WorldWideScience

Sample records for surgery key words

  1. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of a Method for Content Determination of Polysaccharide in Membranous milkveteh root Applied in Fisheries Yu Xiao-qing et al. (1) Abstract Some chemical component in the traditional Chinese medicine Membranous milkvetch root can improve the ability of disease-prevention of animal and it can be applied in fisheries. In the paper, the method about content determination of polysaccharide in the root was established based on orthogonal experimental design Key words medicine; polysaccharide in Membranous milkvetch root; method of determination

  2. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the Estrogen Alkylphenols and Bisphenol A in Marine Sediments by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Deng Xu-xiu et al. (1) Abstract Octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A are recognized environmental endocrine disruptors. A quantitative method was established for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A in marine sediments by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The test sample was extracted by methanol with ultrasonic technique, purified with copper powder and carbon solid phase extraction column, and derived with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Then the analytes were separated on HP-5ms column and determined by gas chromatography-mass. The recovery of the method was between 84.3% and 94.5%, and the LOQ of 4-N- octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A was 0.25 g/kg, 0.15 g/kg and 0.15 g/kg. Key words octylphenol; nonylphenol; bisphenol A; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  3. Key Questions in Thoracic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Subotic, Dragan R.

    2016-01-01

    This 1000-page textbook encompasses much more than the title suggests. In fact, the title “Key questions in thoracic surgery and pulmonology” would be more fitting. The specific format of the book, with precise questions and evidence-based, but equally clear answers covering all relevant fields of pulmonology and thoracic surgery, makes this 40-chapter book a “must read” not only for residents, but also for senior pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons.

  4. Main Contents Abstracts and Key Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor and Symbol: Religious Connotations and its Spread of LaoZi's Illustrations of the Eighty-one Conversions HU Chuntao [Abstract] LaoZi's illustrations of the eighty-one conversions has some kinds of connection with LaoZiHuaHU Oing, thus it suffered disputes under the argument between Buddhism and Taoism. In twenty years after its first appearance, the set of illustration developed rapidly, but it once disappeared under the attack of Buddhism and governor in Yuan dynasty. Over a century later, it came back in the first half of the 15th century and spreaded widely in the 16th century. The set of illustration and its process of spreading filled with metaphorical atmosphere. [Key words]LaoZi's illustrations of the eighty-one conversions; relationship between Buddhism and Taoism; spread

  5. Abstracts and Key Words of Major Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Abstracts and Key Words of Major Articles The Standardization of Rules and Forms of Metrical Poetry in the Tang Dynasty WANG Xiang-feng (College of Liberal Arts, Liaoning University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110036) Abstract: The "modem style" poetry or metrical poetry composed by the poets in the Tang Dynasty is considered as artistic wonders in both content and artistic creation. In metrical application it has become the stylistic norm of the later generations and been regarded as practical standards in the following one thousand years and more. The author of this article makes comparisons between Pingshui Rhyme of the Tang Dynasty and the New Rhyme of the Modem Chinese. The article presents unique opinions on how the present people should write classical poems, and how they should realize and deal with some questions in the rules and forms of metrical poetry.

  6. A Doctor's Words Key to Whether Child Gets HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Doctor's Words Key to Whether Child Gets HPV Vaccine Parents most receptive to messages about the shot's ... language doctors use when recommending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine can influence whether parents will have their children ...

  7. Abstracts and Key Words of Major Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A Psychological Interpretation of Zhou Zuoren's Surrender to Japan YUAN Liang-jun(Institute of Literature of China Academy of Social Science, Beijing, 100732) Abstract: As far as Zhou Zuoren was concerned, the decade beginning with the publication in 1935 of Qin Kui and Yue Fei and ending with the Japanese announcement of unconditional surrender in August 1945 was an abyss of spiritual misery. Despite his complete knowledge of his surrender to Japan as a road of no return allowing no comeback once embarked on, he failed to refuse temptations and slid into the abyss step by step. It should be acknowledged that he suffered from a complicated state of mind during the ten years of misery. Key words: Zhou Zuoren; surrender to Japan; state of mind; a supervisor's state of mind; a prisoner's state of mind

  8. MAIN TOPICS,ABSTRACTS & KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of high-temperature erosion-resistance for laser cladding NiAI coating on high chromium cast steel HAN Bin, LI Meiyan, WANG Yong ( School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555, China). pp 1 -4 Abstract: In order to improve characteristics of high-tem- perature erosion-resistance for high chromium cast steel burner nozzle, laser cladding was carried out on the surface of high chromium cast steel to produce NiA1 intermetallic compound coating, and the microstructure and high-temperature erosion properties of the resultant coating were studied with electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and high-temperature erosion-re- sistance equipments. The results show that the coating continu- ously and densely distributed and metallurgically bonded with the steel substrate. The coating was composed of NiA1 intermetallic compound and ~,-( FeNi ) solid solution. The hardness of the cladding layer reached 450 HV, and the hardness transition was smooth. The high-temperature erosion-resistance of laser cladding NiAl intermetallic compound coating was obviously im- proved, and the erosion worn mechanism was brittle spalling. Key words: high chromium cast steel; laser cladding; NiA1 coating; high-temperature erosion-resistance

  9. Bibliography on moving boundary problems with key word index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.G.; Solomon, A.D.; Trent, J.S.

    1979-10-01

    This bibliography concentrates mainly on time-dependent moving-boundary problems of heat and mass transfer. The bibliography is in two parts, a list of the references ordered by last name of the first author and a key word index to the titles. Few references from before 1965 are included. (RWR)

  10. Ancient Greek terminology in pediatric surgery: about the word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutis, Michael

    2006-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the medical terminology has its roots in ancient Greek and Latin. Greek words have been used not only in the field of medicine but also in every day language for many centuries. The aim of this article is to provide an abbreviated guide to the etymology and the meaning of Greek words used in the medical literature today, emphasizing on the field of pediatric surgery. Thus, the term paediatric is constructed from the words paedion, meaning "child", and iatriki, meaning "medicine", literally, "medicine for children." Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek term is chirourgiki, derived from cheir and ergon, that is, "hand and action," meaning the action made by hands. This term is also found in the French and German medical literature as chirourgie and chirurgie, respectively. Some general terms in surgery are also of Greek origin. The word trauma has been transferred into the English literature without modification and comes from the verb diatitreno, meaning to "penetrate." Other such terms include diagnosis, from the verb diagignosko, meaning to "discriminate"; symptom, from the verb sympipto, that is, "to coinside"; and the adjectives clinical and clinic, from the noun klini, meaning "bed." Focusing on special fields of pediatric surgery, the etymology and the meaning of Greek words used in the medical literature will be shown and analyzed.

  11. Questionable Word Choice in Scientific Writing in Orthopedic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M. O`Connor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the strong influence of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors on musculoskeletal symptoms andlimitations it’s important that both scientific and lay writing use the most positive, hopeful, and adaptive words andconcepts consistent with medical evidence. The use of words that might reinforce misconceptions about preferencesensitiveconditions (particularly those associated with age could increase symptoms and limitations and might alsodistract patients from the treatment preferences they would select when informed and at ease.Methods: We reviewed 100 consecutive papers published in 2014 and 2015 in 6 orthopedic surgery scientific journals.We counted the number and proportion of journal articles with questionable use of one or more of the following words:tear, aggressive, required, and fail. For each word, we counted the rate of misuse per journal and the number of specificterms misused per article per journalResults: Eighty percent of all orthopedic scientific articles reviewed had questionable use of at least one term. Tearwas most questionably used with respect to rotator cuff pathology. The words fail and require were the most commonquestionably used terms overall.Conclusion: The use of questionable words and concepts is common in scientific writing in orthopedic surgery. It’sworth considering whether traditional ways or referring to musculoskeletal illness merit rephrasing.

  12. 2015: "key word" for wound care business success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    Wound care professionals should consider all this attention to the key word documentation as your 2015 "heads-up." You should conduct a self-audit and request an external audit of your own documentation against all the regulations, LCDs, Policy Articles, newsletters, and educational programs that CMS and your MACs are providing. You should also embrace the questioning and assistance, pertaining to your documentation, which you may receive from your coders and billers. These coding and billing professionals should be your "best friends" to help you improve your clinical documentation as soon as possible. You cannot afford to be one of the professionals who are requested to repay for services you actually provided just because you did not take the time to document your excellent wound care work.

  13. Attitude and key word signing usage in support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Ellen; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Support staff may diverge in their use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and key word signing (KWS). AAC use is determined by multiple personal and environmental factors. In this study, the relation between KWS attitudes and usage was examined in support staff. Twelve adults with an intellectual disability who use KWS were each filmed during a dyadic interaction with two professionals from their service: one had received first-hand (1HT) and the other second-hand KWS training (2HT). Each communication partner participated with only one client. The professionals' sign usage was coded, and their attitude towards KWS was measured using a survey and single-category Implicit Association Test (IAT). 1HT produced more signed utterances and distinct signs than 2HT, and this increase had a positive, linear relation to IAT scores. Explicit attitude did not correlate with KWS usage, but did significantly correlate with the discrepancy between intention and KWS usage. The train-the-trainer system may not reach its full potential as 2HT knew fewer distinct signs and consequently produced fewer signed utterances than 1HT. In contrast to implicit attitude, no relation was found between explicit attitude and KWS usage. Though the survey may provide valuable information, it may not fully capture the complex influences that shape AAC usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 355.61 - How are key words in this part defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are key words in this part defined... Provisions § 355.61 How are key words in this part defined? Animal waste means manure (feces, urine, and.... Environment includes water, air, and land and the interrelationship that exists among and between water,...

  15. 40 CFR 370.66 - How are key words in this part defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are key words in this part defined...-KNOW Community Access to Information § 370.66 How are key words in this part defined? Chief Executive... elected administrative officer of the Tribe. Environment includes water, air, and land and...

  16. Video Feedback in Key Word Signing Training for Preservice Direct Support Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Ellen; Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Research has demonstrated that formal training is essential for professionals to learn key word signing. Yet, the particular didactic strategies have not been studied. Therefore, this study compared the effectiveness of verbal and video feedback in a key word signing training for future direct support staff. Method: Forty-nine future…

  17. Orthognathic model surgery with LEGO key-spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Alfred Chee-Ching; Lee, Alfred Siu Hong; Li, Wai Keung

    2013-12-01

    A new technique of model surgery using LEGO plates as key-spacers is described. This technique requires less time to set up compared with the conventional plaster model method. It also retains the preoperative setup with the same set of models. Movement of the segments can be measured and examined in detail with LEGO key-spacers.

  18. Quality Management and Key Performance Indicators in Oncologic Esophageal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Ines; Ahlbrand, Constantin Johannes; Arras, Michael; Schreiber, Elke Maria; Lang, Hauke

    2015-12-01

    Ranking systems and comparisons of quality and performance indicators will be of increasing relevance for complex "high-risk" procedures such as esophageal cancer surgery. The identification of evidence-based standards relevant for key performance indicators in esophageal surgery is essential for establishing monitoring systems and furthermore a requirement to enhance treatment quality. In the course of this review, we analyze the key performance indicators case volume, radicality of resection, and postoperative morbidity and mortality, leading to continuous quality improvement. Ranking systems established on this basis will gain increased relevance in highly complex procedures within the national and international comparison and furthermore improve the treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma.

  19. WORD CONTROL KEY BASED ON THE PITCH PATTERN FUNCTION OF FOUR CHINESE TONES AND SPECTRUMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桑漪

    1990-01-01

    The word control key is one of the applications of talker recognition. Chinese differs from English or Japanese, and the four Chinese tones are important characteristics,In this paper, the four Chinese tones are analysed and nine parameters are introduced. They are (1) the pitch period (2) the two parameters of the time length of talker pronounciation, (3) the pitch pattern gradinet (in 5 sections) and (4) the sum of spectral distances. Many Chinese words consist of one syllable, lt's combinationrules consist of single vowels, diphthongs or trinphtiogs.The spectrum of the vowel uses FFT in the medium frame.This method uses a group of input signals that consists of three input signal, and decides the logic “pass” or “out” .The experimental recognition ratio is over 90% for the reference talker, 7.2% for the other talker with the reference input word,and 0% for the other talker with random input words.

  20. THE EFFECT OF TEACHING WITHIN-TEXT KEY WORDS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khodasenas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of teaching within-text key word synonyms, opposites and related words on students’ performance on reading comprehension of TOEFL among Iranian EFL learners. To carry out the research, 60 Iranian EFL learners, who participated in a TOEFL preparation course, were selected as the participants of the study. Afterward they were randomly assigned into experimental and comparison groups. The experimental group was given a treatment including within-text key word synonyms, opposites and their translations, while the comparison group was given a placebo. To collect the required data, two instruments (a pre-test, and a post-test were administered to both groups during the experimentation. Subsequently, students’ scores were collected through the administration of different tests and the results were statistically analyzed. The results of these analyses revealed that the experimental group outperformed the comparison group and thus, it was concluded that teaching within-text key word synonyms, opposites and related words can improve the reading comprehension ability and general proficiency of EFL language learners.

  1. How Can Book Reading Close the Word Gap? Five Key Practices from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Emily K.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary development is critical for children's ability to learn to read and their success at school. Vocabulary has also been identified as a key factor in the achievement gap, with children from low-income families knowing significantly fewer words when they enter school. Although book reading has long been celebrated as an effective way for…

  2. Acquisition and generalization of key word signing by three children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuet Ying; Trembath, David; Bloomberg, Karen; Iacono, Teresa; Caithness, Teena

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Key Word Sign (KWS) intervention on the acquisition and generalization of manual signing among three children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and to measure any changes in their production of spoken words and gestures following intervention. A multiple baseline single-case experimental design was used to measure changes for each of the three children. All three children began using signs following the introduction of the KWS intervention, and generalized their use of some signs across activities. The introduction of the intervention was associated with either neutral, or statistically significantly positive, changes in the children's production of spoken words and natural gestures. The results provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of KWS for preschool children with ASD, which parents, therapists, and educators can use to inform clinical practice.

  3. Key word placing in Web page body text to increase visibility to search engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Kritzinger

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the World Wide Web has spawned a wide variety of new information sources, which has also left users with the daunting task of determining which sources are valid. Many users rely on the Web as an information source because of the low cost of information retrieval. It is also claimed that the Web has evolved into a powerful business tool. Examples include highly popular business services such as Amazon.com and Kalahari.net. It is estimated that around 80% of users utilize search engines to locate information on the Internet. This, by implication, places emphasis on the underlying importance of Web pages being listed on search engines indices. Empirical evidence that the placement of key words in certain areas of the body text will have an influence on the Web sites' visibility to search engines could not be found in the literature. The result of two experiments indicated that key words should be concentrated towards the top, and diluted towards the bottom of a Web page to increase visibility. However, care should be taken in terms of key word density, to prevent search engine algorithms from raising the spam alarm.

  4. Assessing language skills in adult key word signers with intellectual disabilities: Insights from sign linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Nicola; Woll, Bencie

    2017-03-01

    Manual signing is one of the most widely used approaches to support the communication and language skills of children and adults who have intellectual or developmental disabilities, and problems with communication in spoken language. A recent series of papers reporting findings from this population raises critical issues for professionals in the assessment of multimodal language skills of key word signers. Approaches to assessment will differ depending on whether key word signing (KWS) is viewed as discrete from, or related to, natural sign languages. Two available assessments from these different perspectives are compared. Procedures appropriate to the assessment of sign language production are recommended as a valuable addition to the clinician's toolkit. Sign and speech need to be viewed as multimodal, complementary communicative endeavours, rather than as polarities. Whilst narrative has been shown to be a fruitful context for eliciting language samples, assessments for adult users should be designed to suit the strengths, needs and values of adult signers with intellectual disabilities, using materials that are compatible with their life course stage rather than those designed for young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The bedside assistant in robotic surgery--keys to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, Bertram

    2013-01-01

    Taking on the position of bedside assistant for a surgical robotic team can be a daunting task. Keys to success include preparation, proper operation set up, effective use of instruments to augment the actions of the console surgeon, and readiness for surgical emergencies. Effective communication, repetitive execution, and readiness facilitate the efforts of the surgical team.

  6. What are the key elements required for a successful and effective word of mouth tourism marketing campaign? – Case analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Piltonen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to further study what are the key elements for successful and effective word of mouth marketing campaign in tourism. The objective was to identify the key elements by analysing a real life case provided for this thesis where a tourism board used word of mouth as part of their marketing campaign to increase awareness of the destination and drive tourism in the destination. The case was analysed with the support of secondary research conducted around the topics of...

  7. The power of words: sources of anxiety in patients undergoing local anaesthetic plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddick, J; Jawad, S; Southern, S; Majumder, S

    2012-03-01

    With local or regional anaesthesia being employed for more as well as more complex surgical procedures, an increasing number of patients remain fully conscious during their operation. This is generally perceived as being advantageous to the patient as less time is spent in hospital and the side effects of general anaesthesia are avoided. However, there is no direct measure of the patient experience during 'awake surgery', in particular of which aspects of the process may be distressing. Seventy patients undergoing day case plastic surgery under local anaesthesia were asked to complete a short questionnaire immediately following their operation. This was designed to identify specific factors likely to either increase or reduce anxiety during surgery. The questionnaire was initially validated on a pilot group of ten patients. Unsurprisingly, painful stimuli such as injections were identified as potential stressors. More interestingly, the data highlighted that some commonly used surgical terms such as 'knife' and 'scalpel' provoke considerable anxiety in the conscious patient. This varied according to age and sex with younger and female patients being most vulnerable. Other events identified as potential stressors, such as casual conversations and movements among theatre staff, were actually shown to be non-stressful and, in some cases, stress relieving. Technical jargon used by surgical staff can elevate anxiety levels among patients who are awake for their operation. Careful consideration of the words we use may reduce this, particularly in female patients.

  8. Teaching Adults With Intellectual Disability Manual Signs Through Their Support Staff: A Key Word Signing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a key word signing (KWS) program in which adults with mild to severe intellectual disability (ID) were taught manual signs through their support staff. Our hypothesis was that spontaneous manual sign production of participants would increase significantly after 12 months of implementation of the KWS program. A KWS immersion program was implemented in a facility for adults with ID. First, 8 support workers received 8 hr of training. These KWS ambassadors then taught 2 manual signs per week to their colleagues, who modeled the use of the signs throughout the day in natural interactions with their clients. KWS use in 15 adults with ID and 15 of their support staff was evaluated before the start of the program and at a 12-month follow-up using a narrative task and during spontaneous conversation. Manual sign production of support workers and adults with ID had increased significantly 12 months after the start of the program. The adults with ID were able to express significantly more communicative functions in their narrative language after the intervention and when using KWS. The KWS program was successful and can be applied in similar clinical settings.

  9. Beliefs and habits: staff experiences with key word signing in special schools and group residential homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Ellen; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge

    2017-06-01

    Even though use of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) by staff has been extensively researched, few studies relate to unaided AAC strategies such as key word signing (KWS). We explored the KWS views of two groups: direct support staff in group residential homes and teachers from special education secondary schools. We examined transcripts from individual semi-structured interviews with five direct support staff and five teachers using thematic analysis. Participants discussed consistency of KWS use and reasons for implementing KWS. Compared to direct support staff, teachers described more use of KWS throughout the day with more individuals with intellectual disability. Teachers discussed use of KWS to facilitate students' present and future interactions, while direct support staff primarily discussed immediate effects. Participants experienced KWS implementation as a learning process and aimed to turn the use of manual signs into a routine habit. This required considerable self-monitoring, and the effort that this continuous self-feedback required, combined with environmental factors, could hinder KWS implementation. These preliminary findings suggest that preservice KWS training and on-site KWS assistance may need to be enhanced.

  10. How Do Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some…

  11. Access to General Education Curriculum: The Effect of Preteaching Key Words Upon Fluency and Accuracy in Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Gail A.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on accuracy and fluency in connected text were examined with three fifth-grade participants identified with learning disability and reading two grade levels below their same age peers. Researchers incorporated a multiple baseline design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching…

  12. Access to General Education Curriculum: The Effect of Preteaching Key Words Upon Fluency and Accuracy in Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Gail A.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on accuracy and fluency in connected text were examined with three fifth-grade participants identified with learning disability and reading two grade levels below their same age peers. Researchers incorporated a multiple baseline design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching…

  13. How Do Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some…

  14. Bariatric surgery and vitamin D: key messages for surgeons and clinicians before and after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Leigh A

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is the most widespread nutritional problem globally. Bariatric surgery is the preeminent long-term obesity treatment. Bariatric procedures manipulate the intestines to produces malabsorption and/or restrict the size of the stomach. The most enduring bariatric procedure is the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, which utilizes both restriction (small stomach pouch) and malabsorption (duodenum bypass). The in-vogue procedure is the vertical sleeve gastrectomy - resection of the greater curvature of the stomach (predominantly restrictive). Malabsorptive procedures function by decreasing nutrient absorption, primarily fat and fat-soluble nutrients (vitamins A, D, E, and K). Most studies of vitamin D status in bariatric surgery candidates reported a prevalence of over 50% vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D deficiency is also associated with chronic inflammation, obese individuals with vitamin D deficiency have extraordinary risk of adverse surgical outcomes, particularly delayed wound healing and infection due to the role of vitamin D in re-epithelialization and innate immunity. When the risk of adverse surgical outcomes in obesity is combined with that of vitamin D deficiency, there is likely an additive or potentially a synergistic effect. Furthermore, deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin D, is considered a metabolic complication of bariatric surgery. Thus, determining the vitamin D status of bariatric surgery candidates and amending it preoperatively may prove greatly beneficial acutely and lifelong.

  15. Evaluation of the key words used in articles of the Acta Cirurgica Brasileira from 1997 to 2012 Avaliação dos descritores utilizados nos artigos da Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira de 1997 a 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the key words used in Acta Cirurgica Brasileira from 1997 to 2012. METHODS: All the key words of all articles published in regular issues between 1997 and 2012 were analyzed, ensuring that these key words were in the MeSH database (Medical Subjects Headings and the most used subject headings and most wrong repeated key words were ranked. RESULTS: > 4230 key words used in 990 articles were analyzed. Only 579 key words (13.68% were not in the MeSH database, considering that there was a statistically significant decrease over the years (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os descritores utilizados na Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira entre os anos de 1997 até 2012. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os descritores de todos os artigos publicados em fascículos regulares entre os anos de 1997 a 2012, verificando se estes constavam no MeSH e foi feito um ranking dos descritores mais utilizados e dos termos equivocados mais repetidos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 4230 descritores, presentes em 990 artigos. Apenas 579 (13,68% dos descritores estavam fora da base do MeSH, sendo que houve uma diminuição estatisticamente significante com o passar dos anos (p<0.001. Os três descritores mais utilizados foram Rats, Dogs e Wound healing, já dentre as equivocadas foram os termos Adhesions, Experimental surgery e Anatomosis. CONCLUSÃO: Houve uma melhora progressiva na quantidade de termos utilizados que pertenciam a base do MeSH, havendo 618 artigos (62,42% com todos os descritores corretos.

  16. Words, words, words!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Words matter. They are the "atoms" of written and oral communication. Students rely on words in textbooks and other instructional resources and in classroom lectures and discussions. As instructors, there are times when we need to think carefully about the words we use. Sometimes there are problems that may not be initially apparent and we may introduce confusion when we were aiming for clarity.

  17. Historical Account of Key Words in Non-Financial Report Titles (A review of FT 500 corporations from 1989 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline D Ditlev-Simonsen

    2010-12-01

    “responsib” to catch relevant versions are investigated.  The key words were initially applied by a few companies, and then grew in popularity. While “sustainab” and “responsib” are still growing in popularity, “environment” grew, peaked around 2002 and then reduced in frequency as a term in the titles. Based on business theories, the paper discusses alternative explanations for why corporations introduced the new key words in their non-financial reports. Whereas issuing non-financial reports can be understood from a legitimacy perspective, the introduction of new key words in the titles can be explained by a multitude of alternative theories.

  18. Key Tenets of Effective Surgery Leadership: Perspectives From the Society of Surgical Chairs Mentorship Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengart, Todd K; Kent, K Craig; Bland, Kirby I; Britt, L D; Eberlein, Timothy J; Gewertz, Bruce Labe; Hunter, John G; Lillemoe, Keith D; Pellegrini, Carlos A; Schulick, Richard D; Stain, Steven Charles; Weigel, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    This Special Communication summarizes the key points raised at the Society of Surgical Chairs mentorship panel sessions held at the 2014 and 2015 annual meetings of the society. Highlights of these expert panel discussions include senior chairs' insights into successfully dealing with increasingly complex academic medical organizations and horizontal department management expectations in the context of the arrival of the Millennial Generation into the work force. Three key tenets of effective surgery leadership that arose from these sessions deal with the importance of (1) collaboration and cooperativity, (2) humanized relationships and mentorship, and (3) operational efficiency. Overall, the panel consensus for the future of surgery leadership was optimistic while recognizing that the demands of chairmanship are considerable.

  19. Opinion Mining Classification Using Key Word Summarization Based on Singular Value Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Valarmathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of online shopping it is increasingly becoming important for manufacturers and service providers to ask customers to review their product and associated service. Typically the number of customer reviews that a product receives grows rapidly and can be in hundreds or even thousands. This makes it difficult for a potential customer to decide whether to buy the product or not. It is also difficult for the manufacturer of the product to keep track and manage customer opinions. Opinion mining is an emerging field that classifies a user opinion into positive and negative reviews. In this paper it is proposed to develop a methodology using word score based on Singular Value Decomposition by modeling a custom corpus for a given topic in which opinion mining has to be performed. Bayes Net and decision tree induction algorithms are used to classify the opinions.

  20. 英文摘要%Abstracts and Key Words of Major Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A Theoretical Guidance to Vigorous Development and Prosperity of Literature and Art: Comments on the Decision of the Sixth Plenary Session of the Seventeenth CPC Central Committee and the Talk by Hu Jintao Abstract: The Decision of the 6th plenary session of the 17th CPC Central" Committee" on Major Issues Pertaining to Deepening Reform of the Cultural System and Promoting the Great Development and Flourishing of Socialist Culture and the talk given by Secretary-general Hu Jintao at the 9th conference of China Federation of Literary and Art Circles and the 8th conference of China Writers Association present and expound a number of major issues of literary and artistic theories based on the development laws of literature and art and the summarization of the historical experiences concerned. The issues like writers and artists shouldering historical obligations, literature functioning as a carrier of moral values, literary and artistic originality, resistance to vulgarism are of great practical and theoretical significance at present. An in-depth comprehension of the two documents above will ensure earlier attainment of the strategic goal of promoting the great development and flourishing of socialist culture. Key words: historical obligation; literature functioning as a carrier of moral values; artistic originality; vulgar practice

  1. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  2. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Study on Optimization of Enzymic Preparation of Collagen Polypeptide from Skin of Gadous macrocephaius Liu Chun-e et al. (1) Abstract Enzymolysis was used to prepare collagen peptide. The optimum condition was determined based on one way ANOVA and orthogonal experimental design. The result indicated that use alkaline protease on the concentration of 4.5%,

  3. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary Study on Culture of Spring Seed of Zhikong Scallop Hatched by Temperature Raising; Primary Study on the Construction of Artificial Algal Field by Introducing; Study on the Effects of Microecologics on the Pond Water Quality in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture

  4. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We feed Lunatica gilva under the experimental conditions, and observe breeding and embryo's growth, optimizing larva cultivation process. After dealing with fresh water, larva survival rate in 96h is 26.5%, higher than the untreated group that is 9%. The experiment feeding different bait to larva showed that feeding diatom is better to the growth of larva, and diatom is appropriate for the early period of larva cultivation.

  5. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Study on the Long-distance Transportation of Argopecten irridians concentricus ShenQin-long(1) Abstract The experiment was carried out in order to improve the survival rate of the scallop. The result indicated that keeping the water temperature at 4℃ was reasonable for the long-distance transportation of the scallop with oxygenated bags.

  6. Abstracts and Key Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Religion, State and Civil Religion: Assumption and Practice of Confucian Religion in the Course of Nation-state Construction CAN Chun-song Abstract: In late Qing Dynasty and the early years of the Republic of China, Kang You-wei made a proposal to set Confucian religion as state religion. After analyzing carefully Kang's related texts, however, it can be shown that Kang had unique understandings of "religion" and "state religion". Kang defined Confucianism as religion in the sense of cultivation, and emphasized that the function of Confucianism was moral education. Kang's understanding of "state religion" aims to conserve Chinese traditional cultures and customs, shape the identity of nation-state, and enhance the state's cohesion. In this sense, Kang's definition of "national religion" is similar to to Bellah's "civil religion".

  7. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Acute Toxicity Test of Four Drugs to Perch Fries Zhu You-fang et al(1) Abstract Acute toxicity test of four drugs to perch Lateolabrax maculates were studied. The results showed: (1)The LC50 values of perch to copper sulfate was 4.58 mg/L(24h), 2.93 mg/ L(48h), 1.81 mg/L(72h) and 0.78 mg/L (96h) respectively; to SHA CHONG WEI was 35.11 mg/ L(24h), 15.81 mg/L(48h), 11.20 mg/L(72h), 9.36 mg/ L (96h)respectively;

  8. Abstracts and Key Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In modern discussions among health professionals there is a strange lack of discussions of power. This is most notably true for the discussions about proper physician-patient relations and the discussions about trust. This article explores some of the consequences of this absence. It is argued that the absence of the issue of power hampers a serious and open moral discussion of important institutional forms in the health care system. It is also argued that some of the proposals for how to organize physician-patient interaction are rather unrealistic, mainly because the issue of power is neglected. Finally, the article develops some ideas about how power ought to be approached in modem health care.

  9. Abstracts and Key Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Reason, Rationality and Reasonableness: An Essay Inspired by Chen Jia-ying's Dianoesis Abstract: The theme of Chen Jia-ying's Dianoesis should be understood as "on the reasoning for reasoning" rather than simply "on reasoning". In order to understand "the reasoning for reasoning", it may be better to review the history of Western philosophy, in which the focus of attention has been moved from"reason" through "rationality" to "reasonableness". Moreover, interpreting "reason" not only as rationality but also as reasonableness may help us overcome the dilemma between reason-dogmatism and reason-nihilism. The idea of "reasonableness" that has been discussed by various contemporary Western philosophers is very similar to the idea of "li xing" that was proposed by Chinese philosopher Liang Shu-ming on the basis of his comparison between Chinese and Western cultures. For the sake of developing our tradition of li xing or reasonableness, however, we should not ignore some serious weaknesses in this tradition while cherishing its valuable elements.

  10. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Enrichment Regularity of Semicarbazide in Algae Tian Xiu-hui eta1. (1) Abstract Semicarbazide (SEM) in three kinds of representative algae (Nitzschia closterium, Tetraselmis chui and Dicrateria sp) and seawater was determined using ultra performance liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry in this work. Accumulation of semicarbazide (SEM) in algae under laboratory conditions was studied.

  11. Evaluation of language and communication skills in adult key word signing users with intellectual disability: advantages of a narrative task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of language and communication skills in adults who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in general and key word signing (KWS) in particular, can be an elaborate task. Besides being time-consuming and not very similar to natural communication, standard language tests often do not take AAC or KWS into account. Therefore, we developed a narrative task specifically for adults with intellectual disability (ID) who use KWS. The task was evaluated in a group of 40 adult KWS users. Outcome measures on the narrative task correlated significantly with measures of standard language and communication tests for verbal language, but not for use of manual signs. All narrative measures, for both verbal language and manual signing, correlated highly with similar measures from a conversation sample. The developed narrative task proved useful and valid to evaluate the language and communication skills of adults with ID taking into account both their verbal language and manual sign use. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Key Word Signing Usage of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities: Influence of Communication Partners' Sign Usage and Responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Ellen; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge

    2017-08-15

    In services for adults with intellectual disabilities, various staff members may have different key word signing (KWS) skills and conversational style. Little is known about how these clients use KWS with different staff members. Therefore, we observed staff-client conversations and examined how clients' KWS usage was shaped by staff members' KWS usage and conversational style. Three 10-min dyadic conversations between an adult with moderate or severe intellectual disabilities (N = 15) and three familiar staff members were filmed and transcribed. The KWS usage and conversational responsivity in the transcriptions was analyzed at group (using generalized estimating equations), subgroup, and individual levels. Clients appeared to produce significantly more KWS as partners imitated more signs and as partners were more responsive. There was a negative interaction between these two factors. Subgroup analyses showed that spontaneity of clients' KWS usage was a continuum. Findings suggest that staff can encourage clients' KWS usage by imitating manual signs but that clients' response efficiency should also be taken into account.

  13. Investigation of Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Cognitive Structures about Some Key Concepts in Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Course through Word Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to map the cognitive structure of pre-service English language (EL) teachers about three key concepts related to approaches and methods in language teaching so as to discover their learning process and misconceptions. The study involves both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher administrated a Word Association Test…

  14. COMPUTERS IN SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BODE

    technology in the field of surgery and the hopes it hold out to surgeons in developing countries. Key words: ... space-crafts and for specific interest research groups. 8. Broadly ... been left out of this new dispensation and sundry bounties of ...

  15. Creativity in English Writing Instruction : Tracing the Discursive History of the Key Word

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s the field of English writing instruction has given a broad welcome to the term creative/creativity, which has been used without any strict definition and has taken on the features of a cant word. Presented in this paper is an attempt to provide a comprehensive description and explanation of various uses of the term found in this specific context. A historical review of ELT Journal, TESOL Quarterly and The English Teachers’ Magazine reveals that the introduction of the term cre...

  16. Procedural key steps in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, consensus through Delphi methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Frederieke A.; Bosker, Robbert J. I.; Veeger, Nicolaas J. G. M.; van Det, Marc J.; Pierie, Jean Pierre E. N.

    2015-01-01

    While several procedural training curricula in laparoscopic colorectal surgery have been validated and published, none have focused on dividing surgical procedures into well-identified segments, which can be trained and assessed separately. This enables the surgeon and resident to focus on a specifi

  17. Procedural key steps in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, consensus through Delphi methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Frederieke A.; Bosker, Robbert J. I.; Veeger, Nicolaas J. G. M.; van Det, Marc J.; Pierie, Jean Pierre E. N.

    2015-01-01

    While several procedural training curricula in laparoscopic colorectal surgery have been validated and published, none have focused on dividing surgical procedures into well-identified segments, which can be trained and assessed separately. This enables the surgeon and resident to focus on a specifi

  18. A JSCC-Based Analysis of Key Words%学术会议口语语料库主题词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘技峰

    2012-01-01

    本研究依据JSCC(John Swales Conference Corpus)这一特殊的学术会议语料库,参照语料库为COCA,通过Antconc3.2.2软件对该语料库进行主题词提取,结合主题词表对代词、动词、名词,以及话语标记语的使用特征进行了细致的研究,发现学术会议英语口语语料库中的人称代词使用频率极高,动词多以主动语态和现在时态出现,并归纳了名词以及话语标记的语篇功能,填补了学术会议口语研究的空白,为学术会议英语的研究和教学提供一定的借鉴。%The extraction of the key words by Antconc3.2.2, based on John Swales Conference Corpus (an academic conference corpus) with COCA as its reference corpus, is an attempt to find out the distributive features of the key words and their relationship with the academic representation, especially the key words with a high frequency of distribution in different texts in the corpus. For this purpose, the features of pronouns, verbs, nouns as well as discourse markers with high frequency of distribution in the list of key words have been respectively analyzed carefully. The pronouns, like the first singular pronoun I, appear most frequently and the verbs are used in active voice and present tense. With the help of the JSCC keywords list, the discourse functions of the nouns and discourse markers have been carefully grouped and studied. Hopefully the findings are of significance to EFL teaching and research, particularly to the teaching and research of academic conference English.

  19. Blood transfusion, antibiotics use, and surgery outcome in thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-23

    Jan 23, 2012 ... Conclusion: Thyroidectomy is a safe surgery with minimal risk of complications. ... Key words: Antibiotics, blood transfusion, complications, endemic goiter, iodine deficiency, .... [5] These have also been identified as factors.

  20. Could the mechanisms of bariatric surgery hold the key for novel therapies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tam, C S; Berthoud, H-R; Bueter, M;

    2011-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective method for promoting dramatic and durable weight loss in morbidly obese subjects. Furthermore, type 2 diabetes is resolved in over 80% of patients. The mechanisms behind the amelioration in metabolic abnormalities are largely unknown but may be due to chang...... of obesity and diabetes. Promising data on energy metabolism, gastrointestinal physiology, hedonic response and food intake were reviewed and discussed....

  1. Timing of surgery in Crohn's disease: A key issue in the management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael Alós; Joaquín Hinojosa

    2008-01-01

    The timing of the decision for operation in Crohn's disease is based on an evaluation of the several factors such as the failure of medical treatment, complications due to the Crohn's disease or to the farmacological therapy, development of dysplasia or cancer and growth retardation. A complete evaluation of these factors should result in operation timed to the patient's best advantage, achieving maximal relief of symptoms with improvement of quality of life. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease and the different options for treatment, is difficult to systematize when the optimal moment for the surgery is arrived. A very important factor in the management of Crohn's disease is the multidisciplinary approach and the patient preference should be a significant factor in determining the choice of therapy. The surgery should be considered such another option in the sequential treatment of Crohn's disease. We have analyzed the factors that are involved in the decision taking of the surgical treatment regarding to the experience and the published literature. When did the medical therapy fail? When is the appropriate moment to operate on the patient? Or which complications of Crohn's disease need a surgery? These are some of the questions we will try to answer.

  2. Review of fluorescence guided surgery systems: identification of key performance capabilities beyond indocyanine green imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Lin, Huiyun; Henderson, Eric R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest in using fluorescence imaging instruments to guide surgery, and the leading options for open-field imaging are reviewed here. While the clinical fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) field has been focused predominantly on indocyanine green (ICG) imaging, there is accelerated development of more specific molecular tracers. These agents should help advance new indications for which FGS presents a paradigm shift in how molecular information is provided for resection decisions. There has been a steady growth in commercially marketed FGS systems, each with their own differentiated performance characteristics and specifications. A set of desirable criteria is presented to guide the evaluation of instruments, including: (i) real-time overlay of white-light and fluorescence images, (ii) operation within ambient room lighting, (iii) nanomolar-level sensitivity, (iv) quantitative capabilities, (v) simultaneous multiple fluorophore imaging, and (vi) ergonomic utility for open surgery. In this review, United States Food and Drug Administration 510(k) cleared commercial systems and some leading premarket FGS research systems were evaluated to illustrate the continual increase in this performance feature base. Generally, the systems designed for ICG-only imaging have sufficient sensitivity to ICG, but a fraction of the other desired features listed above, with both lower sensitivity and dynamic range. In comparison, the emerging research systems targeted for use with molecular agents have unique capabilities that will be essential for successful clinical imaging studies with low-concentration agents or where superior rejection of ambient light is needed. There is no perfect imaging system, but the feature differences among them are important differentiators in their utility, as outlined in the data and tables here.

  3. Word prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  4. Maintenance of key word signing in adults with intellectual disabilities: novel signed turns facilitated by partners' consistent input and sign imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Ellen; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the use of key word signing (KWS) by support staff and by adults with intellectual disabilities (clients) who had experience with using KWS. Specifically, we explored whether these clients were more inclined to use KWS when support staff used KWS or imitated signs. One-to-one conversations between 24 clients and their support staff were filmed and transcribed. Partner turns were coded for communication mode (spoken or signed) and KWS response type (i.e., imitation, repetition, or new), while client turns were coded for communication mode and novelty (novel or non-novel). Using Cramer's V, strength of association was measured between each partner and subsequent client turn. Results indicated a moderate to strong association between partners' and clients' communication mode. In addition, partner turns containing newly introduced signs were associated with non-novel signed client turns, whereas sign imitations and repetitions by partners were more often followed by novel than non-novel signed client turns. These findings suggest that a balanced KWS input that includes new signed lexical items and sign imitations/repetitions may help to facilitate clients' KWS production and maintenance. This study was exploratory, and further research is needed to validate these results.

  5. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role to c

  6. Essential words for the TOEFL

    CERN Document Server

    Matthiesen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

  7. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  8. 基于语料库的米歇尔•奥巴马演讲主题词研究%A Corpus of Michelle Obama Speeches-Based Analysis and Research of Key Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟小丹; 冯宗祥

    2013-01-01

    Based on self-built mini corpus of U.S. first lady Michelle Obama's speeches and corpus of the voice of America news, this study means to find the features and roles of its key words according to Li Wenzhong's key word extraction and re-search methods and relevant theories about public speaking put forward by Fang Le and Diana. Using the corpora lexical retrieval software WordSmith, combination of qualitative quantitative analysis for Michelle Obama's speeches, this study finds the gen-eral vocabulary features and keywords types:the first and second person pronouns, to establish direct contact with the audience;nouns like family life, to interpret the common values, life experi-ences;positive adjectives, to motivate and inspire listeners;sim-ple conjunction and substitution words, to keep the whole speech cohesive.%  本文基于自建美国第一夫人米歇尔·奥巴马微型演讲语料库和VOA新闻语料库,根据李文中的主题词提取方法及方乐、狄安娜的有关公共演讲理论,利用WordSmith这一词汇检索软件,分析了米歇尔在演讲中不同类型主题词的作用:第一二人称代词,与听众建立直接联系;名词类,诠释共同的价值观、人生观;积极形容词,激励鼓舞听众。本文为英语演讲的研究提供一定的借鉴。

  9. The Study of the word 'Dahyu'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    معینی سام معینی سام

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the roots of many Persian words are unclear, a researcher should study the vocalic evolution of these words to get to the root. The word Dahyu is one of these words. From Indo-European period to modern Persian, this word has had many different meanings. The writer of this article, studies the different meanings of this word. To reach to the earlier form of the word, the writer has studied the history of the word, from its Indo-European form to modern Persian. In the end, the writer has constructed the most probable root for this word. Key Words: Dahyu, Dasyu, Avesta, Yasht, Old Persian.

  10. Proofreading for word errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Agpawa, Ian; Krajniak, Marta; Mahamane, Salif

    2012-04-01

    Proofreading (i.e., reading text for the purpose of detecting and correcting typographical errors) is viewed as a component of the activity of revising text and thus is a necessary (albeit not sufficient) procedural step for enhancing the quality of a written product. The purpose of the present research was to test competing accounts of word-error detection which predict factors that may influence reading and proofreading differently. Word errors, which change a word into another word (e.g., from --> form), were selected for examination because they are unlikely to be detected by automatic spell-checking functions. Consequently, their detection still rests mostly in the hands of the human proofreader. Findings highlighted the weaknesses of existing accounts of proofreading and identified factors, such as length and frequency of the error in the English language relative to frequency of the correct word, which might play a key role in detection of word errors.

  11. Word操作题自动判卷关键性技术实现%Realization of Word Operation Automatic Grading Key Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王读祥

    2011-01-01

    In order to complete the grading of Word operation, through using VB technology access and controlling Word document page properties, floating object, paragraphs, font styles, forms, etc, the paper realizes a correct judgment to complete the required operation setting. For each type of judgment, a detailed program code is given, and thus the automatic marking job is realized.%为了完成对Word操作题的判卷,采用VB技术读取和控制Word文档的页面属性、浮动对象、段落、字体格式、表格等,实现对要求完成操作设置的正确判断,对每一种类型判断给出比较详细的程序代码,从而实现自动阅卷工作.

  12. 关键词分析:影响我国心理康复研究文献增长的主要因素%Key Words Analysis: Factors Related with the Growth of Psychological Rehabilitation Literature in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱民; 邱卓英; 蔡飞鸣; 荀芳; 李沁燚; 陈迪

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究我国心理康复文献增长主要关键词.方法 抽取"中国知网"收录的与心理康复有关的1426篇期刊论文进行关键词词频统计,对词频≥4的340个关键词年度累积词频为白变量,以年度累积文献量为因变量进行多无线性逐步回归分析.结果 共提取到10个关键词,分别为心理护理、心理问题、心理反应、精神病人、情绪障碍、A型行为、社会心理、SCL-90、假肢、精神医学.结论 我国心理康复的主要研究对象包括心理问题、心理反应、精神病人、情绪障碍、A型行为;主要研究方法 或研究工具有社会心理、SCL-90;主要研究者为护理人员、假肢工作者、精神卫生工作者.%Objective To investigate the key words related with the growth of psychological rehabilitation literature of psychological rehabilitation in China. Methods The journal articles associated with psychological rehabilitation in CNKI were analyzed with key word frequency. The relationship between the cumulative frequency of key words and the growth of literature were analyzed with Linear Regression Analysis. Result Based on the cumulative frequency of 340 key words frequencies more than 4 in each year, Linear Regression Analysis extracted 10 words that correlated with the literature growth,which were Psychological Nursing, Psychological Problem, Psychological Response, Psychotics, Emotional Disorder, Type A Behavior, Social Psychology, SCL-90, Prosthesis, and Psychiatry. Conclusion The major objects of the researches of psychological rehabilitation in China were psychological problem, psychological response, psychotics, emotional disorder, type A behavior; the major tools were social psychology, SCL-90; the researchers mainly come from the nurse, and the professionals of prosthesis and psychiatry.

  13. WORD MAGIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Xinmin

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a word game named"Word Magic",which is effective and efficient inavoiding word forgetting & decaying as well as helping students to improve their abilities in spelling,word building and so on.The procedures and rules of the game are formulated together with the makingof the cards used in it.The advantages of the game are also expounded.

  14. Fast-track video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Bo Laksafoss; Petersen, René Horsleben; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide a short overview of fast-track video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and to identify areas requiring further research. Design A literature search was made using key words including: fast-track, enhanced recovery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, robot......-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS), robotic, thoracotomy, single-incision, uniportal, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), chest tube, air-leak, digital drainage, pain management, analgesia, perioperative management, anaesthesia and non-intubated. References from articles were screened for further...

  15. Prognostic factors on periapical surgery: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Giménez, Mireia; Sánchez Torres, Alba; Gay Escoda,Cosme

    2015-01-01

    Background Analyze the most important prognostic factors when performing periapical surgery and compare the success rates of distinct authors. Introduction Periapical surgery is an approach to treat non-healing periapical lesions and it should be viewed as an extension of endodontic treatment and not as a separate entity. Material and Methods A search of articles published in Cochrane, PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus was conducted with the key words “prognostic factors”, “prognosis”, “periapical ...

  16. Patients` compliance with instructions after oral surgery in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Dental Surgery, Military Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. KEY WORDS ... 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8 reduce risk of litigation after surgical procedures. .... In case of severe bleeding, remove blood clot with the aid of a sponge or gauze place a ...

  17. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  18. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  19. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  20. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin İstiklal Marşı’ndaki Anahtar Kelimeleri Bilme Durumları University Students' Knowing Key Words Of National Anthem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif ARSLAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out whether or not thefreshman students of the university know the key words of TurkishNational Anthem and from that point of view, to elicit whether or notthe National Anthem is understood adequately. The study is adescriptive research where success test consisting of open-endedquestions was applied. The success test was administered to threehundred freshman students attending Faculties of Education, Letterand Islamic Sciences and Vocational High School of Agri Ibrahim CecenUniversity. Based on expert opinion, at the end of the study it wasdiscovered that 33.8% knew the key words of National Anthem whilethose not knowing them are 66.1% and based on this datum it has beenargued that the Turkish National Anthem has not been understoodadequately. In the study, it was also discovered that the rate of knowingthe key words in the first two stanzas is higher than the rate of knowingthe key words in the other stanzas. In other words, it has beendiscovered that the students know the words in the first two stanzassung twice every week, better than knowing the words in other stanzasof the poem. In the last part of the study, considering that the anthemcontains ideals of the nation and being one of the most important assetsproviding the individuals to feel the consciousness of being nationarising out of experiences of the nation and becoming common points ofthe nation, it has been stated that the National Anthem should be dealtwith at educational institutes more entirely with ten stanzas through anintegral point of view so as to learn the words and understand theanthem better by use of various audio-visual aids such as CDs aboutthe Anthem prepared or to be prepared by educational/press institutesand articles of news nature published in the media regarding themeaning of the Anthem. Araştırmanın amacı üniversite birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin İstiklal Marşı’ndaki anahtar kelimeleri bilip bilmediklerini

  1. Anesthetic Maintenance of Thyroid Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Negovsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are most common in endocrinology. Thyrotoxicosis induces dysfunction of virtually all organs and systems, the blood circulatory system being subjected to considerable changes. Cardiovascular diseases affect not only the quality of life in a patient, but significantly increase a risk from surgery that is the only radical treatment. For this reason, most authors consider thyrotoxicosis to be a contraindication to elective surgical intervention. At the same time it is known that drug compensation of thyrotoxicosis may be attained in not all patients. In this case, the results of treatment and a patient’s safety during surgery depend on the type and quality of anesthetic protection. The capabilities of anesthetic maintenance of thyroid surgery have recently expanded substantially. The paper deals with the preparation of patients with thyrotoxicosis for surgical intervention and the perioperative management of these patients. Key words: thyroid, toxic goiter, thyrotoxicosis, premedication, anesthetic mode, sevoflurane, xenon.

  2. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  3. 我国图书馆学研究热点及趋势:基于关键词共现和词频统计的可视化研究%Research Focus and Trend of Library Science in China: A Visualization Analysis Based on Word Frequen- cy Statistics and Key Words Co-occurrence Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓波

    2012-01-01

    为深入揭示我国图书馆学研究的阶段性变化,选取CSSCI作为数据源,采用词频和关键词共现方法对2006—2010年我国图书馆学研究主题进行可视化分析。结果发现,这一阶段我国图书馆学研究的热点主要包括数字图书馆、高校图书馆、信息资源、公共图书馆、信息服务等多个领域,机构知识库、云计算、质量控制、手机图书馆等领域将成为图书馆学研究未来发展趋势。总体上来讲,技术已成为我国图书馆学研究的主角。%The author tries to reveal the periodic changes in the library science research in China. Data are downloaded from CSSCI in 2006 -2010. Library science subjects are analyzed by using word frequency statistics and key words co-occurrence method. The results show that the focus of library science research includes digital library, university library, information resource, public library, information services, and so on. And institutional repository , cloud computing , quality control and mobile phone library are viewed as the future research trend. Generally speaking, technology becomes the key role for library science research.

  4. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning...... process about what the speaker intended? In two studies, we distinguish between these possibilities. Preschoolers watched as a speaker pointed toward (Study 1) or looked at (Study 2) a familiar object while requesting the referent for a new word (e.g. 'Can you give me the blicket?'). In both studies......, despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic...

  5. Key Words in China Economic Blue Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Fei

    2009-01-01

    @@ With a fluctuating 2008 comes to an end,nOW new 2009 has approaehed to us.Recently、Analvsis and Forecast of China Economy in 2009(Blue Book of Ckina Economy),by the Economics Department or Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  6. Integration: Dirty Word or Golden Key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the notion of integrated studies as a way of organising curriculum in schools. Drawing on the insights of educational philosophy, curriculum theory and learning theory it establishes the soundness of a theoretical case for integration. It examines what this view means for the art and science of teaching, and notes examples of…

  7. MAIN TOPICS,ABSTRACTS & KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Friction welding process with thermomechanical heat treatment for oil drill pipe ZHOU Jun, QIN Guoliang , QI Xi- nbin(1. Harbin Welding Institute, Harbin 150080, China; 2. Institute of Advanced Welding Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China). p 1 -4 Abstract: By the thermomechanical heat treatment friction-welding machine, the pipe body of 37CrMnMo steel and the pipe joint of 42CrMoA steel were welded, and the mechanical properties and microstructures of the joint were tested and analyzed. The experimental results show that the grain size in the full quenching zone can reach 8 grade, the partial quenching zone is narrow and covered by thermomechanical zone.

  8. MAIN TOPICS,ABSTRACTS & KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Path planning of robot off-line programming for profiled bar cutting Abstract: The profiled bar is widely applied in shipbuild- ing industry. In order to perform cutting and lining automatically for profiled bar, the robot off-line programming technology was studied. The robot off-line programming software system for pro- filed bar cutting was developed for automatic cutting. The path planning of cutting off-line program for profiled bar was investiga- ted. The path offset algorithm and path intersection algorithm of feature modeling were developed for bar bevel cutting respective- ly, and the experiments about fiat bar and angle bar automatic cutting were performed. The results demonstrated that the path planning algorithm could perform the bevel cutting and edge cut- ting, and the error of bevel angle was less than 1 o. The process of cutting was smooth, which could satisfy the profiled bar cutting in practice.

  9. Key words: corruption, business, entrepreneurship, Kenya, economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INgunjiri

    set up to unravel the scandals but all of them have proved to be an exercise in futility3 A .... (1975) and others as contributing to entrepreneurship, but excessive ... The World Bank defines corruption as the misuse of public power for private ...

  10. MAIN TOPICS,ABSTRACTS & KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Design and implementation of a power control system for electron beam welder HE Shaojia, LI Jianling, MO Jinhai, LI Haibiao (School of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, China). ppl-5, 12 Abstract: Stability of output voltage of high-voltage accelerating stabilized power supply for electron beam welder (EBW) is a prerequisite to ensure the electron beam welding quality. The common power supplies have the disadvantages of circuit complexity and bulkiness. A novel control system of higholtage accelerating stabilized power supply for EBW was designed. Its main circuit is based on pulse-width modulation (PWM) buckboost converter topology. Compared with common EBW power supplies, this new power supply requires a much lower voltage grade transformer because of the converter's effect for rising voltage, so its volume is smaller and the circuit is simpler. The sys- tem main circuit characteristics and its working process were analyzed. The system circuit's small-signal mathematical model was created, and lag-lead correction compensation control was em- ployed in the system to achieve static and dynamic performance requirements. The results displayed that this unit had the characteristics of fast response, high reliability, high control precision and anti-interference capability.

  11. Abstracts and Key Words of Major Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety about Nation-state Discourse and the Imagination of Heroes from the Perspective of the "Updating of the People"-A Discussion Based on the Historical Data of Newspapers and Magazines,The Male Intellectual Community's Imagination of Women in the May 4th Movement Period from the New Youth to the Monthly Journal of Culture and Society,From Discourse Media to Literary Field-An Investigation Based on the Historical Data of the Magazine Conversation in Writing

  12. MAIN TOPICS,ABSTRACTS & KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of supersonic plasma sprayed coating WANG Haidou1, XU Binshi1, JIANG Yi1,2, LIU Ming1 , SUN Mingxi2 ( 1. Science and Tech-nology on Remanufacturing Laboratory, Academy of Armored Forces Engineering, Beijing 100072, China; 2. Naval Flying Academy of China, Huludao 125101, China;). p 1 -4

  13. MAIN TOPICS,ABSTRACTS & KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Digital arc power supply for welding on aluminum-magnesium alloy and its expert database ; Abstract: A kind of digital arc power supply for welding of aluminum-magnesium alloy was developed in this paper. Its control system and human-computer intereommunion system based on DSP and ARM were set up, and the digital welding-machine system and the double-pulse control process were analyzed. Through a lot of technical experiments on large step calibration, the expert database in the digital double-pulse welding of aluminum was constructed made to be laconic and modularized.

  14. MAIN TOPICS,ABSTRACTS & KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Effect of hot extrusion deformation on microstructure and fracture morphology of AZ31B magnesium alloy TIG weld seam LI Xiaoquan, CHU Yajie, YANG Zonghui, HE Xiancong ( School of Material Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Tech-nology, Nanjing 211167, China). pp 1-4 Abstract: Butt joining of AZ31B magnesium alloy was carried out by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with itself as the filler wire, and a ceramic electric heater was devised for hot extrusion deformation of the resultant joint combining with the high temperature tensile testing machine.

  15. Research and implementation of automated testing based on key-word driven%基于关键字驱动的自动化测试研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 孟凡鹏

    2012-01-01

    In order to resolve the problems of low efficiency of regression testing and high complexity of manual testing effectively, the principles and methods of automated testing techniques are mainly studied According to the above research, a method of automated testing based on key-word driven is proposed. The implementation process of Web automated testing and the main functions about the automated testing framework is introduced In obedience to the principles of guaranteeing the quality of the products and improving the efficiency of testing, the automated testing framework, which uses key-word driven as the core and Ruby as the language, can be achieved through a process consisting of feasibility analysis, tool selection, demo production and framework development Experimental results show that it not only improves the efficiency of regression testing and testing system portability, but also liberates the testers.%为有效解决目前回归测试测试效率低以及手工测试操作复杂的问题,研究了自动化测试技术的原理和方法,提出了一种基于关键字驱动的自动化测试方法;介绍了Web自动化测试实施的过程和自动化测试框架的主要功能.在遵从保证产品质量和提高测试效率的原则基础上,对系统进行自动化测试的可行性分析,再进行自动化测试开发工具的选择、制作Demo和自动化测试框架开发,实现了以关键字驱动为核心,Ruby为开发语言的自动化测试框架.实验结果表明,该方法提高了回归测试效率和测试系统的可移植性.

  16. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning ...

  17. Rozanov and the Word

    OpenAIRE

    Dimbleby, L. L.

    1996-01-01

    The thesis is an attempt to relate aspects of Rozanov's writing to the Russian tradition of the word, as exemplified in the work of writers and thinkers, contemporary and near-contemporary to Rozanov. The first part establishes key features of this tradition through the work of writers such as Ern, Losev, Mandel'shtam and Averintsev. The relevance of Bakhtin for a reading of Rozanov, and of Rozanov for reading Bakhtin, is argued through an extended comparison of the tw...

  18. Time to be BRAVE: is educating surgeons the key to unlocking the potential of randomised clinical trials in surgery? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Shelley; Mills, Nicola; Cawthorn, Simon J; Donovan, Jenny; Blazeby, Jane M

    2014-03-14

    Well-designed randomised clinical trials (RCTs) provide the best evidence to inform decision-making and should be the default option for evaluating surgical procedures. Such trials can be challenging, and surgeons' preferences may influence whether trials are initiated and successfully conducted and their results accepted. Preferences are particularly problematic when surgeons' views play a key role in procedure selection and patient eligibility. The bases of such preferences have rarely been explored. Our aim in this qualitative study was to investigate surgeons' preferences regarding the feasibility of surgical RCTs and their understanding of study design issues using breast reconstruction surgery as a case study. Semistructured qualitative interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 35 professionals practicing at 15 centres across the United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using constant comparative techniques. Sampling, data collection and analysis were conducted concurrently and iteratively until data saturation was achieved. Surgeons often struggle with the concept of equipoise. We found that if surgeons did not feel 'in equipoise', they did not accept randomisation as a method of treatment allocation. The underlying reasons for limited equipoise were limited appreciation of the methodological weaknesses of data derived from nonrandomised studies and little understanding of pragmatic trial design. Their belief in the value of RCTs for generating high-quality data to change or inform practice was not widely held. There is a need to help surgeons understand evidence, equipoise and bias. Current National Institute of Health Research/Medical Research Council investment into education and infrastructure for RCTs, combined with strong leadership, may begin to address these issues or more specific interventions may be required.

  19. Time to be BRAVE: is educating surgeons the key to unlocking the potential of randomised clinical trials in surgery? A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Well-designed randomised clinical trials (RCTs) provide the best evidence to inform decision-making and should be the default option for evaluating surgical procedures. Such trials can be challenging, and surgeons’ preferences may influence whether trials are initiated and successfully conducted and their results accepted. Preferences are particularly problematic when surgeons’ views play a key role in procedure selection and patient eligibility. The bases of such preferences have rarely been explored. Our aim in this qualitative study was to investigate surgeons’ preferences regarding the feasibility of surgical RCTs and their understanding of study design issues using breast reconstruction surgery as a case study. Methods Semistructured qualitative interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 35 professionals practicing at 15 centres across the United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using constant comparative techniques. Sampling, data collection and analysis were conducted concurrently and iteratively until data saturation was achieved. Results Surgeons often struggle with the concept of equipoise. We found that if surgeons did not feel ‘in equipoise’, they did not accept randomisation as a method of treatment allocation. The underlying reasons for limited equipoise were limited appreciation of the methodological weaknesses of data derived from nonrandomised studies and little understanding of pragmatic trial design. Their belief in the value of RCTs for generating high-quality data to change or inform practice was not widely held. Conclusion There is a need to help surgeons understand evidence, equipoise and bias. Current National Institute of Health Research/Medical Research Council investment into education and infrastructure for RCTs, combined with strong leadership, may begin to address these issues or more specific interventions may be required. PMID:24628821

  20. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  1. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  2. 解构神圣——戴耘艺术中的三对关键词%Deconstruction of Holiness——Three Pairs of Key Words in Dai Yun’s Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷双喜

    2011-01-01

    在中国当代雕塑艺术的发展图景中,青年雕塑家戴耘近年来十分活跃,多次入选重要的当代雕塑展并获奖,引起专业界甚至媒体界的关注。其实,戴耘的艺术创作是在2000年前后进入活跃期的,在他的一系列作品中,都涉及了当代艺术的当下性与历史性的关系,用评论家鲁虹的话说,戴耘"努力地向大众文化学习并汲取精华,同时将自己所发现的文化问题置于历史的文脉中加以认真考量。所以他的作品既有当下性与大众性,又有历史性与深刻性"。1999年,戴耘在中央美术学院雕塑系的通道画廊举办展览时,%To quote Lu Hong, a critic, Daiyun "is making great efforts to learn from mass culture and draw the essence from it, and in the meantime he gives a serious consideration to the cultural problems he has found under the background of history. To sum up, three pairs of key words are found in Dai Yun's works, i.e., imitation and parody, objects and creations, popular culture and monumentality. All these are universally directed to some fundamental reflection upon modern art, but what makes Dai Yun's works so distinctive is that he can combine his artistic thought with traditional art and reality and display in a specific and perfect way.

  3. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...... structure; and as the theoretical basis for our analyses related to sonority we present Basbøll’s Sonority Syllable Model for phonotactics, which is based upon a non-circular version of a sonority hierarchy. We investigate spontaneous child language output in a longitudinal corpus with two children aged 9......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...

  4. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  5. European Society of Cardiology 2009 guidelines for preoperative cardiac risk assessment and perioperative cardiac management in noncardiac surgery. Key messages for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne E. Hoeks

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing noncardiac surgery are at risk of adverse perioperative and long-term outcome. When considering a patient for noncardiac surgery, a careful preoperative clinical risk evaluation and subsequent risk-reduction strategies are essential to reduce postoperative complications. To assist physicians with decision making, clinical guidelines are developed. The aim of clinical guidelines is to improve patient care by providing recommendations about appropriate healthcare in specific circumstances. Development of clinical guidelines is an important component in improving the quality of care. By translating the best available scientific evidence into specific recommendations, guidelines can serve as a useful tool to achieve effective and efficient patient care. In 2009, the first European Society of Cardiology guidelines on perioperative care were developed. This decisionmaking process integrates clinical markers, early coronary evaluation, functional capacity, and the type of surgery involved.

  6. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  7. MAIN TOPICS,ABSTRACTS&KEY WORDS%MAIN TOPICS, ABSTRACTS & KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The surfaces of Aluminum melt drops had been oxidized during the process of flame-spraying, a layer of nonconductive oxide (A1203) was formed while melt-drops solidified in the coating. Meanwhile, the voids in the coating had an effect on the conductive property of Al coating. In this paper, the melt-drop grains were refined by shot peening treatment on the coating surface, porosity of coating got minimized, and conductive property was also improved. Compared with un-shot peened coatings, the resistance of shot peened coating had decreased to 0.043 mΩ while the conductivity was improved by one time.

  8. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  9. Neuronavigation surgery in China: reality and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jin-song; LU Jun-feng; GONG Xiu; MAO Ying; ZHOU Liang-fu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the history,development,and reality of neuronavigation surgery in China and to discuss the future of neuronavigation surgery.Data sources PubMed,the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database,and the VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals were searched for papers published from 1995 to the present with the key words "neuronavigation,""functional navigation," "image-guided," and "stereotaxy." Articles were reviewed for additional citations,and some information was gathered from Web searches.Study selection Articles related to neuronavigation surgery in China were selected,with special attention to application to brain tumors.Results Since the introduction of neurosurgical navigation to China in 1997,this core technique in minimally invasive neurosurgery has seen rapid development.This development has ranged from brain structural localization to functional brain mapping,from static digital models of the brain to dynamic brain-shift compensation models,and from preoperative image-guided surgery to intraoperative real-time image-guided surgery,and from application of imported equipment and technology to use of equipment and technology that possess Chinese independent intellectual property rights.Conclusions The development and application of neuronavigation techniques have made neurological surgeries in China more safe,precise and effective,and less invasive,and promoted the quality of Chinese neurosurgical practice to the rank of the most advance and excellence in the world.

  10. The impact of robotic surgery in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedelman, C A; Abdul-Muhsin, H; Schatloff, O; Palmer, K; Lee, L; Sanchez-Salas, R; Cathelineau, X; Dávila, H; Cavelier, L; Rueda, M; Patel, V

    2013-01-01

    More than a decade ago, robotic surgery was introduced into urology. Since then, the urological community started to look at surgery from a different angle. The present, the future hopes, and the way we looked at our past experience have all changed. Between 2000 and 2011, the published literature was reviewed using the National Library of Medicine database and the following key words: robotic surgery, robot-assisted, and radical prostatectomy. Special emphasis was given to the impact of the robotic surgery in urology. We analyzed the most representative series (finished learning curve) in each one of the robotic approaches regarding perioperative morbidity and oncological outcomes. This article looks into the impact of robotics in urology, starting from its background applications before urology, the way it was introduced into urology, its first steps, current status, and future expectations. By narrating this journey, we tried to highlight important modifications that helped robotic surgery make its way to its position today. We looked as well into the dramatic changes that robotic surgery introduced to the field of surgical training and its consequence on its learning curve. Basic surgical principles still apply in Robotics: experience counts, and prolonged practice provides knowledge and skills. In this way, the potential advantages delivered by technology will be better exploited, and this will be reflected in better outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Anesthesia Maintenance During Mini-Invasive Cardiac Valve Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Krichevsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on own experience and published data the authors analyze the features and specific components of anesthesia maintenance during mini-invasive cardiac valve surgery. The following clinically relevant aspects of anesthesia and perioperative intensive care were identified: preoperative patient selection and surgical and anesthesia risk prediction; one-lung ventilation; peripheral connection of circulation and specific features of its performance; control of oxygen delivery in the bed of aortic arch branches; and echocardiographic monitoring. The main risks and probable complications due to these interventions, such as cerebral hypoxia, respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, etc., are described. The mechanisms of their development and the modes of prevention and treatment are shown. Key words: anesthesia in cardiac surgery, mini-invasive cardiac surgery, one-lung ventilation, anesthesia during cardiac valve surgery.

  12. From Word Alignment to Word Senses, via Multilingual Wordnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the successful commercial applications in language processing (text and/or speech dispense with any explicit concern on semantics, with the usual motivations stemming from the computational high costs required for dealing with semantics, in case of large volumes of data. With recent advances in corpus linguistics and statistical-based methods in NLP, revealing useful semantic features of linguistic data is becoming cheaper and cheaper and the accuracy of this process is steadily improving. Lately, there seems to be a growing acceptance of the idea that multilingual lexical ontologisms might be the key towards aligning different views on the semantic atomic units to be used in characterizing the general meaning of various and multilingual documents. Depending on the granularity at which semantic distinctions are necessary, the accuracy of the basic semantic processing (such as word sense disambiguation can be very high with relatively low complexity computing. The paper substantiates this statement by presenting a statistical/based system for word alignment and word sense disambiguation in parallel corpora. We describe a word alignment platform which ensures text pre-processing (tokenization, POS-tagging, lemmatization, chunking, sentence and word alignment as required by an accurate word sense disambiguation.

  13. Word Chain-based Automatic Word Segmentation Method%基于词链的自动分词方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建林; 张国梁

    2000-01-01

    An algorithm for automatic segmentation of Chinese word,which is an improved version of the minimum matching algorithm,is put forward.The key idea of the algorithm is to optimize the word bank and the matching process to enhance the speed and accuracy of word segmentation.By integrating the case bank for processing ambiguous word chain with relevant segmentation rules,the correctness of word segmentation is enhanced,which partly makes up the deficiency in processing natural language.

  14. Adequação dos descritores em Ciências da Saúde para a indexação de dissertações acadêmicas, na área de doenças respiratórias Suitability of Health Science key words for indexing master's degree theses and dissertations in the area of respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Rosas

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O processo de indexação consiste em duas fases: primeira, identificar e representar o conteúdo intelectual de um documento; segunda, traduzir a análise do assunto para uma linguagem específica, utilizando descritores. Na biblioteca do Instituto de Doenças do Tórax da UFRJ, a indexação era realizada por meio de um vocabulário controlado - DeCS (Descritores em Ciências da Saúde. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se são adequados, para indexação, os descritores empregados pelos autores de teses e dissertações de mestrado, na área de doenças respiratórias. MÉTODO: Os descritores de 29 teses e dissertações de mestrado em Tisiologia e Pneumologia, de 1990 a 1996, foram estudados. RESULTADOS: A coleta de dados evidenciou que 29 autores empregaram 101 descritores (3,48 descritores/autor. Dos 101 descritores, 47 (47% eram adequados. CONCLUSÃO: Quarenta e sete por cento dos descritores empregados, nas teses e dissertações do Curso de Mestrado em Tisiologia e Pneumologia do IDT-UFRJ (1990 a 1996, são adequados segundo o DeCS.INTRODUCTION: The process of indexing consisted of two phases: firstly, to identify and represent the intellectual contents of a document; and secondly, the translation of the subject analysis into a specified language, with the aid of key words. At the Instituto de Doenças do Tórax da UFRJ medical library, the indexing was performed through a controlled vocabulary - the MeSH (Medical Subject Headings. The purpose of this study was to identify if the authors' subject headings were adequate for indexing Master's degree theses and dissertations on respiratory diseases. METHOD: The key words of 29 Master theses and dissertations, from 1990 through 1996, were studied. RESULTS: The data collection showed that 29 authors employed 101 key words (3.48 headings/author. Among the 101 key words, 47 (47% were adequate. CONCLUSION: Forty-seven per cent of the key words employed, on Master's degree

  15. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  16. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-11-15

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words "rectum", "rectal", "cancer", "laparoscopy", "robot". After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients.

  17. Social and Cultural Influence on Word Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美曦

    2008-01-01

    Different nations have different social cultures, and the social culture of every nation is developing with the devel-opment of the nation, language is greatly influenced by social culture, which enables language to possess national and historical characteristics. Word is the smallest, independent, meaningful linguistic unit of language. It can well reflect the national and historical characteristics. From synchronic aspect, the social and cultural influence on word meaning is mainly embodied in con-ceptual and associative meanings of word. The incorrespondence of word meaning is a phenomenon that exists in both conceptual and associative meanings of word among different languages. From diachronic aspect, the development of social culture causes some changes of word meaning to some extent. Therefore, social culture plays a key role in vocabulary learning and mastery of a language.

  18. When is a word a word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, M M; McCune, L

    1994-10-01

    Although adult-based words co-occur in the period of transition to speech with a variety of non-word vocalizations, little attention has been given to the formidable problem of identifying these earliest words. This paper specifies explicit, maximally 'inclusive' identification procedures, with criteria based on both phonetic and contextual parameters. A formal system for evaluating phonetic match is suggested, as well as a set of child-derived functional categories reflecting use in context. Analysis of word use across two samples of 10 children each, followed from 0;9 to 1;4, provides evidence to suggest that context-bound words can be 'trained' by focusing on eliciting language, but that the timing of context-flexible word use remains independent of such training.

  19. Robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, M; Marescaux, J

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency in minimally invasive surgery requires intensive and continuous training, as it is technically challenging for unnatural visual and haptic perceptions. Robotic and computer sciences are producing innovations to augment the surgeon's skills to achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery. This article reviews the current use of robotically assisted surgery, focusing on technology as well as main applications in digestive surgery, and future perspectives. The PubMed database was interrogated to retrieve evidence-based data on surgical applications. Internal and external consulting with key opinion leaders, renowned robotics laboratories and robotic platform manufacturers was used to produce state-of-the art business intelligence around robotically assisted surgery. Selected digestive procedures (oesophagectomy, gastric bypass, pancreatic and liver resections, rectal resection for cancer) might benefit from robotic assistance, although the current level of evidence is insufficient to support widespread adoption. The surgical robotic market is growing, and a variety of projects have recently been launched at both academic and corporate levels to develop lightweight, miniaturized surgical robotic prototypes. The magnified view, and improved ergonomics and dexterity offered by robotic platforms, might facilitate the uptake of minimally invasive procedures. Image guidance to complement robotically assisted procedures, through the concepts of augmented reality, could well represent a major revolution to increase safety and deal with difficulties associated with the new minimally invasive approaches. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  1. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  2. Microcomputers: Word Processing. Evaluation Guides. Guide Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter J.

    Designed to provide guidance in selecting the appropriate microcomputer-based word processing program, this document discusses the key characteristics of word processing software, including formatting, editing, merging, and printing. Possible capabilities of word processing features are identified, i.e., indent, tab, center, creation of footnotes,…

  3. Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery MedlinePlus What is bariatric surgery? Bariatric surgery helps people who are very obese to ... What are the endocrine-related benefits of bariatric surgery? Bariatric surgery and the weight loss that results can: ...

  4. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  5. Professional WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Hal; Williams, Brad

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at the internals of the WordPress system.As the most popular blogging and content management platform available today, WordPress is a powerful tool. This exciting book goes beyond the basics and delves into the heart of the WordPress system, offering overviews of the functional aspects of WordPress as well as plug-in and theme development. What is covered in this book?: WordPress as a Content Management System; Hosting Options; Installing WordPress Files; Database Configuration; Dashboard Widgets; Customizing the Dashboard; Creating and Managing Content; Categorizing Your Cont

  6. Combinatorics on words Christoffel words and repetitions in words

    CERN Document Server

    Berstel, Jean; Reutenauer, Christophe; Saliola, Franco V

    2008-01-01

    The two parts of this text are based on two series of lectures delivered by Jean Berstel and Christophe Reutenauer in March 2007 at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, Canada. Part I represents the first modern and comprehensive exposition of the theory of Christoffel words. Part II presents numerous combinatorial and algorithmic aspects of repetition-free words stemming from the work of Axel Thue-a pioneer in the theory of combinatorics on words. A beginner to the theory of combinatorics on words will be motivated by the numerous examples, and the large variety of exercises, which make the book unique at this level of exposition. The clean and streamlined exposition and the extensive bibliography will also be appreciated. After reading this book, beginners should be ready to read modern research papers in this rapidly growing field and contribute their own research to its development. Experienced readers will be interested in the finitary approach to Sturmian words that Christoffel words offe...

  7. Getting the "Words" In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Dwight

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that grammar is not something into which words are plugged but is rather a mechanism by which words are served and that linguistics scientists must begin to devote a major part of their attention to lexicology. (TO)

  8. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  9. What Is Elective Surgery? (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery How to Find Affordable Health Care Financial Management During Crisis Anesthesia Basics Preparing Your Child for Anesthesia Word! Surgery ... Have Surgery? Health Care: What Do You Know? Anesthesia Basics Contact ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  10. Prognostic factors on periapical surgery: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Giménez, Mireia; Sánchez-Torres, Alba

    2015-01-01

    Background Analyze the most important prognostic factors when performing periapical surgery and compare the success rates of distinct authors. Introduction Periapical surgery is an approach to treat non-healing periapical lesions and it should be viewed as an extension of endodontic treatment and not as a separate entity. Material and Methods A search of articles published in Cochrane, PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus was conducted with the key words “prognostic factors”, “prognosis”, “periapical surgery”, “endodontic surgery” and “surgical endodontic treatment”. The inclusion criteria were articles including at least 10 patients, published in English, for the last 10 years. The exclusion criteria were nonhuman studies and case reports. Results 33 articles were selected from 321 initially found. Ten articles from 33 were excluded and finally the systematic review included 23 articles: 1 metaanalysis, 1 systematic review, 2 randomized clinical trials, 6 reviews, 12 prospective studies and 1 retrospective study. They were stratified according to their level of scientific evidence using the SORT criteria. Conclusions Factors associated with a better outcome of periapical surgery are patients ≤45 years old, upper anterior or premolar teeth, ≤10 sized lesions, non cystic lesions, absence of preoperative signs and symptoms, lesions without periodontal involvement, teeth with an adequate root-filling length, MTA as root-end filling material, uniradicular teeth, absence of perforating lesions, apical resection < 3 mm, teeth not associated to an oroantral fistula and teeth with only one periapical surgery. Key words:Prognostic factors, prognosis, periapical surgery, endodontic surgery and surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:26449431

  11. In a Word, History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  12. A Probe to Internet Key Words Search and Online Advertising Trademark Infringement From the Perspective of American Judicial Practice%互联网关键词检索和网络广告商标侵权探微——以美国司法实践为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓东

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of the impact of search engine marketing on trademark law has started contested issues involving infringement of search engine company~s using key words to search advertising trade- marks. Advertisers buy words or phrases including trademarks from search engine companies for the users to search and sometimes bounces out the ads of their own products and services, which causes the protec- tion of trademark rights and the trade mark infringement of search engine companies. Most American courts hold that buying trade-marks as key words search purpose in fact forms the use of commercial usage of the trademarks. And this was going on without the knowledge of the consumers. When the consumers search these key words trade marks, they will misunderstand it as authorized by the trademark owner or think that search results have vital interest relationships with the trademark owners. But till now, the courts haven~t judged this behavior as trademarks confusion.%互联网搜索引擎业务的发展对商标法产生了巨大的冲击,其中带来的一个热点问题就是搜索引擎公司涉嫌关键词检索广告商标侵权。广告发布者从搜索引擎商那里购买包括商标名称在内的词语供网络用户检索,并弹出自己产品或者服务的广告,这就引发了商标权的保护问题及搜索引擎商的商标侵权责任问题。大多数美国法院认为购买商标作为检索的关键词构成商标的商业使用,这种行为也是在消费者不知情的情况下进行的,消费者在网络上检索这些商标关键词时,有可能认为是获得了商标权人的授权或者是搜索的结果与商标权人有利害关系。尽管如此,美国法院迄今为止还没有判决此种行为构成商标混淆。

  13. 译介学视角下女性主义文学批评关键词“Androgyny”的研究%Research on the Key Word "Androgyny" of Feminist Literary Criticism from the Perspective of Medio-translatology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑潇潇

    2011-01-01

    As a key word of feminist literary criticism,Virginia Woolf's "androgyny" has been researched by many feminism researchers in Britain and America.But the concept of Feminist literary criticism was first introduced into China in 1980s and then became the hot topic of academic discussion.During the medio-translatology of "androgyny",it experienced the process of cultural negotiation and cultural conversation.The meaning of the key word is not defined by the western theory but traveling and gaining new meanings among different cultural atmospheres.%伍尔夫提出的"双性同体"观被认为是女性主义文学批评研究重要的关键词,曾被许多英美女性主义研究者研究。在关键词"androgyny"的译介中,它经历了一个文化碰撞和文化对话的语义演变过程,词语的意义不是由西方理论规定的,而是在不同文化场合中游走。

  14. Guess a New Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩加春

    2010-01-01

    @@ When you read,you will find some new words,what should you do?You can look up the words in the dictionary,but it will take you a lot of time.Sometimes you can guess a new word because you know some parts of the new word.For example,a writer means a person who writes something.Sometimes it is not enough to understand a new word,but to know part of it may help you a lot.

  15. Tanslation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2009-01-01

    Being a minor part in the translation field,the translation of color words is far more complex than people may have imagined.Apart from the literal meaning of color words in the target language,there are other factors that affect the understanding.This paper mainly focuses on three main characteristics of color words that make the translation work difficult-color words'variations and combinations,rich symbolic meanings and culture differences.It also provides possible ways to deal with the prickly problem of finding equivalents,the complexity of transferring symbolic meanings and the subtle problem of crossing culture boundaries in translation of color words.

  16. Lexical effects on spoken-word recognition in children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Vidya; Choi, Sangsook; Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian

    2010-02-01

    This study is the first in a series designed to develop and norm new theoretically motivated sentence tests for children. The purpose was to examine the independent contributions of word frequency (i.e., how often words occur in language) and lexical density (the number of similar sounding words or "neighbors" to a target word) to the perception of key words in the new sentence set. Twenty-four children with normal hearing aged 5 to 12 yrs served as participants; they were divided into four equal age-matched groups. The stimuli consisted of 100 semantically neutral sentences that were 5 to 7 words in length. Each sentence contained 3 key words that were controlled for word frequency and lexical density. Words with few neighbors come from sparse neighborhoods, whereas words with many neighbors come from dense neighborhoods. The key words within a sentence belonged to one of the four lexical categories: (1) high-frequency sparse, (2) low-frequency dense, (3) high-frequency dense, and (4) low-frequency sparse. Participants were administered the sentence list and the 300 key words in isolation at 65 dB SPL. Each participant group was tested in spectrally matched noise at one of the four signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs -2, 0, 2, and 4 dB). The percent of words correctly identified was calculated as a function of SNR, key word context (sentences vs. words), and key word lexical category. SNR had a significant effect on the recognition of key words in sentences and in isolation; performance improved at higher SNRs. There were significant main effects of word frequency and lexical density as well as a significant interaction between the two lexical factors. In isolation, high-frequency words were recognized more accurately than low-frequency words. In both word and sentence contexts, sparse words yielded greater accuracy than dense words, irrespective of word frequency. There was a modest but significant negative correlation between lexical density and the recognition of

  17. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Thyroid Surgery Leer en Español Thyroid Surgery GENERAL INFORMATION Your doctor may recommend that ... made in conjunction with your endocrinologist and surgeon. Thyroid Surgery FAQs QUESTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS When thyroid surgery ...

  18. Haemostatic agents in apical surgery. A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clé-Ovejero, Adrià

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood presence in apical surgery can prevent the correct vision of the surgical field, change the physical properties of filling materials and reduce their sealing ability. Objetive To describe which are the most effective and safest haemostatic agents to control bleeding in patients undergoing apical surgery. Material and Methods TWe carried out a systematic review, using Medline and Cochrane Library databases, of human clinical studies published in the last 10 years. Results The agents that proved more effective in bleeding control were calcium sulphate (100%) and collagen plus epinephrine (92.9%) followed by ferric sulphate (60%), gauze packing (30%) and collagen (16.7%). When using aluminium chloride (Expasyl®), over 90% of the apical lesions improved, but this agent seemed to increase swelling. Epinephrine with collagen did not significantly raise either blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusions Despite the use of several haemostatic materials in apical surgery, there is little evidence on their effectiveness and safety. The most effective haemostatic agents were calcium sulphate and epinephrine plus collagen. Epinephrine plus collagen did not seem to significantly raise blood pressure or heart rate during surgery. Aluminium chloride did not increase postoperative pain but could slightly increase postoperative swelling. Randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the haemostatic effectiveness and adverse effects of haemostatic materials in apical surgery. Key words:Haemostasis, apical surgery. PMID:27475689

  19. 膝关节手术后CPM机应用的护理要点分析%Analysis the Nursing Key Points of Application of CPM After Knee Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 夏洪超

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis the nursing key points of application of CPM After knee surgery. Methods Selected 82 cases of bone and joint surgery rehabilitation treatment used the CPM machine from 2013 January to 2014 November, the nursing method and effect of theapplication of CPM treatment were retrospectively analyzed and summarized. Results In the 82 cases, excellent in 33 cases, good in 42 cases, 5 cases, 2 cases were poor, the excellent and good rate was 91.5%. Conclusion Patients with CPM treatment to give effective nursing science, and can accelerate bone healing rate, promote the recovery of joint function, to improve the patients quality of life has an important role.%目的:分析和研究膝关节手术后CPM机应用的护理及效果。方法选取2013年1月~2014年11月膝关节术后患者82例,采用CPM机进行康复治疗,将其应用CPM机治疗时护理方法与效果进行回顾性的分析与总结。结果82例患者中:优42例;良33例;可5例;差2例,优良率为91.5%。结论患者采用CPM机治疗时给予科学、有效护理干预,可加速膝关节术后愈合速度,促进膝关节功能恢复,对提高患者生活质量具有重要作用。

  20. THE SPECIAL STATUS OF EXOGENOUS WORD-FORMATION WITHIN THE GERMAN WORD-FORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilyuk Sergey Aleksandrovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the properties of exogenous word-formation system taking into account the existence of two word-formation systems in modern German. On the basis of foreign research which reveal modern trends in German word-formation connected with the internationalization and the development of new European Latin language. The author defines key features of exogenous word-formation, i.e. foreign origin of wordformation units, unmotivated units, unmotivated interchange in base and affixes as well as limited distribution rules in combination with German word-formation. The article analyzes various approaches to word-division, as well as motivated and unmotivated interchange of consonants in bases and in affixes. Unmotivated interchange showcases a special status of the exogenous word-formation within German. Another item covered by the article is the issue of confix. The article has opinions of researchers about correctness of its separation and a list of its features. The author presents his definition of confix: a confix is a bound exogenous word-formation unit with a certain lexical and semantic meaning and joining other units directly or indirectly (through linking morpheme -o-, which is able to make a base. Moreover, some confixes are able to participate at word-combination and have unlimited distribution. So far, confix showcases the integration of exogenous word-formation and traditional German word-formation. The research proves the special status of exogenous word-formation in German. Its results can be used as a base for further analysis of co-existing word-formation systems in German and determination of their characteristic features.

  1. Word Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Millions of people use Microsoft Word every day and, chances are, you're one of them. Like most Word users, you've attained a certain level of proficiency--enough to get by, with a few extra tricks and tips--but don't get the opportunity to probe much further into the real power of Word. And Word is so rich in features that regardless of your level of expertise, there's always more to master. If you've ever wanted a quick answer to a nagging question or had the thought that there must be a better way, then this second edition of Word Pocket Guide is just what you need. Updated for Word 2003

  2. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  3. Circular words and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Rittaud

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We define the notion of circular words, then consider on such words a constraint derived from the Fibonacci condition. We give several results on the structure of these circular words, then mention possible applications to various situations: periodic expansion of numbers in numeration systems, "gcd-property" of integer sequences, partition of the prefix of the fixed point of the Fibonacci substitution, spanning trees of a wheel. Eventually, we mention some open questions.

  4. On the word ponentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies a very specific use of the word ponentino: It is used as a synonym of ‘Spaniard’ or, in a slightly more general context, as a word to refer to ‘people from the Western Mediterranean’, where Western Mediterranean stands for the Mediterranean sea stretching to the west of Sicily. Therefore, such a use of the word splits the interior sea into two halves, which do neither correspond with the old division between the Western Empire and the Byzantine Empire nor the clash between the Christian world and the Ottoman Empire. We propose an Italian origin for this particular use of the word.

  5. Word 2003 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Want to write great looking documents but can't seem to get ahandle on paragraph structuring? Unfamiliar with some of thebuttons and functions on your menu bar? Need to add page numbersfor a paper but can't find the controls? Word 2003 ForDummies will show you the quick and easy way to navigatethrough the trickiness of Microsoft Word. This book will be yourcomprehensive guide to using this word processor like a pro. Word 2003 For Dummies shows you all the essentials ofbuilding, reviewing, and adding cool new features to Worddocuments. No wonder the previous editions sold over 1.7 millioncopie

  6. 全球品牌的口碑传播路径与关键因素研究--以Canada Goose为个案%Research on Word-of-Mouth Communication Pathways and Key Factors of Global Brands--Case Study of Canada Goose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐

    2016-01-01

    加拿大服装品牌Canada Goose创建58年来,主要借助口碑传播等低成本手段推广品牌,并在2010年后成长为全球知名品牌。在其发展的不同阶段,不仅口碑内容、传播路径和关键因素均有差异,而且口碑传播自身亦从唯一的沟通方式演变为品牌传播的一个组成部分。%Canada Goose, a Canadian brand, has been promoted mainly by low-cost tools such as word-of-mouth communication since it was established 58 years ago, and it has become a world-wide famous brand recently. The contents of word-of-mouth, the communication pathways and key factors differed in the different stages of brand development. What’s more, it has been changed from being the sole way into being one part of the whole structure of brand communication.

  7. Actual Arabic loan-words of religious content (on the material of modern foreign words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shammari Majid Jamil Ashur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Application of thematic classification of actual vocabulary as a whole to the formation of loan words allows to see the uniqueness of seperate groups of the vocabulary. English loan words prevail relating to the sphere of economy, science and technology, loan words from Arabic dominate from the religious vocabulary. Application of field approach to the analysis of actual religious Arabisms revealed both nuclear and peripheral components of the field. At the core of the field there are such Arabisms as Allah and Islam, which can be characterized as key words. However, in unifying the features of these words vary at a number of parameters. The word Allah has zero derivation productivity and at lexicographical description (as opposed to functioning in the language of the media is free of connotations. Arabism, Islam, by contrast, has a high derivation productivity and derived words can express evaluation. Lexicographic description of the Arabism Islam is also quite diverse stylistically and in contents. The core of the field “Muslim religion” also includes a number of words fixed in most modern dictionaries of foreign words. At the periphery of the field there are Arabisms that do not have high levels of frequency, but at the same time as an indicator of dominant Arabisms of religious content among topical Arabisms.

  8. Investigación española en células madre (1997-2010). Localización y evolución de las principales líneas de investigación a través de los KeyWords Plus

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: analizar y representar la evolución y la dinámica de las principales líneas de investigación en la producción científica española sobre células madre entre los años 1997 y 2010. · Material y Métodos: los documentos recuperados proceden de la base de datos Science Citation Index (SCI). Las unidades de análisis han sido los descriptores KeyWords Plus (KW+). Las herramientas utilizadas para la visualización han sido el software Pajek, en combinación con el algoritmo PathfinderN...

  9. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  10. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  11. Manage Your Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Betty R.

    Words, like any other information resource, must be managed in order to contribute to the achievement of organizational goals. Managing communication refers to planning, organizing, leading, and controlling words. Planning determines goals and how they can be best accomplished, and aids in providing direction for the message, thus increasing the…

  12. Manage Your Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Betty R.

    Words, like any other information resource, must be managed in order to contribute to the achievement of organizational goals. Managing communication refers to planning, organizing, leading, and controlling words. Planning determines goals and how they can be best accomplished, and aids in providing direction for the message, thus increasing the…

  13. Magritte's Words and Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Georges

    1989-01-01

    Argues that Rene Magritte's experiments with words and images are preceded by other experiments with his surrealist friends in Brussels. States that the surrealists' failure to adequately represent women causes Magritte to treat both images and words as mere representations, subject to an equally radical splitting from the "real" thing…

  14. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  15. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  16. A New Academic Word List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxhead, Averil

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and evaluation of a new academic word list that was completed from a corpus of 3.5 million running words of written academic text by examining the range and frequency of words outside the first 2,000 most frequently occurring words in English. Explains the problems with existing word lists intended to guide materials…

  17. Word generalization by a dog (Canis familiaris: is shape important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile van der Zee

    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs.

  18. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  19. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  20. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  1. Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Videos: What Do Cataracts Look Like? Cataract Surgery Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Elena M ... how they work. What to expect with cataract surgery Before surgery: Your ophthalmologist will measure your eye ...

  2. Unveiling the relationship between complex networks metrics and word senses

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/98/18002

    2013-01-01

    The automatic disambiguation of word senses (i.e., the identification of which of the meanings is used in a given context for a word that has multiple meanings) is essential for such applications as machine translation and information retrieval, and represents a key step for developing the so-called Semantic Web. Humans disambiguate words in a straightforward fashion, but this does not apply to computers. In this paper we address the problem of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) by treating texts as complex networks, and show that word senses can be distinguished upon characterizing the local structure around ambiguous words. Our goal was not to obtain the best possible disambiguation system, but we nevertheless found that in half of the cases our approach outperforms traditional shallow methods. We show that the hierarchical connectivity and clustering of words are usually the most relevant features for WSD. The results reported here shine light on the relationship between semantic and structural parameters of ...

  3. Chinese word sense disambiguation based on neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting; LU Zhi-mao; LANG Jun; LI Sheng

    2005-01-01

    The input of a network is the key problem for Chinese word sense disambiguation utilizing the neural network. This paper presents an input model of the neural network that calculates the mutual information between contextual words and the ambiguous word by using statistical methodology and taking the contextual words of a certain number beside the ambiguous word according to ( - M, + N). The experiment adopts triple-layer BP Neural Network model and proves how the size of a training set and the value of M and N affect the performance of the Neural Network Model. The experimental objects are six pseudowords owning three word-senses constructed according to certain principles. The tested accuracy of our approach on a closed-corpus reaches 90. 31% ,and 89. 62% on an open-corpus. The experiment proves that the Neural Network Model has a good performance on Word Sense Disambiguation.

  4. Accent modulates access to word meaning: Evidence for a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Gilbert, Rebecca A; Davis, Matthew H; Gaskell, M Gareth; Farrar, Lauren; Adler, Sarah; Rodd, Jennifer M

    2017-11-01

    Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect. Critically, neutral-accent speech items, created by morphing British- and American-accented recordings, were interpreted in a similar way to accented words when embedded in a context of accented words (Experiment 2). This finding indicates that listeners do not use accent to guide meaning retrieval on a word-by-word basis; instead they use accent information to determine the dialectic identity of a speaker and then use their experience of that dialect to guide meaning access for all words spoken by that person. These results motivate a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition in which comprehenders determine key characteristics of their interlocutor and use this knowledge to guide word meaning access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  6. Application of minimally invasive surgery in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Baiyun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to expound the essence of minimally invasive surgery as well as when and how to use it in craniocerebral trauma surgery according to the characteristics of the disease. In neurosurgery, the importance of tissue protection should be from the inside to the outside, i.e. brain→dura→skull→scalp. In this article, I want to share my opinion and our team’s experience in terms of selecting surgical approaches and incision, surgical treatment of the skull, dura handling, intracranial operation and placement of drainage based on the above theory. I hope this will be helpful for trauma surgeons. Key words: Traumatic brain injuries; Large craniectomy; Surgical procedures, minimally invasive

  7. A prospective clinical study of polycarboxylate cement in periapical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Sánchez, Bárbara; García-Mira, Berta; Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of polycarboxylate cement as retrograde filling material. Design: A prospective clinical study was made of 25 patients subjected to periapical surgery with ultrasound and magnifying loupes, in which polycarboxylate cement was used as retrograde filling material. Measurements were made of the area and diameter of the lesions pre- and postoperatively, and 6 and 12 months after the operation. The apical resection and retrograde filling areas were also measured, and the prognosis following surgery was recorded. Results: A total of 23 patients with 31 apicoectomized teeth were studied (2 patients being lost to follow-up). The mean area of the periapical lesions before surgery was 52.25 mm2, with a mean major diameter of 6.1 mm and a mean lesser diameter of 4.8 mm. The success rate after 12 months was 54.7%, according to the criteria of Von Arx and Kurt. The prognosis was poorer in females, in larger lesions, and in cases with larger retrograde filling areas. Conclusions: Polycarboxylate cement offers good results, with important bone regeneration after periapical surgery. Key words: Periapical surgery, endodontic treatment, polycarboxylate cement. PMID:22143701

  8. GUESSING WORDS FROM CONTEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLing; YangWeidong

    2004-01-01

    For the large number of low-frequency words in .foreign language vocabulary acquisition, the strategy many experts in language teaching methods have been advocating is to teach the students the ways to guess .from context. However, two American scholars, Schatz and Baldwin (1986), on the basis of their experiments made on American students, argued that contextual clues are unreliable predictors of word meanigs.Context does not usually provide clues, but inhibit the correct prediction of word meanings just as o[ten as they facilitate them.

  9. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  10. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) ... bariatric surgery might be an option. About Bariatric Surgery Bariatric surgery had its beginnings in the 1960s, ...

  11. Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

  12. Images/Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that words come from strongly felt images. Contrasts the stark language environment of the author's first school years with his vivid memories of stories and poetry in his grandparents', parents', and his own house. (SR)

  13. Accessing the Spoken Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldman, J.; Renals, S.; Bird, S.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Federico, M.; Fleischhauer, C.; Kornbluh, M.; Lamel, L.; Oard, D.W.; Stewart, C.; Wright, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spoken-word audio collections cover many domains, including radio and television broadcasts, oral narratives, governmental proceedings, lectures, and telephone conversations. The collection, access, and preservation of such data is stimulated by political, economic, cultural, and educational needs.

  14. Rate of complications in scoliosis surgery – a systematic review of the Pub Med literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodall Deborah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal fusion surgery is currently recommended when curve magnitude exceeds 40–45 degrees. Early attempts at spinal fusion surgery which were aimed to leave the patients with a mild residual deformity, failed to meet such expectations. These aims have since been revised to the more modest goals of preventing progression, restoring 'acceptability' of the clinical deformity and reducing curvature. In view of the fact that there is no evidence that health related signs and symptoms of scoliosis can be altered by spinal fusion in the long-term, a clear medical indication for this treatment cannot be derived. Knowledge concerning the rate of complications of scoliosis surgery may enable us to establish a cost/benefit relation of this intervention and to improve the standard of the information and advice given to patients. It is also hoped that this study will help to answer questions in relation to the limiting choice between the risks of surgery and the "wait and see – observation only until surgery might be recommended", strategy widely used. The purpose of this review is to present the actual data available on the rate of complications in scoliosis surgery. Materials and methods Search strategy for identification of studies; Pub Med and the SOSORT scoliosis library, limited to English language and bibliographies of all reviewed articles. The search strategy included the terms; 'scoliosis'; 'rate of complications'; 'spine surgery'; 'scoliosis surgery'; 'spondylodesis'; 'spinal instrumentation' and 'spine fusion'. Results The electronic search carried out on the 1st February 2008 with the key words "scoliosis", "surgery", "complications" revealed 2590 titles, which not necessarily attributed to our quest for the term "rate of complications". 287 titles were found when the term "rate of complications" was used as a key word. Rates of complication varied between 0 and 89% depending on the aetiology of the entity investigated

  15. Accessing word meaning: Semantic word knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch monolingual and bilingual fifth-graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Word knowledge is one of the key elements in reading comprehension and by extension in school success. At the same time, it is not quite clear which components of lexical knowledge play a role in reading. Is it enough to recognize the words we read? Do we need an in-depth understanding of their mean

  16. Future of cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert Alan

    2014-04-01

    Changes in cosmetic surgery will be driven by several key forces. The patient's self-image, and perceived place in society, will continue to drive patients to the cosmetic surgeon as well as to demand newer and better treatments. Technological advances, especially those based on an enhanced understanding of cellular and tissue physiology, promise enhanced tools other than the scalpel for the surgeon. Conceptual advances in our understanding of beauty and patient psychology will lead to a more integrative approach to cosmetic surgery.

  17. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical o

  18. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  19. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...... through exegetical studies of the call narrative (Jer 1), the Temple Sermon (Jer 7) and narratives about the prophet's seclusion from the people (e.g. Jer 16). In addition there is an analysis of Jer 36, the chapter telling about the writing down of the Book of Jeremiah. The main message of this chapter...

  20. 英文摘要%MAIN TOPICS, ABSTRACTS & KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous alloys are linked to bulk metallic glasses by using the compaction method, explosive welding,flash welding, laser welding, electron beam welding, friction welding, friction stir welding, SHS welding and so on, which is paid attention by domestic and foreign scholars gradually. Therefore, the theory, technical characteristics and development of various welding methods are summarized in the paper. Through the research of welding methods of amorphous alloys, it is pointed that the main factors restricting the development of welding technique are low energy density and low thermal stability. Its development direction is presented from the angle of the thermodynamics and dynamics.

  1. key words 】 drug users,HIV,syphilis,HCV,infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective :Through to detection for the drug users of HIV,HCV and syphilis in community maintain the drug treatment clinic of Ziyang city,Sichuan province,to figure out the situation of HIV,HCV and syphilis infection and related risk factors,to provide scientific basis for formulating the ef ective control measures. Methods :The 742 drug users in Ziyang city,Sichuan province of community maintain the drug treatment clinic for nearly 10 years were taken and col ected blood samples for testing. Results :The total of investigation among 742 drug users,HIV infection rate was 1.08 percent (8 /742),HCV infection rate was 38.00 percent (282 /742),Syphilis infection rate was 3. 64 percent (27 /742);HIV,syphilis and HCV co -infection of 20 people,Anti -HCV +positive syphilis of 18 people,co -infection rate was 90.00 percent(18 /30),HIV +anti -HCV positive of 2 people,co -infection rate was 10.00 percent(2 /20);Injection drug users and non injection drug users infection rates were 49.28 percent (204 /414)and 23.78 percent (78 /328),there was a significant dif erences between two groups (P <0.01).Conclusion :There is a risk of transmission and epidemic of blood -borne diseases in Ziyang city,Sichuan province of community maintain the drug treatment clinic.It’s important to conduct HIV behavior surveil ance in drug users,carry out health education based behavioral intervention,,curb the AIDS epi-demic and spreading,reduce HIV,HCV and syphilis spread and dif usion in the crowd of the people.%目的:通过对四川省资阳市社区药物维持治疗门诊吸毒人员 HIV、HCV 和梅毒的检测,了解资阳市社区药物维持治疗门诊吸毒人员的 HIV、HCV 和梅毒的感染现状及相关危险因素,为制定相应防控措施提供科学依据。方法:选取近十年以来,对四川省资阳市社区药物维持治疗门诊吸毒人员共计742例,采集静脉血液标本进行检测。结果:共计调查742名吸毒人员,HIV 感染率为1.08%(8/742),HCV 感染率为38.00%(282/742),梅毒感染率为3.64%(27/742);HIV、梅毒、HCV 合并感染20人,抗-HCV +梅毒阳性18人,合并感染率90.00%(18/30),HIV +抗-HCV 阳性2人,合并感染率10.00%(2/20);注射吸毒者与非注射吸毒者 HCV 感染率分别为49.28%(204/414)和23.78%(78/328),差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。结论:资阳市社区药物维持治疗门诊吸毒人群中存在血源性疾病传播和流行的风险,应加强对吸毒人群的监测,同时开展防病知识宣传教育和行为干预,以减少 HIV、HCV 和梅毒在该人群中的传播和扩散,控制艾滋病等血源性传染病的蔓延和流行。

  2. Patience: A Key Word when Talking with Teachers and Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christy D.

    2012-01-01

    Summer activities have grown old. Going swimming has lost its allure, and boredom has set in. No matter how well parents have planned interesting and educational activities for the summer months or how much they have enjoyed the freedom from stricter schedules and more rigid bedtimes, it is time to transition back to the routines of the school…

  3. GENERATION OF A SET OF KEY TERMS CHARACTERISING TEXT DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Machova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper describes statistical methods (information gain, mutual X^2 statistics, and TF-IDF method for key words generation from a text document collection. These key words should characterise the content of text documents and can be used to retrieve relevant documents from a document collection. Term relations were detected on the base of conditional probability of term occurrences. The focus is on the detection of those words, which occur together very often. Thus, key words, which consist from two terms were generated additionally. Several tests were carried out using the 20 News Groups collection of text documents.

  4. Word 2007 all-in-one desk reference for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2013-01-01

    9 books in 1 - your key to creating great documents! Your one-stop guide to using all the features and power of Word 2007 How do I create columns? What about a mail merge? Can I write my blog in Word? And what on earth is that Ribbon thing? These and dozens of other questions about Word 2007 are answered in this handy reference! Find out how to add graphics and footnotes, create a table of contents, share Word documents, and much more. Discover how to Use the new Ribbon interface Work with templates and themes Insert tables, diagrams, and clip art Collaborate and review documents Create

  5. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  6. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  7. Awareness of the Complications from Impacted Third Molar Surgeries among General Dental Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Farhadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery of impacted third molars and the resultant complications are common occurrences in dental offices. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the awareness of general dental practitioners in Tabriz of complications of surgeries of impacted third molars. Materials and methods: In the present study a researcher-made questionnaire was completed by 186 randomly selected general dentists in Tabriz. After collecting the questionnaires and extractions of data, descriptive statistical methods and chi-squared test were used to evaluate the relationship between personal demographic variables (independent and the dependent variable of the study with SPSS 14. Statistical significance was set at P0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results, the awareness of general dental practitioners in Tabriz of the complications of impacted third molar surgeries was at a moderate level.   Key words: Awareness; general dental practitioner; impacted third molar; complications;

  8. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  9. Empirical studies on word representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    One of the most fundamental tasks in natural language processing is representing words with mathematical objects (such as vectors). The word representations, which are most often estimated from data, allow capturing the meaning of words. They enable comparing words according to their semantic simila

  10. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  11. Words are not things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219

  12. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C

    2000-12-01

    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  13. 基于翻译视角谈准确把握PVS评估关键词语对提升我国兽医体系能力的启示及意义%Accurate Translation and Comprehension of Some Key Words in OIE PVS Tool for Enhancement of China’s Veterinary Service Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛林

    2015-01-01

    It is of critical importance to accurately translate and comprehend OIE PVS Tool accurately. The article ex-plores the correct usage of such key words as veterinary services,veterinary statutory body,veterinary authority, interaction with stakeholders and access to markets in its latest version. Suggestions are made to accurately comprehend the original sense in translation so as to do a good job at PVS promotion and veterinary services building in China.%本文从《OIE兽医体系效能评估工具》(OIE PVS Tool)最新版本中的关键词入手,指出要正确翻译、准确理解PVS Tool,将veterinary services、veterinary statutory body、veterinary authority、interaction with stake-holders、access to markets等5个词语进行精确定义,充分尊重英文原意,做好我国PVS及兽医体系建设工作。

  14. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  15. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    Ricerche Istituto Nazionale I Psicologia , Roma Italy. A different, but not unrelated, approach is to use word association norms to study other types of... Psicologia , 1961 , 55, 1,13-155. Chiari, S. 11 comportamento associative nell’eta ovolutiva, Rivista di Psicologia , 1 96 1b , 55, 175-189. Cofer, C.N...and Russell, VI.A. Systematic changes in word association norms: 1910-1952. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 19C0, 60, 293-303. lilb Kurez, I

  16. Word of mouth komunikacija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' buying decision is very complex multistep process in which a lot of factors have significant impact. Traditional approach to the problem of communication between a company and its consumers, implies usage of marketing mix instruments, mostly promotion mix, in order to achieve positive purchase decision. Formal communication between company and consumers is dominant comparing to informal communication, and even in marketing literature there is not enough attention paid to this type of communication such as Word of Mouth. Numerous of research shows that consumers emphasize crucial impact of Word of Mouth on their buying decision. .

  17. Berge, word lug! Werklikheid, word water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Viljoen

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Breyten Breytenbach is vandag erg omstrede; sy werk ook. Omstrede in die eerste instansie om sy politieke betrokkenheid. Hy skryf iramers (of haal aan "The duty of the artist is to overthrow his government" (Boom p 119. Sy digbundel Skrytj om 'n sinkende skip blou te verf (1972 is om politieke redes verbied - twee jaar nadat dit verskyn het. Sy jongste prosaboek, 'n Seisoen in die paradys (ironiese sinspeling op Rimbaud se Une Saison en enfer, sal - uit vrees vir sensuur om politieke redes - waarskynlik nooit verskyn nie (Anon 1975a kol 1. 'n Paar hoofstukke daarvan het darem al in Rapport verskyn (Breytenbach 1974c. By sy verhoor in Pretoria het Breytenbach onder andere om verskoning gevra vir die dinge wat hy in Skryt geskryf het, maar dit het sy omstredenheid eerder vererger. Hierdie dinge mag nie uit die oog verloor word nie, omdat dit neig om die oordeel oor sy werk te vertroebel.

  18. Nose Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Health Home Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2017. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  19. After Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around ... the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

  20. A Newly Invented Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀芹

    2004-01-01

    It's not only rocket scientists and journalists who are following the course of "Shenzhou V', or "Divine Vessel V'. There are also lexicographers, or dictionary compilers. The flight of the spacecraft last week might help put some new words into orbit.

  1. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful…

  2. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...

  3. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  4. New Words and Expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福生

    1984-01-01

    @@ To start with, I mention that certain new words and expressions are used relatively often by journalists when they compose reports and articles. Their writing is said to be all right for a newspaper, but that lacks imagination and beauty. Examples:

  5. Depth keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvili, Ronen; Kaplan, Amir; Ofek, Eyal; Yahav, Giora

    2003-05-01

    We present a new solution to the known problem of video keying in a natural environment. We segment foreground objects from background objects using their relative distance from the camera, which makes it possible to do away with the use of color for keying. To do so, we developed and built a novel depth video camera, capable of producing RGB and D signals, where D stands for the distance to each pixel. The new RGBD camera enables the creation of a whole new gallery of effects and applications such as multi-layer background substitutions. This new modality makes the production of real time mixed reality video possible, as well as post-production manipulation of recorded video. We address the problem of color spill -- in which the color of the foreground object is mixed, along its boundary, with the background color. This problem prevents an accurate separation of the foreground object from its background, and it is most visible when compositing the foreground objects to a new background. Most existing techniques are limited to the use of a constant background color. We offer a novel general approach to the problem with enabling the use of the natural background, based upon the D channel generated by the camera.

  6. Recovery Following Orthognathic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    USAF Chief Administration 13. ABSTRACT (Mlaxomum 200 words ) Acaesslon For WTTS CPA&t DTIC TAB [1 Unlnlnounced 3)¶’rt QUTALIT 32CT! By~i~’bt f Ditiu~tif...cardiovascular physiology. Int J Adult Orthod Orthognath Surg 1986;1:133-159. 3. Zimmer B, Schwestka R, Kubein-Meesenburg D: Changes in mandibu- lar...mobility after different procedures of orthoganthic surgery. Eur J Orthod 1992;14:188-197. 4. Aragon SB, Van Sickels JE: Mandibular range of motion with

  7. Cosmetic surgery: medicolegal considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piras Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic surgery is one of the two branches of plastic surgery. The characteristic of non-necessity of this surgical speciality implies an increased severity in the evaluation of the risk-benefit balance. Therefore, great care must be taken in providing all the information necessary in order to obtain valid consent to the intervention. We analyzed judgments concerning cosmetic surgery found in national legal databases. A document of National Bioethics Committee (CNB was also analyzed. Conclusion: The receipt of valid, informed consent is of absolute importance not only to legitimise the medical-surgical act, but it also represents the key element in the question concerning the existence of an obligation to achieve certain results/use of certain methods in the cosmetic surgery.

  8. 美国话语与美国文化%American Words and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏

    2003-01-01

    Language is a key component part of culture. It reflects culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words reflect American culture, including their custom, their view of value, their character traits. Being a melting pot, American words melt a lot of loanwords. The exaggerated use of words shows Americans are self-confidence. They also use beautified words to show their wish to life, to future. They can use common words, usually slang to express special ideas. By doing so, they create something new and original. Learning American English, especially studying American words, we can see some typical traits of American culture.

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws and ... Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by ...

  10. Right word making sense of the words that confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  11. The Effects of Learning from Word Pairs on Word Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin Sarimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an essential role in language learning. The lack of vocabulary might cause incompetency to language users. It is therefore very important for language instructors to find suitable ways of teaching vocabulary since learning vocabulary consists of learning various aspects of word knowledge. These aspects include orthography, meaning and form, collocation, association and grammatical functions. There are various methods that could be used in gaining aspects of word knowledge. The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent are aspects of word knowledge gained by learning from word pairs. 120 secondary school students were divided into four groups of thirty students. The first group was given a set of Malay Translation, the second, English Translation, the third, Malay Definition and the fourth, English Definition word pair to learn followed by word knowledge tests. The results show that all word pairs promote large gains in learning aspects of word knowledge. The scores between the groups were also compared and it was found that the mean score of the Malay Definition word pair group is the highest, followed by the Malay Translation word pair group, the English Translation word pair group, and English Definition word pair group.

  12. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  13. Word Origins: Building Communication Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes examining word origins as a teaching strategy for helping middle school students speak the language of mathematics as well as promote students' general vocabulary development. Includes roots, meanings, related words, and notes for middle school mathematics vocabulary. (KHR)

  14. Word Origins: Building Communication Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes examining word origins as a teaching strategy for helping middle school students speak the language of mathematics as well as promote students' general vocabulary development. Includes roots, meanings, related words, and notes for middle school mathematics vocabulary. (KHR)

  15. Recipes: beyond the words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores recipes and food writing from the perspective of linguistics—or, more specifically, pragmatics. It looks briefly at the discourse of recipes, at how they work and what kinds of linguistic structures are typically involved. The main theme of the paper, however, is that the best food writing is as much about the images and feelings the writer wants to conjure in the mind of the reader as it is about the words it contains, or the way that discourse is set out. In order to shed any real light on recipe writing, then, we need to explain how they manage to convey moods, impressions, emotions, and feelings. We need to go beyond the words. The paper features examples from, among others, the work of Elizabeth David and Edouard de Pomaine, serving to illustrate the theoretical points made.

  16. From Words to Concepts: Focusing on Word Knowledge When Teaching for Conceptual Understanding Within an Inquiry-Based Science Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Berit S.; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative video study explores how two elementary school teachers taught for conceptual understanding throughout different phases of science inquiry. The teachers implemented teaching materials with a focus on learning science key concepts through the development of word knowledge. A framework for word knowledge was applied to examine the students' level of word knowledge manifested in their talk. In this framework, highly developed knowledge of a word is conceptual knowledge. This includes understanding how the word is situated within a network of other words and ideas. The results suggest that students' level of word knowledge develops toward conceptual knowledge when the students are required to apply the key concepts in their talk throughout all phases of inquiry. When the students become familiar with the key concepts through the initial inquiry activities, the students use the concepts as tools for furthering their conceptual understanding when they discuss their ideas and findings. However, conceptual understanding is not promoted when teachers do the talking for the students, rephrasing their responses into the correct answer or neglecting to address the students' everyday perceptions of scientific phenomena.

  17. Hypnosis: medicine's dirty word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, William N

    2006-10-01

    This paper attempts to understand the relationship between the clinical efficacy of hypnosis and its negative perception among many medical educators, practitioners and the general public. By exploring the history of hypnosis, an attempt was made to point out several events that may have led to both the past and current misperception of hypnosis which the author believes have caused hypnosis to become "medicine's dirty word".

  18. Plagiarism: Words and ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' labe...

  19. The Importance of Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet

    2002-01-01

    Living in China without knowing its language, I found myself in a strange si-lence. Yet out of this silence came a beatiful lesson. I learned that without words to highlight our differences, the language of emo-tion reveals us to be the same. We all love, hope, fear and dream. We long for ac-ceptance. We thrive in warm families. We all laugh and cry.

  20. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  1. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  2. WORD OF THE MONTH: Etymology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Etymology is the study of the history and origin of words and the way they' ve changed throughout history. The word etymology itself comes from two Greek words: "etumon" (which means "true sense" ), and "logia" (which means "study" ). The origin of words

  3. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  4. Skipped words and fixated words are processed differently during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether words are processed differently when they are fixated during silent reading than when they are skipped. According to a serial processing model of eye movement control (e.g., EZ Reader) skipped words are fully processed (Reichle, Rayner, Pollatsek, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(04):445-476, 2003), whereas in a parallel processing model (e.g., SWIFT) skipped words do not need to be fully processed (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, Kliegl, Psychological Review, 112(4):777-813, 2005). Participants read 34 sentences with target words embedded in them while their eye movements were recorded. All target words were three-letter, low-frequency, and unpredictable nouns. After the reading session, participants completed a repetition priming lexical decision task with the target words from the reading session included as the repetition prime targets, with presentation of those same words during the reading task acting as the prime. When participants skipped a word during the reading session, their reaction times on the lexical decision task were significantly longer (M = 656.42 ms) than when they fixated the word (M = 614.43 ms). This result provides evidence that skipped words are sometimes not processed to the same degree as fixated words during reading.

  5. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-01

    How often a given word is used, relative to other words, can convey information about the word's linguistic utility. Using Google word data for 3 languages over the 209-year period 1800-2008, we found by analyzing word use an anomalous recent change in the birth and death rates of words, which indicates a shift towards increased levels of competition between words as a result of new standardization technology. We demonstrate unexpected analogies between the growth dynamics of word use and the growth dynamics of economic institutions. Our results support the intriguing concept that a language's lexicon is a generic arena for competition which evolves according to selection laws that are related to social, technological, and political trends. Specifically, the aggregate properties of language show pronounced differences during periods of world conflict, e.g. World War II.

  6. Word pair classification during imagined speech using direct brain recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie; Brunner, Peter; Iturrate, Iñaki; Millán, José Del R.; Schalk, Gerwin; Knight, Robert T.; Pasley, Brian N.

    2016-05-01

    People that cannot communicate due to neurological disorders would benefit from an internal speech decoder. Here, we showed the ability to classify individual words during imagined speech from electrocorticographic signals. In a word imagery task, we used high gamma (70–150 Hz) time features with a support vector machine model to classify individual words from a pair of words. To account for temporal irregularities during speech production, we introduced a non-linear time alignment into the SVM kernel. Classification accuracy reached 88% in a two-class classification framework (50% chance level), and average classification accuracy across fifteen word-pairs was significant across five subjects (mean = 58% p perception and production. These data represent a proof of concept study for basic decoding of speech imagery, and delineate a number of key challenges to usage of speech imagery neural representations for clinical applications.

  7. Endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, B S; Rhodes, J S

    2014-03-01

    A better understanding of endodontic disease and the causes of treatment failure has refined the role of surgery in endodontics. The advent of newer materials, advances in surgical armamentarium and techniques have also led to an improved endodontic surgical outcome. The aim of this article is to provide a contemporary and up-to-date overview of endodontic surgery. It will focus primarily on the procedures most commonly performed in endodontic surgery.

  8. Rapid formation and flexible expressionof memories of subliminal word pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peter Reber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Our daily experiences are incidentally and rapidly encoded as episodic memories. Episodic memories consist of numerous associations (e.g., who gave what to whom where and when that can be expressed flexibly in new situations. Key features of episodic memory are speed of encoding, its associative nature, and its representational flexibility. Another defining feature of human episodic memory has been consciousness of encoding/retrieval. Here, we show that humans can rapidly form associations between subliminal words and minutes later retrieve these associations even if retrieval words were conceptually related to, but different from encoding words. Because encoding words were presented subliminally, associative encoding and retrieval were unconscious. Unconscious association formation and retrieval were dependent on a preceding understanding of task principles. We conclude that key computations underlying episodic memory – rapid encoding and flexible expression of associations - can operate outside consciousness.

  9. Word Learning: An ERP Investigation of Word Experience Effects on Recognition and Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., "gloaming") in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no…

  10. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balass, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Nelson, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonol

  11. English words structure, history, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Katamba, Francis

    2015-01-01

    How do we find the right word for the job? Where does that word come from? Why do we spell it like that? And how do we know what it means? Words are all around us - we use them every day to communicate our joys, fears, hopes, opinions, wishes and demands - but we don't often think about them too deeply. In this highly accessible introduction to English words, the reader will discover what the study of words can tell them about the extraordinary richness and complexity of our daily vocabulary and about the nature of language in general. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the structure of words, the meaning of words, how their spelling relates to pronunciation, how new words are manufactured or imported from other languages, and how the meaning of words changes with the passage of time. It also investigates how the mind deals with words by highlighting the amazing intellectual feat performed routinely when the right word is retrieved from the mental dic...

  12. Computing with Words Principal Concepts and Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Zadeh, Lotfi A

    2012-01-01

    In essence, Computing with Words (CWW) is a system of computation in which the objects of computation are predominantly words, phrases and propositions drawn from a natural language. CWW is based on fuzzy logic. In science there is a deep-seated tradition of according much more respect to numbers than to words. In a fundamental way, CWW is a challenge to this tradition. What is not widely recognized is that, today, words are used in place of numbers in a wide variety of applications ranging from digital cameras and household appliances to fraud detection systems, biomedical instrumentation and subway trains.  CWW offers a unique capability—the capability to precisiate natural language. Unprecisiated (raw) natural language cannot be computed with. A key concept which underlies precisiation of meaning is that of the meaning postulate: A proposition, p, is a restriction on the values which a variable, X—a variable which is implicit in p—is allowed to take. CWW has an important ramification for mathema...

  13. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  14. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  15. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning.

  16. Robotic surgery of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  17. Plagiarism: words and ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-09-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' label should not be used for deeds which are very different in nature and importance.

  18. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by a trained ... Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by a trained ...

  19. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely...... impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter...

  20. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... etc.). Surgery is also an option for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease or a “toxic nodule” (see Hyperthyroidism brochure ), for large and multinodular goiters and for any goiter that may be causing ... MEANS OF TREATMENT? Surgery is definitely indicated to remove nodules suspicious ...

  1. Brain activation during word identification and word recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Ostergaard, Arne L.; Law, Ian

    1998-01-01

    dramatically alter the degree to which word priming shows a dissociation from word recognition; i.e., effects of a number of factors on priming paralleled their effects on recognition memory tests when the words were degraded at test. In the present study, cerebral blood flow changes were measured while...... subjects performed the word identification (reading) and recognition memory tasks used previously by Ostergaard. The results are the direct comparisons of the two tasks and the effects of stimulus degradation on blood flow patterns during the tasks. Clear differences between word identification and word...... recognition were observed: the latter task evoked considerably more prefrontal activity and stronger cerebellar activation. Stimulus degradation was associated with focal increases in bilateral fusiform regions within the occipital lobe. No task, degradation, or item repetition effects were demonstrated...

  2. From switch-words to stitch-words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litowitz, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    During the course of treatment with some patients a word or phrase reappears that functions to connect layers of fantasies and to identify a history of conflicts and defenses. These stitch-words are compared to the switch-words proposed by Freud as points of condensation in dreams, as well as to other forms of idiolectic evidence (e.g. metaphors) that inform therapeutic listening. Stitch-words expand on Freud's concept by taking into account syntactic aspects of language that function to hold together layers of unconscious fantasies. A description of the grammatical type of words (syncategorematic) best suited to function as stitch-words is presented and illustrated by their use in two clinical examples ('normal', 'fair'). The therapeutic value of listening to, as well as through, the surface of patients' language is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Does the piezoelectric surgical technique produce fewer postoperative sequelae after lower third molar surgery than conventional rotary instruments? A systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moraissi, E A; Elmansi, Y A; Al-Sharaee, Y A; Alrmali, A E; Alkhutari, A S

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to answer the clinical question "Does the piezoelectric surgical technique produce fewer postoperative sequelae after lower third molar surgery than conventional rotary instruments?" A systematic and electronic search of several databases with specific key words, a reference search, and a manual search were performed from respective dates of inception through November 2014. The inclusion criteria were clinical human studies, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), and retrospective studies, with the aim of comparing the piezoelectric surgical osteotomy technique to the standard rotary instrument technique in lower third molar surgery. Postoperative sequelae (oedema, trismus, and pain), the total number of analgesics taken, and the duration of surgery were analyzed. A total of nine articles were included, six RCTs, two CCTs, and one retrospective study. Six studies had a low risk of bias and three had a moderate risk of bias. A statistically significant difference was found between piezoelectric surgery and conventional rotary instrument surgery for lower third molar extraction with regard to postoperative sequelae (oedema, trismus, and pain) and the total number of analgesics taken (P=0.0001, P=0.0001, Ppiezoelectric osteotomy group (Ppiezoelectric surgery significantly reduced the occurrence of postoperative sequelae (oedema, trismus, and pain) and the total number of analgesics taken compared to the conventional rotary instrument technique in lower third molar surgery, but required a longer surgery time.

  4. Choosing surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstensson, Carina; Lohmander, L; Frobell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective was to understand patients' views of treatment after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and their reasons for deciding to request surgery despite consenting to participate in a randomised controlled trial (to 'cross-over'). METHODS: Thirty-four in......-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (aged 18-35), physically active individuals with ACL rupture who were participating in a RCT comparing training and surgical reconstruction with training only. 22/34 were randomised to training only but crossed over to surgery. Of these, 11 were interviewed...... before surgery, and 11 were interviewed at least 6 months after surgery. To provide additional information, 12 patients were interviewed before randomisation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the Framework approach. RESULTS: Strong preference for surgery was commonplace...

  5. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  6. The effects of word frequency and word predictability during first- and second-language paragraph reading in bilingual older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2017-03-01

    We used eye movement measures of paragraph reading to examine how word frequency and word predictability impact first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) word processing in matched bilingual older and younger adults, varying in amount of current L2 experience. Our key findings were threefold. First, across both early- and late-stage reading, word frequency effects were generally larger in older than in younger adults, whereas word predictability effects were generally age-invariant. Second, across both age groups and both reading stages, word frequency effects were larger in the L2 than in the L1, whereas word predictability effects were language-invariant. Third, graded differences in current L2 experience modulated L1 and L2 word processing in younger adults, but had no impact in older adults. Specifically, greater current L2 experience facilitated L2 word processing, but impeded L1 word processing among younger adults only. Taken together, we draw 2 main conclusions. First, bilingual older adults experience changes in word-level processing that are language-non-specific, potentially because lexical accessibility decreases with age. Second, bilingual older adults experience changes in word-level processing that are insensitive to graded differences in current L2 experience, potentially because lexical representations reach a functional ceiling over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Respiratory physiotherapy in the pulmonary dysfunction after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Julia Alencar; Costa-Val, Ricardo; Rossetti, Márcia Braz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to make a critical review about the different techniques of respiratory physiotherapy used following cardiac surgery and this effectiveness in reverting pulmonary dysfunction. It has been used as reference publications in English and Portuguese using as key words thoracic surgery, respiratory exercises, physical therapy modalities, postoperative complications and myocardial revascularization, contained in the following databases BIREME, SciELO Brazil, LILACS, PUBMED, from 1997 to 2007. A secondary search of the reference list of identified articles also was made. It has been selected eleven randomized trials (997 patients). For the articles included incentive spirometry was used in three; deep breathing exercises in six; deep breathing exercises added to positive expiratory pressure in four and positive airway pressure added to inspiratory resistance in two. Three trials used intermittent positive pressure breathing. Continuous positive airway pressure and bi-level positive airway pressure has been used in three and two trials. The protocols used in the studies were varied and the co interventions were present in a big part of these. The different analyzed varieties and the time of postoperatory follow up make a comparative analysis difficult. Pulmonary dysfunction is evident in the postoperatory period of cardiac surgery. The use of noninvasive ventilation has been associated with good results in the first postoperatory days. Despite the known importance of postoperatory respiratory physiotherapy, until now, there is no literary consensus about the superiority of one technique over the others.

  8. The Real Suffering and Classical Feelings of Last Century:Interpretation of the Key Words of Tong Bo Yu by Guo Xiaodong%逝去时代的现实忧患与古典情怀--郭小东小说《铜钵盂》关键词解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠平

    2016-01-01

    Taking “blind musician”, “water trader” and “revolutionary” as key words, Guo Xiaodong's novel Tong Bo Yu tells patrilineal and matrilineal family story, displaying the overseas remittance history and Chaoshan culture of 20th century, and re-presenting the real suffering and classical feelings of the last century as well. The blind musician is the singer and disseminator of the Chaozhou ballad whose voice reveals nostalgia and individual fate. The water trader or postman is the practitioners and writers of the history of Chaoshan overseas remittance. Their life is full of compassion and faith. The revolutionary party is the subverter and thinker of Chaoshan traditional culture, their thinking presents the antinomy of violence and justice. These three kinds of identity are mutually twisted together to form the symbolic structure of the whole novel, composing a spiritual schema of Chaoshan area.%郭小东家族小说《铜钵盂》以“瞽师”“水客”“革命党”为关键词,讲述父系和母系家族的故事,书写20世纪潮汕地区的侨批史与潮汕文化,再现了一个逝去时代的现实忧患与古典情怀。瞽师是潮州歌谣的演绎者和传播者,他们的声音充盈着乡愁与命运的启应。水客批脚是潮汕侨批史的实践者和书写者,他们的人生流淌着信守与悲悯的情怀。革命党是潮汕传统文化的颠覆者和反思者,他们的思考呈现出暴力与正义的背反。三者的身份相互流转,共同形成小说整体的象征结构,谱写出潮汕地区的精神谱系。

  9. Word length effects on novel words: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed.

  10. Estimating affective word covariates using word association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensbergen, Bram; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gert

    2016-12-01

    Word ratings on affective dimensions are an important tool in psycholinguistic research. Traditionally, they are obtained by asking participants to rate words on each dimension, a time-consuming procedure. As such, there has been some interest in computationally generating norms, by extrapolating words' affective ratings using their semantic similarity to words for which these values are already known. So far, most attempts have derived similarity from word co-occurrence in text corpora. In the current paper, we obtain similarity from word association data. We use these similarity ratings to predict the valence, arousal, and dominance of 14,000 Dutch words with the help of two extrapolation methods: Orientation towards Paradigm Words and k-Nearest Neighbors. The resulting estimates show very high correlations with human ratings when using Orientation towards Paradigm Words, and even higher correlations when using k-Nearest Neighbors. We discuss possible theoretical accounts of our results and compare our findings with previous attempts at computationally generating affective norms.

  11. WordPress For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  12. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... psychophysical experiments. Using briefly presented single stimuli (words and letters), we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously we find...... a different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  13. Open heart surgery in dialysis-dependent patients with end stage renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkut Güçlü

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with chronic renal insufficiency remaina risky subgroup in open heart surgery becauseof various reasons. The incidence of cardiovascular diseasein hemodialysis dependent renal failure is found tobe higher when compared with the normal population.Chronic dialysis is still a very important independent riskfactor for mortality and morbidity despite of many studies.In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the outcome ofpatients with chronic renal failure who had undergone toopen cardiac surgery.Methods: The medical charts of 36 patients on maintenancedialysis who underwent cardiovascular surgerywere retrospectively analyzed. Peroperative findings ofthese patients were analyzed from patients’ hospital records.Results: Twenty-seven men (75% and nine women(25% totally 36 patients were included to study. Themean age was 58.3±8.5 (range, 44-76 years. 12 patientsunderwent coronary artery bypass surgery, 10 hadconcomitant coronary artery bypass surgery and valvereplacements, five had valve replacements, three hadconcomitant coronary artery bypass surgery and left ventriculectomy,four had valve replacement with other valverepair, two had aortic surgery due to ascending aortic aneurysms.The mean cross clamp time was 78.1±31.3 minand the mean perfusion time was 158.8±92.2 min. Themean intensive care unit stay was 60±41 hours, and themean hospital stay was 12±5 days. Hospital mortality ratewas %38.8.Conclusions: Cardiac and renal functions are closely associatedwith each other. Cardiac surgery operations canbe applied to patients with end-stage renal failure underacceptable risks. Appropriate preoperative preparationwith good postoperative patient follow-up is necessary tohave acceptable levels of morbidity and mortality rates. JClin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 335-338Key words: Cardiac surgery, chronic renal failure, mortality

  14. Words Used in English Advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁超慧; 郭星余

    2008-01-01

    With the support of some pieces of English advertisement,express the general principles used in the written language of English advertisement,based on the characteristic of advertisement.In the passage,adjective,verb,pronoun,compound word,coinage and connotative word are analyzed to find the basic rules of words used in English advertisement,which can be used to guise the choice of language in advertisements.

  15. Slang Word Identification on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Rushabh Shroff; Amitash Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly known that people use different words to refer to the same things. We aim to find such similar words and classify their usage based on location. We believe this can have multiple real world usage. Such analysis could help linguistic scientists and aid in linguistic training. If a beverage selling company needed to advertise their product, they could tailor their advertisements to use words based on the map above to connect better with the audience so this d...

  16. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  17. Words and possible words in early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

    2013-11-01

    In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. On the Essence of Key Words and Concepts of Zoning and Compartmentalization inTerrestrial Animal Health Code%《陆生动物卫生法典》区域化管理标准中关键词汇和概念的理解与把握

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛林; 孙研

    2016-01-01

    OIE is the WTO reference organization for standards relating to animal health and zoonoses. OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code sets out standards for the improvement of animal health and veterinary public health worldwide,as well as standards for safe international trade in terrestrial animals and their products. The standards of zoning and compartmentalization are widely applied in recent years across the globe. In China,significant progress has been made in the study of zoning and compartmentalization,with great achievement made in practice meanwhile. This article made analysis on key words and key principles in provisions of zoning and compartmentalization,the results of which suggested that with regard to control policies for domestic animal diseases,we should make full use of zoning management approaches,and apply various measures addressing issues at the level of species,farm and a whole zone in order to gradually put animal diseases under control and achieve clean-up status for certain diseases by taking the experiences gained from one place and popularizing it in the whole area. As for risk prevention policies of exotic animal diseases,results of this study revealed that the basic strategy should be to set up“risk buffer zones”along our borders and build“quarantine zones”in our neighboring countries.%世界动物卫生组织(OIE)是世界贸易组织(WTO)合作制定动物卫生和人兽共患病防控技术标准的权威机构,其标准对于各成员科学控制动物疫病、有效保障动物和动物产品正常国际贸易具有重要的指导意义。近些年,OIE区域化标准在各国得到了广泛应用。我国在区域化管理政策研究和实际应用等方面也都取得了很大进展。本文重点分析了《陆生动物卫生法典》区域化章节的关键词汇和概念,提示我们对于国内本土动物疫病,在防治策略上,应充分运用区域化管理措施,从“种、场、区”三个层次

  19. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  20. Use your words!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    "Use your words!" is a phrase admonishing preschoolers to divert their action-proneness to thought and language. Freud's injunction against acting out had a similar aim, placing control over drives in the domain of "inner language." The twenty-first-century psychoanalyst continues to employ models that depend on mentalization viewed from two angles-neural inhibition and social discourse. Psychoanalysts bolster their position by borrowing from the basic scientific work in each area. The recent focus on enactments, intersubjectivity, and social constructivism is reconsidered from an historical vantage point, as is the work that seeks to reconcile recent findings in neuroimaging and cognitive neuroscience. Freud's vision included a holistic hope that a comprehensive science of human beings might be achieved by understanding derived from biological inquiry and the artifacts of social and cultural narratives. The author's experience in both domains is recounted, and a new reconciliation of disparate approaches is offered in linguistic complementarity.

  1. WordPress Top Plugins

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  2. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... a different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  3. Beginning WordPress 3

    CERN Document Server

    Leary, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

  4. Retrieving words from their "meanings"

    OpenAIRE

    Durgar El-Kahlout, İlknur; Durgar El-Kahlout, Ilknur

    2003-01-01

    The human brain is the best memory that can record and keep a huge number of information for a long time. Words, their meanings, domains, relationships between different words, and the grammars of languages are well organized in the linguistic component of brain. While speaking or writing, we can generally express our thoughts and feelings by words without thinking for a long time what the correct words can be. But, sometimes things do not go like clockwork even for human brain. In our daily ...

  5. Words as Things: Development of Word Concept by Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The development of the concept of word is discussed in terms of specific advantages that might be available to bilingual children when compared with their monolingual peers. Three studies are reviewed in which bilingual children show more advanced understanding of some aspects of the concept of word than do monolingual children (Author/LMO)

  6. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  7. CARDIOTHORACIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lbadan, Nigeria. Reprint requests to: Dr. V. O. Adegboye, Department Of Surgery, University College Hospital, Iberian,. Nigeria. ... been shown to be related to the rate of bleeding. .... patients after an interval of conservative/medical treatment.

  8. General Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bbshehu

    underwent major colonic restorative resection between July 1997 and September 199 in order to ... factors, the level of anastomosis and the experience of the surgeon are perhaps the ... indications for surgery and cancer stage were similar.

  9. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  10. Hemorrhoid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and hemorrhoidectomy. In: Delaney CP, ed. Netter's Surgical Anatomy and Approaches . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 26. Review Date 4/5/2015 Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason ...

  11. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional operative approach is an open surgical one to drain the cysts and ... early outcomes of laparoscopic treatment of liver hydatid cysts at our institution. .... O. Radical vs. conservative surgery for hydatid liver cysts: Experience from ...

  12. Outpatient Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thirds of all operations are performed in outpatient facilities, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outpatient surgery provides patients with the convenience of recovering at home, and can cost less. ...

  13. Laparoscopic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgeon’s perspective, laparoscopic surgery may allow for easier dissection of abdominal scar tissue (adhesions), less surgical trauma, ... on Facebook About ACG ACG Store ACG Patient Education & Resource Center Home GI Health and Disease Recursos ...

  14. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  15. [Robotic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, César David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robot´s success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: - Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. - Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. - Allowing depth perception (3D images). - Magnifying strength and movement limits. - Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era.

  16. [Aesthetic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Johannes C

    2006-01-01

    The WHO describes health as physical, mental and social well being. Ever since the establishment of plastic surgery aesthetic surgery has been an integral part of this medical specialty. It aims at reconstructing subjective well-being by employing plastic surgical procedures as described in the educational code and regulations for specialists of plastic surgery. This code confirms that plastic surgery comprises cosmetic procedures for the entire body that have to be applied in respect of psychological exploration and selection criteria. A wide variety of opinions resulting from very different motivations shows how difficult it is to differentiate aesthetic surgery as a therapeutic procedure from beauty surgery as a primarily economic service. Jurisdiction, guidelines for professional conduct and ethical codes have tried to solve this question. Regardless of the intention and ability of the health insurances, it has currently been established that the moral and legal evaluation of advertisements for medical procedures depends on their purpose: advertising with the intent of luring patients into cosmetic procedures that do not aim to reconstruct a subjective physical disorder does not comply with a medical indication. If, however, the initiative originates with the patient requesting the amelioration of a subjective disorder of his body, a medical indication can be assumed.

  17. Words translated in sentence contexts produce repetition priming in visual word comprehension and spoken word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells in oral reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C; Sørensen, J A; Kassem, M

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical outcomes following intraoperative use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various oral reconstructive procedures. PubMed was searched without language restrictions from 2000 to 2011 using the search words stem cell, oral surgery, tissue engineering, sinus lift...

  19. Divine Flesh, Embodied Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Anne-Claire

    2006-01-01

    What has Luce Irigaray's statement that women need a God to do with her thoughts on the relation between body and mind, or the sensible and the intelligible?Using the theological notion 'incarnation' as a hermeneutical key, Anne-Claire Mulder brings together and illuminates the interrelations

  20. 1001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    Buxbaum, Marcella Ottolenghi

    2001-01-01

    This practical, inexpensive volume features over 1,000 common French words, each accompanied by a French sentence demonstrating proper usage. Also included are definitions arranged by such categories as family, food, numbers, and more. (These words are not repeated in the alphabetical section.) A page of Vocabulary Tips explains how to easily recognize hundreds of French/English cognates.

  1. Words or meaning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dodds

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - In the following pages, a brief, personal outline of the history of translation is sketched, so as to determine the whys and wherefores of the form/content dichotomy that seems to be plaguing translators and translation theorists incessantly. From the outset, in Classical times, sense rules supreme. In the late middle ages with the advent of Bible translation in Europe, the word – being the word of God – assumes new-found importance, especially as any deviation from it implies heresy. With Neo-Classicism and the Age of Enlightenment, the original tenets of antiquity unsurprisingly make their comeback, though somewhat short-lived this time. With the Romantics and post-Romantics, foreign lands and cultures gain ever greater interest, as indeed do their various forms of expressions. In contemporary Europe, over the last hundred years or so, with its preoccupation for markets and product diversification, the two schools of thought seem to co-habit quite comfortably, notwithstanding modern linguistic theory that renders form and content into indivisible components of language, thus making the dichotomy fatuous. Riassunto - Nelle pagine seguenti si delinea brevemente una traccia personale della storia della traduzione in modo da determinare i motivi della dicotomia forma/contenuto che pare affliggere costantemente i traduttori e teorici della traduzione. Fin dall'inizio dell’epoca classica, il senso regna sovrano. La parola è considerata spesso niente più di un veicolo modesto per la sublimità del pensiero. Soltanto nel tardo medioevo, con l'avvento della traduzione della Bibbia in Europa, la parola,essendo la parola di Dio, assume una nuova importanza, in quanto ogni deviazione da essa significa un’eresia. Con il Neoclassicismo e l’Illuminismo non sorprende che i principi originali dell'antichità facciano ritorno, anche se solo per breve tempo. Con il Romanticismo e il post-Romanticismo, cresce l’interesse per le

  2. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, ...

  3. Tennis elbow surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is usually an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be given ...

  4. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  5. Mohs micrographic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - Mohs surgery; Basal cell skin cancer - Mohs surgery; Squamous cell skin cancer - Mohs surgery ... Mohs surgery usually takes place in the doctor's office. The surgery is started early in the morning and is ...

  6. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  7. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  8. Easy Ways to Help Remember English Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继红

    2013-01-01

      As one of the three major elements (sound, vocabulary and grammar), the vocabulary plays a decisive role in English learning and everyday communication. However, many students, especially the students at the junior middle school regard remem⁃bering words as a heavy burden. In view of this situation, the thesis narrates the English lexicology’s related theories that can help the students remember words;mainly introduces seven kinds of words’memory methods;and puts forward six proposals about the teaching of English vocabulary. The aim is that the teachers and students can attach full importance to the English vocabulary ’s teaching and learning .Mastering enough vocabulary is the key to apply English successfully. Here, I hope that all of us can make joint efforts to raise the quality of the English vocabulary’s teaching. Let it develop towards the direction of positiveness, effective⁃ness and relaxation, and let the students’remembering words not be dry and dull any more.

  9. Presidents' words - Gianni Deroma

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Gianni Deroma This week we publish the last contributions in the 'Words of presidents' series by giving the floor to Gianni Deroma (2007-2010) and Michel Goossens (2011-2015). "Tu patere legem quam ipse fecisti" This Latin adage has marked my years with the Staff Association (SA). For someone like me, coming from the technical world, the discovery of the importance of the role played by legal matters in the defence of the staff illustrates a new reality and incarnates my years spent with the SA. We, members of personnel, as citizens have as reference the democratic societies in which we live. CERN is not a democracy. The Member States, the Director-General have full powers, or almost. Contrary to citizens of states, we do not elect our leaders. So in that context is it useful to have a Staff Association? Or does it only serve as a necessary alibi for those who have the power? This is where a legal approach makes sense, in counterbalancing the power of our governing ...

  10. Orthognathic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard Larsen, Marie; Thygesen, Torben Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The literature shows that the indications for orthognathic surgery (OS) are often functional problems and unsatisfactory facial esthetics. This study investigated the esthetic outcomes and overall satisfaction following OS. Somatosensory change is a relatively common complication and its influence...... on the level of satisfaction was studied. The social-networking web site Facebook was used to identify the study population. An online questionnaire was performed using the website SurveyMonkey. In all, 105 (9%) respondents from the Danish Facebook group about OS, called Kaebeoperation (jaw surgery), were...... in beauty than women (P = 0.030). Sixty-four percent replied that their attractiveness had been increased after OS. Eighty-six percent were happy with the results and 89% would recommend the surgery to others in need. No significant differences in esthetic results and satisfaction were seen with regard...

  11. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition.

  12. Attention demands of spoken word planning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi; Piai, Vitória

    2011-01-01

    Attention and language are among the most intensively researched abilities in the cognitive neurosciences, but the relation between these abilities has largely been neglected. There is increasing evidence, however, that linguistic processes, such as those underlying the planning of words, cannot proceed without paying some form of attention. Here, we review evidence that word planning requires some but not full attention. The evidence comes from chronometric studies of word planning in picture naming and word reading under divided attention conditions. It is generally assumed that the central attention demands of a process are indexed by the extent that the process delays the performance of a concurrent unrelated task. The studies measured the speed and accuracy of linguistic and non-linguistic responding as well as eye gaze durations reflecting the allocation of attention. First, empirical evidence indicates that in several task situations, processes up to and including phonological encoding in word planning delay, or are delayed by, the performance of concurrent unrelated non-linguistic tasks. These findings suggest that word planning requires central attention. Second, empirical evidence indicates that conflicts in word planning may be resolved while concurrently performing an unrelated non-linguistic task, making a task decision, or making a go/no-go decision. These findings suggest that word planning does not require full central attention. We outline a computationally implemented theory of attention and word planning, and describe at various points the outcomes of computer simulations that demonstrate the utility of the theory in accounting for the key findings. Finally, we indicate how attention deficits may contribute to impaired language performance, such as in individuals with specific language impairment.

  13. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  14. Mapping Persian Words to WordNet Synsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Shamsfard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lexical ontologies are one of the main resourcesfor developing natural language processing and semantic web applications. Mapping lexical ontologies of different languagesis very important for inter-lingual tasks. On the other hand mapping approaches can be implied to build lexical ontologies for a new language based on pre-existing resources of other languages. In this paper we propose a semantic approach for mapping Persian words to Princeton WordNet Synsets. As there is no lexical ontology for Persian, our approach helps not only in building one for this language but also enables semantic web applications on Persian documents. To do the mapping, we calculate the similarity of Persian words and English synsets using their features such as super-classes and subclasses, domain and related words. Our approach is an improvement of an existing one applying in a new domain, which increases the recall noticeably.

  15. [Geriatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino-Netto, Augusto

    2005-10-01

    Modern medicine, which is evidence-based and overly scientific, has forgotten its artistic component, which is very important for surgery in general and for geriatric surgery in particular. The surgeon treating an old patient must be a politician more than a technician, more an artist than a scientist. Like Leonardo da Vinci, he or she must use scientific knowledge with intelligence and sensitivity, transforming the elderly patient's last days of life into a beautiful and harmonious painting and not into something like an atomic power station which, while no doubt useful, is deprived of beauty and sometimes very dangerous.

  16. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzaldi Laura J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  17. How to Memorize English Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓丽

    2016-01-01

    Language is a complicated system, which mainly contains phonology, vocabulary, grammar. The vocabulary is just like stocks used to build the house of a language. Lexicon is fundamental material in language learning. The author attempts to explore English word formation form morphemes. The morpheme, can be considered as“the smallest functioning unit in the composition of words”. Morphemes are classified into prefix, root and suffix. In order to have a good command of words, English learners could adopt the rules of word formation from morphemes to enlarge vocabulary efficiently.

  18. Teach yourself visually Word 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

  19. Microsoft Word 2010 Digital Classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Team, Training

    2011-01-01

    The perfect book-and-video training package for Word 2010! This Word 2010 book-and-video training package-from the same professional training experts who also create many training materials for Adobe Systems-is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson, but you work at your own pace! The full-color ebook includes 8 lessons that teach you the new features and quirks of Microsoft Word 2010. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstr

  20. Unfavourable outcomes in orthognathic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy Bonanthaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavourable outcomes are part and parcel of performing surgeries of any kind. Unfavourable outcomes are results of such work, which the patient and or the clinician does not like. This is an attempt to review various causes for unfavorable outcomes in orthognathic surgery and discuss them in detail. All causes for unfavorable outcomes may be classified as belonging to one of the following periods A Pre- Treatment B During treatment Pre-Treatment: In orthognathic surgery- as in any other discipline of surgery- which involves changes in both aesthetics and function, the patient motivation for seeking treatment is a very important input which may decide, whether the outcome is going to be favorable or not. Also, inputs in diagnosis and plan for treatment and its sequencing, involving the team of the surgeon and the orthodontist, will play a very important role in determining whether the outcome will be favorable. In other words, an unfavorable outcome may be predetermined even before the actual treatment process starts. During Treatment: Good treatment planning itself does not guarantee favorable results. The execution of the correct plan could go wrong at various stages which include, Pre-Surgical orthodontics, Intra and Post-Operative periods. A large number of these unfavorable outcomes are preventable, if attention is paid to detail while carrying out the treatment plan itself. Unfavorable outcomes in orthognathic surgery may be minimized If pitfalls are avoided both, at the time of treatment planning and execution.

  1. Investigating the Effects of Word Games on Iranian EFL Learners’ Application of the Words in Writing Paragraph Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rezapanah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iran, learning vocabulary has been considered a boring subject for a long time and the traditional way of learning vocabulary by mere copying and remembering has shown to be less than effective. Meanwhile, games are also seen as a time-filling activity in most English classrooms. The current research sought to explore the effectiveness of using word games on Iranian EFL intermediate students’ application of the words in writing one paragraph essay. It was carried out at Jahad Sharif English Institute among 60 intermediate male and female learners with the age range of 17-30 through a quasi-experimental research design. The researcher administered a PET test to determine the homogeneity of the participants regarding their general English language proficiency level. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. After coming up with the conclusion that the two groups were homogeneous, during 16 sessions of treatment, the experimental group was taught using different techniques of word games while the control group received no special treatment. At the end of the treatment, both groups participated in the word game writing test of the word game questions available in Top Notch series the post-test. A t-test was used to compare the mean scores of the two groups, the result of which showed that the learners’ mean score in the experimental group was significantly higher than the learners’ mean score in the control group. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that foreign language pedagogy, especially for young adult English learners, would benefit from applying word games in their vocabulary instruction and writing. Key words: Word games, Iranian EFL learners, application of words, writing paragraph essays

  2. 达芬奇机器人手术系统行胰腺手术消化道吻合的要点%Key points of digestive tract anastomosis in pancreatic surgery assisted by da Vinci robotic surgical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈柏用; 叶靳华; 詹茜

    2013-01-01

    达芬奇机器人手术系统具有三维立体视野、高度精确性、灵活性和可重复性等优点,特别是在完成胰腺消化道吻合操作时,有着明显的优势.本文详细介绍了达芬奇机器人手术系统在胰腺手术中完成消化道吻合的可行性、吻合原则以及胰肠吻合、胰胃吻合手术步骤,从中分析出达芬奇机器人手术系统在胰腺手术消化道吻合时的特点,旨在提高吻合质量,减少术后胰腺吻合口相关并发症的发生.与开腹手术比较,在达芬奇机器人手术系统下完成胰腺消化道吻合简化了操作,减轻了创伤,是安全可行的.其具体吻合方式的选择应综合考虑局部组织条件、手术方式与外科医师的手术经验.%The da Vinci robotic surgical system has the advantages of three-dimensional vision and high degree of accuracy,flexibility and repeatability,which makes surgical procedures such as digestive tract anastomosis easier to conduct under minimally invasive conditions.In this article,the feasibility and principle of digestive tract anastomosis and the procedures of pancreaticojejunostomy and pancreaticogastrostomy by the da Vinci robotic surgical system are introduced,so as to improve the quality of anastomosis and reduce the incidences of postoperative complications.Compared with traditional laparotomy,da Vinci robotic surgical system simplified the surgical procedures and reduced the trauma,which is suitable for digestive tract anastomosis in pancreatic surgery.The method of pancreatic anastomosis should be selected in consideration of the condition of patients,surgical procedure and the experience of surgeons.

  3. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, the entry of female students into medical schools has ... how female registrars perceived the impact of gender on their training and practice of surgery. ... male-dominated specialty, their choice of mentors and the challenges that they encountered ..... Social Determinants of Health2007 (Accessed on 23 Sep 2016).

  4. A new geometric approach to Sturmian words

    CERN Document Server

    Matomäki, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new geometric approach to Sturmian words by means of a mapping that associates certain lines in the n x n -grid and sets of finite Sturmian words of length n. Using this mapping, we give new proofs of the formulas enumerating the finite Sturmian words and the palindromic finite Sturmian words of a given length. We also give a new proof for the well-known result that a factor of a Sturmian word has precisely two return words.

  5. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  6. Social interaction facilitates word learning in preverbal infants: Word-object mapping and word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakuno, Yoko; Omori, Takahide; Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2017-08-01

    In natural settings, infants learn spoken language with the aid of a caregiver who explicitly provides social signals. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to these signals that facilitate language development, the impact of real-life interactions on early word segmentation and word-object mapping remains elusive. We tested whether infants aged 5-6 months and 9-10 months could segment a word from continuous speech and acquire a word-object relation in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, infants were exposed to a live tutor, while in Experiment 2, another group of infants were exposed to a televised tutor. Results indicate that both younger and older infants were capable of segmenting a word and learning a word-object association only when the stimuli were derived from a live tutor in a natural manner, suggesting that real-life interaction enhances the learning of spoken words in preverbal infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What's in a Word? Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Three Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua; Fletcher, Paul; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Wong, Anita; Leung, Kawai

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how words are created is potentially a key component to being able to learn and understand new vocabulary words. However, research on morphological awareness is relatively rare. In this study, over 660 preschool-aged children from three language groups (Cantonese, Mandarin, and Korean speakers) in which compounding morphology is…

  8. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  9. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  10. The Inclusion of Word Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Die problem van polisemiese inskrywings waaraan onverklaardes geheg word, ..... It seems overly optimistic to expect an average dictionary user to read the Ref- ..... many areas', '(of a vowel) produced with the centre of the tongue in a higher.

  11. 1001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Up-to-date entries cover technology terms, and sections on vocabulary and grammar offer helpful tips. Each word is accompanied by a brief definition, a sentence demonstrating proper usage, and a translation.

  12. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  13. Applications of piezoelectric surgery in endodontic surgery: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Francesc; de Ribot, Joan; Doria, Guillermo; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Roig, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    Piezosurgery (piezoelectric bone surgery) devices were developed to cut bone atraumatically using ultrasonic vibrations and to provide an alternative to the mechanical and electrical instruments used in conventional oral surgery. Indications for piezosurgery are increasing in oral and maxillofacial surgery, as in other disciplines, such as endodontic surgery. Key features of piezosurgery instruments include their ability to selectively cut bone without damaging adjacent soft tissue, to provide a clear operative field, and to cut without generating heat. Although piezosurgery instruments can be used at most stages of endodontic surgery (osteotomy, root-end resection, and root-end preparation), no published data are available on the effect of piezosurgery on the outcomes of endodontic surgery. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the effect of piezosurgery on root-end resection, and only 1 has investigated root-end morphology after retrograde cavity preparation using piezosurgery. We conducted a search of the PubMed and Cochrane databases using appropriate terms and keywords related to the use and applications of piezoelectric surgery in endodontic surgery. A hand search also was conducted of issues published in the preceding 2 years of several journals. Two independent reviewers obtained and analyzed the full texts of the selected articles. A total of 121 articles published between January 2000 and December 2013 were identified. This review summarizes the operating principles of piezoelectric devices and outlines the applications of piezosurgery in endodontic surgery using clinical examples. Piezosurgery is a promising technical modality with applications in several aspects of endodontic surgery, but further studies are necessary to determine the influence of piezosurgery on root-end resection and root-end preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How New Words Are Formed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU He

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the society and culture, English vocabulary change rapidly. English has always been in a state of evolution. In recent years new words enter the English language at an increasing rate. This paper makes an attempt to analyze eight ways of new English word formation, creating, blending, shortening, functional shift, back-formation, affixation, com⁃pounding and borrowing—by presenting mainly English examples.

  15. Tricuspid regurgitation following left-sided valve surgery: echocardiographic evaluation and optimal timing of surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Chisato

    2015-03-01

    Severe tricuspid regurgitation may often appear and progress late after left-sided valve surgery without left-sided valve dysfunction, significant left heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension. The clinical features, echocardiographic evaluation, treatment, and prognosis of this disease entity have been discussed, but data is limited compared with left-sided valve diseases. Tricuspid annular dilatation associated with atrial fibrillation and right ventricular dysfunction strongly relate to development of isolated tricuspid regurgitation late after left-sided valve surgery. Three-dimensional evaluation may be useful in evaluating tricuspid valve anatomy in more detail. Better prognosis in patients undergoing surgical treatment for severe isolated tricuspid regurgitation than those who were treated medically has been reported; however, the timing of isolated tricuspid valve surgery is often too late. Right ventricular function is a key word for determining the timing of isolated tricuspid valve surgery; however, it is difficult to evaluate by conventional echocardiography. One of the serious issues in the future will be how to accurately evaluate right ventricular function.

  16. Association of suction drain tips culture with postoperative infection in benign thyroid surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ziaeddin Rasihashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wound infection is a rare complication after thyroid surgery. Because of controversy concerning with routine use of the drain by surgeons and its being considered a foreign body material, we aimed to evaluate the clinical significance and relevance of the drain tip culture and wound infection. Materials and methods: From March 2014 to March 2015, 150 consecutive patients undergoing thyroid surgery were studied. Wound infection was defined as occurring within the first 14 days from surgery. While we were suspicious to wound infection, sterile wound sampling was performed and sent to microbiology laboratory. Results: Postoperative infection developed in 4 patients (2.6% during 2 weeks follow up. The sensitivity and specificity of the drain tip culture were 15% and 82%, respectively with a positive predictive value of 7.6%. Prolonged operative time was an independent risk factor for wound infection. There was no significant relationship between drain tip culture and wound infection. Conclusion: Routine use of the surgical drain can increase the incidence of the wound infection. However, the drain tip culture was not a predictor for wound complications after thyroid surgeries.   Key Words: Thyroid; Wound infection; Drain; Culture;

  17. Analysis of related factors affecting prognosis of shunt surgery in patients with secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Cheng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The management of se-condary normal pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH is controversial. Many factors may affect the surgery effect. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible fac-tors influencing prognosis and provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment of sNPH. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the results of 31 patients with sNPH who under-went ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery from January 2007 to December 2011. We processed the potential influencing factors by univariate analysis and the result further by mul-tivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Factors including age, disease duration and Glasgow coma scale (GCS score before surgery significantly influenced the prognosis of sNPH (P<0.05. Further logistic regression analysis showed that all the three factors are independent influencing factors. Conclusion: Age, disease duration and GCS score before surgery have positive predictive value in estimating favorable response to surgical treatment for sNPH. Key words: Hydrocephalus, normal pressure; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt; Regression analysis

  18. Visual recognition of permuted words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  19. Associative asymmetry of compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

    2014-07-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A →?) and backward (?← B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure.

  20. Newly learned word forms are abstract and integrated immediately after acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C; McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    A hotly debated question in word learning concerns the conditions under which newly learned words compete or interfere with familiar words during spoken word recognition. This has recently been described as a key marker of the integration of a new word into the lexicon and was thought to require consolidation Dumay & Gaskell, (Psychological Science, 18, 35-39, 2007; Gaskell & Dumay, Cognition, 89, 105-132, 2003). Recently, however, Kapnoula, Packard, Gupta, and McMurray, (Cognition, 134, 85-99, 2015) showed that interference can be observed immediately after a word is first learned, implying very rapid integration of new words into the lexicon. It is an open question whether these kinds of effects derive from episodic traces of novel words or from more abstract and lexicalized representations. Here we addressed this question by testing inhibition for newly learned words using training and test stimuli presented in different talker voices. During training, participants were exposed to a set of nonwords spoken by a female speaker. Immediately after training, we assessed the ability of the novel word forms to inhibit familiar words, using a variant of the visual world paradigm. Crucially, the test items were produced by a male speaker. An analysis of fixations showed that even with a change in voice, newly learned words interfered with the recognition of similar known words. These findings show that lexical competition effects from newly learned words spread across different talker voices, which suggests that newly learned words can be sufficiently lexicalized, and abstract with respect to talker voice, without consolidation.

  1. Quality Improvement ? The Key to Reducing Costs in Pancreatoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savio George Barreto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background With the looming fear of costs for cancer care escalating over the next decade, the general aim of policy makers the world over is directing efforts towards “bending the cost curve”. Pancreatic cancer is on the rise and pancreatoduodenectomy is the only curative option available. The aim of the current report is to analyze the published literature on data addressing the issue of costs in pancreatic cancer surgery (with a focus on pancreatoduodenectomy in an effort to determine how disparate are the lines of investigation of health economics and quality indicators of surgery. Methods A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library was undertaken using a combination of text words “cost”, “pancreatoduodenectomy”, “pancreaticoduodenectomy”, “health care”, “surgery”. The search was restricted to human studies published in literature but was not language restricted. Results The initial search yielded 116 studies of which 25 manuscripts were retrieved for further evaluation. Of the 25 studies retrieved, 7 manuscripts were excluded from the final analysis as the variables analyzed did not significantly influence the costs of pancreatoduodenectomy. The factors most frequently noted (≥2 studies to influence costs of pancreatoduodenectomy were hospital and surgeon volume the occurrence of complications and the implementation of clinical pathways. Conclusions Using pancreatoduodenectomy, as an example, it is evident that the key to ‘bending the cancer cost curve’ is designing strategies to improve quality of the not only the procedure, but the process. Costs and quality cannot be separated. Reduction in costs can, and must only, be achieved by targeting excellence.

  2. The Edge Factor in Early Word Segmentation: Utterance-Level Prosody Enables Word Form Extraction by 6-Month-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Seidl, Amanda; Tyler, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has shown that English learners begin segmenting words from speech by 7.5 months of age. However, more recent research has begun to show that, in some situations, infants may exhibit rudimentary segmentation capabilities at an earlier age. Here, we report on four perceptual experiments and a corpus analysis further investigating the initial emergence of segmentation capabilities. In Experiments 1 and 2, 6-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing target words located either utterance medially or at utterance edges. Only those infants familiarized with passages containing target words aligned with utterance edges exhibited evidence of segmentation. In Experiments 3 and 4, 6-month-olds recognized familiarized words when they were presented in a new acoustically distinct voice (male rather than female), but not when they were presented in a phonologically altered manner (missing the initial segment). Finally, we report corpus analyses examining how often different word types occur at utterance boundaries in different registers. Our findings suggest that edge-aligned words likely play a key role in infants’ early segmentation attempts, and also converge with recent reports suggesting that 6-month-olds’ have already started building a rudimentary lexicon. PMID:24421892

  3. European endocrine surgery in the 150-year history of Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, Henning; Machens, A

    2010-04-01

    Founded in 1861 as a German language scientific forum of exchange for European surgeons, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery quickly advanced to become the premier journal of thyroid surgery before World War I, serving as a point of crystallization for the emerging discipline of endocrine surgery. During the interwar period and, in particular, in the first decades after World War II, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery lost its dominant position as an international and European medium of publication of top quality articles in the area of endocrine surgery. Nevertheless, the journal remained the chief publication organ of German language articles in the field of endocrine surgery. After a series of key events, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery managed to reclaim its former position as the leading European journal of endocrine surgery: (1) the formation of endocrine surgery in the early 1980s as a subdiscipline of general and visceral surgery; (2) the change of the language of publication from German to English in 1998; and (3) the journal's appointment in 2004 as the official organ of publication of the European Society of Endocrine Surgeons. All in all, the 150-year publication record of Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery closely reflects the history of European Endocrine Surgery. Following the path of seminal articles from Billroth, Kocher, and many other surgical luminaries published in the journal more than 100 years ago, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery today stands out as the principal European journal in the field of endocrine surgery.

  4. What Is Refractive Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ...

  5. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ...

  6. Pediatric heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... the type of defect, and the type of surgery that was done. Many children recover completely and lead normal, active lives.

  7. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by a trained surgeon with specialized education ... implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by a trained surgeon with specialized education ...

  8. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment for breast cancer, ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...

  10. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  11. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  12. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  13. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ...

  14. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ...

  15. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ...

  16. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...

  17. Authenticating Tripartite Key Agreement Protocol with Pairings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Liu; Fang-Guo Zhang; Ke-Fei Chen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an authenticated tripartite key agreement protocol is proposed, which is an ID-based one with pairings. This protocol involves only one round. The authenticity of the protocol is assured by a special signature scheme, so that messages carrying the information of two ephemeral keys can be broadcasted authentically by an entity. Consequently, one instance of the protocol results in eight session keys for three entities. In other word, one instance of the protocol generates a session key, which is eight times longer than those obtained from traditional key agreement protocols. Security attributes of the protocol are presented, and the computational overhead and bandwidth of the broadcast messages are analyzed as well.

  18. The Schemes for Minimiling Gender Bias in English Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万能

    2010-01-01

    @@ Languages always reflect society.Linguistic directions of degrading and devaluing female can be located everywhere.As the society develops,women's social status is improved constantly.The voice of minimizing gender bias in English becomes more and more powerful and there are two key problems.One is how to reject the sexist-words in English;the other is how to minimize the gender bias caused by the genetic reference of Third-person pronoun.To counter above problems,we can solve them through the transference of sex ist-words and normalization of third-person pronoun.

  19. Mark my words: tone of voice changes affective word representations in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Annett

    2010-02-15

    The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory. To this end, participants were presented with a series of words and asked to remember the words for a subsequent recognition test. During study, words were presented auditorily with an emotional or neutral prosody, whereas during test, words were presented visually. Recognition performance was comparable for words studied with emotional and neutral prosody. However, subsequent valence ratings indicated that study prosody changed the affective representation of words in memory. Compared to words with neutral prosody, words with sad prosody were later rated as more negative and words with happy prosody were later rated as more positive. Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval. Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

  20. Rapid Diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI associated with cardiac surgery, using the liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirbagheri L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: cardiac surgery is often associated with acutekidney injury (AKI. Nowadays, AKI is typically diagnosed by an increase inserum creatinine, which is a delayed and unreliable biomarker. Recent studiesrecommended using the liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP as anearly biomarker.Material and Methods: The urine samples of 18 adult patients undergoingcardiac surgery were collected in different times before (2, 4,8,24 hour andafter cardiac surgery for detection of L-FABP by Elisa.Results: The results from ELISA test show that the increasing amount of LFABPin urine samples of 4 patients is a diagnostic indicator for AKI. Themean concentration of L-FABP has increased up to 17 times at 8 hours aftercardiac surgery compared to before surgery.Conclusion: according to our findings, we speculated that the urinary L-FABPcan be a reliable and rapid biomarker for diagnosis of acute kidney injury.Key words: Acute Kidney Injury, Liver type Fatty Acid Binding Protein,Cardiac surgery

  1. The Pursuit of Word Meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jon Scott; Gleitman, Lila R; Trueswell, John C; Yang, Charles

    2017-04-01

    We evaluate here the performance of four models of cross-situational word learning: two global models, which extract and retain multiple referential alternatives from each word occurrence; and two local models, which extract just a single referent from each occurrence. One of these local models, dubbed Pursuit, uses an associative learning mechanism to estimate word-referent probability but pursues and tests the best referent-meaning at any given time. Pursuit is found to perform as well as global models under many conditions extracted from naturalistic corpora of parent-child interactions, even though the model maintains far less information than global models. Moreover, Pursuit is found to best capture human experimental findings from several relevant cross-situational word-learning experiments, including those of Yu and Smith (), the paradigm example of a finding believed to support fully global cross-situational models. Implications and limitations of these results are discussed, most notably that the model characterizes only the earliest stages of word learning, when reliance on the co-occurring referent world is at its greatest. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. A SPECIAL SKELETONIZATION ALGORITHM FOR CURSIVE WORDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinherz, T.; Intrator, N.; Rivlin, E.

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel approach for finding a pseudo­skeleton of a cursive word\\\\'s image. This pseudo­skeleton preserves all the necessary components of a cursive word such as: loops, curves, junctions, end­points etc. It is expected to be useful for cursive word recognition

  3. Multiple Uses of a Word Study Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Orlins, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies that illustrate the multiple uses of word sorts, a word study phonics technique. Case study children were Sara, a second grader, who had difficulty with reading basic words and John, a third grader, who had difficulty with spelling basic words. Multiple baseline designs were employed to study the effects of…

  4. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  5. Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

  6. Word Learning Deficits in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany; Green, Samuel; Gray, Shelley; Cabbage, Kathryn; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Method: Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets…

  7. Sparing of number words in oral production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Semenza

    2014-04-01

    In sentences only number words were spared; free standing function words and bound morphemes were as affected as other word categories. Discussion. These findings seem to set cardinal number words apart in the phonological output buffer from other possible building blocks of preassembled phonological units (like function words and bound morphemes. Building blocks constituted by numbers are more cohesive than the blocks constituted by function words and bound morphemes. Bencini et al. (2011 argued that numbers are recursive and consist of basic lexical units which are then combined following syntactic rules. This property would make number words resistant to damage in the phonological buffer.

  8. Some Key Principles for Developing Grammar Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威

    2008-01-01

    Grammar is sometimes defined aft"the way words are put together to make correct sentences"(Ur,2004,P.75).The aim of teaching grammar is to raise the rates of the correctness of language use and help the students transfer the isolated language points to apply language.In this essay,the author introduces two kinds of Conlnlon methods in English grammar class. And there are some key principles in grammar teaching.

  9. Identifying Trends in Word Frequency Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Whichard, Zakary L.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2013-04-01

    The word-stock of a language is a complex dynamical system in which words can be created, evolve, and become extinct. Even more dynamic are the short-term fluctuations in word usage by individuals in a population. Building on the recent demonstration that word niche is a strong determinant of future rise or fall in word frequency, here we introduce a model that allows us to distinguish persistent from temporary increases in frequency. Our model is illustrated using a 108-word database from an online discussion group and a 1011-word collection of digitized books. The model reveals a strong relation between changes in word dissemination and changes in frequency. Aside from their implications for short-term word frequency dynamics, these observations are potentially important for language evolution as new words must survive in the short term in order to survive in the long term.

  10. The Examining Mathematical Word Problems Solving Ability under Efficient Representation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sajadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Word problem solving is complex process for students. Efficient instruction of word problem solving needed to efficient strategies. One of these strategies is using representation. Some students apply key words or numbers only but when they face complex word problems then they cannot apply the keywords. Therefore teachers have to teach efficient strategy such as representation. In this research is tried whether using efficient representation can lead to efficient solution. Through cluster sampling method, forty one students are selected at girly elementary school. Through math exam, their solutions are studied. Through Spearman test, results indicate that there is significant relation between efficient representation and efficient word problem solving ability. At second grade, students have used of representation, have gotten to high means and inverse, students have not used of representation, have not gotten to high means. Therefore there is significant and direct relation between efficient representation and efficient word problem solving ability.

  11. Word learning under infinite uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Language learners learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite encountering them in complex environments where infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as their true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which this can happen. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints allowing learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could also be weak.

  12. Math word problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  13. Self reference in word definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Levary, David; Moses, Elisha; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2011-01-01

    Dictionaries are inherently circular in nature. A given word is linked to a set of alternative words (the definition) which in turn point to further descendants. Iterating through definitions in this way, one typically finds that definitions loop back upon themselves. The graph formed by such definitional relations is our object of study. By eliminating those links which are not in loops, we arrive at a core subgraph of highly connected nodes. We observe that definitional loops are conveniently classified by length, with longer loops usually emerging from semantic misinterpretation. By breaking the long loops in the graph of the dictionary, we arrive at a set of disconnected clusters. We find that the words in these clusters constitute semantic units, and moreover tend to have been introduced into the English language at similar times, suggesting a possible mechanism for language evolution.

  14. Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Søgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Unsupervised word clustering algorithms — which form word clusters based on a measure of distributional similarity — have proven to be useful in providing beneficial features for various natural language processing tasks involving supervised learning. This work explores the utility of such word c....... While such an “oracle” method is not identified, evaluations indicate that unsupervised word cluster are most beneficial in sentences without unknown words....

  15. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  16. Word-Level Stress Patterns in the Academic Word List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John; Kandil, Magdi

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses teachers and researchers of English as a second or foreign language who are interested in speech intelligibility training and/or vocabulary acquisition. The study reports a stress-pattern analysis of the Academic Word List (AWL) as made available by Coxhead [TESOL Quarterly 34 (2000) 213]. To examine the AWL in a new way, we…

  17. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  18. Loan Words versus Indigenous Words in Northern Sotho — A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Senaganwa: Maadingwa ge a bapetšwa le Mantšu a Setlogo go Sesotho sa .... Let there be no doubt that actual usage and not the sentiments of a language ..... I don't see the necessity for us to loan words from other languages if we have our ...

  19. WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of new college Englishtextbooks,vocabulary learning seems a more important taskthan ever before for college students.This paper is about aresearch on how to help students learn English words moremeaningfully and enlarge their vocabulary more efficiently.This paper first discusses word meaning,concept,andconcept network,then explores the associative network of wordsand their associations,which corresponds to English lexicalrelations.The lexical network can be realized onto a computer tobenefit students in their learning.

  20. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty...

  1. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...... of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...

  2. WordPress 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Shreves, Ric

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt Cookbook, which means it contains step-by-step instructions to achieve a particular goal or solve a particular problem. There are plenty of screenshots and explained practical tasks to make comprehension quick and easy. This book is not specifically for developers or programmers; rather it can be used by anyone who wants to get more out of their WordPress blog by following step-by-step instructions. A basic knowledge of PHP/XHTML/CSS/WordPress is desirable but not necessary.

  3. Eye Movements and Word Skipping during Reading: Effects of Word Length and Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Slattery, Timothy J.; Drieghe, Denis; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2011-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored as subjects read sentences containing high- or low-predictable target words. The extent to which target words were predictable from prior context was varied: Half of the target words were predictable, and the other half were unpredictable. In addition, the length of the target word varied: The target words were short…

  4. The word concreteness effect occurs for positive, but not negative, emotion words in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined the roles of word concreteness and word valence in the immediate serial recall task. Emotion words (e.g. happy) were used to investigate these effects. Participants completed study-test trials with seven-item study lists consisting of positive or negative words with either high or low concreteness (Experiments 1 and 2) and neutral (i.e. non-emotion) words with either high or low concreteness (Experiment 2). For neutral words, the typical word concreteness effect (concrete words are better recalled than abstract words) was replicated. For emotion words, the effect occurred for positive words, but not for negative words. While the word concreteness effect was stronger for neutral words than for negative words, it was not different for the neutral words and the positive words. We conclude that both word valence and word concreteness simultaneously contribute to the item and order retention of emotion words and discuss how Hulme et al.'s (1997) item redintegration account can be modified to explain these findings.

  5. Leadership in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-06-01

    Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance.

  6. Facts Speak Louder Than Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Is the Western world ignoring the real truth about Tibet?In order to separate Tibet from China, the Dalai Lama has always severely criticized China’s Tibet policy and his words have been echoed by some Western media and politicians. But facts prove that these criticisms are totally groundless.

  7. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...

  8. Biodiversity in Word and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that we need to abandon the word "biodiversity", to rediscover the biology that it obscures and to rethink how to introduce this biology to young people. We cannot go back to the systematics that once made up a large part of a biology A-level course (ages 16-18), so we need to find alternative ways of introducing the…

  9. "Swallowing Her Words Like Water."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Elise

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's incorporation of compassion into her teaching as an English teacher. Describes herself as an interminable idealist who is driven by the idea that her English students will learn to love words for the brilliance of articulation they offer. (SG)

  10. Metacomprehension during Rare Word Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginnis, Debra; Saunders, Nikola N.; Burns, Ryan J.

    2007-01-01

    To examine metacomprehension during comprehension, undergraduates (n = 133) were asked to provide descriptions of how they determined the meaning of four rare words presented in short passages. Content analysis of these written descriptions revealed task-specific metacomprehension reflecting lexical, textbase, and situation model processes.…

  11. Learning Words through Multimedia Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2007-01-01

      This study explores the relevance of multimedia application in relation to vocabulary acquisition in the classroom of Chinese as a foreign language. The herein depicted application refers to the computer-assisted implicit word-learning, wherein the Danish students built hypertexts to acquire...

  12. Learning Words through Multimedia Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2007-01-01

      This study explores the relevance of multimedia application in relation to vocabulary acquisition in the classroom of Chinese as a foreign language. The herein depicted application refers to the computer-assisted implicit word-learning, wherein the Danish students built hypertexts to acquire...

  13. Scientific Writing = Thinking in Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...

  14. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  15. Making Psychology a Household Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  16. Gesture en route to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the communicative production of gestrural and vocal modalities by 8 normally developing children in two different cultures (Danish and Zapotec: Mexican indigenous) 16 to 20 months). We analyzed spontaneous production of gestrures and words in children's transition to the two...

  17. Interlanguage Transfer of Function Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Gessica De

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the use of nonnative function words in the written production of learners of Italian as a third or fourth language with English, Spanish, or French as native or nonnative languages. Results show the frequent use of the French subject pronoun il (he) in learners' texts. The rate of subject insertion and omission was thus…

  18. "Swallowing Her Words Like Water."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Elise

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's incorporation of compassion into her teaching as an English teacher. Describes herself as an interminable idealist who is driven by the idea that her English students will learn to love words for the brilliance of articulation they offer. (SG)

  19. More than a Word Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Word cloud generating applications were originally designed to add visual attractiveness to posters, websites, slide show presentations, and the like. They can also be an effective tool in reading and writing classes in English as a second language (ESL) for all levels of English proficiency. They can reduce reading time and help to improve…

  20. Making sense of polysemous words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspoor, M.H.; Lowie, W.M.

    2003-01-01

    Although it may be true that most vocabulary is acquired through incidental learning, acquiring words through inferring from context is not necessarily the most effective or efficient method. in instructional settings. The guessing method has been advocated, but this method can be made more efficien

  1. Word and text processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Cristina; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities. Ten developmental prosopagnosic subjects performed a word-length effect task and a task evaluating the recognition of word content across variations in text style, and the recognition of style across variations in word content. All subjects had normal word-length effects. One had prolonged sorting time for word recognition in handwritten stimuli. These results suggest that the deficit in developmental prosopagnosia is unlikely to affect visual word processing, contrary to predictions of the many-to-many hypothesis.

  2. Eye movements and word skipping during reading: Effects of word length and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Slattery, Timothy J.; Drieghe, Denis; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which target words were predictable from prior context was varied: half of the target words were predictable and the other half were unpredictable. In addition, the length of the target word varied: the target words were short (4–6 letters), medium (7–9 letters), or long (10–12 letters). Length and predictability both yielded strong effects on the probability of skipping the target words and on the amount of time readers fixated the target words (when they were not skipped). However, there was no interaction in any of the measures examined for either skipping or fixation time. The results demonstrate that word predictability (due to contextual constraint) and word length have strong and independent influences on word skipping and fixation durations. Furthermore, since the long words extended beyond the word identification span, the data indicate that skipping can occur on the basis of partial information in relation to word identity. PMID:21463086

  3. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, ...... and visual short term memory capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the word superiority effect....

  4. Communication skills in palliative surgery: skill and effort are key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Thomas J

    2011-04-01

    Excellence as a surgeon requires not only the technical and intellectual ability to effectively take care of surgical disease but also an ability to respond to the needs and questions of patients. This article provides an overview of the importance of communication skills in optimal surgical palliation and offers suggestions for a multidisciplinary team approach, using the palliative triangle as the ideal model of communication and interpersonal skills. This article also discusses guidelines for advanced surgical decision making and outlines methods to improve communication skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Teach yourself visually WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Majure, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Get your blog up and running with the latest version of WordPress WordPress is one of the most popular, easy-to-use blogging platforms and allows you to create a dynamic and engaging blog, even if you have no programming skills or experience. Ideal for the visual learner, Teach Yourself VISUALLY WordPress, Second Edition introduces you to the exciting possibilities of the newest version of WordPress and helps you get started, step by step, with creating and setting up a WordPress site. Author and experienced WordPress user Janet Majure shares advice, insight, and best practices for taking full

  6. Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress, from the world's most popular resource for web designers and developers As one of the hottest tools on the web today for creating a blog, WordPress has evolved to be much more that just a blogging platform and has been pushed beyond its original purpose. With this new edition of a perennially popular WordPress resource, Smashing Magazine offers you the information you need so you can maximize the potential and power of WordPress. WordPress expert Thord Daniel Hedengren takes you beyond the basic blog to show you how to leverage the capabilities of WordPress to

  7. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  8. Quantum key management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  9. P2-13: Location word Cues' Effect on Location Discrimination Task: Cross-Modal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Ohtsuka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, participants are slower and make more errors in responding to the display color of an incongruent color word than a congruent one. This traditional stroop effect is often accounted for with relatively automatic and dominant word processing. Although the word dominance account has been widely supported, it is not clear in what extent of perceptual tasks it is valid. Here we aimed to examine whether the word dominance effect is observed in location stroop tasks and in audio-visual situations. The participants were required to press a key according to the location of visual (Experiment 1 and audio (Experiment 2 targets, left or right, as soon as possible. A cue of written (Experiments 1a and 2a or spoken (Experiments 1b and 2b location words, “left” or “right”, was presented on the left or right side of the fixation with cue lead times (CLT of 200 ms and 1200 ms. Reaction time from target presentation to key press was recorded as a dependent variable. The results were that the location validity effect was marked in within-modality but less so in cross-modality trials. The word validity effect was strong in within- but not in cross-modality trials. The CLT gave some effect of inhibition of return. So the word dominance could be less effective in location tasks and in cross-modal situations. The spatial correspondence seems to overcome the word effect.

  10. What makes words special? Words as unmotivated cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Pierce; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Verbal labels, such as the words "dog" and "guitar," activate conceptual knowledge more effectively than corresponding environmental sounds, such as a dog bark or a guitar strum, even though both are unambiguous cues to the categories of dogs and guitars (Lupyan & Thompson-Schill, 2012). We hypothesize that this advantage of labels emerges because word-forms, unlike other cues, do not vary in a motivated way with their referent. The sound of a guitar cannot help but inform a listener to the type of guitar making it (electric, acoustic, etc.). The word "guitar" on the other hand, can leave the type of guitar unspecified. We argue that as a result, labels gain the ability to cue a more abstract mental representation, promoting efficient processing of category members. In contrast, environmental sounds activate representations that are more tightly linked to the specific cause of the sound. Our results show that upon hearing environmental sounds such as a dog bark or guitar strum, people cannot help but activate a particular instance of a category, in a particular state, at a particular time, as measured by patterns of response times on cue-picture matching tasks (Exps. 1-2) and eye-movements in a task where the cues are task-irrelevant (Exp. 3). In comparison, labels activate concepts in a more abstract, decontextualized way-a difference that we argue can be explained by labels acting as "unmotivated cues".

  11. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  12. [Minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery: surgery 4.0?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feußner, H; Wilhelm, D

    2016-03-01

    Surgery can only maintain its role in a highly competitive environment if results are continuously improved, accompanied by further reduction of the interventional trauma for patients and with justifiable costs. Significant impulse to achieve this goal was expected from minimally invasive surgery and, in particular, robotic surgery; however, a real breakthrough has not yet been achieved. Accordingly, the new strategic approach of cognitive surgery is required to optimize the provision of surgical treatment. A full scale integration of all modules utilized in the operating room (OR) into a comprehensive network and the development of systems with technical cognition are needed to upgrade the current technical environment passively controlled by the surgeon into an active collaborative support system (surgery 4.0). Only then can the true potential of minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery be exploited.

  13. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  14. Do word associations assess word knowledge? A comparison of L1 and L2, child and adult word associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.; Dingshoff, D.; de Beer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in word associations between monolingual and bilingual speakers of Dutch can reflect differences in how well seemingly familiar words are known. In this (exploratory) study mono-and bilingual, child and adult free word associations were compared. Responses of children and of monolingual

  15. Do word associations assess word knowledge? A comparison of L1 and L2, child and adult word associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.; Dingshoff, D.; de Beer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in word associations between monolingual and bilingual speakers of Dutch can reflect differences in how well seemingly familiar words are known. In this (exploratory) study mono-and bilingual, child and adult free word associations were compared. Responses of children and of monolingual

  16. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasovic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Todorovic, Ljubomir; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients’ reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (p<0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly higher with FTS when compared to control treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this preliminary study, transdermal system with fentanyl significantly reduced postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Key words:Analgesia, fentanyl, transdermal administration, third molar surgery, acute pain, postoperative care. PMID:27475691

  17. Venous thromboembolism after oral and maxillofacial oncologic surgery: Report and analysis of 14 cases in Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Jiannan; Yin, Xuelai; Hu, Jingzhou; Kalfarentzos, Evagelos; Zhang, Chenping

    2017-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of death in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to explore the potential risk factor of VTE in oral and maxillofacial oncological surgery. Material and Methods The data of patients who received operation in our institution were gathered in this retrospective study. A diagnosis of VTE was screened and confirmed by computer tomography angiography (CTA) of pulmonary artery or ultrasonography examination of lower extremity. Medical history and all perioperative details were analyzed. Results 14 patients were diagnosed as VTE, including 6 cases of PE, 7 cases of DVT, 1case of DVT and PE. The mean age of these patients was 62.07 years. Reconstruction was performed in 12 patients of these cases, most of which were diagnosed as malignance. Mean length of surgery was 8.74 hours, and lower extremity deep venous cannula (DVC) was performed in all these patients. Conclusions We analyzed several characters of oral and maxillofacial surgery and suggested pay attention to lower extremity DVC which had a high correlation with DVT according to our data. Key words:Venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:27918738

  18. Open heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - open ... lung machine is used in most cases during open heart surgery. While the surgeon works on the ... with these procedures, the surgeon may have to open the chest to do the surgery.

  19. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Access to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Bariatric Surgery Procedures Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the ... Online Education Directory Search Patient Learning Center Bariatric Surgery ... Surgery Procedures BMI Calculator Childhood and Adolescent Obesity ...

  20. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  1. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  2. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Soft Tissue Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Obstructive Sleep Apnea TMJ and Facial Pain Treatment of Facial Injury Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral ...

  3. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Heart Surgery? Heart surgery is used to treat ... will work with you to decide whether you need heart surgery. A cardiologist specializes in diagnosing and ...

  4. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Gastric Sleeve Surgery Print A ... buying healthy food ) continue Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  5. Cavus Foot Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A ... problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to reduce ...

  6. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Do Who We Are News Videos Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Administration of Anesthesia Administration ... Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more surgeries ...

  7. Laser surgery - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery using a laser ... used is directly related to the type of surgery being performed and the color of the tissue ... Laser surgery can be used to: Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss Remove warts , moles , sunspots, and ...

  8. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Smokers who have surgery have a higher chance than nonsmokers of blood clots forming in their legs. These clots may travel to and ...

  9. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  10. Comparison of Analgesic Effects of Novafen and Ibuprofen after Periodontal Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Babaloo

    2017-01-01

    ibuprofen during the early postoperative hours, with better performance 1‒3  days postoperatively. Key words: Novafen; ibuprofen; pain relief; periodontal surgery; Analgesia;

  11. Enhanced recovery after surgery for hip and knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shibai; Qian, Wenwei; Jiang, Chao; Ye, Canhua; Chen, Xi

    2017-07-27

    To collect data of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) for evaluating the effects of enhanced recovery after surgery on postoperative recovery of patients who received total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Relevant, published studies were identified using the following key words: arthroplasty, joint replacement, enhanced recovery after surgery, fast track surgery, multi-mode analgesia, diet management, or steroid hormones. The following databases were used to identify the literature consisting of RCTs or CCTs with a date of search of 31 December 2016: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of knowledge, Ovid SpringerLink and EMBASE. All relevant data were collected from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The outcome variables were postoperative length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rate, and total incidence of complications. RevMan5.2. software was adopted for the meta-analysis. A total of 10 published studies (9936 cases) met the inclusion criteria. The cumulative data included 4205 cases receiving enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), and 5731 cases receiving traditional recovery after surgery (non-ERAS). The meta-analysis showed that LOS was significantly lower in the ERAS group than in the control group (non-ERAS group) (p<0.01), and there were fewer incidences of complications in the ERAS group than in the control group (p=0.03). However, no significant difference was found in the 30-day readmission rate (p=0.18). ERAS significantly reduces LOS and incidence of complications in patients who have had THA or TKA. However, ERAS does not appear to significantly impact 30-day readmission rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshu, Ch.

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) uses Quantum Mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random bit string known only to them, which can be used as a key to encrypt and decrypt messages.

  13. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  14. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  15. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Surgery Types of Surgery Gastric Bypass ... or intestines removed due to ulcers or cancer tended to lose a lot of weight after ...

  16. Word Problems: A "Meme" for Our Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamnson, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a novel approach to word problems that involves linear relationships between variables. Argues that working stepwise through intermediates is the way our minds actually work and therefore this should be used in solving word problems. (JRH)

  17. Word Processing Through the Looking Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Lee R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the two worlds of word processing: a theoretical world found in textbooks and magazines, and a "real" world found in offices where some form of word processing has been introduced. Suggestions for business teachers are included. (CT)

  18. Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/medwords/medicalwordsdownload.html Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions To use the sharing features ... no Internet connection is available. Download: Understanding Medical Words [16MB zip file] Download instructions : Click on the ...

  19. In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Dyslexia In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table ... prescription for glasses … My eyes would jump four words and go back two, and I also had ...

  20. Analysis of Fuzzy Words in Legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波

    2015-01-01

    With the development of legal English,fuzzy words are poured into legislative language and judicial practice constantly.Hence,this paper aims at exploring the application and funtion of different kinds of fuzzy words in legal English.

  1. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold...... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...... processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. It is also clear from this experiment, that the word superiority effect can be observed at a large range of exposure durations, from the perceptual threshold to ceiling performance. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented...

  2. Word Problems: A "Meme" for Our Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamnson, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a novel approach to word problems that involves linear relationships between variables. Argues that working stepwise through intermediates is the way our minds actually work and therefore this should be used in solving word problems. (JRH)

  3. Cluster analysis of word frequency dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Yu S.; Bochkarev, V. V.; Belashova, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and modelling of word usage frequency time series. During one of previous studies, an assumption was put forward that all word usage frequencies have uniform dynamics approaching the shape of a Gaussian function. This assumption can be checked using the frequency dictionaries of the Google Books Ngram database. This database includes 5.2 million books published between 1500 and 2008. The corpus contains over 500 billion words in American English, British English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, and Chinese. We clustered time series of word usage frequencies using a Kohonen neural network. The similarity between input vectors was estimated using several algorithms. As a result of the neural network training procedure, more than ten different forms of time series were found. They describe the dynamics of word usage frequencies from birth to death of individual words. Different groups of word forms were found to have different dynamics of word usage frequency variations.

  4. Japanese Word Sketches: Advances and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present results of an evaluation of Japanese word sketches and address in detail issues that were observed by the evaluators. A word sketch presents a list of salient collocates of a word, organized by the grammatical relations holding between the word and its collocate. The word sketch functionality is incorporated into the Sketch Engine corpus query system and has been created for more than twenty languages so far, including Japanese. The issues that have been discovered in the evaluation of word sketches in Japanese are to be addressed for further enhancement of the word sketch functionality. Other tools and resources which are combined for use and influence the performance of the word sketches should also be looked over. We divide the issues into the following: 1 the lemmatizer and tagger in use, 2 the sketch grammar that is specifically written for Japanese, and 3 the corpus and statistical methods.

  5. THIS MYSTERIOUS RUSSIAN WORD MGLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Nikolaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes a Russian word MGLA, which in her opinion is very strange and does not coincide with its quasi-synonyms metel’, tucha, oblako and so on. All examples were extracted from the Russian National Corpus (RNC. Some special subtypes of the RNC were analyzed separately. The peak of this word use was at the end of the XIX century. MGLA may have different colour. It can approach to a human being very nearly, but never touch him. It is impossible to go behind MGLA, to see what is there behind it. In the Old Russian texts the expression zemlya mglyana signified the hell. The author supposes that MGLA in Russian means also the curtain into another world. 

  6. Word diffusion and climate science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available As public and political debates often demonstrate, a substantial disjoint can exist between the findings of science and the impact it has on the public. Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow "boom and bust" fashion cycles in public usage. Representing this public usage through extraordinary new data on word frequencies in books published up to the year 2008, we show that a classic two-parameter social-diffusion model closely fits the comings and goings of many keywords over generational or longer time scales. We suggest that the fashions of word usage contributes an empirical, possibly regular, correlate to the impact of climate science on society.

  7. Unfavourable results in craniofacial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial surgery is one of the newer subspecialties of plastic surgery and owes its birth to the pioneering work of Paul Tessier in the late sixties. Since then this challenging specialty work has been taken up by many centres around the word including India. Initial reports in late eighties and early nineties showed morbidity and mortality ranging from 1.6% to 4.3%. However over past few decades, with improved instrumentations, safer anaesthesia and cumulative experience of surgeons the morbidity and mortality has been brought down to as low as 0.1% in many centres in USA. In our centre at Post-graduate Institute, Chandigarh, the mortality rate is about 0.8% (4 out of 480 cases. The learning curve in this surgery is rather steep but with experience and a well-coordinated team work, results in this complex subspecialty can be improved. The infection is a major cause for worry but can be easily prevented by sound surgical principles and placing a vascularised tissue barrier between the extradural space and the nasopharynx/sinus mucosa.

  8. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  9. Multilingual Word Embeddings using Multigraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Soricut, Radu; Ding, Nan

    2016-01-01

    We present a family of neural-network--inspired models for computing continuous word representations, specifically designed to exploit both monolingual and multilingual text. This framework allows us to perform unsupervised training of embeddings that exhibit higher accuracy on syntactic and semantic compositionality, as well as multilingual semantic similarity, compared to previous models trained in an unsupervised fashion. We also show that such multilingual embeddings, optimized for semant...

  10. Brazilian Portuguese Words for Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gies, Sheila; Cassidy, Tracy Diane

    2009-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese is the Portuguese spoken in Brazil, which has slight differences from the Portuguese spoken in Portugal. One may try to understand such differences by comparing them with the dissimilarities between the American English and the British English. Although this article does not intend to establish potential differences between Brazilian Portuguese and Portuguese spoken in other countries, such as Portugal, it is important to bear in mind that divergences in meaning of words ...

  11. Relating Images, Concepts, and Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    mountain peak. These kinds of mapping may have interesting relationships to the notion of animism ( Piaget 1967), i.e. the universal childhood propensity...before the theory of evolution, suggests that we are inclined to make analogies between objects and their parts, and to thereby economize on words, even...of Computer Vision, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1975, pp. 211-277. [10] J. Piaget , Six Psychological Studies, New York: Vintage Books, 1967. [111

  12. Diplopia after strabismus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The presence of diplopia is an undesirable result following strabismus surgery. There are a variety of scenarios where diplopia exists prior to strabismus surgery, and, after surgery, has either been alleviated or decreased to a magnitude amenable to prism correction. In other cases, the patient does not experience diplopia prior to the strabismus surgery, but there exists a definite risk of diplopia after the surgery. In the current review, I examine the literature to help determine the incidence of diplopia after strabismus surgery.

  13. Single incision laparoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Prasad

    2010-01-01

    As a complement to standard laparoscopic surgery and a safe alternative to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery,single incision laparoscopic surgery is gaining popularity.There are expensive ports,disposable hand instruments and flexible endoscopes that have been suggested to do this surgery and would increase the cost of operation.For a simple surgery like laparoscopic cholecystectomy,these extras are not needed and the surgery can be performed using standard ports,instruments and telescopes.Tri...

  14. Quantum dense key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S; Rastello, M L; Bovino, F A; Colla, A M; Castagnoli, G C

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than BB84 one. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

  15. Scientific word, Version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen Köksal

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Word is the first fully integrated mathematical word processor in the Windows 3.1 environment, which uses the TEX typesetting language for output. It runs as a Microsoft Windows application program and has two-way interface to TEX. The Scientific Word is an object-oriented WYSIWYG word processor for virtually all users who need typesetting scientific books, manuals and papers. It includes automatic equation numbering, spell checking, and LATEX and DVI previewer.

  16. Repeated Measurement of Divers’ Word Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    function (Fillskov & Boll, -V 1981). One type of test with clinical significance reflects Word Fluency (Borkowski, Benton & Spreen, 1967; Lezak, 1983). Word...Fluency is "the facility to produce words that fit one or more structural, phonetic , or orthographic restrictions that are not relevant to the meaning...toxic chemical exposure (Anger, 1984) and closed head injury (Borkowski et al, 1967). Word Fluency reflects mild linguistic deficits in expressive speech

  17. Properties of the extremal infinite smooth words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srecko Brlek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Smooth words are connected to the Kolakoski sequence. We construct the maximal and the minimal infinite smooth words, with respect to the lexicographical order. The naive algorithm generating them is improved by using a reduction of the De Bruijn graph of their factors. We also study their Lyndon factorizations. Finally, we show that the minimal smooth word over the alphabet {1,3} belongs to the orbit of the Fibonacci word.

  18. Effects of word width and word length on optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eTeramoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of 4 Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 3.0° and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces. Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word. Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (3, 4, and 6 character words. Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length.

  19. Word-Based Text Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Platos, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Today there are many universal compression algorithms, but in most cases is for specific data better using specific algorithm - JPEG for images, MPEG for movies, etc. For textual documents there are special methods based on PPM algorithm or methods with non-character access, e.g. word-based compression. In the past, several papers describing variants of word-based compression using Huffman encoding or LZW method were published. The subject of this paper is the description of a word-based compression variant based on the LZ77 algorithm. The LZ77 algorithm and its modifications are described in this paper. Moreover, various ways of sliding window implementation and various possibilities of output encoding are described, as well. This paper also includes the implementation of an experimental application, testing of its efficiency and finding the best combination of all parts of the LZ77 coder. This is done to achieve the best compression ratio. In conclusion there is comparison of this implemented application wi...

  20. The effect of aging on the brain network for exception word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Brambati, Simona M; Chapleau, Marianne; Wilson, Maximiliano A

    2016-11-01

    Cognitive and computational models of reading aloud agree on the existence of two procedures for reading. Pseudowords (e.g., atendier) are correctly read through subword processes only while exception words (e.g., pint) are only correctly read via whole-words processes. Regular words can be correctly read by means of either way. Previous behavioral studies showed that older adults relied more on whole-word processing for reading. The aim of the present fMRI study was to verify whether this larger whole-word reliance for reading in older adults was reflected by changes in the pattern of brain activation. Both young and elderly participants read aloud pseudowords, exception and regular words in the scanner. Behavioral results reproduced those of previous studies showing that older adults made significantly less errors when reading exception words. Neuroimaging results showed significant activation of the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), a key region implicated in whole-word reading for exception word reading in both young and elderly participants. Critically, ATL activation was also found for regular word reading in the elderly. No differences were observed in the pattern of activation between regular and pseudowords in the young. In conclusion, these results extend evidence on the critical role of the left ATL for exception word reading to elderly participants. Additionally, our study shows for the first time from a developmental point of view that the behavioral changes found in reading during normal aging also have a brain counterpart in the reading network changes that sustain exception and regular word reading in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discourse Context, Word Identification and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.

    One model of interactive processing useful in describing word identification processes in discourse context is of a weakly interactive type. This type assumes that the time to identify a word in context is an activation function, whereas the time to activate a word in memory beyond some criterial identification threshold is a multiplicative…

  2. Generating and ranking of Dyck words

    CERN Document Server

    Kasa, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    A new algorithm to generate all Dyck words is presented, which is used in ranking and unranking Dyck words. We emphasize the importance of using Dyck words in encoding objects related to Catalan numbers. As a consequence of formulas used in the ranking algorithm we can obtain a recursive formula for the nth Catalan number.

  3. Word Meaning And Sentence Relation In Semantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓妹

    2011-01-01

    Through the semantic learning,we know that lexical semantic is the study of word meaning,any utterance consists of lexical meanings of the separate words with structural meanings.In this paper,I will introduce some of words meaning first and then analysis the sentence relation,in order to understand them well.

  4. Learning and Consolidation of Novel Spoken Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew H.; Di Betta, Anna Maria; Macdonald, Mark J. E.; Gaskell, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments explored the neural mechanisms underlying the learning and consolidation of novel spoken words. In Experiment 1, participants learned two sets of novel words on successive days. A subsequent recognition test revealed high levels of familiarity for both sets. However, a lexical decision task showed that only novel words learned on…

  5. Natural Language Processing: Word Recognition without Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Khalid; Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of automatic recognition of hand and machine-written cursive text using the Arabic alphabet focuses on an algorithm for word recognition. Describes results of testing words for recognition without segmentation and considers the algorithms' use for words of different fonts and for processing whole sentences. (Author/LRW)

  6. Constraints on the Meanings of Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, N.; And Others

    Between their second and fifth years, young children learn approximately 15 new words a day. For every word the child hears, he or she must choose the correct referent out of an infinite set of candidates. An important problem for developmental psychologists is to understand the principles that limit the child's hypotheses about word meanings. A…

  7. Picture-Word Interference Is Semantically Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, Richard R.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of the performance of second-, fourth-, sixth-grade, and college-level subjects on picture-word interference tasks indicated that distractor words belonging to the same semantic category as pictures produced more interference than either unrelated words or nonsense trigrams. (Author/JMB)

  8. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  9. Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Written Chinese text has no separators between words in the same way as European languages use space characters, and this creates the Chinese Word Segmentation Problem, CWSP: given a text in Chinese, divide it in a correct way into segments corresponding to words. Good solutions are in demand...

  10. Phonemic Analysis: Effects of Word Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Robert; van Bon, Wim H. J.

    The phonemic effects of word length, consonant-vowel structure, syllable structure, and meaning on word segmentation were investigated in two experiments with young children. The decentration hypothesis, which predicts that children who habitually direct their attention to word meaning would concentrate better at analyzing a spoken form without…

  11. Three Dirty Words Are Killing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Three words used frequently in debates about education actually cloud the issues. Those words are standardization, rigor, and reform. Standardization is often confused with standards, though they are not the same thing. Similarly, rigor is confused with relevance, and reform with renaissance. Those three words are used because they sound tough and…

  12. Embodied Attention and Word Learning by Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Many theories of early word learning begin with the uncertainty inherent to learning a word from its co-occurrence with a visual scene. However, the relevant visual scene for infant word learning is neither from the adult theorist's view nor the mature partner's view, but is rather from the learner's personal view. Here we show that when 18-month…

  13. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  14. 40 CFR 156.64 - Signal word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category) to...

  15. BIPERIODIC FIBONACCI WORD AND ITS FRACTAL CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ramírez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a word-combinatorial interpretation of the biperiodic Fibonacci sequence. We study some properties of this new family of infinite words. Moreover,  we associate to this family of words a family of curves with interesting patterns.

  16. Liverpool Aortic Surgery Symposium V: New Frontiers in Aortic Disease and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohamad; Fok, Matthew; Shaw, Matthew; Field, Mark; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Desmond, Michael; Harrington, Deborah; Rashid, Abbas; Oo, Aung

    2014-06-01

    Aortic aneurysm disease is a complex condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach in management. The innovation and collaboration among vascular surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, interventional radiology, and other related specialties is essential for progress in the management of aortic aneurysms. The Fifth Liverpool Aortic Surgery Symposium that was held in May 2013 aimed at bringing national and international experts from across the United Kingdom and the globe to deliver their thoughts, applications, and advances in aortic and vascular surgery. In this report, we present a selected short synopsis of the key topics presented at this symposium.

  17. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  18. Dichotic words listening test: technical aspects and results in normal right-handed individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Caner-Cukiert

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Dichotic listening tests have been being used in an increasing frequency to determine in a non-invasive way the cerebral dominance in right- and left-handed patients. This is especially relevant when surgery in eloquent brain areas is being contemplated. A Portuguese version of the dichotic words listening test was developed based mainly on Wexler's protocol. It consisted of 15 pairs of words with a stimulus dominance lower than 50%. They were recorded using natural voice and time and intensity synchronization by means of a specialized software. Each pair of words was presented twice in different channels within each block. The items were randomized and presented with a 300 msec interval between each trial. Four blocks of 30 pairs of words each were created, totalizing 120 trials. In the scoring process, the words heard over the right and left ears were wrote down. The number of times each word was heard over each ear was computed and their values subtracted yielding a partial score for each specific word pair. This process was repeated for all stimuli pair and a final score for right and left predominance was then reached. Thirty-two right handed normal individuals underwent the test 93.8% showed a right ear advantage. These results are very similar to the actual left hemisphere dominance rate in a right-handed population.

  19. Mathematical Tasks without Words and Word Problems: Perceptions of Reluctant Problem Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Sydney Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study used a multiple, holistic case study approach (Yin, 2009) to explore the perceptions of reluctant problem solvers related to mathematical tasks without words and word problems. Participants were given a choice of working a mathematical task without words or a word problem during four problem-solving sessions. Data…

  20. Exploring the Efficacy of "The Word within the Word" for Gifted and Typically Developing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory study of the efficacy of "The Word Within the Word" tested students' abilities to recognize, use, and recall vocabulary. Ten middle school teachers and their 493 students participated. Five teachers used "The Word Within the Word", and five used traditional vocabulary materials. Students completed an out-of-level…

  1. Word skipping: effects of word length, predictability, spelling and reading skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Timothy J; Yates, Mark

    2017-08-31

    Readers eyes often skip over words as they read. Skipping rates are largely determined by word length; short words are skipped more than long words. However, the predictability of a word in context also impacts skipping rates. Rayner, Slattery, Drieghe and Liversedge (2011) reported an effect of predictability on word skipping for even long words (10-13 characters) that extend beyond the word identification span. Recent research suggests that better readers and spellers have an enhanced perceptual span (Veldre & Andrews, 2014). We explored whether reading and spelling skill interact with word length and predictability to impact word skipping rates in a large sample (N=92) of average and poor adult readers. Participants read the items from Rayner et al. (2011) while their eye movements were recorded. Spelling skill (zSpell) was assessed using the dictation and recognition tasks developed by Sally Andrews and colleagues. Reading skill (zRead) was assessed from reading speed (words per minute) and accuracy of three 120 word passages each with 10 comprehension questions. We fit linear mixed models to the target gaze duration data and generalized linear mixed models to the target word skipping data. Target word gaze durations were significantly predicted by zRead while, the skipping likelihoods were significantly predicted by zSpell. Additionally, for gaze durations, zRead significantly interacted with word predictability as better readers relied less on context to support word processing. These effects are discussed in relation to the lexical quality hypothesis and eye movement models of reading.

  2. What's in a word? What's a word in?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Line Brink

    2011-01-01

    Integrationaltheory isadiverse fieldofresearchthat dealswithlanguage andthe socialact of communication on the premise that ‘‘language presupposes communication’’ and the field conceptualizes communication as embedded in situations of people, time and space andtherefore highly dependent oncontextual...... and social psychology to create new insights to the communicational studies of new words. My study will rely on examples from three diverse qualitative data sets involving youngsters in social networks in and outside the Internet, analyzed according to integrational principles. Through these integrational...

  3. How new words (don't) become memories : Lexicalization in advanced L1 Dutch learners of L2 English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Merel

    2016-01-01

    It is an undisputed fact that learning – and remembering – new words is key in successful second language acquisition. And yet researching how vocabulary acquisition takes place is one of the most difficult endeavors in second language acquisition. We can test how many L2 words a learner knows, but

  4. Professional WordPress design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brad; Stern, Hal

    2014-01-01

    The highest rated WordPress development and design book on the market is back with an all new third edition. Professional WordPress is the only WordPress book targeted to developers, with advanced content that exploits the full functionality of the most popular CMS in the world. Fully updated to align with WordPress 4.1, this edition has updated examples with all new screenshots, and full exploration of additional tasks made possible by the latest tools and features. You will gain insight into real projects that currently use WordPress as an application framework, as well as the basic usage a

  5. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....

  6. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete.

  7. Risk factors of post-operative delirium after elective vascular surgery in the elderly: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raats, J W; Steunenberg, S L; de Lange, D C; van der Laan, L

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative delirium is a common and serious adverse event in the elderly patient and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is of great importance to identify patients at risk for delirium, in order to focus preventive strategies. The aim of this article is to systematically review current available literature on pre-operative risk factors for delirium after vascular surgery. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE, using the MeSH terms and key words "delirium", "surgery" and "risk factor". Studies were retained for review after meeting strict inclusion criteria that included only prospective studies evaluating risk factors for delirium in patients who had elective vascular surgery. Diagnosis of delirium needed to be confirmed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or ICD-10. Fifteen articles were selected for inclusion, incidence of delirium across the studies ranged from 5% to 39%. Many factors have been associated with increased risk of delirium, including age, cognitive impairment, comorbidity, depression, smoking, alcohol, visual and hearing impairment, ASA-score, biochemical abnormalities, operative strategies and blood loss. Delirium is a common complication after elective vascular surgery in elderly. The highest delirium incidence was observed after open aortic surgery as well as after surgery for critical limb ischemia. A picture starts to form of which predisposing factors lead to increased risk of delirium. The leading risk factors consistently identified in this systematic review were advanced age and cognitive impairment. Multi-disciplinary specialist-led interventions in the preoperative phase could decrease incidence and severity of delirium and should be focused on identified high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of the outcome of Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction surgery on knee in athletes from Sari, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmaeel Shafiei

    2009-01-01

    of this study, it appears that performing ACL reconstruction surgery results in satisfaction of patients and can specially be helpful (if performed appropriately in athlets.Key words: Outcome, ACL reconstruction surgery, ACL tear, athletesJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 20(74: 2-7 (Persian.

  9. Word sense disambiguation using semantic relatedness measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Che-Yu

    2006-01-01

    All human languages have words that can mean different things in different contexts, such words with multiple meanings are potentially "ambiguous". The process of "deciding which of several meanings of a term is intended in a given context" is known as "word sense disambiguation (WSD)". This paper presents a method of WSD that assigns a target word the sense that is most related to the senses of its neighbor words. We explore the use of measures of relatedness between word senses based on a novel hybrid approach. First, we investigate how to "literally" and "regularly" express a "concept". We apply set algebra to WordNet's synsets cooperating with WordNet's word ontology. In this way we establish regular rules for constructing various representations (lexical notations) of a concept using Boolean operators and word forms in various synset(s) defined in WordNet. Then we establish a formal mechanism for quantifying and estimating the semantic relatedness between concepts-we facilitate "concept distribution statistics" to determine the degree of semantic relatedness between two lexically expressed concepts. The experimental results showed good performance on Semcor, a subset of Brown corpus. We observe that measures of semantic relatedness are useful sources of information for WSD.

  10. Immediate lexical integration of novel word forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C.; McMurray, Bob

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that familiar words inhibit each other during spoken word recognition. However, we do not know how and under what circumstances newly learned words become integrated with the lexicon in order to engage in this competition. Previous work on word learning has highlighted the importance of offline consolidation (Gaskell & Dumay, 2003) and meaning (Leach & Samuel, 2007) to establish this integration. In two experiments we test the necessity of these factors by examining the inhibition between newly learned items and familiar words immediately after learning. Participants learned a set of nonwords without meanings in active (Exp 1) or passive (Exp 2) exposure paradigms. After training, participants performed a visual world paradigm task to assess inhibition from these newly learned items. An analysis of participants’ fixations suggested that the newly learned words were able to engage in competition with known words without any consolidation. PMID:25460382

  11. Optimization of Teaching Method in the Key Words of Higher Vocational Ent Nursing in Bilingual Teaching%优化组合教学法在高职五官科护理学关键词双语教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳; 丁恒

    2015-01-01

    目前,医学高职院校学生对认为“有用”的内、外科等“大学科”感兴趣,而对五官科等学科由于自认为是“小学科”,而且在解剖上又比较复杂,所以缺乏足够的学习兴趣。同时,由于教师多采用讲授法等比较单一的教学方法,所以目前高职院校五官科护理学的教学效果不佳。因此,通过将多种教学法优化组合于高职五官科护理学教学中提高教学质量是十分必要的。%At present, vocational students in medical colleges only interested in the "useful" knowledge ,such as surgery, medicineand and other "University of Science". But for ENT since that is the little discipline, and more complex in anato-my, so the vocational students lack of enough interest in learning. At the same time, because the teacher often uses only one or two teaching method, so the teaching effect in the Higher Vocational College of ENT nursing poor. Therefore, in order to improve the ENT nursing quality of teaching , a variety of teaching methods to optimize in Higher Vocational Education of ENT nursing is very necessary.

  12. Language, word and discourse: the Lacanian path into the tradition and present of political theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Rossi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to flesh out the relationship between language, word and discourse in the tradition and present of Political Theory, resorting to some Lacanian categories. The first part of this text will focus on Lacan’s distinction between the notions of language, word and discourse. The second part is meant to track those notions in some key aspects of the tradition and present of Political Theory and Political Philosophy.

  13. The Homomorphic Key Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There are various challenges that are faced in group communication, so it is necessary to ensure session key. Key agreement is the fundamental cryptographic primitive for establishing a secure communication. It is a process of computing a shared secret contributed by two or more entities such that no single node can predetermine the resulting value. An authenticated key agreement is attained by combining the key agreement protocol with digital signatures. After a brief introduction to existing key agreement in group communication, Making use of the additive-multiplicative homomorphism in the integer ring defined by Sander and Tschudin: A new protocols, called the homomorphism key agreement, was designed, which can be self-contributory, robust, scalable and applicable in group communication.

  14. Myocardial protection during heart surgery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingyang Ji; Jinping Liu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Myocardial protection (MP) is the key for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) heart surgery. MP during cardiac surgery (CS) aims to preserve myocardial function while providing a bloodless and motionless operating field. Strategies on how to attenuate or prevent post-ischemic myocardial dysfunction that occurs intra-operatively during CS have been discussed for more than half a century. In 1950, Bigelow et al1 first reported to decrease myocardial oxygen demand by means of hypothermia.

  15. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of jaws and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may be dramatically enhanced as a result of their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on ...

  16. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass ... bypass surgery is not a quick fix for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. After this surgery, you must eat healthy foods, control portion sizes of ...

  17. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require ...

  18. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ... out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may ...

  19. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  20. Key Account Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    This note tries to explain concept of key account management (KAM), factors leading to importance of this emerging concept, criteria to determine key accounts from customer base, benefits to both buyers and sellers agreeing to practice it, stages of KAM relationship, conditions under which power lies with buyer or seller, outlines risks faced by both the parties, key success factors, challenges faced in implementing this concept and relevance to infrastructure sector.

  1. WordPress Website Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lassila, Joonas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to develop a WordPress mobile-first style website for the customer, Pohjois-Suomen Pesis. The main purpose of the development was to learn website designing principles and create a responsive website for the mobile and desktop platforms. The development process began defining the requirements of the website and creating the requirements document. Then next step was learning how to design a website layout and to choose the colour scheme for the site. T...

  2. Patterns in Permutations and Words

    CERN Document Server

    Kitaev, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in the subject of patterns in permutations and words, a new branch of combinatorics with its roots in the works of Rotem, Rogers, and Knuth in the 1970s. Consideration of the patterns in question has been extremely interesting from the combinatorial point of view, and it has proved to be a useful language in a variety of seemingly unrelated problems, including the theory of Kazhdan--Lusztig polynomials, singularities of Schubert varieties, interval orders, Chebyshev polynomials, models in statistical mechanics, and various sorting algorithms, inclu

  3. PDF轻松转Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    很多时候会遇到需要将PDF文件转成Word的问题!这个时候就需要一些小软件帮我们解决这个问题。Adream Soft PDF to Word,就是这样一款软件!使用Adream Soft PDF to Word将PDF转换为Word文档,通常只需点击两次鼠标即可完成。点击“add pdf files…”,

  4. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector.

  5. Improved Surgery Planning Using 3-D Printing: a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A J; Shetty, V; Bhagavan, K R; Ragothaman, Ananthan; Shetty, V; Koneru, Ganesh; Agarwala, M

    2016-04-01

    The role of 3-D printing is presented for improved patient-specific surgery planning. Key benefits are time saved and surgery outcome. Two hard-tissue surgery models were 3-D printed, for orthopedic, pelvic surgery, and craniofacial surgery. We discuss software data conversion in computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) medical image for 3-D printing. 3-D printed models save time in surgery planning and help visualize complex pre-operative anatomy. Time saved in surgery planning can be as much as two thirds. In addition to improved surgery accuracy, 3-D printing presents opportunity in materials research. Other hard-tissue and soft-tissue cases in maxillofacial, abdominal, thoracic, cardiac, orthodontics, and neurosurgery are considered. We recommend using 3-D printing as standard protocol for surgery planning and for teaching surgery practices. A quick turnaround time of a 3-D printed surgery model, in improved accuracy in surgery planning, is helpful for the surgery team. It is recommended that these costs be within 20 % of the total surgery budget.

  6. How I approach trabeculectomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Murdoch

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe an approach to the most commonly performed surgical treatment for open-angle glaucoma, trabeculectomy. It is important to recognise that the concept of trabeculectomy surgery can be difficult for patients to comprehend in the first place. Their disease is frequently ‘thrust upon them’ by doctors; in other words, they are frequently asymptomatic in the eye that the ophthalmologist is most concerned about. The therapy, at best, can only hope to maintain vision. Vision may well deteriorate as a result of the therapy. These concepts are vital in the consideration of any surgical intervention. Preventive therapy is always more difficult to introduce. This also means the surgeon is all the more challenged to produce the safest possible result. A well-rested surgeon and a calm surgical environment is the start, along with a confident surgical technique.

  7. EAU policy on live surgery events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artibani, Walter; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Challacombe, Ben J; Abbou, Clement-Claude; Bedke, Jens; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Brausi, Maurizio; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Deger, Serdar; Denis, Louis; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Guillonneau, Bertrand; Heesakkers, John P F A; Jacqmin, Didier; Knoll, Thomas; Martínez-Piñeiro, Luis; Montorsi, Francesco; Mottrie, Alexander; Piechaud, Pierre-Thierry; Rane, Abhay; Rassweiler, Jens; Stenzl, Arnulf; Van Moorselaar, Jeroen; Van Velthoven, Roland F; van Poppel, Hendrik; Wirth, Manfred; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Parsons, Keith F

    2014-07-01

    Live surgery is an important part of surgical education, with an increase in the number of live surgery events (LSEs) at meetings despite controversy about their real educational value, risks to patient safety, and conflicts of interest. To provide a European Association of Urology (EAU) policy on LSEs to regulate their organisation during urologic meetings. The project was carried out in phases: a systematic literature review generating key questions, surveys sent to Live Surgery Panel members, and Internet- and panel-based consensus finding using the Delphi process to agree on and formulate a policy. The EAU will endorse LSEs, provided that the EAU Code of Conduct for live surgery and all organisational requirements are followed. Outcome data must be submitted to an EAU Web-based registry and complications reported using the revised Martin criteria. Regular audits will take place to evaluate compliance as well as the educational role of live surgery. This policy represents the consensus view of an expert panel established to advise the EAU. The EAU recognises the educational role of live surgery and endorses live case demonstration at urologic meetings that are conducted within a clearly defined regulatory framework. The overriding principle is that patient safety must take priority over all other considerations in the conduct of live surgery. Controversy exists regarding the true educational value of live surgical demonstrations on patients at surgical meetings. An EAU committee of experts developed a policy on how best to conduct live surgery at urologic meetings. The key principle is to ensure safety for every patient, including a code of conduct and checklist for live surgery, specific rules for how the surgery is organised and performed, and how each patient's results are reported to the EAU. For detailed information, please visit www.uroweb.org. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpha-band suppression in the visual word form area as a functional bottleneck to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan; Vidal, Juan R; Oostenveld, Robert; FitzPatrick, Ian; Démonet, Jean-François; Fries, Pascal

    2013-09-01

    The current state of empirical investigations refers to consciousness as an all-or-none phenomenon. However, a recent theoretical account opens up this perspective by proposing a partial level (between nil and full) of conscious perception. In the well-studied case of single-word reading, short-lived exposure can trigger incomplete word-form recognition wherein letters fall short of forming a whole word in one's conscious perception thereby hindering word-meaning access and report. Hence, the processing from incomplete to complete word-form recognition straightforwardly mirrors a transition from partial to full-blown consciousness. We therefore hypothesized that this putative functional bottleneck to consciousness (i.e. the perceptual boundary between partial and full conscious perception) would emerge at a major key hub region for word-form recognition during reading, namely the left occipito-temporal junction. We applied a real-time staircase procedure and titrated subjective reports at the threshold between partial (letters) and full (whole word) conscious perception. This experimental approach allowed us to collect trials with identical physical stimulation, yet reflecting distinct perceptual experience levels. Oscillatory brain activity was monitored with magnetoencephalography and revealed that the transition from partial-to-full word-form perception was accompanied by alpha-band (7-11 Hz) power suppression in the posterior left occipito-temporal cortex. This modulation of rhythmic activity extended anteriorly towards the visual word form area (VWFA), a region whose selectivity for word-forms in perception is highly debated. The current findings provide electrophysiological evidence for a functional bottleneck to consciousness thereby empirically instantiating a recently proposed partial perspective on consciousness. Moreover, the findings provide an entirely new outlook on the functioning of the VWFA as a late bottleneck to full-blown conscious word

  9. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  10. Financial Key Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  11. The compact key

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1966-01-01

    Here is given a sample of a new sort of identification key, recently developed by Dr. P. W. Leenhouts of the Rijksherbarium. Having to sort many specimens of Sapindaceae into genera, he became dissatisfied with the common dichotomous key, which too often does not work when the material is not comple

  12. Offline recognition of handwritten cursive words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favata, John T.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1992-08-01

    A robust algorithm for offline cursive script recognition is described. The algorithm uses a generate-and-test paradigm to analyze cursive word images. The generate phase of the algorithm intelligently segments the word after analyzing certain structural features present in the word. The test phase determines the most likely character candidates among the segmentation points by using a recognition algorithm trained on generalized cursive letter shapes. In a sense, word recognition is done by sliding a variable sized window across the word looking for recognizable characters and strokes. The output of this system is a list of all plausible interpretations of the word. This list is then analyzed by a two-step contextual post- processor which first matches all of the interpretations to a supplied dictionary using a string matching algorithm. This eliminates the least likely interpretations. The remaining candidates are then analyzed for certain character spatial relationships (local reference line finder) to finally rank the dictionary. The system has the advantage of not requiring explicit word training yet is able to recognize many handwriting styles. This system is being successfully tested on a database of handwritten words extracted from live mail with dictionary sizes of up to 300 words. Planned extensions include developing a multilevel generate-and-test paradigm which can handle any type of handwritten word.

  13. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  14. Word Length Effect in Free Recall of Randomly Assembled Word Lists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eKatkov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In serial recall experiments, human subjects are requested to retrieve a list of words in the same order as they were presented. In a classical study, participants were reported to recall more words from study lists composed of short words compared to lists of long words, the word length effect. The world length effect was also observed in free recall experiments, where subjects can retrieve the words in any order. Here we analyzed a large dataset from free recall experiments of unrelated words, where short and long words were randomly mixed, and found a seemingly opposite effect: long words are recalled better than the short ones. We show that our recently proposed mechanism of associative retrieval can explain both these observations. Moreover, the direction of the effect depends solely on the way study lists are composed.

  15. Word type effects in false recall: concrete, abstract, and emotion word critical lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lisa M; Olheiser, Erik L; Altarriba, Jeanette; Landi, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that definable qualities of verbal stimuli have implications for memory. For example, the distinction between concrete and abstract words has led to the finding that concrete words have an advantage in memory tasks (i.e., the concreteness effect). However, other word types, such as words that label specific human emotions, may also affect memory processes. This study examined the effects of word type on the production of false memories by using a list-learning false memory paradigm. Participants heard lists of words that were highly associated to nonpresented concrete, abstract, or emotion words (i.e., the critical lures) and then engaged in list recall. Emotion word critical lures were falsely recalled at a significantly higher rate (with the effect carried by the positively valenced critical lures) than concrete and abstract critical lures. These findings suggest that the word type variable has implications for our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie recall and false recall.

  16. Mark my words: tone of voice changes affective word representations in memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Schirmer

    Full Text Available The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory. To this end, participants were presented with a series of words and asked to remember the words for a subsequent recognition test. During study, words were presented auditorily with an emotional or neutral prosody, whereas during test, words were presented visually. Recognition performance was comparable for words studied with emotional and neutral prosody. However, subsequent valence ratings indicated that study prosody changed the affective representation of words in memory. Compared to words with neutral prosody, words with sad prosody were later rated as more negative and words with happy prosody were later rated as more positive. Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval. Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

  17. Assessing the usefulness of google books' word frequencies for psycholinguistic research on word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Keuleers, Emmanuel; New, Boris

    2011-01-01

    In this Perspective Article we assess the usefulness of Google's new word frequencies for word recognition research (lexical decision and word naming). We find that, despite the massive corpus on which the Google estimates are based (131 billion words from books published in the United States alone), the Google American English frequencies explain 11% less of the variance in the lexical decision times from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) than the SUBTLEX-US word frequencies, based on a corpus of 51 million words from film and television subtitles. Further analyses indicate that word frequencies derived from recent books (published after 2000) are better predictors of word processing times than frequencies based on the full corpus, and that word frequencies based on fiction books predict word processing times better than word frequencies based on the full corpus. The most predictive word frequencies from Google still do not explain more of the variance in word recognition times of undergraduate students and old adults than the subtitle-based word frequencies.

  18. Assessing the Usefulness of Google Books’ Word Frequencies for Psycholinguistic Research on Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Keuleers, Emmanuel; New, Boris

    2011-01-01

    In this Perspective Article we assess the usefulness of Google's new word frequencies for word recognition research (lexical decision and word naming). We find that, despite the massive corpus on which the Google estimates are based (131 billion words from books published in the United States alone), the Google American English frequencies explain 11% less of the variance in the lexical decision times from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) than the SUBTLEX-US word frequencies, based on a corpus of 51 million words from film and television subtitles. Further analyses indicate that word frequencies derived from recent books (published after 2000) are better predictors of word processing times than frequencies based on the full corpus, and that word frequencies based on fiction books predict word processing times better than word frequencies based on the full corpus. The most predictive word frequencies from Google still do not explain more of the variance in word recognition times of undergraduate students and old adults than the subtitle-based word frequencies. PMID:21713191

  19. Word Reading Aloud Skills: Their Positive Redefinition through Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Marianne; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Potvin, Karel; Harvey-Langton, Alexandra; Montembeault, Maxime; Brambati, Simona M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Successful reading can be achieved by means of two different procedures: sub-word processes for the pronunciation of words without semantics or pseudowords (PW) and whole-word processes that recruit word-specific information regarding the pronunciation of words with atypical orthography-to-phonology mappings (exception words, EW).…

  20. Oral surgery: part 2. Endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, I

    2013-09-01

    In the past, the interaction between dentoalveolar surgery and restorative dentistry has been limited to the removal of teeth with pulp and/or periradicular disease or those that were unrestorable. However, with the increasing dental awareness of the population and the retention of teeth into later life, the interaction between dentoalveolar surgery and restorative dentistry is becoming a fundamental aspect of clinical practice. Indeed, endodontic and implant surgery are core activities that facilitate the retention of a functional dentition.