tension-relaxation process in the first 12 hours following surgery. The tension holding capacity of the suture materials was measured in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The surface area of the scar associated with the three different suture threads was measured and compared, and the permeability of the three different suture threads was assessed at 0 minute, 2 minute, 4 minute, 6 minute, and 8 minute- interval. Results: Results showed that polyurethane suture threads had significantly (P < 0.05 better tensile strength, elongation endurance before breakage, and better elasticity coefficient as compared to polypropylene and polyamide suture threads. Moreover, polyurethane suture threads were significantly (P < 0.05 more impermeable as compared to the other two suture thread types (polypropylene and polyamide. This impermeability was also associated with a tighter wound-lip-sealing ability, and with

  15. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  16. Effectiveness of various surgical methods in treatment of Hirschsprung’s disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukač Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hirschsprung’s disease is the most common identifiable developmental disorder of the enteric nervous system, characterized by a failure of its formation in a variable segment of distal bowel. Currently available surgical therapies for Hirschsprung’s disease, although lifesaving, are associated with numerous complications. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different surgical methods and the incidence of serious complications after radical surgery of rectosigmoid Hirschsprung’s disease. Methods. A retrospective analysis, from June 1997 until May 2012 was carried out on 84 patients operated for Hirschsprung’s disease of rectosigmoid colon. Transanal endorectal pull-through was performed in 30 (35.7% patients (group I, while 54 (64.3% patients were operated by other (Soave, Duhamel or Swenson procedures (group II. The age at operation, the incidence and severity of postoperative complications, the need for previous colostomy and the number of reoperations are countered in order to evaluate the efficacy of surgical procedures. Results. In the group I, the mean age at operation was 9.41 ± 6.37 months and in the group II the mean age at operation was 16.8 ± 13.9 months which was significantly higher (p < 0.01. In the group I there were only 3 (10% patients with complications, one (3% of them was prone to only one redo procedure (1.00 ± 0.00 and there was no need for previous colostomy in all patients (100%. In the group II there were 16 (30% patients with significantly frequent complications (p < 0.05, about 2 reoperations on the average (1.94 ± 1.84 in 4 of them (25% and 22 (41% redo procedures, which was, in total, significantly higher than in the group I (p < 0.01. Only Soave’s procedure was performed without previous colostomy in 20 (37% patients. Conclusion. Transanal endorectal pull-through in surgical treatment of patients with Hirschsprung’s disease is more effective than other procedures

  17. METHOD OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Rodomanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to justify a new method of surgical treatment of patients with recurrent and chronic Achilles tendon ruptures conducted applied topographic-anatomic study of 12 fixed and 8 fixed preparations of the lower extremities was performed. In the developed technique were carried out operations in 18 patients aged from 30 to 72 years with repeated ruptures Achilles tendon. The results of treatment were followed-up in all 18 patients in the period from 6 months to 3 years. Repeated tears of Achilles tendon were not observed. The range of motions in ankle joint reconstructed almost in its entirety. Performed topographic and anatomical studies and accumulated clinical experience allow us to recommend the proposed method for a wider clinical use.

  18. Accuracy of routine MRI in lesions of the supraspinatus tendon - comparison with surgical findings; Treffsicherheit der nativen und kontrastverstaerkten MRT im Routineeinsatz bei Supraspinatussehnenrupturen - Vergleich mit operativen Ergebnissen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, R.-J.; Bostanjoglo, M.; Herzog, H.; Hidajat, N.; Roettgen, R.; Maeurer, J.; Felix, R. [Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany); Kaeaeb, M. [Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin, Klinik fuer Unfall- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the correlation of the extent of lesions of the supraspinatus tendon in MRI's of the shoulder with surgical or arthroscopic findings using the classification of Snyders and Batemann, respectively. Materials and methods: The preoperative MRI's of 80 patients (age: 16-76/47.4{+-}14.0 years) which were performed due to various complaints of the shoulder were analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and blinded radiologists. We evaluated the incidence and the extent of partial or complete ruptures of the supraspinatus tendon. After MRI, an arthroscopic or open surgical intervention was performed (=gold standard). Various MR-scanners were used with a field strength of 1.0 T (17 cases), or 1.5 T (63 cases) and flexible or inflexible arthro coils. Additionally to plain MRI, 38 of 80 patients underwent contrast enhanced MRI. The MR and the surgical or arthroscopic findings were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: Neglecting the localization and the extent of discontinuity of the supraspinatus tendon, the sensitivity of the 80 MRI's was 0.93, the specificity 0.69, and the accuracy 0.85. The sensitivity increased to 0.96 with constant specificity and an accuracy of 0.83 excluding the lesions with an extent below 1 cm. Compared with non-enhanced examinations, the contrast enhanced MRI revealed higher sensitivity (+7%, 0.89 vs. 0.96), higher specificity (+11%, 0.64 vs. 0.75), and higher accuracy (+8%, 0.81 vs. 0.89) in depicting lesions of the supraspinatus tendon at all. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the detection of lesions at all and the differentiation between partial and complete ruptures were improved significantly by contrast enhancement, especially in lesions with an extent below 1 cm. Diagnostic failures were seen in examinations without intravenous contrast application, artifacts, extent of the lesion below 1 cm, differenting between degeneration and partial rupture of the tendon, differentiating between severely

  19. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia in Turkey: a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Engin, Aynur; Altuntas, Emine Elif; Salk, İsmail; Kaya, Ali; Celik, Cem; Dokmetas, Ilyas; Bakir, Mehmet; Elaldi, Nazif

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings of both pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia. We also compared the therapeutic outcomes of patients who underwent surgical drainage of lymph nodes early or late during antibiotic therapy. A total of 68 patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, including 26 children and 42 adults, were enrolled in this study. The average duration between symptom onset and hospital admission was 20.8 days (4-60 days) in the pediatric group and 32.6 days (4-90 days) in the adult group (P = 0.009). The most frequently observed clinical symptoms were sore throat (100% and 100%), fever (96.2% and 90.5%), tonsillitis (69.2% and 78.6%), and rash (15.4% and 11.9%) in the pediatric and adult groups, respectively. However, the frequencies of erythema, tenderness, and fluctuant of enlarged lymph nodes were significantly higher in the adult group than in the pediatric group (P = 0.005, P = 0.029, and P = 0.041, respectively). Treatment failure was observed in 2 (7.7%) pediatric patients and 4 (9.5%) adult patients, for a total of 6 (8.8%) treatment failures in the study group. Similar clinical findings and treatment outcomes were observed in both groups. We concluded that a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia.

  20. A guided surgical approach and novel fixation method for arthroscopic Latarjet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Pascal; Gendre, Patrick; Baba, Mohammed; Thélu, Charles-Édouard; Baring, Toby; Gonzalez, Jean-François; Trojani, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Most of the complications of the Latarjet procedure are related to the bone block positioning and use of screws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an arthroscopic Latarjet guiding system improves accuracy of bone block positioning and if suture button fixation could be an alternative to screw fixation in allowing bone block healing and avoiding complications. Seventy-six patients (mean age, 27 years) underwent an arthroscopic Latarjet procedure with a guided surgical approach and suture button fixation. Bone graft union and positioning accuracy were assessed by postoperative computed tomography imaging. Clinical examinations were performed at each visit. At a mean of 14 months (range, 6-24 months) postoperatively, 75 of 76 patients had a stable shoulder. No neurologic complications were observed; no patients have required further surgery. The coracoid graft was positioned strictly tangential to the glenoid surface in 96% of the cases and below the equator in 93%. The coracoid graft healed in 69 patients (91%). A guided surgical approach optimizes graft positioning accuracy. Suture button fixation can be an alternative to screw fixation, obtaining an excellent rate of bone union. Neurologic and hardware complications, classically reported with screw fixation, have not been observed with this guided technique and novel fixation method. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain and Non-Surgical Treatment Methods: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Yıldırım

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain originating from intervertebral disc is de­scribed by two separate but related etiologies: disc her­niation and discogenic pain. When other causes are ex­cluded, prevalence of discogenic pain was reported to be between 17-42%. Diagnostic modalities include clinical examination, imaging, and discography and provoca­tive discography remains to be the golden standard for diagnosis. Treatment methods include noninvasive ap­proaches such as drugs, physiotherapy modalities, and multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation; invasive approaches such as intradiscal treatments and epidural injections; and lastly surgical approaches such as fusion and artificial joint replacement. Evidence for drug treat­ment in chronic discogenic low back pain is limited to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids which are associated with many adverse outcomes. It has been shown that when noninvasive methods are used together with other modalities patients may obtain additional ben­efits. Evidence base is limited for many other physical and behavioral treatment methods like low back school and specific exercise programs. There is moderate evidence for epidural injections and poor evidence for intradiscal treatments. Evidence for surgical fusions and disc re­placements are similar and it is not superior to multidis­ciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation or well-designed physical treatment. Multiple authorities have emphasized potential complications and limited the indication of sur­gical approaches to patients who do not response con­servative treatments. In future, the most promising treat­ments seem to be multidisciplinary and long-term exer­cise programs and/or epidural injections. High quality ran­domized controlled studies with adequate sample sizes and long term follow ups should be designed in order to determine optimal treatment modalities.

  2. [Surgical methods for delivery in modern obstetrics and their influence on maternal and infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanevych, Ie V; Mitsoda, R M; Konoplianko, T V; Konoplianko, V V

    2000-03-01

    The article addresses issues of comparative characterization of deliveries involving surgery and impact thereof on the health of the mother and her child. Risk factors are identified that the mother and her child run in sectio cesarea, in application of obstetrical forceps, and in vacuum-extraction of the fetus. Cesarean section was found out to be the most acceptable mode of delivery in origination of organic and functional nervous system involvement in children but the most ill-chosen and unpropitious one in the mother, especially so in those groups at risk for bleeding, septic complications, and genital endometriosis. Among those surgical methods of delivery being the least traumatic to the mother are obstetrical forceps and vacuum-extraction of the fetus.

  3. A review of surgical methods (excluding hair transplantation and their role in hair loss management today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S Sattur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today.

  4. Finding Value in Surgical Didactics: Longitudinal Resident Feedback From Case-Based and Traditional Lectures in an Orthopaedic Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwell, Jonathan C; Halvorson, Jason J; Teasdall, Robert D; Carroll, Eben A

    To evaluate orthopedic resident perceptions of a didactic curriculum presented in traditional and case-based formats. Prospective cohort study using anonymous web-based survey after each conference evaluating resident perceptions of faculty participation, didactic delivery, content, and overall conference value. Conferences were structured as primarily case-based or traditional lecture. Logistic analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of rating a conference as valuable time spent. Orthopedic residency training program at single institution over an academic year. Orthopedic residents in postgraduate training year 1 to 5 attending mandatory didactic conference. Cased-based conferences received higher Likert ratings on residents' perception of faculty participation, instructor delivery, and improvement in topic understanding when compared to traditional lecture-based conferences (p didactic sessions. Junior levels residents are not perceived as effective as senior residents and faculty in presenting material in either format. These methods allow for a dynamic approach to identifying strengths and weaknesses in a resident curriculum as a well as a means for more focused and real-time improvements. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phantom-based evaluation method for surgical assistance devices in minimally invasive cochlear implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexow, G. Jakob; Kluge, Marcel; Majdani, Omid; Lenarz, Thomas; Rau, Thomas S.

    2017-03-01

    Several research groups have proposed individual solutions for surgical assistance devices to perform minimally invasive cochlear implantation. The main challenge is the drilling of a small bore hole from the surface of the skull to the inner ear at submillimetric accuracy. Each group tested the accuracy of their device in their respective test bench or in a small number of temporal bone specimens. This complicates the comparison of the different approaches. Thus, a simple and inexpensive phantom based evaluation method is proposed which resembles clinical conditions. The method is based on half-skull phantoms made of bone-substitute material - optionally equipped with an artificial skin replica to include skin incision within the evaluation procedure. Anatomical structures of the temporal bone derived from segmentations using clinical imaging data are registered into a computer tomographic scan of the skull phantom and used for the planning of the drill trajectory. Drilling is performed with the respective device under conditions close to the intraoperative setting. Evaluation of accuracy can either be performed through postoperative imaging or by means of added targets on the inside of the skull model. Two different targets are proposed: simple reference marks only for measuring the accuracy of the device and a target containing a scala tympani model for evaluation of the complete workflow including the insertion of the electrode carrier. Experiments using the presented method take place under reproducible conditions thus allowing the comparison of the different approaches. In addition, artificial phantoms are easier to obtain and handle than human specimens.

  6. PROSPECTIVE COMPARISON OF ENDOSCOPIC AND OPEN SURGICAL METHODS FOR CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Tian; Hong Zhao; Ting Wang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes of patients undergoing either open or endoscopic carpal tunnel release for the treatment of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.Methods A prospective, randomized study was performed on 70 hands in 62 patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome from April 2000 to April 2004. Either open (36 hands in 30 patients) or endoscopic (34 hands in 32 patients) carpal tunnel release was performed randomly. Symptom improvement, complications, and the time of operation , in-hospital stay, and return to work between the two groups were assessed with average 2 years of follow-up. The electromyography was tested pre- and 3 months post-operation.Results There were no significant differences between the two surgical groups with regard to postoperative improvements of symptom, electromyography tests, and the incidence of complications. But it was statistically less in the rate of scar tenderness, the time of operation, in-hospital stay, and return to work in the endoscopic group compared with the open group (P< 0. 05).Conclusions The endoscopic carpal tunnel release is a reliable method in the treatment of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. And it has the advantages of slight scar tenderness, less operation time, less in-hospital stay, early functional recovery, safety, and high satisfaction rate compared with open methods.

  7. Binder syndrome: Clinical findings and surgical treatment of 18 patients at the Department of Plastic Surgery in Polanica Zdrój.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, Piotr H; Łątkowski, Ireneusz; Zachara, Mateusz G; Wójcicki, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Binder syndrome (BS) is an uncommon congenital underdevelopment of the maxilla and nasal skeleton. Other clinical features include a hypoplastic or absent anterior nasal spine; a short, flat nose with short columella; an acute nasolabial angle; a convex upper lip and class III malocclusion. The aim of the study was to outline the major characteristics of BS and to present a variety of surgical treatment methods. The study included 18 patients treated in the authors' department from 1989 to 2013. The patients were predominantly women, aged 6 months to 34 years. Nine patients did not present any co-morbidities, but in the other 9 the most common co-morbidities were a unilateral cleft lip and palate, followed by a cleft palate, a bilateral cleft lip and palate, a cleft lip, GERD, gluten intolerance, oligophrenia, goiter and foot malformation. Most of the patients had not been operated on previously. The most common procedure carried out was an iliac crest bone graft. In 4 patients, no procedures other than cleft lip and palate repair were undertaken. In 3 cases a Le Fort I osteotomy was performed to correct the patients' orthognathic status. No major or life-threating complications were noted. In 2 cases, due to a high degree of resorption of bone grafts, multiple secondary grafting of bone, cartilage and deepithelialized skin was necessary to obtain satisfactory results. In BS surgical treatment is the treatment of choice. It results in adequate correction of facial retrusion. However, due to various degrees of bone resorption, the results are not lifelong. No unequivocally superior surgical strategy in BS has been presented so far. Most disagreement among authors is related to the need for and timing of maxillary osteotomy, the choice between bone and cartilage grafting in nose reconstruction and columella lengthening. Although alloplastic materials offer the tempting advantage of fast and simultaneous augmentation of deficient tissues, their use may risk prolonged

  8. A comparative assessment of surgeons' tracking methods for surgical site infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Ramshorst (Gabrielle); M.C. Vos (Margreet); D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J. Jeekel (Hans); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) is considered increasingly to be an indicator of quality of care. We conducted a study in which daily inspection of the surgical incision was performed by an independent, trained team to monitor the incidence of SSI using U.S. C

  9. A comparative assessment of surgeons' tracking methods for surgical site infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Ramshorst (Gabrielle); M.C. Vos (Margreet); D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J. Jeekel (Hans); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) is considered increasingly to be an indicator of quality of care. We conducted a study in which daily inspection of the surgical incision was performed by an independent, trained team to monitor the incidence of SSI using U.S.

  10. A Direct Algebraic Method in Finding Particular Solutions to Some Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUChun-Ping; CHENJian-Kang; CAIFan

    2004-01-01

    Firstly, a direct algebraic method and a routine way in finding traveling wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations are explained. And then some new exact solutions for some evolution equations are obtained by using the method.

  11. Fractures of the distal clavicle: comparison between two surgical treatment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Souza Vilela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and radiographic results from osteosynthesis of fractures of the lateral third of the clavicle, using two methods: T plates or anchors together with Kirschner wires.METHODS: Fifteen patients of mean age 34.3 years (range: 19-57 and mean follow-up 22.7 months (range: 14-32 were evaluated. In nine cases, a T plate was used; and in six cases, coracoclavicular fixation was used with anchors in the coracoid process and Kirschner wires through the acromioclavicular joint. The evaluation included the Constant score, personal satisfaction and radiographic assessment.RESULTS: Both types of treatment achieved consolidation in all cases. Group 1 presented a higher Constant score (83.4 than that of Group 2 (76.4 (p = 0.029. Neither of the techniques presented any severe complications, and mild complications were only observed in Group 2 (80%, mostly consisting of migration of the Kirschner wire and superficial infection.CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of fractures of the distal clavicle using T plates provided the same consolidation rate as shown by coracoclavicular fixation with anchors in the coracoid process and Kirschner wires through the acromioclavicular joint, and better clinical results.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III evidence was obtained. Comparative retrospective study and therapeutic study were performed.

  12. [Thrombectomy and plication of veins as a method of preventing pulmonary artery thromboembolism at a multidisciplinary surgical hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, S V; Pashin, N V; Dedyukhin, I G; Aleksandrov, A G; Lebedeva, M V

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed efficacy and safety of the operation of plication of deep veins of lower extremities, pelvic veins, and the inferior vena cava as a method of preventing fatal pulmonary artery thromboembolism. A total of 48 patients were operated on. Of these, 23 patients belonged to traumatological-and-orthopaedical cohort, 3 to general surgical cohort, 4 to gynaecological, and 18 to vascular cohort (isolated deep vein thrombosis). The length of the floating head of the thrombus varied from 2 to 10 cm. The presence of a floating thrombus in traumatological, surgical and gynaecological patients, regardless of the length of the floating part was an absolute indication for thrombectomy and venous plication. Vascular patients were operated on in accordance with the National Guidelines (with the length of the thrombus floating portion of not less than 4 cm). In all cases, surgical management envisaged direct and indirect thrombectomy. Plication was always performed above the level of venotomy. It was shown that thrombectomy combined with plication of major veins is a reliable and safe method of prophylaxis, being in some cases the only possible method of preventing fatal pulmonary artery thromboembolism. The operation of plication makes it possible not to cancel a scheduled surgical intervention in patients with a detected floating thrombus of major veins. The operation of thrombectomy and plication above the level of the floating head of the thrombus may be considered an operation of choice in the conditions where there is no possibility to use endovascular methods of treatment (implantation of a cava filter, endovascular catheter thrombectomy), as well as in pregnant women. Restoration of the venous lumen occurs at safe terms spontaneously, not requiring repeat surgical intervention. Simultaneous plication of the vein does not complicate the course of the postoperative period of the main surgical intervention. Thrombectomy and plication do not lead to the

  13. Gallstone ileus treated with non-surgical conservative methods: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Alessandro; Maimone, Antonella; Fusetti, Nadia; Pizzo, Elena

    2015-03-02

    The preoperative diagnosis of gallstone ileus is challenging due to the variability of its presentation, often resulting in late diagnosis. Controversy remains regarding the management of gallstone ileus; surgery is the standard treatment, but also less invasive approaches have proven to be successful. We present an unusual case of gallstone ileus and its conservative treatment. We describe the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian woman with a bowel sub-occlusion, treated conservatively. The imaging technique (plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scan) led to a diagnosis of gallstones ileus. A surgical intervention was not performed. Instead, she underwent extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy to fragment the stones, mechanical intestinal dilatation for ileocolic stenosis and endoscopic removal of the gallstone. The presence of an apricot shell contributed to the bowel occlusion and was removed. The intervention was successful and without complications. Given the variability of the gallstone ileus presentation, surgery could not be the only treatment for our patient. In our case report, we show that colonoscopy could be a non-invasive approach that allows for diagnosis and treatment at the same time. The available data do not show a higher rate of recurrent biliary disease in cases where this method has been used, therefore in select patients, a conservative treatment could be an effective solution.

  14. A Low-Cost Teaching Model of Inguinal Canal: A Useful Method to Teach Surgical Concepts in Hernia Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Frederico; Ceresoli, Marco; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Inguinal canal anatomy and hernia repair is difficult for medical students and surgical residents to comprehend. Methods: Using low-cost material, a 3-dimensional inexpensive model of the inguinal canal was created to allow students to learn anatomical details and landmarks and to perform their own simulated hernia repair. In order to…

  15. A surgical method for implanting transmitters with sensors into the body cavity of cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B.H.; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1985-01-01

    Relatively complicated surgery is a necessity when implanting sensors internally in fish in order to measure physiological variables at specific locations. A surgical procedure from implanting transmitters with remote sensors into the body cavity of cod (Gadus morhua L.) is presented. The method...

  16. A surgical method for implanting transmitters with sensors into the body cavity of cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B.H.; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1985-01-01

    Relatively complicated surgery is a necessity when implanting sensors internally in fish in order to measure physiological variables at specific locations. A surgical procedure from implanting transmitters with remote sensors into the body cavity of cod (Gadus morhua L.) is presented. The method ...

  17. Stereolithography: a method for planning the surgical correction of the hypertelorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hector Malagon; Romo, Gabriela Wong; Estolano, Roberto Takeo Rivera

    2009-09-01

    Hypertelorism is a deformity characterized by an increase in interorbital distance. The treatment can be orbital mobilization, or if the malformation goes along with occlusal alterations, the indicated treatment is a facial bipartition with hemifacial rotation.The intention of the present study was to describe a surgical planning technique in locating the anatomic points and planes on a stereolithographic model of a patient with 0-14 fissure and its surgical application.

  18. [Endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy. A non-surgical method of enteral alimentation in ORL patients unable to feed orally].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girodet, J; Vedrenne, J B; Salmon, R J; Rodriguez, J; Esteve, M; Guillaume, A; Brugere, J

    1988-01-01

    Since surgical gastrostomy is not a risk-free operation in debilitated patients, a method of endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy (EPG) is proposed. A thread is passed percutaneously into the gastric cavity and brought to the exterior through the mouth during fibroscopy. This thread allows removal of a gastrostomy tube by simple traction. Used in 18 patients with ENT cancer the EPG was simple to perform, postoperative complications being minor in 3 cases and serious in one patient. In the absence of any obstacle in the pharyngeal channel preventing the passage of a fibroscope, EPG is a simple procedure and is therefore an alternative to surgical gastrostomy.

  19. Computer-designed surgical guide template compared with free-hand operation for mesiodens extraction in premaxilla using "trapdoor" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying Kai; Xie, Qian Yang; Yang, Chi; Xu, Guang Zhou

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method of mesiodens extraction using a vascularized pedicled bone flap by piezosurgery and to compare the differences between a computer-aided design surgical guide template and free-hand operation.A total of 8 patients with mesiodens, 4 with a surgical guide (group I), and 4 without it (group II) were included in the study. The surgical design was to construct a trapdoor pedicle on the superior mucoperiosteal attachment with application of piezosurgery. The bone lid was repositioned after mesiodens extraction. Group I patients underwent surgeries based on the preoperative planning with surgical guide templates, while group II patients underwent free-hand operation. The outcome variables were success rate, intraoperative time, anterior nasal spine (ANS) position, changes of nasolabial angle (NLA), and major complications. Data from the 2 groups were compared by SPSS 17.0, using Wilcoxon test.The operative time was significantly shorter in group I patients. All the mesiodentes were extracted successfully and no obvious differences of preoperative and postoperative ANS position and NLA value were found in both groups. The patients were all recovered uneventfully.Surgical guide templates can enhance clinical accuracy and reduce operative time by facilitating accurate osteotomies.

  20. In vitro cleaning potential of three implant debridement methods. Simulation of the non-surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronay, Valerie; Merlini, Andrea; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Sahrmann, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    To assess the cleaning potential of commonly used implant debridement methods, simulating non-surgical peri-implantitis therapy in vitro. One-hundred-and-eighty dental implants were ink-stained and mounted in combined soft and hard tissue models, representing peri-implantitis defects with angulations of 30, 60, and 90° covered by a custom-made artificial mucosa. Implants were treated by a dental school graduate and a board-certified periodontist for 120 s with following instruments: Gracey curette, ultrasonic scaler, and an air powder abrasive device with a nozzle for sub-mucosal use utilizing glycine powder. All procedures were repeated 10 times for each instrumentation and defect morphology respectively. Images of the implant surface were taken. Areas with color remnants were planimetrically determined and their cumulative surface area was calculated. Results were tested for statistical differences using two-way anova and Bonferroni correction. Micro-morphologic surface changes were analyzed on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The areas of uncleaned surfaces (%, mean ± standard deviations) for curettes, ultrasonic tips, and air abrasion accounted for 74.70 ± 4.89%, 66.95 ± 8.69% and 33.87 ± 12.59% respectively. The air powder abrasive device showed significantly better results for all defect angulations (P instrumentation with Gracey curettes and ultrasonic devices, whereas glycine powder did not result in any surface alterations. A complete surface cleaning could not be achieved regardless of the instrumentation method applied. The air powder abrasive device showed a superior cleaning potential for all defect angulations with better results at wide defects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Hua-Feng Pan; Gui-Lan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy.Method:A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases), then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after surgery; when the drainage volume≤ 20 mL, 24 h after surgery, removed the drainage tubes, to record the drainage days, total cases who occured subcutaneous hydrops and all adverse events after surgery. Results:Study group: the first 3 d of daily drainage volume declined quickly, and were accordingly less than that in control group; and≤ 50 mL/24 h on the third day. Drainage total days median (4 d) were less than that in control group (7 d); subcutaneous hydrops occurrence rate was only 2%, which wasgreatly lower than that in control group (14%), statistics difference had significance. Through the comparison between study group and control group, this surgical method improvement will not bring any surgical safety problems, such as hematoma, wound infection, skin flap necrosis and upper limb LOM etc. Only extended the surgical time slightly. While in control group, drainage tubes fell into the dead space or were blocked frequently, then induced hydrops; but in study group, due to the suture of latissimus dorsi leading edge and chestwall, dead space disappeared at this spot, drainage tube were not blocked any more.Conclusion: In mastectomy and axillary lymph dissection, due to axillary dissection, ligation might lead to open lymphatic tissue, added that suture fixed latissimus dorsi leading edge and skin flap leading to disappeared dead space, compared with traditional surgical method, this improved surgical method could obviously reduce the occurrence rate of hydrops. Daily drainage volume

  2. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A proof of safety is paramount for an autonomous robotic surgical system to ensure that it does not cause trauma to patients. However, a proof of safety is rarely constructed, as surgical systems are too complex to be dealt with by most formal verification methods. In this paper, we design...... a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...

  3. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Finding zeros of nonlinear functions using the hybrid parallel cell mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fu-Rui; Schütze, Oliver; Ding, Qian; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems including finding equilibrium states and stability boundaries often leads to a problem of finding zeros of vector functions. However, finding all the zeros of a set of vector functions in the domain of interest is quite a challenging task. This paper proposes a zero finding algorithm that combines the cell mapping methods and the subdivision techniques. Both the simple cell mapping (SCM) and generalized cell mapping (GCM) methods are used to identify a covering set of zeros. The subdivision technique is applied to enhance the solution resolution. The parallel implementation of the proposed method is discussed extensively. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the proposed method. We then extend the study of finding zeros to the problem of finding stability boundaries of potential fields. Examples of two and three dimensional potential fields are studied. In addition to the effectiveness in finding the stability boundaries, the proposed method can handle several millions of cells in just a few seconds with the help of parallel computing in graphics processing units (GPUs).

  5. On the Reversibility of Newton-Raphson Root-Finding Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Wright, John P [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL

    2008-07-01

    Reversibility of a computational method is the ability to execute the method forward as well as backward. Reversible computational methods are generally useful in undoing incorrect computation in a speculative execution setting designed for efficient parallel processing. Here, reversibility is explored of a common component in scientific codes, namely, the Newton-Raphson root-finding method. A reverse method is proposed that is aimed at retracing the sequence of points that are visited by the forward method during forward iterations. When given the root, along with the number of iterations, of the forward method, this reverse method is aimed at backtracking along the reverse sequence of points to finally recover the original starting point of the forward method. The operation of this reverse method is illustrated on a few example functions, serving to highlight the method's strengths and shortcomings.

  6. Surgical management of pilonidal sinus patients by primary and secondary repair methods: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Barati B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Gross difference in return to work exists in pilonidal sinus patients operated by primary and secondary repair. This survey was to evaluate the results of surgical management of pilonidal sinus with primary or secondary closure."n"nMethods: In a randomized clinical trial, patients with pilonidal sinus referring to the surgical clinic of Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran between March 2007 and March 2009 were underwent either excision with midline closure (primary, n=40, or excision without closure (secondary, n=40. The recorded outcomes were hospital stay, healing time, time off work, postoperative pain, patient's satisfaction and the recurrence rate."n"nResults: Majority of the patients were male (87.50%. There was no significant difference in the hospital stay. Time off work (8.65±1.73 Vs. 11.53±2.33 days, p=0.001 and healing time (3.43±0.92 Vs. 5.3±0.79 days, p=0.001 were shorter in primary group; but, there were no significant differences in hospital stay and number of visits. Intensity of postoperative pain in the 1st (37.75±6.5 Vs. 43.63±5.06, p=0.001, 2nd (26.75±6.66 Vs. 34.63±5.48, p=0.001, 3rd (18.25±6.05 Vs. 27.88±6.88, p=0.001, and 7th (8.45±3.85 Vs. 17.88±6.19, p=0.001 days were

  7. Post-traumatic temporal lobe lesions: surgical decision making based on CT scan findings Lesões traumáticas do lobo temporal: indicações cirúrgicas baseadas na tomografia computadorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Varella Giannetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The indication for surgical treatment of post-traumatic parenchymal lesions in the temporal lobe remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: We reviewd the tomographic parameters that might be useful in making surgical decisions. METHOD: The tomographic findings of 69 patients were analyzed in a retrospective manner considering: 1 the effects of the lesion (classified into 4 variables: midline shift, status of the cisterns, status of the ventricles, and status of the peripheral sulci; and 2 the characteristics of the lesion: anterior, posterior or anteroposterior location (as defined by a coronal plane tangent to the cerebral peduncles and its mediolateral diameter. RESULTS: When none or only one of the aforementioned variables was found to be altered, conservative treatment was instituted (22 out of 38 lesions. In two cases, all four variables were altered, and surgery was performed in both. Anterior, anteroposterior and posterior lesions measuring 21, 23 and 28 mm in diameter, respectively, had a 50% chance of surgical removal. CONCLUSION: Amongst the patients who underwent surgical intervention, the more anterior the location of the temporal lobe lesion, the smaller the diameter.INTRODUÇÃO: A indicação do tratamento cirúrgico das lesões parenquimatosas temporais de origem traumática é controversa. Analisaram-se os parâmetros tomográficos que poderiam ser úteis nesta decisão terapêutica. MÉTODO: Os achados tomográficos de 69 patientes foram analisados retrospectivamente em relação a: 1 efeitos das lesões (classificados em 4 variáveis: desvio de estruturas medianas, estado das cisternas, dos ventrículos e dos sulcos periféricos; e 2 características das lesões: localização anterior, posterior ou ântero-posterior (definida por um plano coronal tangente aos pedúnculos cerebrais e diâmetro médio-lateral. RESULTADOS: Quando nenhuma ou uma das variáveis acima mencionadas foi encontrada alterada, foi instituído o

  8. Finding roots of arbitrary high order polynomials based on neural network recursive partitioning method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Deshuang; CHI Zheru

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel recursive partitioning method based on constrained learning neural networks to find an arbitrary number (less than the order of the polynomial) of (real or complex) roots of arbitrary polynomials. Moreover, this paper also gives a BP network constrained learning algorithm (CLA) used in root-finders based on the constrained relations between the roots and the coefficients of polynomials. At the same time, an adaptive selection method for the parameter δPwith the CLA is also given.The experimental results demonstrate that this method can more rapidly and effectively obtain the roots of arbitrary high order polynomials with higher precision than traditional root-finding approaches.

  9. SURGICAL METHODS OF CLEFT LIP, CLEFT PALATE AND COMBINED CLEFT LIP WITH CLEFT PALATE - OUR EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Polisetti Ravi; Durga Prasad; Soumya; Krishna Sasanka

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cleft lip and cleft palate is the most common congenital malformation of the face and its pattern varies with geography world wide. This study was done in 67 patients presenting to Department of ENT, Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal with cleft deformities to assess the surgical outcome of cleft lip, cleft palate and combined cleft lip cleft palate cases.

  10. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Juliana L; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, Molly; Shields, Morgan C; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Sundt, Thoralf M; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member interactions during 22 cases, coded them by behavior type and valence (ie, positive/negative/neutral), and characterized them by leadership function (conductor, elucidator, delegator, engagement facilitator, tone setter, being human, and safe space maker) to create a novel framework of surgical leadership derived from direct observation. We surveyed nonsurgeon team members about their perceptions of individual surgeon's leadership effectiveness on a 7-point Likert scale and correlated survey measures with individual surgeon profiles created by calculating percentage of behavior types, leader functions, and valence. Surgeon leadership was rated by nonsurgeons from 4.2 to 6.2 (mean, 5.4). Among the 33 types of behaviors observed, most interactions constituted elucidating (24%) and tone setting (20%). Overall, 66% of interactions (range, 43%-84%) were positive and 11% (range, 1%-45%) were negative. The percentage of positive and negative behaviors correlated strongly (r = 0.85 for positive and r = 0.75 for negative, p leadership. Facilitating engagement related most positively (r = 0.80; p = 0.03), and negative forms of elucidating, ie, criticism, related most negatively (r = -0.81; p = 0.03). We identified 7 surgeon leadership functions and related behaviors that impact perceptions of leadership. These observations suggest actionable opportunities to improve team leadership behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a semi-automated method for subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul S Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many surgical pathology laboratories, operating room schedules are prospectively reviewed to determine specimen distribution to different subspecialty services and to predict the number and nature of potential intraoperative consultations for which prior medical records and slides require review. At our institution, such schedules were manually converted into easily interpretable, surgical pathology-friendly reports to facilitate these activities. This conversion, however, was time-consuming and arguably a non-value-added activity. Objective: Our goal was to develop a semi-automated method of generating these reports that improved their readability while taking less time to perform than the manual method. Materials and Methods: A dynamic Microsoft Excel workbook was developed to automatically convert published operating room schedules into different tabular formats. Based on the surgical procedure descriptions in the schedule, a list of linked keywords and phrases was utilized to sort cases by subspecialty and to predict potential intraoperative consultations. After two trial-and-optimization cycles, the method was incorporated into standard practice. Results: The workbook distributed cases to appropriate subspecialties and accurately predicted intraoperative requests. Users indicated that they spent 1-2 h fewer per day on this activity than before, and team members preferred the formatting of the newer reports. Comparison of the manual and semi-automatic predictions showed that the mean daily difference in predicted versus actual intraoperative consultations underwent no statistically significant changes before and after implementation for most subspecialties. Conclusions: A well-designed, lean, and simple information technology solution to determine subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology is approximately as accurate as the gold standard manual method and requires less

  12. Method of the Logistic Function for Finding Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryashov, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The method of the logistic function is presented for finding exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations. The application of the method is illustrated by using the nonlinear ordinary differential equation of the fourth order. Analytical solutions obtained by this method are presented. These solutions are expressed via exponential functions.logistic function, nonlinear wave, nonlinear ordinary differential equation, Painlev´e test, exact solution

  13. An analytical method for finding exact solutions of modified Korteweg–de Vries equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shafiqul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, we have studied new extension of the (G′/G-expansion method for finding the solitary wave solutions of the modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV equation. It has been shown that the proposed method is effective and can be used for many other nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs in mathematical physics. The obtained results show that the method is very powerful and convenient mathematical tool for nonlinear evolution equations in science and engineering.

  14. On an Iterative Method for Finding a Zero to the Sum of Two Maximal Monotone Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a problem that consists of finding a zero to the sum of two monotone operators. One method for solving such a problem is the forward-backward splitting method. We present some new conditions that guarantee the weak convergence of the forward-backward method. Applications of these results, including variational inequalities and gradient projection algorithms, are also considered.

  15. Enhancing Gibbs sampling method for motif finding in DNA with initial graph representation of sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepančič, Ziva

    2014-10-01

    Finding short patterns with residue variation in a set of sequences is still an open problem in genetics, since motif-finding techniques on DNA and protein sequences are inconclusive on real data sets and their performance varies on different species. Hence, finding new algorithms and evolving established methods are vital to further understanding of genome properties and the mechanisms of protein development. In this work, we present an approach to finding functional motifs in DNA sequences in connection to Gibbs sampling method. Starting points in the search space are partly determined via graphical representation of input sequences opposed to completely random initial points with the standard Gibbs sampling. Our algorithm is evaluated on synthetic as well as on real data sets by using several statistics, such as sensitivity, positive predictive value, specificity, performance, and correlation coefficient. Additionally, a comparison between our algorithm and the basic standard Gibbs sampling algorithm is made to show improvement in accuracy, repeatability, and performance.

  16. AN EFFICIENT DATA MINING METHOD TO FIND FREQUENT ITEM SETS IN LARGE DATABASE USING TR- FCTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Suba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining association rules in large database is one of most popular data mining techniques for business decision makers. Discovering frequent item set is the core process in association rule mining. Numerous algorithms are available in the literature to find frequent patterns. Apriori and FP-tree are the most common methods for finding frequent items. Apriori finds significant frequent items using candidate generation with more number of data base scans. FP-tree uses two database scans to find significant frequent items without using candidate generation. This proposed TR-FCTM (Transaction Reduction- Frequency Count Table Method discovers significant frequent items by generating full candidates once to form frequency count table with one database scan. Experimental results of TR-FCTM shows that this algorithm outperforms than Apriori and FP-tree.

  17. Inter-Method Discrepancies in Brain Volume Estimation May Drive Inconsistent Findings in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Gajendra J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Dougherty, Chase C.; Evans, Eli; Evans, David W.; Moore, Gregory J.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS). Brain volumes estimated by the three methods were correlated but had significant inter-method differences; except TIVSPM vs. TIVFS, all inter-method differences were significant. ASD vs. TDC group differences in all brain volume estimates were dependent on the method used. SPM showed that TIV, GM, and CSF volumes of ASD were larger than TDC with statistical significance, whereas FS and FSL did not show significant differences in any of the volumes; in some cases, the direction of the differences were opposite to SPM. When methods were compared with each other, they showed differential biases for autism, and several biases were larger than ASD vs. TDC differences of the respective methods. After manual inspection, we found inter-method segmentation mismatches in the cerebellum, sub-cortical structures, and inter-sulcal CSF. In addition, to validate automated TIV estimates we performed manual segmentation on a subset of subjects. Results indicate that SPM estimates are closest to manual segmentation, followed by FS while FSL estimates were significantly lower. In summary, we show that ASD vs. TDC brain volume differences are method dependent and that these inter-method discrepancies can contribute to inconsistent neuroimaging findings in general. We suggest cross-validation across methods and emphasize the

  18. High Resolution Ultrasonography of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Before and After Endoscopic Release of the Transverse Carpal Ligament: Correlation of Ultrasonography (US)Findings with Surgical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Im, Soo Bin; Seok, Hyun; Yi, Beom Ha; Choi, Na Mi; Lee, Hae Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Wook [East-West Neo Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate morphological changes of the medial nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) before and after endoscopic release of the transverse carpal ligament, and to correlate the ultrasonography (US) findings with the use of high resolution US and the surgical outcome for the median nerve. Thirty patients with CTS confirmed by a clinical and electrophysiological study underwent high resolution US. The US instrumentation was equipped with a high frequency linear transducer to measure the cross sectional area, flattening ratio and swelling ratio of the medial nerve at the distal radioulnar joint, proximal and distal carpal tunnel before and three months after surgery. The cross sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the distal radioulnar level showed a decrease from 0.13 {+-} 0.03 cm2 before surgery to 0.11 {+-} 0.03 cm2 after surgery, and the CSA of the proximal carpal tunnel showed a decrease from 0.17 {+-} 0.07 cm2 to 0.14 {+-} 0.05 cm2: these differences were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant correlation between the morphological change and symptom improvement. This study confirmed a decreasing CSA of the medial nerve at the distal radioulnar and proximal carpal tunnel in a postoperative patient with CTS, as determined by the use of high resolution US. No association was found between a change in the CSA of the median nerve and symptom improvement. A further study based on multiple measurements of the median nerve with a longer period is necessary to establish the association between a change in the CSA of the median nerve and symptom improvement

  19. Development of a semi-automated method for subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Long, Daniel; Hameed, Omar

    2015-01-01

    In many surgical pathology laboratories, operating room schedules are prospectively reviewed to determine specimen distribution to different subspecialty services and to predict the number and nature of potential intraoperative consultations for which prior medical records and slides require review. At our institution, such schedules were manually converted into easily interpretable, surgical pathology-friendly reports to facilitate these activities. This conversion, however, was time-consuming and arguably a non-value-added activity. Our goal was to develop a semi-automated method of generating these reports that improved their readability while taking less time to perform than the manual method. A dynamic Microsoft Excel workbook was developed to automatically convert published operating room schedules into different tabular formats. Based on the surgical procedure descriptions in the schedule, a list of linked keywords and phrases was utilized to sort cases by subspecialty and to predict potential intraoperative consultations. After two trial-and-optimization cycles, the method was incorporated into standard practice. The workbook distributed cases to appropriate subspecialties and accurately predicted intraoperative requests. Users indicated that they spent 1-2 h fewer per day on this activity than before, and team members preferred the formatting of the newer reports. Comparison of the manual and semi-automatic predictions showed that the mean daily difference in predicted versus actual intraoperative consultations underwent no statistically significant changes before and after implementation for most subspecialties. A well-designed, lean, and simple information technology solution to determine subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology is approximately as accurate as the gold standard manual method and requires less time and effort to generate.

  20. Standardized method for evaluation of hand disinfection by surgical scrub formulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Crémieux, A; Reverdy, M.E.; Pons, J. L.; Savage, C; Chevalier, J.; Fleurette, J; Mossé, M

    1989-01-01

    A standardized protocol for the evaluation of hand disinfection by surgical scrub formulations was applied to volunteers in a multicenter trial. Povidone iodine (PVI), chlorhexidine (CHX), and a nonmedicated soap (NMS) were tested. The scrubbing procedure involved three daily hand washings for five consecutive days; surviving bacteria were counted daily after being collected in a suitable neutralizing solution. Immediate efficacy (IE), cumulative efficacy (CE), and remanent effect (RE) were c...

  1. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  2. An alternative method to achieve one-lung ventilation by surgical pneumothorax in difficult lung isolation patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pin-Hung; Hsu, Po-Kai

    2016-04-01

    It is challenging to establish one-lung ventilation in difficult airway patients. Surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing to obtain well-collapsed lung is a feasible method for thoracic surgery. A 76-year-old man with right empyema was scheduled for decortication. The patient had limited mouth opening due to facial cellulitis extending from the left cheek to neck. Generally, lung isolation is achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tube or bronchial blocker. Double-lumen tube insertion is difficult for patients with limited mouth opening and right-side placement of bronchial blocker usually causes insufficient deflation. We introduce an alternative lung isolation technique by surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing simply with an endotracheal tube placement. This technique has never been applied into the management of difficult one-lung ventilation. By this method, we provide an ideal surgical condition with safer, less time-consuming, and less skill-demanding anesthesia. It would be an alternative choice for management of one-lung ventilation in the difficult lung isolation patient.

  3. Nudged-elastic band method with two climbing images: finding transition states in complex energy landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A

    2014-01-01

    The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, C2-NEB finds it with higher stability and accuracy. However, C2-NEB is suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS but guarantees that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP, and it estimates accuracy from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB (SS-NEB).

  4. A von Neumann Alternating Method for Finding Common Solutions to Variational Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Censor, Yair; Reich, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Modifying von Neumann's alternating projections algorithm, we obtain an alternating method for solving the recently introduced Common Solutions to Variational Inequalities Problem (CSVIP). For simplicity, we mainly confine our attention to the two-set CSVIP, which entails finding common solutions to two unrelated variational inequalities in Hilbert space.

  5. Error-finding and error-correcting methods for the start-up of the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.; Selig, L.J.

    1987-02-01

    During the commissioning of an accelerator, storage ring, or beam transfer line, one of the important tasks of an accelertor physicist is to check the first-order optics of the beam line and to look for errors in the system. Conceptually, it is important to distinguish between techniques for finding the machine errors that are the cause of the problem and techniques for correcting the beam errors that are the result of the machine errors. In this paper we will limit our presentation to certain applications of these two methods for finding or correcting beam-focus errors and beam-kick errors that affect the profile and trajectory of the beam respectively. Many of these methods have been used successfully in the commissioning of SLC systems. In order not to waste expensive beam time we have developed and used a beam-line simulator to test the ideas that have not been tested experimentally. To save valuable physicist's time we have further automated the beam-kick error-finding procedures by adopting methods from the field of artificial intelligence to develop a prototype expert system. Our experience with this prototype has demonstrated the usefulness of expert systems in solving accelerator control problems. The expert system is able to find the same solutions as an expert physicist but in a more systematic fashion. The methods used in these procedures and some of the recent applications will be described in this paper.

  6. "Expectations to Change" ((E2C): A Participatory Method for Facilitating Stakeholder Engagement with Evaluation Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E.; Nnawulezi, Nkiru A.; Vandenberg, Lela

    2015-01-01

    From a utilization-focused evaluation perspective, the success of an evaluation is rooted in the extent to which the evaluation was used by stakeholders. This paper details the "Expectations to Change" (E2C) process, an interactive, workshop-based method designed to engage primary users with their evaluation findings as a means of…

  7. The study of surgical image quality evaluation system by subjective quality factor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yang, Xirong; Yu, Honggang; Koullick, Edouard

    2016-03-01

    GreenLightTM procedure is an effective and economical way of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH); there are almost a million of patients treated with GreenLightTM worldwide. During the surgical procedure, the surgeon or physician will rely on the monitoring video system to survey and confirm the surgical progress. There are a few obstructions that could greatly affect the image quality of the monitoring video, like laser glare by the tissue and body fluid, air bubbles and debris generated by tissue evaporation, and bleeding, just to name a few. In order to improve the physician's visual experience of a laser surgical procedure, the system performance parameter related to image quality needs to be well defined. However, since image quality is the integrated set of perceptions of the overall degree of excellence of an image, or in other words, image quality is the perceptually weighted combination of significant attributes (contrast, graininess …) of an image when considered in its marketplace or application, there is no standard definition on overall image or video quality especially for the no-reference case (without a standard chart as reference). In this study, Subjective Quality Factor (SQF) and acutance are used for no-reference image quality evaluation. Basic image quality parameters, like sharpness, color accuracy, size of obstruction and transmission of obstruction, are used as subparameter to define the rating scale for image quality evaluation or comparison. Sample image groups were evaluated by human observers according to the rating scale. Surveys of physician groups were also conducted with lab generated sample videos. The study shows that human subjective perception is a trustworthy way of image quality evaluation. More systematic investigation on the relationship between video quality and image quality of each frame will be conducted as a future study.

  8. Testing for viral penetration of non-latex surgical and examination gloves: a comparison of three methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, K P; El-Masri, M; Broyles, J B; Korniewicz, D M

    2004-04-01

    Currently, there are no international standards based on microbiological methodology for testing the ability of medical examination or surgical gloves to prevent the passage of viruses. Three protocols for the direct examination of the viral barrier properties of non-latex gloves were compared with 1080 gloves (270 gloves from each of two surgical brands and two medical examination brands). In two of the methods, gloves were filled with and suspended in a nutrient broth solution, and bacteriophage phiX174 was placed either inside or outside the glove, while the entire test vessel was agitated. Gloves tested using the third method were filled with a suspension of bacteriophage and allowed to rest in a vessel containing nutrient broth. Gloves were tested directly from the manufacturer's packaging, or after being punctured intentionally or subjected to a stress protocol. The passage of bacteriophage was detected with plaque assays. Significant differences in failure rates between glove brands were apparent only among gloves that had been subjected to the stress protocol. Overall, the two methods in which bacteriophage were placed inside the gloves provided more sensitivity than the method in which bacteriophage was spiked into broth outside the gloves. Thus the placement of bacteriophage inside test gloves (or the use of pressure across the glove barrier during testing), and the use of a standardised stress protocol, will improve significantly the ability of a glove test protocol to determine the relative quality of the barrier offered by medical examination and surgical gloves. Further research is needed to provide test methods that can incorporate reproducibly both the use of bacteriophage and simulated glove use in an industrial quality control setting.

  9. Morphometric substantiation of a fixation method choice at surgical correction of spondylolisthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimova Е.А.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to reveal patterns of morphometric characteristics variability of lumbar vertebrae and sacrum for a choice of more adequate selection of standard sizes and introduction orientation of corrigent metalware at surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis. Preparations of lumbar vertebrae and sacrum of 60 skeletons, 110 Kt-grams of men and women of the first and second periods of mature age without visible pathology of a backbone and 300 Kt-grams of patients with spondylolisthesis. The data on age variability and sexual dimorphism of lumbar vertebrae and sacrum were obtained. The analysis of results of surgical treatment of 288 patients with spondylolisthesis during 1995-2008 was carried out. 160 patients were managed with preoperative planning, taking into account morphometric characteristics of vertebrae and sacrum since 2003. It is necessary to install and arrange metalware at reduction taking into account features of back structures and forward basic complex of lumbar vertebrae and sacrum; that allows to receive adequate decompression of neurovascu-lar structures in 85-90% cases, reliable correction and stabilization of damaged lumbosacral segments

  10. Use of Eye Tracking as an Innovative Instructional Method in Surgical Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luísa; Grima-Murcia, María Dolores; Sánchez-Ferrer, Francisco; Hernández-Peñalver, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Jover, Eduardo; Sánchez Del Campo, Francisco

    Tobii glasses can record corneal infrared light reflection to track pupil position and to map gaze focusing in the video recording. Eye tracking has been proposed for use in training and coaching as a visually guided control interface. The aim of our study was to test the potential use of these glasses in various situations: explanations of anatomical structures on tablet-type electronic devices, explanations of anatomical models and dissected cadavers, and during the prosection thereof. An additional aim of the study was to test the use of the glasses during laparoscopies performed on Thiel-embalmed cadavers (that allows pneumoinsufflation and exact reproduction of the laparoscopic surgical technique). The device was also tried out in actual surgery (both laparoscopy and open surgery). We performed a pilot study using the Tobii glasses. Dissection room at our School of Medicine and in the operating room at our Hospital. To evaluate usefulness, a survey was designed for use among students, instructors, and practicing physicians. The results were satisfactory, with the usefulness of this tool supported by more than 80% positive responses to most questions. There was no inconvenience for surgeons and that patient safety was ensured in the real laparoscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first publication to demonstrate the usefulness of eye tracking in practical instruction of human anatomy, as well as in teaching clinical anatomy and surgical techniques in the dissection and operating rooms. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Finding of IDH1 R132H mutation in histologically non-neoplastic glial tissue changes surgical strategies, a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Christian Baastrup; Scheie, David; Sehested, Astrid Marie

    2017-01-01

    but with an IDH1 mutation. Due to the IDH1 R132H mutation, the patient was diagnosed with diffuse astrocytoma WHO grade II and underwent successful gross total resection of this near-eloquently located tumor. CONCLUSION: This case exemplifies how inclusion of immunohistochemistry in tumor classification alters...... surgical strategy and might improve accuracy and time to diagnosis....

  12. The CD-Hopf method in the surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracolumbar or lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy; Piontek, Tomasz; Strzyzewski, Wojciech

    2005-04-30

    Background. The aim of this paper is to assess the extent of correction of scoliosis after surgery from the anterior approach using the CD Hopf method. Material and methods. We analyzed 20 patients with idiopatic thoracolumbar or lumbar scoliosis (Cobb angle 53 +/- 8 degrees , lordosis angle 56.9 +/- 11.9 degrees , vertebral translation 5.5 +/- 0.9 cm). Results. After surgery with the CD Hopf method, the scoliosis angle was reduced to 21 +/- 8 degrees . The correction rate was 61.7 +/- 12.1 degrees , with spondylodesis limited to 4 vertebrae in 13 patients, and 3 vertebrae in 7 patients. The average lumbar lordosis after surgery was 50.8+/-7.9 degrees , and the average vertebral translation was 2.6 +/- 1.1 cm. In post-surgical follow-up examinations the scoliosis angle increased slightly, not exceeding 3 degrees . Conclusions. Surgical treatment of scoliosis using the CD Hopf technique through the anterior approach allows for major correction in the frontal plane, accompanied by moderate decrease of lumbar lordosis. This method also enables significant improvement of horizontalization of border scoliosis vertebrae despite the short extent of the instrumentation and spondylodesis.

  13. Finite difference method to find period-one gait cycles of simple passive walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardel, Morteza; Safartoobi, Masoumeh; Pashaei, Mohammad Hadi; Ghasemi, Mohammad Hassan; Navaei, Mostafa Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Passive dynamic walking refers to a class of bipedal robots that can walk down an incline with no actuation or control input. These bipeds are sensitive to initial conditions due to their style of walking. According to small basin of attraction of passive limit cycles, it is important to start with an initial condition in the basin of attraction of stable walking (limit cycle). This paper presents a study of the simplest passive walker with point and curved feet. A new approach is proposed to find proper initial conditions for a pair of stable and unstable period-one gait limit cycles. This methodology is based on finite difference method which can solve the nonlinear differential equations of motion on a discrete time. Also, to investigate the physical configurations of the walkers and the environmental influence such as the slope angle, the parameter analysis is applied. Numerical simulations reveal the performance of the presented method in finding two stable and unstable gait patterns.

  14. A Root-MUSIC-Like Direction Finding Method for Cyclostationary Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yide Wang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new root-MUSIC-like direction finding algorithm that exploits cyclostationarity in order to improve the direction-of-arrival estimation. The proposed cyclic method is signal selective, it allows to increase the resolution power and the noise robustness significantly, and it is also able to handle more sources than the number of sensors. Computer simulations are used to show the performance of the algorithm.

  15. A Probabilistic Reasoning Method for Predicting the Progression of Clinical Findings from Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a probabilistic reasoning method capable of generating predictions of the progression of clinical findings (CFs) reported in the narrative portion of electronic medical records. This method benefits from a probabilistic knowledge representation made possible by a graphical model. The knowledge encoded in the graphical model considers not only the CFs extracted from the clinical narratives, but also their chronological ordering (CO) made possible by a temporal inference technique described in this paper. Our experiments indicate that the predictions about the progression of CFs achieve high performance given the COs induced from patient records.

  16. Numerical Properties of Different Root-Finding Algorithms Obtained for Approximating Continuous Newton’s Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Gutiérrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the study of continuous Newton’s method, which is a generic differential equation whose associated flow tends to the zeros of a given polynomial. Firstly, we analyze some numerical features related to the root-finding methods obtained after applying different numerical methods for solving initial value problems. The relationship between the step size and the order of convergence is particularly considered. We have analyzed both the cases of a constant and non-constant step size in the procedure of integration. We show that working with a non-constant step, the well-known Chebyshev-Halley family of iterative methods for solving nonlinear scalar equations is obtained.

  17. Monte Carlo Evaluation of a New Track-Finding Method for the VENUS Muon Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yuzo; Hatanaka, Makoto; Koseki, Tadashi; Mori, Shigeki; Shirakata, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kazumichi

    1989-10-01

    A new method of finding a track is devised for the VENUS muon detector composed of eight-cell drift-tube modules, each cell having a rectangular cross section of 5× 7 cm2. The new method, in which fourth-order equations are solved by the Ferarri-Cardano method, is especially powerful for a track having a large incident angle with respect to the line normal to the anode-wire plane of a drift tube, compared to the presently used method in which a track is determined by the intersecting points of an equi-drift-distance circle and the anode-wire plane. Cosmic-ray test data for the forward-backward part muon detector support these simulation results.

  18. Monte Carlo evaluation of a new track-finding method for the VENUS muon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yuzo; Hatanaka, Makoto; Koseki, Tadashi; Mori, Shigeki; Shirakata, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kazumichi (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Applied Physics)

    1989-10-01

    A new method of finding a track is devised for the VENUS muon detector composed of eight-cell drift-tube modules, each cell having a rectangular cross section of 5 x 7 cm{sup 2}. The new method, in which fourth-order equations are solved by the Ferarri-Cardano method, is especially powerful for a track having a large incident angle with respect to the line normal to the anode-wire plane of a drift tube, compared to the presently used method in which a track is determined by the intersecting points of an equi-drift-distance circle and the anode-wire plane. Cosmic-ray test data for the forward-backward part muon detector support these simulation results. (author).

  19. Initial periodontal screening and radiographic findings - A comparison of two methods to evaluate the periodontal situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornecker Else

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The periodontal screening index (PSI is an element of the initial dental examination. The PSI provides information on the periodontal situation and allows a first estimation of the treatment required. The dental panoramic tomography (DPT indicates the proximal bone loss, thus also allowing conclusions on the periodontal situation. In this study, the results of both methods in determining the periodontal situation are compared. Methods The clinical examination covered DMF-T, QHI, and PSI scores at four proximal sites per tooth; the examining dentist was unaware of the radiographic finding. Based on the PSI scores, the findings were diagnosed as follows: score 0 - 2 "no periodontitis", score 3 and 4 "periodontitis". Independent of the locality and time of the clinical evaluation, two dentists examined the DPTs of the subjects. The results were classified as follows: no bone loss = "no periodontitis", and bone loss = "periodontitis". Results 112 male subjects (age 18 to 58, Ø 37.7 ± 8 years were examined. Regarding the PSI, 17 subjects were diagnosed "no periodontitis" and 95 subjects "periodontitis". According to the evaluation of the DPTs, 70 subjects were diagnosed "no periodontitis" and 42 "periodontitis". A comparison of both methods revealed that the diagnosis "no periodontitis" corresponded in 17 cases and "periodontitis" in 42 cases (53%. In 47% (53 cases the results were not congruent. The difference between both methods was statistically significant (p Conclusion The present study shows that the initial assessment of the periodontal situation significantly depends on the method of evaluation.

  20. Calculation method on shape finding of self-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HAN; Zhengqing CHEN; Shidong LUO; Shankui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on the spatial model, a reliable and accurate calculation method on the shape finding of self anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables was studiedin this paper. On the principle that the shape of the main cables between hangers is catenary, the iteration method of calculating the shapes of the spatial main cables under the load of hanger forces was deduced. The reasonable position of the saddle was determined according to the shape and the theoretical joint point of the main cables. The shapes of the main cables at completed cable stage werecalculated based on the unchanging principle of the zero-stress lengths of the main cables. By using a numerical method combining with the finite element method, one self-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables was analyzed. The zero-stress length of the main cables, the position of the saddle, and the pre-offsetting of the saddle of the self-anchored suspension bridge were given. The reasonable shapes of the main cables at bridge completion stage and completed cable stage were presented. The results show that the shape-finding calculation method is effective and reliable.

  1. Surgical management of peripheral arterial disease. Operative methods and results; Die chirurgische Behandlung der arteriellen Verschlusskrankheit. Operationsmethoden und Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, B.; Jungbluth, T.; Esnaashari, H.; Franke, C.; Bruch, H.P. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Chirurgie

    2006-11-15

    Various operative and interventional methods are available to treat patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The selection of the appropriate therapy should be made after a careful review of the patient's general condition, the morphology of the arterial occlusion, the risk of possible complications, and the likelihood of long-term success for each type of treatment. The different procedures complement one another in their technical possibilities and their risk profile The combination of surgical and interventional methods offers new therapeutic possibilities. The different surgical procedures and their long-term outcome are presented in this publication. (orig.) [German] Zur invasiven Therapie der arteriellen Verschlusskrankheit (AVK) stehen verschiedene operative und interventionelle Behandlungsformen zur Verfuegung. Die Auswahl der geeigneten Methode richtet sich nach dem Allgemeinzustand des Patienten, der Morphologie des arteriellen Verschlusses, dem Komplikationsrisiko und der Erfolgswahrscheinlichkeit der jeweiligen Behandlung im Langzeitverlauf. Hierbei konkurrieren die verschiedenen Verfahren nur oberflaechlich betrachtet miteinander, sie ergaenzen sich in ihren jeweiligen technischen Moeglichkeiten und dem Risikoprofil. Die Kombination chirurgischer und interventioneller Methoden bietet neue Behandlungsoptionen. Im Rahmen dieses Artikels werden die verschiedenen Operationsverfahren und deren Ergebnisse dargestellt. (orig.)

  2. Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskin, Cree M.; Anderson, Mark W.; Choudhri, Asim [UVA Health System, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Diduch, David R. [UVA Health System, Department of Orthopedics, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

  3. Synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics, analytical methods, and toxicological findings from human performance and postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic cathinones are commonly abused novel psychoactive substances (NPS). We present a comprehensive systematic review addressing in vitro and in vivo synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics, analytical methods for detection and quantification in biological matrices, and toxicological findings from human performance and postmortem toxicology cases. Few preclinical administration studies examined synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetic profiles (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and only one investigated metabolite pharmacokinetics. Synthetic cathinone metabolic profiling studies, primarily with human liver microsomes, elucidated metabolite structures and identified suitable biomarkers to extend detection windows beyond those provided by parent compounds. Generally, cathinone derivatives underwent ketone reduction, carbonylation of the pyrrolidine ring, and oxidative reactions, with phase II metabolites also detected. Reliable analytical methods are necessary for cathinone identification in biological matrices to document intake and link adverse events to specific compounds and concentrations. NPS analytical methods are constrained in their ability to detect new emerging synthetic cathinones due to limited commercially available reference standards and continuous development of new analogs. Immunoassay screening methods are especially affected, but also gas-chromatography and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry confirmation methods. Non-targeted high-resolution-mass spectrometry screening methods are advantageous, as they allow for retrospective data analysis and easier addition of new synthetic cathinones to existing methods. Lack of controlled administration studies in humans complicate interpretation of synthetic cathinones in biological matrices, as dosing information is typically unknown. Furthermore, antemortem and postmortem concentrations often overlap and the presence of other psychoactive substances are typically found in combination

  4. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insert and remove Foley urinary bladder catheter Place pneumatic tourniquet Confirm procedure with surgeon Drape patient within ... Technology and Surgical Assisting (NBSTSA) offers the CertifiedSurgical First Assistant (CSFA) credential, and the National Surgical Assistant ...

  5. CT two-dimensional reformation versus three-dimensional volume rendering with regard to surgical findings in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoyong27@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyangdoc@sina.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Lu, Qiao-hui, E-mail: Luqiaohui465@126.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Zheng, Kui-hong, E-mail: zhengkuihong1971@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Shi, Li-jing, E-mail: Shilijing2003@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China); Wang, Qing-jun, E-mail: wangqingjun77@163.com [Department of Radiology, Navy General Hospital, 6# Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the role of three-dimensional volume rendering (3DVR) in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). Materials and methods: Sixty-six patients with CSOM were included in this prospective study. Temporal bone was scanned with a 128-channel multidetector row CT and the axial data was transferred to the workstation for multiplanar reformation (MPR) and 3DVR reconstructions. Evaluation of the ossicular chain according to a three-point scoring system on two-dimensional reformation (2D) and 3DVR was performed independently by two radiologists. The evaluation results were compared with surgical findings. Results: 2D showed over 89% accuracy in the assessment of segmental absence of the ossicular chain in CSOM, no matter how small the segmental size was. 3DVR was as accurate as 2D for the assessment of segmental absence. However, 3DVR was found to be more accurate than 2D in the evaluation of partial erosion of segments. Conclusion: Both 3DVR and 2D are accurate and reliable for the assessment of the ossicular chain in CSOM. The inclusion of 3DVR images in the imaging protocol improves the accuracy of 2D in detecting ossicular erosion from CSOM.

  6. A pilot program to improve nursing and surgical intern collaboration: Lessons learned from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raparla, Neha; Davis, Diane; Shumaker, Daria; Kumar, Anagha; Hafiz, Shabnam; Sava, Jack; Adams, Katie; Fitzgibbons, Shimae C

    2017-02-01

    Inter-professional collaboration is an integral component of a successful healthcare team. We sought to evaluate the impact of nursing student participation in a one-day intensive inter-professional education (IPE) training session with surgical interns on participant attitudes toward inter-professional collaboration. Following IRB approval, pre and post IPE session survey responses were compared to determine the impact on participant attitudes toward inter-professional collaboration. Pre and post session semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analyzed to identify relevant themes. Surgical interns (n = 38) more than nursing students (n = 11), demonstrated a measurable improvement in attitude towards 'collaboration and shared education' (interns: median score pre = 26, post = 28, p = 0.0004; nursing student: median score pre = 27, post = 28, p = 0.02). Qualitative analysis of interviews identified major themes that supplemented this finding. An eight hour, one day IPE session has a positive impact on collaborative attitudes and supports the case for increased inter-professional education amongst interns and nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ′cross-bridging′ to promote nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to ′protect′ chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  8. Select and Cluster: A Method for Finding Functional Networks of Clustered Voxels in fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    DonGiovanni, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Extracting functional connectivity patterns among cortical regions in fMRI datasets is a challenge stimulating the development of effective data-driven or model based techniques. Here, we present a novel data-driven method for the extraction of significantly connected functional ROIs directly from the preprocessed fMRI data without relying on a priori knowledge of the expected activations. This method finds spatially compact groups of voxels which show a homogeneous pattern of significant connectivity with other regions in the brain. The method, called Select and Cluster (S&C), consists of two steps: first, a dimensionality reduction step based on a blind multiresolution pairwise correlation by which the subset of all cortical voxels with significant mutual correlation is selected and the second step in which the selected voxels are grouped into spatially compact and functionally homogeneous ROIs by means of a Support Vector Clustering (SVC) algorithm. The S&C method is described in detail. Its performance assessed on simulated and experimental fMRI data is compared to other methods commonly used in functional connectivity analyses, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) or clustering. S&C method simplifies the extraction of functional networks in fMRI by identifying automatically spatially compact groups of voxels (ROIs) involved in whole brain scale activation networks. PMID:27656202

  9. Effect of different surgical methods on traumatic response degree and osteoblast-osteoclast balance in patients with distal tibial fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Qiang Fan

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of different surgical methods on trauma response degree and osteoblast-osteoclast balance in patients with distal tibial fracture.Methods:58 cases of patients with distal tibial fracture who received open reduction and internal fixation in Orthopedics Department of our hospital from May 2013 to October 2015 were selected as research subjects and divided into delayed group (n = 29) and routine group (n = 29) according to different timing of surgery. Delayed group received open reduction and internal fixation 7–15 d after trauma and routine group received open reduction and internal fixation within 24 h after trauma. Levels of serum stress response indicators and osteoblast-osteoclast markers were compared between two groups.Results:On the day after operation, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, renin, angiotensin II, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels of delayed group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05); on the 7th day after operation, serum osteocalcin, procollagen type I carboxyl-terminal peptide and bone alkaline phosphatase of delayed group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05) while cross-linked carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b levels were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Delayed open reduction and internal fixation treatment of distal tibial fracture can reduce the trauma caused by surgical procedures, increase osteoblast viability and inhibit osteoclast viability, which are conducive to fracture healing.

  10. A simple method for finding explicit analytic transition densities of diffusion processes with general diploid selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun S; Steinrücken, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    The transition density function of the Wright-Fisher diffusion describes the evolution of population-wide allele frequencies over time. This function has important practical applications in population genetics, but finding an explicit formula under a general diploid selection model has remained a difficult open problem. In this article, we develop a new computational method to tackle this classic problem. Specifically, our method explicitly finds the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the diffusion generator associated with the Wright-Fisher diffusion with recurrent mutation and arbitrary diploid selection, thus allowing one to obtain an accurate spectral representation of the transition density function. Simplicity is one of the appealing features of our approach. Although our derivation involves somewhat advanced mathematical concepts, the resulting algorithm is quite simple and efficient, only involving standard linear algebra. Furthermore, unlike previous approaches based on perturbation, which is applicable only when the population-scaled selection coefficient is small, our method is nonperturbative and is valid for a broad range of parameter values. As a by-product of our work, we obtain the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution under mutation-selection balance.

  11. Resident training in urology: Bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate - a safe method in learning endoscopic surgical procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Del Rosso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern medicine uses increasingly innovative techniques that require more and more capabilities for acquisition. In the urological department is increasing the presence of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP is the standard of care in their surgical treatment. We report our surgical experience and learning curve of using bipolar plasmakinetic devices in the training of urological residents to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH treatment. Materials and Methods: 80 patients with benign prostatic enlargement due to BPH were enrolled in the study. TURP has been performed by three urological residents and by an expe- rienced urologist. Patients were evaluated before and 6 months after the endoscopic bipolar plasmakinetic resection using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, maximum uri- nary flow rate (Qmax, postvoid residual urine (PVR and prostate specific antigen (PSA. Results: Overall 60 procedures were performed, 18 PlasmaKinetic (PK-TURP procedures were completed by the three residents. In the other 42 cases the procedures were completed by the experienced urologist. In eight cases there was a capsular perforation and the experienced urol- ogist replaced the resident to complete the resection. No complications have been reported in the procedures completed by the senior urologist. All complications caused by the residents were man- aged intraoperatively without changing the course of the procedure. Statistical differences were observed regarding IPSS, quality of life (QoL, and PVR at 6-month follow-up when procedures completed by urological residents were compared to those completed by the senior urologist. Conclusion: Bipolar device represents appropriate tools to acquire endoscopic skills. It is safe and it can be used at the first experience of BPH treatment by a resident who has not previ- ously approached this endoscopic surgical procedure.

  12. Ultrasonographic and surgical findings of a gastric hyperplastic polyp resulting in pyloric obstruction in an 11-week-old French Bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, S; Hoffmann, K; Tisdall, P

    2009-06-01

    An 11-week-old male entire French Bulldog was presented with a 3-week history of projectile vomiting after eating that was unresponsive to medical therapy. Ultrasonographic examination revealed a 1 x 2 cm pedunculated polypoid mass in the pyloric antrum. Histopathology showed this to be comprised of a pedunculated hyperplastic proliferation of gastric mucosal epithelium and submucosa, with dilatation of the glandular pits and a moderate degree of submucosal fibrosis and small amount of smooth muscle hyperplasia in the submucosa. The tunica muscularis was not involved in the polyp and appeared to be of normal thickness. Surgical treatment by pylorectomy and end-to-end gastroduodenostomy (Billroth I) was successful.

  13. A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS or clinical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Jensen, Rikke K; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    ). There is a scarcity of head-to-head comparisons that can inform the choice of which clustering method might be suitable for particular clinical datasets and research questions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison of three commonly available methods (SPSS TwoStep CA, Latent Gold......'s ease of use and interpretability of the presentation of results.We analysed five real datasets of varying complexity in a secondary analysis of data from other research projects. Three datasets contained only MRI findings (n = 2,060 to 20,810 vertebral disc levels), one dataset contained only pain...... intensity data collected for 52 weeks by text (SMS) messaging (n = 1,121 people), and the last dataset contained a range of clinical variables measured in low back pain patients (n = 543 people). Four artificial datasets (n = 1,000 each) containing subgroups of varying complexity were also analysed testing...

  14. A method for finding the ridge between saddle points applied to rare event rate estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maronsson, Jon Bergmann; Jónsson, Hannes; Vegge, Tejs

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for finding the ridge between first order saddle points on a multidimensional surface. For atomic scale systems, such saddle points on the energy surface correspond to atomic rearrangement mechanisms. Information about the ridge can be used to test the validity of the harmonic...... approximation to transition state theory, in particular to verify that second order saddle points—maxima along the ridge—are high enough compared to the first order saddle points. New minima along the ridge can also be identified during the path optimisation, thereby revealing additional transition mechanisms....... The method is based on a string of discretisation points along a path between the first order saddle points and using an iterative optimisation which requires only the force acting on the atoms. At each iteration during the optimisation, the force is inverted along an unstable eigenmode perpendicular...

  15. Virtual surgical planning for orthognathic surgery using digital data transfer and an intraoral fiducial marker: the charlotte method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Sam; Farrell, Brian; Choi, Chris; Farrell, Bart; Weimer, Katie; Tucker, Myron

    2015-06-01

    We describe an alternative workup protocol for virtual surgical planning of orthognathic surgery using an intraoral fiducial marker, clinical photography, and the digital transfer of occlusal data. We also discuss our initial experience using this protocol in a series of patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed of consecutive patients who had undergone combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies for the correction of dentofacial deformities at 1 center. These patients underwent treatment planning using the modified virtual surgical planning protocol described in the present report. The primary outcome evaluated was the accuracy of the method, which was determined through superimposition of the surgical plan to the postoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan. The secondary outcomes included the accuracy of the natural head position readings and the adequacy of the CBCT scanned stone models for the fabrication of occlusal splints. The population included 25 patients. The root mean standard deviation (RMSD) from the preoperative plan to the postoperative scan at the maxillary cephalometric points was 1.2, 1.4, and 2.1 mm in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively. The RMSD of the superimposed plan to the postoperative scan at the 3 mandibular cephalometric points was 1.2, 0.8, and 0.7 mm in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively. The average variance from the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes for the natural head position was 0.05, 2.22, and 0.69 mm, respectively. All splints fabricated from the CBCT occlusal data fit the stone models and were used intraoperatively. In the subset of patients whose models were both digitally transferred and laser scanned, the superimposition of the laser scan data to the CBCT scanned data was found to have a maximum variation of 0.2 mm at the occlusal level. The use of an intraoral fiducial marker changed the workflow for the data collection needed for virtual surgical

  16. Validity of a structured method of selecting abstracts for a plastic surgical scientific meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, LPE; Hage, JJ; Kon, M; Monstrey, SJ

    In 1999, the European Association of Plastic Surgeons accepted a structured method to assess and select the abstracts that are submitted for its yearly scientific meeting. The two criteria used to evaluate whether such a selection method is accurate were reliability and validity. The authors

  17. DOBLE CONDUCTO CÍSTICO EN VESÍCULA BILIAR ÚNICA: HALLAZGO QUIRÚRGICO Double cystic duct in single gallbladder: surgical finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Enríquez-Domínguez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de anomalías en el tracto biliar es un hallazgo común, sin embargo un conducto cístico doble sin la presencia de duplicación de la vesícula biliar es muy rara; y existen pocos reportes en la literatura. Presentamos el hallazgo transoperatorio de un conducto cístico doble, sin la presentación clínica típica. No se hizo diagnóstico prequirúrgico adecuado, a pesar de que existen los métodos apropiados. Es prudente tener en mente las malformaciones, de la vía biliar, para una correcta identificación.The presence of anomalies in the biliary tract is a common finding, but a double cystic duct without gallbladder duplication is very rare, and there are few reports in the literature. We report the chirurgical discovery of a double cystic duct, without the typical clinical presentation. Preoperative diagnosis was not appropriated, although there are precise methods to do it. We must keep in mind the malformations of the biliary tract, for a proper identification

  18. Functional cine MR imaging for the detection and mapping of intraabdominal adhesions: method and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann-Kirchhoff, Sonja; Reiser, Maximilian; Lienemann, Andreas [University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Lang, Reinhold; Steitz, Heinrich O.; Jauch, Karl W. [University Hospital Munich-Grosshadern, Department of Surgery, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [University Hospital Munich-Innenstadt, Department of Surgery, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence and localization of intraabdominal adhesions using functional cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to correlate the MR findings with intraoperative results. In a retrospective study, patients who had undergone previous abdominal surgery with suspected intraabdominal adhesions were examined. A true fast imaging with steady state precession sequence in transverse/sagittal orientation was used for a section-by-section dynamic depiction of visceral slide on a 1.5-Tesla system. After MRI, all patients underwent anew surgery. A nine-segment abdominal map was used to document the location and type of the adhesions. The intraoperative results were taken as standard of reference. Ninety patients were enrolled. During surgery 71 adhesions were detected, MRI depicted 68 intraabdominal adhesions. The most common type of adhesion in MRI was found between the anterior abdominal wall and small bowel loops (n = 22, 32.5%) and between small bowel loops and pelvic organs (n = 14, 20.6%). Comparing MRI with the intraoperative findings, sensitivity varied between 31 and 75% with a varying specificity between 65 and 92% in the different segments leading to an overall MRI accuracy of 89%. Functional cine MRI proved to be a useful examination technique for the identification of intraabdominal adhesions in patients with acute or chronic pain and corresponding clinical findings providing accurate results. However, no differentiation for symptomatic versus asymptomatic adhesions is possible. (orig.)

  19. A comparison of two anesthesia methods for the surgical removal of maxillary third molars: PSA nerve block technique vs. local infiltration technique

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Delayme, Ra´ed MA.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PSA block injection with infiltration technique regarding local anesthesia for surgical extraction of upper third molar. Material and Methods: A prospective, intra individual, single-blind randomized controlled trial was designed to study the severity of pain during injection and after surgical extraction of the bilaterally and symmetrically similar upper third molar in a total of 53 patients, in addition to evaluating the nee...

  20. Finding Planets in K2: A New Method of Cleaning the Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Miles; Mullally, Fergal; Thompson, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new method of removing systematic flux variations from K2 light curves by employing a pixel-level principal component analysis (PCA). This method decomposes the light curves into its principal components (eigenvectors), each with an associated eigenvalue, the value of which is correlated to how much influence the basis vector has on the shape of the light curve. This method assumes that the most influential basis vectors will correspond to the unwanted systematic variations in the light curve produced by K2’s constant motion. We correct the raw light curve by automatically fitting and removing the strongest principal components. The strongest principal components generally correspond to the flux variations that result from the motion of the star in the field of view. Our primary method of calculating the strongest principal components to correct for in the raw light curve estimates the noise by measuring the scatter in the light curve after using an algorithm for Savitsy-Golay detrending, which computes the combined photometric precision value (SG-CDPP value) used in classic Kepler. We calculate this value after correcting the raw light curve for each element in a list of cumulative sums of principal components so that we have as many noise estimate values as there are principal components. We then take the derivative of the list of SG-CDPP values and take the number of principal components that correlates to the point at which the derivative effectively goes to zero. This is the optimal number of principal components to exclude from the refitting of the light curve. We find that a pixel-level PCA is sufficient for cleaning unwanted systematic and natural noise from K2’s light curves. We present preliminary results and a basic comparison to other methods of reducing the noise from the flux variations.

  1. Forms of urinary diversion - methods and imaging findings; Formen der operativen Harnableitung: Methoden und bildgebende Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Grabbe, E. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Plothe, K.D.; Ringert, R.H.; Heuser, M. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Urologie

    2007-10-15

    After cystectomy two principal types of urinary diversion are used for the surgical reconstruction of the urinary tract: incontinent and continent. In the continent type of urinary diversion, a differentiation must be made between those with and without catheterization for voiding. Besides urothelial cancer other reasons for urinary diversion include neurogenic bladder palsy (connatal or acquired) due to meningomyelocele or connatal diseases like bladder exstrophy. The main objective of the clinical urologist when selecting urinary diversion are to achieve continence and to preserve upper urinary tract function. Knowledge of the different forms of urinary diversion is critical for the exact interpretation of the images. This review presents the typical imaging techniques after a description of the basic surgical features of urinary diversion. CT urography and MR urography are becoming increasingly important as further imaging tools for controlling urinary diversions. (orig.)

  2. GeneWaltz--A new method for reducing the false positives of gene finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misawa Kazuharu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying protein-coding regions in genomic sequences is an essential step in genome analysis. It is well known that the proportion of false positives among genes predicted by current methods is high, especially when the exons are short. These false positives are problematic because they waste time and resources of experimental studies. Methods We developed GeneWaltz, a new filtering method that reduces the risk of false positives in gene finding. GeneWaltz utilizes a codon-to-codon substitution matrix that was constructed by comparing protein-coding regions from orthologous gene pairs between mouse and human genomes. Using this matrix, a scoring scheme was developed; it assigned higher scores to coding regions and lower scores to non-coding regions. The regions with high scores were considered candidate coding regions. One-dimensional Karlin-Altschul statistics was used to test the significance of the coding regions identified by GeneWaltz. Results The proportion of false positives among genes predicted by GENSCAN and Twinscan were high, especially when the exons were short. GeneWaltz significantly reduced the ratio of false positives to all positives predicted by GENSCAN and Twinscan, especially when the exons were short. Conclusions GeneWaltz will be helpful in experimental genomic studies. GeneWaltz binaries and the matrix are available online at http://en.sourceforge.jp/projects/genewaltz/.

  3. Finding fatigue resistant and lightweight designs using the optimization methods CAO and SKO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheck, C.; Walther, Frank; Baumgartner, A.

    1992-07-01

    Computer Aided Optimization (CAO), a new method of shape optimization based on the computer simulation of biological growth and Soft Kill Option (SKO), and a strategy to find new design solutions with reduced weight are presented. CAO is used to improve the design of technical components by gaining a homogenized stress distribution on the surface of two and three dimensional finite element models. SKO helps to define new topologies starting from a general oversized 'design area'. With CAO it is also possible to simulate the 'adaptive growth' of biological load carriers, while SKO simulates the mineralization process of bones adapted to their loading. The main ideas of the methods are outlined and several examples of optimizations are shown. If completely new solutions for technical problems are desired, SKO is used first and the design proposal being found is then optimized by CAO in order to achieve a lightweight and fatigue resistant design. The efficiency of the combination of the two methods as a complete layout procedure is shown.

  4. THE USE OF THE PATENT ANALYSIS METHOD FOR FINDING ANALOGUES AND PROTOTYPES OF RECEIVED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Petrova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with the issue of the patent analysis efficiency, which is a necessary stage of seaching analogues and prototypes to obtain technical solutions. The article presents the results of analyzing the present automation systems for finding necessary information in the patent databases and identifies their advantages and disadvantages. It gives a description of the “Intellect” system, which is an example of software systems for the conceptual design stage support. Materials and Methods The article presents some of the possible ways to organize the patents-analogues search process and specific features of searching analogues and prototypes for the generated parametric structure scheme of the technical solution, which is the result of the synthesis of a new information-measuring and control system element in the “Intellect” system. The description of the proposed search query forming method is given. The article gives the structure of the patent passport, which must be stored in a database to organize the process of searcing analogues and prototypes. There given a description of algorithms for automatic adding a patent to the database, recalculating the weights while adding a patent by experts, identifying the fact of using different physical and technical effects in a patent. Results The final part of the article contains an example of the results of testing the developed subsystem implementing the proposed method. According to the test results it is concluded that the selected software and algorithmic solutions are effective.

  5. Distress among women taking part in surgical continuity of care for breast cancer - a mixed methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lone

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. In Denmark, one in every 9 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during her life. The initial treatment is removal of the tumour and the surrounding tissue, or removal of the breast. The axillary is examined to stage spread...... of cancer and if metastases are detected, an axillary clearance is performed. Consequences of breast cancer are manifold and vary within individuals, but the most cited are anxiety, depression, pain, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and/or altered body image. These consequences may cause distress at some point...... during breast cancer trajectory. Overall, distress has been linked to suffering, and lower quality of life, increased admission rates, and greater health care costs. This thesis uses mixed methods to investigate the prevalence of distress among women taking part in surgical continuity of care at time...

  6. Traumatic injuries of brachial plexus: present methods of surgical treatment Part II. Treatment policy for brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Novikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to familiarize practicing neurologists, neurosurgeons, traumatologists, and orthopedists with the current principles of diagnosis and treatment of different brachial plexus (BP injuries. Part I describes the anatomy of BP in detail, considers the main mechanisms of its injuries, and gives their current classification (Nervno-Myshechnye Bolezni (Neuromuscular Diseases 2012;4:19–27.Part II presents the author's approach to treatment of brachial plexus injuries according to the type of lesion and period of denervation: nonoperative methods; rehabilitation; preoperative management; indications for surgical treatment. The tactics and techniques of primary brachial plexus reconstructions are discussed in detail.

  7. Randomized Comparison of Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) with Surgical Treatment in Patients with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids (REST Trial): Subanalysis of 5-Year MRI Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy, E-mail: ganapathy.ananthakrishnan@nhs.net [Gartnavel General Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United Kingdom); Murray, Lilian, E-mail: Lilian.murray@glasgow.ac.uk [Vital Statistics (United Kingdom); Ritchie, Moira, E-mail: moira.ritchie@ggc.scot.nhs.uk [Gartnavel General Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United Kingdom); Murray, Gordon, E-mail: Gordon.murray@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Department of Medical Statistics (United Kingdom); Bryden, Fiona, E-mail: Fiona.bryden@ggc.scot.nhs.uk [Stobhill Hospital (United Kingdom); Lassman, Sue, E-mail: sue.lassman@ggc.scot.nhs.uk [Gartnavel General Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United Kingdom); Lumsden, Mary Ann, E-mail: Maryann.lumsden@glasgow.ac.uk [Room 12, Level 4, Walton Building, Department of Medical Education and Gynaecology, Reproductive and Maternal Medicine (United Kingdom); Moss, Jon G., E-mail: jon.moss@ggc.scot.nhs.uk [Gartnavel General Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To report 5-year contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging findings of the REST trial recruits who underwent either uterine artery embolization (UAE) or myomectomy. Methods. A total of 157 patients were randomized to UAE or surgery (hysterectomy or myomectomy). Ninety-nine patients who had UAE and eight patients who had myomectomy were analyzed. MRI scans at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years were independently interpreted by two radiologists. Dominant fibroid diameter, uterine volume, total fibroid infarction (complete 100 %, almost complete 90-99 %, partial <90 %), and new fibroid formation were the main parameters assessed and related to the need for reintervention. Results. In the UAE group, mean {+-} standard deviation uterine volume was 670 {+-} 503, 422 {+-} 353, and 292 {+-} 287 mL at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years, respectively. Mean dominant fibroid diameter was 7.6 {+-} 3.0, 5.8 {+-} 2.9, and 5 {+-} 2.9 cm at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years. Fibroid infarction at 6 months was complete in 35 % of women, almost complete in 29 %, and partial in 36 %. Need for reintervention was 19, 10, and 33 % in these groups, respectively (p = 0.123). No myomectomy cases had further intervention. At 5 years, the prevalence of new fibroid was 60 % in the myomectomy group and 7 % in the UAE group (p = 0.008). Conclusion. There is a further significant reduction in both uterine volume and dominant fibroid diameter between 6 months and 5 years after UAE. Complete fibroid infarction does not translate into total freedom from a subsequent reintervention. New fibroid formation is significantly higher after myomectomy.

  8. TREATING DISCUS HERNIA USING A SELF DEVELOPED METHOD - A NEW TECHNOLOGY WITHOUT SURGICAL INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrička Stardelova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an experiment that was performed on a hundred patients by using our self-developed methods during a two year period. The treatment of discus hernia was carried out by using our self-developed methods combined with a completely new technology, as well as clinical biomechanics, chiropractics, massotherapy, thermotherapy, cryotherapy and various other specific exercises practiced in esthetic and orthopedic kinesiology - kinesitherapy.50 females and 50 males aged 35 to 55 underwent our therapy and the results we obtained display very high curative effects.

  9. Electrocution of Raptors on Power Lines: A Review of Necropsy Methods and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Decades after the problem was first identified, power line electrocution continues to be a cause of avian mortality. Currently, several federal laws protect eagles and other migratory birds, meaning that utility companies may be liable for electrocution-related deaths. Veterinarians and veterinary pathologists called upon to diagnose and treat electrocuted birds should keep this in mind when conducting clinical and postmortem examinations. This review details necropsy findings and methods used to diagnose electrocution. A combination of gross, subgross, and radiographic examinations can aid in identification of subtle injury. Diagnosis is made based on the presence of skin and/or feather burns. Other necropsy findings may include skin lacerations, subcutaneous burns, bruising, limb avulsion, hemopericardium, and vascular rupture. At the US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Forensics Laboratory, from 2000 to 2015, 417 raptor deaths were determined to have been caused by electrocution. Bald eagles and golden eagles were the most commonly submitted species. In a retrospective review of 377 cases, for which whole bodies were submitted, 18% of the electrocuted birds had only a single, small (less than 3 cm in diameter) external burn. Small, isolated burns tended to occur on the undersides of the wings at and distal to the elbow and on the lower legs and feet. These areas should be most carefully examined in cases where electrocution injury is not immediately apparent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The Polynomial Pivots as Initial Values for a New Root-Finding Iterative Method

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    Mario Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new iterative method for polynomial root-finding based on the development of two novel recursive functions is proposed. In addition, the concept of polynomial pivots associated with these functions is introduced. The pivots present the property of lying close to some of the roots under certain conditions; this closeness leads us to propose them as efficient starting points for the proposed iterative sequences. Conditions for local convergence are studied demonstrating that the new recursive sequences converge with linear velocity. Furthermore, an a priori checkable global convergence test inside pivots-centered balls is proposed. In order to accelerate the convergence from linear to quadratic velocity, new recursive functions together with their associated sequences are constructed. Both the recursive functions (linear and the corrected (quadratic convergence are validated with two nontrivial numerical examples. In them, the efficiency of the pivots as starting points, the quadratic convergence of the proposed functions, and the validity of the theoretical results are visualized.

  11. Two surgical vaginoplasty methods: A comparative study in Vali-e-asr Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ghanbari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate long-term outcome and satisfaction of MacIndo surgery with and without amnion graft. Methods: This is a historical cohort study of patients who were treated with the McIndo procedure for vaginal agenesis. Participants answered a structured questionnaire to describe outcome in sexual function and satisfaction. Patient characteristics along with short and long-term endings were abstracted from the medical records. Results: Thirty-five patients responded to the questionnaire. Average age (±SD at surgery was 28.4 ± 3 years (range 17- 48 years. The mean number of years (±SD since surgery was 7 years (range 2-12 years. In 15 patients (42.8% amniotic graft were amniotic graft were used only in is patients (42.8%. There was no relation between two types of surgery (long-term outcome and satisfaction with p-values of 0.346 and 0.758 respectively. Conclusions: Since there was not a statistical difference between these two types of McIndo methods, it is recommended to apply the procedure in which amnion is not used. This procedure (without amnion graft, is an easier method with less operation time and reduced viral (HIV… transmission.

  12. Several Methods of Finding Inverse matrix%求逆矩阵的几种方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞美华

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract]Matrix is the main object of study in linear algebra and research tool and the inverse matrix is a very important concept in the theory of matrix, how to judge a matrix is reversible and how to calculate the inverse matrix are very important. There are a lot of methods of finding the inverse of a matrix, this paper sums up the following: the methods of definition,adjoint matrix, the nature of the matrix inverse,elementary transformation,block diagonal matrix.%矩阵是线性代数中的主要研究对象与研究工具,而逆矩阵是矩阵理论中的一个非常重要的概念,如何判断一个矩阵是否可逆以及如何求矩阵的逆矩阵就显得非常重要。求逆矩阵方法很多,本文归纳了如下几种:定义法;利用伴随矩阵求逆法;利用伴随矩阵求逆法的推论求逆;利用逆矩阵的性质求逆法;利用矩阵的初等变换求逆;分块对角阵求逆法。

  13. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (InJustice Findings Using a New Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philine Gaffron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.

  14. A meta-analysis of randomized control trials of surgical methods with osteosarcoma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Gao, Zhenzhen; Xu, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhongwei; Fu, Peng

    2017-01-13

    Osteosarcoma is a high malignant neoplasm, and conflicting findings have been reported on the survival and function recovery of osteosarcoma patients experiencing limb salvage or amputation. In the present study, we compared limb salvage surgery (LSS) with amputation in clinical outcomes of osteosarcoma patients by a meta-analysis. The survival rate of osteosarcoma patients was collected from research reports from CNKI, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar till April 30, 2016. The quality of including articles was evaluated by two independent reviewers. Differences between patients undergoing limb salvage surgery and amputation were analyzed based on postoperative survival rates. Ten articles were included according to selection criteria. There were 1343 patients in total from these studies. Our results showed that there was no significant difference between limb salvage surgery and amputation according to local recurrence; however, patients with limb salvage surgery had a higher 5-year overall survival. LSS results in higher 5-year survival rates and better survival, while not increasing the risk of local recurrence. This study provided more evidences to support limb salvage surgery as a considerable treatment of osteosarcoma patients.

  15. Bluebelle study (phase A): a mixed-methods feasibility study to inform an RCT of surgical wound dressing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dressing primary surgical wounds is common, but the implications for surgical site infection (SSI) remain unknown. The Bluebelle study aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing ‘simple’, ‘complex’ or ‘no’ dressings on abdominal wounds, as prespecified in a funder's research brief. Bluebelle includes exploratory work (phase A) to inform a pilot version of the proposed RCT (phase B). Phase A aimed to investigate current dressing practices and perspectives on the proposed RCT, with a view to refining the forthcoming pilot. Design Mixed methods, including semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Setting 6 UK hospitals. Participants 51 patients and 92 clinical professionals from abdominal surgical specialities. Results Professionals had variable interpretations of what constitutes a ‘dressing’, particularly with respect to ‘glue’—a product listed under ‘wound-closure products’ in the British National Formulary, which some surgeons reportedly applied as a ‘wound covering’. Areas of ambiguity arising from interviews informed development of pragmatic definitions, including specification of conditions under which glue constituted a ‘dressing’. Professionals reported that ‘simple’ dressings were routinely used in practice, whereas ‘complex’ dressings were not. This raised questions about the relevance of comparison groups, prompting the design of a survey to determine the types/frequency of dressing use in abdominal surgery (reported elsewhere). This confirmed that complex dressings were rarely used, while ‘glue as a dressing’ was used relatively frequently. ‘Complex dressings’ were therefore substituted for ‘glue as a dressing’ (following an updated Cochrane review, which found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of ‘glue as a dressing’). Patients and professionals acknowledged uncertainty around dressing use and SSI prevention, but felt

  16. Morphometric justification of algorithm of the choice of method of surgical treatment of dysplastic coxarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norkin I.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define regularities of variability of bone structures of a hip joint depending on type of dysplastic coxarthrosis and to develop tactics of total endoprosthesis replacement. Objects of research. 106 patients with dysplastic coxarthrosis of varying severity, passing treatment on the basis of Federal State Budget Institution of Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics from 2005 to 2014 applying methods X, KT-, MRT-metry variation and statistical methods. Results: According to anatomic features of a hip joint at dysplastic coxarthrosis of various types algorithms of choice of acetabularand femoral components of endoprosthesis, and also tactics of total endoprosthesis replacement in groups of research are developed. Conclusion. The choice of a standard size of an endoprosthesis of a hip joint needs to be carried out taking into account X-ray anatomic features of a hip joint and degree of expressiveness of the dysplastic changes. At dysplastic coxarthrosis of the l-ll types it is necessary to carry out standard total endoprosthesis replacement; at coxarthrosis of the III type —total endoprosthesis replacement in combination with plasticity of a roof of acetabular hollow; at coxarthrosis of the IV type — total endoprosthesis replacement in a combination from the shortening femur osteotomy.

  17. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  18. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: synthesis of findings across cohorts and relevance to dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-03-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11-28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index-mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality. Thus

  19. Influence of applied volume on efficacy of 3-minute surgical reference disinfection method prEN 12791.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2004-12-01

    For assessment of the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection, European reference method prEN 12791 prescribes that the hands must be kept wet with the reference alcohol for 3 min regardless of the applied volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether the applied volume of the reference disinfectant n-propanol (60%, vol/vol) influences the effect on the resident hand flora. Ten experiments with 200 reference disinfections were analyzed. Hands were washed for 1 min with soap. The bacterial prevalue was obtained by rubbing fingertips in tryptic soy broth for 1 min. After this, each subject treated the hands with n-propanol (60%, vol/vol) by using as many portions as necessary to keep hands wet for a total of 3 min. Bacterial postvalues (immediate effect) were obtained for one hand, and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After the gloves were taken off, a second postvalue was obtained (sustained effect). Most surgical reference disinfections (73%) were achieved with 9 ml of the reference alcohol, followed by 12 ml (24%) and 6 ml (3%). There was no significant difference between the mean log10 reduction values for the three treatment groups, both in terms of the immediate effect (P = 0.333, as determined by analysis of variance) and in terms of the sustained effect (P = 0.442). A higher number of portions did not correlate with a higher reduction factor (for immediate effect, Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.028 [P = 0.689]; for sustained effect, Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.059 [P = 0.404]). If the hands were kept wet with the reference alcohol for the total application time, the applied volume could vary, but this did not alter the efficacy.

  20. A robot-assisted surgical system using a force-image control method for pedicle screw insertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tian

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To introduce a robot-assisted surgical system for spinal posterior fixation that can automatically recognize the drilling state and stop potential cortical penetration with force and image information and to further evaluate the accuracy and safety of the robot for sheep vertebra pedicle screw placement. METHODS: The Robotic Spinal Surgery System (RSSS was composed of an optical tracking system, a navigation and planning system, and a surgical robot equipped with a 6-DOF force/torque sensor. The robot used the image message and force signals to sense the different operation states and to prevent potential cortical penetration in the pedicle screw insertion operation. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of the RSSS, 32 screw insertions were conducted. Furthermore, six trajectories were deliberately planned incorrectly to explore whether the robot could recognize the different drilling states and immediately prevent cortical penetration. RESULTS: All 32 pedicle screws were placed in the pedicle without any broken pedicle walls. Compared with the preoperative planning, the average deviations of the entry points in the axial and sagittal views were 0.50 ± 0.33 and 0.65 ± 0.40 mm, and the average deviations of the angles in the axial and sagittal views were 1.9 ± 0.82° and 1.48 ± 1.2°. The robot successfully recognized the different drilling states and prevented potential cortical penetration. In the deliberately incorrectly planned trajectory experiments, the robot successfully prevented the cortical penetration. CONCLUSION: These results verified the RSSS's accuracy and safety, which supported its potential use for the spinal surgery.

  1. [Successful surgical management of aortico-left ventricular tunnel using modern noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartyánszky, István; Katona, Márta; Kádár, Krisztina; Apor, Asztrid; Varga, Sándor; Simon, Judit; Tóth, Attila; Karácsony, Tünde; Bogáts, Gábor

    2015-07-12

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel is a rare congenital cardiac defect, which bypasses the aortic valve via the paravalvar connection from the aorta to the left ventricle. The authors present the case of a 14-year-old boy with aortico-left ventricular tunnel in whom the aortic orifice arose from the right aortic sinus and was closed by a pericardial patch. The diagnosis was confirmed by combined two-dimensional and real time three-dimensional echocardiogram and magnetic resonance imaging. This is the first case, in which these complex diagnostic imaging methods have been used in the pre- and postoperative management of this defect. Optimally the new transthoratic three-dimensional echocardiography would be needed to define the anatomy and functional consequences of the aortico-left ventricular tunnel and in the postoperative follow-up.

  2. When mixed methods produce mixed results: integrating disparate findings about miscarriage and women's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina; Rowlands, Ingrid J

    2015-02-01

    To discuss an example of mixed methods in health psychology, involving separate quantitative and qualitative studies of women's mental health in relation to miscarriage, in which the two methods produced different but complementary results, and to consider ways in which the findings can be integrated. We describe two quantitative projects involving statistical analysis of data from 998 young women who had had miscarriages, and 8,083 who had not, across three waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. We also describe a qualitative project involving thematic analysis of interviews with nine Australian women who had had miscarriages. The quantitative analyses indicate that the main differences between young women who do and do not experience miscarriage relate to social disadvantage (and thus likelihood of relatively early pregnancy) and to a lifestyle that makes pregnancy likely: Once these factors are accounted for, there are no differences in mental health. Further, longitudinal modelling demonstrates that women who have had miscarriages show a gradual increase in mental health over time, with the exception of women with prior diagnoses of anxiety, depression, or both. By contrast, qualitative analysis of the interviews indicates that women who have had miscarriages experience deep emotional responses and a long and difficult process of coming to terms with their loss. A contextual model of resilience provides a possible framework for understanding these apparently disparate results. Considering positive mental health as including the ability to deal constructively with negative life events, and consequent emotional distress, offers a model that distinguishes between poor mental health and the processes of coping with major life events. In the context of miscarriage, women's efforts to struggle with difficult emotions, and search for meaning, can be viewed as pathways to resilience rather than to psychological distress. Statement of contribution

  3. Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

  4. [Activity and cost analysis in surgical pathology. Experience of a French university laboratory using the activity-based costing method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocq, J P; Biron, N; Kessler, S; Penaud, M; Faujour, V; Ospel, J; Supper, E; Barthel, A; Roussel, J F; Méchine-Neuville, A; Marcellin, L; Lang-Avérous, G; Chenard, M P

    2001-06-01

    Good self-knowledge enables us to have a well- reasoned adaptation to our environment. Starting from this precept based on simple common sense, activity and cost analysis, when applied to medical departments in a university hospital setting, represents a necessary phase in their scientific progression and in the continuation of their university vocation. This is all the more true given the present climate of economic and organizational restructuring of medical facilities. This paper relates the experience of a French surgical pathology department which was assessed for cost effectiveness using the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method in 1999. This method, which originated in the business world and of which the general concepts are presented here, has given us a keener understanding of the diverse processes involved, their costs and how these costs are arrived at. Moreover, this method has identified the proportion of costs imputable to diagnostic work and of those linked to work specific to a university hospital, in particular teaching and research and development. The results can then be used for a clearer analysis of the figures required by prescribers and health care funding agencies, and, within the department, to enhance perception of work carried out by the entire staff in order to initiate a new type of management centered on activity (Activity-Based Management). Adaptable to any medical department, whatever its organizational structure, independent of the significance of any given code letter and regardless of the rating method used to grade activities, the ABC method also allows for comparisons between structures of a similar nature. The thoughts it inspires on economic performance must take into account the rules of good medical practice, the imperatives of quality assurance, the need for "breathing space" which are indispensable to research and a humanist conception of working relations.

  5. Data-driven methods towards learning the highly nonlinear inverse kinematics of tendon-driven surgical manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun; Chen, Jie; Lau, Henry Y K; Ren, Hongliang

    2017-09-01

    Accurate motion control of flexible surgical manipulators is crucial in tissue manipulation tasks. The tendon-driven serpentine manipulator (TSM) is one of the most widely adopted flexible mechanisms in minimally invasive surgery because of its enhanced maneuverability in torturous environments. TSM, however, exhibits high nonlinearities and conventional analytical kinematics model is insufficient to achieve high accuracy. To account for the system nonlinearities, we applied a data driven approach to encode the system inverse kinematics. Three regression methods: extreme learning machine (ELM), Gaussian mixture regression (GMR) and K-nearest neighbors regression (KNNR) were implemented to learn a nonlinear mapping from the robot 3D position states to the control inputs. The performance of the three algorithms was evaluated both in simulation and physical trajectory tracking experiments. KNNR performed the best in the tracking experiments, with the lowest RMSE of 2.1275 mm. The proposed inverse kinematics learning methods provide an alternative and efficient way to accurately model the tendon driven flexible manipulator. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Permeation of 70% isopropyl alcohol through surgical gloves: comparison of the standard methods ASTM F739 and EN 374.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Erja A; Vainiotalo, Sinikka; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2003-06-01

    Standard test methods ASTM F739 and EN 374 were compared by assessing the permeation of 70% isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol) through seven brands of surgical gloves. The two standards differ in the flow rates of the collection medium and in the chemical permeation rate at which the breakthrough time (BTT) is detected, the EN detection level being 10 times higher than the permeation rate used by ASTM. In a departure from the EN standard method, a 4 h testing time was used instead of 8 h. All of the tested gloves were from the same manufacturer and were made from either natural rubber (NR) (six brands) or chloroprene rubber (CR) (one brand). Two of the NR glove brands were double layered. For the thin NR gloves (0.22, 0.28 and 0.27 mm) the permeation rates were higher throughout the tests with a flow rate of 474 ml/min (EN) of the collection medium (nitrogen) compared with the permeation rates obtained with a flow rate of 52 ml/min (ASTM). These resulted in BTTs of 4.6, 6.5 and 7.6 min (EN) and 4.8, 6.5 and 9.1 min (ASTM), respectively. No statistical difference could be observed between the BTT values obtained with the two standard methods for any of the thin gloves. Thus, although the ASTM standard has a lower criterion for the detection of permeation, it does not necessarily produce shorter BTTs. For the better barriers the methods yielded more equivalent permeation rate curves and thus the EN BTTs were longer than the ASTM BTTs: the EN results were 21, 80, 122 and >240 min compared with the ASTM results of 12, 32, 38 and 103 min for glove thicknesses of 0.37 (NR), 0.22 + 0.22 (double layered NR), 0.31 + 0.29 (double layered NR) and 0.19 mm (CR), respectively.

  7. Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Ghazaleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days

  8. Findings, theories and methods in the study of children's national identifications and national attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, M.; Oppenheimer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the relevant background findings against which the empirical studies reported in this special issue were designed. Particular attention is given to previous findings on the development of children’s national knowledge, national attitudes and national identifications. The p

  9. Findings, theories and methods in the study of children's national identifications and national attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, M.; Oppenheimer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the relevant background findings against which the empirical studies reported in this special issue were designed. Particular attention is given to previous findings on the development of children’s national knowledge, national attitudes and national identifications. The

  10. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts

  11. Detection of left atrial thrombus in patients with mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation: retrospective comparison of two-phase computed tomography, transoesophageal echocardiography and surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Hwa; Ko, Sung Min [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hweung Kon [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Meong Gun; Shin, Je Kyoun [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Woon Seok; Kim, Tae-Yop [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    This retrospective study aims to assess the accuracy of two-phase computed tomography (CT) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for the detection of left atrial (LA) thrombus in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) and atrial fibrillation (AF), by using intraoperative findings as the reference standard. Preoperative two-phase CT and intraoperative TEE were performed in 106 patients with MS and AF. The ratio (LAA/AA{sub L}) of Hounsfield units (HU) in the LA appendage (LAA) to the ascending aorta (AA) was calculated on the late-phase CT image. LA echodense masses on TEE and LA filling defects on two-phase CT were observed in 29 and 39 patients, respectively. Thirty-five LA thrombi were identified at surgery in 27 patients. Compared with the intraoperative findings, per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of two-phase CT were 100 %, 85 %, 69 % and 100 %, and those by using TEE were 93 %, 95 %, 86 % and 97 % in detecting LAA thrombus. After adopting the cut-off value of 0.5 for the LAA/AA{sub L} HU ratio, the specificity and positive predictive value of two-phase CT were increased to 96 % and 90 %, respectively. Two-phase CT with a cut-off value of LAA/AA{sub L} HU ratio of 0.5 provides high performance for the detection of LAA thrombus. (orig.)

  12. 基底节区脑出血患者急诊的CT表现及手术选择分析%Analysis of CT Findings and Surgical Selection of Emergency Patients with Cerebral Hemorrhage in Basal Ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明蓉; 李立为; 张东友

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the CT findings of emergency patients with cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia and the reference value of CT in surgical selection of patients.Methods 75 patients with cerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia treated in the neurosurgery department of our hospital from August 2011 to August 2014 were treated as the research objects. All patients underwent double-slice spiral CT to make clear CT typing of patients and the prognosis was evaluated with ADL.Results Among the 19 patients undergoing traditional craniotomy, the percentage of grade (Ⅰ+Ⅱ) patients was 84.2%. In 31 cases of patients undergoing small bone window minimally invasive craniotomy, grade (I+II) patients accounted for 80.6%.The difference was not statistically significant (P<0.05). In 50 patients, 41 patients had better prognosis which was grade I or II and CT typing results of the patients mainly were type I, II and Ⅲ of which the number of cases was 1, 7 and 16. The rate of good prognosis was 92.3%. The rate of good prognosis in 24 cases of type IV and type V patients was 70.8%. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05), which indicated that the lower CT type was, the better prognosis was.Conclusion The application of CT in diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia is of significant features and it can provide reference for early diagnosis and surgical selection and can predict prognosis. It is worthy of promotion and application.%目的:探析基底节区脑出血患者急诊CT表现及对手术选择的参考价值。方法选择我院神经外科2011年8月-2014年8月收治75例基底节区脑出血患者为例,均行双层螺旋CT检查,明确患者CT分型并应用ADL量表评估预后。结果19例传统开颅手术患者中,(Ⅰ+Ⅱ)级患者所占百分率为84.2%,31例小骨窗微创开颅患者的(Ⅰ+Ⅱ)级患者所占百分率为80.6%,差异无统计学意义(P<0.05)。50例患者中,共41例患者预后较佳,为Ⅰ

  13. A surgical method to improve the homeostasis of CSF for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF production and increased resistance to CSF outflow are considered to be associated with aging, and are also characteristics of Alzheimer disease (AD. These changes probably result in a decrease in the efficiency of the mechanism by which CSF removes toxic molecules such as amyloid-β (Aβ and tau from the interstitial fluid space. Soluble Aβ is potently neurotoxic and dysfunction in CSF circulation can accelerate the progression of AD. Current therapies for AD exhibit poor efficiency; therefore, a surgical method to improve the homeostasis of CSF is worthy of investigation. To achieve this, we conceived a novel device, which consists of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, an injection port and a portable infusion pump. Artificial CSF is pumped into the ventricles and the artificial CSF composition, infusion modes and pressure threshold of shunting can be adjusted according to the intracranial pressure and CSF contents. We hypothesize that this active treatment for CSF circulation dysfunction will significantly retard the progression of AD.

  14. The new prognostic-therapeutic index – an easy method of establishing surgical indication in the pathology of the diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobircă, F; Catrina, E; Mihalache, O; Georgescu, D; Pătrașcu, T

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis and aim. The large number of invalidating surgical interventions in patients suffering from lesions of the diabetic foot, the late recognition of the lesions and sometimes the wrongful interpretation of their severity, have made necessary a multi-parameter study of these types of patients and the elaboration of a therapeutic-prognostic index to guide the physician in adopting the adequate method of treatment. Starting with the therapeutic-prognostic index imagined by professor Traian Patrascu, we have elaborated a new therapeutic prognostic index, by adding new, statistically significant parameters, for the purpose of facilitating the surgical indication, depending on the lesion type. Methods. A number of 929 patients who were admitted at the Surgery Clinic of the “Dr. I. Cantacuzino” Hospital, between January 2013 and June 2014, have been analyzed, of whom 450 were evaluated retrospectively and 479 prospectively. Results. The new therapeutic prognostic index has been calculated for the retrospective lot, resulting into a concordance between the actual surgical intervention and the prognostic index of 79.4% and, for the patients evaluated prospectively, we have found a confirmation of the relation of 82.6% between the performed surgical intervention and the forecasted surgical intervention, by calculating the index. Discussion. The new therapeutic-prognostic index represents an easy method of establishing the therapeutic conduct of the patient suffering from lesions of the diabetic foot. It is of major use in preventing the execution of such surgical interventions that may be disproportionate compared to the severity of the lesions, especially in facilities where the pathology of the diabetic foot is less known. PMID:25870688

  15. New Method for Finding a Series of Exact Solutions to Generalized Breaking Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Cheng-Lin; GUO Jun; ZHAO Hong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new generalized extended tanh-function method is presented for constructing soliton-like,period-form solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs). This method is more powerful than the extended tanhfunction method [Phys. Lett. A 277 (2000) 212] and the modified extended tanh-function method [Phys. Lett. A 285 (2001) 355]. Abundant new families of the exact solutions of Bogoyavlenskii's generalized breaking soliton equation are obtained by using this method and symbolic computation system Maple.

  16. New Method for Finding a Series of Exact Solutions to Generalized Breaking Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAICheng-Lin; GUOJun; ZHAOHong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new generalized extended tanh-function method is presented for constructing soliton-like,period-form solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs). This method is more powerful than the extended tanhfunction method [Phys. Left. A 277 (2000) 212] and the modified extended tanh-function method [Phys. Left. A 285 (2001) 355]. Abundant new families of the exact solutions of Bogoyavlenskii's generalized breaking soliton equation are obtained by using this method and symbolic computation system Maple.

  17. Evaluation of two methods of determining the efficacies of two alcohol-based hand rubs for surgical hand antisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Heeg, Peter; Paulson, Daryl

    2006-06-01

    The antimicrobial efficacies of preparations for surgical hand antisepsis can be determined according to a European standard (prEN 12791 [EN]) and a U.S. standard (tentative final monograph for health care antiseptic drug products [TFM]). The U.S. method differs in the product application mode (hands and lower forearms, versus hands only in EN), the number of applications (11 over 5 days, versus a single application in EN), the sampling times (0, 3, and 6 h after application, versus 0 and 3 h in EN), the sampling methods (glove juice versus fingertip sampling in EN), and the outcome requirements (absolute bacterial reduction factor [RF], versus noninferiority to reference treatment in EN). We have studied the efficacies of two hand rubs according to both methods. One hand rub was based on 80% ethanol and applied for 2 min, and the other one was based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol, and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate and applied for 1.5 min. The ethanol-based hand rub was equally effective as the 3-min reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.97 +/- 0.89 versus 2.92 +/- 1.03, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.20 +/- 1.07 versus 2.47 +/- 1.25, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.99 log10 (day 1), 3.00 log10 (day 2), and 3.43 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. The propanol-based hand rub was even more effective than the reference disinfection of prEN 12791 in both the immediate (RFs, 2.35 +/- 0.99 versus 1.86 +/- 0.87, respectively) and sustained (RFs, 2.17 +/- 1.00 versus 1.50 +/- 1.26, respectively) effects. According to TFM, the immediate effects were 2.82 log10 (day 1), 3.29 log10 (day 2), and 3.25 log10 (day 5), and bacterial counts were still below baseline after 6 h. Some formulations have been reported to meet the efficacy requirements of one of the methods but not those of the other. That is why we conclude that, despite our results, meeting the efficacy

  18. Development of a novel method for surgical implant design optimization through noninvasive assessment of local bone properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiuma, D; Brianza, S; Tami, A E

    2011-03-01

    A method was developed to improve the design of locking implants by finding the optimal paths for the anchoring elements, based on a high resolution pQCT assessment of local bone mineral density (BMD) distribution and bone micro-architecture (BMA). The method consists of three steps: (1) partial fixation of the implant to the bone and creation of a reference system, (2) implant removal and pQCT scan of the bone, and (3) determination of BMD and BMA of all implant-anchoring locations along the actual and alternative directions. Using a PHILOS plate, the method uncertainty was tested on an artificial humerus bone model. A cadaveric humerus was used to quantify how the uncertainty of the method affects the assessment of bone parameters. BMD and BMA were determined along four possible alternative screw paths as possible criteria for implant optimization. The method is biased by a 0.87 ± 0.12 mm systematic uncertainty and by a 0.44 ± 0.09 mm random uncertainty in locating the virtual screw position. This study shows that this method can be used to find alternative directions for the anchoring elements, which may possess better bone properties. This modification will thus produce an optimized implant design.

  19. 外科手消毒方法的临床应用与研究%CLINICAL APPLICATION AND RESEARCH ON THE SURGICAL HAND ANTISEPSIS METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 刘毅

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察外科手消毒方法的临床实际消毒效果.方法 通过现场问卷调查和棉拭子涂抹采样检测方法,观察了采用两种消毒液,同样进行免刷式外科手消毒方法后的效果.另外对50名医护人员针对两种手消毒方法的依从性进行问卷调查.结果 200份检测结果均符合消毒技术规范标准.问卷调查结果显示,绝大多数医护人员愿意采用免刷式外科手消毒方法.结论 此外科手消毒方法安全、高效、操作简便、经济,减少了医护人员皮肤不适,大大提高了外科手消毒的依从性.%Objective To observe the clinical disinfection effect of the surgical hand antisepsis methods.Methods Cotton swab sampling and bacterial culture were used to observe the germicidal efficacy of two disinfectants with brush - free surgical hand antisepsis method.In addition, field questionnaire survey was used to understand the compliance of 50 medical staff for the two methods of hand antisepsis.Results The detection results of 200 samplings were qualified with the disinfection technology normative standard.Results of questionnaire survey showed that most of medical staff were willing to use brush - free surgical hand antisepsis.Conclusion Brush - free surgical hand antisepsis method is safe, efficient, easy to operate and economical.This method can reduce skin discomfort of medical staff and greatly increase the compliance of surgical hand antisepsis.

  20. A Derivative-Free Method of Eighth-Order For Finding Simple Root of Nonlinear Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Choubey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have constructed an optimal eighth-order method with four function evaluations to solve the non-linear equations. The proposed method is a three-step method in which no derivative is required. Our scheme is optimal in the sense of Kung and Traub. Moreover, some test functions have been also included to confirm the superiority of the proposed method. At the end, we have presented the basins of attraction of some existing methods along with our proposed method to illustrate their performances.

  1. Computer-designed surgical guide template compared with free-hand operation for mesiodens extraction in premaxilla using “trapdoor” method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying Kai; Xie, Qian Yang; Yang, Chi; Xu, Guang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method of mesiodens extraction using a vascularized pedicled bone flap by piezosurgery and to compare the differences between a computer-aided design surgical guide template and free-hand operation. A total of 8 patients with mesiodens, 4 with a surgical guide (group I), and 4 without it (group II) were included in the study. The surgical design was to construct a trapdoor pedicle on the superior mucoperiosteal attachment with application of piezosurgery. The bone lid was repositioned after mesiodens extraction. Group I patients underwent surgeries based on the preoperative planning with surgical guide templates, while group II patients underwent free-hand operation. The outcome variables were success rate, intraoperative time, anterior nasal spine (ANS) position, changes of nasolabial angle (NLA), and major complications. Data from the 2 groups were compared by SPSS 17.0, using Wilcoxon test. The operative time was significantly shorter in group I patients. All the mesiodentes were extracted successfully and no obvious differences of preoperative and postoperative ANS position and NLA value were found in both groups. The patients were all recovered uneventfully. Surgical guide templates can enhance clinical accuracy and reduce operative time by facilitating accurate osteotomies. PMID:28658139

  2. Comparison of Treatment Outcomes of Surgical Repair in Inguinal Hernia with Classic versus Preperitoneal Methods on Reduction of Postoperative Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hormoz Mahmoudvand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to evaluate and compare the results of inguinal herniorrhaphy with mesh in classic and preperitoneal method. Methods. Our study community includes 150 candidate patients for inguinal herniorrhaphy with mesh. Totally, 150 candidate patients for inguinal herniorrhaphy were randomly divided into two groups: (1 classic group in which the floor of the canal was repaired and the mesh was located on the floor of the canal and (2 preperitoneal group in which the mesh was installed under the canal and then the floor was repaired. Results. The frequency of recurrence was 10 (13.3% and 2 (2.66% in the classic and preperitoneal group, respectively. The frequency of postsurgical pain was 21 (28% in the classic group and 9 (12% in the preperitoneal group. The postsurgical hematoma was observed in 7 (9.3% and 9 (12% in the classic and preperitoneal group, respectively. Also, the frequency of postsurgical seroma was 8 (10.7% and 1 (1.3% in the patients treated with the classic and preperitoneal method, respectively. Conclusion. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the preperitoneal method is a more suitable method for inguinal herniorrhaphy than the classic one because of fewer complications, according to the findings of this study.

  3. [Functional evaluation of an experimental model of cutaneous microcirculation and pO2 after surgical excision: traditional method vs laser CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, G; Orienti, L; Giavaresi, G; Capelli, S; Fini, M; Rocca, M; Martini, L; Giardino, R

    1995-01-01

    Within an experimental study project about the interaction between Laser and biological tissues, the authors utilized a Laser Doppler Flowmeter device and a Polarographic method to study the cutaneous microcirculation and the tissue pO2. Under standardized conditions, the experimental model considered the microcirculation measurement and the ptiO2 before and after the exsection of a cutaneous lozenge on the animals back realized with traditional surgical methods (scalpel and electrotome) or with a last generation CO2 Laser in continuous and in pulsed mode. The Laser Doppler Flowmeter showed that the largest perturbation of the microcirculatory flux occurred after the exsection realized with the scalpel and the electrotome. The CO2 Laser utilized in continuous mode showed an influence slightly lower on the microcirculation while in pulsed mode the perturbation was absent. The ptiO2 measurement showed similar results emphasizing that the CO2 surgical Laser technique is less invasive than the traditional. To sum up, these functional methods allowed a careful microcirculation an ptiO2 evaluation and provided useful information about vasal and metabolic alterations, showing that the CO2 surgical Laser utilized in pulsed mode appears to be the less harmful surgical technique for the tissues surrounding the exsection site.

  4. A computer method of finding valuations forcing validity of LC formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, Łukasz; Świetorzecka, Kordula; Mulawka, Jan

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the computer implementation of a system known as LC temporal logic [1]. Firstly, to become familiar with some theoretical issues, a short introduction to this logic is discussed. The algorithms allowing a deep analysis of the formulae of LC logic are considered. In particular we discuss how to determine if a formula is a tautology, contrtautology or it is satisfable. Next, we show how to find all valuations to satisfy the formula. Finally, we consider finding histories generated by the formula and transforming these histories into the state machine. Moreover, a description of the experiments that verify the implementation are briefly presented.

  5. Evolving issues in the prevention of surgical site infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, A

    2009-06-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the more common causes of post-operative morbidity. Such infections contribute to prolonged recovery, delayed discharge and increasing costs to both patients and the health service. In the current climate increased emphasis is being placed on minimising the risks of acquiring or transmitting these nosocomial infections. This article reviews the current literature obtained from a Pubmed database search in relation to three specific aspects of surgical site infection: compliance with prophylactic antibiotics, post-discharge surveillance and novel methods for preventing surgical site infections. These topics represent areas where many institutions will find room for improvement in the prevention of surgical site infections. Tight adherence to prophylactic antibiotic guidelines, close followup of surgical wounds during and after hospital discharge, and attention to oxygenation status and the body temperature of patients may all prove to be useful adjuncts in significantly decreasing surgical site infections.

  6. The expanded FindCore method for identification of a core atom set for assessment of protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David A; Grullon, Jennifer; Huang, Yuanpeng J; Tejero, Roberto; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2014-02-01

    Maximizing the scientific impact of NMR-based structure determination requires robust and statistically sound methods for assessing the precision of NMR-derived structures. In particular, a method to define a core atom set for calculating superimpositions and validating structure predictions is critical to the use of NMR-derived structures as targets in the CASP competition. FindCore (Snyder and Montelione, Proteins 2005;59:673-686) is a superimposition independent method for identifying a core atom set and partitioning that set into domains. However, as FindCore optimizes superimposition by sensitively excluding not-well-defined atoms, the FindCore core may not comprise all atoms suitable for use in certain applications of NMR structures, including the CASP assessment process. Adapting the FindCore approach to assess predicted models against experimental NMR structures in CASP10 required modification of the FindCore method. This paper describes conventions and a standard protocol to calculate an "Expanded FindCore" atom set suitable for validation and application in biological and biophysical contexts. A key application of the Expanded FindCore method is to identify a core set of atoms in the experimental NMR structure for which it makes sense to validate predicted protein structure models. We demonstrate the application of this Expanded FindCore method in characterizing well-defined regions of 18 NMR-derived CASP10 target structures. The Expanded FindCore protocol defines "expanded core atom sets" that match an expert's intuition of which parts of the structure are sufficiently well defined to use in assessing CASP model predictions. We also illustrate the impact of this analysis on the CASP GDT assessment scores.

  7. Reliability of change in lumbar MRI findings over time in patients with and without disc prosthesis - comparing two different image evaluation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Linda; Espeland, Ansgar [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Section for Radiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Gjertsen, Oeivind [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oslo (Norway); Hellum, Christian [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo (Norway); Neckelmann, Gesche [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Johnsen, Lars G. [University Hospital of Trondheim, National Centre for Diseases of the Spine, Trondheim (Norway); University Hospital of Trondheim, Orthopaedic Department, Trondheim (Norway); Eide, Geir E. [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Clinical Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-12-15

    To assess the reliability of change in lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings evaluated retrospectively by direct comparison of images and by non-comparison. Pre-treatment and 2-year follow-up MRI was performed in 126 patients randomized to disc prosthesis surgery or non-surgical treatment. Two experienced radiologists independently evaluated progress and regress for Modic changes, disc findings, and facet arthropathy (FA) at L3/L4, L4/L5, and L5/S1, both by non-comparison and by comparison of initial and follow-up images. FA was evaluated at all levels, and other findings at non-operated levels. We calculated prevalence- and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) values for interobserver agreement. The impact of an adjacent prosthesis (which causes artefacts) and image evaluation method on PABAK was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Image comparison indicated good interobserver agreement on progress and regress (PABAK 0.63-1.00) for Modic changes, posterior high-intensity zone, disc height, and disc contour at L3-S1 and for nucleus pulposus signal and FA at L3/L4; and moderate interobserver agreement (PABAK 0.46-0.59) on decreasing nucleus signal and increasing FA at L4-S1. Image comparison indicated lower (but fair) interobserver agreement (PABAK 0.29) only for increasing FA at L5/S1 in patients with prosthesis in L4/L5 and/or L5/S1. An adjacent prosthesis had no overall impact on PABAK values (p {>=} 0.22). Comparison yielded higher PABAK values than non-comparison (p < 0.001). Regarding changes in lumbar MRI findings over time, comparison of images can provide moderate or good interobserver agreement, and better agreement than non-comparison. An adjacent prosthesis may not reduce agreement on change for most findings. (orig.)

  8. A Review on Hot-IP Finding Methods and Its Application in Early DDoS Target Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan Dau Hoang; Hong Ky Pham

    2016-01-01

    On the high-speed connections of the Internet or computer networks, the IP (Internet Protocol) packet traffic passing through the network is extremely high, and that makes it difficult for network monitoring and attack detection applications. This paper reviews methods to find the high-occurrence-frequency elements in the data stream and applies the most efficient methods to find Hot-IPs that are high-frequency IP addresses of IP packets passing through the network. Fast finding of Hot-IPs in...

  9. Alternate Methods for Assuring Credibility of Research and Evaluation Findings in Project Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, William T.; Murray, Wayne R.

    This paper describes six existing evaluator-auditor working formats and the conditions which foster credibility of evaluation findings. Evaluators were classified as: (1) member of project developmental team, accountable to project director; (2) independent internal evaluator, accountable to system in general but not to project directors, and (3)…

  10. Rationale and design of GISSI OUTLIERS VAR Study in bicuspid aortic valve patients: prospective longitudinal, multicenter study to investigate correlation between surgical, echo distinctive features, histologic and genetic findings in phenotypically homogeneous outlier cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlanti, Bruno; De Chiara, Benedetta; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro; Moreo, Antonella; Pileggi, Silvana; Romeo, Gabriella; Russo, Claudio Francesco; Rizzo, Stefania; Martinelli, Luigi; Maseri, Attilio

    2015-11-15

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart disorder, affecting up to 2% of the population. Involvement of aortic root and ascending aorta (aneurysm or, eventually, dissection) is frequent in patients with pathologic or normal functioning BAV. Unfortunately, there are no well-known correlations between valvular and vascular diseases. In VAR protocol, with a new strategy of research, we analysemultiple aspects of BAV disease through correlation between surgical, echo, histologic and genetic findings in phenotypically homogeneous outlier cases. VAR protocol is a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study. It observes 4 homogeneous small groups of BAV surgical patients (15 patients each): isolated aortic regurgitation, isolated ascending aortic aneurysm, aortic regurgitation associated with aortic aneurysm, isolated aortic stenosis in older patients (>60years). Echo analysis is extended to first-degree relatives and, in case of BAV, genetic test is performed. Patients and relatives are enrolled in 10 cardiac surgery/cardiologic centers throughout Italy. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of favorable or unfavorable evolution of BAV in terms of valvular dysfunction and/or aortic aneurysm. Correlations between different features could help in identification of various BAV risk groups, rationalizing follow-up and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A General Class of Derivative Free Optimal Root Finding Methods Based on Rational Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiza Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a new general class of derivative free n-point iterative methods of optimal order of convergence 2n-1 using rational interpolant. The special cases of this class are obtained. These methods do not need Newton’s iterate in the …first step of their iterative schemes. Numerical computations are presented to show that the new methods are efficient and can be seen as better alternates.

  12. Enteroclysis CT and PEG-CT in patients with previous small-bowel surgical resection for Crohn's disease: CT findings and correlation with endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minordi, Laura Maria; Vecchioli, Amorino; Poloni, Giuliana; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Radiology Institute, UCSC, Department of Bio-Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Guidi, Luisa; De Vitis, Italo [Catholic University (UCSC), Gastrointestinal Department, Complesso Integrato Columbus, Rome (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of multidetector CT in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) relapse after ileocolic resection compared with endoscopy. Thirty-four patients were studied by endoscopy and multidetector CT, after oral administration of polyethylene glycol solution (n = 21) or after administration of methylcellulose via nasojejunal tube (n = 13). In CT examinations we evaluated the presence of mural thickening, target sign, perienteric stranding, comb sign, fibrofatty proliferation and complications. Endoscopic results were classified in accordance with Rutgeerts score (from 0 to 4). The statistical evaluations were carried out by using Fisher's exact text and {chi} {sup 2} testing (p < 0.05, statistically significant difference). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the CT were 96.9%, 100% and 97%, respectively. We found a statistically significant correlation between an endoscopic score of 4 and the CT signs of target sign, perienteric stranding, comb sign and fibrofatty proliferation, and between scores 1 and 2 and mucosal hyperdensity without or with mural thickening, respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, only CT identified the presence of jejunal and proximal ileum disease in two and three patients, respectively, and fistulas in three patients. CT is a reliable method in the diagnosis of CD relapse and shows agreement with the approved endoscopic Rutgeerts score. (orig.)

  13. Surgical Treatment of Malar Bone Fracture by a Modified Preauricular Temporal Approach (Al-Kayat-Brameley method) : Report of 2 cases

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Although there have been various reports on improving visibility and safety in the surgical approach to the malar bone, post-operative problems such as sensory loss over the distribution of the auriculotemporal region and undersirable cosmetic results are not uncommon. In 1979, Al-Kayat and Brameley reported on a modified preauricular approach to the malar arch and temporomandibular joint. Since 1990, we have applied this method to malar arch fractures and the result revealed that the method ...

  14. Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    as test case. A parallel speedup factor of 23 on 33 processors was achieved with multiple shooting. But fast transients at the beginnings of sub intervals caused significant overhead for the multiple shooting methods and limited the best speedup to 3.8 relative to the fastest sequential method: Single...

  15. The functional variable method for finding exact solutions of some nonlinear time-fractional differential equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenjun Liu; Kewang Chen

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we implemented the functional variable method and the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for the exact solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions of the time-fractional Klein–Gordon equation, and the time-fractional Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV system. This method is extremely simple but effective for handling nonlinear time-fractional differential equations.

  16. A Class of Optimal-Order Zero-Finding Methods Using Derivative Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    order, x1 = x(tn + h) + 0(h ) , so our nonlinear Runge-Kutta method has order three by the usual definition of order ( Henrici [62]). Similarly...mmmmmmim ll!,IW!.lnl|ll,|HMIIl.pilwmpiW, . 14, Henrici 162] Henrici , P., "Discrete variable methods in or- dinary differential equations", Wiley

  17. Finding the Right Mix: Teaching Methods as Predictors for Student Progress on Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Jacob I.

    2012-01-01

    This study extends existing student ratings research by exploring how teaching methods, individually and collectively, influence a minimum standard of student achievement on learning objectives and how class size impacts this influence. Twenty teaching methods were used to predict substantial or exceptional progress on each of 12 learning…

  18. A New Method for Finding Point Sources in High-energy Neutrino Data

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The IceCube collaboration has reported the first detection of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos including $\\sim 50$ high-energy starting events, but no individual sources have been identified. It is therefore important to develop the most sensitive and efficient possible algorithms to identify point sources of these neutrinos. The most popular current method works by exploring a dense grid of possible directions to individual sources, and identifying the single direction with the maximum probability of having produced multiple detected neutrinos. This method has numerous strengths, but it is computationally intensive and, because it focuses on the single best location for a point source, additional point sources are not included in the evidence. We propose a new maximum likelihood method that uses the angular separations between all pairs of neutrinos in the data. Unlike existing autocorrelation methods for this type of analysis, which also use angular separations between neutrino pairs, our method incorpor...

  19. Finding the Place of Everyday Beauty: Correspondence as a Method of Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rautio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Researching aesthetic engaging with one's surroundings in everyday life led the author to use correspondence as a method of data collection. In this paper she presents her research design and discusses correspondence as an underused method. She introduces the concepts of invisibility, time, and tangibility in defining correspondence as a method. The topic of the correspondence in her research was beauty. In common use beautiful signals that which is desirable. As an evaluative and a future-oriented statement everyday beauty seems to have a place in steering our lives. The participants accounted as beautiful the different meaningful relations they had formed over time to their surroundings. These relations were in constant change as the participants themselves changed over time. The author argues that correspondence is a method that works well in cumulating data for research. It has also proven to be a rewarding method for the participants.

  20. An Easy Method for Finding the Scattering Coefficients of Quantum Graphs and Some Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Seth

    2015-03-01

    Quantum walks are roughly analogous to classical random walks, and like classical walks they have been used to find new (quantum) algorithms. When studying the behavior of large graphs or combinations of graphs it has often been useful to find the response of a subgraph to signals of different frequencies. In this talk I'll be presenting a simple technique for quickly finding the scattering coefficients of any quantum graph. This is done by imitating the scattering states using normalizable states on a modified version of the graph. These scattering coefficients can be expressed entirely in terms of the characteristic polynomial of the graph's time-step operator. With these coefficients in hand we can replace an entire subgraph with a single vertex whose behavior is frequency dependent. This gives us a powerful set of tools for rapidly understanding the behavior of more complex structures. Time permitting, I will apply these tools to several types of graphs (star, complete, tree) demonstrating how we can gain information about the structure of these graphs by bouncing signals off of them, describing the limitations on what information cannot be accessed, and even show how to construct some computations using quantum walks that can be run in faster than classical time.

  1. Moving Domestic Robotics Control Method Based on Creating and Sharing Maps with Shortest Path Findings and Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Control method for moving robotics in closed areas based on creation and sharing maps through shortest path findings and obstacle avoidance is proposed. Through simulation study, a validity of the proposed method is confirmed. Furthermore, the effect of map sharing among robotics is also confirmed together with obstacle avoidance with cameras and ultrasonic sensors.

  2. Surgical Approach, Findings, and Eight-Year Follow-Up in a Twenty-Nine Year Old Female With Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome Presenting With Blepharophimosis Causing Near-Complete Visual Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Augusto L; Poling, Mikaela I; McCormick, Rodger J

    2016-07-01

    The authors describe the surgical approach, findings, and 8-year follow-up in a 29-year-old woman, with severe Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, presenting with congenital blepharophimosis of both upper eyelids resulting in near-complete functional visual obstruction. To avoid possible Freeman-Sheldon syndrome-associated complications of malignant hyperthermia, difficult vascular access, and challenging endotracheal intubation, the surgery was completed under local anesthesia without sedation, and anatomical and functional correction was immediate and remained stable at 8-year follow-up. Unlike many congenital craniofacial syndromes, which frequently involve life-long impairments, important implications exist for plastic surgeons to facilitate opportunities for patients to overcome functional limitations.

  3. Finding all real roots of a polynomial by matrix algebra and the Adomian decomposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Fatoorehchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we put forth a combined method for calculation of all real zeroes of a polynomial equation through the Adomian decomposition method equipped with a number of developed theorems from matrix algebra. These auxiliary theorems are associated with eigenvalues of matrices and enable convergence of the Adomian decomposition method toward different real roots of the target polynomial equation. To further improve the computational speed of our technique, a nonlinear convergence accelerator known as the Shanks transform has optionally been employed. For the sake of illustration, a number of numerical examples are given.

  4. Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Jamie L.; Voils, Corrine I.; Chang, YunKyung; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2010-01-01

    The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research. PMID:21572970

  5. An alternative computational method for finding the minimum-premium insurance portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikis, Vasilios N.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we design a computational method, which differs from the standard linear programming techniques, for computing the minimum-premium insurance portfolio. The corresponding algorithm as well as a Matlab implementation are provided.

  6. Proposing Cluster_Similarity Method in Order to Find as Much Better Similarities in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Feizi-Derakhshi, Mohammad-Reza

    2011-01-01

    Different ways of entering data into databases result in duplicate records that cause increasing of databases' size. This is a fact that we cannot ignore it easily. There are several methods that are used for this purpose. In this paper, we have tried to increase the accuracy of operations by using cluster similarity instead of direct similarity of fields. So that clustering is done on fields of database and according to accomplished clustering on fields, similarity degree of records is obtained. In this method by using present information in database, more logical similarity is obtained for deficient information that in general, the method of cluster similarity could improve operations 24% compared with previous methods.

  7. Initial periodontal screening and radiographic findings - A comparison of two methods to evaluate the periodontal situation

    OpenAIRE

    Hornecker Else; Rinke Sven; Szabadi Ivette; Ziebolz Dirk; Mausberg Rainer F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The periodontal screening index (PSI) is an element of the initial dental examination. The PSI provides information on the periodontal situation and allows a first estimation of the treatment required. The dental panoramic tomography (DPT) indicates the proximal bone loss, thus also allowing conclusions on the periodontal situation. In this study, the results of both methods in determining the periodontal situation are compared. Methods The clinical examination covered DMF...

  8. Finding confidence limits on population growth rates: bootstrap and analytic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Nicolas; Chagneau, Pierrette; Mortier, Frédéric; Bar-Hen, Avner

    2009-05-01

    When predicting population dynamics, the value of the prediction is not enough and should be accompanied by a confidence interval that integrates the whole chain of errors, from observations to predictions via the estimates of the parameters of the model. Matrix models are often used to predict the dynamics of age- or size-structured populations. Their parameters are vital rates. This study aims (1) at assessing the impact of the variability of observations on vital rates, and then on model's predictions, and (2) at comparing three methods for computing confidence intervals for values predicted from the models. The first method is the bootstrap. The second method is analytic and approximates the standard error of predictions by their asymptotic variance as the sample size tends to infinity. The third method combines use of the bootstrap to estimate the standard errors of vital rates with the analytical method to then estimate the errors of predictions from the model. Computations are done for an Usher matrix models that predicts the asymptotic (as time goes to infinity) stock recovery rate for three timber species in French Guiana. Little difference is found between the hybrid and the analytic method. Their estimates of bias and standard error converge towards the bootstrap estimates when the error on vital rates becomes small enough, which corresponds in the present case to a number of observations greater than 5000 trees.

  9. Hybrid of Natural Element Method (NEM with Genetic Algorithm (GA to find critical slip surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahrokhabadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in geotechnical engineering is the slope stability analysis for determination of the factor of safety and the probable slip surface. Finite Element Method (FEM is well suited for numerical study of advanced geotechnical problems. However, mesh requirements of FEM creates some difficulties for solution processing in certain problems. Recently, motivated by these limitations, several new Meshfree methods such as Natural Element Method (NEM have been used to analyze engineering problems. This paper presents advantages of using NEM in 2D slope stability analysis and Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization to determine the probable slip surface and the related factor of safety. The stress field is produced under plane strain condition using natural element formulation to simulate material behavior analysis utilized in conjunction with a conventional limit equilibrium method. In order to justify the preciseness and convergence of the proposed method, two kinds of examples, homogenous and non-homogenous, are conducted and results are compared with FEM and conventional limit equilibrium methods. The results show the robustness of the NEM in slope stability analysis.

  10. A method for safely resecting anterior butterfly gliomas: the surgical anatomy of the default mode network and the relevance of its preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Joshua D; Bonney, Phillip A; Conner, Andrew K; Glenn, Chad A; Briggs, Robert G; Battiste, James D; McCoy, Tressie; O'Donoghue, Daniel L; Wu, Dee H; Sughrue, Michael E

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Gliomas invading the anterior corpus callosum are commonly deemed unresectable due to an unacceptable risk/benefit ratio, including the risk of abulia. In this study, the authors investigated the anatomy of the cingulum and its connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). A technique is described involving awake subcortical mapping with higher attention tasks to preserve the cingulum and reduce the incidence of postoperative abulia for patients with so-called butterfly gliomas. METHODS The authors reviewed clinical data on all patients undergoing glioma surgery performed by the senior author during a 4-year period at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Forty patients were identified who underwent surgery for butterfly gliomas. Each patient was designated as having undergone surgery either with or without the use of awake subcortical mapping and preservation of the cingulum. Data recorded on these patients included the incidence of abulia/akinetic mutism. In the context of the study findings, the authors conducted a detailed anatomical study of the cingulum and its role within the DMN using postmortem fiber tract dissections of 10 cerebral hemispheres and in vivo diffusion tractography of 10 healthy subjects. RESULTS Forty patients with butterfly gliomas were treated, 25 (62%) with standard surgical methods and 15 (38%) with awake subcortical mapping and preservation of the cingulum. One patient (1/15, 7%) experienced postoperative abulia following surgery with the cingulum-sparing technique. Greater than 90% resection was achieved in 13/15 (87%) of these patients. CONCLUSIONS This study presents evidence that anterior butterfly gliomas can be safely removed using a novel, attention-task based, awake brain surgery technique that focuses on preserving the anatomical connectivity of the cingulum and relevant aspects of the cingulate gyrus.

  11. A numerical method for finding sign-changing solutions of superlinear Dirichlet problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    In a recent result it was shown via a variational argument that a class of superlinear elliptic boundary value problems has at least three nontrivial solutions, a pair of one sign and one which sign changes exactly once. These three and all other nontrivial solutions are saddle points of an action functional, and are characterized as local minima of that functional restricted to a codimension one submanifold of the Hilbert space H-0-1-2, or an appropriate higher codimension subset of that manifold. In this paper, we present a numerical Sobolev steepest descent algorithm for finding these three solutions.

  12. A New Method for Finding Optical Aberrations on the Basis of Analysis of the Object Hologram Without Additional Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkivsky, V. A.; Moiseev, A. A.; Shilyagin, P. A.; Shabanov, D. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Gelikonov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new method of compensating for the wavefront aberrations during the image processing. The method employs the digital-holography potential. The developed algorithms allow one to find the wavefront distortions caused by the optical-path nonuniformities during the interference recording of images without additional measurements (i.e., without using the reference point source and measuring the wavefront distortions). The possibility of decreasing the wavefront aberrations from tens to several radians using digital methods is demonstrated.

  13. Is there a role for virtual otoscopy in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular chain in chronic suppurative otitis media? Comparison of HRCT and virtual otoscopy with surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, St. Paul Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Bapuraj, J.R. [University of Michigan, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gupta, A.K. [Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Otolaryngology, Chandigarh (India); Khandelwal, N. [Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Chandigarh (India)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of virtual otoscopy and 3D ossicular reconstruction in the preoperative assessment of the ossicles in chronic suppurative otitis media. Thirty three patients of chronic suppurative otitis media with conductive deafness (air-bone gap > 35 dB) were included in this prospective study. All patients underwent axial multidetector CT. The axial CT data set was utilized for multiplanar 2D reformations as well as virtual otoscopy (VO) and 3D reconstructions. The imaging findings on these two techniques were read independently by two radiologists with respect to different parts of the ossicular chain by using a three-point scoring system and were compared with surgical findings. Both imaging techniques had comparable accuracy for evaluation of larger ossicular parts. However, for evaluation of stapes superstructure, VO/3D images were more accurate (85.29%) than 2D images (76.97%). Assessment of the lenticular process and incudostapedial joint by HRCT and 2D reformatted images was not reliable (P > 0.1); however, significant correlation (P < 0.001) was present between VO/3D and the operative findings. Virtual otoscopy improves evaluation of the ossicular chain particularly that of smaller structures such as the lenticular process, incudostapedial joint and stapes superstructure which may influence decisions regarding planning of ossiculoplasty. (orig.)

  14. Efficient Path Finding with the Sweep-Line Method using External Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Mailund, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    space exploration and gives the same reduction in peak memory usage as the stand-alone sweep-line method. We evaluate the proposed technique on a number of example systems, and compare its performance to a related technique. These practical experiments demonstrate how the suggested technique complements......The sweep-line method deletes states on-the-fly during state space exploration to reduce peak memory usage. This deletion of states prohibits the immediate generation of, e.g., an error-trace when the violation of a safety property is detected. We address this problem by combining the sweep......-line method with storing a spanning tree of the explored state space in external storage on a magnetic disk. We show how this allows us to easily obtain paths in the state space, such as error-traces. A key property of the proposed technique is that it avoids searching in external storage during the state...

  15. A method to find groups of orthogous genes across multiple genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA, N.F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we propose a simple method to obtain groups of homologous genes across multiple (k organisms, called kGC. Our method takes as input all-against-all Blastp comparisons and produces groups of homologous sequences. First, homologies among groups of paralogs of all the k compared genomes are found, followed by homologies of groups among k - 1 genomes and so on, until groups belonging exclusively to only one genome, that is, groups of one genome not presenting strong similarities with any group of any other genome, are identified. We have used our method to determine homologous groups across six Actinobacterial complete genomes. To validate kGC, we first investigate the Pfam classification of the homologous groups, and after compare our results with those produced by OrthoMCL. Although kGC is much simpler than OrthoMCL it presented similar results with respect to Pfam classification.

  16. Finding optimal step of fuzzy Newton-Cotes integration rules by using the CESTAC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Noeiaghdam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work, is to evaluate the value of a fuzzy integral by applying the Newton-Cotes integration rules via a reliable scheme. In order to perform the numerical examples, the CADNA (Control of Accuracy and Debugging for Numerical Applications library and the CESTAC (Controle et Estimation Stochastique des Arrondis de Calculs method are applied based on the stochastic arithmetic. By using this method, the optimal number of points in the fuzzy numerical integration rules and the optimal approximate solution are obtained. Also, the accuracy of the fuzzy quadrature rules are discussed. An algorithm is given to illustrate the implementation of the method. In this case, the termination criterion is considered as the Hausdorff distance between two sequential results to be an informatical zero. Two sample fuzzy integrals are evaluated based on the proposed algorithm to show the importance and advantage of using the stochastic arithmetic in place of the floating-point arithmetic.

  17. Who is using long-acting reversible contraceptive methods? Findings from nine low-fertility countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Sweeney, Megan M; Gipson, Jessica D

    2014-09-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods-IUDs and implants-are more effective than other reversible methods, yet are little used in the United States. Examining which U.S. women use LARC methods and how they differ from users in other low-fertility countries may help point the way toward increasing use. Data from married or cohabiting women participating in the National Survey of Family Growth (2008-2010) and in eight countries' Generations and Gender Programme surveys (2004-2010) were used in bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses examining LARC use within each setting. The proportion of contraceptive use accounted for by LARC methods was generally greater in Europe (10-32%) than in the United States (10%) and Australia (7%). Compared with LARC use among comparable groups in other countries, use was particularly low among U.S. women who were married, were aged 40-44 or had had three or more children, yet was comparatively high among 18-24-year-olds. Among U.S. women, those aged 35-39 or 40-44 were more likely than 18-29-year-olds to rely on sterilization rather than on LARC methods (odds ratios, 3.0 and 10.7, respectively), those who had had three or more children were more likely to do so than were those who had had none or one (4.9), and women who had completed college were less likely than those who had not finished high school to do so (0.4). Certain subgroups of U.S. women may benefit from the reversibility and effectiveness of LARC methods. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  18. Finding a needle in a haystack: toward a psychologically informed method for aviation security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Thomas C; Dando, Coral J

    2015-02-01

    Current aviation security systems identify behavioral indicators of deception to assess risks to flights, but they lack a strong psychological basis or empirical validation. We present a new method that tests the veracity of passenger accounts. In an in vivo double-blind randomized-control trial conducted in international airports, security agents detected 66% of deceptive passengers using the veracity test method compared with less than 5% using behavioral indicator recognition. As well as revealing advantages of veracity testing over behavioral indicator identification, the study provides the highest levels to date of deception detection in a realistic setting where the known base rate of deceptive individuals is low.

  19. A novel method of surgical site infection surveillance after cardiac surgery by active participation of stake holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Fatima; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Asif, Shaheen; Rahim, Noureen; Khan, Ghufranullah; Hanif, Bashir

    2012-06-01

    We describe a comprehensive surveillance system involving infection control practitioners, surgeons, administrative staff, and patients aimed at improving the postdischarge surveillance of surgical site infections. The system was able to detect 22 infections out of 538 procedures, 95% of which were detected during the postdischarge period.

  20. Supply versus demand: a review of application trends to Canadian surgical training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ryan E; Wanzel, Kyle R

    2015-04-01

    Despite increases in medical school enrolment, applications to surgical residency programs in Canada have been in decline over the past decade, with an increasing number of unmatched surgical residency positions. We examined the current status of surgical residency in Canada and analyzed application trends (2002–2013) for surgical training programs across Canada. Our findings suggest that most undergraduate medical schools across Canada are having difficulty fostering interest in surgical careers. We propose that a lack of adequate early exposure to the surgical specialties during undergraduate training is a critical factor. Moving forward, we must examine how the best-performing institutions and surgical programs have maintained interest in pursuing surgical careers and adapt our recruitment methods to both maintain and grow future interest. As Mary Engelbreit said, "If you don't like something, change it; if you can't change it, change the way you think about it."

  1. The Dynamics of Poverty in the United States: A Review of Data, Methods, and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Stephanie Riegg; McKernan, Signe-Mary; Ratcliffe, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on poverty dynamics in the U.S. It surveys the most prevalent data, theories, and methods used to answer three key questions: How likely are people to enter, exit, and reenter poverty? How long do people remain in poverty? And what events are associated with entering and exiting poverty? The paper then analyzes…

  2. Qualitative findings from a mixed methods evaluation of once-weekly therapeutic community day services for people with personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Suzanne; Barr, Wally; Göpfert, Michael; Hellin, Kate; Horne, Alan; Kirkcaldy, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents qualitative findings from a mixed methods study of four one-day-a-week therapeutic communities (TCs) in the north of England for people with personality disorder. Quantitative findings from the study are presented separately. The study aimed to ascertain whether one-day-a-week TCs can be effective in addressing the problems associated with personality disorder. The qualitative component of the study comprised semi-structured interviews with service users, service user consultants, staff and referrers. This paper reports findings from the interviews with service users. The qualitative findings indicate underlying changes in thinking that may account for some of the measurable changes in members' mental health and functioning reported in the quantitative findings. In particular, the services enable individuals to address two main problem areas: relating to others and self-harm. The study suggests that once-weekly TCs provide an effective therapeutic approach to the problems associated with personality disorder.

  3. A New Method of Fractional Dynamics, i.e., Fractional Mei Symmetrical Method for Finding Conserved Quantity, and its Applications to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shao-Kai; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Tian; He, Jin-Man

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present the fractional Mei symmetrical method of finding conserved quantity and explore its applications to physics. For the fractional generalized Hamiltonian system, we introduce the fractional infinitesimal transformation of Lie groups and, under the transformation, give the fractional Mei symmetrical definition, criterion and determining equation. Then, we present the fractional Mei symmetrical theorem of finding conserved quantity. As the fractional Mei symmetrical method's applications, we respectively find the conserved quantities of a fractional general relativistic Buchduhl model, a fractional three-body model and a fractional Robbins-Lorenz model.

  4. Finding common ground in team-based qualitative research using the convergent interviewing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, S Michelle; Gallois, Cindy; Sanders, Carrie B; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-10-01

    Research councils, agencies, and researchers recognize the benefits of team-based health research. However, researchers involved in large-scale team-based research projects face multiple challenges as they seek to identify epistemological and ontological common ground. Typically, these challenges occur between quantitative and qualitative researchers but can occur between qualitative researchers, particularly when the project involves multiple disciplinary perspectives. The authors use the convergent interviewing technique in their multidisciplinary research project to overcome these challenges. This technique assists them in developing common epistemological and ontological ground while enabling swift and detailed data collection and analysis. Although convergent interviewing is a relatively new method described primarily in marketing research, it compares and contrasts well with grounded theory and other techniques. The authors argue that this process provides a rigorous method to structure and refine research projects and requires researchers to identify and be accountable for developing a common epistemological and ontological position.

  5. Analysis of search-extension method for finding multiple solutions of nonlinear problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    For numerical computations of multiple solutions of the nonlinear elliptic problemΔu+ f(u)=0 inΩ, u=0 onΓ, a search-extension method (SEM) was proposed and systematically studied by the authors. This paper shall complete its theoretical analysis. It is assumed that the nonlinearity is non-convex and its solution is isolated, under some conditions the corresponding linearized problem has a unique solution. By use of the compactness of the solution family and the contradiction argument, in general conditions, the high order regularity of the solution u∈H1+α,α>0 is proved. Assume that some initial value searched by suitably many eigenbases is already fallen into the neighborhood of the isolated solution, then the optimal error estimates of its nonlinear finite element approximation are shown by the duality argument and continuation method.

  6. Validity of Standard Measures of Family Planning Service Quality: Findings from the Simulated Client Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Speizer, Ilene S.; Curtis, Sian L.; Pence, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread endorsement within the field of international family planning regarding the importance of quality of care as a reproductive right, the field has yet to develop validated data collection instruments to accurately assess quality in terms of its public health importance. This study, conducted among 19 higher volume public and private facilities in Kisumu, Kenya, used the simulated client method to test the validity of three standard data collection instruments included in large-scale facility surveys: provider interviews, client interviews, and observation of client-provider interactions. Results found low specificity and positive predictive values in each of the three instruments for a number of quality indicators, suggesting that quality of care may be overestimated by traditional methods. Revised approaches to measuring family planning service quality may be needed to ensure accurate assessment of programs and to better inform quality improvement interventions. PMID:25469929

  7. A Hybrid Method for Opinion Finding Task (KUNLP at TREC 2008 Blog Track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    deployed this idea by using Clusty search en- gine2. Clusty is a text clustering search engine al- lows grouping search results into folder topics. Em...pirically, we issue an original query to Clusty and take the titles of top n clusters3 as expanded terms. Pseudo-relevance feedback: The intuition of...contain terms which are highly related to the topic. For simply examining this method, we se- 2http://clusty.com 3In Clusty , clusters are sorted by

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Research Methods on Findings of First-Mover Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter A. VanderWerf; John F. Mahon

    1997-01-01

    A long-standing hypothesis is that firms that enter a market early ("first movers") tend to have higher performance than their followers ("first-mover advantage"). Recently, researchers have begun to argue that the statistical tests that support this relationship are limited in their applicability. That is, it is suggested that because of the methods used, these tests show the relationship only for certain subsets of firms, markets, and types of performance. We performed a meta-analysis to de...

  9. Adaptive Ant Colony Clustering Method Applied to Finding Closely Communicating Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of community structures in networks is an important issue in many domains and disciplines. Closely communicating community is different from the traditional community which emphasize particularly on structure or context. Our previous method played more emphasis on the feasibility that ant colony algorithm applied to community detection. However the essence of closely communicating community did not be described clearly. In this paper, the definition of closely communicating community is put forward firstly, the four features are described and corresponding methods are introduced to achieve the value of features between each pair. Meanwhile, pair propinquity and local propinquity are put forward and used to guide ants’ decision. Based on the previous work, the closely communicating community detection method is improved in four aspects of adaptive adjusting, which are entropy based weight modulation, combining historical paths and random wandering to select next coordination, the strategy of forcing unloading and the adaptive change of ant’s eyesight. The value selection of parameters is discussed in the portion of experiments, and the results also reveal the improvement of our algorithm in adaptive djusting.

  10. A new method for finding and characterizing galaxy groups via low-frequency radio surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Mingo, B.

    2017-09-01

    We describe a new method for identifying and characterizing the thermodynamic state of large samples of evolved galaxy groups at high redshifts using high-resolution, low-frequency radio surveys, such as those that will be carried out with LOFAR and the Square Kilometre Array. We identify a sub-population of morphologically regular powerful [Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II)] radio galaxies and demonstrate that, for this sub-population, the internal pressure of the radio lobes is a reliable tracer of the external intragroup/intracluster medium (ICM) pressure, and that the assumption of a universal pressure profile for relaxed groups enables the total mass and X-ray luminosity to be estimated. Using a sample of well-studied FR II radio galaxies, we demonstrate that our method enables the estimation of group/cluster X-ray luminosities over three orders of magnitude in luminosity to within a factor of ∼2 from low-frequency radio properties alone. Our method could provide a powerful new tool for building samples of thousands of evolved galaxy groups at z > 1 and characterizing their ICM.

  11. PCV: An Alignment Free Method for Finding Homologous Nucleotide Sequences and its Application in Phylogenetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Mishra, Bharat Kumar; Lahiri, Tapobrata; Kumar, Gautam; Kumar, Nilesh; Gupta, Rahul; Pal, Manoj Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Online retrieval of the homologous nucleotide sequences through existing alignment techniques is a common practice against the given database of sequences. The salient point of these techniques is their dependence on local alignment techniques and scoring matrices the reliability of which is limited by computational complexity and accuracy. Toward this direction, this work offers a novel way for numerical representation of genes which can further help in dividing the data space into smaller partitions helping formation of a search tree. In this context, this paper introduces a 36-dimensional Periodicity Count Value (PCV) which is representative of a particular nucleotide sequence and created through adaptation from the concept of stochastic model of Kolekar et al. (American Institute of Physics 1298:307-312, 2010. doi: 10.1063/1.3516320 ). The PCV construct uses information on physicochemical properties of nucleotides and their positional distribution pattern within a gene. It is observed that PCV representation of gene reduces computational cost in the calculation of distances between a pair of genes while being consistent with the existing methods. The validity of PCV-based method was further tested through their use in molecular phylogeny constructs in comparison with that using existing sequence alignment methods.

  12. Lead finding from whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. with Hepatoprotective Potentials through in silico methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amita Verma; Mubashir Masoodi; Bahar Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the present study an attempt has been made to study the antihepatotoxic activity of active compounds in this plant through in silico methods. Methods: We have taken 12 compounds form this plant. All the compounds were further subjected to molecular propertied prediction and drug likeness by Molinspiration and found in compliance with Lipinski’s rule of five. Biochemical parameters like SGOT and SGPT were determined by Reitman and Frankel, ALP by Kind and King, TP by reported methods of Wooton. Results: All the compounds were showed expected similar bioactivity especially in case of enzyme inhibition. Compound Vulgarin showed no violation with good drug likeness score and biological activity as compare to standard drug Silibinin. Vulgarin exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) while the total protein (TP) levels were increased when compared with standard drug silymarin against CCl4-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by histopathological examinations of the liver sections. Conclusions: We found that Vulgarin one of the twelve compounds is showed better drug likeness and biological activity against Silibinin. So this particular compound can be taken as lead compound for further drug discovery for hepatotoxic activity.

  13. A method for finding the optimal predictor indices for local wave climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Paula; Méndez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.; Menéndez, Melisa; Espejo, Antonio; Pérez, Jorge; Rueda, Ana; Guanche, Yanira

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a method to obtain local wave predictor indices that take into account the wave generation process is described and applied to several locations. The method is based on a statistical model that relates significant wave height with an atmospheric predictor, defined by sea level pressure fields. The predictor is composed of a local and a regional part, representing the sea and the swell wave components, respectively. The spatial domain of the predictor is determined using the Evaluation of Source and Travel-time of wave Energy reaching a Local Area (ESTELA) method. The regional component of the predictor includes the recent historical atmospheric conditions responsible for the swell wave component at the target point. The regional predictor component has a historical temporal coverage ( n-days) different to the local predictor component (daily coverage). Principal component analysis is applied to the daily predictor in order to detect the dominant variability patterns and their temporal coefficients. Multivariate regression model, fitted at daily scale for different n-days of the regional predictor, determines the optimum historical coverage. The monthly wave predictor indices are selected applying a regression model using the monthly values of the principal components of the daily predictor, with the optimum temporal coverage for the regional predictor. The daily predictor can be used in wave climate projections, while the monthly predictor can help to understand wave climate variability or long-term coastal morphodynamic anomalies.

  14. [Artificial intelligence methods for support of medial patient education before surgical interventions in the region of the neck-nose-ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösges, R; Kuth, G; Korves, B

    1992-03-01

    As a rule, curative operations require the patient's consent. Determined by the expansion of surgical possibilities, the kind and frequency of specific complications are subjected to constant changes. The physician is encouraged to explain therapeutic methods as well as the probability of complications within the patient's grasp. It has been investigated to what extent methods of artificial intelligence (AI) are suited for assisting the physician in this task. For this purpose, a comprehensive list of surgical complications as reported in research literature has been compiled. The list has been transferred into a hierarchical structure which can be depicted as a rule tree classified according to topographic aspects. In each otolaryngological operation, the reported complications can be classed with these rules. By employing an expert system (Fig. 1), the physician is capable of compiling an individualized document of agreement (Fig. 2) which serves as a basis for the explanatory talk with the patient.

  15. A Mixed-Methods Approach Examining Illicit Prescription Stimulant Use: Findings From a Northern California University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarian, Niloofar; McMullen, Jaimie; Flay, Brian R; Kodama, Cathy; Martin, Melissa; Saltz, Robert F

    2017-02-27

    Preventing the illicit use of prescription stimulants, a particularly high-risk form of substance use, requires approaches that utilize theory-guided research. We examined this behavior within the context of a random sample of 554 undergraduate students attending a university in northern California. Approximately 17% of students self-reported engaging in this behavior during college; frequency of misuse per academic term ranged from less than once to 40 or more times. Although most misusers reported oral ingestion, a small proportion reported snorting and smoking the drug. The majority of misusers reported receiving the drug at no cost, and the primary source of the drug was friends. Misusers were motivated by both academic (e.g., to improve focus) and non-academic (e.g., to experiment) reasons. Our thematic analyses of an open-end question revealed that students abstaining from illicit use of prescription stimulants did so primarily for reasons related to health risks, ethics, and adherence regulations. Results from adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that correlates of the behavior were intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental in nature. We conclude that characteristics of misuse are a cause for concern, and correlates of the behavior are multifaceted. These findings, in addition to insights provided by students who choose not to engage in this behavior, suggest that a number of prevention approaches are plausible, such as a social norms campaign that simultaneously corrects exaggerated beliefs about prevalence while also illustrating why abstainers, in their own words, choose to abstain.

  16. Finding a method to analyze qualitative data: using a study of conceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Wendy J

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing awareness in the health sciences of the potential of qualitative research to address questions that quantitative research cannot satisfactorily answer. While a growing number of studies in health sciences and health sciences education discuss the value of such research or describe the methodology and data collection processes, few detail how analysis was carried out. Reliability and validity of findings from qualitative research depend on the quality of data management, retrieval, and interpretation or identification of meaning. The robustness of data analysis is therefore an important factor in the rigor of qualitative research. This article uses a study of dental students' conceptual learning to illustrate strategies that ensure rigor in qualitative analysis. Factors that informed the decisions regarding analysis are discussed in detail. The use of both grounded theory and literature is discussed. The role that deductive and inductive reasoning played in the analysis is outlined. A brief section illustrates the kinds of conclusions that can be made about conceptual learning when qualitative data are rigorously analyzed. Finally, potential shortcomings in the study and alternatives or additional mechanisms for ensuring validity and reliability of analysis are discussed.

  17. A method to find longevity-selected positions in the mammalian proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Semeiks

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory suggests that the force of natural selection decreases with age. To explore the extent to which this prediction directly affects protein structure and function, we used multiple regression to find longevity-selected positions, defined as the columns of a sequence alignment conserved in long-lived but not short-lived mammal species. We analyzed 7,590 orthologous protein families in 33 mammalian species, accounting for body mass, phylogeny, and species-specific mutation rate. Overall, we found that the number of longevity-selected positions in the mammalian proteome is much higher than would be expected by chance. Further, these positions are enriched in domains of several proteins that interact with one another in inflammation and other aging-related processes, as well as in organismal development. We present as an example the kinase domain of anti-müllerian hormone type-2 receptor (AMHR2. AMHR2 inhibits ovarian follicle recruitment and growth, and a homology model of the kinase domain shows that its longevity-selected positions cluster near a SNP associated with delayed human menopause. Distinct from its canonical role in development, this region of AMHR2 may function to regulate the protein's activity in a lifespan-specific manner.

  18. Finding ultracool brown dwarfs with MegaCam on CFHT: method and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Delorme, Philippe; Forveille, Thierry; Delfosse, Xavier; Reylé, Céline; Bertin, Emmanuel; Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Robin, Annie C; Allard, France; Doyon, Rene; Hill, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    We present the first results of a wide field survey for cool brown dwarfs with the MegaCam camera on the CFHT telescope, the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey, hereafter CFBDS. Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field-brown dwarf mass function thanks to a larger sample of L and T dwarfs. We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images using optimised psf-fitting within Source Extractor, and follow them up with pointed near-infrared imaging on several telescopes. We have so far analysed over 350 square degrees and found 770 brown dwarf candidates brighter than z'{AB}=22.5. We currently have J-band photometry for 220 of these candidates, which confirms 37% as potential L or T dwarfs. Some are among the reddest and farthest brown dwarfs currently known, including an independent identification of the recently published ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 and the discovery of a second brown dwarf later than T8, CFBDS J005910.83-011401.3. Infrared spectra of three T dwarf candidates ...

  19. On Finding the Shortest Distance of a Point From a Line: Which Method Do You Prefer?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhalchandra W Gore

    2017-07-01

    The formula for the shortest distance of a point from a linecan be derived in several different ways. Some typical methodsare taught at the elementary (i.e., high-school and juniorcollege) level. However, solving such ‘school-book’ problemsusing advanced mathematical methods is often overlookedand neglected. This article illustrates how this formula canbe derived in various ways. Such a comparison will not onlyencourage the reader to explore and understand how andwhy mathematical techniques work, but it will also help understandthe common thread between different branches ofmathematics. This exercise also shows that ‘the best way’ tosolve a mathematical problem is a misnomer.

  20. The relationship between vocational interests and intelligence: Do findings generalize across different assessment methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENÉ T. PROYER

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between vocational interests and intelligence. There is some evidence in literature on the stable relationships between vocational interests and intelligence (cf. Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997. It should be noted that the majority of the previous studies have only used questionnaires for the assessment of vocational interests. Thus, it is of interest whether the results are also stable when different assessment methods are used. Therefore, a nonverbal test was used in this study together with two questionnaires. Additionally, tests for general intelligence, verbal, numeric, and spatial ability, and memory were used. A sample of N = 138 persons was tested in a computerized setting. Results indicate that there is a positive relation between Realistic and Investigative interests and spatial ability. This result was found for both the questionnaires as well as the nonverbal test. Therefore, it can be assumed that this relation is stable for different assessment methods. The data is discussed with respect to current literature.

  1. Application of geo-microbial prospecting method for finding oil and gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, M. A.; Hasan, Syed Zaheer; Rao, P. L. Srinivasa; Boruah, Annapurna; Sudarshan, V.; Kumar, B.; Harinarayana, T.

    2015-03-01

    Microbial prospecting of hydrocarbons is based on the detection of anomalous population of hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria in the surface soils, indicates the presence of subsurface oil and gas accumulation. The technique is based on the seepage of light hydrocarbon gases such as C1-C4 from the oil and gas pools to the shallow surface that provide the suitable conditions for the development of highly specialized bacterial population. These bacteria utilize hydrocarbon gases as their only food source and are found enriched in the near surface soils above the hydrocarbon bearing structures. The methodology involves the collection of soil samples from the survey area, packing, preservation and storage of samples in pre-sterilized sample bags under aseptic and cold conditions till analysis and isolation and enumeration of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria such as methane, ethane, propane, and butane oxidizers. The contour maps for the population density of hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria are drawn and the data can be integrated with geological, geochemical, geophysical methods to evaluate the hydrocarbon prospect of an area and to prioritize the drilling locations thereby reducing the drilling risks and achieve higher success in petroleum exploration. Microbial Prospecting for Oil and Gas (MPOG) method success rate has been reported to be 90%. The paper presents details of microbial prospecting for oil and gas studies, excellent methodology, future development trends, scope, results of study area, case studies and advantages.

  2. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    were identified in the field of traumatology. Treatment of complex orbital fractures was considerably improved by the use of SN compared with traditionally treated control groups. Conclusions: SN seems to be a very promising addition to the surgical toolkit. Planning details of the surgical procedure...... in a 3-dimensional virtual environment and execution with real-time guidance can significantly improve precision. Among factors to be considered are the financial investments necessary and the learning curve....

  3. Brain mechanisms of Change in Addictions Treatment: Models, Methods, and Emerging Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Noronha, Antonio; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N; Hutchison, Kent; Calhoun, Vince D; Gabrieli, John D E; Morgenstern, Jon; Nixon, Sara Jo; Wexler, Bruce E; Brewer, Judson; Ray, Lara; Filbey, Francesca; Strauman, Timothy J; Kober, Hedy; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2016-09-01

    Increased understanding of "how" and "for whom" treatment works at the level of the brain has potential to transform addictions treatment through the development of innovative neuroscience-informed interventions. The 2015 Science of Change meeting bridged the fields of neuroscience and psychotherapy research to identify brain mechanisms of behavior change that are "common" across therapies, and "specific" to distinct behavioral interventions. Conceptual models of brain mechanisms underlying effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, mindfulness interventions, and Motivational Interviewing were discussed. Presentations covered methods for integrating neuroimaging into psychotherapy research, and novel analytic approaches. Effects of heavy substance use on the brain, and recovery of brain functioning with sustained abstinence, which may be facilitated by cognitive training, were reviewed. Neuroimaging provides powerful tools for determining brain mechanisms underlying psychotherapy and medication effects, predicting and monitoring outcomes, developing novel interventions that target specific brain circuits, and identifying for whom an intervention will be effective.

  4. The value of earth observations: methods and findings on the value of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly; Serbina, Larisa O.; Richardson, Leslie A.; Ryker, Sarah J.; Newman, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Data from Earth observation systems are used extensively in managing and monitoring natural resources, natural hazards, and the impacts of climate change, but the value of such data can be difficult to estimate, particularly when it is available at no cost. Assessing the socioeconomic and scientific value of these data provides a better understanding of the existing and emerging research, science, and applications related to this information and contributes to the decision making process regarding current and future Earth observation systems. Recent USGS research on Landsat data has advanced the literature in this area by using a variety of methods to estimate value. The results of a 2012 survey of Landsat users, a 2013 requirements assessment, and 2013 case studies of applications of Landsat imagery are discussed.

  5. Combined Calibration Method and its Realization for Direction Finding Antenna Systems with Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seller

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel radio channel compensation method aiming to give optimal calibration for microstrip antenna array systems is presented in this paper, realized for an actual DOA measurement antenna system using microstrip antennas to sample the electromagnetic field, operating at 4.5GHz. This new approach considers mismatch between antennas and channel RF ports, channel transmission inequalities, and also decreases the effects of multipath propagation components of calibration reference signals by placing the calibration reference signal feeding network on the microstrip antenna array bearer, directly beside the antenna patches. It is combined with orthogonal spread spectrum calibration signal utility for continuous uninterrupted measurements. The spread spectrum calibration signal is orthogonal to the continuous wave (CW signal to be measured, therefore, the 2 signals can be separated in the receiver, enabling them to be present simultaneously. DOA measurement results are shown, measured with the realized integrated microstrip patch antenna array with calibration network hardware.

  6. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography as a Method for Finding Die Attach Voids in Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, E. N.; Rolin, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA analyzes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles to understand failure modes of these components. The diode is an EEE part critical to NASA missions that can fail due to excessive voiding in the die attach. Metallography, one established method for studying the die attach, is a time-intensive, destructive, and equivocal process whereby mechanical grinding of the diodes is performed to reveal voiding in the die attach. Problems such as die attach pull-out tend to complicate results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study is to determine if three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), a nondestructive technique, is a viable alternative to metallography for detecting die attach voiding. The die attach voiding in two- dimensional planes created from 3DCT scans was compared to several physical cross sections of the same diode to determine if the 3DCT scan accurately recreates die attach volumetric variability

  7. [Recording cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: part 1: anatomy, physiology, methods and normal findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Hörmann, K; Pfaar, O

    2010-10-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) have gained in clinical significance in recent years, now forming an integral part of neurootological examinations to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. They are sensitive to low-frequency acoustic stimuli. When stimulated, receptors in the sacculus and utriculous are activated. By means of reflexive connections, myogenic potentials can be recorded when the relevant muscles are tonically activated. The vestibulocolic (sacculocollic) reflex travels from the otolith organs over the central circuitry to the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. Myogenic potentials can be recorded by means of cervical VEMP (cVEMP). The vestibuloocular reflex crosses contralaterally to the extraocular eye muscle. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) are recorded periocularly, preferably from the inferior oblique muscle. Various stimulation methods are used including air conduction and bone conduction.

  8. Finding the buckling load of non-uniform columns using the iteration perturbation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Afsharfard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to calculate the critical load of variable inertia columns. The example studied in this paper can be used as a paradigm for other non-uniform columns. The wavelength of equivalent vibratory system is used to calculate the critical load of the trigonometrically varied inertia column. In doing so, the equilibrium equation of the column is theoretically studied using the perturbation method. Accuracy of the calculated results is evaluated by comparing the solution with numerical results. Effect of improving the initial guess on the solution accuracy is investigated. Effects of varying parameters of the trigonometrically varied inertia and the uniformly tapered columns on their stability behavior are studied. Finally, using the so-called “perfectibility” parameter, two design goals, i.e., being lightweight and being strong, are studied for the discussed columns.

  9. Genome-scale identification method applied to find cryptic aminoglycoside resistance genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Struble

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability of bacteria to rapidly evolve resistance to antibiotics is a critical public health problem. Resistance leads to increased disease severity and death rates, as well as imposes pressure towards the discovery and development of new antibiotic therapies. Improving understanding of the evolution and genetic basis of resistance is a fundamental goal in the field of microbiology. RESULTS: We have applied a new genomic method, Scalar Analysis of Library Enrichments (SCALEs, to identify genomic regions that, given increased copy number, may lead to aminoglycoside resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the genome scale. We report the result of selections on highly representative genomic libraries for three different aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. At the genome-scale, we show significant (p<0.05 overlap in genes identified for each aminoglycoside evaluated. Among the genomic segments identified, we confirmed increased resistance associated with an increased copy number of several genomic regions, including the ORF of PA5471, recently implicated in MexXY efflux pump related aminoglycoside resistance, PA4943-PA4946 (encoding a probable GTP-binding protein, a predicted host factor I protein, a delta 2-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase, and DNA mismatch repair protein mutL, PA0960-PA0963 (encoding hypothetical proteins, a probable cold shock protein, a probable DNA-binding stress protein, and aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, a segment of PA4967 (encoding a topoisomerase IV subunit B, as well as a chimeric clone containing two inserts including the ORFs PA0547 and PA2326 (encoding a probable transcriptional regulator and a probable hypothetical protein, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The studies reported here demonstrate the application of new a genomic method, SCALEs, which can be used to improve understanding of the evolution of antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. In our demonstration studies, we

  10. A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Abdul Lateef

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the simplest method to find the area of the segment of the circle without the usage of the angle made by the chord and thus the area of sector could be found without the usage of angle made by chord. This is done by relating the area of segment to the area of sector.

  11. A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Lateef

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the simplest method to find the area of the segment of the circle without the usage of the angle made by the chord and thus the area of sector could be found without the usage of angle made by chord. This is done by relating the area of segment to the area of sector.

  12. Preliminary Findings of a Format-based Foreign Language Teaching Method for School Children in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpillaga, Beronika; Arzamendi, Jesus; Etxeberria, Feli; Garagorri, Xabier; Lindsay, Diana; Joaristi, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the preliminary findings in the Basque Country of a project shared by four European countries to teach a second language or a foreign language to preschool and school-age children. The method used to teach the foreign language--English--is based on the use of dramatized formats. Examines level of language proficiency achieved with each…

  13. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.

  14. The 'Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) study': a 20-year review of methods and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Asselmann, Eva; Zimmermann, Petra; Brückl, Tanja; Höfler, Michael; Behrendt, Silke; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The "Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP)" study is a prospective-longitudinal study program in a community sample (Munich, Germany) of adolescents and young adults. The program was launched in 1994 to study the prevalence and incidence of psychopathological syndromes and mental disorders, to describe the natural course and to identify vulnerability and risk factors for onset and progression as well as psychosocial consequences. This paper reviews methods and core outcomes of this study program. The EDSP is based on an age-stratified random community sample of originally N = 3021 subjects aged 14-24 years at baseline, followed up over 10 years with up to 3 follow-up waves. The program includes a family genetic supplement and nested cohorts with lab assessments including blood samples for genetic analyses. Psychopathology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI; embedded dimensional scales and instruments assessed vulnerability and risk factors. Beyond the provision of age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for a wide range of mental disorders, analyses of their patterns of onset, course and interrelationships, the program identified common and diagnosis-specific distal and proximal vulnerability and risk factors including critical interactions. The EDSP study advanced our knowledge on the developmental pathways and trajectories, symptom progression and unfolding of disorder comorbidity, highlighting the dynamic nature of many disorders and their determinants. The results have been instrumental for defining more appropriate diagnostic thresholds, led to the derivation of symptom progression models and were helpful to identify promising targets for prevention and intervention.

  15. bcrm: Bayesian Continual Reassessment Method Designs for Phase I Dose-Finding Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sweeting

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the R package bcrm for conducting and assessing Bayesian continual reassessment method (CRM designs in Phase I dose-escalation trials. CRM designsare a class of adaptive design that select the dose to be given to the next recruited patient based on accumulating toxicity data from patients already recruited into the trial, often using Bayesian methodology. Despite the original CRM design being proposed in 1990, the methodology is still not widely implemented within oncology Phase I trials. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, through example of the bcrm package, how a variety of possible designs can be easily implemented within the R statistical software, and how properties of the designs can be communicated to trial investigators using simple textual and graphical output obtained from the package. This in turn should facilitate an iterative process to allow a design to be chosen that is suitable to the needs of the investigator. Our bcrm package is the first to offer a large comprehensive choice of CRM designs, priors and escalation procedures, which can be easily compared and contrasted within the package through the assessment of operating characteristics.

  16. [Research on the method of stress assessment--from the research findings of 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese Society for Occupational Mental Health has conducted research on assessment of the psychological load (i.e., stress) among workers. Investigations were conducted three times, and those were contract research projects assigned by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In this project, the author was the primary researcher. In the latest research, a survey utilizing the Live Event Method was performed extensively nationwide; the survey covered 10,494 subjects (including 1,977 females) from all types of industry and occupation. The objective of this research was to reevaluate the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet used as an evaluation basis for the "Certification of workers' compensation related to mental disorders from psychological load." Two previous research investigations, conducted in 2002 and 2006, had suggested the need for such reevaluation. The outcomes revealed that, the longer the monthly overtime working hours, the higher the stress scores (in the range of 0 to 10), and the lower the appearance rate of stress. Subjects who performed 140 hours or more of overtime work per month, which fell under the category of "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," showed 6.3 points, which was markedly high, and ranked fourth in the survey with 63 assessment items. The category, "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," includes two working hour ranges, 120 hours or more and 160 hours or more; those working hour ranges were defined in the revision based on the latest research. Monthly overtime work of 120 hours or more, but less than 140 hours, was ranked ninth and scored 6.3 points. Monthly overtime work of 80 hours or more, but less than 100 hours, scored 5.3 points with a frequency of 14.2%. Based on the above results, new assessment items were added to the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet. This paper addresses and studies the issues explained above.

  17. Healthy bread initiative: methods, findings, and theories--Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-03-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4 +/- 0.4 g% before study to 12 +/- 0.6 g% after the intervention (p Wastage of bread decreased from 13 +/- 1.8 g% to 2 +/- 0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p < 0.001). The HB Initiative managed to add new breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the longstanding problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model.

  18. An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenuil Anne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians. The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa.

  19. ASP-G: an ASP-based method for finding attractors in genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushthofa, Mushthofa; Torres, Gustavo; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen; De Cock, Martine

    2014-11-01

    Boolean network models are suitable to simulate GRNs in the absence of detailed kinetic information. However, reducing the biological reality implies making assumptions on how genes interact (interaction rules) and how their state is updated during the simulation (update scheme). The exact choice of the assumptions largely determines the outcome of the simulations. In most cases, however, the biologically correct assumptions are unknown. An ideal simulation thus implies testing different rules and schemes to determine those that best capture an observed biological phenomenon. This is not trivial because most current methods to simulate Boolean network models of GRNs and to compute their attractors impose specific assumptions that cannot be easily altered, as they are built into the system. To allow for a more flexible simulation framework, we developed ASP-G. We show the correctness of ASP-G in simulating Boolean network models and obtaining attractors under different assumptions by successfully recapitulating the detection of attractors of previously published studies. We also provide an example of how performing simulation of network models under different settings help determine the assumptions under which a certain conclusion holds. The main added value of ASP-G is in its modularity and declarativity, making it more flexible and less error-prone than traditional approaches. The declarative nature of ASP-G comes at the expense of being slower than the more dedicated systems but still achieves a good efficiency with respect to computational time. The source code of ASP-G is available at http://bioinformatics.intec.ugent.be/kmarchal/Supplementary_Information_Musthofa_2014/asp-g.zip. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Analysis of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Botanical Material: A Review of Analytical Methods and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, B C; Jansen-Varnum, S A; Logan, B K

    2013-03-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid analogs have gained a great deal of attention from the forensic community within the last four years. The compounds found to be of most interest to forensic practitioners include those of the following series: JWH, CP, HU, AM, WIN, RCS, and most recently, XLR and UR. Structurally the HU compounds are most similar in structure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana. The novel compounds include cyclohexylphenols, naphthoylindoles, naphthylmethylindoles, naphthylmethylindenes, benzoylindoles, naphthoylpyrroles, phenylacetylindoles, adamantoylindoles, and tetramethylcyclopropylindoles. Many of these compounds are cannabinoid receptor agonists and were originally synthesized for medical research purposes but have recently been appropriated into the illicit drug market. Their psychoactive effects, mimicking those of marijuana, as well as their indeterminate legal status, have made them popular for recreational use. Solutions of the compounds dissolved in organic solvents are sprayed onto botanical material and sold as "herbal incense" products via the Internet, and in smoke shops, convenience stores, and gas stations around the world. Many of the products are labeled "Not for human consumption" in an attempt to circumvent legislation that bans the sale and manufacture of certain compounds and their analogs for human use. The compounds that were first detected following forensic analysis of botanical materials included JWH-018, JWH-073, and CP 47,497 (C7 and C8 homologs). However, in the four years since their appearance the number of compounds has grown, and additional diverse classes of compounds have been detected. Governments worldwide have taken action in an attempt to control those compounds that have become widespread in their regions. This article discusses the history of synthetic cannabinoids and how they have been detected in the illicit drug market. It also discusses the analytical methods and

  1. Analysis of exfoliated gastric carcinoma cells attached on surgical supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu XF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-Fen Yu,1 Ying-Yu Ma,2 Xian-Qin Hu,1 Qin-Fang Zhang,1 Zai-Yuan Ye3 1Operating Theatre, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, 2Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, 3Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Surgery is considered to have a leading role in the treatment of gastric carcinoma. Surgical supplies are used to cut, divide, and ligate during surgery, and are not only in close contact with normal tissues, but may also be contaminated by pathological tissues and cells. This study sought to determine the presence of exfoliated tumor cells on surgical supplies at different stages during the surgical procedure. We collected five types of surgical supplies from 90 patients who underwent D2 radical gastrectomy to find out if there was any cancer cells attached to them. Highest numbers of cancer cells were found on gauze used to clean the surgical instruments and on the gloves of scrub nurses. The likelihood of finding cancer cells increased with advancing clinical stage of disease, lower differentiation of cancer cells, increasing frequency of use of supplies and extent of contact, and was also associated with the characteristic of surgical supplies. Dissemination of tumor cells could be prevented by using a number of methods, depending on the type of surgical supply items. Keywords: exfoliated tumor cells, surgical supplies, gastric carcinoma, metastasis, prevention

  2. A Review on Hot-IP Finding Methods and Its Application in Early DDoS Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Dau Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On the high-speed connections of the Internet or computer networks, the IP (Internet Protocol packet traffic passing through the network is extremely high, and that makes it difficult for network monitoring and attack detection applications. This paper reviews methods to find the high-occurrence-frequency elements in the data stream and applies the most efficient methods to find Hot-IPs that are high-frequency IP addresses of IP packets passing through the network. Fast finding of Hot-IPs in the IP packet stream can be effectively used in early detection of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service attack targets and spreading sources of network worms. Research results show that the Count-Min method gives the best overall performance for Hot-IP detection thanks to its low computational complexity, low space requirement and fast processing speed. We also propose an early detection model of DDoS attack targets based on Hot-IP finding, which can be deployed on the target network routers.

  3. Correlation of brain FDG-PET findings with seizure type, EEG abnormality, and surgical outcome in children with epilepsy%癫痫患儿脑FDG-PET显像与发作类型、脑电图异常及手术效果的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏桂枝; 任榕娜; 杨朋范; 郑思锐

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of brain fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission computed tomography (PET) findings with seizure type,electroencephalography (EEG) abnormality,and surgical outcome in children with epilepsy.Methods A retrospective study was conducted on the brain 18F-FDG PET findings of 71 children,who were diagnosed with epilepsy by clinical examination,EEG,and imaging examination and received surgical treatment,to investigate the glucose metabolism in brain cells in the epileptic focus.According to the PET findings,the 71 patients were divided into three hypometabolism groups,including 33 cases with hypometabolism in a single lobe,28 cases with hypometabolism in two lobes,and 10 cases with hypometabolism in more than two lobes.The clinical data of the 71 patients,such as course of disease,sex,age,seizure type,EEG data,and surgical outcome,were collected.The chi-square test was used for comparing the three groups in terms of the constituent ratios in each item of the clinical data.Results No significant differences in age and sex were seen between the three hypometabolism groups,but there were significant differences in seizure type,EEG abnormality,and surgical outcome between them (P < 0.05).Conclusions Brain FDG PET findings are significantly correlated with surgical outcome,seizure type,and EEG abnormality in children with epilepsy.%目的 探讨小儿癫痫发作类型、脑电图异常、手术效果等与癫痫患儿脑FDG-PET显像的相关性.方法 方法回顾经临床、脑电图、影像学检查确诊的并行手术治疗的71例癫痫患儿脑18F-FDG-PET显像检测结果,以了解癫痫灶脑细胞葡萄糖代谢情况.根据脑FDG-PET显像结果,将71例患儿分为3个代谢减低组.33例患儿脑代谢减低位于单个脑叶,28例位于两个脑叶,10例多个脑叶均见代谢减低.收集71例患儿病程、性别、年龄、发作类型、脑电图资料、手术效果等临床资料,

  4. Methods dentists use to diagnose primary caries lesions prior to restorative treatment: findings from The Dental PBRN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindal, D Brad; Gordan, Valeria V; Litaker, Mark S;

    2010-01-01

    To (1) quantify the diagnostic techniques used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists before they decide to treat primary caries lesions surgically and (2) examine whether certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics are associated with their use.......To (1) quantify the diagnostic techniques used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists before they decide to treat primary caries lesions surgically and (2) examine whether certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics are associated with their use....

  5. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

  6. Using dummies for surgical skills training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    teaching methods for veterinary surgical training. At the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, a number of low fidelity, stuffed toy animal dummies was developed for the Surgical Skills Lab in order to teach 4th year students the basic surgical skills. In the Surgical...... this a relatively low budget solution with a big ethical benefit....

  7. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room.

  8. A region finding method to remove the noise from the images of the human hand gesture recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Jibran; Mahmood, Waqas

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the human hand gesture recognition systems depends on the quality of the images presented to the system. Since these systems work in real time environment the images may be corrupted by some environmental noise. By removing the noise the performance of the system can be enhanced. So far different noise removal methods have been presented in many researches to eliminate the noise but all have its own limitations. We have presented a region finding method to deal with the environmental noise that gives better results and enhances the performance of the human hand gesture recognition systems so that the recognition rate of the system can be improved.

  9. Summary Findings from the AVT-191 Project to Assess Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Quantification Methods for Military Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benek, John A.; Luckring, James M.

    2017-01-01

    A NATO symposium held in Greece in 2008 identified many promising sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification technologies, but the maturity and suitability of these methods for realistic applications was not clear. The NATO Science and Technology Organization, Task Group AVT-191 was established to evaluate the maturity and suitability of various sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification methods for application to realistic vehicle development problems. The program ran from 2011 to 2015, and the work was organized into four discipline-centric teams: external aerodynamics, internal aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, and hydrodynamics. This paper summarizes findings and lessons learned from the task group.

  10. The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Gottschlich

    Full Text Available Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method.

  11. The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method.

  12. SEQUENTIAL AND PARALLEL ALGORITHM TO FIND MAXIMUM FLOW ON EXTENDED MIXED NETWORKS BY REVISED POSTFLOW-PULL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Nguyen Dinh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finding maximum flow in network graph is extremely interesting and practically applicable in many fields in our daily life, especially in transportation. Therefore, a lot of researchers have been studying this problem in various methods. Especially in 2013, we has developed a new algorithm namely, postflow-pull algorithm to find the maximum flow on traditional networks. In this paper, we revised postflow-push methods to solve this problem of finding maximum flow on extended mixed network. In addition, to take more advantage of multi-core architecture of the parallel computing system, we build this parallel algorithm. This is a completely new method not being announced in the world. The results of this paper are basically systematized and proven. The idea of this algorithm is using multi processors to work in parallel by postflow_push algorithm. Among these processors, there is one main processor managing data, sending data to the sub processors, receiving data from the sub-processors. The sub-processors simultaneously execute their work and send their data to the main processor until the job is finished, the main processor will show the results of the problem.

  13. Tracheostomaplasty: A surgical method for improving retention of an intraluminal stoma button for hands-free tracheoesophageal speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mauricio A; Lewin, Jan S; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Bishop Leone, Julie K; Barringer, Denise A; Reece, Gregory P

    2010-12-01

    We describe a minimally invasive surgical technique, tracheostomaplasty, to overcome anatomical deformities of the stoma that preclude successful retention of a stoma button for hands free tracheoesophageal (TE) speech. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 21 patients who underwent tracheostomaplasty after laryngectomy to accommodate an intraluminal valve attachment for hands-free TE speech. Sixteen men and 5 women (median age, 65 years; median follow-up, 27.7 months) underwent tracheostomaplasty; 6 patients developed a mild cellulitis that required therapy and 5 patients required a minor revision surgery. At last follow-up, 15 (71%) patients successfully achieved hands-free TE speech using an intraluminal stoma button. Three patients only retained the intraluminal device to facilitate digital occlusion. Tracheostomaplasty failed in 3 patients because of granulation tissue formation or stomal stenosis. Tracheostomaplasty is a successful technique to improve intraluminal retention of a stoma button for hands-free TE speech in laryngectomy patients.

  14. Preliminary study on magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation for flexible surgical robots in transoral surgery: methods and phantom experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Zhang, Changchun; Liu, Li; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-10-05

    Flexible surgical robot can work in confined and complex environments, which makes it a good option for minimally invasive surgery. In order to utilize flexible manipulators in complicated and constrained surgical environments, it is of great significance to monitor the position and shape of the curvilinear manipulator in real time during the procedures. In this paper, we propose a magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation system for flexible surgical robots in the transoral surgery. The system can provide the real-time tip position and shape information of the robot during the operation. We use wire-driven flexible robot to serve as the manipulator. It has three degrees of freedom. A permanent magnet is mounted at the distal end of the robot. Its magnetic field can be sensed with a magnetic sensor array. Therefore, position and orientation of the tip can be estimated utilizing a tracking method. A shape sensing algorithm is then carried out to estimate the real-time shape based on the tip pose. With the tip pose and shape display in the 3D reconstructed CT model, navigation can be achieved. Using the proposed system, we carried out planar navigation experiments on a skull phantom to touch three different target positions under the navigation of the skull display interface. During the experiments, the real-time shape has been well monitored and distance errors between the robot tip and the targets in the skull have been recorded. The mean navigation error is [Formula: see text] mm, while the maximum error is 3.2 mm. The proposed method provides the advantages that no sensors are needed to mount on the robot and no line-of-sight problem. Experimental results verified the feasibility of the proposed method.

  15. A robot-assisted surgical system using a force-image control method for pedicle screw insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Han, Xiaoguang; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yajun; Hu, Ying; Han, Xiao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fan, Mingxing; Jin, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a robot-assisted surgical system for spinal posterior fixation that can automatically recognize the drilling state and stop potential cortical penetration with force and image information and to further evaluate the accuracy and safety of the robot for sheep vertebra pedicle screw placement. The Robotic Spinal Surgery System (RSSS) was composed of an optical tracking system, a navigation and planning system, and a surgical robot equipped with a 6-DOF force/torque sensor. The robot used the image message and force signals to sense the different operation states and to prevent potential cortical penetration in the pedicle screw insertion operation. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of the RSSS, 32 screw insertions were conducted. Furthermore, six trajectories were deliberately planned incorrectly to explore whether the robot could recognize the different drilling states and immediately prevent cortical penetration. All 32 pedicle screws were placed in the pedicle without any broken pedicle walls. Compared with the preoperative planning, the average deviations of the entry points in the axial and sagittal views were 0.50 ± 0.33 and 0.65 ± 0.40 mm, and the average deviations of the angles in the axial and sagittal views were 1.9 ± 0.82° and 1.48 ± 1.2°. The robot successfully recognized the different drilling states and prevented potential cortical penetration. In the deliberately incorrectly planned trajectory experiments, the robot successfully prevented the cortical penetration. These results verified the RSSS's accuracy and safety, which supported its potential use for the spinal surgery.

  16. [The application of a CO(2)-laser for tonsillectomy in the patients presenting with chronic decompensated tonsillitis as an alternative to the traditional methods of surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofman, V R; Kniaz'kov, V B

    2012-01-01

    to estimate the clinical efficiency and advantages of the surgical treatment of palatal tonsils with the use of a CO(2)-laser in comparison with the traditional methods of tonsillectomy. A total of 175 patients presenting with decompensated tonsillitis were available for the observation of which 79 were operated with the use of a CO(2)-laser. The control group was comprised of the patients undergoing conventional tonsillectomy. The study confirmed the high clinical efficiency of the ablation of palatal tonsils using the CO(2)-laser and its advantages in terms of reduced duration of the postoperative period, requirements for analgesic and antibacterial medications, recovery of the swallowing function and speech.

  17. Analysis of surgical intervention populations using generic surgical process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumuth, Thomas; Jannin, Pierre; Schlomberg, Juliane; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Wiedemann, Peter; Burgert, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    According to differences in patient characteristics, surgical performance, or used surgical technological resources, surgical interventions have high variability. No methods for the generation and comparison of statistical 'mean' surgical procedures are available. The convenience of these models is to provide increased evidence for clinical, technical, and administrative decision-making. Based on several measurements of patient individual surgical treatments, we present a method of how to calculate a statistical 'mean' intervention model, called generic Surgical Process Model (gSPM), from a number of interventions. In a proof-of-concept study, we show how statistical 'mean' procedure courses can be computed and how differences between several of these models can be quantified. Patient individual surgical treatments of 102 cataract interventions from eye surgery were allocated to an ambulatory or inpatient sample, and the gSPMs for each of the samples were computed. Both treatment strategies are exemplary compared for the interventional phase Capsulorhexis. Statistical differences between the gSPMs of ambulatory and inpatient procedures of performance times for surgical activities and activity sequences were identified. Furthermore, the work flow that corresponds to the general recommended clinical treatment was recovered out of the individual Surgical Process Models. The computation of gSPMs is a new approach in medical engineering and medical informatics. It supports increased evidence, e.g. for the application of alternative surgical strategies, investments for surgical technology, optimization protocols, or surgical education. Furthermore, this may be applicable in more technical research fields, as well, such as the development of surgical workflow management systems for the operating room of the future.

  18. Surgical scar revision: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods.

  19. Hybrid Extragradient Methods for Finding Zeros of Accretive Operators and Solving Variational Inequality and Fixed Point Problems in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Chuan Ceng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and analyze hybrid implicit and explicit extragradient methods for finding a zero of an accretive operator and solving a general system of variational inequalities and a fixed point problem of an infinite family of nonexpansive self-mappings in a uniformly convex Banach space X which has a uniformly Gateaux differentiable norm. We establish some strong convergence theorems for hybrid implicit and explicit extra-gradient algorithms under suitable assumptions. Furthermore, we derive the strong convergence of hybrid implicit and explicit extragradient algorithms for finding a common element of the set of zeros of an accretive operator and the common fixed point set of an infinite family of nonexpansive self-mappings and a self-mapping whose complement is strictly pseudocontractive and strongly accretive in X. The results presented in this paper improve, extend, supplement, and develop the corresponding results announced in the earlier and very recent literature.

  20. Surgical checklists: the human factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Connor, Paul

    2013-05-14

    BACKGROUND: Surgical checklists has been shown to improve patient safety and teamwork in the operating theatre. However, despite the known benefits of the use of checklists in surgery, in some cases the practical implementation has been found to be less than universal. A questionnaire methodology was used to quantitatively evaluate the attitudes of theatre staff towards a modified version of the World Health Organisation (WHO) surgical checklist with relation to: beliefs about levels of compliance and support, impact on patient safety and teamwork, and barriers to the use of the checklist. METHODS: Using the theory of planned behaviour as a framework, 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with theatre personnel regarding their attitudes towards, and levels of compliance with, a checklist. Based upon the interviews, a 27-item questionnaire was developed and distribute to all theatre personnel in an Irish hospital. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 107 theatre staff (42.6% response rate). Particularly for nurses, the overall attitudes towards the effect of the checklist on safety and teamworking were positive. However, there was a lack of rigour with which the checklist was being applied. Nurses were significantly more sensitive to the barriers to the use of the checklist than anaesthetists or surgeons. Moreover, anaesthetists were not as positively disposed to the surgical checklist as surgeons and nurse. This finding was attributed to the tendency for the checklist to be completed during a period of high workload for the anaesthetists, resulting in a lack of engagement with the process. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the rigour with which the surgical checklist is applied, there is a need for: the involvement of all members of the theatre team in the checklist process, demonstrated support for the checklist from senior personnel, on-going education and training, and barriers to the implementation of the checklist to be addressed.

  1. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography using time-spin labelling inversion pulse technique for detecting crossing renal vessels in children with symptomatic ureteropelvic junction obstruction: comparison with surgical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucher, Nicolas; Vial, Julie; Baunin, Christiane; Labarre, David; Meyrignac, Olivier; Juricic, Michel; Bouali, Ourdia; Abbo, Olivier; Galinier, Philippe; Sans, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Investigate the feasibility and evaluate the accuracy of non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography (NC-MRA) using time-spin labelling inversion pulse (time-SLIP)to identify crossing renal vessels (CRVs) in children requiring surgical treatment of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstructionand compare to laparoscopic findings. Nineteen children ranging from 6 to 16 years of age underwent NC-MRA using the time-SLIP technique before surgery. Two independent readers analysed the MRA images. Number of renal arteries and presence or absence of CRVs were identified and compared with surgicalfindings. Image quality was assessed, as well as the presence of CRVs and measurement of renal pelvis diameter. Intra and inter-reader agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa coefficient and Bland-Altman plots. The overall image quality was fair or good in 88% of cases. NC-MRA demonstrated CRVs at the level of the obstruction in 10 children and no CRV in 9 children. All were confirmed intra-operatively except in one of the nine children. Sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV for predicting CRVs were 92%, 100%, 100% and 87.5%, respectively, for both readers. NC-MRA is a good alternative to contrast-enhanced MRA and CT scanning for identifying CRVs in children with symptomatic UPJ. • Time-SLIP technique offers acceptable imaging quality for identifying crossing renal vessel. • Time-SLIP technique is easy to apply to the renal MRA examination. • Time-SLIP technique is an alternative to contrast-enhanced MRA and CT scanning.

  2. Surgical Sperm Retrieval: Which Method to Use?%外科取精术: 选择哪种方法?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    在过去的5~10年里,医学领域中很少有像生殖医学那样发展迅速,特别是使用卵胞浆内精子注射(ICSI)技术治疗男性不育及先进的外科附睾和睾丸取精术.这两项重大技术进步彻底改变了原先不可治愈的睾丸衰竭(非梗阻性无精子症)、射精障碍或不可修复的梗阻性无精子症.那些患有非常严重的不能用特殊方法和手术治疗的不育男性,现在有机会利用他们仅有的几条精子做起其生物学子女的父亲.讨论了辅助生育的各种先进的精子取出术,重点讨论技术和安全性.每一技术有其特殊的医学适应证、功效和局限性.%During the past 5~10 years, very few medical fields have changeddramatically as reproductive medicine, especially for the new treatment for the maleinfertility by the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) techniques andadvanced surgical epididymal and testicular sperm retrieval techniques. Those twomajor technical advances have completely changed the treatment for previouslyuntreatable testicular failure (non-obstructive azoospermia), ejaculatory failure orun-reconstructable obstructive azoospermia. Many men with even the most severe formsof infertility that are not amendable to specific medical and surgical treatmentscan now have chances to father biological children with only a few of theirspermatozoa. This review serves to discuss the various advanced sperm retrievaltechniques available for assisted reproduction, with specific focus on the technicalaspects and safety. Each technique has its specific medical indications, efficacies

  3. Hydatid cyst/cystic echinococcosis: anatomical and surgical nomenclature and method to quantify the cyst content solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Menezes da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The terminology related to the hydatid cyst is sometimes inappropriate and wrong designations are used, based on incorrect concepts. "Hydatid cyst" is the larval form of the tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus granulosus, a parasite found in the small intestine of carnivores. The disease, called cystic echinococcosis, is among the most neglected parasitic diseases despite the development of new drugs and other treatment modalities. Although all of us know the vital cycle of the parasite and the different aspects of the disease, the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures are not uniform. It would be useful, for all of us, to use the same nomenclature and it is absolutely necessary that the nomenclature is correct and universally accepted. In this paper I remember the correct terms related to all aspects of the hydatid cyst's nomenclature, including especially the anatomical and surgical terminology, as well as the criteria to define the cyst inactivity and the way to know when the cyst range the inactive stage after therapy.

  4. High-position-resolution scintillation neutron-imaging detector by crossed-fiber readout with novel centroid-finding method

    CERN Document Server

    Katagiri, M; Sakasai, K; Matsubayashi, M; Birumachi, A; Takahashi, H; Nakazawa, M

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at high-position-resolution and high-counting-rate neutron imaging, a novel centroid-finding method is proposed for a scintillation neutron-imaging detector with crossed-fiber readout. Crossed wavelength-shifting fibers are arranged on and under the scintillator. Luminescences generated in the scintillator are emitted and detected by a few fibers surrounding the incident point of a neutron. In the novel method, X and Y positions of the incident neutron are decided by coincidence of a central signal and neighboring signals, respectively. By fundamental experiments using a ZnS:Ag/ sup 6 LiF scintillator of 0.5-mm thickness and crossed wavelength-shifting fibers with a size of 0.5 x 0.5 mm sup 2 , it was confirmed that the position resolution is about 0.5 mm and the limitation of the neutron-counting rate is 320 kcps. (orig.)

  5. Energy Method of Finding Distribution Constants of an Antiferromagnetic Vector for an Antidot System in a Two-sublattice Antiferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kulish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the antiferromagnetic vector distribution in an antiferromagnetic film with a system of antidots. A static distribution of the antiferromagnetic vector is written and a method – based on the minimization of the antiferromagnet energy – that allows reducing the number of boundary conditions required for finding the constants of this distribution is proposed. Equations for the distribution constants are obtained for the both cases of minimizing the antiferromagnet energy by one and by two distribution constants that enter the expression for the antiferromagnet energy. The method is illustrated on a system of one isolated antidot. For such system, one additional condition – for the case when two boundary conditions on the surface of the antidot are given – and two additional conditions – for the case when one boundary condition on the surface of the antidot is given – on the distribution constants are written.

  6. The Preoperative Staging and Surgical Method Options of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma%分化型甲状腺癌术前分期与术式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文; 姚京

    2016-01-01

    伴随甲状腺癌发病率的升高,接受外科治疗的甲状腺癌患者也随之增多,这其中绝大部分为分化型甲状腺癌患者。由于分化型甲状腺癌远期疗效好,治愈率高,容易忽视术前分期和术式选择的重要性,导致部分患者手术效果欠佳,术后无法正常进行131 I治疗以及远期疗效的评估,甚至可能使患者接受多次手术治疗,增加了手术并发症的发生率。因此,正确的术前分期和术式选择除了可以获得满意的手术疗效外,还可以为后续的131 I治疗以及远期评估起到积极的推动作用,并可降低患者的再次手术率,降低手术并发症的发生率。%With the increasing incident of thyroid cancer , many more thyroid cancer patients received surgical treatment , most of whom are diagnosed as differentiated thyroid cancer . However , pre-operative staging of tumor and surgical methods are not always chosen carefully because long -term outcome is considerable good .Inappropriate surgical methods might lead to poor clinical outcome , including unable to receive 131 I treatment and imprecise post-operative assessment .More seriously, the patient might require reoperation with increasing complications .Therefore, accurate pre-operative staging of tumors and appropriate surgical treatment would yield satisfactory outcome and benefit for long term assessment and post-operative 131 I treatment. Furthermore, the patients might have less chance for reoperation and post-operative complications .

  7. Comparison of Dijkstra's algorithm and dynamic programming method in finding shortest path for order picker in a warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noraimi Azlin Mohd; Omar, Mohd; Sharif, S. Sarifah Radiah

    2017-04-01

    Companies are looking forward to improve their productivity within their warehouse operations and distribution centres. In a typical warehouse operation, order picking contributes more than half percentage of the operating costs. Order picking is a benchmark in measuring the performance and productivity improvement of any warehouse management. Solving order picking problem is crucial in reducing response time and waiting time of a customer in receiving his demands. To reduce the response time, proper routing for picking orders is vital. Moreover, in production line, it is vital to always make sure the supplies arrive on time. Hence, a sample routing network will be applied on EP Manufacturing Berhad (EPMB) as a case study. The Dijkstra's algorithm and Dynamic Programming method are applied to find the shortest distance for an order picker in order picking. The results show that the Dynamic programming method is a simple yet competent approach in finding the shortest distance to pick an order that is applicable in a warehouse within a short time period.

  8. A Study to Determine the Best Method of Caring for Certain Short-Stay Surgical Patients at Reynolds Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    tubal ligation , and myringotomy (Staff, 1984, July). Surgical Patients 25 This list was submitted to the Chiefs of the Department of Surgery and...capacity Surgical Patients 46 restricted to minimal care patients such as those with Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome (ARDS). These wards were...the surgery and post -surgical healing is aided. And yet, in the military, lasers are seldom-used (there are none Surgical Patients 83 at RACR), and are

  9. [Surgical Treatment of Large Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect nearby the Moderator Band Using the Sandwich Method;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokawa, Mamika; Sasahara, Akihiro; Terakawa, Katsunari; Miyamoto, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    We describe the rare case of a 1-year-old girl who had large muscular ventricular defect (VSD) nearby the moderator band. We experienced the patch closure using sandwich method. A 1-month-old girl was referred to our institution for treatment of muscular VSD. At the age of 2 month, she underwent the pulmonary artery banding to control the pulmonary high flow. After follow up, the patient have reached 70 cm tall and weighed 7 kg. One year after the "sandwich operation", cardiac catheterization revealed the tiny residual shunt. Nevertheless, the cardiac function was good and the growth was in fine fettle. Sandwich method is a useful surgical technique to close the muscular VSD without resect the right ventricular trabeculation.

  10. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  11. Evaluating Pattern of Prescribing Antibiotics in Surgical Wards of Shahid Rahnemon Hospital Compared to Standard Methods in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarezade

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The present study findings revealed that in 68.8% of the operations, the prescribed antibiotics were compatible with the guidelines in all the cases. Hence, taking antibiogram bacteria isolated from patients into account, developing standard treatment guidelines, and possibly providing oral forms of antibiotics can be effective in rationalizing the use of injectable antibiotics.

  12. Surgical treatment of acquired tracheocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubsky, Edward A; Gourin, Christine G

    2006-06-01

    Acquired tracheoceles are rare clinical entities that can cause a variety of chronic and recurrent aerodigestive tract symptoms. The management of acquired tracheoceles is primarily conservative, but surgical intervention may be indicated for patients with refractory symptoms. We present a case of acquired tracheocele and describe a method of successful surgical management.

  13. Clinical impact of different detection methods for disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of patients undergoing surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases: a prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanke Hans J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large number of patients with colorectal liver metastasis show recurrent disease after curative surgical resection. Identification of these high-risk patients may guide therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow from patients undergoing surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases can predict clinical outcome. Methods Sixty patients with colorectal liver metastases were planned for a curative resection between 2001 and 2007. All patients underwent bone marrow aspiration before surgery. Detection of tumor cells was performed using immunocytochemical staining for cytokeratin (CK-ICC combined with automated microscopy or indirectly using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Disseminated tumor cells were found in 15 of the 46 patients (33% using CK-ICC and in 9 of 44 of the patients (20% using RT-PCR. Patients with negative results for RT-PCR had a significant better disease-free survival after resection of their liver metastases (p = 0.02. This group also showed significant better overall survival (p = 0.002. CK-ICC did not predict a worse clinical outcome. Conclusions The presence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow detected using RT-PCR did predict a worse clinical outcome. The presence of cells detected with CK-ICC did not correlate with poor prognosis.

  14. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Louise C.; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Adelson, P. David; Arango, Jorge; Balaj, Leonora; Breakefield, Xandra; Carlson, Elizabeth; Carter, Bob S.; Majem, Blanca; Chen, Clark C.; Cocucci, Emanuele; Danielson, Kirsty; Courtright, Amanda; Das, Saumya; Elmageed, Zakaria Y. Abd; Enderle, Daniel; Ezrin, Alan; Ferrer, Marc; Freedman, Jane; Galas, David; Gandhi, Roopali; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Kalani, Yashar; Kim, Yong; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Lai, Charles; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Laurent, Clara D.; Leonardo, Trevor; Li, Feng; Malenica, Ivana; Mondal, Debasis; Nejad, Parham; Patel, Tushar; Raffai, Robert L.; Rubio, Renee; Skog, Johan; Spetzler, Robert; Sun, Jie; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Vickers, Kasey; Wang, Liang; Wang, Yaoyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Weiner, Howard L.; Wong, David; Yan, Irene K.; Yeri, Ashish; Gould, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field. PMID:26320937

  15. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C. Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field.

  16. [Efficacy of surgical treatment of patients for an acute lactational mastitis using radiofrequency scalpel and ozono-ultrasonic method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, I V; Chernova, N V

    2013-01-01

    According to microbial investigation data, conducted preoperatively, intraoperatively, in 7 days postoperatively for an acute purulent lactational mastitis, there was noted significant reduction of the wound microbial soiling while application of radiofrequency scalpel and ozono-ultrasonic method in comparison with such while application of conventional methods of treatment.

  17. Surgical intervention in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, MG; de Bruijn, MT; Rutten, JP; Boermeester, MA; Hofker, HS; Gooszen, HG

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the various surgical strategies for treatment of (suspected) infected necrotizing pancreatitis (INP) and patient referrals for this condition in the Netherlands. Methods: This retrospective study included all 106 consecutive patients who had surgical treatment for IN

  18. Non-invasive brain stimulation for food cravings, consumption, and disorders of eating: A review of methods, findings and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Vincent, Corita M; Burhan, Amer M

    2017-03-11

    To describe the state of the human research literature pertaining to the use of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) procedures for modulating food cravings, food consumption, and treating disorders of eating (i.e., obesity, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). A narrative review of methods, empirical findings, and current areas of controversy. Both single-session experimental and multi-session therapeutic modalities are considered, separately for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) technologies. Single-session studies involving NIBS report more consistent effects of rTMS than tDCS, but this advantage is more clear in relation to food cravings than actual food consumption. Multisession therapeutic approaches have been applied to both obesity and eating disorders. With respect to obesity, the three published (tDCS) and one ongoing trial (rTMS) have yielded promising though very preliminary findings. Application of multi-session NIBS (predominantly rTMS) to eating disorders has also yielded promising but ultimately inconclusive results, both in relation to bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Findings regarding excitatory NIBS in the context of anorexia are more controversial, with evidence of improvement in affective functioning, but a trend of iatrogenic weight loss. Excitatory NIBS-particularly rTMS-can reliably reduce food cravings in single and multi-session format. For multi-session treatment of clinical conditions, more studies are needed for both rTMS and tDCS, particularly in relation to obesity, bulimia, and binge eating disorder. Application of NIBS for anorexia is less clear at this point, and excitatory NIBS may be contraindicated on theoretical and empirical grounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. When are night shifts effective for nursing student clinical learning? Findings from a mixed-method study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Basso, Felix; Del Negro, Elena; Achil, Illarj; Ferraresi, Annamaria; Morandini, Marzia; Moreale, Renzo; Mansutti, Irene

    2017-05-01

    Some nursing programmes offer night shifts for students while others do not, mainly due to the lack of evidence regarding their effectiveness on clinical learning. The principal aims of the study were to describe nursing students' perceptions and to explore conditions influencing effectiveness on learning processes during night shifts. An explanatory mixed-method study design composed of a cross-sectional study (primary method, first phase) followed by a descriptive phenomenological study design (secondary method, second phase) in 2015. Two bachelor of nursing degree programmes located in Northern Italy, three years in length and requiring night shifts for students starting in the second semester of the 1st year, were involved. First phase: all nursing students ending their last clinical placement of the academic year attended were eligible; 352 out the 370 participated. Second phase: a purposeful sample of nine students among those included in the first phase and who attended the highest amount of night shifts were interviewed. First phase: a questionnaire composed of closed and open-ended questions was adopted; data was analyzed through descriptive statistical methods. Second phase: an open-ended face-to-face audio-recorded interview was adopted and data was analyzed through content analysis. Findings from the quantitative phase, showed that students who attended night shifts reported satisfaction (44.7%) less frequently than those who attended only day shifts (55.9%). They also reported boredom (23.5%) significantly more often compared to day shift students (p=0001). Understanding of the nursing role and learning competence was significantly inferior among night shift students as compared to day shift students, while the perception of wasting time was significantly higher among night shift students compared to their counterparts. Night shift students performed nursing rounds (288; 98.2%), non-nursing tasks (247; 84.3%) and/or less often managed clinical problems

  20. Radiologic classification of superior canal dehiscence : Implications for surgical repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lookabaugh, Sarah; Kelly, Hillary R.; Carter, Margaret S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; McKenna, Michael J.; Curtin, Hugh; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Surgical access to repair a superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is influenced by the location of the bony defect and its relationship to surrounding tegmen topography as seen on computed tomography. There are currently no agreed-upon methods of characterizing these radiologic findings. We

  1. Comparison of Treatment Outcomes of Surgical Repair in Inguinal Hernia with Classic versus Preperitoneal Methods on Reduction of Postoperative Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Hormoz Mahmoudvand; Shahab Forutani; Sedigheh Nadri

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study aims to evaluate and compare the results of inguinal herniorrhaphy with mesh in classic and preperitoneal method. Methods. Our study community includes 150 candidate patients for inguinal herniorrhaphy with mesh. Totally, 150 candidate patients for inguinal herniorrhaphy were randomly divided into two groups: (1) classic group in which the floor of the canal was repaired and the mesh was located on the floor of the canal and (2) preperitoneal group in which the mesh was...

  2. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each

  3. Finding possible transition states of defects in silicon-carbide and alpha-iron using the dimer method

    CERN Document Server

    Gao Fei; Weber, W J; Corrales, L R; Jonsson, H

    2003-01-01

    Energetic primary recoil atoms from ion implantation or fast neutron irradiation produce isolated point defects and clusters of both vacancies and interstitials. The migration energies and mechanisms for these defects are crucial to successful multiscale modeling of microstructural evolution during ion-implantation, thermal annealing, or under irradiation over long periods of time. The dimer method is employed to search for possible transition states of interstitials and small interstitial clusters in SiC and alpha-Fe. The method uses only the first derivatives of the potential energy to find saddle points without knowledge of the final state of the transition. In SiC, the possible migration pathway for the C interstitial is found to consist of the first neighbor jump via a Si site or second neighbor jump, but the relative probability for the second neighbor jump is very low. In alpha-Fe, the possible transition states are studied as a function of interstitial cluster size, and the lowest energy barriers corr...

  4. Posterior-only surgical correction of dystrophic scoliosis in 31 patients with neurofibromatosis Type 1 using the multiple anchor point method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ang; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Tang, Ming-Xing; Liu, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Gao, Qi-Le

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of posterior-only surgical correction of dystrophic scoliosis in patients with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) using a multiple anchor point method (MAPM). METHODS From 2005 to 2014, 31 patients (mean age 13.5 years old, range 10-22 years old) suffering from dystrophic scoliosis associated with NF1 underwent posterior-only surgical correction using a MAPM. The apex of the deformity was thoracic (n = 25), thoracolumbar (n = 4), and lumbar (n = 2). The mean preoperative coronal Cobb angle was 69.1° (range 48.9°-91.4°). The mean Cobb angle on the side-bending radiograph of the convex side was 58.2° (range 40°-79.8°). The mean flexibility and apical vertebral rotation (AVR) were 15.6% (range 8.3%-28.2%) and 2.5° (range 2°-3°), respectively. The mean angle of sagittal kyphosis was 58.3° (range 34.1°-79.6°). RESULTS The mean follow-up period was 53 months (range 12-96 months). The mean postoperative coronal Cobb angle was 27.4° (range 16.3°-46.7°). Postoperatively, the mean AVR and angle of sagittal kyphosis were 1.2° (range 1°-2°) and 22.4° (range 4.2°-36.3°), respectively. All patients showed good correction of all indices postoperatively. The mean postoperative correction rate was 58.7% (range 46.3%-74.1%). At the final follow-up evaluation, the corrective loss rate of the Cobb angle was only 2.3%. Only 1 patient required revision surgery. No severe complications such as spinal cord, neural, or large vascular injury occurred during the operation. CONCLUSIONS Posterior-only surgical correction of dystrophic scoliosis in patients with NF1 using a MAPM could yield satisfactory clinical efficacy of correction and fusion.

  5. Preoperative Management of Surgical Patients by “Shortened Fasting Time”: A Study on the Amount of Total Body Water by Multi-Frequency Impedance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Taniguchi, Toshio Sasaki, Hisae Fujita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Preoperative fasting is an established procedure to be practiced for patients before surgery, but optimal preoperative fasting time still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of “shortened preoperative fasting time” on the change in the amount of total body water (TBW in elective surgical patients. TBW was measured by multi-frequency impedance method.Methods: The patients, who were scheduled to undergo surgery for stomach cancer, were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Before surgery, patients in the control group were managed with conventional preoperative fasting time, while patients in the “enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS” group were managed with “shortened preoperative fasting time” and “reduced laxative medication.” TBW was measured on the day before surgery and the day of surgery before entering the operating room. Defecation times and anesthesia-related vomiting and aspiration were monitored.Results: TBW values on the day of surgery showed changes in both groups as compared with those on the day before surgery, but the rate of change was smaller in the ERAS group than in the control group (2.4±6.8% [12 patients] vs. −10.6±4.6% [14 patients], p<0.001. Defecation times were less in the ERAS group. Vomiting and aspiration were not observed in either group.Conclusion: The results suggest that preoperative management with “shorted preoperative fasting time” and “reduced administration of laxatives” is effective in the maintenance of TBW in elective surgical patients.

  6. Mixed Methods Approach to Identify Factors and the Extent to Which They Influence Medical/Surgical Prime Vendor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Programs: http://www.afpc.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123356512 Ajzen, I., & Fishbein , M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior...Evaluating the Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Psychological Research. Psychological Methods , 4 (3), 272- 299. Fishbein , M., & Ajzen, I

  7. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research - what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-03-08

    In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this

  8. Retained surgical sponge: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained surgical sponge in the body following a surgery is called "gossypiboma". A 27-year-old female who had undergone lower segment cesarean section 4 months earlier was admitted with complaints of pain abdomen with a palpable mass in left iliac fossa. X-ray, ultrasonography, and CT scan findings were suggestive of retained surgical sponge. Surgical sponge was removed following laparotomy. Surgeons must be aware of the risk factors that lead to gossypiboma, and measures should be taken to prevent it. Besides increasing morbidity and possible mortality, it may result in libel suit for compensation.

  9. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted case finding for cardiovascular disease prevention using a stepped wedged cluster RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Tom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pilot project cardiovascular prevention was implemented in Sandwell (West Midlands, UK. This used electronic primary care records to identify untreated patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease then invited these high risk patients for assessment by a nurse in their own general practice. Those found to be eligible for treatment were offered treatment. During the pilot a higher proportion of high risk patients were started on treatment in the intervention practices than in control practices. Following the apparent success of the prevention project, it was intended to extend the service to all practices across the Sandwell area. However the pilot project was not a robust evaluation. There was a need for an efficient evaluation that would not disrupt the planned rollout of the project. Methods/design Project nurses will sequentially implement targeted cardiovascular case finding in a phased way across all general practices, with the sequence of general practices determined randomly. This is a stepped wedge randomised controlled trial design. The target population is patients aged 35 to 74, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease whose ten-year cardiovascular risk, (determined from data in their electronic records is ≥20%. The primary outcome is the number of high risk patients started on treatment, because these data could be efficiently obtained from electronic primary care records. From this we can determine the effects of the case finding programme on the proportion of high risk patients started on treatment in practices before and after implementation of targeted case finding. Cost-effectiveness will be modelled from the predicted effects of treatments on cardiovascular events and associated health service costs. Alongside the implementation it is intended to interview clinical staff and patients who participated in the programme in order to determine acceptability to patients and clinicians. Practical

  10. Do vertebral derotation techniques offer better outcomes compared to traditional methods in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paul R P; Grevitt, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, authors have described novel derotation techniques for surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. These methods include direct vertebral body derotation (DVD) and vertebral coplanar alignment (VCA). By improved derotation it is hoped that there is further reduction in rib hump prominence and corresponding improvement in patients' quality of life. This paper aims to evaluate studies reporting outcomes from DVD and VCA techniques to assess if these methods lead to superior radiographic vertebral derotation, rib hump correction on surface measurements or patient-reported outcomes compared to traditional derotation manoeuvres using similar instrumentation. Literature review. Fifteen reports were identified. Most comparative studies represent class three or four data. DVD and VCA techniques have been shown to reduce apical vertebral rotation by 37-63 %. Few studies compare DVD/VCA techniques with traditional methods. Most DVD/VCA reports with pedicle screw instrumentation have reported superior radiographic derotation on CT compared with conventional techniques. Despite this the majority of studies have found similar corrections of rib hump measurements between DVD/VCA techniques and cantilever or global derotation methods. There is no evidence that DVD/VCA techniques allow greater correction of significant rib hump deformity without an adjuvant thoracoplasty. No studies to date have used patient-reported outcomes prospectively or demonstrated clinically meaningful differences retrospectively between DVD/VCA and conventional techniques. There is little evidence to recommend the widespread adoption of DVD/VCA techniques. Whilst there is some weak evidence to suggest that novel techniques may improve radiographic measures, there is little to suggest that they offer patients improved correction of clinical rib hump or quality of life compared to established techniques. Further well-designed prospective studies are needed in this area.

  11. Comparison of the minimally invasive surgical methods of the cholelithiasis treatment: single-port and four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N Klymenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim and methods. In this paper, a comparative analysis of the results obtained in the performance of single-port laparoscopic surgery (SILS and the traditional four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy was presented. Average duration of surgery, intra and postoperative complications, duration of pain, hyperthermia, a cosmetic effect were assessed and compared. Results. SILS technique reduces the duration and intensity of post-operative discomfort associated with pain in the wound; achieve early almost complete physical and social adaptation, and return to the normal rhythm of life; get the best cosmetic result.

  12. [THE CHOICE OF SURGICAL TREATMENT METHOD FOR THE DEEP VEINS THROMBOSIS IN SYSTEM OF VENA CAVA INFERIOR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, V I; Korsak, V V; Popovych, Ya M; Boyko, S O

    2015-05-01

    There were analyzed the results of examination and treatment of 455 patients, suffering deep veins thrombosis in a system of vena cava inferior, of whom 175 (38.5%) were operated on. Inclusion of ultrasound duplex scanning, roentgencontrast phlebography, multispiral computer tomography with intravenous contrasting, radionuclide phleboscintigraphy into complex of clinic-instrumental examination of the patients gives possibility to estimate the disorders of the main trunk and collateral venous blood flow in the deep veins thrombosis, as well as to substantiate indications and choice of the operative treatment method.

  13. Differential impact of contraceptive methods on seizures varies by antiepileptic drug category: Findings of the Epilepsy Birth Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Andrew G; Mandle, Hannah B; Cahill, Kaitlyn E; Fowler, Kristen M; Hauser, W Allen

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether categories of contraception differ in their impact on seizures in women with epilepsy and whether the impact varies by antiepileptic drug category. Retrospective survey data came from 2712 contraceptive experiences reported by 1144 women with epilepsy. We compared risk ratios for reports of increase and decrease in seizure frequency on hormonal versus nonhormonal contraception, stratified by antiepileptic drug categories. More women with epilepsy reported a change in seizures on hormonal (28.2%) than on nonhormonal contraception (9.7%) (p<0.0001). The risk ratio for seizure increase on hormonal (18.7%) versus nonhormonal contraception (4.2%) was 4.47 (p<0.0001). The risk ratio for seizure decrease on hormonal (9.5%) versus nonhormonal contraception (5.5%) was 1.71, p<0.0001. On hormonal contraception, the risk ratio for seizure increase was greater than for decrease (1.98, p<0.0001). In comparison to combined pills, both hormonal patch and progestin-only pills had greater risk ratios for seizure increase. Depomedroxyprogesterone was the only hormonal method with a greater risk ratio for seizure decrease than combined pills. Seizure increase was greater for hormonal than nonhormonal contraception for each antiepileptic drug category (p<0.001). On hormonal contraception, relative to the non-enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug category which had the lowest rate, each of the other categories had significantly greater risks for seizure increase, especially the enzyme-inhibiting (valproate) category (risk ratio=2.53, p=0.0002). The findings provide community-based, epidemiological survey evidence that contraceptive methods may differ in their impact on seizures and that this impact may vary by antiepileptic drug category. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Essential features influencing collaboration in team-based non-specific back pain rehabilitation: Findings from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Therese; Jensen, Irene; Bergström, Gunnar; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study presented in this article was to explore how professionals, without guidelines for implementing interprofessional teamwork, experience the collaboration within team-based rehabilitation for people with back pain and how this collaboration influences their clinical practice. This study employed a mixed methods design. A questionnaire was answered by 383 participants and 17 participants were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. The quantitative results showed that the participants were satisfied with their team-based collaboration. Thirty percent reported that staff changes in the past year had influenced their clinical practice, of which 57% reported that these changes had had negative consequences. The qualitative findings revealed that essential features for an effective collaboration were shared basic values and supporting each other. Furthermore, aspects such as having enough time for reflection, staff continuity, and a shared view of the team members' roles were identified as aspects which influenced the clinical practice. Important clinical implications for nurturing and developing a collaboration in team-based rehabilitation are to create shared basic values and a unified view of all team members' roles and their contributions to the team. These aspects need to be emphasised on an ongoing basis and not only when the team is formed.

  15. Extraction of structural and chemical information from high angle annular dark-field image by an improved peaks finding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenhao; Huang, Rong; Qi, Ruijuan; Duan, Chungang

    2016-09-01

    With the development of spherical aberration (Cs) corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), high angle annular dark filed (HAADF) imaging technique has been widely applied in the microstructure characterization of various advanced materials with atomic resolution. However, current qualitative interpretation of the HAADF image is not enough to extract all the useful information. Here a modified peaks finding method was proposed to quantify the HAADF-STEM image to extract structural and chemical information. Firstly, an automatic segmentation technique including numerical filters and watershed algorithm was used to define the sub-areas for each atomic column. Then a 2D Gaussian fitting was carried out to determine the atomic column positions precisely, which provides the geometric information at the unit-cell scale. Furthermore, a self-adaptive integration based on the column position and the covariance of statistical Gaussian distribution were performed. The integrated intensities show very high sensitivity on the mean atomic number with improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Consequently, the polarization map and strain distributions were rebuilt from a HAADF-STEM image of the rhombohedral and tetragonal BiFeO3 interface and a MnO2 monolayer in LaAlO3 /SrMnO3 /SrTiO3 heterostructure was discerned from its neighbor TiO2 layers. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:820-826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Disconnects in pedagogy and practice in community health nursing clinical experiences: Qualitative findings of a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl-Zieber, Em M; Barton, Sylvia; Awosoga, Olu; Konkin, Jill

    2015-10-01

    Many baccalaureate schools of nursing are using non-traditional placements for undergraduate community health clinical rotations. These placements occur at agencies not organizationally affiliated with the health care system and they typically do not employ registered nurses (RNs). In this paper, we describe the qualitative findings of a mixed method study that explored these gaps as they relate to pre-registration nursing students' preparation for community health roles. While non-traditional community health placements offer unique opportunities for learning through carefully crafted service learning pedagogy, these placements also present challenges for student preparation for practice in community health roles. The theory-practice gap and the gap between the expected and actual performance of new graduates are accentuated through the use of non-traditional community clinical experiences. These gaps are not necessarily due to poor pedagogy, but rather due to the perceptions and values of the stakeholders involved: nursing students, community health nursing faculty, and community health nurses. New ways must be developed between academe and community health practice areas to provide students with opportunities to develop competence for practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tongue schwannoma: clinicopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalfamo, Luciano; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Nava, Carla; Familiari, Elena; Petrocelli, Marzia; Iudicello, Valeria; Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; De Ponte, Francesco Saverio

    2011-05-01

    Schwannomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Approximately 25% of extracranial schwannomas are located in the head and neck district, but only 1% shows an intraoral origin. We report a case of a 28-year-old patient with a tongue schwannoma. Morphologic analysis and immunohistochemical findings strongly support the diagnosis. Surgical treatment is discussed.

  18. Tomographic and pathological findings in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Pneumology

    2011-07-15

    Objective: To analyze radiological findings observed at high-resolution computed tomography in patients with sarcoidosis, and establishing their correlation with pathological findings. Materials and Methods: High-resolution computed tomography findings in ten patients with sarcoidosis were reviewed and correlated with findings in specimens obtained by surgical biopsy or at necropsy of four of such patients. Results: The most frequently observed finding was presence of nodules with perilymphatic distribution, predominating along bronchovascular sheaths and pleural surface, with subpleural nodules and nodular scissurae. Other less frequent findings were ground-glass attenuation and interlobular septa thickening. Conclusion: In general, all the mentioned findings demonstrated anatomopathological correlation with development of granulomas in these regions. (author)

  19. A Randomized Trial Evaluating Two Approaches for Promoting Pharmacy-Based Referrals to the Tobacco Quitline: Methods and Baseline Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Alan J.; Corelli, Robin L.; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Magnusson, L. Brooke; Fenlon, Christine M.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; de Moor, Carl; Hudmon, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Historically, community pharmacies have not integrated tobacco cessation activities into routine practice, instead unbundling them as unique services. This approach might have limited success and viability. Objective The objective of this report is to describe the methods and baseline findings for a two-state, randomized trial evaluating two intervention approaches for increasing pharmacy-based referrals to their state’s tobacco quitline. Methods Participating community pharmacies in Connecticut (n=32) and Washington (n=32) were randomized to receive either (a) on-site education with an academic detailer, describing methods for implementing brief interventions with patients and providing referrals to the tobacco quitline, or (b) quitline materials delivered by mail. Both interventions advocated for pharmacy personnel to ask about tobacco use, advise patients who smoke to quit, and refer patients to the tobacco quitline for additional assistance with quitting. Study outcome measures include the number of quitline registrants who are referred by pharmacies (before and during the intervention period), the number of quitline materials distributed to patients, and self-reported behavior of cessation counseling and quitline referrals, assessed using written surveys completed by pharmacy personnel (pharmacists, technicians). Results Pharmacists (n=124) and pharmacy technicians (n=127), representing 64 participating pharmacies with equal numbers of retail chain and independently-owned pharmacies, participated in the study. Most pharmacists (67%) and half of pharmacy technicians (50%) indicated that they were “not at all” familiar with the tobacco quitline. During the baseline (pre-intervention) monitoring period, the quitline registered 120 patients (18 in CT and 102 in WA) who reported that they heard about the quitline from a pharmacy. Conclusion Novel tobacco intervention approaches are needed to capitalize on the community pharmacy’s frequent

  20. Low-cycle fatigue of surgical cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In case when surgical cement is used to fix endoprostheses of joints the fatigue character of mechanicalinterraction in the cement seems to be a significant importance. The paper suggests to adapt the research methodof low cycle fatigue for modelling the loads on surgical cements in an artificial hip joint. Surgical cements havealso been modified in order to improve their functional properties.Design/methodology/approach: Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted on samples made from Palamedcement without an addition and on samples modified with glassy carbon and titanium. The tests were conductedon a servohydraulic fatigue testing machine, MTS-810, with displacement control.Findings: Fatigue tests proved viscoelastic character of all the tested materials. During the fatigue tests, thephenomenon of stress cyclic relaxation was observed.Research limitations/implications: Modelling the loadings of cement in endoprostheses of joints with the lowcycle fatigue method takes into account all high value stresses, while cement is being used for endoprosthesesfor many years in the conditions of random stress and deformation courses. Therefore the obtained stress anddeformation values are bigger than those which would have been obtained in real conditions in the same time.Practical implications: The low cycle fatigue tests carried out showed how important is the factor of timefor the behavior of surgical cement in the conditions of changeable loadings. This fact is essential to assessits usability for endoprosthesoplasty of joints, specially of a hip joint. Post deformation return which is acharacteristic feature for material viscoelasticity enables its regeneration conditioning expected durability ofendoprosthesis of joints.Originality/value: Low cycle fatigue testing method for modelling of loads on surgical cement in artificial hipjoint enables to carry out the tests in a shorter period of time.

  1. A New Surgical Technique for Ingrown Toenail

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Reza Mousavi; Jaledin Khoshnevice

    2012-01-01

    Background. Ingrowing toenails are a common condition which, when recurrent and painful, are often treated surgically. The aim of this study is to present a new simple surgical technique for ingrown toenails with good results. Method and Patients. The selected 250 patients with affected toes were surgically treated by our technique and observed from 1998 to 2004. Marginal nail elevation combined with surgical excision of the granulation tissue was more successful. For fixing the nail margin o...

  2. A simple standard technique for labyrinthectomy in the rat: A methodical communication with a detailed description of the surgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nádasy, G L; Raffai, G; Fehér, E; Schaming, G; Monos, E

    2016-09-01

    Aims Labyrinthectomized rats are suitable models to test consequences of vestibular lesion and are widely used to study neural plasticity. We describe a combined microsurgical-chemical technique that can be routinely performed with minimum damage. Methods Caudal leaflet of the parotis is elevated. The tendinous fascia covering the bulla is opened frontally from the sternomastoid muscle's tendon while sparing facial nerve branches. A 4 mm diameter hole is drilled into the bulla's hind lower lateral wall to open the common (in rodents) mastoid-tympanic cavity. The cochlear crista (promontory) at the lower posterior part of its medial wall is identified as a bony prominence. A 1 mm diameter hole is drilled into its lower part. The perilymphatic/endolymphatic fluids with tissue debris of the Corti organ are suctioned. Ethanol is injected into the hole. Finally, 10 µL of sodium arsenite solution (50 µM/mL) is pumped into the labyrinth and left in place for 15 min. Simple closure in two layers (fascia and skin) is sufficient. Results and conclusion All rats had neurological symptoms specific for labyrinthectomy (muscle tone, body position, rotatory movements, nystagmus, central deafness). Otherwise, their behavior was unaffected, drinking and eating normally. After a few days, they learned to balance relying on visual and somatic stimuli (neuroplasticity).

  3. Comparative Study for Efficacy and Safety of Adenoidectomy according to the Surgical Method: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Hyun; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Kim, Young Hyo; Nam, Jung Gwon; Park, Seok-Won; Park, Chan-Soon; Bae, Woo Yong; Yeo, Nam-Kyung; Won, Tae-Bin; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Sung-Wook; Choi, Jeong-Seok; Han, Doo Hee; Choi, Ji Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective There have been several operative techniques for adenoidectomy and their efficacy and morbidity are different according to the technique. This prospective multicenter study was aimed to compare the efficacy and morbidity of coblation adenoidectomy (CA) with those of power-assisted adenoidectomy. Study Design Prospective multi-institutional study. Methods Children who underwent CA, power-assisted adenoidectomy with cauterization (PAA+C) or without cauterization (PAA-C) due to adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled from 13 hospitals between July 2013 and June 2014. Mean operation time, degree of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative bleeding rate were evaluated. Results A total of 388 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 6.6 ± 2.5 years; 245 males and 143 females) were included. According to the adenoidectomy technique, the children were classified into 3 groups: (1) CA (n = 116); (2) PAA+C (n = 153); and (3) PAA-C (n = 119). Significant differences were not found in age and sex among three groups. In the CA group, mean operation time was significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and degree of intraoperative bleeding was significantly less (P < 0.001) compared to PAA+C or PAA-C group. Delayed postoperative bleeding rate of PAA-C group was significantly higher than that of CA or PAA+C group (P = 0.016). Conclusions This prospective multicenter study showed that CA was superior to PAA in terms of mean operation time and degree of intraoperative bleeding. PMID:26267337

  4. Optical-mechanical measurements of biomechanical characteristics of lumbar spines after application of various surgical fixation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keprt, Jiri; Bartonek, Ludek; Charamza, Jiri; Hrabalek, Lumir

    2001-03-01

    Special equipment was realized for measurement of biomechanical characteristics of samples of lower part of the spine that means the lumbar part L1-L5. The measuring was carried out on 3 spinal samples. At first on an intact spinal sample, on a destabilized spinal sample and on a stabilized spinal sample. The stabilization was carry out by cylindrical cages and fixation screws. Using force-meters each specimen was tested sequentially nondestructively in axial torsion, compression, flexion and extension and lateral bending. Stiffness of destabilized and stabilized samples were computed to that of intact spine. During straining and measurement of ht rigidity of the sample as a whole it is also necessary to observe the movement of individual parts of the sample. This movement is followed with the help of round targets connected to the appropriate vertebra to be observed. The detectional targets are lit with a lamp, in some cases with a laser, and are watched by two CCD cameras. An optical signal is brought into a computer and evaluated by the fast Fourier transformation method. The period and direction of interference fringes determine the size and the direction of the shift.

  5. Neuroradiological methods and findings on presurgical evaluation of epileptic children. Neuroradiologische Methoden und Befunde vor epilepsiechirurgischen Eingriffen im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertun, B.; Elger, C.E. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Epileptologische Klinik); Solymosi, L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik/Neuroradiologie); Kurthen, M; Schramm, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik)

    1993-04-01

    Epilepsy in childhood is often caused by morphological abnormalities and is frequently pharmacoresistant. Therefore it represents a challenge to the neuroradiologist because early and accurate diagnosis of abnormal morphology is the basis for planning surgical intervention with a high change of controlling seizures and a low risk of complications. Both morphological (radiography, CT, MRI and angiography) and functional examinations [intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT)] are essential parts of the presurgical evaluation. In most cases MRI has proved to be most sensitive in detecting lesions except for some calcifications. Routine protocols for brain examinations are not sufficient, missing about 22% of lesions. Therefore a refined MRI and CT protocol is proposed. Even in very young children IAT can be performed at very low risk; these tests contribute highly valuable information about hemispheric dominance and other functions in more than 80% of procedures that is indispensable if postoperative neurological and neuropsychological deficits are to be avoided. (orig.).

  6. Survey compare team based learning and lecture teaching method, on learning-teaching process nursing student\\'s, in Surgical and Internal Diseases course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vaezi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of teaching methods on learning process of students will help teachers to improve the quality of teaching by selecting an appropriate method. This study aimed to compare the team- based learning and lecture teaching method on learning-teaching process of nursing students in surgical and internal diseases courses. Method: This quasi-experimental study was carried on the nursing students in the School of Nursing and Midwifery in Yazd and Meybod cities. Studied sample was all of the students in the sixth term in the Faculty of Nursing in Yazd (48 persons and the Faculty of Nursing in Meybod (28 persons. The rate of students' learning through lecture was measured using MCQ tests and teaching based on team-based learning (TBL method was run using MCQ tests (IRAT, GRAT, Appeals and Task group. Therefore, in order to examine the students' satisfaction about the TBL method, a 5-point Likert scale (translated questionnaire (1=completely disagree, 2= disagree, 3=not effective, 4=agree, and 5=completely agree consisted of 22 items was utilized. The reliability and validity of this translated questionnaire was measured. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 17.0 using descriptive and analytical statistic. Result: The results showed that the mean scores in team-based learning were meaningful in individual assessment (17±84 and assessment group (17.2±1.17. The mean of overall scores in TBL method (17.84±0.98% was higher compared with the lecture teaching method (16±2.31. Most of the students believed that TBL method has improved their interpersonal and group interaction skills (100%. Among them, 97.7% of students mentioned that this method (TBL helped them to understand the course content better. The lowest levels of the satisfaction have related to the continuous learning during lifelong (51.2%. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the TBL method led to improving the communication skills, understanding

  7. Design of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT: a non-surgical method of lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppen Marc

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr® endobronchial valves will effect significant improvements in lung function and exercise tolerance with an acceptable risk profile in advanced emphysema. Methods The trial design posted on Clinical trials.gov, on August 10, 2005 proposed an enrollment of 270 subjects. Inclusion criteria included: diagnosis of emphysema with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 100%; residual volume > 150% predicted, and heterogeneous emphysema defined using a quantitative chest computed tomography algorithm. Following standardized pulmonary rehabilitation, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive unilateral lobar placement of endobronchial valves plus optimal medical management or optimal medical management alone. The co-primary endpoint was the mean percent change in FEV1 and six minute walk distance at 180 days. Secondary end-points included mean percent change in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the mean absolute changes in the maximal work load measured by cycle ergometry, dyspnea (mMRC score, and total oxygen use per day. Per patient response rates in clinically significant improvement/maintenance of FEV1 and six minute walk distance and technical success rates of valve placement were recorded. Apriori response predictors based on quantitative CT and lung physiology were defined. Conclusion If endobronchial valves improve FEV1 and health status with an acceptable safety profile in advanced emphysema, they would offer a novel intervention for this progressive and

  8. Application of hand brushing-free method in surgical hand disinfection%免刷手方法在外科手消毒中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    太琼志; 黄萍; 黄敏; 沈亚萍; 樊若琳; 李丕润

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of the hand brushing-free method and hand brushing method on the surgical hand disinfection as well as the influence on the skin so as to improve the hand washing compliance.METHODS The medical staff who participated the operation in 2011 were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group with 50 cases in each,there were 25 doctors and 25 nurses in each group; the surgical hand with a clean soft free hand disinfection disinfectant gel was applied,the control group used the traditional hand brush method for hand disinfection,and the experimental group used brush free hand method for hand disinfection,the rest were disinfected according to the operation standards of hand hygiene of the medical personnel,then the bacteria and pathogens on the skin were tested after the hand disinfection,finally the incidence of the surgical incision infections in 600 patients was analyzed simultaneously.RESULTS The sterilization rates of the two groups after the hand disinfection were 98.12% and 97.77%,respectively,the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05) ; the hand disinfection time of the control group was (10.28 ± 1.23) min,significantly longer than (5.65 ± 0.78) min of the experimental group,the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P< 0.05).The bacterial colony counts on the hands of the medical personnel in both the control group and the experimental group were significantly decreased,and no strains of pathogens were detected,which met the standards of the disinfection techniques.There were 15(5.0%) cases of incision infections in the control group and 12 (4.0%) cases in the experimental group,the difference between the two groups was statistically significant.CONCLUSION Both the hand-brushing free method and the hand brushing method can achieve the requirements of sterilization,but there is no significant difference in

  9. Aims, methods and preliminary findings of the Physical Activity, Nutrition and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens (PANACEA epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimitriou Anastasios

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a sample of Greek children aged 10–12 years, and to evaluate these rates in relation to anthropometric, lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits. Methods During 2006, 700 schoolchildren (323 male and 377 female, aged 10–12 years (4th to 6th school grade, were selected from 18 schools located in the greater Athens area. The schools were randomly selected from a list provided by the regional educational offices. To achieve a representative sample the schools enrolled were selected from various region of the Athens area. For each child a questionnaire was completed that was developed for the purposes of the study to retrieve information on: age, sex, school class, other socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary habits (through a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity status; the presence of asthma and allergies was assessed by the standard ISAAC questionnaire. Results The prevalence of wheezing in the past was 25% in boys and 19% in girls, while the prevalence of current wheezing was 9.0% in boys and 5.8% in girls. The prevalence of any asthma symptoms was 27.6% in boys and 20.4% in girls. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased body weight and sedentary lifestyle is associated with asthma symptoms only in boys. Conclusion The present cross-sectional study cannot establish causal relationships between asthma and increased body weight of schoolchildren; however, our findings underline the associations between asthma, increased body weight, and physical activity at population level, and urge for actions that should be taken by public health policy makers in order to prevent these conditions among children.

  10. Tratamento cirúrgico da siringomielia pela Técnica de Gardner Syringomyelia: its surgical treatment by Gardner's method. Report of four cases

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    Gilberto M. Almeida

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico da siringomielia é, em geral, considerado decepcionante. Vários tipos de drenagem da cavidade siringomiélica não têm fornecido resultados satisfatórios. Gardner, em magnífica série de trabalhos, mostrou que a siringomielia e as várias malformações associadas à hidrocefalia têm fisiopatogenia única. Baseado em sua teoria, Gardner propôs, em 1958, o bloqueio da comunicação entre o IV ventrículo e o canal central da medula, para o tratamento da siringomielia. Esta técnica não tem sido realizada com muita freqüência. Empregamos o método proposto por Gardner em 4 pacientes, os quais melhoraram após a intervenção cirúrgica.The surgical treatment of syringomyelic patients is usually considered as deceptional. The drainage methods employed have resulted insatisfactory. Gardner, in a classical series of papers, developed the "hydromyelic theory" to explain syringomyelia and others nervous system malformatins. Founded on his own theory he proposed the blockadge of the communication between the fourth ventricle and the central canal. We have employed this method on 4 patients, with satisfactory results.

  11. CF findings of bowel infarction in 56 surgical patients, 5 of whom with reversible ischemia; Aspetti alla tomografia computerizzata dell'infarto intestinale. 56 pazienti sottoposti a interventi chirurgico di cui 5 con ischemia mesenterica reversibile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, A.; De Rosa, A.; Carbone, M.; Ginolfi, F.; Rossi, E.; Amodio, F. [Naples Univ. Federico 2. (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Muto, M.; Tuccillo, M. [Azienda Sanitaria di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Neuroradiologia

    1999-04-01

    Bowel infarction is a rare and typical condition of the elderly; despite improvements in diagnostic imaging and vascular surgery, bowel infarction remains a major cause of acute abdomen, with mortality rates ranging 70-80%. Diagnosis on often late because clinical signs, laboratory data and radiologic findings are a specific. The authors investigated radiographic and particular CT patterns of intestinal infraction in 56 patients submitted to surgery within 12 hours of admission. We also report the CT findings of 5 of these patients who had reversible mesenteric ischemia. CT is more sensitive than radiography and does not exhibit the limitations of angiography (i.e., invasiveness, radiation exposure and complex organization). Therefore CT can presently be considered the method of choice in patients with suspected bowel infarction. [Italian] L'infarto intestinale rappresenta una malattia rara e tipica del soggeto anziano; nonostante il notevole perfezionamento delle tecniche di diagnostica per immagini e il progresso della chirurgia vascolare, rimane ancora oggi una delle piu' temibili condizioni di addome acuto, con mortalita' superiore al 70-80%. Il riconoscimento diagnostico e' tardivo per l'aspecificita' dei dati di laboratorio, dei segni clinici e degli esami radiologici. La TC presenta maggiore afficacia diagnostica rispetto all'esame radiografico diretto e non ha limiti che caratterizzano l'angiografia, quali l'invasivita', radioesposizione e complessita' organizzativa: attualmente la metodica TC puo' essere indicata come indagine di scelta in pazienti con sospetto infarto intestinale.

  12. Non-Surgical Breast-Conserving Treatment (KORTUC-BCT Using a New Radiosensitization Method (KORTUC II for Patients with Stage I or II Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ogawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to establish a non-surgical breast-conserving treatment (BCT using KORTUC II radiosensitization treatment. A new radiosensitizing agent containing 0.5% hydrogen peroxide and 0.83% sodium hyaluronate (a CD44 ligand has been developed for intra-tumoral injection into various tumors. This new method, named KORTUC II, was approved by our local ethics committee for the treatment of breast cancer and metastatic lymph nodes. A total of 72 early-stage breast cancer patients (stage 0, 1 patient; stage I, 23; stage II, 48 were enrolled in the KORTUC II trial after providing fully informed consent. The mean age of the patients was 59.7 years. A maximum of 6 mL (usually 3 mL for tumors of less than approximately 3 cm in diameter of the agent was injected into breast tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance. For radiotherapy, hypofraction radiotherapy was administered using a tangential fields approach including an ipsilateral axillary region and field-in-field method; the energy level was 4 MV, and the total radiation dose was 44 Gy administered as 2.75 Gy/fraction. An electron boost of 3 Gy was added three times. Treatment was well tolerated with minimal adverse effects in all 72 patients. No patients showed any significant complications other than mild dermatitis. A total of 24 patients under 75 years old with stage II breast cancer underwent induction chemotherapy (EC and/or taxane prior to KORTUC II treatment, and 58 patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors also received hormonal therapy following KORTUC II. The mean duration of follow-up as of the end of September 2014 was 51.1 months, at which time 68 patients were alive without any distant metastases. Only one patient had local recurrence and died of cardiac failure at 6.5 years. Another one patient had bone metastases. For two of the 72 patients, follow-up ended after several months following KORTUC II treatment. In conclusion, non-surgical

  13. 改良隐匿性阴茎手术17例报告%Analysis of a surgical method for concealed penis repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宁翰; 许斌; 杨杰; 吴宏飞; 眭元庚; 顾民; 张炜; 华立新; 王增军

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨治疗幼儿隐匿性阴茎的简单有效术式.方法 回顾性分析2005年7月至2008年12月17例应用阴茎脱套加固定术治疗的隐匿性阴茎患者临床资料和随访资料.17例患者合并包茎5例,手术运用阴茎脱套加固定术,在行包皮整形的同时延长阴茎.结果 所有手术均获成功,手术时间平均1.25h,所有患者均得到12月以上的随访,本组所有患者术后阴茎头均能在自然状况下显露,阴茎发育满意,外观效果好,无并发症.结论 阴茎脱套加根部固定术是治疗隐匿性阴茎的一种切实有效术式,手术风险小,成功率高.%Objective To explore a simple surgical technique for congenital concealed penis repair.Methods Clinical data of 17 cases with concealed penis whose penis were all treated by anchoring the penoscrotal and penopubic junctions and skin coverage by a local flap, from 2005 to 2008 in our hospital, were retrospectively analyzed.Results 17 consecutive patients were treated in 2005~2008.They underwent penoplasty and circumcision, at the same time extending the penis.All operations were successful and the average operative time was 75 min.All patients received more than 12 months following up after operations.They were satisfied with the development of the penis, appearance effects, and no complications.Conclusion Revealing the concealed penis is a complicated procedure.This surgical approach used in the study is a promising method with good effect and little complication for concealed penis repair.

  14. Surgical treatment of pediatric rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, G

    2015-08-01

    Pediatric rhinosinusitis is a common sequela of upper respiratory infections in children. It is usually a self-limited disease, sometimes requiring antibiotic therapy. Surgery may be indicated in children who suffer complication of acute rhinosinusitis, severe recurrent acute rhinosinusitis, rhinosinusitis in cystic fibrosis with or without polyposis, chronic rhinosinusitis refractory to maximal medical management, allergic fungal sinusitis, and paranasal sinus mucoceles. Surgical options include, adenoidectomy, sinus puncture and lavage, open surgical approaches, endoscopic sinus surgery, balloon sinuplasty, and turbinectomy or turbinate reduction. This paper reviews the anatomy and physiology of rhinosinusitis in children and current knowledge of the indications and best methods of surgical treatment.

  15. Surgical Skills Beyond Scientific Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    During the Great War, the French surgeon Alexis Carrel, in collaboration with the English chemist Henry Dakin, devised an antiseptic treatment for infected wounds. This paper focuses on Carrel’s attempt to standardise knowledge of infected wounds and their treatment, and looks closely at the vision of surgical skill he espoused and its difference from those associated with the doctrines of scientific management. Examining contemporary claims that the Carrel–Dakin method increased rather than diminished demands on surgical work, this paper further shows how debates about antiseptic wound treatment opened up a critical space for considering the nature of skill as a vital dynamic in surgical innovation and practice. PMID:26090737

  16. Surgical education through video broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagengast, Eric S; Ramos, Margarita S; Sarma, Hiteswar; Deshpande, Gaurav; Hatcher, Kristin; Magee, William P; Campbell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Surgical training is facing new obstacles. As advancements in medicine are made, surgeons are expected to know more and to be able to perform more procedures. In the western world, increasing restrictions on residency work hours are adding a new hurdle to surgical training. In low-resource settings, a low attending-to-resident ratio results in limited operative experience for residents. Advances in telemedicine may offer new methods for surgical training. In this article, the authors share their unique experience using live video broadcasting of surgery for educational purposes at a comprehensive cleft care center in Guwahati, India.

  17. Vitiligo- A surgical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Ghia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objective- To describe the spectrum of surgical modalities for stable vitiligo patients Methods- Patients having stable vitiligo since past 2 years with no improvement with medical line of treatment were enrolled for surgery after informed consent. Depending upon the size and location of vitiligo patch different modalities were performed. Suction blister, mini-punch grafting, split thickness skin grafting, trypsinised melanocyte-keratinocyte transfer and non-trypsinised melanocyte- keratinocyte transfer (Jodhpur technique and follicular grafting technique have been described photographically which have been performed at a tertiary care hospital. Conclusion- Vitiligo is often difficult to treat, stable patches resistant to medical line of management do respond to surgical treatment; however it is very important to choose the modality of surgery according location of the patch, size of the lesion and available resources.

  18. The role of antimicrobial sutures in preventing surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, D; Wilson, P; Assadian, O; Edmiston, C; Kiernan, M; Miller, A; Bond-Smith, G; Yap, J

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) are falling following widespread and enforced introduction of guidelines, particularly those that have addressed antibiotic resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus or emergent pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, but no such decline has been seen in the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI), either in the UK, the EU or the US. SSI is one of the HCAIs, which are all avoidable complications of a surgical patient's pathway through both nosocomial and community care. METHODS This report is based on a meeting held at The Royal College of Surgeons of England on 21 July 2016. Using PubMed, members of the panel reviewed the current use of antiseptics and antimicrobial sutures in their specialties to prevent SSI. FINDINGS The group agreed that wider use of antiseptics in surgical practice may help in reducing reliance on antibiotics in infection prevention and control, especially in the perioperative period of open elective colorectal, hepatobiliary and cardiac operative procedures. The wider use of antiseptics includes preoperative showering, promotion of hand hygiene, (including the appropriate use of surgical gloves), preoperative skin preparation (including management of hair removal), antimicrobial sutures and the management of dehisced surgical wounds after infection. The meeting placed emphasis on the level I evidence that supports the use of antimicrobial sutures, particularly in surgical procedures after which the SSI rate is high (colorectal and hepatobiliary surgery) or when a SSI can be life threatening even when the rate of SSI is low (cardiac surgery).

  19. Surgical versus non-surgical management for pleural empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Mark D; Chin, Tze Yang; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-03-17

    Empyema refers to pus in the pleural space, commonly due to adjacent pneumonia, chest wall injury, or a complication of thoracic surgery. A range of therapeutic options are available for its management, ranging from percutaneous aspiration and intercostal drainage to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or thoracotomy drainage. Intrapleural fibrinolytics may also be administered following intercostal drain insertion to facilitate pleural drainage. There is currently a lack of consensus regarding optimal treatment. To assess the effectiveness and safety of surgical versus non-surgical treatments for complicated parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE (Ebscohost) (1946 to July week 3 2013, July 2015 to October 2016) and MEDLINE (Ovid) (1 May 2013 to July week 1 2015), Embase (2010 to October 2016), CINAHL (1981 to October 2016) and LILACS (1982 to October 2016) on 20 October 2016. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing studies (December 2016). Randomised controlled trials that compared a surgical with a non-surgical method of management for all age groups with pleural empyema. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data, and checked the data for accuracy. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight randomised controlled trials with a total of 391 participants. Six trials focused on children and two on adults. Trials compared tube thoracostomy drainage (non-surgical), with or without intrapleural fibrinolytics, to either VATS or thoracotomy (surgical) for the management of pleural empyema. Assessment of risk of bias for the included studies was generally unclear for selection and blinding but low for attrition and reporting bias. Data analyses compared

  20. Innovation in pediatric surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Matthew S; Wulkan, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric surgical training in the United States remained basically unchanged from the model developed by Ladd and Gross in the 1930s until recently. Standardized curriculum and novel evaluation methods are now being implemented. Pediatric Surgical education is currently undergoing a transition to competency-based evaluation and promotion. Unfortunately, there is little data on the efficacy of these changes. This presents an opportunity for further study of how we conduct training, and how we evaluate and promote our trainees.

  1. 术前不同转运方式对妇科手术患者血流动力学的影响%Effect of Preoperative Transport Methods on Gynecological Surgical Patients' Hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉梅; 万红

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨推床、轮椅、步行三种术前转运方式对妇科手术患者血流动力学的影响,为临床选择恰当的术前转运方式提供依据.方法 将75例ASA 1~2级择期妇科手术患者随机分成推床组、轮椅组与步行组各25例,分别采用推床、轮椅、步行三种转运方式将患者送至手术室,在患者离开病房时(转运前)及到达手术室安静休息5 min时(转运后)测量患者的收缩压、舒张压及心率.结果 转运后三组收缩压较转运前显著升高(P<0.05),步行组心率显著高于推床组与轮椅组(P<0.05).结论 术前步行入手术室有可能增加患者的循环负荷与耗氧量.临床上应根据患者的实际情况选择恰当的转运方式,从血流动力学变化及医患满意度来看,轮椅转运法较适宜.%Objective To investigate the effect of transport methods on gynecological surgical patients' hemodynamics and to find out an optimal transport method for gynecological surgical patient. Methods Totally, 75 patients with ASA Ⅰ- Ⅱ scheduled for gynecological surgery were equally randomized into 3 groups, and 2 groups were transported with wheeled stretcher and wheel-chair respectively. The third group entered the operating room from the ward on foot. Systolic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate(HR) were measured before transport and 5 minutes after entering operating room. Re-sults The SBP after transport was significantly higher than that before transport in all groups(P<0.05) ; HR of walking group after transport was significantly higher than that of wheeled stretcher group and wheelchair group(P<0.05). Conclusion Pa-tients entering the operating room on foot could increase circulatory burden and oxygen consumption. In consideration of hemo-dynamics and patient satisfaction, the optimal transport way is with wheelchair.

  2. A (Not Really) Complex Method for Finding Solutions to Linear Differential Equations. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 497.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, James W.

    This module considers ordinary linear differential equations with constant coefficients. The "complex method" used to find solutions is discussed, with numerous examples. The unit includes both problem sets and an exam, with answers provided for both. (MP)

  3. A novel method of teaching surgical techniques to residents--computerized enhanced visual learning (CEVL) with simulation to certify mastery of training: a model using newborn clamp circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Angela; Maizels, Max; Korets, Ruslan; Wiener, John S; Stiener, Michael; Liu, Dennis B; Sutherland, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    To assess the learning process of combining a web-based video of a simulated surgical procedure with a step-by-step checklist of the same procedure in achieving competency of the simulated technique, in this case a newborn clamp circumcision. Fundamental to this particular learning process is immediate mentor step-by-step feedback which specifically follows the procedure's step-by-step checklist. Pediatric residents naïve to newborn circumcision were enrolled (n = 7). A circumcision simulator, instruments, and web access to the learning module were provided. Residents trained independently and then performed two simulations with the mentor. The first simulation was completed with formative scored feedback. The learner then performed a second scored simulation. All learners showed improvement between the first and second simulation (mean 85.3-97.4). All residents achieved competency (96/100 or greater) by the second simulation. On post-procedure surveys, learners demonstrated increased comfort and reduced apprehension in performing the procedure. Combining a web-accessible video of a procedure, a checklist, and a simulator followed by a single mentor session with immediate formative feedback which follows the steps of the checklist is a useful method to teach the simulation technique of circumcision. We plan to study if this paradigm is transferable to clinical circumcision. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any de- sired quantum computation and application to a one-bit oracle decision problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jeongho; Yoo, Seokwon

    2014-01-01

    We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the "genetic parameter vector" of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the ...

  5. Debridement for surgical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Nancy; Smith, Fiona; Donaldson, Jayne; Mitchell, Melloney

    2008-07-16

    Surgical wounds that become infected are often debrided because clinicians believe that removal of this necrotic or infected tissue will expedite wound healing. There are numerous methods available but no consensus on which one is most effective for surgical wounds. The aim of this review is to determine the effect of different methods of debridement on the rate of debridement and healing of surgical wounds. We developed a search strategy to search the following electronic databases: Wounds Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 3/3/08) , Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February Week 3 2008 ), EMBASE (1980 to 2008 Week 09) and CINHAL (1982 to February Week 4 2008). We checked the citations within obtained studies to identify additional papers and also relevant conference proceedings. We contacted manufactures of wound debridement agents to ascertain the existence of published, unpublished and ongoing trials. Our search was not limited by language or publication status. We included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT) with outcomes including at least one of the following: time to complete debridement, or time to complete healing. Two authors independently reviewed the abstracts and titles obtained from the search, two extracted data independently using a standardised extraction sheet, and two independently assessed methodological quality. One author was involved in all stages of the data collection and extraction process, thus ensuring continuity. Five RCTs were eligible for inclusion; all compared treatments for infected surgical wounds and reported time required to achieve a clean wound bed (complete debridement). One trial compared an enzymatic agent (Streptokinase/streptodornase) with saline-soaked dressings and reported the time to complete debridement. Four of the trials compared the effectiveness of dextranomer beads or paste with other products (different comparator

  6. The analogue method for precipitation prediction: finding better analogue situations at a sub-daily time step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Pascal; Obled, Charles; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Analogue methods (AMs) predict local weather variables (predictands) such as precipitation by means of a statistical relationship with predictors at a synoptic scale. The analogy is generally assessed on gradients of geopotential heights first to sample days with a similar atmospheric circulation. Other predictors such as moisture variables can also be added in a successive level of analogy. The search for candidate situations similar to a given target day is usually undertaken by comparing the state of the atmosphere at fixed hours of the day for both the target day and the candidate analogues. This is a consequence of using standard daily precipitation time series, which are available over longer periods than sub-daily data. However, it is unlikely for the best analogy to occur at the exact same hour for the target and candidate situations. A better analogue situation may be found with a time shift of several hours since a better fit can occur at different times of the day. In order to assess the potential for finding better analogues at a different hour, a moving time window (MTW) has been introduced. The MTW resulted in a better analogy in terms of the atmospheric circulation and showed improved values of the analogy criterion on the entire distribution of the extracted analogue dates. The improvement was found to increase with the analogue rank due to an accumulation of better analogues in the selection. A seasonal effect has also been identified, with larger improvements shown in winter than in summer. This may be attributed to stronger diurnal cycles in summer that favour predictors taken at the same hour for the target and analogue days. The impact of the MTW on the precipitation prediction skill has been assessed by means of a sub-daily precipitation series transformed into moving 24 h totals at 12, 6, and 3 h time steps. The prediction skill was improved by the MTW, as was the reliability of the prediction. Moreover, the improvements were greater for days

  7. An Example of the Use of Research Methods and Findings as an Experiential Learning Exercise in an Accounting Theory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Bruce; Philipich, Kirk; Blatz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching note is to describe an experiential learning exercise used in a master's level financial accounting theory course. The experiential exercise illustrates how order effects can affect user's judgments, a long-standing research finding. This experiential exercise was used in an attempt to make students more cognizant of…

  8. Assessment of Surgical Complications in Morbid Obese Patients, The Candidates for 2 Methods of Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery (Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass, Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazouki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background In 2005, obesity rate was declared 396 million worldwide, which has been doubled in the last 20 years (compared with 1985. Obesity has a strong correlation with a pool of comorbidities and consequences. Although many modules, including behavioural approach and medications have presented particular short-term unreliable methods to reduce and control the body weight in morbid obesity, only 5 - 10% of weight loss was achieved, which is usually regained overtime, compared with 50 - 75% success rate in bariatric surgery. Objectives This retrospective study tried to monitor weight loss after LRYGB and LSG in morbid obese patients referred to a known center in Tehran through a one-year follow up. Materials and Methods Participants were selected regarding the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH guidelines, which indicates BMI > 40 kg/m2 alone, or BMI > 35 kg/m2 in addition to comorbidities and failure of non-surgical attempts to control their weight. They were visited at points of one, three, six, and 12 months postoperatively to collect information about weight loss, BMI, and complications in addition to percent excess weight loss (EWL%. The percentage of failure was computed to the proportion of patients who had EWL% < 25 to the total number of operated patients in a year. Results Significant decrease in BMI and weight were achieved in all postoperative visits (for all of them, P value < 0.0001, while no significant difference was found in which the parameters between two studied procedures were in this regard. Conclusions To sum up, LRYGB and LSG deserve an overall preference not only in current study, but also in the majority of performances up to now. Nevertheless it is urgent the relevant studies to confirm the preference or improve this kind of bariatric surgery in order to diminish complications as far as possible.

  9. Síndrome de Möbius: achados clínicos e cirúrgicos em 7 pacientes Möbius syndrome: clinical and surgical findings in 7 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galton Carvalho Vasconcelos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o quadro clínico, as anormalidades gestacionais e de parto e os resultados na cirurgia de estrabismo em pacientes com síndrome de Möbius. Métodos: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 7 pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome de Möbius, dos quais 6 foram submetidos à cirurgia de estrabismo. Resultados: Além dos achados clássicos que caracterizam a síndrome, em todos os casos estudados observaram-se alterações gestacionais ou de parto. Em 2 pacientes encontrou-se no per-operatório, inserção posteriorizada do reto medial. Graças à fixação cruzada, esses pacientes geralmente não desenvolvem ambliopia. Conclusão: A cirurgia, quando indicada, deve constar apenas dos retrocessos musculares e acredita-se que o planejamento cirúrgico deva ser menor do que o feito em casos de paralisia isolada do nervo abducente de mesmo valor.Purpose: To evaluate clinical features, pregnancy and labour abnormalities and the results of strabismus surgery in patients with Möbius syndrome. Methods: The authors studied retrospectively 7 patients with Möbius syndrome, of whom 6 were submitted to strabismus surgery. Results: In addition to the classical findings that characterize the syndrome, pregnancy and labour insults were observed in all cases. In 2 patients a posterior medial rectus insertion was found during surgery. Due to cross-fixation, these patients usually do not develop amblyopia. Conclusions: Surgery should consist of muscle recessions, but recessing them less than it would be done for similar isolated abducens palsy.

  10. Bacterial migration through punctured surgical gloves under real surgical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidecke Claus-Dieter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to confirm recent results from a previous study focussing on the development of a method to measure the bacterial translocation through puncture holes in surgical gloves under real surgical conditions. Methods An established method was applied to detect bacterial migration from the operating site through the punctured glove. Biogel™ double-gloving surgical gloves were used during visceral surgeries over a 6-month period. A modified Gaschen-bag method was used to retrieve organisms from the inner glove, and thus-obtained bacteria were compared with micro-organisms detected by an intra-operative swab. Results In 20 consecutive procedures, 194 gloves (98 outer gloves, 96 inner gloves were examined. The rate of micro-perforations of the outer surgical glove was 10% with a median wearing time of 100 minutes (range: 20-175 minutes. Perforations occurred in 81% on the non-dominant hand, with the index finger most frequently (25% punctured. In six cases, bacterial migration could be demonstrated microbiologically. In 5% (5/98 of outer gloves and in 1% (1/96 of the inner gloves, bacterial migration through micro-perforations was observed. For gloves with detected micro-perforations (n = 10 outer layers, the calculated migration was 50% (n = 5. The minimum wearing time was 62 minutes, with a calculated median wearing time of 71 minutes. Conclusions This study confirms previous results that bacterial migration through unnoticed micro-perforations in surgical gloves does occur under real practical surgical conditions. Undetected perforation of surgical gloves occurs frequently. Bacterial migration from the patient through micro-perforations on the hand of surgeons was confirmed, limiting the protective barrier function of gloves if worn over longer periods.

  11. Experimental Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method to Find the Mass Properties of an Iron Bird Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  12. For a reasoned development of experimental methods in information and communication sciences Some epistemological findings of methodological pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier COURBET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available If multidisciplinarity is necessary, first, for studying the widest possible set of communication phenomena (organizational, in groups, interpersonal, media, computer-mediated communication... and, secondly, for grasping the complexity of the different moments of the same phenomenon of communication (production, content, reception, circulation ..., methodological pluralism is also important. However, French research in communication sciences leaves in the shade a number of phenomena and moments of communication that could be better understood thanks to the experimental method. We will underline that the epistemological issues related to rational use of the experimental method in communication sciences are not negligible: it allows the study of objects that cannot be investigated with other methods and offers the opportunity to build knowledge by the refutation of hypotheses and theoretical propositions. We will clarify some epistemological misunderstandings concerning this method. First, it is actually a method of studying complex systems and communication processes. Secondly, its use is not incompatible with constructivism.

  13. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  14. Surgical innovation as sui generis surgical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2013-12-01

    Successful innovative 'leaps' in surgical technique have the potential to contribute exponentially to surgical advancement, and thereby to improved health outcomes for patients. Such innovative leaps often occur relatively spontaneously, without substantial forethought, planning, or preparation. This feature of surgical innovation raises special challenges for ensuring sufficient evaluation and regulatory oversight of new interventions that have not been the subject of controlled investigatory exploration and review. It is this feature in particular that makes early-stage surgical innovation especially resistant to classification as 'research', with all of the attendant methodological and ethical obligations--of planning, regulation, monitoring, reporting, and publication--associated with such a classification. This paper proposes conceptual and ethical grounds for a restricted definition according to which innovation in surgical technique is classified as a form of sui generis surgical 'research', where the explicit goal of adopting such a definition is to bring about needed improvements in knowledge transfer and thereby benefit current and future patients.

  15. Evolution of surgical skills training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kurt E Roberts; Robert L Bell; Andrew J Duffy

    2006-01-01

    Surgical training is changing: one hundred years of tradition is being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hours restrictions, the cost of operating room time, and complications. Surgical simulation and skills training offers an opportunity to teach and practice advanced skills outside of the operating room environment before attempting them on living patients.Simulation training can be as straight forward as using real instruments and video equipment to manipulate simulated "tissue" in a box trainer. More advanced,virtual reality simulators are now available and ready for widespread use. Early systems have demonstrated their effectiveness and discriminative ability. Newer systems enable the development of comprehensive curricula and full procedural simulations.The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME) has mandated the development of novel methods of training and evaluation. Surgical organizations are calling for methods to ensure the maintenance of skills, advance surgical training, and to credential surgeons as technically competent.Simulators in their current form have been demonstrated to improve the operating room performance of surgical residents. Development of standardized training curricula remains an urgent and important agenda, particularly for minimal invasive surgery.An innovative and progressive approach, borrowing experiences from the field of aviation, can provide the foundation for the next century of surgical training,ensuring the quality of the product. As the technology develops, the way we practice will continue to evolve, to the benefit of physicians and patients.

  16. Experiences of racism and discrimination among migrant care workers in England: findings from a mixed-methods research project

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Abstract This article reports part of the findings of research undertaken in 2007-09 that aimed to investigate the contribution made by migrant workers to the care workforce in England. The study involved analysis of national statistics on social care and social workers and semi-structured interviews with a wide range of stakeholders, including 96 migrant care workers. The interviews elicited some accounts relating experiences of racism and discrimination from some peo...

  17. Drilling: medical indications and surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Kallás Hueb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: anovulation is a major cause of female infertility, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the leading cause of anovulation. While undergoing drug-induced ovulation, women with PCOS usually have a satisfactory response recruiting follicles, but some are unable to recruit follicles or often produce an excessive number of follicles, which can result in ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and/or multiple pregnancy. Surgical laparoscopy with ovarian "drilling" may prevent or reduce the need for drug-induced ovulation. Objective: to identify the current indications of laparoscopic ovarian drilling and the best surgical technique. Method: a review of the medical literature based on systematic search in the Medline, Lilacs and Cochrane databases, using as keywords laparoscopy, polycystic ovary syndrome, and drilling. Results: we found 105 articles in the literature, 27 of these highly relevant, describing findings on ovarian drilling. Conclusion: laparoscopic drilling is indicated for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome with ovulatory resistance to the use of clomiphene citrate, body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 and preoperative luteinizing hormone above 10 IU/L. The preferred surgical technique should be the realization of 5 to 10 perforations on the surface of each ovary bilaterally using monopolar energy.

  18. The Continuing Search to Find a More Effective and Less Intimidating Way to Teach Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature examining the teaching of research methods highlights difficulties students face when developing research competencies. Studies of student-centred teaching approaches have found increased student performance and improved confidence in undertaking research projects. To develop a student-centred approach, it could be beneficial…

  19. Finding a Way into a Family of Tone Languages: The Story and Methods of the Chatino Language Documentation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Emily; Woodbury, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    We give a narrative description of our ten-year path into the elaborate tonal systems of the Chatino languages (Otomanguean; Oaxaca, Mexico), and of some of the methods we have used and recommend, illustrated with specific examples. The work, ongoing at the time of writing, began when one of us (Cruz), a native speaker of San Juan Quiahije…

  20. The Continuing Search to Find a More Effective and Less Intimidating Way to Teach Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature examining the teaching of research methods highlights difficulties students face when developing research competencies. Studies of student-centred teaching approaches have found increased student performance and improved confidence in undertaking research projects. To develop a student-centred approach, it could be beneficial…

  1. OMERACT 10 sharp symposium: important findings in examination of imaging methods for measurement of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Vibeke; Kingsbury, Sarah R; Woodworth, Thasia;

    2011-01-01

    The Sharp Symposium was held at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials 2010 meeting (OMERACT 10) in honor of the late John Sharp, consummate rheumatologist and researcher. The symposium focused on the status of current scoring methods in radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  2. Six Forms of Variety in Students' Moral Reasoning: An Age-Old Distinction Enabling New Methods and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Ylva; Gardelli, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the age-old distinction between decision method and criterion of rightness, commonly employed in normative ethics, was used to attain a detailed understanding of inter- and intrapersonal variety in students' moral reasoning. A total of 24 Swedish students, 12-15 years of age, were interviewed. Inter- and intrapersonal varieties in…

  3. OMERACT 10 sharp symposium: important findings in examination of imaging methods for measurement of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Vibeke; Kingsbury, Sarah R; Woodworth, Thasia;

    2011-01-01

    The Sharp Symposium was held at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials 2010 meeting (OMERACT 10) in honor of the late John Sharp, consummate rheumatologist and researcher. The symposium focused on the status of current scoring methods in radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...

  4. 不同消毒方法对手术器械清洗质量的影响%Impact of the different sterilization methods on the cleaning quality of surgical instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秋霞; 谢碧娴; 林爱惜

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨机械热力消毒法与含氯消毒剂浸泡消毒法在手术器械清洗中的应用效果.方法:将100件非特殊感染手术器械分为A组和B组各50件,A组采用机械热力消毒,B组采用含氯消毒剂浸泡消毒.比较两组清洗质量.结果:两组手术器械合格率目测法比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),细菌培养法比较A组合格率明显高于B组(P<0.05).结论:采用机械热力消毒法处理手术器械可提高清洗质量,值得推广.%Objective: To investigate the application effect of mechanical thermal disinfection and immersion disinfection with chlorine -containing disinfectant in the cleaning of surgical instruments.Methods: 100 pieces of surgical instruments with non - specific infection were divided into group A and group B ( 50 pieces for each group ).The mechanical thermal disinfection was used in the group A and immersion disinfection with chlorine - containing disinfectant was utilized in the group B.The cleaning quality was compared between the two groups.Results: The difference in the comparison of the qualified rate of disinfected surgical instruments by visual method was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05 ); the qualified rate of disinfected surgical instruments compared by bacterial culture method is markedly higher in the group A than the group B ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion: Application of the mechanical thermal disinfection can improve the cleaning quality of surgical instruments, it is recommended to be widely used.

  5. Finding Solutions to the Picard Boundary Value Problem via Homotopy Method%用同伦方法求Picard边值问题的解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰; 徐旭

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of finding solutions to the Picard boundary problem. In our approach, by means of the homotopy method, the equation considered is linked to a simpler equation by introducing a parameter. We first find the solutions of the simpler equation, and give a priori estimates of" the equa tion we considered, and then one can obtain the solutions of Picard boundary problem by following the path of solutions of Cauchy problem.

  6. Comparing Monte Carlo methods for finding ground states of Ising spin glasses: Population annealing, simulated annealing, and parallel tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2015-07-01

    Population annealing is a Monte Carlo algorithm that marries features from simulated-annealing and parallel-tempering Monte Carlo. As such, it is ideal to overcome large energy barriers in the free-energy landscape while minimizing a Hamiltonian. Thus, population-annealing Monte Carlo can be used as a heuristic to solve combinatorial optimization problems. We illustrate the capabilities of population-annealing Monte Carlo by computing ground states of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass with Gaussian disorder, while comparing to simulated-annealing and parallel-tempering Monte Carlo. Our results suggest that population annealing Monte Carlo is significantly more efficient than simulated annealing but comparable to parallel-tempering Monte Carlo for finding spin-glass ground states.

  7. Comparing Monte Carlo methods for finding ground states of Ising spin glasses: Population annealing, simulated annealing, and parallel tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2015-07-01

    Population annealing is a Monte Carlo algorithm that marries features from simulated-annealing and parallel-tempering Monte Carlo. As such, it is ideal to overcome large energy barriers in the free-energy landscape while minimizing a Hamiltonian. Thus, population-annealing Monte Carlo can be used as a heuristic to solve combinatorial optimization problems. We illustrate the capabilities of population-annealing Monte Carlo by computing ground states of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass with Gaussian disorder, while comparing to simulated-annealing and parallel-tempering Monte Carlo. Our results suggest that population annealing Monte Carlo is significantly more efficient than simulated annealing but comparable to parallel-tempering Monte Carlo for finding spin-glass ground states.

  8. A genetic-algorithm-based method to find unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation and application to a one-bit oracle decision problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Yoo, Seokwon

    2014-12-01

    We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the "genetic parameter vector" of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.

  9. A genetic-algorithm-based method to find unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation and application to a one-bit oracle decision problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Jeongho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seokwon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the 'genetic parameter vector' of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.

  10. A comprehensive method for break points finding based on expert system for protection coordination in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abyaneh, Hossein Askarian; Razavi, Farzad [Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology (Iran); Al-Dabbagh, Majid [Hydro Tasmania Consulting (Australia); Sedeghi, Hossein [Department of Mathematics Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran (Iran); Kazemikargar, Hossein [Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran)

    2007-04-15

    Interconnected power systems are multi-loop structured. In such networks, the determination of settings for all overcurrent relays can be carried out in different forms and may be quite complicated. The main problem for coordination is the determination of starting points, i.e. the location of starting relays in the procedure for settings, which is referred to as break points. In this paper, a powerful approach based on expert system is applied. The rules of the expert system include network configuration, protection systems, fault levels, etc. The method is applied to two networks with different configurations, pilot protection and other protection systems. From the obtained results, it is reviled that the new method is efficient, accurate, comprehensive and more optimal than the previously used graph theory. (author)

  11. Population Size Estimation of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tbilisi, Georgia; Multiple Methods and Triangulation of Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lela Sulaberidze

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of the population size of men who have sex with men (MSM is critical to the success of HIV program planning and to monitoring of the response to epidemic as a whole, but is quite often missing. In this study, our aim was to estimate the population size of MSM in Tbilisi, Georgia and compare it with other estimates in the region.In the absence of a gold standard for estimating the population size of MSM, this study reports a range of methods, including network scale-up, mobile/web apps multiplier, service and unique object multiplier, network-based capture-recapture, Handcock RDS-based and Wisdom of Crowds methods. To apply all these methods, two surveys were conducted: first, a household survey among 1,015 adults from the general population, and second, a respondent driven sample of 210 MSM. We also conducted a literature review of MSM size estimation in Eastern European and Central Asian countries.The median population size of MSM generated from all previously mentioned methods was estimated to be 5,100 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 3,243~9,088. This corresponds to 1.42% (95%CI: 0.9%~2.53% of the adult male population in Tbilisi.Our size estimates of the MSM population (1.42% (95%CI: 0.9%~2.53% of the adult male population in Tbilisi fall within ranges reported in other Eastern European and Central Asian countries. These estimates can provide valuable information for country level HIV prevention program planning and evaluation. Furthermore, we believe, that our results will narrow the gap in data availability on the estimates of the population size of MSM in the region.

  12. Essential features influencing collaboration in team-based non-specific back pain rehabilitation: Findings from a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Hellman, Therese; Jensen, Irene; Bergström, Gunnar; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the study presented in this article was to explore how professionals, without guidelines for implementing interprofessional teamwork, experience the collaboration within team-based rehabilitation for people with back pain and how this collaboration influences their clinical practice. This study employed a mixed methods design. A questionnaire was answered by 383 participants and 17 participants were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. The quan...

  13. Post-therapeutic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollice, Saverio, E-mail: saveriopollice@hotmail.it [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Neuroradiology, “Cardarelli Hospital”, Naples (Italy); Scarabino, Tommaso, E-mail: tscarabino@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This study is the result of collaboration between neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. • Comparison between neuroimaging techniques to better evaluate the complications after treatment of the spin. • Evaluation of the imaging features of complications and definition of follow-up. - Abstract: Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to

  14. Post-therapeutic imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollice, Saverio; Muto, Mario; Scarabino, Tommaso

    2015-05-01

    Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to assist the interventional radiologist or surgeon in deciding if is necessary intervene again, in which nature and in which vertebral level(s).

  15. Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions on mHealth Privacy and Security: Findings From a Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, Audie A; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Vaughon, Wendy; Hughes, Penelope; Patel, Vaishali; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Pritts, Joy

    2015-01-01

    This study examined consumers' attitudes and perceptions regarding mobile health (mHealth) technology use in health care. Twenty-four focus groups with 256 participants were conducted in 5 geographically diverse locations. Participants were also diverse in age, education, race/ethnicity, gender, and rural versus urban settings. Several key themes emerged from the focus groups. Findings suggest that consumer attitudes regarding mHealth privacy/security are highly contextualized, with concerns depending on the type of information being communicated, where and when the information is being accessed, who is accessing or seeing the information, and for what reasons. Consumers frequently considered the tradeoffs between the privacy/security of using mHealth technologies and the potential benefits. Having control over mHealth privacy/security features and trust in providers were important issues for consumers. Overall, this study found significant diversity in attitudes regarding mHealth privacy/security both within and between traditional demographic groups. Thus, to address consumers' concerns regarding mHealth privacy and security, a one-size-fits-all approach may not be adequate. Health care providers and technology developers should consider tailoring mHealth technology according to how various types of information are communicated in the health care setting, as well as according to the comfort, skills, and concerns individuals may have with mHealth technology.

  16. Do large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and graphene bend? How popular theoretical methods complicate finding the answer to this question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadakov, Peter B.

    2016-02-01

    Theoretical studies of the vibrational frequencies of C6n2H6n (n = 2-12) coronenes, show that, despite full conjugation, delocalization and aromaticity, the stability of the planar geometry rapidly decreases with size. A switch to a nonplanar geometry can be expected at around n = 9-12; any larger gas-phase coronene, including graphene, should be nonplanar. When applied to coronenes, popular quantum chemical methods, including Hartree-Fock and density functional theory, are shown to produce anomalous imaginary frequencies suggesting unrealistic geometry distortions; this reveals a serious methodological problem in calculations on extended systems which needs to be resolved through further basis set development.

  17. Ground experiments for finding principles and working out methods for preventing adverse effects of weightlessness on the human organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurin, L. I.; Gregoryev, A. I.; Mikhailov, V. M.; Tishler, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different prophylactic procedures to prevent the adverse effects of weightlessness is presented. It is concluded that: physical training is most effective but no single method by itself produces the full effect, and an adjustment of regimes to one another enhances the effect. The approved complex of prophylactic procedures affected basic changes occurring in hypokinesia: deficit of muscular activity, no or reduced BP hydrostatic component, reduced volume of blood circulation, reduced hydration level, and the application of various prophylactic complexes during 49 day antiorthostatic hypodynamia eliminated or reduced the adverse effects of weightlessness in simulation.

  18. An Automated Algebraic Method for Finding a Series of Exact Travelling Wave Solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳银萍; 李志斌

    2003-01-01

    Based on a 0 of elliptic equation, a new algebraic method to construct a series of exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations is proposed, meanwhile, its complete implementation TRWS in Maple is presented. The TRWS can output a series of travelling wave solutions entirely automatically, which include polynomial solutions, exponential function solutions, triangular function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions, rational function solutions, Jacobi elliptic function solutions, and Weierstrass elliptic function solutions. The effectiveness of the package is illustrated by applying it to a variety of equations. Not only are previously known solutions recovered but also new solutions and more general form of solutions are obtained.

  19. Characterization of a millefiori glass find from Aquincum by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzonyi, I., E-mail: uzonyi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); Csontos, K.; Verebes, A. [Budapest History Museum, Aquincum Museum H-8211 Budapest, Zahony u. 4. (Hungary); Cserhati, C. [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen H-4032 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/B (Hungary); Csedreki, L.; Kis-Varga, M.; Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary)

    2011-10-15

    Research has been focused on the analysis of archaeological glasses from the Roman age and medieval times. Study of ancient millefiori type glasses from the collection of Hungarian Museums has been started. A test measurement, carried out on a glass fragment supposedly part of a dish, was performed by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods. Complementary analytical data were obtained for texture and composition. Results suggest that Roman and Mesopotamian techniques were used together. Our data contribute to data bases of millefiori glasses.

  20. Student Preparation and the Power of Visual Input in Veterinary Surgical Education: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Koch, Bodil Cathrine; Berendt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, veterinary educational institutions have implemented alternative teaching methods, including video demonstrations of surgical procedures. However, the power of the dynamic visual input from videos in relation to recollection of a surgical procedure has never been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate how veterinary surgical students perceived the influence of different educational materials on recollection of a surgical procedure. Furthermore, we investigated if surgical technique was associated with a certain method of recollection or use of educational material. During a basic surgical skills course, 112 fourth-year veterinary students participated in the study by completing a questionnaire regarding method of recollection, influence of individual types of educational input, and homework preparation. Furthermore, we observed students performing an orchiectomy in a terminal pig lab. Preparation for the pig lab consisted of homework (textbook, online material, including videos), lecture, cadaver lab, and toy animal models in a skills lab. In the instructional video, a detail was used that was not described elsewhere. Results show that 60% of the students used a visual dynamic method as their main method of recollection and that video was considered the most influential educational input with respect to recollection of a specific procedure. Observation of students' performance during the orchiectomy showed no clear association with students' method of recollection but a significant association (p=.002) with educational input. Our results illustrate the power of a visual input and support prior findings that knowledge is constructed from multiple sources of information.

  1. Method of superposition of dislocations for finding stress-strain state around fan-shaped structure in a brittle rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovskii, V. M.; Sadovskaya, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    The Tarasov fan-shaped mechanism, simulating the formation of shear ruptures in a brittle rock at stress conditions corresponding to seismogenic depths, is analyzed. For computation of the stress-strain state of a rock near the equilibrium fan-structure the original method is constructed. The fault is modeled as a narrow elongated layer, filled with the domino-blocks, between two elastic half-spaces. Displacements and stresses around the fan are represented in the integral form as a superposition of edge dislocations with an unknown function of distribution of the Burgers vector. To take into account the stresses of lateral thrust, the solution of plane problem of the elasticity is used for a tensile crack, on the surfaces of which the previously unknown normal stresses are distributed. The exact formulation of the problem leads to a system of two nonlinear singular integral equations, which is solved numerically by the method of successive approximations. The obtained solution is used, when setting the initial data in computations of the dynamics of the Tarasov fan-shaped mechanism. With the help of this solution the discontinuous nature of shear ruptures, observed in natural and laboratory experiments, is explained.

  2. Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine) ...

  3. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine). ...

  4. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  5. Optimizing surgical f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed Amin

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: In our study both dexmedetomidine and esmolol were effective in reducing MABP, and lowering the heart rate providing dry surgical field and ensured good surgical condition during cochlear implant surgery in pediatric patients.

  6. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  7. Bioinformatics Methods and Tools to Advance Clinical Care. Findings from the Yearbook 2015 Section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soualmia, L F; Lecroq, T

    2015-08-13

    To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook's section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their daily practice. All the recent research and

  8. Effects of art on surgical patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, Diana; Barth, Jürgen; Uyulmaz, Sema; Uyulmaz, Semra; Vonlanthen, René; Belli, Giulio; Montorsi, Marco; Bismuth, Henri; Claudia M. Witt; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of art including ambient features such as music, interior design including visual art, and architectural features on health outcomes in surgical patients. Background: Healing environments can have a positive influence on many patients, but data focusing on art in surgical patients remain scarce. Methods: We conducted a systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines from January 2000 to October 2014 on art in surgical patients....

  9. 老年获得性上睑下垂术式及疗效观察%Observation of surgical and therapeutic methods for senile acquired ptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周柳红; 周世宏; 黄再林; 程亚中

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the etiology and the surgical approach on those drug treatment failure elderly acquired ptosis,and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods The 56 cases (72 eyes)of elderly acquired ptosis were treated from March 2007 to March 2010.The causes were analyzed and characteristic operation modes were designed according to the status of each individual patient.Of frontalis muscle flap suspension was performed on 8 cases (12 eyes),superior levator muscle shortening united tarsal plate resection on 13 cases (16 eyes),simple superior levator muscle shortening on 30 cases (36 eyes) and superior levator aponeurosis folding on 5 cases (8 eyes). Results After the surgery,1 eye was overcorrected,1 eye undercorrected,3 eyes fallback,and all cases were properly corrected that followed-up for more than one year with good effect,beauty,and without complications.Satisfaction rate was 93%. Conclusions In accordance with the etiology,age and function of superior levator muscle of elderly acquired ptosis,choosing the reasonable and characteristic operation modes are able to achieve ideal,safety,and satisfied results.%目的 探讨病因和药物性治疗无效的老年获得性上睑下垂的手术方式,并对其效果进行评价.方法 对2007年3月至2010年3月间收治的56例(72只眼)老年获得性上睑下垂患者,进行个性化手术设计,其中,额肌瓣悬吊术8例(12只眼),提上睑肌缩短联合睑板切除术13例(16只眼),单纯提上睑肌缩短术30例(36只眼),提上睑肌腱膜折叠术5例(8只眼).结果 1只眼过矫,1只眼欠矫,3只眼回退,其余随访一年以上均疗效满意,外形美观,无并发症,满意率达93%.结论 依照老年获得性上睑下垂病因、年龄特点以及提上睑肌功能情况,合理选择手术方式,能达到安全、可靠、满意的矫正效果.

  10. 胸腺上皮肿瘤的 MSCT-手术-病理对照分析%Correlative analysis between MSCT and surgical/pathological findings in thymic epithelial tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国小钰; 施珏倩; 于红; 刘士远; 肖湘生

    2014-01-01

    To analyze CT findings of thymic epithelial tumors for the purpose of enabling preoperative di-agnoses,staging,treatment planning,and prognostic evaluation.Methods:Clinical,histopathological and imaging data of 84 patients who were pathologically confirmed of thymic epithelial tumors were reviewed retrospectively.Results:Most thymic epithelial tumors were unilateral in the anterior mediastinum.Most masses were oval shaped (66.7%)and some of them had peripheral lumps.Mass-pulmonary interfaces (MPI)displayed sharp angles or saw-tooth configuration (46.4%).Mass-cardiovascular interfaces (MCI)displayed casting-like growth (44.0%),which contained calcification,necrosis,and cystic changes.Some displayed invasion into the great vessels (15.5%),pleural or pericardial nodules (14.3%),pleural or peri-cardial effusion (13.1%),and mediastinal lymph node enlargement (13.1%).Lung metastases were rare (2.4%).Casting-like growth in MCI had a sensitivity of 54.5% and specificity of 87.0% in suggesting thymic epithelial tumor invasion to adjacent great vessels.Sharp angle or saw-tooth shape within MPI had a sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 91.7% in suggesting thymic epithelial tumor invasion to mediastinum or lung.Conclusion:MSCT can accurately show internal struc-ture,adjacent tissue invasion,pleural or lung metastases of thymic epithelial tumors.%_目的:对胸腺上皮肿瘤的 MSCT-手术-病理进行对照分析,为术前诊断、分期、治疗方式的选择及预后评价提供依据。方法:对84例经病理确诊为胸腺上皮肿瘤患者的临床、病理及影像学资料进行回顾性对照分析。结果:胸腺上皮肿瘤大多(64.3%,54/84)位于中线一侧,多呈椭圆形(66.7%,56/84),部分边缘可见肿块-肺界面(MPI)增厚呈尖角或锯齿征(46.4%,39/84)及肿瘤的肿块-大血管心脏面(MCI)呈灌铸式生长(44.0%,37/84),内部可见钙化灶、坏死及囊变区,

  11. A Finding Method of Business Risk Factors Using Characteristics of Probability Distributions of Effect Ratios on Qualitative and Quantitative Hybrid Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Masaki; Negoro, Keisuke; Mitsukuni, Koshichiro; Akiyoshi, Masanori

    We propose a finding method of business risk factors on qualitative and quantitative hybrid simulation in time series. Effect ratios of qualitative arcs in the hybrid simulation vary output values of the simulation, so we define effect ratios causing risk as business risk factors. Finding business risk factors in entire ranges of effect ratios is time-consuming. It is considered that probability distributions of effect ratios in present time step and ones in previous time step are similar, the probability distributions in present time step can be estimated. Our method finds business risk factors in only estimated ranges effectively. Experimental results show that a precision rate and a recall rate are 86%, and search time is decreased 20% at least.

  12. Direct digital method fast-acting analysis of the correlation-interferometric radio direction-finding with reconstructing of spatial analytical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tsyporenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays radio control of radio electronic devices must be carried out in the conditions of sticky electromagnetic wicket, large prior uncertainty in relation to the parameters of radiations, and also in the conditions of the real time realization. The use and researches of direct digital methods of correlation-interferometric direction-finding is perspective direction in radio control realization for the indicated terms. Fundamentals of researches. In this paper, the direct digital method fast-acting analysis of the correlation-interferometric radio direction-finding with reconstructing of spatial analytical signal is executed. The estimation of time charges, fast-acting and relative time efficiency of method is executed. Conclusions. It is certain that analyzed direct method of direction-finding provides a spatial selection and simultaneous direction-finding of radiations which get in the pass frequencies band of simultaneous analysis with a width to one hundred ten megahertz real-time with the use of only one signal processor.

  13. Kardiovize Brno 2030, a prospective cardiovascular health study in Central Europe: Methods, baseline findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Kunzová, Šárka; Homolka, Martin; Jaresova, Jana; Cífková, Renata; Sochor, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern and Central Europe, where the incidence is the highest in the world. The Kardiovize Brno 2030 study was designed as a prospective cohort study to investigate the complex relationships of cardiovascular disease and outcomes with a range of biological, psychosocial, environmental, behavioral, and economic factors in an urban population of the Czech Republic. Methods We randomly selected a 1% sample of the city of Brno residents aged 25-64 years stratified by sex and age. The study assessed traditional and novel cardiovascular disease risk factors, including sociodemographic and smoking status, physical activity, diet, depression, stress, body fat, cardio-ankle vascular index, and intima media thickness, complemented by blood tests; biological samples were stored for future analyses. Results The study enrolled 2160 participants (54.8% women), with a mean age of 47 ± 11.3 years. They were mostly full-time employed (75.6%) and married (62.1%). Hyperlipidemia was highly prevalent (70.7% in men, and 67.1% in women, NS). Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in men than in women (54.3% vs. 38.7% and 7.1% vs. 3.5%, respectively, P 2030 study will provide unique multidimensional and longitudinal cardiovascular health data from a region where epidemiological studies are scarce.

  14. The multidimensional evaluation and treatment of anxiety in children and adolescents: rationale, design, methods and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Isolan, Luciano Rassier; Bosa, Vera Lúcia; Tocchetto, Andrea Goya; Teche, Stefania Pigatto; Schuch, Ilaine; Costa, Jandira Rahmeier; Costa, Marianna de Abreu; Jarros, Rafaela Behs; Mansur, Maria Augusta; Knijnik, Daniela; Silva, Estácio Amaro; Kieling, Christian; Oliveira, Maria Helena; Medeiros, Elza; Bortoluzzi, Andressa; Toazza, Rudineia; Blaya, Carolina; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Heldt, Elizeth; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to describe the design, methods and sample characteristics of the Multidimensional Evaluation and Treatment of Anxiety in Children and Adolescents - the PROTAIA Project. Students between 10 and 17 years old from all six schools belonging to the catchment area of the Primary Care Unit of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre were included in the project. It comprises five phases: (1) a community screening phase; (2) a psychiatric diagnostic phase; (3) a multidimensional assessment phase evaluating environmental, neuropsychological, nutritional, and biological factors; (4) a treatment phase, and (5) a translational phase. A total of 2,457 subjects from the community were screened for anxiety disorders. From those who attended the diagnostic interview, we identified 138 individuals with at least one anxiety disorder (apart from specific phobia) and 102 individuals without any anxiety disorder. Among the anxiety cases, generalized anxiety disorder (n = 95; 68.8%), social anxiety disorder (n = 57; 41.3%) and separation anxiety disorder (n = 49; 35.5%) were the most frequent disorders. The PROTAIA Project is a promising research project that can contribute to the knowledge of the relationship between anxiety disorders and anxiety-related phenotypes with several genetic and environmental risk factors.

  15. [Artifactual defect of inferior myocardium on 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial SPECT: characteristic findings and preventive method on phantom study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Terada, S; Kanaya, S; Kashikura, K; Momose, M; Hosoda, S; Kusakabe, K

    1994-04-01

    Discordance between planar and SPECT image of inferior myocardial defect on 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG) was occasionally observed in the clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the existence of artifactual myocardial defect on MIBG SPECT image. Phantom study was performed in various kinds of situation using triple gamma camera. Artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was significantly observed in the case of increased liver/heart uptake ratio more than 2:1. Artifactual defect was markedly observed in the 180 degrees than that in the 360 degrees SPECT acquisition. To avoid artifactual defect during SPECT acquisition, liver phantom was moved down to the foot direction (vanishing liver position). In this phantom position, artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was not observed on reconstructed myocardial SPECT image. The vanishing liver position was also applicable to human study. Human body was inclined to right side at an angle of 15 degrees, artifactual defect could be avoided. Further study is needed to analyze the cause of this artifactual defect and to conform the preventive method with vanishing liver position in the routine myocardial SPECT examination.

  16. Access to, and experiences of, healthcare services by trafficked people: findings from a mixed-methods study in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Joanne; Howard, Louise M; Stanley, Nicky; Zimmerman, Cathy; Gerada, Clare; Oram, Siân

    2016-11-01

    Physical and psychological morbidity is high in trafficked people but little is known about their experiences of accessing and using healthcare services while, or after, being trafficked. To explore trafficked people's access to, and use of, health care during and after trafficking. A mixed-methods study - a cross-sectional survey comprising a structured interview schedule and open-ended questions - was undertaken in trafficked people's accommodation or support service offices across England. Participants were asked open-ended questions regarding their use of healthcare services during and after trafficking. Interviews were conducted with professionally qualified interpreters where required. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. In total, 136 trafficked people (from 160 contacted) participated in the open-ended interviews of whom 91 (67%) were female and 45 (33%) male. Participants reported being trafficked for domestic servitude (n = 40; 29%), sexual exploitation (n = 41; 30%), and labour exploitation (for example, agriculture or factory work) (n = 52; 38%). Many responders reported that traffickers restricted access to services, accompanied them, or interpreted for them during consultations. Requirements to present identity documents to register for care, along with poor access to interpreters, were barriers to care during and after trafficking. Advocacy and assistance from support workers were critical to health service access for people who have been trafficked. Trafficked people access health services during and after the time they are exploited, but encounter significant barriers. GPs and other practitioners would benefit from guidance on how these people can be supported to access care, especially if they lack official documentation. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  17. The Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study, finding the genes causing Tourette syndrome: objectives and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Fernandez, Thomas V; King, Robert A; State, Matthew W; Tischfield, Jay A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heiman, Gary A

    2015-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent motor and vocal tics, often accompanied by obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. While the evidence for a genetic contribution is strong, its exact nature has yet to be clarified fully. There is now mounting evidence that the genetic risks for TS include both common and rare variants and may involve complex multigenic inheritance or, in rare cases, a single major gene. Based on recent progress in many other common disorders with apparently similar genetic architectures, it is clear that large patient cohorts and open-access repositories will be essential to further advance the field. To that end, the large multicenter Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study was established. The goal of the TIC Genetics study is to undertake a comprehensive gene discovery effort, focusing both on familial genetic variants with large effects within multiply affected pedigrees and on de novo mutations ascertained through the analysis of apparently simplex parent-child trios with non-familial tics. The clinical data and biomaterials (DNA, transformed cell lines, RNA) are part of a sharing repository located within the National Institute for Mental Health Center for Collaborative Genomics Research on Mental Disorders, USA, and will be made available to the broad scientific community. This resource will ultimately facilitate better understanding of the pathophysiology of TS and related disorders and the development of novel therapies. Here, we describe the objectives and methods of the TIC Genetics study as a reference for future studies from our group and to facilitate collaboration between genetics consortia in the field of TS.

  18. The complex treatment of acute pancreatitis using miniinvasive surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Ohrimenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays methods used in acute pancreatitis diagnostic do not allow to find the most optimal indications, terms of surgical drainage approaches in surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis. Aim. In order to develop optimal diagnostic and treatment algorithm 316 patients took part in the study. Methods and results. Surgery outcomes were assessed by the next methods: ultrasound, computed tomography. We determined that destructive changes in pancreas in group of sterile pancreatic necrosis were limited. In cases of infected pancreatic necrosis the damage was spread and the disease course was septic. That’s why the operative treatment in cases of sterile pancreatitis has to be used with strict indications such as fermentative peritonitis, acute liquid formations, acute pseudocysts. Conclusion. In such cases miniinvasive surgery is mainly used while in the cases of infected pancreatic necrosis we ought to choose open surgery treatment.

  19. Surgical options after Fontan failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Melle, Joost P; Wolff, Djoeke; Hörer, Jürgen;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this European multicenter study was to report surgical outcomes of Fontan takedown, Fontan conversion and heart transplantation (HTX) for failing Fontan patients in terms of all-cause mortality and (re-)HTX. METHODS: A retrospective international study was conducted by...

  20. MR findings of chondromalacia Patella : correlation of the grade and associated lesions with arthroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yon Su; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Hwan Do; Kang, Yong Soo; Byun, Ki Yong; Rhee, Kwang Jin [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    To assess the MR findings of chondromalacia patella and correlate the grade and associated lesions with the arthroscopic findings. Twenty-five patients with pain in the anterior part of the knee underwent fat-suppressed axial and coronal T2-weighted and T2-weighted imaging, using a 10-cm field of view, and a 5-inch general purpose coil. We retrospectively assessed these findings, and the locations, grades and associated lesions, and correlated these with arthroscopic findings. We evaluated the exact location and grade of chondromalacia patella and associated lesions, as seen on MR images. These and the arthroscopic findings showed close correlation, and in cases involving this condition, MRI is thus a useful indicator of an appropriate surgical method and plan. (author). 18 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Numerical methods for finding periodic points in discrete maps. High order islands chains and noble barriers in a toroidal magnetic configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrecher, G. [Association Euratom-Nasti Romania, Dept. of Theoretical Physics, Physics Faculty, University of Craiova (Romania); Reuss, J.D.; Misguich, J.H. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2001-11-01

    We first remind usual physical and mathematical concepts involved in the dynamics of Hamiltonian systems, and namely in chaotic systems described by discrete 2D maps (representing the intersection points of toroidal magnetic lines in a poloidal plane in situations of incomplete magnetic chaos in Tokamaks). Finding the periodic points characterizing chains of magnetic islands is an essential step not only to determine the skeleton of the phase space picture, but also to determine the flux of magnetic lines across semi-permeable barriers like Cantori. We discuss here several computational methods used to determine periodic points in N dimensions, which amounts to solve a set of N nonlinear coupled equations: Newton method, minimization techniques, Laplace or steepest descend method, conjugated direction method and Fletcher-Reeves method. We have succeeded to improve this last method in an important way, without modifying its useful double-exponential convergence. This improved method has been tested and applied to finding periodic points of high order m in the 2D 'Tokamap' mapping, for values of m along rational chains of winding number n/m converging towards a noble value where a Cantorus exists. Such precise positions of periodic points have been used in the calculation of the flux across this Cantorus. (authors)

  2. Surgical tools recognition and pupil segmentation for cataract surgical process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouget, David; Lalys, Florent; Jannin, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In image-guided surgery, a new generation of Computer-Assisted-Surgical (CAS) systems based on information from the Operating Room (OR) has recently been developed to improve situation awareness in the OR. Our main project is to develop an application-dependant framework able to extract high-level tasks (surgical phases) using microscope videos data only. In this paper, we present two methods: one method to segment the pupil and one to extract and recognize surgical tools. We show how both methods improve the accuracy of the framework for analysis of cataract surgery videos, to detect eight surgical phases.

  3. Surgical Lasers In Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhas, Helmut F.; Barnes, Alfonso E.

    1982-12-01

    Multipurpose surgical CO2 lasers marketed in the USA have been developed to be applicable to a variety of surgical procedures in many surgical fields. They are all suited for endoscopic surgical procedures and can be fitted to all standard surgical microscopes. They all can adjust the focal length of the laser beam to the different standard focal lengths of the surgical microscope which for instance in laryngoscopy is 400 mm and in colposcopy 300 mm. One laser instrument can even change the spot size in a given focal distance which is very advantageous for some microsurgical procedures (Merrimack Laboratories 820). All multipurpose surgical CO2 laser systems provide a multi-articulated surgical arm for free-hand surgery. The surgical arms are cumbersome to use but they are adapted to the surgeons needs with ingenuity. The practicality of the multi-articulated surgical arms depends mostly on the distance of the handpiece from the surgical console which now is also overbridged by the laser tube in most surgical laser system. The spot size of the beam is variable in most handpieces by interchangeable lenses which modify the focal distance of the beam and the power density. Another common feature in all systems is a coaxial He-Ne pilot light which provides a red spot which unfortunately becomes invisible in a bleeding surgical field. Most surgical laser systems have a spacial mode of TEM 00 which is essential for incisional surgery. The continuous mode of beam delivery is used for incisional surgery and also for most endoscopic procedures.

  4. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Glaucia; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. Methods: this was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. Results: the majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). Conclusions: it is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. (author)

  5. Surgical Complications of Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basir Hashemi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation is a method used for the treatment ofpatients with profound hearing loss. This procedure may theaccompanied by some major or minor complications. Weevaluated the surgical complications of cochlear implantationin Fars province (south of Iran. A total of 150 patients withcochlear implantation were enrolled in the present study. Mostof the patients were pre-lingual children and most of our deviceswere nucleus prosthesis. We had three device failuresand four major complications, including one misplaced electrode,one case of meningitis, one case of foreign body reactionto suture and one case with extensive hematoma. Thesecomplications were managed successfully by surgical interventionor re-implantation. Facial nerve damage or woundbreakdown was not seen. Minor complications including smallhematoma, edema, stitch infection and dizziness were found in15 cases, which were managed medically. In our center, therate of minor complications was comparable to other centersin the world. But the rate of major surgical complications waslower than other centers.

  6. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  7. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ It took 14 years--and just two min-utes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family. July 21 this year marked the first anniversary of Haley Butler's finding of her biological parents in Maanshan in east China's Anhui Province.

  8. Variations in data collection methods between national databases affect study results: a comparison of the nationwide inpatient sample and national surgical quality improvement program databases for lumbar spine fusion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Daniel D; Russo, Glenn S; Basques, Bryce A; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Fu, Michael C; Long, William D; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-12-03

    There has been an increasing use of national databases to conduct orthopaedic research. Questions regarding the validity and consistency of these studies have not been fully addressed. The purpose of this study was to test for similarity in reported measures between two national databases commonly used for orthopaedic research. A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion procedures during 2009 to 2011 was performed in two national databases: the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and inpatient adverse events were directly compared between databases. The total numbers of patients included were 144,098 from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 8434 from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. There were only small differences in demographic characteristics between the two databases. There were large differences between databases in the rates at which specific comorbidities were documented. Non-morbid obesity was documented at rates of 9.33% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 36.93% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 0.25; p databases in the rates at which specific inpatient adverse events were documented. Sepsis was documented at rates of 0.38% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 0.81% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 0.47; p database studies become more prevalent in orthopaedic surgery, authors, reviewers, and readers should view these studies with caution. This study shows that two commonly used databases can identify demographically similar patients undergoing a common orthopaedic procedure; however, the databases document markedly different rates of comorbidities and inpatient adverse events. The differences are likely the result of the very different mechanisms through which the databases collect their comorbidity and adverse event data. Findings highlight

  9. Effect of different methods of hand washing on surgical hand antisepsis%不同清洁洗手方法对外科手消毒效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伏娟; 刘秋秋; 贺吉群

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the influence on the effect of surgical hand antisepsis by different methods hand washing.METHODS With the same liquid skin cleaner and surgical hand disinfectant, prior to surgical hand antisepsis, three methods were selected to compare their immediate antimicrobial efficacies and effct on skin conditions, including hand rub (group A), hand scrub (group B) and no pre-wash (group C).RESULTS In the group C,the colonies(0.27 ±0.45 CFU/cm2 )and the positive rate(46.7%)after surgical hand antisepsis were higher than that of group A and B, there was no significant difference between the group A and B.Hand rub resulted in a smaller skin damage than hand scrub.CONCLUSION Hand rub is the recommended method for prior hand washing to surgical hand antisepsis.%目的 比较不同的清洁洗手方法 对外科手消毒效果的影响. 方法 使用同种手清洁剂和外科手消毒剂,分别采取揉搓清洁洗手(A组)、刷洗清洁洗手(B组)和不进行清洁洗手(C组)3种方法 后按同样的方法 进行外科手消毒,比较其即刻消毒效果和对手部皮肤的影响. 结果 C组外科手消毒后手部菌落数(0.27±0.45)CFU/cm2及手部带菌阳性率(46.7%)明显高于A组和B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),A组和B组之间比较,差异无统计学意义,均有较好的即刻消毒效果,但刷洗法对皮肤损伤较大. 结论 外科手消毒前推荐使用揉搓清洁洗手方法 .

  10. Finding the transition state of quasi-barrierless reactions by a growing string method for newton trajectories: application to the dissociation of methylenecyclopropene and cyclopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quapp, Wolfgang; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2007-11-08

    A method for finding a transition state (TS) between a reactant minimum and a quasi-flat, high dissociation plateau on the potential energy surface is described. The method is based on the search of a growing string (GS) along reaction pathways defined by different Newton trajectories (NT). Searches with the GS-NT method always make it possible to identify the TS region because monotonically increasing NTs cross at the TS or, if not monotonically increasing, possess turning points that are located in the TS region. The GS-NT method is applied to quasi-barrierless and truly barrierless chemical reactions. Examples are the dissociation of methylenecyclopropene to acetylene and vinylidene, for which a small barrier far out in the exit channel is found, and the cycloaddition of singlet methylene and ethene, which is barrierless for a broad reaction channel with Cs-symmetry reminiscent of a mountain cirque formed by a glacier.

  11. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub.

  12. O exame físico no diagnóstico de lesões meniscais: uma correlação com os achados cirúrgicos Physical examinations for diagnosing meniscal injuries: correlation with surgical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo da Rocha Gobbo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Foi avaliado o conjunto de cinco manobras para as lesões meniscais (McMurray, Apley, Childress, Steinmann 1 e 2 e calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, acurácia e likelyhoods do conjunto dessas manobras. Os mesmos cálculos foram aplicados a cada teste individualmente. MÉTODOS: Cento e cinquenta e dois pacientes de ambos os sexos que iriam realizar videoartroscopia do joelho foram examinados por um dos cinco residentes desse hospital de forma cega sem que esse soubesse seus dados clínicos e porque seriam operados. Esse exame era realizado imediatamente antes da videoartroscopia e seus resultados anotados em planilha eletrônica. O conjunto de manobras foi considerado positivo quando uma era positiva. Já na análise individual, bastava o teste ser positivo. RESULTADOS: A análise mostrou que o conjunto dos cinco testes meniscais apresenta 89% de sensibilidade, 42% de especificidade, 75% de acurácia, likelyhood + de 1,53 e um likelyhood - de 0,26. Individualmente os testes apresentaram acurácia entre 48 e 53%. CONCLUSÃO: O conjunto de manobras para as lesões meniscais tem boa acurácia e valor significativo, principalmente para excluir lesões. Os testes isolados têm menor valor diagnóstico, sendo o teste de Apley o de melhor especificidade.OBJECTIVE: A set of five maneuvers for meniscal injuries (McMurray, Apley, Childress and Steinmann 1 and 2 was evaluated and their sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood were calculated. The same methods were applied to each test individually. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients of both sexes who were going to undergo videoarthroscopy on the knee were examined blindly by one of five residents at this hospital, without knowledge of the clinical data and why the patient was going to undergo an operation. This examination was conducted immediately before the videoarthroscopy and its results were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet. The set of maneuvers was considered

  13. Ectopic adrenal tissue in the spermatic cord in pediatric patients: surgical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mendez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence and relevance of ectopic adrenal tissue in pediatric patients who underwent groin surgical explorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 1120 patients with groin surgical explorations during a period of 8 consecutive years. Patients’ clinical data and histological findings were analyzed. RESULTS: We found ectopic adrenal tissue in 13 patients in 1120 groin surgical exploration (1.16%. Of the 13 cases, 5 were diagnosed as having undescended testes, 6 inguinal hernia and 2 communicating hydrocele. Median age at diagnosis was 5.6 years. Histological sections showed adrenal cortical tissue with no medulla present. CONCLUSION: Based on the clinical implications of those adrenal rests it is mandatory the removal of this ectopic tissue whenever encountered during surgical interventions in the groin region in children.

  14. Manual of Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Sánchez Sarría

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical instruments are the group of tools used in surgical procedures. They are very expensive and sophisticated. Consequently, a standardized and meticulous care is essential; they should go through the decontamination, cleaning and sterilization process. These instruments are designed in order to provide surgeons with tools that help them to perform a basic surgical procedure; there are multiple variations and the design depends on their function. This paper aims at showing all surgical instruments that can be used in an operating room during surgery and are not generally included in the medical literature.

  15. A think tank of the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR) on the surgical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease using the Delphi method: ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, F; Pellino, G; Ghezzi, G; Corona, D; Riegler, G; Delaini, G G

    2015-10-01

    The majority of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC) are managed successfully with medical treatment, but a relevant number of them will still need surgery at some point in their life. Medical treatments and surgical techniques have changed dramatically in recent years, and available guidelines from relevant societies are rapidly evolving, providing UC experts with updated and valid practical recommendations. However, some aspects of the management of UC patients are still debated, and the application of guidelines in clinical practice may be suboptimal. The Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR) sponsored the think tank in order to identify critical aspects of the surgical management of UC in Italy. The present paper reports the results of a think tank of Italian colorectal surgeons concerning surgery for UC and was not developed as an alternative to authoritative guidelines currently available. Members of the SICCR voted on several items proposed by the writing committee, based on evidence from the literature. The results are presented, focusing on points to be implemented. UC management relies on evaluations that need to be individualized, but points of major disagreement reported in this paper should be considered in order to develop strategies to improve the quality of the evidence and the application of guidelines in a clinical setting.

  16. A think tank of the Italian society of colorectal surgery (SICCR) on the surgical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease using the Delphi method: Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellino, G; Selvaggi, F; Ghezzi, G; Corona, D; Riegler, G; Delaini, G G

    2015-10-01

    The management of Crohn's disease (CD) requires extensive expertise. Many treatment options are available, and surgery still plays a crucial role. In recent years, many medical societies have provided surgeons and gastroenterologists dealing with CD with authoritative guidelines. However, a certain degree of variation can be observed in these papers, and application of guidelines in clinical practice should be improved. The Italian society of colorectal surgery (SICCR) promoted the project reported here, which consists of a think tank of Italian colorectal surgeons to address the surgical aspects of CD management. Members of the society were invited to express their opinions on several items proposed by the writing committee, based on evidence available in the literature. The results are presented, focusing on relevant points. The present paper is not an alternative to available guidelines; rather, it offers a snapshot of the attitudes of SICCR surgeons about the surgical treatment of CD. The management of CD is, by necessity, patient-tailored, and it is based on clinical data and surgeon's preference, but the committee was able to identify some points of major disagreement and suggested strategies to improve quality of available data and acceptance of guidelines.

  17. 舰艇声呐测向精度试验方法%Research on warship sonar direction finding accuracy test method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘千里

    2012-01-01

    Indicators to direction finding accuracy of sonar system is a very important warship sonar system of tactical and technical index. Sonar system as an integral part of the combat systems, it provides precision measuring data size, is directly related to the command and control system to torpedo firing solution calculates precision, thus affecting the torpedo firing effect. From theoretic clear direction finding precision index describes the problem, then based on the sonar direction finding system error calibration, accuracy of direction finding sea test route agreement analysis, research and present a modern sonar direction finding precision requirement of high accuracy of finding the true value calculation method, and the arithmetic errors are analyzed in detail.%声呐系统测向精度指标是舰艇声呐系统的一个十分重要的战技指标.声呐系统作为舰艇作战系统的一个重要组成部分,它所提供测量数据精度的大小,直接关系到指控系统对鱼雷射击诸元的解算精度,从而影响鱼雷的射击效果.从理论上明确测向精度指标的描述问题,然后通过对声呐测向系统误差的校准,测向精度海上试验的航路约定的分析,研究并提出一种适应现代声呐高测向精度指标要求的测向精度真值解算方法,并对算法的误差进行详细分析.

  18. Surgical Aspects of Ovarian Tissue Removal and Ovarian Tissue Transplantation for Fertility Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, M. W.; Dittrich, R.; Findeklee, S.; Lotz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The removal of ovarian tissue prior to starting oncologic treatment and the subsequent transplantation of this tissue after completing therapy have become increasingly important surgical fertility-preserving techniques. The aim of this review was to investigate the different surgical techniques used for this method reported in the literature to date and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the respective techniques. Review: A search was done in MEDLINE using a defined algorithm to find studies published between January 2004 and December 2015. All study designs were included in our review if they contained statements on the surgical technique used. We found 16 publications (8 retrospective cohort studies, 6 case reports and 2 systematic reviews) with a total of 1898 female patients which reported on the surgical technique used for ovarian biopsy and 15 publications (7 retrospective cohort studies, 6 case reports and 2 systematic reviews) with a total of 455 women which mentioned the surgical technique used for ovarian transplantation. Different surgical techniques can be used both for ovarian biopsy and for the transplantation of ovarian tissue. A number of different surgical routes have been used, and the amount of tissue extracted, the instruments used, the treatment of the ovary, the transplantation site, the blood supply to the transplanted ovarian tissue and the procedure used for simultaneous surgical interventions vary. Conclusion: In future, one of the tasks will be to establish a standard surgical method for ovarian extraction and transplantation which will have a low rate of complications and a high pregnancy and birth rate while ensuring that the transplanted tissue is fully functional. PMID:27761026

  19. 颈胸段结核手术治疗方式的选择%Selection of surgical method for cervicothoracic tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华; 许正伟; 贺宝荣; 郝定均; 刘团江; 王晓东; 郑永宏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the selection of surgical method for cervicothoracic tuberculosis and its clinical outcome. Methods From January 2007 to January 2012, 21 patients with cervicothoracic spinal tuberculosis were treated.According to the relationship between the upper edge of sternum and lesion segments,15 patients were underwent one-stage anterior debride-ment,bone graft, internal fixation.Six patients were underwent one-stage anterior debridement,bone graft, posterior bone graft and internal fixation.Preoperative American spinal injury association ( ASIA ) classification was as follows: grade B in 2 patients, grade C in 4 patients, grade D in 8 patients, grade E in 7 patients.Results All patients were followed up with an average time of 41.6 months.All patient got bone fusion at 1 year after operation.There was no internal fixation loosening、dis-placement, broken up.The Kyphosis Cobb’ s angle was improved from preoperative 3