WorldWideScience

Sample records for surfaces directed assembly

  1. Directed Supramolecular Surface Assembly of SNAP-tag Fusion Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Wasserberg, D.; Haase, C.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Schenkel, J.H.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ravoo, B.J.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces and vesicles was investigated by site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular guest element on proteins. Fluorescent proteins were site-selectively labeled with bisadamantane by SNAP-tag technology. The assembly of the bisadamantane functionalized

  2. Template-directed supramolecular self-assembly of coordination dumbbells at surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nian; Langner, Alexander; Tait, Steven L; Rajadurai, Chandrasekar; Ruben, Mario; Kern, Klaus

    2007-12-14

    Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals, at single-molecular resolution, how external parameters--substrate morphology and guest addition--re-direct the assembly of dumbbell-shaped coordination supramolecules towards different surface-confined supramolecular organizations.

  3. Surface Tension Directed Fluidic Self-Assembly of Semiconductor Chips across Length Scales and Material Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantonu Biswas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This publication provides an overview and discusses some challenges of surface tension directed fluidic self-assembly of semiconductor chips which are transported in a liquid medium. The discussion is limited to surface tension directed self-assembly where the capture, alignment, and electrical connection process is driven by the surface free energy of molten solder bumps where the authors have made a contribution. The general context is to develop a massively parallel and scalable assembly process to overcome some of the limitations of current robotic pick and place and serial wire bonding concepts. The following parts will be discussed: (2 Single-step assembly of LED arrays containing a repetition of a single component type; (3 Multi-step assembly of more than one component type adding a sequence and geometrical shape confinement to the basic concept to build more complex structures; demonstrators contain (3.1 self-packaging surface mount devices, and (3.2 multi-chip assemblies with unique angular orientation. Subsequently, measures are discussed (4 to enable the assembly of microscopic chips (10 μm–1 mm; a different transport method is introduced; demonstrators include the assembly of photovoltaic modules containing microscopic silicon tiles. Finally, (5 the extension to enable large area assembly is presented; a first reel-to-reel assembly machine is realized; the machine is applied to the field of solid state lighting and the emerging field of stretchable electronics which requires the assembly and electrical connection of semiconductor devices over exceedingly large area substrates.

  4. Dual brush process for selective surface modification in graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Chan, Boon Teik; Hori, Masafumi; Gronheid, Roel

    2017-07-01

    Graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly is a potential low-cost solution for patterning via layers with pitches beyond the reach of a single optical lithographic exposure. In this process, selective control of the interfacial energy at the bottom and sidewall of the template is an important but challenging exercise. A dual brush process is implemented, in which two brushes with distinct end-groups are consecutively grafted to the prepattern to achieve fully independent modification of the bottom and sidewall surface of the template. A comprehensive study of hole pattern quality shows that using a dual brush process leads to a substantial improvement in terms of positional and dimensional variability across the process window. These findings will be useful to others who wish to manipulate polymer-surface interactions in directed self-assembly flows.

  5. Surface roughness directed self-assembly of patchy particles into colloidal micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; Ni, Ran; Smallenburg, Frank; Hermes, Michiel; Yoon, Kisun; Weitz, David A; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Groenewold, Jan; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Kegel, Willem K

    2012-07-03

    Colloidal particles with site-specific directional interactions, so called "patchy particles", are promising candidates for bottom-up assembly routes towards complex structures with rationally designed properties. Here we present an experimental realization of patchy colloidal particles based on material independent depletion interaction and surface roughness. Curved, smooth patches on rough colloids are shown to be exclusively attractive due to their different overlap volumes. We discuss in detail the case of colloids with one patch that serves as a model for molecular surfactants both with respect to their geometry and their interactions. These one-patch particles assemble into clusters that resemble surfactant micelles with the smooth and attractive sides of the colloids located at the interior. We term these clusters "colloidal micelles". Direct Monte Carlo simulations starting from a homogeneous state give rise to cluster size distributions that are in good agreement with those found in experiments. Important differences with surfactant micelles originate from the colloidal character of our model system and are investigated by simulations and addressed theoretically. Our new "patchy" model system opens up the possibility for self-assembly studies into finite-sized superstructures as well as crystals with as of yet inaccessible structures.

  6. Directed Evolution to Engineer Monobody for FRET Biosensor Assembly and Imaging at Live-Cell Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsakul, Praopim; Peng, Qin; Wu, Yiqian; Allen, Molly E; Liang, Jing; Remacle, Albert G; Lopez, Tyler; Ge, Xin; Kay, Brian K; Zhao, Huimin; Strongin, Alex Y; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Lu, Shaoying; Wang, Yingxiao

    2018-04-19

    Monitoring enzymatic activities at the cell surface is challenging due to the poor efficiency of transport and membrane integration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors. Therefore, we developed a hybrid biosensor with separate donor and acceptor that assemble in situ. The directed evolution and sequence-function analysis technologies were integrated to engineer a monobody variant (PEbody) that binds to R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) dye. PEbody was used for visualizing the dynamic formation/separation of intercellular junctions. We further fused PEbody with the enhanced CFP and an enzyme-specific peptide at the extracellular surface to create a hybrid FRET biosensor upon R-PE capture for monitoring membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) activities. This biosensor revealed asymmetric distribution of MT1-MMP activities, which were high and low at loose and stable cell-cell contacts, respectively. Therefore, directed evolution and rational design are promising tools to engineer molecular binders and hybrid FRET biosensors for monitoring molecular regulations at the surface of living cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Directed assembly of functional light harvesting antenna complexes onto chemically patterned surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalante, Maryana; Maury, Pascale; Bruinink, Christiaan M; Werf, Kees van der; Olsen, John D; Timney, John A; Huskens, Jurriaan; Hunter, C Neil; Subramaniam, Vinod; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We report the directed assembly of the photosynthetic membrane proteins LH1 and LH2 isolated from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides onto chemically patterned substrates. Nanoimprint lithography was used to pattern discrete regions of amino- and fluoro-terminated or poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers onto a glass substrate. Densely packed layers of assembled protein complexes were observed with atomic force microscopy. The protein complexes attached selectively to the amino-terminated regions by electrostatic interactions. Spectral images generated with a hybrid scanning probe and fluorescence microscope confirmed that the patterned proteins retained their native optical signatures

  8. When lithography meets self-assembly: a review of recent advances in the directed assembly of complex metal nanostructures on planar and textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert A.; Menumerov, Eredzhep; Neretina, Svetlana

    2017-07-01

    One of the foremost challenges in nanofabrication is the establishment of a processing science that integrates wafer-based materials, techniques, and devices with the extraordinary physicochemical properties accessible when materials are reduced to nanoscale dimensions. Such a merger would allow for exacting controls on nanostructure positioning, promote cooperative phenomenon between adjacent nanostructures and/or substrate materials, and allow for electrical contact to individual or groups of nanostructures. With neither self-assembly nor top-down lithographic processes being able to adequately meet this challenge, advancements have often relied on a hybrid strategy that utilizes lithographically-defined features to direct the assembly of nanostructures into organized patterns. While these so-called directed assembly techniques have proven viable, much of this effort has focused on the assembly of periodic arrays of spherical or near-spherical nanostructures comprised of a single element. Work directed toward the fabrication of more complex nanostructures, while still at a nascent stage, has nevertheless demonstrated the possibility of forming arrays of nanocubes, nanorods, nanoprisms, nanoshells, nanocages, nanoframes, core-shell structures, Janus structures, and various alloys on the substrate surface. In this topical review, we describe the progress made in the directed assembly of periodic arrays of these complex metal nanostructures on planar and textured substrates. The review is divided into three broad strategies reliant on: (i) the deterministic positioning of colloidal structures, (ii) the reorganization of deposited metal films at elevated temperatures, and (iii) liquid-phase chemistry practiced directly on the substrate surface. These strategies collectively utilize a broad range of techniques including capillary assembly, microcontact printing, chemical surface modulation, templated dewetting, nanoimprint lithography, and dip-pen nanolithography and

  9. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  10. Identifying the nature of surface chemical modification for directed self-assembly of block copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Evangelio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, block copolymer lithography has emerged as a viable alternative technology for advanced lithography. In chemical-epitaxy-directed self-assembly, the interfacial energy between the substrate and each block copolymer domain plays a key role on the final ordering. Here, we focus on the experimental characterization of the chemical interactions that occur at the interface built between different chemical guiding patterns and the domains of the block copolymers. We have chosen hard X-ray high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy as an exploration technique because it provides information on the electronic structure of buried interfaces. The outcome of the characterization sheds light onto key aspects of directed self-assembly: grafted brush layer, chemical pattern creation and brush/block co-polymer interface.

  11. Surface-directed molecular assembly of pentacene on monolayer graphene for high-performance organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Hyoung; Park, Jaesung; Sim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Soojin; Kim, Kwang S; Hong, Byung Hee; Cho, Kilwon

    2011-03-30

    Organic electronic devices that use graphene electrodes have received considerable attention because graphene is regarded as an ideal candidate electrode material. Transfer and lithographic processes during fabrication of patterned graphene electrodes typically leave polymer residues on the graphene surfaces. However, the impact of these residues on the organic semiconductor growth mechanism on graphene surface has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate that polymer residues remaining on graphene surfaces induce a stand-up orientation of pentacene, thereby controlling pentacene growth such that the molecular assembly is optimal for charge transport. Thus, pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs) using source/drain monolayer graphene electrodes with polymer residues show a high field-effect mobility of 1.2 cm(2)/V s. In contrast, epitaxial growth of pentacene having molecular assembly of lying-down structure is facilitated by π-π interaction between pentacene and the clean graphene electrode without polymer residues, which adversely affects lateral charge transport at the interface between electrode and channel. Our studies provide that the obtained high field-effect mobility in pentacene FETs using monolayer graphene electrodes arises from the extrinsic effects of polymer residues as well as the intrinsic characteristics of the highly conductive, ultrathin two-dimensional monolayer graphene electrodes.

  12. Electrostatic and capillary force directed tunable 3D binary micro- and nanoparticle assemblies on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G; Pillai, S; Arpanaei, A; Kingshott, P

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple, rapid and cost-effective method based on evaporation induced assembly to grow 3D binary colloidal assemblies on a hydrophobic/hydrophilic substrate by simple drop casting. The evaporation of a mixed colloidal drop results in ring-like or uniform area deposition depending on the concentration of particles, and thus assembly occurs at the periphery of a ring or uniformly all over the drop area. Binary colloidal assemblies of different crystal structure are successfully prepared over a wide range of size ratios (γ = small/large) from 0.06 to 0.30 by tuning the γ of the micro- and nanoparticles used during assembly. The growth mechanism of 3D binary colloidal assemblies is investigated and it is found that electrostatic forces facilitate assembly formation until the end of the evaporation process, with capillary forces also playing a role. In addition, the effects of solvent type, humidity, and salt concentration on crystal formation and ordering behaviour are also examined. Furthermore, long range, highly ordered binary colloidal assemblies can be fabricated by the choice of a low conducting solvent combined with evaporation induced assembly.

  13. Directed self-assembly of fluorescence responsive nanoparticles and their use for real-time surface and cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Shane; O'Shea, Donal F

    2017-12-01

    Directed self-assemblies in water are known as the most efficient means of forming complex higher ordered structures in nature. Here we show a straightforward and robust method for particle assembly which utilises the amphiphilic tri-block co-polymer poloxamer-188 and a hydrophobic fluorophore as the two designer components, which have a built-in ability to convey spatial and temporal information about their surroundings to an observer. Templating of particle self-assembly is attributed to interactions between the fluorophore and hydrophobic segment of the poloxamer. Particle fluorescence in water is quenched but can be induced to selectively switch on in response to temperature, surface adsorption and cellular uptake. The ability of the particles to dynamically modulate emission intensity can be exploited for selective labelling and real-time imaging of drug crystal surfaces, natural fibres and insulin fibrils, and cellular delivery. As particle solutions are easily prepared, further applications for this water-based NIR-fluorescent paint are anticipated.

  14. Templating Biomineralization: Surface Directed Protein Self-assembly and External Magnetic Field Stimulation of Osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Xiaolan

    biomineralization is investigated by SEM, GIXRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). Gene expression during the exposure of SMF is also studies by RT-PCR. The results indicated that exposure to SMF induces osteoblasts to produce larger quantities of HA, with higher degree of crystalline order. The controlling and understanding of protein on the surface is of great interest in biomedical application such as implant medicine, biosensor design, food processing, and chromatographic separations. The adsorbed protein onto the surface significantly determines the performance of biomaterials in a biological environment. Recent studies have suggested that the preservation of the native secondary structure of protein adsorbed is essential for biological application. In order to manipulate protein adsorption and design biocompatible materials, the mechanisms underlying protein-surface interactions, especially how surface properties of materials induce conformational changes of adsorbed proteins, needs to be well understood. Here we demonstrated that even though SPS is a necessary condition, it is not sufficient. We show that low substrate conductivity as well as proper salt concentration are also critical in sustained protein adsorption continuously. These factors allow one to pattern regions of different conducting properties and for the first time patterns physiologically relevant protein structures. Here we show that we can achieve patterned biomineralized regimes, both with plasma proteins in a simple and robust manner without additional functionalization or application of electrochemical gradients. Since the data indicate that the patterns just need to differ in electrical conductivity, rather than surface chemistry, we propose that the creation of transient image charges, due to incomplete charge screening, may be responsible for sustain the driving force for continual protein absorption.

  15. Self-Assembled Nanocube-Based Plasmene Nanosheets as Soft Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates toward Direct Quantitative Drug Identification on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Kae Jye; Guo, Pengzhen; Shi, Qianqian; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-05-19

    We report on self-assembled nanocube-based plasmene nanosheets as new surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates toward direct identification of a trace amount of drugs sitting on topologically complex real-world surfaces. The uniform nanocube arrays (superlattices) led to low spatial SERS signal variances (∼2%). Unlike conventional SERS substrates which are based on rigid nanostructured metals, our plasmene nanosheets are mechanically soft and optically semitransparent, enabling conformal attachment to real-world solid surfaces such as banknotes for direct SERS identification of drugs. Our plasmene nanosheets were able to detect benzocaine overdose down to a parts-per-billion (ppb) level with an excellent linear relationship (R(2) > 0.99) between characteristic peak intensity and concentration. On banknote surfaces, a detection limit of ∼0.9 × 10(-6) g/cm(2) benzocaine could be achieved. Furthermore, a few other drugs could also be identified, even in their binary mixtures with our plasmene nanosheets. Our experimental results clearly show that our plasmene sheets represent a new class of unique SERS substrates, potentially serving as a versatile platform for real-world forensic drug identification.

  16. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  17. Direct imaging by atomic force microscopy of surface-localized self-assembled monolayers on a cuprate superconductor and surface X-ray scattering analysis of analogous monolayers on the surface of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Steen B.; Reitzel, Niels; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A self-assembled monolayer of CF3(CF2)(3)(CH2)(11)NH2 atop the (001) surface of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x was imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images provide direct 2D-structural evidence for the epitaxial 5.5 angstrom square root 2 x root 2R45 degrees unit...... was studied by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity. Structural differences and similarities between the water-supported and superconductor-localized monolayers are discussed....

  18. In situ STM imaging and direct electrochemistry of Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin assembled on thiolate-modified Au(111) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Ooi, Bee Lean

    2004-01-01

    We have addressed here electron transfer (ET) of Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin (PfFd, 7.5 kDa) in both homogeneous solution using edge plane graphite (EPG) electrodes and in the adsorbed state by electrochemistry on surface-modified single-crystal Au(111) electrodes, This has been supported...... by surface microscopic structures of PfFd monolayers, as revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy under potential control (in situ STM). Direct ET between PfFd in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.9, and EPG electrodes is observed in the presence of promoters. Neomycin gives rise to a pair of redox peaks...... with a formal potential of ca -430 mV (vs SCE), corresponding to [3Fe-4S](1+/0). The presence of an additional promoter, which can be propionic acid, alanine, or cysteine, induces a second pair of redox peaks at similar to-900 mV (vs SCE) arising from [3Fe-4S](0/1-). A robust neomycin-PfFd complex was detected...

  19. The Self- and Directed Assembly of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin David

    nanowires rapidly sedimented due to gravity onto a glass cover slip to concentrate and form a dense film. Particles and assemblies were imaged using inverted optical microscopy. We quantitatively analyzed the images and movies captured in order to track and classify particles and classify the overall arrays formed. We then correlated how particle characteristics, e.g., materials, size, segmentation, etc. changed the ordering and alignment observed. With that knowledge, we hope to be able to form new and interesting structures. We began our studies by examining the assembly of single component nanowires. Chapter 2 describes this work, in which solid Au nanowires measuring 2-7 mum in length and 290 nm in diameter self-assembled into smectic rows. By both experiment and theory, we determined that these rows formed due to a balance of electrostatic repulsions and van der Waals attractions. Final assemblies were stable for at least several days. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate assemblies and showed structures that mirrored those experimentally observed. Simulations indicated that the smectic phase was preferred over others, i.e., nematic, when an additional small charge was added to the ends of the nanowires. Our particles have rough tips, which might create these additional electrostatic repulsions. To increase the particle and array complexity, two-component, metallic nanowire assembly was explored in Chapter 3. We examined numerous types of nanowires by changing the segment length, ratio, and material, the nanowire length, the surface coating, and the presence of small third segments. These segmented nanowires were generally Au-Ag and also ordered into smectic rows. Segmented wires arranged in rows, however, can be aligned in two possible ways with respect to a neighboring particle. The Au segments on neighboring particles can be oriented in the same direction or opposed to each other. Orientation was quantified in terms of an order parameter that took into account

  20. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  1. Hirshfeld surface analyses and crystal structures of supramolecular self-assembly thiourea derivatives directed by non-covalent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Ilkay; Solmaz, Ummuhan; Binzet, Gun; Keskin, Ebru; Arslan, Birdal; Arslan, Hakan

    2018-04-01

    The novel N-(bis(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl)carbamothioyl)-4-R-benzamide (R: H, Cl, CH3 and OCH3) compounds have been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Their crystal structures were also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Hirshfeld surfaces analysis and their associated two dimensional fingerprint plots of compounds were used as theoretical approach to assess driving force for crystal structure formation via the intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattices of synthesized compounds. The study of X-ray single crystal diffraction and Hirshfeld surfaces analysis of the prepared compounds shows that hydrogen bonding and other weaker interactions such as Nsbnd H⋯S, weak Csbnd H⋯S, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯N and Csbnd H···π intermolecular interactions and π-π stacking, among molecules of synthesized compounds participate in a cooperative way to stabilize the supramolecular structures.

  2. Focused ion beam modification of surfaces for directed self-assembly of InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Hugh; Rudzinski, Paul; Dehne, Aaron; Millunchick, Joanna Mirecki

    2007-01-01

    Controlled nucleation of InAs quantum dots has been achieved by Ga + focused ion beam modification of GaAs(100) surfaces. Quantum dots may be induced in irradiated regions despite the fact that the deposited thickness is less than the critical thickness for their formation under typical growth conditions when the ion dose is greater than 10 13 ions cm -2 . We also find that the dot density increases with increasing ion dose, and reaches saturation for D>10 14 ions cm -2 . Parameters such as dot height and diameter are unaffected by the dose level. Thus, we show that the increase in dot density is a result of diffusion of adatoms from outside the patterned region. The mechanism for enhanced quantum dot formation is due to the formation of monolayer deep holes created in the substrate by the ion beam, which may be used to form regular arrays of quantum dots

  3. Directed Self-Assembly of Nanodispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furst, Eric M [University of Delaware

    2013-11-15

    Directed self-assembly promises to be the technologically and economically optimal approach to industrial-scale nanotechnology, and will enable the realization of inexpensive, reproducible and active nanostructured materials with tailored photonic, transport and mechanical properties. These new nanomaterials will play a critical role in meeting the 21st century grand challenges of the US, including energy diversity and sustainability, national security and economic competitiveness. The goal of this work was to develop and fundamentally validate methods of directed selfassembly of nanomaterials and nanodispersion processing. The specific aims were: 1. Nanocolloid self-assembly and interactions in AC electric fields. In an effort to reduce the particle sizes used in AC electric field self-assembly to lengthscales, we propose detailed characterizations of field-driven structures and studies of the fundamental underlying particle interactions. We will utilize microscopy and light scattering to assess order-disorder transitions and self-assembled structures under a variety of field and physicochemical conditions. Optical trapping will be used to measure particle interactions. These experiments will be synergetic with calculations of the particle polarizability, enabling us to both validate interactions and predict the order-disorder transition for nanocolloids. 2. Assembly of anisotropic nanocolloids. Particle shape has profound effects on structure and flow behavior of dispersions, and greatly complicates their processing and self-assembly. The methods developed to study the self-assembled structures and underlying particle interactions for dispersions of isotropic nanocolloids will be extended to systems composed of anisotropic particles. This report reviews several key advances that have been made during this project, including, (1) advances in the measurement of particle polarization mechanisms underlying field-directed self-assembly, and (2) progress in the

  4. Self-assembly patterning of organic molecules on a surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Minghu; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Maksymovych, Petro; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Li, Qing

    2017-04-04

    The embodiments disclosed herein include all-electron control over a chemical attachment and the subsequent self-assembly of an organic molecule into a well-ordered three-dimensional monolayer on a metal surface. The ordering or assembly of the organic molecule may be through electron excitation. Hot-electron and hot-hole excitation enables tethering of the organic molecule to a metal substrate, such as an alkyne group to a gold surface. All-electron reactions may allow a direct control over the size and shape of the self-assembly, defect structures and the reverse process of molecular disassembly from single molecular level to mesoscopic scale.

  5. Molecular pathways for defect annihilation in directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Su-Mi; Thapar, Vikram; Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo; Khaira, Gurdaman; Segal-Peretz, Tamar; Rincon-Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Li, Weihua; Müller, Marcus; Nealey, Paul F.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the directed self-assembly of block copolymers by surface patterns has transitioned from academic curiosity to viable contender for commercial fabrication of next-generation nanocircuits by lithography. Recently, it has become apparent that kinetics, and not only thermodynamics, plays a key role for the ability of a polymeric material to self-assemble into a perfect, defect-free ordered state. Perfection, in this context, implies not more than one defect, with characteristic dimensions on the order of 5 nm, over a sample area as large as 100 cm2. In this work, we identify the key pathways and the corresponding free energy barriers for eliminating defects, and we demonstrate that an extraordinarily large thermodynamic driving force is not necessarily sufficient for their removal. By adopting a concerted computational and experimental approach, we explain the molecular origins of these barriers and how they depend on material characteristics, and we propose strategies designed to overcome them. The validity of our conclusions for industrially relevant patterning processes is established by relying on instruments and assembly lines that are only available at state-of-the-art fabrication facilities, and, through this confluence of fundamental and applied research, we are able to discern the evolution of morphology at the smallest relevant length scales—a handful of nanometers—and present a view of defect annihilation in directed self-assembly at an unprecedented level of detail. PMID:26515095

  6. Directed self-assembly of mesoscopic components for led applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anton

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) constitute a rapidly evolving and fast growing technology that promises to replace incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent lights in many illumination applications. Large-area LED luminaires have a capability to transform lighting by providing a venue for development of smart lighting systems with additional benefits, such as visible light communications, sensing, health and productivity improvement through color temperature control, capability of creating "virtual sky" ceiling, and many others. The objective of this work is to explore directed self-assembly (DSA) approaches suitable for cost-effective assembly of large amount of LEDs and other mesoscopic (i.e. millimeter and sub-millimeter) electronic components and thus to enable manufacturing of smart lighting luminaires. Existing alternative approaches for assembly of semiconductor dies are examined including transfer printing, laser-assisted die transfer, and various directed self-assembly approaches using shape-recognition, magnetic and capillary forces, etc. After comparing their advantages and limitations, we developed two approaches to magnetic force-assisted DSA of LEDs on a large-area substrate in liquid and air medium. The first approach involves pick-up of buoyant and magnetic dies from the liquid surface onto the flexible substrate in a roll-to-roll process. The possibility of high-speed assembly of LED dies is demonstrated, but with a low yield due to the influence of the capillary force of the carrier liquid and the difficulty in ensuring reliable supply of dies to the assembly interface. To overcome the aforementioned challenges this process was modified to assemble the dies by sinking them onto the receiving substrate with a stencil mask on top, demonstrating LED assembly with a very low error rate but at a lower speed. A solder-assisted self-alignment is used to further improve placement precision and to ensure the proper orientation of the dies. The second

  7. Chemical reactions directed Peptide self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B; Das, Apurba K

    2015-05-13

    Fabrication of self-assembled nanostructures is one of the important aspects in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The study of self-assembled soft materials remains an area of interest due to their potential applications in biomedicine. The versatile properties of soft materials can be tuned using a bottom up approach of small molecules. Peptide based self-assembly has significant impact in biology because of its unique features such as biocompatibility, straight peptide chain and the presence of different side chain functionality. These unique features explore peptides in various self-assembly process. In this review, we briefly introduce chemical reaction-mediated peptide self-assembly. Herein, we have emphasised enzymes, native chemical ligation and photochemical reactions in the exploration of peptide self-assembly.

  8. Chemical Reactions Directed Peptide Self-Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar B. Rasale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of self-assembled nanostructures is one of the important aspects in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The study of self-assembled soft materials remains an area of interest due to their potential applications in biomedicine. The versatile properties of soft materials can be tuned using a bottom up approach of small molecules. Peptide based self-assembly has significant impact in biology because of its unique features such as biocompatibility, straight peptide chain and the presence of different side chain functionality. These unique features explore peptides in various self-assembly process. In this review, we briefly introduce chemical reaction-mediated peptide self-assembly. Herein, we have emphasised enzymes, native chemical ligation and photochemical reactions in the exploration of peptide self-assembly.

  9. Aligned nanowires and nanodots by directed block copolymer assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuaigang; Yang, XiaoMin; Lee, Kim Y.; ver der Veerdonk, Rene J. M.; Kuo, David; Russell, Thomas P.

    2011-07-01

    The directed self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) is a promising route to generate highly ordered arrays of sub-10 nm features. Ultradense arrays of a monolayer of spherical microdomains or cylindrical microdomains oriented parallel to the surface have been produced where the lateral ordering is guided by surface patterning and the lattice defined by the patterning can be commensurate or incommensurate with the natural period of the BCP. Commensurability between the two can be used to elegantly manipulate the lateral ordering and orientation of the BCP microdomains so as to form well-aligned arrays of 1D nanowires or 2D addressable nanodots. No modification of the substrate surface, aside from the patterning, was used, making the influence of lattice mismatch and pattern amplification on the size, shape and pitch of the BCP microdomains more transparent. A skew angle between incommensurate lattices, defining a stretching or compression of the BCP chains to compensate for the lattice mismatch, is presented.

  10. Directed assembly of hybrid nanostructures using optically resonant nanotweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, David [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This represents the final report for this project. Over the course of the project we have made significant progress in photonically driven nano-assembly including: (1) demonstrating the first direct optical tweezer based manipulation of proteins, (2) the ability to apply optical angular torques to microtubuals and other rod-shaped microparticles, (3) direct assembly of hybrid nanostructures comprising of polymeric nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes and, (4) the ability to drive biological reactions (specifically protein aggregation) that are thermodynamically unfavorable by applying localized optical work. These advancements are described in the list of papers provided in section 2.0 of the below. Summary details are provided in prior year annual reports. We have two additional papers which will be submitted shortly based on the work done under this award. An updated publication list will be provided to the program manager when those are accepted. In this report, we report on a new advancement made in the final project year, which uses the nanotweezer technology to perform direct measurements of particle-surface interactions. Briefly, these measurements are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions and current techniques are limited in their ability to measure piconewton scale interaction forces on sub-micrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. In this project year we developed a new technique called “Nanophotonic Force Microscopy” which uses the localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field, light to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle the technique maps out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. The major advantage of the technique is that it can measure forces and energy wells below the thermal noise

  11. Preface: special topic on supramolecular self-assembly at surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz; Gao, Hong-Jun; Thiel, Patricia A

    2015-03-14

    Supramolecular self-assembly at surfaces is one of the most exciting and active fields in Surface Science today. Applications can take advantage of two key properties: (i) versatile pattern formation over a broad length scale and (ii) tunability of electronic structure and transport properties, as well as frontier orbital alignment. It provides a new frontier for Chemical Physics as it uniquely combines the versatility of Organic Synthesis and the Physics of Interfaces. The Journal of Chemical Physics is pleased to publish this Special Topic Issue, showcasing recent advances and new directions.

  12. Direct-Write Printing on Three-Dimensional Geometries for Miniaturized Detector and Electronic Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Beth; Samuels, Margaret; Chen, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Direct-write printing techniques will enable new detector assemblies that were not previously possible with traditional assembly processes. Detector concepts were manufactured using this technology to validate repeatability. Additional detector applications and printed wires on a 3-dimensional magnetometer bobbin will be designed for print. This effort focuses on evaluating performance for direct-write manufacturing techniques on 3-dimensional surfaces. Direct-write manufacturing has the potential to reduce mass and volume for fabrication and assembly of advanced detector concepts by reducing trace widths down to 10 microns, printing on complex geometries, allowing new electronic concept production, and reduced production times of complex those electronics.

  13. Protein Viability on Au Nanoparticles during an Electrospray and Electrostatic-Force-Directed Assembly Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Mao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the protein viability on Au nanoparticles during an electrospray and electrostatic-force-directed assembly process, through which Au nanoparticle-antibody conjugates are assembled onto the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs to fabricate carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET biosensors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and field-effect transistor (FET measurements have been used to investigate the antibody activity after the nanoparticle assembly. Upon the introduction of matching antigens, the colored reaction from the ELISA and the change in the electrical characteristic of the CNTFET device confirm that the antibody activity is preserved during the assembly process.

  14. Supramolecular self-assembly of a coumarine-based acylthiourea synthon directed by π-stacking interactions: Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Ashraf, Saba; Flörke, Ulrich; Delgado Espinoza, Zuly Yuliana; Erben, Mauricio F.; Pérez, Hiram

    2016-05-01

    The structure of 1-(2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonyl)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)thiourea (1) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 7.455 (2) Å, b = 12.744 (3) Å, c = 16.892 (4) Å, β = 90.203 (6)° and Z = 4. Both, the coumarin and the phenyl rings are nearly coplanar with the central 1-acylthiourea group, with the Cdbnd O and Cdbnd S bonds adopting an opposite orientation. Intramolecular N-H···O, C-H···O, and C-H···S hydrogen bonds are favored by the planar conformation. The molecules are packed through C-H···O, C-H···S and C-H···C hydrogen bonds, and two π···π interactions with offset arrangement. Inter-centroid distance of 3.490 (2) Å, slip angles of 18.5 and 20.9°, and vertical displacements of 1.10 and 1.24 Å are the stacking parameters corresponding to the stronger π···π interaction. Hirshfeld surface analysis was performed for visualizing, exploring and quantifying intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice of compound 1, and compared with two closely related species. Shape index and Curvedness surfaces indicated π-stacking with different features in opposed sides of the molecule. Fingerprint plot showed C···C contacts with similar contributions to the crystal packing in comparison with those associated to hydrogen bonds. Enrichment ratios for H···H, O···H, S···H and C···C contacts revealed a high propensity to form in the crystal.

  15. Controlling molecular deposition and layer structure with supramolecular surface assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, James A.; Oxtoby, Neil S.; Phillips, Michael A.; Champness, Neil R.; Beton, Peter H.

    2003-08-01

    Selective non-covalent interactions have been widely exploited in solution-based chemistry to direct the assembly of molecules into nanometre-sized functional structures such as capsules, switches and prototype machines. More recently, the concepts of supramolecular organization have also been applied to two-dimensional assemblies on surfaces stabilized by hydrogen bonding, dipolar coupling or metal co-ordination. Structures realized to date include isolated rows, clusters and extended networks, as well as more complex multi-component arrangements. Another approach to controlling surface structures uses adsorbed molecular monolayers to create preferential binding sites that accommodate individual target molecules. Here we combine these approaches, by using hydrogen bonding to guide the assembly of two types of molecules into a two-dimensional open honeycomb network that then controls and templates new surface phases formed by subsequently deposited fullerene molecules. We find that the open network acts as a two-dimensional array of large pores of sufficient capacity to accommodate several large guest molecules, with the network itself also serving as a template for the formation of a fullerene layer.

  16. Directed self-assembly of DNA tiles into complex nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Cheng; Li, Xiang; Liu, Zhiyu; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde

    2014-07-28

    Tile-based self-assembly is a powerful method in DNA nanotechnology and has produced a wide range of well-defined nanostructures. But the resulting structures are relatively simple. Increasing the structural complexity and the scope of the accessible structures is an outstanding challenge in molecular self-assembly. A strategy to partially address this problem by introducing flexibility into assembling DNA tiles and employing directing agents to control the self-assembly process is presented. To demonstrate this strategy, a range of DNA nanocages have been rationally designed and constructed. Many of them can not be assembled otherwise. All of the resulting structures have been thoroughly characterized by gel electrophoresis and cryogenic electron microscopy. This strategy greatly expands the scope of accessible DNA nanostructures and would facilitate technological applications such as nanoguest encapsulation, drug delivery, and nanoparticle organization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Topologically Directed Assemblies of Semiconducting Sphere-Rod Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiwei; Yang, Xing; Xu, Hui; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Matsuda, Wakana; Seki, Shu; Zhou, Yangbin; Sun, Jian; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Yan, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Ruimeng; Huang, Mingjun; Mao, Jialin; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Aida, Takuzo; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Stephen Z D

    2017-12-27

    Spontaneous organizations of designed elements with explicit shape and symmetry are essential for developing useful structures and materials. We report the topologically directed assemblies of four categories (a total of 24) of sphere-rod conjugates, composed of a sphere-like fullerene (C 60 ) derivative and a rod-like oligofluorene(s) (OF), both of which are promising organic semiconductor materials. Although the packing of either spheres or rods has been well-studied, conjugates having both shapes substantially enrich resultant assembled structures. Mandated by their shapes and topologies, directed assemblies of these conjugates result not only in diverse unconventional semiconducting supramolecular lattices with controlled domain sizes but also in tunable charge transport properties of the resulting structures. These results demonstrate the importance of persistent molecular topology on hierarchically assembled structures and their final properties.

  18. Palladium-directed self-assembly of multi-titanium(IV)-porphyrin arrays on the substrate surface as sensitive ultrathin films for hydrogen peroxide sensing, photocurrent generation, and photochromism of viologen

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Li; Fang, Fang; Ma, Dong-Mei; Chen, Meng; Qian, Dong-Jin; Liu, Minghua

    2018-01-01

    Multiporphyrin arrays are large, π-conjugated chromophores with high absorption efficiency and strong chemical stability that play an important role in supramolecular and advanced material sciences. Palladium-directed self-assembly of multiporphyrin array ultrathin films was achieved on substrate surfaces using oxo[5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrinato]titanium (IV) complex [TiO(TPyP)] as a linker and sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2PdCl4) as a connector. The Pd-TiOTPyP films as prepared were characterized by using UV-vis absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. The Soret absorption band of TiOTPyP was observed to red shift by 6 nm when the Pd-TiOTPyP multilayer-modified quartz substrate was immersed in an aqueous solution containing hydrogen peroxide. This was attributed to the formation of a TiO2TPyP monoperoxo complex. This oxidation reaction could be accelerated in an acidic solution. Furthermore, the immobilized Pd-TiOTPyP multilayers could act as light-harvesting units for photocurrent generation and photochromism of viologens, with strong stability, reproducibility, and recyclability. The photocurrent density could be enhanced in electrolyte solutions containing electron donors such as triethanolamine, or electron acceptors such as viologens. Finally, photoinduced reduction (photochromism) of viologens was investigated using the Pd-TiOTPyP multilayers as light sensitizers and EDTA as the electron donors.

  19. Colloidal interactions in field-directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, Pushkar P.

    This thesis discusses: (1) the fabrication of an experimental tool, namely holographic optical tweezers for simultaneously manipulating spatial locations of multiple particles, (2) development of a framework for interpreting hydrodynamic interactions between multiple particles close to a no-slip surface and comparisons of experimental data with predictive modeling results (Stokesian dynamics simulations) (3) investigations of colloidal particle interactions under external AC fields and the intriguing spontaneous pattern formations in the suspension and, (4) the use of an unconventional assemble-stretch technique for creating novel 2D and 3D crystalline arrays of anisotropically shaped particles, from spherical particle templates. By blinking holographic optical traps, we investigate the hydrodynamic interactions in multi-particle ensembles, influenced by a no-slip surface. The measurements are carried out by screening out electrostatic interactions in the suspension. We observe that with increasing proximity with the surface, the effect of particle-particle hydrodynamic interactions on the short-time self-diffusivities is screened. We use the Stokeslet representation of particles and combine it with the method of images to understand the correlated motion of particles within the ensembles. Analysis of the resultant ensemble eigen-modes reveals that even in dilute suspensions, the effective diffusivities decay as the inverse of the separations, over the range of particle-particle separations we experimented with. The relative modes exhibit dominant contributions from close neighboring particles and the collective modes incorporate long-range contributions from all particles in the ensemble. Our analysis also confirms that for larger number of particles in the ensemble, the contributions from particle-particle interactions increase and in concentrated suspensions they over-ride the strong hydrodynamic screening by the wall. We investigate the microstructure of

  20. Regulating DNA Self-assembly by DNA-Surface Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Li, Yulin; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Jianwei; Mao, Chengde

    2017-12-14

    DNA self-assembly provides a powerful approach for preparation of nanostructures. It is often studied in bulk solution and involves only DNA-DNA interactions. When confined to surfaces, DNA-surface interactions become an additional, important factor to DNA self-assembly. However, the way in which DNA-surface interactions influence DNA self-assembly is not well studied. In this study, we showed that weak DNA-DNA interactions could be stabilized by DNA-surface interactions to allow large DNA nanostructures to form. In addition, the assembly can be conducted isothermally at room temperature in as little as 5 seconds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Template directed assembly of nanoelements in viscous polymer environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Satyamkumar

    Polymer melt-based manufacturing methods, such as injection molding, offer the potential of directly fabricating three-dimensional parts with nanostructured surfaces in a one-step, high-rate, and solventless process. Electrophoretic deposition has the potential to produce in-mold assembly of nanoparticles during injection molding. The process is fast, is cost effective and can be automated. This electrophoretic deposition, however, has been performed from low-viscosity media and polymer melts are far more viscous. This research provided a fundamental understanding of the electrophoretic deposition process in viscous media. Electrophoresis was performed using a model system of carbon black and polystyrene in tetrahydrofuran (THF). Examined were the effects of processing parameters, polystyrene molecular weight, and carbon black charge. The presence of polystyrene did not prevent deposition of carbon black, but deposition rates decreased at shorter deposition times; deposition was not linear with increasing applied voltage; and greater solution concentrations reduced the critical voltages. A comparison of experimental data with Hamaker's model showed that about 1.6% of the available polystyrene was initially deposited with the carbon black. At voltages above the critical voltage, the deposited mass indicated formation of electrically insulating layers on the electrodes. Increases in polystyrene molecular weight reduced the electrophoretic deposition of the carbon black particles due to increases in suspension viscosity and preferential adsorption of the longer polystyrene chains on the carbon black particles. At low deposition times (≤ 5 seconds), only carbon black deposited onto the electrodes. For longer deposition times, polystyrene co-deposited with the carbon black, with the amount of polystyrene increasing with molecular weight and decreasing with greater charge on the polystyrene molecules. The additional of function groups to the carbon black surface

  2. Self-assembled manganese oxide structures through direct oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2012-12-01

    The morphology and phase of self-assembled manganese oxides during different stages of thermal oxidation were studied. Very interesting morphological patterns of Mn oxide films were observed. At the initial oxidation stage, the surface was characterized by the formation of ring-shaped patterns. As the oxidation proceeded to the intermediate stage, concentric plates formed to relax the compressive stress. Our experimental results gave a clear picture of the evolution of the structures. We also examined the properties of the structures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Low-temperature poly(oxymethylene) direct bonding via self-assembled monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weixin; Ma, Bo; Kuwae, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2018-02-01

    A direct bonding of poly(oxymethylene) (POM) was feasible at 100 °C by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as a surface modification method. (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GOPTS) were used in our work. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both APTES and GOPTS modified the POM surface successfully. Bonding strength evaluation revealed that surface modification was affected by pretreatment (VUV/O3) process time. In addition, the bonding condition with highest strength had an average strength of 372 kPa. This technology is expected to be used in packaging for micro-/nano-electromechanical systems, such as biomedical devices.

  4. Directed self-assembly graphoepitaxy template generation with immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Andres Torres, J.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert

    2015-07-01

    We present an optimization methodology for the template designs of subresolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with graphoepitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60-nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of template error enhancement factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data show that source mask optimization and inverse lithography technology are critical to achieve sub-80 nm non-L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  5. Directed self-assembled crystalline oligomer domains on graphene and graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Klarskov, Mikkel Buster

    2014-01-01

    We observe the formation of thin films of fibre-like aggregates from the prototypical organic semiconductor molecule para-hexaphenylene (p-6P) on graphite thin flakes and on monolayer graphene. Using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, polarized fluorescence...... show that the graphene surface can be used as a growth substrate to direct the self-assembly of organic molecular thin films and nanofibres, both with and without lithographical processing....

  6. Quantification of the electrostatic forces involved in the directed assembly of colloidal nanoparticles by AFM nanoxerography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleau, E; Sangeetha, N M; Ressier, L

    2011-08-12

    Directed assembly of 10 nm dodecanethiol stabilized silver nanoparticles in hexane and 14 nm citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles in ethanol was performed by AFM nanoxerography onto charge patterns of both polarities written into poly(methylmethacrylate) thin films. The quasi-neutral silver nanoparticles were grafted on both positive and negative charge patterns while the negatively charged gold nanoparticles were selectively deposited on positive charge patterns only. Numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the magnitude, direction and spatial range of the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces exerted by the charge patterns on these two types of nanoparticles in suspension taken as models. The simulations indicate that the directed assembly of silver nanoparticles on both charge patterns is due to the predominant dielectrophoretic forces, while the selective assembly of gold nanoparticles only on positive charge patterns is due to the predominant electrophoretic forces. The study also suggests that the minimum surface potential of charge patterns required for obtaining effective nanoparticle assembly depends strongly on the charge and polarizability of the nanoparticles and also on the nature of the dispersing solvent. Attractive electrostatic forces of about 2 × 10( - 2) pN in magnitude just above the charged surface appear to be sufficient to trap silver nanoparticles in hexane onto charge patterns and the value is about 2 pN for gold nanoparticles in ethanol, under the present experimental conditions. The numerical simulations used in this work to quantify the electrostatic forces operating in the directed assembly of nanoparticles from suspensions onto charge patterns can easily be extended to any kind of colloid and serve as an effective tool for a better comprehension and prediction of liquid-phase nanoxerography processes.

  7. Quantification of the electrostatic forces involved in the directed assembly of colloidal nanoparticles by AFM nanoxerography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palleau, E; Sangeetha, N M; Ressier, L

    2011-01-01

    Directed assembly of 10 nm dodecanethiol stabilized silver nanoparticles in hexane and 14 nm citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles in ethanol was performed by AFM nanoxerography onto charge patterns of both polarities written into poly(methylmethacrylate) thin films. The quasi-neutral silver nanoparticles were grafted on both positive and negative charge patterns while the negatively charged gold nanoparticles were selectively deposited on positive charge patterns only. Numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the magnitude, direction and spatial range of the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces exerted by the charge patterns on these two types of nanoparticles in suspension taken as models. The simulations indicate that the directed assembly of silver nanoparticles on both charge patterns is due to the predominant dielectrophoretic forces, while the selective assembly of gold nanoparticles only on positive charge patterns is due to the predominant electrophoretic forces. The study also suggests that the minimum surface potential of charge patterns required for obtaining effective nanoparticle assembly depends strongly on the charge and polarizability of the nanoparticles and also on the nature of the dispersing solvent. Attractive electrostatic forces of about 2 x 10 -2 pN in magnitude just above the charged surface appear to be sufficient to trap silver nanoparticles in hexane onto charge patterns and the value is about 2 pN for gold nanoparticles in ethanol, under the present experimental conditions. The numerical simulations used in this work to quantify the electrostatic forces operating in the directed assembly of nanoparticles from suspensions onto charge patterns can easily be extended to any kind of colloid and serve as an effective tool for a better comprehension and prediction of liquid-phase nanoxerography processes.

  8. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels immobilized on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Stefano; Battocchio, Chiara; Galluzzi, Martina; Navisse, Emanuele; Zamuner, Annj; Dettin, Monica; Iucci, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogels of self-assembling ionic complementary peptides have collected in the scientific community increasing consensus as mimetics of the extracellular matrix that can offer 3D supports for cell growth or be vehicles for the delivery of stem cells or drugs. Such scaffolds have also been proposed as bone substitutes for small defects as they promote beneficial effects on human osteoblasts. In this context, our research deals with the introduction of a layer of self-assembling peptides on a silicon surface by covalent anchoring and subsequent physisorption. In this work, we present a spectroscopic investigation of the proposed bioactive scaffolds, carried out by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and RAIRS (Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy) and by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation methodologies such as angle dependent NEXAFS (Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). XPS studies confirmed the change in the surface composition in agreement with the proposed enrichments, and led to assess the self-assembling peptide chemical stability. NEXAFS spectra, collected in angular dependent mode at the N K-edge, allowed to investigate the self-assembling behavior of the macromolecules, as well as to determine their molecular orientation on the substrate. Furthermore, Infrared Spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the peptide maintains its secondary structure (β-sheet anti-parallel) after deposition on the silicon surface. The complementary information acquired by means of XPS, NEXAFS and RAIRS lead to hypothesize a “layer-by-layer” arrangement of the immobilized peptides, giving rise to an ordered 3D nanostructure. - Highlights: • A self-assembling peptide (SAP) was covalently immobilized of on a flat silicon surface. • A physisorbed SAP layer was grown on top of the covalently immobilized peptide layer. • Molecular order and orientation of the peptide overlayer on the flat silicon

  9. Physical controls on directed virus assembly at nanoscale chemical templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C L; Chung, S; Chatterji, A; Lin, T; Johnson, J E; Hok, S; Perkins, J; De Yoreo, J

    2006-05-10

    Viruses are attractive building blocks for nanoscale heterostructures, but little is understood about the physical principles governing their directed assembly. In-situ force microscopy was used to investigate organization of Cowpea Mosaic Virus engineered to bind specifically and reversibly at nanoscale chemical templates with sub-30nm features. Morphological evolution and assembly kinetics were measured as virus flux and inter-viral potential were varied. The resulting morphologies were similar to those of atomic-scale epitaxial systems, but the underlying thermodynamics was analogous to that of colloidal systems in confined geometries. The 1D templates biased the location of initial cluster formation, introduced asymmetric sticking probabilities, and drove 1D and 2D condensation at subcritical volume fractions. The growth kinetics followed a t{sup 1/2} law controlled by the slow diffusion of viruses. The lateral expansion of virus clusters that initially form on the 1D templates following introduction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the solution suggests a significant role for weak interaction.

  10. Influence of topographically patterned angled guidelines on directed self-assembly of block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Nathan; Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan; Blachut, Gregory; Ellison, Christopher J.; Willson, C. Grant; Ganesan, Venkat

    2017-11-01

    Single chain in mean-field Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study the self-assembly of block copolymers (BCP) in thin films that use trapezoidal guidelines to direct the orientation and alignment of lamellar patterns. The present study explored the influence of sidewall interactions and geometry of the trapezoidal guidelines on the self-assembly of perpendicularly oriented lamellar morphologies. When both the sidewall and the top surface exhibit preferential interactions to the same block of the BCP, trapezoidal guidelines with intermediate taper angles were found to result in less defective perpendicularly orientated morphologies. Similarly, when the sidewall and top surface are preferential to distinct blocks of the BCP, intermediate tapering angles were found to be optimal in promoting defect free structures. Such results are rationalized based on the energetics arising in the formation of perpendicularly oriented lamella on patterned substrates.

  11. Surface Assembly of the End Cap Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Palestini

    Before the final installation in the ATLAS detector, the chambers of the inner and middle forward stations of the Muon spectrometer are integrated and assembled on large support structures. Work on the sectors of the Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) Big Wheels (trigger chambers) and of the Muon Drift Tube (MDT) Big Wheels (precision tracking chambers) started early this year, and has recently expanded to all the foreseen working areas, covering most the surface of building 180. Several operations are performed, often in parallel, by different teams: final integration of the detectors, assembly of the support structures, installation and test of services, installation of chambers, and final tests. Control of the geometry is performed frequently both on assembly tooling and on complete sectors. The final tests verify the response of the detectors and of the electronics, including read-out and trigger electronics, the alignment system, and the detector control. The sectors are designed as a unit that can be fully commis...

  12. Mixed carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, Adem [Micro and Nanotechnology Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sohrabnia, Nima [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Yilmaz, Ayşen [Micro and Nanotechnology Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Danışman, M. Fatih, E-mail: danisman@metu.edu.tr [Micro and Nanotechnology Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • M1 binds to the gold surface preferentially when co-deposited with M9 or O1. • Contact angles show similar trends regardless of the gold substrate roughness. • Contact angles were lower, with higher hysteresis, on template stripped gold. • Mixed carboranethiol SAMs have similar morphological properties regardless of mixing ratio. - Abstract: Carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on metal surfaces have been shown to be very convenient systems for surface engineering. Here we have studied pure and mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three different carboranethiol (CT) isomers on gold surfaces. The isomers were chosen with dipole moments pointing parallel to (m-1-carboranethiol, M1), out of (m-9-carboranethiol, M9) and into (o-1-carboranethiol, O1) the surface plane, in order to investigate the effect of dipole moment orientation on the film properties. In addition, influence of the substrate surface morphology on the film properties was also studied by using flame annealed (FA) and template stripped (TS) gold surfaces. Contact angle measurements indicate that in M1/M9 and M1/O1 mixed SAMs, M1 is the dominant species on the surface even for low M1 ratio in the growth solution. Whereas for O1/M9 mixed SAMs no clear evidence could be observed indicating dominance of one of the species over the other one. Though contact angle values were lower and hysteresis values were higher for SAMs grown on TS gold surfaces, the trends in the behavior of the contact angles with changing mixing ratio were identical for SAMs grown on both substrates. Atomic force microscopy images of the SAMs on TS gold surfaces indicate that the films have similar morphological properties regardless of mixing ratio.

  13. Directed self-assembly of metal oxide quantum dots: Copper oxide on strontium titanium trioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingge

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation explores the use of focused ion-beams (FIB) to direct the self-assembly of Cu2O quantum dots (QDs) on SrTiO3 (100) substrates via point implants of Ga+ at 30 keV After Ga+ implant and subsequent chemical and thermal surface preparation, oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam-epitaxy (OPA-MBE) is used to grow Cu 2O QDs. The research of this dissertation finds that, for high FIB implant dose (5.6x1018 ions/cm2) and large interdot spacing (1000 nm), multiple QDs can be formed preferentially on the edges of FIB modified pits. For lower doses and/or smaller interdot spacings (8.8x1014 ions/cm2 and lower, 130 or 167 nm), individual QDs nucleate first within the pits. Under carefully controlled conditions, the separation and arrangement of the Cu2O QDs follows the FIB patterned template. This study finds that the FIB directed self-assembly technique works for different FIB doses, FIB interdot spacings and OPA-MBE deposition thicknesses, suggesting that this method is robust and flexible. Examination of QD growth on low-dose implant surfaces revealed a multi-step growth process. Initial deposition filled the pits just to the level of the original unmodified crystal growth surface. Following a pause in QD growth and the deposition of additional material, QD growth resumed on top of these perfectly filled pits. As growth continued, the dots reached a self-limiting size such that additional material deposition generated more QDs of similar size rather than continued growth of the large dots. This dissertation also seeks to increase understanding of the relative rolls played in the directed self-assembly process by local substrate chemistry, surface morphology, crystal-linity, and stress/strain. Experimental results revealed that although Ga concentration was noticeably higher on modified regions after FIB implant, no measurable Ga was found on the surface after high temperature annealing performed prior to QD growth. Thus Ga related chemistry

  14. Silver nanoprisms self-assembly on differently functionalized silica surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipavicius, J; Chodosovskaja, A; Beganskiene, A; Kareiva, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work colloidal silica/silver nanoprisms (NPRs) composite coatings were made. Firstly colloidal silica sols were synthesized by sol-gel method and produced coatings on glass by dip-coating technique. Next coatings were silanized by (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (AEAPTMS), (3- Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). Silver NPRs where synthesized via seed-mediated method and high yield of 94±15 nm average edge length silver NPRs were obtained with surface plasmon resonance peak at 921 nm. Silica-Silver NPRs composite coatings obtained by selfassembly on silica coated-functionalized surface. In order to find the most appropriate silanization way for Silver NPRs self-assembly, the composite coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), water contact angle (CA) and surface free energy (SFE) methods. Results have showed that surface functionalization is necessary to achieve self-assembled Ag NPRs layer. MPTMS silanized coatings resulted sparse distribution of Ag NPRs. Most homogeneous, even distribution composite coatings obtained on APTES functionalized silica coatings, while AEAPTMS induced strong aggregation of Silver NPRs

  15. Silver nanoprisms self-assembly on differently functionalized silica surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipavicius, J.; Chodosovskaja, A.; Beganskiene, A.; Kareiva, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this work colloidal silica/silver nanoprisms (NPRs) composite coatings were made. Firstly colloidal silica sols were synthesized by sol-gel method and produced coatings on glass by dip-coating technique. Next coatings were silanized by (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (AEAPTMS), (3- Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). Silver NPRs where synthesized via seed-mediated method and high yield of 94±15 nm average edge length silver NPRs were obtained with surface plasmon resonance peak at 921 nm. Silica-Silver NPRs composite coatings obtained by selfassembly on silica coated-functionalized surface. In order to find the most appropriate silanization way for Silver NPRs self-assembly, the composite coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), water contact angle (CA) and surface free energy (SFE) methods. Results have showed that surface functionalization is necessary to achieve self-assembled Ag NPRs layer. MPTMS silanized coatings resulted sparse distribution of Ag NPRs. Most homogeneous, even distribution composite coatings obtained on APTES functionalized silica coatings, while AEAPTMS induced strong aggregation of Silver NPRs.

  16. Directed assembly-based printing of homogeneous and hybrid nanorods using dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhimin; Yilmaz, Cihan; Busnaina, Ahmed A.; Lissandrello, Charles A.; Carter, David J. D.

    2017-11-01

    Printing nano and microscale three-dimensional (3D) structures using directed assembly of nanoparticles has many potential applications in electronics, photonics and biotechnology. This paper presents a reproducible and scalable 3D dielectrophoresis assembly process for printing homogeneous silica and hybrid silica/gold nanorods from silica and gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are assembled into patterned vias under a dielectrophoretic force generated by an alternating current (AC) field, and then completely fused in situ to form nanorods. The assembly process is governed by the applied AC voltage amplitude and frequency, pattern geometry, and assembly time. Here, we find out that complete assembly of nanorods is not possible without applying both dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis. Therefore, a direct current offset voltage is used to add an additional electrophoretic force to the assembly process. The assembly can be precisely controlled to print silica nanorods with diameters from 20–200 nm and spacing from 500 nm to 2 μm. The assembled nanorods have good uniformity in diameter and height over a millimeter scale. Besides homogeneous silica nanorods, hybrid silica/gold nanorods are also assembled by sequentially assembling silica and gold nanoparticles. The precision of the assembly process is further demonstrated by assembling a single particle on top of each nanorod to demonstrate an additional level of functionalization. The assembled hybrid silica/gold nanorods have potential to be used for metamaterial applications that require nanoscale structures as well as for plasmonic sensors for biosensing applications.

  17. 76 FR 41669 - Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace, Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace, Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part Numbers 174006... manufacturer and part number of the oxygen mask assemblies installed, an inspection to determine the manufacturing date and modification status if certain oxygen mask assemblies are installed, and corrective...

  18. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, O.; Gang, T.; Kinge, S.S.; Reinhoudt, David; Blank, David H.A.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(on)ates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs

  19. Directed organization of gold nanoclusters on silver nanowires: A step forward in heterostructure assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jadab; Vivek, J. P.; Vijayamohanan, Kunjukrishna P.; Singh, Poonam; Dharmadhikari, C. V.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the directed assembly of tridecylamine protected gold nanoclusters of 4-5nm size on functionalized silver nanowires of 55-60nm diameter and the electron transfer behavior of this integrated structure using transmission electron microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. Linear I-V for bare silver nanowire suggests metallic behavior but high tunnel resistance indicates presence of insulating layer on the surface. Identical I-Vs obtained for isolated gold nanoparticle and heterostructure suggests that electron transport across nanowires in the latter is governed by gold nanoparticles in contrast to expected ballistic or diffusive transport along their length.

  20. Lithographically-directed self-assembly of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddle, J. Alexander; Cui, Yi; Alivisatos, Paul

    2004-09-21

    The combination of lithography and self-assembly provides apowerful means of organizing solution-synthesized nanostructures for awide variety of applications. We have developed a fluidic assembly methodthat relies on the local pinning of a moving liquid contact line bylithographically produced topographic features to concentratenanoparticles at those features. The final stages of the assembly processare controlled first by long-range immersion capillary forces and then bythe short-range electrostatic and Van der Waal's interactions. We havesuccessfully assembled nanoparticles from 50 nm to 2 nm in size usingthis technique and have also demonstrated the controlled positioning ofmore complex nanotetrapod structures. We have used this process toassemble Au nanoparticles into pre-patterned electrode structures andhave performed preliminary electrical characterization of the devices soformed. The fluidic assembly method is capable of very high yield, interms of positioning nanostructures at each lithographically-definedlocation, and of excellent specificity, with essentially no particledeposition between features.

  1. Spatial and directional control of self-assembled wrinkle patterns by UV light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortz, C.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2017-12-01

    Wrinkle formation on surfaces is a phenomenon that is observed in layered systems with a compressed elastic thin capping layer residing on a viscoelastic film. So far, the properties of the viscoelastic material could only be changed replacing it by another material. Here, we propose to use a photosensitive material whose viscoelastic properties, Young's modulus, and glass transition temperature can easily be adjusted by the absorption of UV light. Employing UV lithography masks during the exposure, we gain additionally spatial and directional control of the self-assembled wrinkle pattern formation that relies on a spinodal decomposition process. Inspired by the results on surface wrinkling and its dependence on the intrinsic stress, we also derive a method to avoid wrinkling locally by tailoring the mechanical stress distribution in the layered system choosing UV masks with convex patterns. This is of particular interest in technical applications where the buckling of surfaces is undesirable.

  2. Sequential induction of three recombination directionality factors directs assembly of tripartite integrative and conjugative elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Timothy L; Terpolilli, Jason J; Ramachandran, Vinoy K; Verdonk, Callum J; Poole, Phillip S; O'Hara, Graham W; Ramsay, Joshua P

    2018-03-01

    Tripartite integrative and conjugative elements (ICE3) are a novel form of ICE that exist as three separate DNA regions integrated within the genomes of Mesorhizobium spp. Prior to conjugative transfer the three ICE3 regions of M. ciceri WSM1271 ICEMcSym1271 combine and excise to form a single circular element. This assembly requires three coordinated recombination events involving three site-specific recombinases IntS, IntG and IntM. Here, we demonstrate that three excisionases-or recombination directionality factors-RdfS, RdfG and RdfM are required for ICE3 excision. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that expression of ICE3 transfer and conjugation genes was induced by quorum sensing. Quorum sensing activated expression of rdfS, and in turn RdfS stimulated transcription of both rdfG and rdfM. Therefore, RdfS acts as a "master controller" of ICE3 assembly and excision. The dependence of all three excisive reactions on RdfS ensures that ICE3 excision occurs via a stepwise sequence of recombination events that avoids splitting the chromosome into a non-viable configuration. These discoveries expose a surprisingly simple control system guiding molecular assembly of these novel and complex mobile genetic elements and highlight the diverse and critical functions of excisionase proteins in control of horizontal gene transfer.

  3. Forces that Drive Nanoscale Self-assembly on Solid Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Z.; Lu, W.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental evidence has accumulated in the recent decade that nanoscale patterns can self-assemble on solid surfaces. A two-component monolayer grown on a solid surface may separate into distinct phases. Sometimes the phases select sizes about 10 nm, and order into an array of stripes or disks. This paper reviews a model that accounts for these behaviors. Attention is focused on thermodynamic forces that drive the self-assembly. A double-welled, composition-dependent free energy drives phase separation. The phase boundary energy drives phase coarsening. The concentration-dependent surface stress drives phase refining. It is the competition between the coarsening and the refining that leads to size selection and spatial ordering. These thermodynamic forces are embodied in a nonlinear diffusion equation. Numerical simulations reveal rich dynamics of the pattern formation process. It is relatively fast for the phases to separate and select a uniform size, but exceedingly slow to order over a long distance, unless the symmetry is suitably broken

  4. Free surface BCP self-assembly process characterization with CDSEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Shimon; Weinberg, Yakov; Adan, Ofer; Klinov, Michael; Argoud, Maxime; Claveau, Guillaume; Tiron, Raluca

    2016-03-01

    A simple and common practice to evaluate Block copolymers (BCP) self-assembly performances, is on a free surface wafer. With no guiding pattern the BCP designed to form line space pattern for example, spontaneously rearranges to form a random fingerprint type of a pattern. The nature of the rearrangement is dictated by the physical properties of the BCP moieties, wafer surface treatment and the self-assembly process parameters. Traditional CDSEM metrology algorithms are designed to measure pattern with predefined structure, like linespace or oval via holes. Measurement of pattern with expected geometry can reduce measurement uncertainty. Fingerprint type of structure explored in this dissertation, poses a challenge for CD-SEM measurement uncertainty and offers an opportunity to explore 2D metrology capabilities. To measure this fingerprints we developed a new metrology approach that combines image segmentation and edge detection to measure 2D pattern with arbitrary rearrangement. The segmentation approach enabled to quantify the quality of the BCP material and process, detecting 2D attributes such as: CD and CDU at one axis, and number of intersections, length and number of PS fragments, etched PMMA spaces and donut shapes numbers on the second axis. In this paper we propose a 2D metrology to measure arbitrary BCP pattern on a free surface wafer. We demonstrate experimental results demonstrating precision data, and characterization of PS-b-PMMA BCP, intrinsic period L0 = 38nm (Arkema), processed at different bake time and temperatures.

  5. Facile fabrication of a superhydrophobic cage by laser direct writing for site-specific colloidal self-assembled photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Paeng, Dongwoo; Yeo, Junyeob; Elhadj, Selim; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2016-04-08

    Micron-sized ablated surface structures with nano-sized 'bumpy' structures were produced by femtosecond (fs) laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film under ambient conditions. Upon just a single step, the processed surface exhibited hierarchical micro/nano morphology. In addition, due to the tribological properties of PTFE, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) could be replicated from the laser-ablated PTFE surface without anti-adhesive surface treatment. By controlling the design of the ablated patterns, tunable wettability and superhydrophobicity were achieved on both PTFE and PDMS replica surfaces. Furthermore, using fs laser ablation direct writing, a flexible superhydrophobic PDMS cage formed by superhydrophobic patterns encompassing the unmodified region was demonstrated for aqueous droplet positioning and trapping. Through evaporation-driven colloidal self-assembly in this superhydrophobic cage, a colloidal droplet containing polystyrene (PS) particles dried into a self-assembled photonic crystal, whose optical band gap could be manipulated by the particle size.

  6. Modular assembly for supporting, straining, and directing flow to a core in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1977-01-01

    A reactor core support arrangement for supporting, straining, and providing fluid flow to the core and periphery of a nuclear reactor during normal operation. A plurality of removable inlet modular units are contained within permanent liners in the lower supporting plate of the reactor vessel lower internals. During normal operation (1) each inlet modular unit directs main coolant flow to a plurality of core assemblies, the latter being removably supported in receptacles in the upper portion of the modular unit and (2) each inlet modular unit may direct bypass flow to a low pressure annular region of the reactor vessel. Each inlet modular unit may include special fluid seals interposed between mating surfaces of the inlet modular units and the core assemblies and between the inlet modular units and the liners, to minimize leakage and achieve an hydraulic balance. Utilizing the hydraulic balance, the modular units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the modular unit receptacles by their own respective weight. Included as part of the permanent liners below the horizontal support plate are generally hexagonal axial debris barriers. The axial debris barriers collectively form a bottom boundary of a secondary high pressure plenum, the upper boundary of which is the bottom surface of the horizontal support plate. Peripheral liners include radial debris barriers which collectively form a barrier against debris entry radially. During normal operation primary coolant inlet openings in the liner, below the axial debris barriers, pass a large amount of coolant into the inlet modular units, and secondary coolant inlet openings in the portion of the liners within the secondary plenum pass a small amount of coolant into the inlet modular units. The secondary coolant inlet openings also provide alternative coolant inlet flow paths in the unlikely event of blockage of the primary inlet openings. The primary inlet openings have characteristics which limit the

  7. Hyperthermal Carbon Dioxide Interactions with Self-Assembled Monolayer Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-08

    They measured two populations of rotational distributions, one corresponding to the surface temperature and the other corresponding to a much higher...involved in the collision. This is the first application of the soft-sphere model to the scattering of molecules, which have internal structure, as...temperature. Scattering dynamics on these fluorinated liquid and SAM surfaces were compared directly. It was found that the scattering dynamics were very

  8. High-resolution TOF-SIMS study of varying chain length self-assembled monolayer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kurt V; Cole, David A; Bernasek, Steven L

    2002-10-01

    A high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) has been used to investigate chain length effects in hydrocarbon seff-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces on gold substrates. A wide range of n-alkanethiols was used to make homogeneous SAM surfaces, which included both odd and even hydrocarbon chain length thiols. Variations in coverage, extent of oxidation, and high-mass cluster formation as a function of hydrocarbon chain length of the alkanethiol SAM surfaces were investigated. Long-short chain length effects were observed for the relative coverage of the SAM surfaces, which directly influences the extent of oxidation for the thin films. The formation of gold-sulfur and gold-adsorbate cluster ions was also observed, since the mass range of the TOF-SIMS made it possible to monitor all of the cluster ions that were formed following the high-energy ion/surface interactions.

  9. Structural Investigations of Surfaces and Orientation-SpecificPhenomena in Nanocrystals and Their Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruguete, Deborah Michiko [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Studies of colloidal nanocrystals and their assemblies are presented. Two of these studies concern the atomic-level structural characterization of the surfaces, interfaces, and interiors present in II-VI semiconductor nanorods. The third study investigates the crystallographic arrangement of cobalt nanocrystals in self-assembled aggregates. Crystallographically-aligned assemblies of colloidal CdSe nanorods are examined with linearly-polarized Se-EXAFS spectroscopy, which probes bonding along different directions in the nanorod. This orientation-specific probe is used, because it is expected that the presence of specific surfaces in a nanorod might cause bond relaxations specific to different crystallographic directions. Se-Se distances are found to be contracted along the long axis of the nanorod, while Cd-Se distances display no angular dependence, which is different from the bulk. Ab-initio density functional theory calculations upon CdSe nanowires indicate that relaxations on the rod surfaces cause these changes. ZnS/CdS-CdSe core-shell nanorods are studied with Se, Zn, Cd, and S X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is hypothesized that there are two major factors influencing the core and shell structures of the nanorods: the large surface area-to-volume ratio, and epitaxial strain. The presence of the surface may induce bond rearrangements or relaxations to minimize surface energy; epitaxial strain might cause the core and shell lattices to contract or expand to minimize strain energy. A marked contraction of Zn-S bonds is observed in the core-shell nanorods, indicating that surface relaxations may dominate the structure of the nanorod (strain might otherwise drive the Zn-S lattice to accommodate the larger CdS or CdSe lattices via bond expansion). EXAFS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that Cd-Se bond relaxations might be anisotropic, an expected phenomenon for a rod-shaped nanocrystal. Ordered self-assembled aggregates of cobalt nanocrystals are

  10. Morphology evolution of PS-b-PDMS block copolymer and its hierarchical directed self-assembly on block copolymer templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Schulte, Lars; Borah, Dipu

    2018-01-01

    Cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS, 27.2k-b-11.7k, SD39) block copolymer having a total molecular weight of 39 kg mol−1 was exploited to achieve in-plane morphologies of lines, dots and antidots. Brush-free self-assembly of the SD39 on silicon substrates was invest...... substrates provides a simplified method for surface nanopatterning, templated growth of nanomaterials and nanofabrication....... the pattern into the underlying substrate. Directed self-assembly and hierarchical directed self-assembly on block copolymer templates for confinement of dots was successfully demonstrated. The strategy for achieving multiple morphologies using one BCP by mere choice of the annealing solvents on unmodified...

  11. Pyridine coordination chemistry for molecular assemblies on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Graham; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Since the first description of coordination complexes, many types of metal-ligand interactions have creatively been used in the chemical sciences. The rich coordination chemistry of pyridine-type ligands has contributed significantly to the incorporation of diverse metal ions into functional materials. Here we discuss molecular assemblies (MAs) formed with a variety of pyridine-type compounds and a metal containing cross-linker (e.g., PdCl2(PhCN2)). These MAs are formed using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition from solution that allows for precise fitting of the assembly properties through molecular programming. The position of each component can be controlled by altering the assembly sequence, while the degree of intermolecular interactions can be varied by the level of π-conjugation and the availability of metal coordination sites. By setting the structural parameters (e.g., bond angles, number of coordination sites, geometry) of the ligand, control over MA structure was achieved, resulting in surface-confined metal-organic networks and oligomers. Unlike MAs that are constructed with organic ligands, MAs with polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium, osmium, and cobalt are active participants in their own formation and amplify the growth of the incoming molecular layer. Such a self-propagating behavior for molecular systems is rare, and the mechanism of their formation will be discussed. These exponentially growing MAs are capable of storing metal salts that can be used during the buildup of additional molecular layers. Various parameters influencing the film growth mechanism will be presented, including (i) the number of binding sites and geometry of the organic ligands, (ii) the metal and the structure of the polypyridyl complexes, (iii) the influence of the metal cross-linker (e.g., second or third row transition metals), and (iv) the deposition conditions. By systematic variation of these parameters, switching between linear and exponential growth could

  12. Surface confined assemblies and polymers for sensing and molecular logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Graham; Altman, Marc; Motiei, Leila; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E.

    2013-05-01

    Since the development of molecule-based sensors and the introduction of molecules mimicking the behavior of the AND gate in solution by de Silva in 1993, molecular (Boolean) Logic and Computing (MBLC) has become increasingly popular. The molecular approach toward Boolean logic resulted in intriguing proofs of concepts in solution including logic gates, half-adders, multiplexers, and flip-flop logic circuits. Molecular assemblies can perform diverse logic tasks by reconfiguring their inputs. Our recent research activities focus on MBLC with electrochromic polymers and immobilized polypyridyl complexes on solid support. We have designed a series of coordination-based thin films that are formed linearly by stepwise wet-chemical deposition or by self-propagating molecular assembly. The electrochromic properties of these films can be used for (i) detecting various analytes in solution and in the air, (ii) MBLC, (iii) electron-transfer studies, and (iv) interlayers for efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Our concept toward MBLC with functionalized surfaces is applicable to electrochemical and chemical inputs coupled with optical readout. Using this approach, we demonstrated various logic architectures with redox-active functionalized surfaces. Electrochemically operated sequential logic systems (e.g., flip-flops), multi-valued logic, and multi-state memory have been designed, which can improve computational power without increasing spatial requirements. Applying multi-valued digits in data storage and information processing could exponentially increase memory capacity. Our approach is applicable to highly diverse electrochromic thin films that operate at practical voltages (< 1.5 V).

  13. Surface Mediated Self-Assembly of Amyloid Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid fibrils have been considered as causative agents in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type II diabetes and amyloidosis. Amyloid fibrils form when proteins or peptides misfold into one dimensional crystals of stacked beta-sheets. In solution, amyloid fibrils form through a nucleation and growth mechanism. The rate limiting nucleation step requires a critical concentration much larger than those measured in physiological conditions. As such the exact origins of the seeds or oligomers that result in the formation of fully mature fibrils in the body remain topic intense studies. It has been suggested that surfaces and interfaces can enhance the fibrillization rate. However, studies of the mechanism and kinetics of the surface-mediated fibrillization are technologically challenging due to the small size of the oligomer and protofibril species. Using smart sample preparation technique to dry the samples after various incubation times we are able to study the kinetics of fibril formation both in solution and in the vicinity of various surfaces using high-resolution atomic force microscopy. These studies elucidate the role of surfaces in catalyzing amyloid peptide formation through a nucleation-free process. The nucleation free self-assembly is rapid and requires much smaller concentrations of peptides or proteins. We show that this process resembles diffusion limited aggregation and is governed by the peptide adhesion rate, two -dimensional diffusion of the peptides on the surface, and preferential interactions between the peptides. These studies suggest an alternative pathway for amyloid formation may exist, which could lead to new criteria for disease prevention and alternative therapies. Research was partially supported by a seed grant from the National Institute of Aging of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award Number P30AG010124 (PI: John Trojanowski) and the University of Pennsylvania.

  14. Surface characterization of self-assembled N-Cu nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristina, Lucila J.; Moreno-Lopez, Juan C. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Sferco, Silvano J. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, C.C. 242, (S3000ZAA) Santa Fe (Argentina); Passeggi, Mario C.G.; Vidal, Ricardo A. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Ferron, Julio, E-mail: jferron@intec.unl.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829,(S3000AOM) Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2012-01-01

    We report on the process of low energy N{sub 2}{sup +} implantation and annealing of a Cu(0 0 1) surface. Through AES we study the N diffusion process as a function of the substrate temperature. With STM and LEIS we characterize the surface morphology and the electronic structure is analyzed with ARUPS. Under annealing (500 < T < 700 K) N migrates to the surface and reacts forming a Cu{sub x}N compound that decomposes at temperatures above 700 K. LEIS measurements show that N locates on the four-fold hollow sites of the Cu(0 0 1) surface in a c(2 Multiplication-Sign 2) arrangement. Finally, a gap along the [0 0 1] azimuthal direction is determined by ARUPS. DFT calculations provide support to our conclusions.

  15. Design parameters for voltage-controllable directed assembly of single nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porter, Benjamin F.; Abelmann, Leon; Bhaskaran, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Techniques to reliably pick-and-place single nanoparticles into functional assemblies are required to incorporate exotic nanoparticles into standard electronic circuits. In this paper we explore the use of electric fields to drive and direct the assembly process, which has the advantage of being

  16. Directed Formation of DNA Nanoarrays through Orthogonal Self-Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Stulz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the synthesis of terpyridine modified DNA strands which selectively form DNA nanotubes through orthogonal hydrogen bonding and metal complexation interactions. The short DNA strands are designed to self-assemble into long duplexes through a sticky-end approach. Addition of weakly binding metals such as Zn(II and Ni(II induces the formation of tubular arrays consisting of DNA bundles which are 50-200 nm wide and 2-50 nm high. TEM shows additional long distance ordering of the terpy-DNA complexes into fibers.

  17. Formation of periodic size-segregated stripe pattern via directed self-assembly of binary colloids and its mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantan; Duraia, El-Shazly M.; Velev, Orlin D.; Amiri, Maedeh D.; Beall, Gary W.

    2018-03-01

    Convective self-assembly, well known for producing highly ordered monolayer structures, has been used in this study to create novel surface patterns using the binary mixture of colloids. We demonstrate that different patterns form, based on the size ratio (Small/Large) of the particles, and particles volume ratio. Surprisingly, certain binary particle mixtures resulted in spontaneous size based segregation. In some cases, the particle separation occurred along the direction of the meniscus contact line, and by the mere design of the process, we created periodic stripe patterns with controlled width. The particle volume fraction, size differences, surface tension, and the curvature of the meniscus played a crucial factor in the segregation process as well as in determining the width of each of the stripes. Furthermore, based on both empirical and numerical analysis, a mechanism for size-based segregation of particles via directed self-assembly is proposed.

  18. Directed Self-Assembly of Asymmetric Block Copolymers in Thin Films Driven by Uniaxially Aligned Topographic Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Eun; Ryu, Jaegeon; Hong, Dongki; Park, Soojin; Lee, Dong Hyun; Russell, Thomas P

    2018-02-27

    We present a simple, versatile approach to generate highly ordered nanostructures of block copolymers (BCPs) using rubbed surfaces. A block of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was dragged across a flat substrate surface above the melting point of PTFE transferring a highly aligned PTFE topographic pattern to the substrate. Si wafer, glass, and polyimide films were used as substrates. Thin films of cylinder-forming asymmetric polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymers (S2VPs) were solvent annealed on the surfaces having the transferred surface pattern to induce their directed self-assembly. Cylinders of P2VP oriented normal to the surface are markedly aligned along the rubbing direction and used as templates to generate extremely uniform arrays of various metallic nanoparticles of gold, silver, and platinum over a large area.

  19. A proposed simulation method for directed self-assembly of nanographene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, J. A.; Baldwin, J. P. C.; Twarock, R.; Hancock, Y.

    2017-09-01

    A methodology for predictive kinetic self-assembly modeling of bottom-up chemical synthesis of nanographene is proposed. The method maintains physical transparency in using a novel array format to efficiently store molecule information and by using array operations to determine reaction possibilities. Within a minimal model approach, the parameter space for the bond activation energies (i.e. molecule functionalization) at fixed reaction temperature and initial molecule concentrations is explored. Directed self-assembly of nanographene from functionalized tetrabenzanthracene and benzene is studied with regions in the activation energy phase-space showing length-to-width ratio tunability. The degree of defects and reaction reproducibility in the simulations is also determined, with the rate of functionalized benzene addition providing additional control of the dimension and quality of the nanographene. Comparison of the reaction energetics to available density functional theory data suggests the synthesis may be experimentally tenable using aryl-halide cross-coupling and noble metal surface-assisted catalysis. With full access to the intermediate reaction network and with dynamic coupling to density functional theory-informed tight-binding simulation, the method is proposed as a computationally efficient means towards detailed simulation-driven design of new nanographene systems.

  20. Surface self-assembly of fluorosurfactants during film formation of MMA/nBA colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, W R; Urban, M W

    2004-11-23

    These studies focus on the behavior of fluorosurfactants (FS) containing hydrophobic and ionic entities in the presence of methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate (MMA/nBA) colloidal dispersions stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The presence of FS significantly not only alters the mobility of SDS in MMA/nBA films, but their hydrophobic and ionic nature results in self-assembly near the film-air (F-A) interface leading to different surface morphologies. Spherical islands and rodlike morphologies are formed which diminish the kinetic coefficient of friction of films by at least 3 orders of magnitude, and the presence of dual hydrophobic tails and an anionic head appears to have the largest effect on the surface friction. Using internal reflection IR imaging, these studies show that structural and chemical features of FS are directly related to their ability to migrate to the F-A interface and self-assemble to form specific morphological features. While the anionic nature of FS allows for SDS migration to the F-A interface and the formation of stable domains across the surface, intermolecular cohesion of nonionic FS allows for the formation of rodlike structures due to inability to form mixed micelles with SDS. These studies also establish the relationship between surface morphologies, kinetic coefficient of friction, and structural features of surfactants in the complex environments.

  1. Polarization-Directed Surface Plasmon Polariton Launching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2017-01-05

    The relative intensities of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) simultaneously launched from opposing edges of a symmetric trench structure etched into a silver thin film may be controllably varied by tuning the linear polarization of the driving field. This is demonstrated through transient multiphoton photoemission electron microscopy measurements performed using a pair of spatially separated phase-locked femtosecond pulses. Our measurements are rationalized using finite-difference time domain simulations, which reveal that the coupling efficiency into the PSP modes is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the localized surface plasmon fields excited at the trench edges. Additional experiments on single step edges also show asymmetric PSP launching with respect to polarization, analogous to the trench results. Our combined experimental and computational results allude to the interplay between localized and propagating surface plasmon modes in the trench; strong coupling to the localized modes at the edges correlates to weak coupling to the PSP modes. Simultaneous excitation of the electric fields localized at both edges of the trench results in complex interactions between the right- and left-side PSP modes with Fabry-Perot and cylindrical modes. This results in a trench width-dependent PSP intensity ratio using otherwise identical driving fields. A systematic exploration of polarization directed PSP launching from a series of trench structures reveals an optimal PSP contrast ratio of 4.2 using a 500 nm-wide trench.

  2. A thermal stability study of alkane and aromatic thiolate self-assembled monolayers on copper surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, L.; Whelan, C. M.; Kinsella, M.; Maex, K.

    2004-07-01

    The thermal stability of 1-decanethiol (C10) and benzenethiol (BT) Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) on metallic and oxidized copper surfaces has been investigated by thermal desorption spectrometry. High quality C10 and BT SAMs exhibit low thermal stabilities on clean copper surfaces with a maximum in decomposition occurring between 100 and 150 ∘C. The decomposition of SAMs follows different mechanisms. For the alkanethiol, a direct interaction between the alkyl group of the thiolate and the metallic copper surface is the dominant pathway for the C-S bond scission. The head group desorbs as oxidized sulfur and this is followed by the desorption of the alkyl fragments of the chain adsorbed on the clean copper surface. In the case of benzenethiol, a simultaneous desorption of the head group as oxidized sulfur and the benzene group occurs. SAM formation on the oxidized copper surface results in complete removal and/or reduction of the CuO layer. Higher SAM surface coverages on the resulting Cu/Cu 2O surface result from the enhanced surface roughness of the substrate. The decomposition mechanisms and thermal stabilities of the C10 and BT SAMs are dependent on the oxidation state of the underlying substrate and the chemical nature of the chain.

  3. Multifunctional hardmask neutral layer for directed self-assembly (DSA) patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Hockey, Mary Ann; Wang, Yubao; Calderas, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Micro-phase separation for directed self-assembly (DSA) can be executed successfully only when the substrate surface on which the block co-polymer (BCP) is coated has properties that are ideal for attraction to each polymer type. The neutral underlayer (NUL) is an essential and critical component in DSA feasibility. Properties conducive for BCP patterning are primarily dependent on "brush" or "crosslinked" random co-polymer underlayers. Most DSA flows also require a lithography step (reflection control) and pattern transfer schemes at the end of the patterning process. A novel multifunctional hardmask neutral layer (HM NL) was developed to provide reflection control, surface energy matching, and pattern transfer capabilities in a grapho-epitaxy DSA process flow. It was found that the ideal surface energy for the HM NL is in the range of 38-45 dyn/cm. The robustness of the HM NL against exposure to process solvents and developers was identified. Process characteristics of the BCP (thickness, bake time and temperature) on the HM NL were defined. Using the HM NL instead of three distinct layers - bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) and neutral and hardmask layers - in DSA line-space pitch tripling and contact hole shrinking processes was demonstrated. Finally, the capability of the HM NL to transfer a pattern into a 100-nm spin-on carbon (SOC) layer was shown.

  4. A self-assembled monolayer-assisted surface microfabrication and release technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, B.J.; Liebau, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David; Brugger, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a method of thin film and MEMS processing which uses self-assembled monolayers as ultra-thin organic surface coating to enable a simple removal of microfabricated devices off the surface without wet chemical etching. A 1.5-nm thick self-assembled monolayer of

  5. Assembly of the murine leukemia virus is directed towards sites of cell-cell contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the underlying mechanism by which direct cell-cell contact enhances the efficiency of cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses. Applying 4D imaging to a model retrovirus, the murine leukemia virus, we directly monitor and quantify sequential assembly, release, and transmission events for individual viral particles as they happen in living cells. We demonstrate that de novo assembly is highly polarized towards zones of cell-cell contact. Viruses assembled approximately 10-fold more frequently at zones of cell contact with no change in assembly kinetics. Gag proteins were drawn to adhesive zones formed by viral Env glycoprotein and its cognate receptor to promote virus assembly at cell-cell contact. This process was dependent on the cytoplasmic tail of viral Env. Env lacking the cytoplasmic tail while still allowing for contact formation, failed to direct virus assembly towards contact sites. Our data describe a novel role for the viral Env glycoprotein in establishing cell-cell adhesion and polarization of assembly prior to becoming a fusion protein to allow virus entry into cells.

  6. Designable architectures on nanoparticle surfaces: zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets as a platform for tetravalent metal and phosphonic acid assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Brian M; Goloby, Mark; Díaz, Agustín; Bakhmutov, Vladimir; Clearfield, Abraham

    2014-03-11

    Surface-functionalized zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoparticles were synthesized using a combination of ion exchange and self-assembly techniques. The surface of ZrP was used as a platform to deposit tetravalent metal ions by direct ion exchange with the protons of the surface phosphate groups. Subsequently, phosphonic acids were attached to the metal ion layer, effectively functionalizing the ZrP nanoparticles. Use of axially oriented bisphosphonic acids led to the ability to build layer-by-layer assemblies from the nanoparticle surface. Varying the metal ion and ligand used allowed designable architectures to be synthesized on the nanoparticle surface. X-ray powder diffraction, XPS, electron microprobe, solid-state NMR, FTIR, and TGA were used to characterize the synthesized materials.

  7. Seeded on-surface supramolecular growth for large area conductive donor-acceptor assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudappagouda; Chithiravel, Sundaresan; Krishnamoorthy, Kothandam; Gosavi, Suresh W; Babu, Sukumaran Santhosh

    2015-07-04

    Charge transport features of organic semiconductor assemblies are of paramount importance. However, large-area extended supramolecular structures of donor-acceptor combinations with controlled self-assembly pathways are hardly accessible. In this context, as a representative example, seeded on-surface supramolecular growth of tetrathiafulvalene and tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) using active termini of solution-formed sheaves has been introduced to form an extended assembly. We demonstrate for the first time, the creation of a large-area donor-acceptor assembly on the surface, which is practically very tedious, using a seeded, evaporation-assisted growth process. The excellent molecular ordering in this assembly is substantiated by its good electrical conductivity (~10⁻² S cm⁻¹). The on-surface assembly via both internally formed and externally added sheaf-like seeds open new pathways in supramolecular chemistry and device applications.

  8. Self-assembly of Silver Nanoparticles and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes on Decomposed GaAs Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan NV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atomic Force Microscopy complemented by Photoluminescence and Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction has been used to study self-assembly of silver nanoparticles and multiwall carbon nanotubes on thermally decomposed GaAs (100 surfaces. It has been shown that the decomposition leads to the formation of arsenic plate-like structures. Multiwall carbon nanotubes spin coated on the decomposed surfaces were mostly found to occupy the depressions between the plates and formed boundaries. While direct casting of silver nanoparticles is found to induce microdroplets. Annealing at 300°C was observed to contract the microdroplets into combined structures consisting of silver spots surrounded by silver rings. Moreover, casting of colloidal suspension consists of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles is observed to cause the formation of 2D compact islands. Depending on the multiwall carbon nanotubes diameter, GaAs/multiwall carbon nanotubes/silver system exhibited photoluminescence with varying strength. Such assembly provides a possible bottom up facile way of roughness controlled fabrication of plasmonic systems on GaAs surfaces.

  9. Direct Electron Transfer of Enzymes in a Biologically Assembled Conductive Nanomesh Enzyme Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Ki-Young; Song, Yong-Won; Choi, Won Kook; Chang, Joonyeon; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-02-24

    Nondestructive assembly of a nanostructured enzyme platform is developed in combination of the specific biomolecular attraction and electrostatic coupling for highly efficient direct electron transfer (DET) of enzymes with unprecedented applicability and versatility. The biologically assembled conductive nanomesh enzyme platform enables DET-based flexible integrated biosensors and DET of eight different enzyme with various catalytic activities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Coulomb force directed single and binary assembly of nanoparticles from aqueous dispersions by AFM nanoxerography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleau, Etienne; Sangeetha, Neralagatta M; Viau, Guillaume; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Ressier, Laurence

    2011-05-24

    We present a simple protocol to obtain versatile assemblies of nanoparticles from aqueous dispersions onto charge patterns written by atomic force microscopy, on a 100 nm thin film of polymethylmethacrylate spin-coated on silicon wafers. This protocol of nanoxerography uses a two-stage development involving incubation of the desired aqueous colloidal dispersion on charge patterns and subsequent immersion in an adequate water-soluble alcohol. The whole process takes only a few minutes. Numerical simulations of the evolution of the electric field generated by charge patterns in various solvents are done to resolve the mechanism by which nanoparticle assembly occurs. The generic nature of this protocol is demonstrated by constructing various assemblies of charged organic/inorganic/metallic (latex, silica, gold) nanoparticles of different sizes (3 to 100 nm) and surface functionalities from aqueous dispersions onto charge patterns of complex geometries. We also demonstrate that it is possible to construct a binary assembly of nanoparticles on a pattern made of positive and negative charges generated in a single charge writing step, by sequential developments in two aqueous dispersions of oppositely charged particles. This protocol literally extends the spectra of eligible colloids that can be assembled by nanoxerography and paves the way for building complex assemblies of nanoparticles on predefined areas of surfaces, which could be useful for the elaboration of nanoparticle-based functional devices.

  11. Selection of conformational states in surface self-assembly for a molecule with eight possible pairs of surface enantiomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Schultz-Falk, Vickie; Lind Cramer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a molecule with many distinct conformational states, resulting in eight possible pairs of surface enantiomers, is investigated on a Au(111) surface under UHV conditions. The complex molecule is equipped with alkyl and carboxyl moieties to promote controlled self-assembly of lamel...... moieties in mirror-image domains of the lamellae structures, leading to selection of three out of the eight possible enantiomeric pairs....

  12. Self-Assembled Layering of Magnetic Nanoparticles in a Ferrofluid on Silicon Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis-Bröhl, Katharina; Vreeland, Erika C; Gomez, Andrew; Huber, Dale L; Saini, Apurve; Wolff, Max; Maranville, Brian B; Brok, Erik; Krycka, Kathryn L; Dura, Joseph A; Borchers, Julie A

    2018-02-07

    This article describes the three-dimensional self-assembly of monodisperse colloidal magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) from a dilute water-based ferrofluid onto a silicon surface and the dependence of the resultant magnetic structure on the applied field. The NPs assemble into close-packed layers on the surface followed by more loosely packed ones. The magnetic field-dependent magnetization of the individual NP layers depends on both the rotational freedom of the layer and the magnetization of the adjacent layers. For layers in which the NPs are more free to rotate, the easy axis of the NP can readily orient along the field direction. In more dense packing, free rotation of the NPs is hampered, and the NP ensembles likely build up quasi-domain states to minimize energy, which leads to lower magnetization in those layers. Detailed analysis of polarized neutron reflectometry data together with model calculations of the arrangement of the NPs within the layers and input from small-angle scattering measurements provide full characterization of the core/shell NP dimensions, degree of chaining, arrangement of the NPs within the different layers, and magnetization depth profile.

  13. Layer-by-layer assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide for direct electrochemistry and glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascagni, Daniela Branco Tavares; Miyazaki, Celina Massumi; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da; Leite de Moraes, Marli; Riul, Antonio; Ferreira, Marystela

    2016-01-01

    We report an electrochemical glucose biosensor made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and glucose oxidase (GOx). The LbL assembly using positively and negatively charged rGO multilayers represents a simple approach to develop enzymatic biosensors. The electron transport properties of graphene were combined with the specificity provided by the enzyme. rGO was obtained and functionalized using chemical methods, being positively charged with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to form GPDDA, and negatively charged with poly(styrene sulfonate) to form GPSS. Stable aqueous dispersions of GPDDA and GPSS are easily obtained, enabling the growth of LbL films on various solid supports. The use of graphene in the immobilization of GOx promoted Direct Electron Transfer, which was evaluated by Cyclic Voltammetry. Amperometric measurements indicated a detection limit of 13.4 μmol·L ‐1 and sensitivity of 2.47 μA·cm −2 ·mmol −1 ·L for glucose with the (GPDDA/GPSS) 1 /(GPDDA/GOx) 2 architecture, whose thickness was 19.80 ± 0.28 nm, as determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The sensor may be useful for clinical analysis since glucose could be detected even in the presence of typical interfering agents and in real samples of a lactose-free milk and an electrolyte solution to prevent dehydration. - Highlights: • Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase at functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • Thickness (layer-by-layer) LbL film determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). • Selective determination of glucose in the presence of several interferents. • Real sample test: commercial oral electrolyte solution and lactose-free milk.

  14. Directed assembly of carbon nanotubes on soft substrates for use as a flexible biosensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Juntae; Yang Lee, Byung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Hong, Seunghun; Yi, Mihye; Jhon, Young Min

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for use as flexible biosensors. In this strategy, a thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and a linker-free assembly process was applied on the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited a typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neurotransmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  15. Directed-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes on Soft Substrates for Flexible Biosensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Woo; Koh, Juntae; Lee, Byung Yang; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Hong, Seunghun; Yi, Mihye; Jhon, Young Min

    2009-03-01

    We developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for flexible biosensors. In this strategy, thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and linker-free assembly process was applied onto the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neuro-transmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  16. Controllable assembly of silver nanoparticles induced by femtosecond laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huan; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Wang, Jian-Nan; Wang, Lei; Xia, Hong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Ding, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We report controllable assembly of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for patterning of silver microstructures. The assembly is induced by femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW). A tightly focused femtosecond laser beam is capable of trapping and driving Ag NPs to form desired micropatterns with a high resolution of ∼190 nm. Taking advantage of the ‘direct writing’ feature, three microelectrodes have been integrated with a microfluidic chip; two silver-based microdevices including a microheater and a catalytic reactor have been fabricated inside a microfluidic channel for chip functionalization. The FsLDW-induced programmable assembly of Ag NPs may open up a new way to the designable patterning of silver microstructures toward flexible fabrication and integration of functional devices. (focus issue paper)

  17. Encapsulating fluorescein using adipic acid self-assembly on the surface of PPI-3 dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Minghui; Holley, Aaron K; Kruskamp, Michael

    2007-01-14

    A water-soluble self-assembly has been formed by associating adipic acid molecules onto the surface of the third generation poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer and this system has been used to encapsulate fluorescein.

  18. Gold Nanoparticles Assembly on Silicon and Gold Surfaces: Mechanism, Stability and Efficiency in Diclofenac Biosensing

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Haddada , Maroua; Hübner , Maria; Casale , Sandra; Knopp , Dietmar; Niessner , Reinhard; Salmain , Michele; Boujday , Souhir

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We investigated the assembly of Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Gold and Silicon sensors with two final objectives: (i) understanding the factors governing the interaction and (ii) building up a nanostructured piezoelectric immunosensor for diclofenac, a small-sized pharmaceutical pollutant. Different surface chemistries were devised to achieve AuNPs assembly on planar substrates. These surface chemistries included amines to immobilize AuNPs via electrostatic interaction...

  19. Directed magnetic field induced assembly of high magnetic moment cobalt nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Akhilesh Kumar; Madhavi, S.; Ramanujan, R.V.

    2010-01-01

    A directed magnetic field induced assembly technique was employed to align two phase (h.c.p. + f.c.c.) cobalt nanoparticles in a mechanically robust long wire morphology. Co nanoparticles with an average size of 4.3 nm and saturation magnetization comparable to bulk cobalt were synthesized...

  20. Directed Orientation of Asymmetric Composite Dumbbells by Electric Field Induced Assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagao, D.; Sugimoto, M.; Okada, A.; Ishii, H.; Konno, M.; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Assembly and directed orientation of anisotropic particles with an external ac electric field in a range from 1 kHz to 2 MHz were studied for asymmetric composite dumbbells incorporating a silica, titania, or titania/silica (titania:silica = 75:25 vol %) sphere. The asymmetric composite dumbbells,

  1. Design and direct manufacture of non-assembly abacus by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changhui; Yang, Yongqiang; Xiao, Zefeng; Wang, Di; Liu, Yang; Liu, Ruicheng

    2014-12-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM), as an additive manufacturing technology, can directly manufacture desired functional metal parts. With the ability to freeform manufacture, SLM has had breakthroughs on design and manufacture compared with traditional methods. SLM apparatus in Dimetal series, DiMetal-100 developed by SCUT research group, has been used to study non-assembly mechanism. Taking copper cash abacus and collapsible abacus as examples, this article had studied the design rules and the key points to manufacture the non-assembly mechanism based on the SLM. An investigation into the capability of SLM technology, such as the geometric features resolution, critical incline angle, provided theoretical basis for designing the clearance of the joint and manufacturing direction of non-assembly mechanism. Then, the experiment of manufacturing copper cash abacus and collapsible abacus were conducted. The results proved that non-assembly mechanism can be well manufactured by SLM. This study provides basis for designing and manufacturing of creative non-assembly mechanism based on SLM technique.

  2. Correlation of Effective Dispersive and Polar Surface Energies in Heterogeneous Self-Assembled Monolayer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Yanxin; Hansen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    grown oil oxidized (100) silicon Surfaces in a vapor phase process using five different precursors. Experimentally, effective surface energy components of the fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers were determined from measured contact angles using the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble method. We show......We show, theoretically, that the measured effective dispersive and polar surface energies of a heterogeneous Surface are correlated; the correlation, however, differs whether a Cassic or an Israelachvili and Gee model is assumed. Fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers with varying coverage were...

  3. Enhanced adhesion of bioinspired nanopatterned elastomers via colloidal surface assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerboom, Sabine; Appel, Jeroen; Labonte, David; Federle, Walter; Sprakel, Joris; Kamperman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    We describe a scalable method to fabricate nanopatterned bioinspired dry adhesives using colloidal lithography. Close-packed monolayers of polystyrene particles were formed at the air/water interface, on which polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was applied. The order of the colloidal monolayer and the immersion depth of the particles were tuned by altering the pH and ionic strength of the water. Initially, PDMS completely wetted the air/water interface outside the monolayer, thereby compressing the monolayer as in a Langmuir trough; further application of PDMS subsequently covered the colloidal monolayers. PDMS curing and particle extraction resulted in elastomers patterned with nanodimples. Adhesion and friction of these nanopatterned surfaces with varying dimple depth were studied using a spherical probe as a counter-surface. Compared with smooth surfaces, adhesion of nanopatterned surfaces was enhanced, which is attributed to an energy-dissipating mechanism during pull-off. All nanopatterned surfaces showed a significant decrease in friction compared with smooth surfaces. PMID:25392404

  4. Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers: a computer simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Marcus; Sun, De-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The free-energy landscape of self-assembling block copolymer systems is characterized by a multitude of metastable minima and concomitant protracted relaxation times of the morphology. Tailoring rapid changes (quench) of thermodynamic conditions, one can reproducibly trap the ensuing kinetics of self-assembly in a specific metastable state. To this end, it is necessary to (1) control the generation of well-defined, highly unstable states and (2) design the unstable state such that the ensuing spontaneous kinetics of structure formation reaches the desired metastable morphology. This process-directed self-assembly provides an alternative to fine-tuning molecular architecture by synthesis or blending, for instance, in order to fabricate complex network structures. Comparing our simulation results to recently developed free-energy techniques, we highlight the importance of non-equilibrium molecular conformations in the starting state and motivate the significance of the local conservation of density. (paper)

  5. Emerging Insights into Directed Assembly: Taking Examples from Nature to Design Synthetic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Juan J.

    There is considerable interest in controlling the assembly of polymeric material in order to create highly ordered materials for applications. Such materials are often trapped in metastable, non-equilibrium states, and the processes through which they assemble become an important aspect of the materials design strategy. An example is provided by di-block copolymer directed self-assembly, where a decade of work has shown that, through careful choice of process variables, it is possible to create ordered structures whose degree of perfection meets the constraints of commercial semiconductor manufacturing. As impactful as that work has been, it has focused on relatively simple materials neutral polymers, consisting of two or at most three blocks. Furthermore, the samples that have been produced have been limited to relatively thin films, and the assembly has been carried out on ideal, two-dimensional substrates. The question that arises now is whether one can translate those achievements to polymeric materials having a richer sequence, to monomers that include charges, to three-dimensional substrates, or to active systems that are in a permanent non-equilibrium state. Building on discoveries from the biophysics literature, this presentation will review recent work from our group and others that explains how nature has evolved to direct the assembly of nucleic acids into intricate, fully three-dimensional macroscopic functional materials that are not only active, but also responsive to external cues. We will discuss how principles from polymer physics serve to explain those assemblies, and how one might design a new generation of synthetic systems that incorporate some of those principles.

  6. Direct current electric field assembly of colloidal crystals displaying reversible structural color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aayush A; Ganesan, Mahesh; Jocz, Jennifer; Solomon, Michael J

    2014-08-26

    We report the application of low-voltage direct current (dc) electric fields to self-assemble close-packed colloidal crystals in nonaqueous solvents from colloidal spheres that vary in size from as large as 1.2 μm to as small as 0.1 μm. The assemblies are created rapidly (∼2 min) from an initially low volume fraction colloidal particle suspension using a simple capacitor-like electric field device that applies a steady dc electric voltage. Confocal microscopy is used to observe the ordering that is produced by the assembly method. This spatial evidence for ordering is consistent with the 6-fold diffraction patterns identified by light scattering. Red, green, and blue structural color is observed for the ordered assemblies of colloids with diameters of 0.50, 0.40, and 0.29 μm, respectively, consistent with spectroscopic measurements of reflectance. The diffraction and spectrophotometry results were found to be consistent with the theoretical Bragg's scattering expected for closed-packed crystals. By switching the dc electric field from on to off, we demonstrate reversibility of the structural color response on times scales ∼60 s. The dc electric field assembly method therefore represents a simple method to produce reversible structural color in colloidal soft matter.

  7. Surface-Assisted Self-Assembly Strategies Leading to Supramolecular Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier-Carrière, Cécile; Boulmedais, Fouzia; Schaaf, Pierre; Jierry, Loïc

    2018-02-05

    Localized molecular self-assembly processes leading to the growth of nanostructures exclusively from the surface of a material is one of the great challenges in surface chemistry. In the last decade, several works have been reported on the ability of modified or unmodified surfaces to manage the self-assembly of low-molecular-weight hydrogelators (LMWH) resulting in localized supramolecular hydrogel coatings mainly based on nanofiber architectures. This Minireview highlights all strategies that have emerged recently to initiate and localize LMWH supramolecular hydrogel formation, their related fundamental issues and applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Facile assembly of light-driven molecular motors onto a solid surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jiawen; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Carroll, Gregory T; Feringa, Ben L

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the rotary motion of surface assembled light-driven molecular motors, tetra-acid-functionalized motors were bound to an amine-coated quartz surface without prior activation of the acid groups. In contrast to earlier bipodal motors, the tetravalent motor showed no significant

  9. Surface and bulk dissolution properties, and selectivity of DNA-linked nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukatsky, D.B.; Frenkel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Using a simple mean-field model, we analyze the surface and bulk dissolution properties of DNA-linked nanoparticle assemblies. We find that the dissolution temperature and the sharpness of the dissolution profiles increase with the grafting density of the single-stranded DNA "probes" on the surface

  10. Software-Supported USER Cloning Strategies for Site-Directed Mutagenesis and DNA Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genee, Hans Jasper; Bonde, Mads Tvillinggaard; Bagger, Frederik Otzen

    2015-01-01

    USER cloning is a fast and versatile method for engineering of plasmid DNA. We have developed a user friendly Web server tool that automates the design of optimal PCR primers for several distinct USER cloning-based applications. Our Web server, named AMUSER (Automated DNA Modifications with USER...... cloning), facilitates DNA assembly and introduction of virtually any type of site-directed mutagenesis by designing optimal PCR primers for the desired genetic changes. To demonstrate the utility, we designed primers for a simultaneous two-position site-directed mutagenesis of green fluorescent protein...... (GFP) to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), which in a single step reaction resulted in a 94% cloning efficiency. AMUSER also supports degenerate nucleotide primers, single insert combinatorial assembly, and flexible parameters for PCR amplification. AMUSER is freely available online at ....

  11. Study of NAP adsorption and assembly on the surface of HOPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Vladimir V; Allen, Stephanie; Roberts, Clive J; Gozes, Illana; Tendler, Saul J B

    2014-12-01

    NAP is an octapeptide that has demonstrated a neuroprotective/therapeutic efficacy at very low concentrations in preclinical studies and in a number of clinical trials. Yet little is known about its structural organization at low concentrations. Here, we have employed atomic force microscopy to investigate NAP peptide assembly on graphite in aqueous media at nanomolar concentration. High spatial resolution scans of NAP assemblies reveal their fine structure with clearly resolved single NAP units. This observation leads us to conclude that NAP molecules do not form complex self-assembled structures at nanomolar concentration when adsorbed on graphite surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-assembled hemocompatible coating on poly (vinyl chloride) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha Zhengbao; Ma Yan; Yue Xiuli; Liu Meng [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai Zhifei, E-mail: zhifei.dai@hit.edu.cn [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A stable hemocompatible coating was fabricated by consecutive alternating adsorption of iron (III) and two kinds of polysaccharides, heparin (Hep) and dextran sulfate (DS), onto poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces via electrostatic interaction. The fluctuation of contact angles with the alternative deposition of iron (III) and polysaccharides verified the progressive buildup of the mulitilayer coating onto the PVC surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the PVC surfaces were completely masked by iron-polysaccharides multilayer coatings. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay showed that both Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep and DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coated PVC were less thrombogenic than the uncoated one. Chromogenic assay for heparin activity proved definitively that the inhibition of locally produced thrombin was ascribed to the thromboresistance of the surface-bound heparin. Compared with the unmodified PVC surfaces, iron-polysaccharide multilayer coating presented a drastically reduced adhesion in vitro of platelets, polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Interestingly, the DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating was found to exhibit higher hydrophilicity and stability, hence lower non-specific protein adsorption in comparison with Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating due to the incorporation of dextran sulfate into the multilayer coating.

  13. Redox-triggered mixing and demixing of surfactants within assemblies formed in solution and at surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy J; Wang, Chenxuan; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2017-09-15

    We report experiments that test the hypothesis that redox-triggered changes in the architectures of surfactants permit control of mixing of surfactants within assemblies. Specifically, we describe surface tension, light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance measurements that characterize the redox-dependent behaviors of cationic surfactants with a ferrocene group located either at the surfactant terminus (11-ferrocenylundecyl-trimethylammonium bromide; FTMA) or head (N,N-dimethylferrocenylmethyldecylammonium bromide; DMFA). In bulk solution, we find that reduced and oxidized FTMA do not mix within micellar assemblies but that reduced and oxidized DMFA do form mixed micelles. Because oxidized FTMA has the architecture of a bolaform surfactant whereas oxidized DMFA has a conventional surfactant architecture with a divalent head group, these results suggest that redox-triggered changes in molecular architecture permit control of the extent of mixing of surfactants in micellar assemblies in bulk solution. This conclusion receives further support from measurements performed with mixtures of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide and FTMA, with FTMA in either reduced or oxidized states, and was found to extend to hemimicellar assemblies formed at hydrophobic solid surfaces but not to mixed monolayers formed at the surface of water. The latter is attributed to differences in the conformations of surfactants within monolayers and micellar assemblies. Overall, these results provide insight into the design of surfactant assemblies within which mixing can be controlled reversibly using redox processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Assembled Fluorinated Organogelators for Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar Raghavanpillai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new class of alkyl- and perfluoroalkyl-containing urea and amide derivatives was synthesized from amino acid derivatives. Most of these compounds showed excellent gelation behavior in organic solvents at low concentrations. A few organogelators selected from the initial screening were used for surface modification of fibrous substrates to create hydrophobic and oleophobic composites. The hydrophobic and oleophobic behaviors of these composites were ascribed to a combination of increased surface roughness and the alkyl/fluorinated functionalities present in the gelator backbone.

  15. Via patterning in the 7-nm node using immersion lithography and graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hori, Masafumi; Gronheid, Roel

    2017-04-01

    Insertion of a graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly process as a via patterning technology into integrated circuit fabrication is seriously considered for the 7-nm node and beyond. At these dimensions, a graphoepitaxy process using a cylindrical block copolymer that enables hole multiplication can alleviate costs by extending 193-nm immersion-based lithography and significantly reducing the number of masks that would be required per layer. To be considered for implementation, it needs to be proved that this approach can achieve the required pattern quality in terms of defects and variability using a representative, aperiodic design. The patterning of a via layer from an actual 7-nm node logic layout is demonstrated using immersion lithography and graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly in a fab-like environment. The performance of the process is characterized in detail on a full 300-mm wafer scale. The local variability in an edge placement error of the obtained patterns (4.0 nm 3σ for singlets) is in line with the recent results in the field and significantly less than of the prepattern (4.9 nm 3σ for singlets). In addition, it is expected that pattern quality can be further improved through an improved mask design and optical proximity correction. No major complications for insertion of the graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly into device manufacturing were observed.

  16. Shedding light on surface-assembled photosynthetic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, Johan Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The interfacing of biomolecules to nanostructures, electrode surfaces and/or optical components constitutes the new discipline of bioelectronics. It is based on electron transfer between a protein and an electrode, and can be monitored by amperometric techniques. The integration of biomolecules with

  17. Quantitatively Probing the Means of Controlling Nanoparticle Assembly on Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patete, J.m.; Wong, S.; Peng, X.; Serafin, J.M.

    2011-05-17

    As a means of developing a simple, cost-effective, and reliable method for probing nanoparticle behavior, we have used atomic force microscopy to gain a quantitative 3D visual representation of the deposition patterns of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles on a substrate as a function of (a) sample preparation, (b) the choice of substrate, (c) the dispersion solvent, and (d) the number of loading steps. Specifically, we have found that all four parameters can be independently controlled and manipulated in order to alter the resulting pattern and quantity of as-deposited nanoparticles. From these data, the sample preparation technique appears to influence deposition patterns most broadly, and the dispersion solvent is the most convenient parameter to use in tuning the quantity of nanoparticles deposited onto the surface under spin-coating conditions. Indeed, we have quantitatively measured the effect of surface coverage for both mica and silicon substrates under preparation techniques associated with (i) evaporation under ambient air, (ii) heat treatment, and (iii) spin-coating preparation conditions. In addition, we have observed a decrease in nanoparticle adhesion to a substrate when the ethylene glycol content of the colloidal dispersion solvent is increased, which had the effect of decreasing interparticle-substrate interactions. Finally, we have shown that substrates prepared by these diverse techniques have potential applicability in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Quantitatively Probing the Means of Controlling Nanoparticle Assembly on Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patete, J.M.; Wong, S.; Peng, X.; Serafin, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    As a means of developing a simple, cost-effective, and reliable method for probing nanoparticle behavior, we have used atomic force microscopy to gain a quantitative 3D visual representation of the deposition patterns of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles on a substrate as a function of (a) sample preparation, (b) the choice of substrate, (c) the dispersion solvent, and (d) the number of loading steps. Specifically, we have found that all four parameters can be independently controlled and manipulated in order to alter the resulting pattern and quantity of as-deposited nanoparticles. From these data, the sample preparation technique appears to influence deposition patterns most broadly, and the dispersion solvent is the most convenient parameter to use in tuning the quantity of nanoparticles deposited onto the surface under spin-coating conditions. Indeed, we have quantitatively measured the effect of surface coverage for both mica and silicon substrates under preparation techniques associated with (i) evaporation under ambient air, (ii) heat treatment, and (iii) spin-coating preparation conditions. In addition, we have observed a decrease in nanoparticle adhesion to a substrate when the ethylene glycol content of the colloidal dispersion solvent is increased, which had the effect of decreasing interparticle-substrate interactions. Finally, we have shown that substrates prepared by these diverse techniques have potential applicability in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Motion direction influences surface segmentation in stereo transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutcher, Ross

    2016-12-01

    To perceive multiple overlapping surfaces in the same location of the visual field (transparency), the visual system must determine which surface elements belong together, and should be integrated, and which should be kept apart. Spatial relations between surfaces, such as depth order, must also be determined. This article details two experiments examining the interaction of motion direction and disparity cues on the perception of depth order and surface segmentation in transparency. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with random-dot stereograms, where transparent planes were defined by differences in motion direction and disparity. Participants reported the direction of motion of the front surface. Results revealed marked effects of motion direction on perceived depth order. These biases interact with disparity in an additive manner, suggesting that the visual system integrates motion direction with other available cues to surface segmentation. This possibility was tested further in Experiment 2. Participants were presented with two intervals: one containing motion and disparity defined transparent planes, the other containing a volume of moving dots. Interplane disparity was varied to find thresholds for the correct identification of the transparent interval. Thresholds depended on motion direction: Thresholds were lower when disparities and directions in the transparency interval matched participants' preferred depth order, compared to conditions where disparity and direction were in conflict. These results suggest that motion direction influences the judgment of depth order even in the presence of other visual cues, and that the assignment of depth order may play an important role in segmentation.

  20. Symposium Supramolecular Assemblies on Surface: Nanopatterning, Functionality and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    modules, steer their organisational and dynamic behaviour , and afford novel functions using well-defined homogenous surfaces, textured and sp2...three electron oxidations of singleIndiana University 11:00 AM 11:30 AM Frida 30 Beton, Peter Supramolecular  organisation  on layered semiconductors and...change in oxidation state of the metal. See J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 9862 (2014). 1841 - Supramolecular organisation on layered semiconductors and

  1. Sub-10-nm patterning via directed self-assembly of block copolymer films with a vapour-phase deposited topcoat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyo Seon; Kim, Do Han; Moni, Priya; Xiong, Shisheng; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Gleason, Karen K.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2017-07-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of the domain structure in block copolymer (BCP) thin films is a promising approach for sub-10-nm surface patterning. DSA requires the control of interfacial properties on both interfaces of a BCP film to induce the formation of domains that traverse the entire film with a perpendicular orientation. Here we show a methodology to control the interfacial properties of BCP films that uses a polymer topcoat deposited by initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD). The iCVD topcoat forms a crosslinked network that grafts to and immobilizes BCP chains to create an interface that is equally attractive to both blocks of the underlying copolymer. The topcoat, in conjunction with a chemically patterned substrate, directs the assembly of the grating structures in BCP films with a half-pitch dimension of 9.3 nm. As the iCVD topcoat can be as thin as 7 nm, it is amenable to pattern transfer without removal. The ease of vapour-phase deposition, applicability to high-resolution BCP systems and integration with pattern-transfer schemes are attractive properties of iCVD topcoats for industrial applications.

  2. Low-Power Light Guiding and Localization in Optoplasmonic Chains Obtained by Directed Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Wonmi; Zhao, Xin; Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2016-01-01

    Optoplasmonic structures contain plasmonic components embedded in a defined photonic environment to create synergistic interactions between photonic and plasmonic components. Here, we show that chains of optical microspheres containing gold nanoparticles in their evanescent field combine the light guiding properties of a microsphere chain with the light localizing properties of a plasmonic nanoantenna. We implement these materials through template guided self-assembly and investigate their fundamental electromagnetic working principles through combination of electromagnetic simulations and experimental characterization. We demonstrate that optoplasmonic chains implemented by directed self-assembly achieve a significant reduction in guiding losses when compared with conventional plasmonic waveguides and, at the same time, retain the light localizing properties of plasmonic antennas at pre-defined locations. The results reinforce the potential of optoplasmonic structures for realizing low-loss optical interconnects with high bandwidth. PMID:26931149

  3. Surfaces wettability and morphology modulation in a fluorene derivative self-assembly system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xinhua, E-mail: caoxhchem@163.com; Gao, Aiping; Zhao, Na; Yuan, Fangyuan; Liu, Chenxi; Li, Ruru

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The different structures could be obtained in this self-assembly system. • A water-drop could freely roll on the xerogel film with the sliding angle of 15.0. • The superhydrophobic surface can be obtained via supramolecular self-assembly. - Abstract: A new organogelator based on fluorene derivative (gelator 1) was designed and synthesized. Organogels could be obtained via the self-assembly of the derivative in acetone, toluene, ethyl acetate, hexane, DMSO and petroleum ether. The self-assembly process was thoroughly characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis, FT-IR and the contact angle. Surfaces with different morphologies and wetting properties were formed via the self-assembly of gelator 1 in the six different solvents. Interestingly, a superhydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 150° was obtained from organogel 1 in DMSO and exhibited the lotus-effect. The sliding angle necessary for a water droplet to move on the glass was only 15°. Hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces were attributed as the main driving forces for gel formation.

  4. One-pot DNA construction for synthetic biology: the Modular Overlap-Directed Assembly with Linkers (MODAL) strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Arturo; MacDonald, James T.; Jonghe, Joachim De; Christodoulou, Georgia; Freemont, Paul S.; Baldwin, Geoff S.; Ellis, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Overlap-directed DNA assembly methods allow multiple DNA parts to be assembled together in one reaction. These methods, which rely on sequence homology between the ends of DNA parts, have become widely adopted in synthetic biology, despite being incompatible with a key principle of engineering: modularity. To answer this, we present MODAL: a Modular Overlap-Directed Assembly with Linkers strategy that brings modularity to overlap-directed methods, allowing assembly of an initial set of DNA parts into a variety of arrangements in one-pot reactions. MODAL is accompanied by a custom software tool that designs overlap linkers to guide assembly, allowing parts to be assembled in any specified order and orientation. The in silico design of synthetic orthogonal overlapping junctions allows for much greater efficiency in DNA assembly for a variety of different methods compared with using non-designed sequence. In tests with three different assembly technologies, the MODAL strategy gives assembly of both yeast and bacterial plasmids, composed of up to five DNA parts in the kilobase range with efficiencies of between 75 and 100%. It also seamlessly allows mutagenesis to be performed on any specified DNA parts during the process, allowing the one-step creation of construct libraries valuable for synthetic biology applications. PMID:24153110

  5. Theory and application of shapelets to the analysis of surface self-assembly imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, Robert; Lizotte, Daniel J; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2015-03-01

    A method for quantitative analysis of local pattern strength and defects in surface self-assembly imaging is presented and applied to images of stripe and hexagonal ordered domains. The presented method uses "shapelet" functions which were originally developed for quantitative analysis of images of galaxies (∝10(20)m). In this work, they are used instead to quantify the presence of translational order in surface self-assembled films (∝10(-9)m) through reformulation into "steerable" filters. The resulting method is computationally efficient (with respect to the number of filter evaluations), robust to variation in pattern feature shape, and, unlike previous approaches, is applicable to a wide variety of pattern types. An application of the method is presented which uses a nearest-neighbor analysis to distinguish between uniform (defect-free) and nonuniform (strained, defect-containing) regions within imaged self-assembled domains, both with striped and hexagonal patterns.

  6. Self-assembling behaviour of Pt nanoparticles onto surface of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, self-assembling behaviour of guest nanoparticles (platinum) onto the surface of host support (titanium dioxide) during photodeposition process as a function of solution pH has been explored in detail by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the resulting ...

  7. Condensation-Enhanced Self-Assembly as a Route to High Surface Area alpha-Aluminas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Lidia Lopez; Zarubina, Valeriya; Heeres, Hero Jan; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    High surface area nanosized alpha-alumina has been obtained by thermally treating a sol-gel-derived mesophase at 1200 degrees C; the mesophase was synthesized by a sol-gel route involving evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) of a hydrolyzed gel from Al-tri-sec-butoxide in s-BuOH in the presence

  8. Assessment of assembly homogenized two-steps core dynamic calculations using direct whole core transport solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursin, Mathieu; Downar, Thomas J.; Yoon, Joo Il; Joo, Han Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reactivity initiated accident analysis with direct whole core transient transport code. • Comparison with usual “two steps” procedure. • Effect of effective delayed neutron fraction definition on energy deposition in the fuel. • Effect of homogenized few-group cross sections generation at the assembly level on energy deposition in the fuel. • Effect of effective fuel temperature definition on energy deposition in the fuel. - Abstract: The impact of the approximations in the “two-steps” procedure used in the current generation of nodal simulators for core transient calculations is assessed by using a higher order solution obtained from a direct, whole core, transient transport calculation. A control rod ejection accident in an idealized minicore is analyzed with PARCS, which uses the two-steps procedure and DeCART which provides the higher order solution. DeCART is used as lattice code to provide the homogenized cross sections and kinetics parameters to PARCS. The approximations made by using (1) the homogenized few-group cross sections and kinetic parameters generated at the assembly level, (2) an effective delayed neutrons fraction, (3) an effective fuel temperature and (4) the few-group formulation are investigated in terms of global and local core power behavior. The results presented in the paper show that the current two-steps procedure produces sufficiently accurate transient results with respect to the direct whole core calculation solution, provided that its parameters are carefully generated using the prescriptions described in the present article.

  9. The Directed Cooperative Assembly of Proteorhodopsin Into 2d And 3d Polarized Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, H.; Whited, G.; Nguyen, C.; Stucky, G.D.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2007-07-12

    Proteorhodopsin is the membrane protein used by marine bacterioplankton as a light-driven proton pump. Here, we describe a rapid cooperative assembly process directed by universal electrostatic interactions that spontaneously organizes proteorhodopsin molecules into ordered arrays with well defined orientation and packing density. We demonstrate the charge density-matching mechanism that selectively controls the assembly process. The interactions among different components in the system are tuned by varying their charge densities to yield different organized transmembrane protein arrays: (i) a bacteriorhodopsin purple membrane-like structure where proteorhodopsin molecules are cooperatively arranged with charged lipids into a 2D hexagonal lattice; (ii) selected liquid-crystalline states in which crystalline lamellae made up of the coassembled proteorhodopsin and charged lipid molecules are coupled three-dimensionally with polarized proteorhodopsin orientation persisting through the macroscopic scale. Understanding this rapid electrostatically driven assembly process sheds light on organizing membrane proteins in general, which is a prerequisite for membrane protein structural and mechanistic studies as well as in vitro applications.

  10. Process sensitivities in exemplary chemo-epitaxy directed self-assembly integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Gronheid, Roel; Lin, Guanyang; Cao, Yi; Romo, Ainhoa; Somervell, Mark; Nafus, Kathleen; Nealey, Paul F.

    2013-03-01

    Directed Self Assembly (DSA) using block copolymers (BCP) has received considerable attention over the past few years as a potential complementary lithographic technique. While many are focused on adapting DSA integrations to high volume manufacturing, the key to the technology's success lies in its ability to generate low defect patterns. The best way to drive the technology toward a zero defect solution is to understand the fundamentals of the block copolymer assembly, the interactions of the block copolymer with the underlying chemical pattern, and the evaluation of process parameters to obtain a high degree of order of the BCP morphologies. To this end, recent research has investigated numerous material, structural, and process sensitivities of an exemplary chemo-epitaxy line/space integration. Using the DSA flow implemented at imec, substrate properties, such as the geometry and chemistry, were studied and provided the first results regarding the dimensions of the nano-patterns and the energetic conditions necessary to obtain good alignment of the BCP. Additional parameters that have been explored include BCP film thickness and the bake conditions used to execute various steps of the flow. With this work, the key parameters that drive the assembly process have been identified. This will allow the definition of an optimized process window and materials for defect minimization.

  11. Direct NO decomposition over stepped transition-metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne; Bligaard, Thomas; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    We establish the full potential energy diagram for the direct NO decomposition reaction over stepped transition-metal surfaces by combining a database of adsorption energies on stepped metal surfaces with known Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations for the activation barriers of dissociation...... of diatomic molecules over stepped transition- and noble-metal surfaces. The potential energy diagram directly points to why Pd and Pt are the best direct NO decomposition catalysts among the 3d, 4d, and 5d metals. We analyze the NO decomposition reaction in terms of a Sabatier-Gibbs-type analysis, and we...... demonstrate that this type of analysis yields results that to within a surprisingly small margin of error are directly proportional to the measured direct NO decomposition over Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Ag, and An. We suggest that Pd, which is a better catalyst than Pt under the employed reaction conditions...

  12. Directed self-assembly (DSA) grapho-epitaxy template generation with immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Torres, J. A.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present an optimization methodology for the template designs of sub-resolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with grapho-epitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of Template Error Enhancement Factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity, and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data shows that SMO is critical to achieve sub-80nm non- L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Disulfide-Containing Uranyl Compounds. In Situ Ligand Synthesis versus Direct Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Clare E. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Belai, Nebebech [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Knope, Karah E. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cahill, Christopher L. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-01-29

    Three disulfide-containing uranyl compounds, [UO2(C7H4O2S)3]·H2O (1), [UO2(C7H4O2S)2(C7H5O2S)] (2), and [UO2(C7H4O2S)4] (3) have been hydrothermally synthesized. Both in situ disulfide bond formation from 3- and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (C7H5O2S, MBA) to yield 3,3'- and 4,4'-dithiobisbenzoic acid (C14H8O4S2, DTBA) and direct assembly with the presynthesized dimeric ligands have been explored. While the starting materials 4-MBA and 4,4'-DTBA both yield 2 via in situ ligand synthesis and direct assembly, respectively, we observe the formation of 1 from the starting material 3-MBA via in situ ligand synthesis and of 3 from the direct assembly of the uranyl cation with 3,3'-DTBA. Concurrently with the synthesis of 1 and 2, we have observed the in situ formation of the crystalline dimeric organic species, 3,3'-DTBA, [(C7H5O2S)2] (4) and 4,4'-DTBA, [(C7H5O2S)2] (5). Herein we report the synthesis and crystallographic characterization of 1-5, as well as observations regarding the utility of product formation via direct assembly and in situ ligand synthesis.

  14. Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticles as Materials in Sensor Applications: Variables That Influence Their Organization and Assembly on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinny L. Liu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles possess characteristics that make them ideal candidates as materials for sensors, particularly as sensor probes. Their surface can be modified, either through genetic engineering or direct chemical conjugation to display functional moieties such as antibodies or other proteins to recognize a specific target. However, in order for T4 nanoparticles to be utilized as a sensor probe, it is necessary to understand and control the variables that determine their assembly and organization on a surface. The aim of this work is to discuss some of variables that we have identified as influencing the behavior of T4 nanoparticles on surfaces. The effect of pH, ionic strength, substrate characteristics, nanoparticle concentration and charge was addressed qualitatively using atomic force microscopy (AFM.

  15. Mesoporous nanoplate multi-directional assembled Bi2WO6for high efficient photocatalytic oxidation of NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jun; Du, Xiao; Wang, Ruimiao; Liu, Enzhou; Jia, Jia; Bai, Xue; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Herein, a mesoporous nanoplate multi-directional assembled Bi 2 WO 6 architecture was successfully prepared and applied for the photocatalytic removal of NOx pollutants at low concentrations under visible light and simulated solar light irradiation. Bi 2 WO 6 -180-C synthesized at a hydrothermal temperature of 180 °C with calcination exhibited an excellent conversion efficiency in the photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous NO. The crystallinity, morphology, specific surface area, pore environment, light absorption, and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes were investigated by various techniques; the excellent photocatalytic performance of Bi 2 WO 6 -180-C was attributed to its special hierarchical mesoporous structure with an appropriate pore size and interconnected porous network, which imparted good gas permeability and fast mass transfer of reaction intermediates and final products of NO oxidation. Furthermore, hierarchical mesoporous Bi 2 WO 6 showed excellent photocatalytic durability and reusability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Advanced Manufacturing of Intermediate Temperature, Direct Methane Oxidation Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Durable Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation builds on the successes of the Phase I program by integrating our direct oxidation membrane electrode assembly (MEA) into a monolithic solid...

  17. Self-assembly of phosphorylated dihydroceramide at Au(111) electrode surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawłowski, Jan; Juhaniewicz, Joanna; Sęk, Sławomir, E-mail: slasek@chem.uw.edu.pl

    2017-01-15

    Although the adsorption of lipids on reconstructed Au(111) surface and formation of highly ordered stripe-like domains are well-known phenomena, the exact orientation of the molecules with respect to the substrate remains unclear. Therefore, in this study we have focused on the structure and arrangement of lipid molecules forming highly ordered stripe-like domains at gold electrode-electrolyte interface. N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-dihydroceramide-1-phosphate was selected as model compound since its ability to transform into hemimicellar structure is limited. This way it was possible to get very stable lipid film with characteristic stripe-like pattern. Application of complementary techniques such as atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy enabled detailed characteristics of lipid adlayer adsorbed on Au(111) electrode. Based on careful analysis of the experimental results, we have proposed a model which describes the arrangement of the molecules within the film. In general, it assumes flat-lying orientation of the lipids but only one hydrocarbon chain of phosphorylated dihydroceramide is involved in direct interaction with gold. - Highlights: • STM and AFM methods were used to examine adsorption of model lipid on Au(111). • Self-assembly of model lipid leads to formation of highly organized molecular film. • The model is proposed which reproduces the STM contrast.

  18. Directed Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers for High Breakdown Strength Polymer Film Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Saumil P; Grabowski, Christopher A; Kisslinger, Kim; Yager, Kevin G; Yuan, Guangcui; Satija, Sushil K; Durstock, Michael F; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Karim, Alamgir

    2016-03-01

    Emerging needs for fast charge/discharge yet high-power, lightweight, and flexible electronics requires the use of polymer-film-based solid-state capacitors with high energy densities. Fast charge/discharge rates of film capacitors on the order of microseconds are not achievable with slower charging conventional batteries, supercapacitors and related hybrid technologies. However, the current energy densities of polymer film capacitors fall short of rising demand, and could be significantly enhanced by increasing the breakdown strength (EBD) and dielectric permittivity (εr) of the polymer films. Co-extruded two-homopolymer component multilayered films have demonstrated much promise in this regard showing higher EBD over that of component polymers. Multilayered films can also help incorporate functional features besides energy storage, such as enhanced optical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. In this work, we report accomplishing multilayer, multicomponent block copolymer dielectric films (BCDF) with soft-shear driven highly oriented self-assembled lamellar diblock copolymers (BCP) as a novel application of this important class of self-assembling materials. Results of a model PS-b-PMMA system show ∼50% enhancement in EBD of self-assembled multilayer lamellar BCP films compared to unordered as-cast films, indicating that the breakdown is highly sensitive to the nanostructure of the BCP. The enhancement in EBD is attributed to the "barrier effect", where the multiple interfaces between the lamellae block components act as barriers to the dielectric breakdown through the film. The increase in EBD corresponds to more than doubling the energy storage capacity using a straightforward directed self-assembly strategy. This approach opens a new nanomaterial paradigm for designing high energy density dielectric materials.

  19. Directional uv photoemission from (100) and (110) molybdenum surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinti, R. C.; Khoury, E. Al; Chakraverty, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the (100) and (110) molybdenum surfaces by directional photoemission spectroscopy is presented. Energy distribution spectra formed by photoelectrons emitted normal to the surfaces have been measured for photon energies between 10.2 and 21.2 eV. The results are discussed in terms...

  20. Surface Modification and Characterisation of Silk Fibroin Fabric Produced by the Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Multilayer Alginate/Regenerated Silk Fibroin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaotian Shen

    Full Text Available Silk-based medical products have a long history of use as a material for surgical sutures because of their desirable mechanical properties. However, silk fibroin fabric has been reported to be haemolytic when in direct contact with blood. The layer-by-layer self-assembly technique provides a method for surface modification to improve the biocompatibility of silk fibroin fabrics. Regenerated silk fibroin and alginate, which have excellent biocompatibility and low immunogenicity, are outstanding candidates for polyelectrolyte deposition. In this study, silk fabric was degummed and positively charged to create a silk fibroin fabric that could undergo self-assembly. The multilayer self-assembly of the silk fibroin fabric was achieved by alternating the polyelectrolyte deposition of a negatively charged alginate solution (pH = 8 and a positively charged regenerated silk fibroin solution (pH = 2. Finally, the negatively charged regenerated silk fibroin solution (pH = 8 was used to assemble the outermost layer of the fabric so that the surface would be negatively charged. A stable structural transition was induced using 75% ethanol. The thickness and morphology were characterised using atomic force microscopy. The properties of the self-assembled silk fibroin fabric, such as the bursting strength, thermal stability and flushing stability, indicated that the fabric was stable. In addition, the cytocompatibility and haemocompatibility of the self-assembled silk fibroin fabrics were evaluated. The results indicated that the biocompatibility of the self-assembled multilayers was acceptable and that it improved markedly. In particular, after the self-assembly, the fabric was able to prevent platelet adhesion. Furthermore, other non-haemolytic biomaterials can be created through self-assembly of more than 1.5 bilayers, and we propose that self-assembled silk fibroin fabric may be an attractive candidate for anticoagulation applications and for promoting

  1. Components of the regular surface array of Aquaspirillum serpens MW5 and their assembly in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, M L; Murray, R G

    1984-02-01

    The two-layered regular surface array of Aquaspirillum serpens MW5 was removed from cell envelopes and dissociated into subunits by treatment with 6 M urea. The surface components reassembled onto an outer membrane surface and self-assembled into planar sheets in vitro in the presence of Ca2+ or Sr2+. The two layers were removed sequentially from cell envelopes by a two-step extraction procedure involving initial treatment with a high-pH buffer to remove the outermost surface layer and subsequent treatment with 6 M urea to remove the innermost layer. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the outer and inner layers of the array were composed of two proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 and 150,000, respectively. The two layers assembled sequentially; the 150,000-molecular-weight protein formed an array on an outer membrane surface, and the 125,000-molecular-weight protein required that array as a template for its in vitro assembly.

  2. Customization and design of directed self-assembly using hybrid prepatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joy; Doerk, Gregory S.; Rettner, Charles T.; Singh, Gurpreet; Tjio, Melia; Truong, Hoa; Arellano, Noel; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Brink, Markus; Tsai, Hsinyu; Liu, Chi-Chun; Guillorn, Michael; Sanders, Daniel P.

    2015-03-01

    Diminishing error tolerance renders the customization of patterns created through directed self-assembly (DSA) extremely challenging at tighter pitch. A self-aligned customization scheme can be achieved using a hybrid prepattern comprising both organic and inorganic regions that serves as a guiding prepattern to direct the self-assembly of the block copolymers as well as a cut mask pattern for the DSA arrays aligned to it. In this paper, chemoepitaxy-based self-aligned customization is demonstrated using two types of organic-inorganic prepatterns. CHEETAH prepattern for "CHemoepitaxy Etch Trim using a self-Aligned Hardmask" of preferential hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ, inorganic resist), non-preferential organic underlayer is fabricated using electron beam lithography. Customized trench or hole arrays can be achieved through co-transfer of DSA-formed arrays and CHEETAH prepattern. Herein, we also introduce a tone-reversed version called reverse-CHEETAH (or rCHEETAH) in which customized line segments can be achieved through co-transfer of DSA-formed arrays formed on a prepattern wherein the inorganic HSQ regions are nonpreferential and the organic regions are PMMA preferential. Examples of two-dimensional self-aligned customization including 25nm pitch fin structures and an 8-bar "IBM" illustrate the versatility of this customization scheme using rCHEETAH.

  3. Method for selective immobilization of macromolecules on self assembled monolayer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Julia [Richland, WA; Wang, Peng [Billerica, MA

    2011-11-29

    Disclosed is a method for selective chemical binding and immobilization of macromolecules on solid supports in conjunction with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces. Immobilization involves selective binding of peptides and other macromolecules to SAM surfaces using reactive landing (RL) of mass-selected, gas phase ions. SAM surfaces provide a simple and convenient platform for tailoring chemical properties of a variety of substrates. The invention finds applications in biochemistry ranging from characterization of molecular recognition events at the amino acid level and identification of biologically active motifs in proteins, to development of novel biosensors and substrates for stimulated protein and cell adhesion.

  4. DNA self-assembly on graphene surface studied by SERS mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botti, Sabina; Rufoloni, Alessandro; Laurenzi, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) segments on two variations of graphene surfaces having nano-platelets with different lateral sizes and thicknesses was investigated using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Due...... nano-platelets. Results from the EIS analysis supported the SERS findings and confirmed that SERS mapping is a reliable method for a rapid monitoring of the procedures used to interface DNA with graphene surfaces. The present study, linking DNA anchoring morphology to the conductive properties of nano...

  5. Photopatterning of self assembled monolayers on oxide surfaces for the selective attachment of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Pompi; Behrendt, Jonathan M; Petersson, Linn; Wingren, Christer; Turner, Michael L

    2014-03-15

    The immobilization of functional biomolecules to surfaces is a critical process for the development of biosensors for disease diagnostics. In this work we report the patterned attachment of single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies to the surface of metal oxides by the photodeprotection of self-assembled monolayers, using near-UV light. The photodeprotection step alters the functionality at the surface; revealing amino groups that are utilized to bind biomolecules in the exposed regions of the substrate only. The patterned antibodies are used for the detection of specific disease biomarker proteins in buffer and in complex samples such as human serum. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanoscale protein arrays of rich morphologies via self-assembly on chemically treated diblock copolymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Sheng; Milchak, Marissa; Zhou Hebing; Lee, Thomas; Hanscom, Mark; Hahm, Jong-in

    2013-01-01

    Well-controlled assembly of proteins on supramolecular templates of block copolymers can be extremely useful for high-throughput biodetection. We report the adsorption and assembly characteristics of a model antibody protein to various polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) templates whose distinctive nanoscale structures are obtained through time-regulated exposure to chloroform vapor. The strong adsorption preference of the protein to the polystyrene segment in the diblock copolymer templates leads to an easily predictable, controllable, rich set of nanoscale protein morphologies through self-assembly. We also demonstrate that the chemical identities of various subareas within individual nanostructures can be readily elucidated by investigating the corresponding protein adsorption behavior on each chemically distinct area of the template. In our approach, a rich set of intricate nanoscale morphologies of protein arrays that cannot be easily attained through other means can be generated straightforwardly via self-assembly of proteins on chemically treated diblock copolymer surfaces, without the use of clean-room-based fabrication tools. Our approach provides much-needed flexibility and versatility for the use of block copolymer-based protein arrays in biodetection. The ease of fabrication in producing well-defined and self-assembled templates can contribute to a high degree of versatility and simplicity in acquiring an intricate nanoscale geometry and spatial distribution of proteins in arrays. These advantages can be extremely beneficial both for fundamental research and biomedical detection, especially in the areas of solid-state-based, high-throughput protein sensing. (paper)

  7. Phase diagrams map the properties of antiviral agents directed against hepatitis B virus core assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lichun; Chirapu, Srinivas Reddy; Finn, M G; Zlotnick, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Assembly effectors are small molecules that induce inappropriate virus capsid assembly to antiviral effect. To identify attributes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) assembly effectors, assembly reaction products (normal capsid, noncapsid polymer, intermediates, and free dimeric core protein) were quantified in the presence of three experimental effectors: HAP12, HAP13, and AT-130. Effectors bound stoichiometrically to capsid protein polymers, but not free protein. Thermodynamic and kinetic effects, not aberrant assembly, correlate with maximal antiviral activity.

  8. Self-assembly of Mo 6S 8 clusters on the Au(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I.; Kunze, T.; Gemming, S.; Seifert, G.

    2007-12-01

    The preferred adsorption sites and the propensity for a self-organised growth of the molybdenum sulfide cluster Mo6S8 on the Au(111) surface are investigated by density-functional band-structure calculations with pseudopotentials and a plane wave basis set. The quasi-cubic cluster preferentially adsorbs via a face and remains structurally intact. It experiences a strong, mostly non-ionic attraction to the surface at several quasi-isoenergetic adsorption positions. A scan of the potential energy surface exhibits only small barriers between adjacent strong adsorption sites. Hence, the cluster may move in a potential well with degenerate local energy minima at room temperature. The analysis of the electronic structure reveals a negligible electron transfer and S-Au hybridised states, which indicate that the cluster-surface interaction is dominated by S-Au bonds, with minor contributions from the Mo atom in the surface vicinity. All results indicate that Mo6S8 clusters on the Au(111) surface can undergo a template-mediated self-assembly to an ordered inorganic monolayer, which is still redox active and may be employed as surface-active agent in the integration of noble metal and ionic or biological components within nano-devices. Therefore, a classical potential model was developed on the basis of the DFT data, which allows to study larger cluster assemblies on the Au(111).

  9. Uni-directional liquid spreading on asymmetric nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kuang-Han; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2010-05-01

    Controlling surface wettability and liquid spreading on patterned surfaces is of significant interest for a broad range of applications, including DNA microarrays, digital lab-on-a-chip, anti-fogging and fog-harvesting, inkjet printing and thin-film lubrication. Advancements in surface engineering, with the fabrication of various micro/nanoscale topographic features, and selective chemical patterning on surfaces, have enhanced surface wettability and enabled control of the liquid film thickness and final wetted shape. In addition, groove geometries and patterned surface chemistries have produced anisotropic wetting, where contact-angle variations in different directions resulted in elongated droplet shapes. In all of these studies, however, the wetting behaviour preserves left-right symmetry. Here, we demonstrate that we can harness the design of asymmetric nanostructured surfaces to achieve uni-directional liquid spreading, where the liquid propagates in a single preferred direction and pins in all others. Through experiments and modelling, we determined that the spreading characteristic is dependent on the degree of nanostructure asymmetry, the height-to-spacing ratio of the nanostructures and the intrinsic contact angle. The theory, based on an energy argument, provides excellent agreement with experimental data. The insights gained from this work offer new opportunities to tailor advanced nanostructures to achieve active control of complex flow patterns and wetting on demand.

  10. Engineering cellular fibers for musculoskeletal soft tissues using directed self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Koppes, Ryan A; Chrisey, Douglas B; Corr, David T

    2013-05-01

    Engineering strategies guided by developmental biology may enhance and accelerate in vitro tissue formation for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In this study, we looked toward embryonic tendon development as a model system to guide our soft tissue engineering approach. To direct cellular self-assembly, we utilized laser micromachined, differentially adherent growth channels lined with fibronectin. The micromachined growth channels directed human dermal fibroblast cells to form single cellular fibers, without the need for a provisional three-dimensional extracellular matrix or scaffold to establish a fiber structure. Therefore, the resulting tissue structure and mechanical characteristics were determined solely by the cells. Due to the self-assembly nature of this approach, the growing fibers exhibit some key aspects of embryonic tendon development, such as high cellularity, the rapid formation (within 24 h) of a highly organized and aligned cellular structure, and the expression of cadherin-11 (indicating direct cell-to-cell adhesions). To provide a dynamic mechanical environment, we have also developed and characterized a method to apply precise cyclic tensile strain to the cellular fibers as they develop. After an initial period of cellular fiber formation (24 h postseeding), cyclic strain was applied for 48 h, in 8-h intervals, with tensile strain increasing from 0.7% to 1.0%, and at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Dynamic loading dramatically increased cellular fiber mechanical properties with a nearly twofold increase in both the linear region stiffness and maximum load at failure, thereby demonstrating a mechanism for enhancing cellular fiber formation and mechanical properties. Tissue engineering strategies, designed to capture key aspects of embryonic development, may provide unique insight into accelerated maturation of engineered replacement tissue, and offer significant advances for regenerative medicine applications in tendon

  11. Self-assembled artificial viral capsids bearing coiled-coils at the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Seiya; Matsuura, Kazunori

    2017-06-14

    In order to construct artificial viral capsids bearing complementary dimeric coiled-coils on the surface, a β-annulus peptide bearing a coiled-coil forming sequence at the C-terminus (β-annulus-coiled-coil-B) was synthesized by a native chemical ligation of a β-annulus-SBn peptide with a Cys-containing coiled-coil-B peptide. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the β-annulus-coiled-coil-B peptide self-assembled into spherical structures of about 50 nm in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the formation of the complementary coiled-coil structure on the spherical assemblies. Addition of 0.25 equivalent of the complementary coiled-coil-A peptide to the β-annulus-coiled-coil-B peptide showed the formation of spherical assemblies of 46 ± 14 nm with grains of 5 nm at the surface, whereas addition of 1 equivalent of the complementary coiled-coil-A peptide generated fibrous assemblies.

  12. Assembly, Structure, and Functionality of Metal-Organic Networks and Organic Semiconductor Layers at Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempas, Christopher D.

    Self-assembled nanostructures at surfaces show promise for the development of next generation technologies including organic electronic devices and heterogeneous catalysis. In many cases, the functionality of these nanostructures is not well understood. This thesis presents strategies for the structural design of new on-surface metal-organic networks and probes their chemical reactivity. It is shown that creating uniform metal sites greatly increases selectivity when compared to ligand-free metal islands. When O2 reacts with single-site vanadium centers, in redox-active self-assembled coordination networks on the Au(100) surface, it forms one product. When O2 reacts with vanadium metal islands on the same surface, multiple products are formed. Other metal-organic networks described in this thesis include a mixed valence network containing Pt0 and PtII and a network where two Fe centers reside in close proximity. This structure is stable to temperatures >450 °C. These new on-surface assemblies may offer the ability to perform reactions of increasing complexity as future heterogeneous catalysts. The functionalization of organic semiconductor molecules is also shown. When a few molecular layers are grown on the surface, it is seen that the addition of functional groups changes both the film's structure and charge transport properties. This is due to changes in both first layer packing structure and the pi-electron distribution in the functionalized molecules compared to the original molecule. The systems described in this thesis were studied using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Overall, this work provides strategies for the creation of new, well-defined on-surface nanostructures and adds additional chemical insight into their properties.

  13. Biological Activation of Inert Ceramics: Recent Advances Using Tailored Self-Assembled Monolayers on Implant Ceramic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Böke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-strength ceramics as materials for medical implants have a long, research-intensive history. Yet, especially on applications where the ceramic components are in direct contact with the surrounding tissue, an unresolved issue is its inherent property of biological inertness. To combat this, several strategies have been investigated over the last couple of years. One promising approach investigates the technique of Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAM and subsequent chemical functionalization to create a biologically active tissue-facing surface layer. Implementation of this would have a beneficial impact on several fields in modern implant medicine such as hip and knee arthroplasty, dental applications and related fields. This review aims to give a summarizing overview of the latest advances in this recently emerging field, along with thorough introductions of the underlying mechanism of SAMs and surface cell attachment mechanics on the cell side.

  14. Directed assembly of bio-inspired hierarchical materials with controlled nanofibrillar architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Peter; Napier, Bradley; Zhao, Siwei; Mitropoulos, Alexander N.; Applegate, Matthew B.; Marelli, Benedetto; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2017-05-01

    In natural systems, directed self-assembly of structural proteins produces complex, hierarchical materials that exhibit a unique combination of mechanical, chemical and transport properties. This controlled process covers dimensions ranging from the nano- to the macroscale. Such materials are desirable to synthesize integrated and adaptive materials and systems. We describe a bio-inspired process to generate hierarchically defined structures with multiscale morphology by using regenerated silk fibroin. The combination of protein self-assembly and microscale mechanical constraints is used to form oriented, porous nanofibrillar networks within predesigned macroscopic structures. This approach allows us to predefine the mechanical and physical properties of these materials, achieved by the definition of gradients in nano- to macroscale order. We fabricate centimetre-scale material geometries including anchors, cables, lattices and webs, as well as functional materials with structure-dependent strength and anisotropic thermal transport. Finally, multiple three-dimensional geometries and doped nanofibrillar constructs are presented to illustrate the facile integration of synthetic and natural additives to form functional, interactive, hierarchical networks.

  15. Direct self-assembling and patterning of semiconductor quantum dots on transferable elastomer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppola, Sara [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy); Vespini, Veronica, E-mail: v.vespini@isasi.cnr.it [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy); Olivieri, Federico [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy); University of Naples Federico II, Department of Chemical Materials and Production Engineering, Piazzale Tecchio 80, Naples 80125 (Italy); Nasti, Giuseppe; Todino, Michele; Mandracchia, Biagio; Pagliarulo, Vito; Ferraro, Pietro [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • A quantum dots self-patterning on micrometrical polymeric array is proposed. • The effect of a quantum dots mix on the array is evaluated. • A PDMS membrane is exploited to transfer the pattern on it. - Abstract: Functionalization of thin and stretchable polymer layers by nano- and micro-patterning of nanoparticles is a very promising field of research that can lead to many different applications in biology and nanotechnology. In this work, we present a new procedure to self-assemble semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) nanoparticles by a simple fabrication process on a freestanding flexible PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS) membrane. We used a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal to imprint a micrometrical pattern on the PDMS membrane that drives the QDs self-structuring on its surface. This process allows patterning QDs with different wavelength emissions in a single step in order to tune the overall emission spectrum of the composite, tuning the QDs mixing ratio.

  16. Carboranedithiols: Building Blocks for Self-Assembled Monolayers on Copper Surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baše, Tomáš; Bastl, Zdeněk; Havránek, Vladimír; Macháček, Jan; Langecker, Jens; Malina, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 34 (2012), s. 12518-12526 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0348; GA AV ČR KAN100400702 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389005 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : copper surfaces * carboranethiols * cluster * chemisorption * self-assembled monolayer Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.187, year: 2012

  17. Directed self-assembly of block copolymers for use in bit patterned media fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Rhys Alun; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Thomson, Thomas; Williams, Aled; Oakland, Chloe; Roberts, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of the bit size in conventional magnetic recording media is becoming increasingly difficult due to the superparamagnetic limit. Bit patterned media (BPM) has been proposed as a replacement technology as it will enable hard disk areal densities to increase past 1 Tb in −2 . Block copolymer directed self-assembly (BCP DSA) is the leading candidate for forming BPM due to its ability to create uniform patterns over macroscopic areas. Here we review the latest research into two different BCP DSA techniques: graphoepitaxy and chemoepitaxy (or chemical prepatterning). In addition to assessing their potential for forming high density bit patterns, we also review current approaches using these techniques for forming servo patterns, which are required for hard disk drive (HDD) operation. Finally, we review the current state of UV nanoimprint lithography, which is the favoured technique for enabling mass production of BPM HDDs. (topical review)

  18. Directed self-assembly into low-density colloidal liquid crystal phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxiang; Romano, Flavio; Dullens, Roel P. A.; Doye, Jonathan K.; Aarts, Dirk G. A. L.

    2018-01-01

    Alignment of anisometric particles into liquid crystals (LCs) often results from an entropic competition between their rotational and translational degrees of freedom at dense packings. Here we show that by selectively functionalizing the heads of colloidal rods with magnetic nanoparticles this tendency can be broken to direct the particles into novel, low-density LC phases. Under an external magnetic field, the magnetic heads line up in columns whereas the nonmagnetic tails point out randomly in a plane perpendicular to the columns, forming bottle-brush-like objects; laterally, the bottle brushes are entropically stabilized against coalescence. Experiments and simulations show that upon increasing the particle density the system goes from a dilute gas to a dense two-dimensional liquid of bottle brushes with a density well below the zero-field nematic phase. Our findings offer a strategy for self-assembly into three-dimensional open phases that may find applications in switchable photonics, filtration, and light-weight materials.

  19. Nanopatterning of diblock copolymer directed self-assembly lithography with wet development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Makoto; Iwashita, Mitsuaki; Kitano, Takahiro; Toshima, Takayuki; Seino, Yuriko; Kawamura, Daisuke; Kanno, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa

    2011-04-01

    We report wet development technique for directed self-assembly lithography pattern. For typical diblock copolymer, poly (styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA), the PMMA area is removed by O2 plasma. However, O2 plasma attack also etches off PS area simultaneously. As a result, the thickness of residual PS pattern is thinner and it causes degradation of PS mask performance. PS thickness loss in the device integration is not desirable as etching mask role. In this work, we applied wet development technique which could be higher selectivity to keep PS film thickness after pattern formation. Especially, we propose the method using low pressure mercury lamp and conventional TMAH (2.38%) as developer. It is expected to accomplish pattern formation in one track with coating, baking, exposure and development.

  20. Directed self-assembly aware restricted design rule and its impact on design ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulu; Kim, Ryoung-han

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA), the epitaxial alignment of block copolymers to minimize the system free energy, is prone to defects that are random and difficult to eliminate. When creating fins for FinFET devices, the defect density is known to be a strong function of guide pattern CD. We propose the use of a restricted design rule (RDR) that limits the guide pattern CD to achieve low defectivity, and also report its impact on overall chip area and design-ability of logic, analog IO, and SRAM. The restricted design rule in defining guide pattern CD is extracted from empirical data. Design rule check (DRC) is applied to GLOBALFOUNDRIES' technology chip design to estimate the penalty of DSA RDR on fin layer.

  1. Directed orientation of asymmetric composite dumbbells by electric field induced assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Maki; Okada, Ayako; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio; Imhof, Arnout; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2012-04-24

    Assembly and directed orientation of anisotropic particles with an external ac electric field in a range from 1 kHz to 2 MHz were studied for asymmetric composite dumbbells incorporating a silica, titania, or titania/silica (titania:silica = 75:25 vol %) sphere. The asymmetric composite dumbbells, which were composed of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-coated sphere (core-shell part) and a polystyrene (PSt) lobe, were synthesized with a soap-free emulsion polymerization to prepare PMMA-coated inorganic spheres and another soap-free emulsion polymerization to form a polystyrene (PSt) lobe from the PMMA-coated inorganic spheres. The composite dumbbells dispersed in water were directly observed with optical microscopy. The dumbbells incorporating a silica sphere oriented parallel to an electric field in the whole frequency range and they formed a pearl chain structure at a high frequency of 2 MHz. The titania-incorporated dumbbells formed chain structures, in which they contacted their core-shell parts and oriented perpendicularly to a low-frequency (kHz) field, whereas they oriented parallel to a high-frequency (MHz) field. Since the alignment of dumbbells in the chains depends not only on the interparticle forces but also on the torque that the induced dipoles in the dumbbells experience in the electric field, the orientation of dumbbells perpendicular to the electric field was the case dominated by the interparticle force, whereas the other orientation was the case dominated by the torque. The present experiments show that the incorporation of inorganic dumbbells is an effective way to control the assembled structure and orientation with an electric field.

  2. Remote sensing of land surface temperature: The directional viewing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Schmugge, T.J.; Ballard, J.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important parameter in understanding global environmental change because it controls many of the underlying processes in the energy budget at the surface and heat and water transport between the surface and the atmosphere. The measurement of LST at a variety of spatial and temporal scales and extension to global coverage requires remote sensing means to achieve these goals. Land surface temperature and emissivity products are currently being derived from satellite and aircraft remote sensing data using a variety of techniques to correct for atmospheric effects. Implicit in the commonly employed approaches is the assumption of isotropy in directional thermal infrared exitance. The theoretical analyses indicate angular variations in apparent infrared temperature will typically yield land surface temperature errors ranging from 1 to 4 C unless corrective measures are applied

  3. Strong surface effect on direct bulk flexoelectric response in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkov, A. S.; Tagantsev, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of a continuum theory, it is shown that the direct bulk flexoelectric response of a finite sample essentially depends on the surface polarization energy, even in the thermodynamic limit where the body size tends to infinity. It is found that a modification of the surface energy can lead to a change in the polarization response by a factor of two. The origin of the effect is an electric field produced by surface dipoles induced by the strain gradient. The unexpected sensitivity of the polarization response to the surface energy in the thermodynamic limit is conditioned by the fact that the moments of the surface dipoles may scale as the body size

  4. Assembly of nonnative floras along elevational gradients explained by directional ecological filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jake M; Kueffer, Christoph; Daehler, Curtis C; Edwards, Peter J; Pauchard, Aníbal; Seipel, Tim

    2011-01-11

    Nonnative species richness typically declines along environmental gradients such as elevation. It is usually assumed that this is because few invaders possess the necessary adaptations to succeed under extreme environmental conditions. Here, we show that nonnative plants reaching high elevations around the world are not highly specialized stress tolerators but species with broad climatic tolerances capable of growing across a wide elevational range. These results contrast with patterns for native species, and they can be explained by the unidirectional expansion of nonnative species from anthropogenic sources at low elevations and the progressive dropping out of species with narrow elevational amplitudes--a process that we call directional ecological filtering. Independent data confirm that climatic generalists have succeeded in colonizing the more extreme environments at higher elevations. These results suggest that invasion resistance is not conferred by extreme conditions at a particular site but determined by pathways of introduction of nonnative species. In the future, increased direct introduction of nonnative species with specialized ecophysiological adaptations to mountain environments could increase the risk of invasion. As well as providing a general explanation for gradients of nonnative species richness and the importance of traits such as phenotypic plasticity for many invasive species, the concept of directional ecological filtering is useful for understanding the initial assembly of some native floras at high elevations and latitudes.

  5. Numerical simulation of directivity for angle probe and surface defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Young Hyun

    1995-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing uses the directivity of the ultrasonic wave which propagates in one direction. The directivity is expressed as the relationship between the propagate direction and i ts sound pressure. This paper studied the directivity of shear waves emitted from angle probes and scattered from surface defects by using visualization method. These experimental results were compared with the theory which was based on the continuous wave. The applicability of continuous wave theory was discussed in terms of the parameter d/λ where d is transducer or defect size and λ is the wavelength. In the case of angle probes, the experimental results show good agreement with theoretical directivity on the principal lobe. When defect size was smaller than the wavelengths, clear directivity in the reflected wave was observed. In the case of the same ratio of defect size to wavelength, the directivity of reflected waves from the defect show almost the same directivity in spite of frequency differences. When the d/λ is greater than 1.5, measured directivities almost agreed with the theoretical one.

  6. Direct quantification of negatively charged functional groups on membrane surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Surface charge plays an important role in membrane-based separations of particulates, macromolecules, and dissolved ionic species. In this study, we present two experimental methods to determine the concentration of negatively charged functional groups at the surface of dense polymeric membranes. Both techniques consist of associating the membrane surface moieties with chemical probes, followed by quantification of the bound probes. Uranyl acetate and toluidine blue O dye, which interact with the membrane functional groups via complexation and electrostatic interaction, respectively, were used as probes. The amount of associated probes was quantified using liquid scintillation counting for uranium atoms and visible light spectroscopy for the toluidine blue dye. The techniques were validated using self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols with known amounts of charged moieties. The surface density of negatively charged functional groups of hand-cast thin-film composite polyamide membranes, as well as commercial cellulose triacetate and polyamide membranes, was quantified under various conditions. Using both techniques, we measured a negatively charged functional group density of 20-30nm -2 for the hand-cast thin-film composite membranes. The ionization behavior of the membrane functional groups, determined from measurements with toluidine blue at varying pH, was consistent with published data for thin-film composite polyamide membranes. Similarly, the measured charge densities on commercial membranes were in general agreement with previous investigations. The relative simplicity of the two methods makes them a useful tool for quantifying the surface charge concentration of a variety of surfaces, including separation membranes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Ultrasound directed self-assembly of three-dimensional user-specified patterns of particles in a fluid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisbrey, M.; Greenhall, J.; Guevara Vasquez, F.; Raeymaekers, B.

    2017-01-01

    We use ultrasound directed self-assembly to organize particles dispersed in a fluid medium into a three-dimensional (3D) user-specified pattern. The technique employs ultrasound transducers that line the boundary of a fluid reservoir to create a standing ultrasound wave field. The acoustic radiation force associated with the wave field drives particles dispersed in the fluid medium into organized patterns, assuming that the particles are much smaller than the wavelength and do not interact with each other. We have theoretically derived a direct solution method to calculate the ultrasound transducer operating parameters that are required to assemble a user-specified 3D pattern of particles in a fluid reservoir of arbitrary geometry. We formulate the direct solution method as a constrained optimization problem that reduces to eigendecomposition. We experimentally validate the solution method by assembling 3D patterns of carbon nanoparticles in a water reservoir and observe good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment. Additionally, we demonstrate the versatility of the solution method by simulating ultrasound directed self-assembly of complex 3D patterns of particles. The method works for any 3D simple, closed fluid reservoir geometry in combination with any arrangement of ultrasound transducers and enables employing ultrasound directed self-assembly in a myriad of engineering applications, including biomedical and materials fabrication processes.

  8. Sulfamide chemistry applied to the functionalization of self-assembled monolayers on gold surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Pantaine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aniline-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold surfaces have successfully reacted with ArSO2NHOSO2Ar (Ar = 4-MeC6H4 or 4-FC6H4 resulting in monolayers with sulfamide moieties and different end groups. Moreover, the sulfamide groups on the SAMs can be hydrolyzed showing the partial regeneration of the aniline surface. SAMs were characterized by water contact angle (WCA measurements, Fourier-transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS.

  9. EVALUATION OF A MULTIFUNCTIONAL VALVE ASSEMBLY IN A DIRECT EXPANSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the performance, including energy consumption, of a refrigeration system incorporating a multifunctional valve (MXV assembly). The MXV assembly (consisting of additional liquid line, an XTC valve, and a larger thermostatic expansion valve) was installed on al...

  10. Direct measurement of Cu surface self-diffusion on a checked surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, Jacques; Peix, Roger; Perraillon, Bernard.

    1976-01-01

    A radiotracer technique ( 64 Cu) was developed to measure surface diffusion on copper surfaces of total impurity concentration not exceeding some 10 -3 monolayers. The apparatus used consists of a slow electron diffraction device, an Auger analysis spectrometer (CMA), an ion gun and an evaporation device assembled in an ultra-vacuum chamber holding a residual pressure below 10 -10 Torr. A sample handler enables the surface studied to be positioned in front of each of these instruments. During the diffusion treatment the chemical composition of the surface is checked intermittently, and afterwards the spread of the deposit is measured outside the ultravacuum chamber. Slices several microns thick are removed and dissolved separately in dishes containing HNO 3 . The activity is then measured with a flow counter [fr

  11. Engineering the cell surface display of cohesins for assembly of cellulosome-inspired enzyme complexes on Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Andrew S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assembly and spatial organization of enzymes in naturally occurring multi-protein complexes is of paramount importance for the efficient degradation of complex polymers and biosynthesis of valuable products. The degradation of cellulose into fermentable sugars by Clostridium thermocellum is achieved by means of a multi-protein "cellulosome" complex. Assembled via dockerin-cohesin interactions, the cellulosome is associated with the cell surface during cellulose hydrolysis, forming ternary cellulose-enzyme-microbe complexes for enhanced activity and synergy. The assembly of recombinant cell surface displayed cellulosome-inspired complexes in surrogate microbes is highly desirable. The model organism Lactococcus lactis is of particular interest as it has been metabolically engineered to produce a variety of commodity chemicals including lactic acid and bioactive compounds, and can efficiently secrete an array of recombinant proteins and enzymes of varying sizes. Results Fragments of the scaffoldin protein CipA were functionally displayed on the cell surface of Lactococcus lactis. Scaffolds were engineered to contain a single cohesin module, two cohesin modules, one cohesin and a cellulose-binding module, or only a cellulose-binding module. Cell toxicity from over-expression of the proteins was circumvented by use of the nisA inducible promoter, and incorporation of the C-terminal anchor motif of the streptococcal M6 protein resulted in the successful surface-display of the scaffolds. The facilitated detection of successfully secreted scaffolds was achieved by fusion with the export-specific reporter staphylococcal nuclease (NucA. Scaffolds retained their ability to associate in vivo with an engineered hybrid reporter enzyme, E. coli β-glucuronidase fused to the type 1 dockerin motif of the cellulosomal enzyme CelS. Surface-anchored complexes exhibited dual enzyme activities (nuclease and β-glucuronidase, and were

  12. One-pot reaction for the preparation of biofunctionalized self-assembled monolayers on gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raigoza, Annette F.; Fies, Whitney; Lim, Amber; Onyirioha, Kristeen; Webb, Lauren J., E-mail: lwebb@cm.utexas.edu

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • One-pot synthesis of α-helical-terminated self-assembled monolayers on Au(111). • Synthesis of high density, structured, and covalently bound α-helices on Au(111). • Characterization by surface-averaged and single molecule techniques. • Peptide-terminated surfaces for fabrication of biomaterials and sensors. - Abstract: The Huisgen cycloaddition reaction (“click” chemistry) has been used extensively to functionalize surfaces with macromolecules in a straightforward manner. We have previously developed a procedure using the copper(I)-catalyzed click reaction to tether synthetic α-helical peptides carrying two alkyne groups to a well-ordered azide-terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a Au(111) surface. While convenient, click-based strategies potentially pose significant problems from reagents, solvents, and reaction temperatures that may irreversibly damage some molecules or substrates. Tuning click chemistry conditions would allow individual optimization of reaction conditions for a wide variety of biomolecules and substrate materials. Here, we explore the utility of simultaneous SAM formation and peptide-attachment chemistry in a one-pot reaction. We demonstrate that a formerly multistep reaction can be successfully carried out concurrently by mixing azide-terminated alkanethiols, CuCl, and a propargylglycine-containing peptide over a bare gold surface in ethanol and reacting at 70 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface infrared spectroscopy, surface circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to determine that this one-pot reaction strategy resulted in a high density of surface-bound α-helices without aggregation. This work demonstrates the simplicity and versatility of a SAM-plus-click chemistry strategy for functionalizing Au surfaces with structured biomolecules.

  13. Liquid Crystals Indicate Directions Of Surface Shear Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Daniel C.

    1996-01-01

    Report consisting of main text of U.S. Patent 5,394,752 presents detailed information on one aspect of method of using changes in colors of liquid-crystal coatings to indicate instantaneous directions of flow-induced shear stresses (skin friction) on aerodynamic surfaces.

  14. Regular Nanoscale Protein Patterns via Directed Adsorption through Self-Assembled DNA Origami Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Saminathan; Subramaniam, Sivaraman; Stewart, A Francis; Grundmeier, Guido; Keller, Adrian

    2016-11-16

    DNA origami has become a widely used method for synthesizing well-defined nanostructures with promising applications in various areas of nanotechnology, biophysics, and medicine. Recently, the possibility to transfer the shape of single DNA origami nanostructures into different materials via molecular lithography approaches has received growing interest due to the great structural control provided by the DNA origami technique. Here, we use ordered monolayers of DNA origami nanostructures with internal cavities on mica surfaces as molecular lithography masks for the fabrication of regular protein patterns over large surface areas. Exposure of the masked sample surface to negatively charged proteins results in the directed adsorption of the proteins onto the exposed surface areas in the holes of the mask. By controlling the buffer and adsorption conditions, the protein coverage of the exposed areas can be varied from single proteins to densely packed monolayers. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, regular nanopatterns of four different proteins are fabricated: the single-strand annealing proteins Redβ and Sak, the iron-storage protein ferritin, and the blood protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). We furthermore demonstrate the desorption of the DNA origami mask after directed protein adsorption, which may enable the fabrication of hierarchical patterns composed of different protein species. Because selectivity in adsorption is achieved by electrostatic interactions between the proteins and the exposed surface areas, this approach may enable also the large-scale patterning of other charged molecular species or even nanoparticles.

  15. 76 FR 9984 - Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace, Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ..., Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part Numbers 174006-(), 174080-(), 174085-(), 174095... manufacturer and part number of the oxygen mask assemblies installed, an inspection to determine the manufacturing date and modification status if certain oxygen mask assemblies are installed, and corrective...

  16. Directional surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nano-gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillibert, Raymond; Yasukuni, Ryohei; Chapelle, Marc Lamy de la; Sarkar, Mitradeep; Bryche, Jean-François; Moreau, Julien; Besbes, Mondher; Canva, Michael; Barbillon, Grégory; Bartenlian, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Directional plasmon excitation and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) emission were demonstrated for 1D and 2D gold nanostructure arrays deposited on a flat gold layer. The extinction spectrum of both arrays exhibits intense resonance bands that are redshifted when the incident angle is increased. Systematic extinction analysis of different grating periods revealed that this band can be assigned to a propagated surface plasmon of the flat gold surface that fulfills the Bragg condition of the arrays (Bragg mode). Directional SERS measurements demonstrated that the SERS intensity can be improved by one order of magnitude when the Bragg mode positions are matched with either the excitation or the Raman wavelengths. Hybridized numerical calculations with the finite element method and Fourier modal method also proved the presence of the Bragg mode plasmon and illustrated that the enhanced electric field of the Bragg mode is particularly localized on the nanostructures regardless of their size. (paper)

  17. Adsorption and self-assembly of M13 phage into directionally organized structures on C and SiO2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimian, Pouya; Srot, Vesna; Rothenstein, Dirk; Facey, Sandra J; Harnau, Ludger; Hauer, Bernhard; Bill, Joachim; van Aken, Peter A

    2014-09-30

    A versatile method for the directional assembly of M13 phage using amorphous carbon and SiO2 thin films was demonstrated. A high affinity of the M13 phage macromolecules for incorporation into aligned structures on an amorphous carbon surface was observed at the concentration range, in which the viral nanofibers tend to disorder. In contrast, the viral particles showed less freedom to adopt an aligned orientation on SiO2 films when deposited in close vicinity. Here an interpretation of the role of the carbon surface in significant enhancement of adsorption and generation of viral arrays with a high orientational order was proposed in terms of surface chemistry and competitive electrostatic interactions. This study suggests the use of amorphous carbon substrates as a template for directional organization of a closely-packed and two-dimensional M13 viral film, which can be a promising route to mineralize a variety of smooth and homogeneous inorganic nanostructure layers.

  18. Organic surfaces exposed by self-assembled organothiol monolayers: Preparation, characterization, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Martin; Wöll, Christof

    2009-07-01

    Organic surfaces play a major role in materials science. Most surfaces that we touch in our daily lives are made from organic materials, e.g., vegetables, fruit, skin, wood, and textiles made from natural fibers. In the context of biology, organic surfaces play a prominent role too, proteins docking onto cell surfaces are a good example. To better understand the characteristics of organic surfaces, including physico-chemical properties like wettability or chemical reactivities and physical properties like friction and lubrication, a structurally well-defined model system that can be investigated with numerous analytical techniques is desirable. In the last two decades, one particular system, self-assembled monolayers or SAMs, have demonstrated their suitability for this purpose. In particular, organothiols consisting of an organic molecule with an attached SH-group are well suited to fabricating structurally well-defined adlayers of monolayer thickness on gold substrates using a simple preparation procedure. These ultrathin monolayers expose an organic surface with properties that can be tailored by varying the type of organothiol employed. After a short introduction into the preparation of SAMs, this article provides an overview of the possibilities and limitations of organic surfaces exposed by Au-thiolate SAMs. Applications are as diverse as the metallization of organic surfaces, a fundamental problem in materials science, and the fabrication of surfaces that resist the adsorption of proteins. In addition to a number of different case studies, we will also discuss the most powerful analytical techniques needed to characterize these important model systems.

  19. Formation of self-assembled monolayer of curcuminoid molecules on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanga, Isadora; Etcheverry-Berríos, Álvaro; Mella, Andy; Jullian, Domingo; Gómez, Victoria Alejandra; Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria; Fuenzalida, Victor; Flores, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thiophene curcuminoid molecules deposited on a gold surface by immersion. • Molecular dynamic studies of the molecular arrangement approaching the surface. • XPS and STM studies showing different arrangement of the molecules on the surface. • Molecular Interaction with surface depends on the sulfur position in thiophene rings. • Temporal evolution of the molecular arrangement on the surface. - Abstract: We investigated the formation of self-assembled monolayers of two thiophene curcuminoid molecules, 2-thphCCM (1) and 3-thphCCM (2), on polycrystalline gold substrates prepared by immersion of the surfaces in a solution of the molecules during 24 h. The functionalized surfaces were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Despite the fact that both molecules have the same composition and almost the same structure, these molecules exhibit different behavior on the gold surface, which can be explained by the different positions of the sulfur atoms in the terminal aromatic rings. In the case of molecule 1, the complete formation of a SAM can be observed after 24 h of immersion. In the case of molecule 2, the transition from flat-lying to upright configuration on the surface is still in process after 24 h of immersion. This is attributed to the fact that molecule 2 have the sulfur atoms more exposed than molecule 1.

  20. Formation of self-assembled monolayer of curcuminoid molecules on gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlanga, Isadora [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Etcheverry-Berríos, Álvaro; Mella, Andy; Jullian, Domingo [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Beaucheff 851, Santiago (Chile); Gómez, Victoria Alejandra [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria [ICREA (Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats), Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08018, Barcelona (Spain); CSIC-ICMAB (Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Fuenzalida, Victor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Flores, Marcos, E-mail: mflorescarra@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Thiophene curcuminoid molecules deposited on a gold surface by immersion. • Molecular dynamic studies of the molecular arrangement approaching the surface. • XPS and STM studies showing different arrangement of the molecules on the surface. • Molecular Interaction with surface depends on the sulfur position in thiophene rings. • Temporal evolution of the molecular arrangement on the surface. - Abstract: We investigated the formation of self-assembled monolayers of two thiophene curcuminoid molecules, 2-thphCCM (1) and 3-thphCCM (2), on polycrystalline gold substrates prepared by immersion of the surfaces in a solution of the molecules during 24 h. The functionalized surfaces were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Despite the fact that both molecules have the same composition and almost the same structure, these molecules exhibit different behavior on the gold surface, which can be explained by the different positions of the sulfur atoms in the terminal aromatic rings. In the case of molecule 1, the complete formation of a SAM can be observed after 24 h of immersion. In the case of molecule 2, the transition from flat-lying to upright configuration on the surface is still in process after 24 h of immersion. This is attributed to the fact that molecule 2 have the sulfur atoms more exposed than molecule 1.

  1. Laser Ultrasonic System for Surface Crack Visualization in Dissimilar Welds of Control Rod Drive Mechanism Assembly of Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Shil Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a J-groove dissimilar weld crack visualization system based on ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI technology. A full-scale control rod drive mechanism (CRDM assembly specimen was fabricated to verify the proposed system. An ultrasonic sensor was contacted at one point of the inner surface of the reactor vessel head part of the CRDM assembly. Q-switched laser beams were scanned to generate ultrasonic waves around the weld bead. The localization and sizing of the crack were possible by ultrasonic wave propagation imaging. Furthermore, ultrasonic spectral imaging unveiled frequency components of damage-induced waves, while wavelet-transformed ultrasonic propagation imaging enhanced damage visibility by generating a wave propagation video focused on the frequency component of the damage-induced waves. Dual-directional anomalous wave propagation imaging with adjacent wave subtraction was also developed to enhance the crack visibility regardless of crack orientation and wave propagation direction. In conclusion, the full-scale specimen test demonstrated that the multiple damage visualization tools are very effective in the visualization of J-groove dissimilar weld cracks.

  2. Controllable Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Zwitterionic PBI Towards Tunable Surface Wettability of the Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong; Lü, Baozhong; Cheng, Wenyu; Wu, Zhen; Wei, Jie; Yin, Meizhen

    2017-05-04

    Amphiphilic molecules have received wide attention as they possess both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties, and can form diverse nanostructures in selective solvents. Herein, we report an asymmetric amphiphilic zwitterionic perylene bisimide (AZP) with an octyl chain and a zwitterionic group on the opposite imide positions of perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride. The controllable nanostructures of AZP with tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface have been investigated through solvent-dependent amphiphilic self-assembly as confirmed by SEM, TEM, and contact angle measurements. The planar perylene core of AZP contributes to strong π-π stacking, while the amphiphilic balance of asymmetric AZP adjusts the self-assembly property. Additionally, due to intermolecular π-π stacking and solvent-solute interactions, AZP could self-assemble into hydrophilic microtubes in a polar solvent (acetone) and hydrophobic nanofibers in an apolar solvent (hexane). This facile method provides a new pathway for controlling the surface properties based on an asymmetric amphiphilic zwitterionic perylene bisimide. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Directed electroless growth of metal nanostructures on patterned self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garno, Jayne C; Zangmeister, Christopher D; Batteas, James D

    2007-07-03

    The directed placement of Cu nanostructures on surfaces has been studied using a combination of scanning probe lithography and electroless metal deposition onto nanopatterned SAMs of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (16-MHA) on Au. In situ studies using nanoscale molecular gradients reveal how controlling the areal density of the 16-MHA molecules dictates the nucleation and growth of the metal nanostructures. The influence of controlling pattern line spacing and tip path on pattern feature fidelity is also discussed.

  4. Surface Segregation during Directional Solidification of Ni-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, G.; Dong, H. B.; Green, N. R.; D'Souza, N.

    2008-02-01

    Some aspects pertaining to the increased microsegregation at the external casting surface during directional solidification of a typical Ni-base superalloy, CMSX 10N, are presented. Increased eutectic coverage was observed at the external surface along the solidification length. This eutectic appears as a thin segregated layer proud of the secondary dendrite arms preventing them from impinging onto the mold wall. The extent of surface eutectic coverage was represented as a fractional measure of the ingot perimeter. Possible mechanisms focusing on the following: (1) interaction between mold and metal, (2) inclination of primary dendrite, and (3) contraction of the dendrite network have been investigated in relation to the observed phenomenon. We deduce that the most likely explanation is associated with the contraction of the dendritic network, which qualitatively accounts both for the observed morphology and the increased eutectic fraction at the external surface of the casting.

  5. Hierarchical Composite Membranes with Robust Omniphobic Surface Using Layer-By-Layer Assembly Technique

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Yun Chul

    2018-01-17

    In this study, composite membranes were fabricated via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of negatively-charged silica aerogel (SiA) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H – Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (FTCS) on a polyvinylidene fluoride phase inversion membrane, and interconnecting them with positively-charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via electrostatic interaction. The results showed that the PDDA-SiA-FTCS coated membrane had significantly enhanced the membrane structure and properties. New trifluoromethyl and tetrafluoroethylene bonds appeared at the surface of the coated membrane, which led to lower surface free energy of the composite membrane. Additionally, the LBL membrane showed increased surface roughness. The improved structure and property gave the LBL membrane an omniphobic property, as indicated by its good wetting resistance. The membrane performed a stable air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) flux of 11.22 L/m2h with very high salt rejection using reverse osmosis brine from coal seam gas produced water as feed with the addition of up to 0.5 mM SDS solution. This performance was much better compared to those of the neat membrane. The present study suggests that the enhanced membrane properties with good omniphobicity via LBL assembly make the porous membranes suitable for long-term AGMD operation with stable permeation flux when treating challenging saline wastewater containing low surface tension organic contaminants.

  6. Surface characterization of sulfur and alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vericat, C; Vela, M E; Benitez, G A; Gago, J A Martin; Torrelles, X; Salvarezza, R C

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades surface science techniques have decisively contributed to our present knowledge of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on solid surfaces. These organic layers have been a challenge for surface scientists, in particular because of the soft nature of the organic material (which can be easily damaged by irradiation), the large number of atoms present in the molecules, and the complex physical chemistry involved in the self-assembly process. This challenge has been motivated by the appealing technological applications of SAMs that cover many fields of the emerging area of nanotechnology. Sulfur (S) is closely related to alkanethiols and can be used to understand basic aspects of the surface structure of SAMs. In this review we focus on the atomic/molecular structures of S-containing SAMs on Au(111). Particular emphasis is given to the substrate, adsorption sites, chemical state of the S-metal bond and also to the experimental and theoretical tools used to study these structures at the atomic or molecular levels. (topical review)

  7. Carboranedithiols: building blocks for self-assembled monolayers on copper surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baše, Tomáš; Bastl, Zdeněk; Havránek, Vladimír; Macháček, Jan; Langecker, Jens; Malina, Václav

    2012-08-28

    Two different positional isomers of 1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboranedithiols, 1,2-(HS)(2)-1,2-C(2)B(10)H(10) (1) and 9,12-(HS)(2)-1,2-C(2)B(10)H(10) (2), have been investigated as cluster building blocks for self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on copper surfaces. These two isomers represent a convenient system in which the attachment of SH groups at different positions on the skeleton affects their acidic character and thus also determines their reactivity with a copper surface. Isomer 1 exhibited etching of polycrystalline Cu films, and a detailed investigation of the experimental conditions showed that both the acidic character of SH groups and the presence of oxygen at the copper surface play crucial roles in how the surface reaction proceeds: whether toward a self-assembled monolayer or toward copper film etching. We found that each positional isomer requires completely different conditions for the preparation of a SAM on copper surfaces. Optimized conditions for the former isomer required the exposure of a freshly prepared Cu surface to vapor of 1 in vacuum, which avoided the presence of oxygen and moisture. Adsorption from a dichloromethane solution afforded a sparsely covered Cu(0) surface; isomer 1 effectively removes the surface copper(I) oxide, forming a soluble product, but apparently binds only weakly to the clean Cu(0) surface. In contrast, adsorption of the latter, less volatile isomer proceeded better from a dichloromethane solution than from the vapor phase. Isomer 2 was even able to densely cover the copper surface cleaned up by the dichloromethane solution of 1. Both isomers exhibited high capacity to remove oxygen atoms from the surface copper(I) oxide that forms immediately after the exposure of freshly prepared copper films to ambient atmosphere. Isomer 2 showed suppression of Cu film oxidation. A number of methods including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Rutherford back scattering (RBS), proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis

  8. Directed Self-Assembly of Epitaxial CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 Multiferroic Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    REPORT Directed Self-Assembly of Epitaxial CoFe 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: CoFe2O4 (CFO)? BiFeO3 (BFO) nanocomposites are an intriguing...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - CoFe2O4- BiFeO3 Multiferroic Nanocomposites Directed Self-Assembly of Epitaxial CoFe Report Title ABSTRACT CoFe2O4...CFO)? BiFeO3 (BFO) nanocomposites are an intriguing option for future memory and logic technologies due to the magnetoelectric properties of the system

  9. Directing neuronal cell growth on implant material surfaces by microstructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Uta; Fadeeva, Elena; Warnecke, Athanasia; Paasche, Gerrit; Müller, Peter; Chichkov, Boris; Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Günter

    2012-05-01

    For best hearing sensation, electrodes of auditory prosthesis must have an optimal electrical contact to the respective neuronal cells. To improve the electrode-nerve interface, microstructuring of implant surfaces could guide neuronal cells toward the electrode contact. To this end, femtosecond laser ablation was used to generate linear microgrooves on the two currently relevant cochlear implant materials, silicone elastomer and platinum. Silicone surfaces were structured by two different methods, either directly, by laser ablation or indirectly, by imprinting using laser-microstructured molds. The influence of surface structuring on neurite outgrowth was investigated utilizing a neuronal-like cell line and primary auditory neurons. The pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12 and primary spiral ganglion cells were cultured on microstructured auditory implant materials. The orientation of neurite outgrowth relative to the microgrooves was determined. Both cell types showed a preferred orientation in parallel to the microstructures on both, platinum and on molded silicone elastomer. Interestingly, microstructures generated by direct laser ablation of silicone did not influence the orientation of either cell type. This shows that differences in the manufacturing procedures can affect the ability of microstructured implant surfaces to guide the growth of neurites. This is of particular importance for clinical applications, since the molding technique represents a reproducible, economic, and commercially feasible manufacturing procedure for the microstructured silicone surfaces of medical implants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Influence of engineered surface on cell directionality and motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Qing Yuan; Pang, Stella W; Tong, Wing Yin; Shi, Peng; Lam, Yun Wah; Shi, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Control of cell migration is important in numerous key biological processes, and is implicated in pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis and inflammatory diseases. Many previous studies indicated that cell migration could be guided by micropatterns fabricated on cell culture surfaces. In this study, we designed a polydimethylsiloxane cell culture substrate with gratings punctuated by corners and ends, and studied its effects on the behavior of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. MC3T3-E1 cells elongated and aligned with the gratings, and the migration paths of the cells appeared to be guided by the grating pattern. Interestingly, more than 88% of the cells cultured on these patterns were observed to reverse their migration directions at least once during the 16 h examination period. Most of the reversal events occurred at the corners and the ends of the pattern, suggesting these localized topographical features induce an abrupt loss in directional persistence. Moreover, the cell speed was observed to increase temporarily right after each directional reversal. Focal adhesion complexes were more well-established in cells on the angular gratings than on flat surfaces, but the formation of filipodia appeared to be imbalanced at the corners and the ends, possibly leading to the loss of directional persistence. This study describes the first engineered cell culture surface that consistently induces changes in the directional persistence of adherent cells. This will provide an experimental model for the study of this phenomenon and a valuable platform to control the cell motility and directionality, which can be used for cell screening and selection. (paper)

  11. Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2006-01-01

    We present an experimental study of guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along the nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded in a polymer via excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) in a very broad wavelength range from 1000 to 1650 mn. For straight....... The transmission spectra of LR-SPP-based directional couplers are presented demonstrating an efficient (similar to 30 dB) separation of different telecom wavelength bands. Various possibilities for dynamic control of wavelength division/multiplexing with LRSPP-based directional couplers that utilize the thermo...

  12. Directed Growth of Virus Nanofilaments on a Superhydrophobic Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-06-17

    The evaporation of single droplets of colloidal tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanoparticles on a superhydrophobic surface with a hexagonal pillar-pattern results in the formation of coffee-ring type residues. We imaged surface features by optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies. Bulk features were probed by raster-scan X-ray nanodiffraction. At ∼100 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, the rim of the residue connects to neighboring pillars via fibrous extensions containing flow-aligned crystalline domains. At ∼1 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, nanofilaments of ¥80 nm diameter and ∼20 μm length are formed, extending normal to the residue-rim across a range of pillars. X-ray scattering is dominated by the nanofilament form-factor but some evidence for crystallinity has been obtained. The observation of sheets composed of stacks of self-assembled nanoparticles deposited on pillars suggests that the nanofilaments are drawn from a structured droplet interface. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  13. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroelectrochemistry of TTF-Modified Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Walter F; Kleinman, Samuel L; Basuray, Ashish N; Stoddart, J Fraser; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2011-05-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to monitor the response of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative on a gold film-over-nanosphere electrode. The electrochemical response observed was rationalized in terms of the interactions between TTF moieties as the oxidation state was changed. Electrochemical oxidation to form the monocation caused the absorbance of the TTF unit to coincide with both the laser excitation wavelength and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), resulting in surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS). The vibrational frequency changes that accompany electron transfer afford a high-contrast mechanism that can be used to determine the oxidation state of the TTF unit in an unambiguous manner.

  14. Adsorption behavior of DNA-wrapped carbon nanotubes on self-assembled monolayer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangmeister, Rebecca A; Maslar, James E; Opdahl, Aric; Tarlov, Michael J

    2007-05-22

    We have examined the adsorption of DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (DNA-SWNTs) on hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and charged surfaces of alkylthiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold. Our goal is to understand how DNA-SWNTs interact with surfaces of varying chemical functionality. These samples were characterized using reflection absorption FTIR (RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. We have found that DNA-SWNTs preferentially adsorb to positively charged amine-terminated SAMs and to bare gold surfaces versus hydrophobic methyl-terminated or negatively charged carboxylic acid-terminated SAMs. Examination of the adsorption on gold of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) of the same sequence used to wrap the SWNTs suggests that the DNA wrapping plays a role in the adsorption behavior of DNA-SWNTs.

  15. Nanotextured Si surfaces derived from block-copolymer self-assembly with superhydrophobic, superhydrophilic, or superamphiphobic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecka, Agnieszka; Li, Tao; Ndoni, Sokol

    2018-01-01

    , or high aspect ratio nano-hoodoo features (overhang profile structures) with a diameter below 100 nm. The surfaces are finally functionalized with either hydrophobic surface chemistry by self-assembly from the precursor perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS), or hydrophilic surface chemistry obtained...

  16. Template-directed self-assembly of dynamic covalent capsules with polar interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Albano; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Ballester, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    Chiral polyimine molecular capsules with polar interiors have been prepared through template covalent dynamic self-assembly. An aryl-extended tetraaldehyde calix[4]pyrrole scaffold was condensed with suitable diamines as linkers using templates for efficient self-assembly. The capsular complexes were characterized in solution, gas phase and the solid-state. Unprecedented transfer of asymmetry was observed from a chiral diamine linker to the resulting supramolecular capsular assembly.

  17. Surface-Engineered Nanocontainers Based on Molecular Self-Assembly and Their Release of Methenamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mixing of polymers and nanoparticles is opening pathways for engineering flexible composites that exhibit advantageous functional properties. To fabricate controllable assembling nanocomposites for efficiently encapsulating methenamine and releasing them on demand, we functionalized the surface of natural halloysite nanotubes (HNTs selectively with polymerizable gemini surfactant which has peculiar aggregation behavior, aiming at endowing the nanomaterials with self-assembly and stimulative responsiveness characteristics. The micromorphology, grafted components and functional groups were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The created nanocomposites presented various characteristics of methenamine release with differences in the surface composition. It is particularly worth mentioning that the controlled release was more efficient with the increase of geminized monomer proportion, which is reasonably attributed to the fact that the amphiphilic geminized moieties with positive charge and obvious hydrophobic interactions interact with the outer and inner surface in different ways through fabricating polymeric shell as release stoppers at nanotube ends and forming polymer brush into the nanotube lumen for guest immobilization. Meanwhile, the nanocomposites present temperature and salinity responsive characteristics for the release of methenamine. The combination of HNTs with conjugated functional polymers will open pathways for engineering flexible composites which are promising for application in controlled release fields.

  18. Inkjet printing for direct micropatterning of a superhydrophobic surface: Toward biomimetic fog harvesting surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces with hydrophilic micro-sized patterns is highly desirable, but a one-step, mask-free method to produce such surfaces has not previously been reported. We have developed a direct method to produce superhydrophilic micropatterns on superhydrophobic surfaces based on inkjet printing technology. This work was inspired by the efficient fog-harvesting behavior of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert. A mussel-inspired ink consisting of an optimized solution of dopamine was applied directly by inkjet printing to superhydrophobic surfaces. Stable Wenzel\\'s microdroplets of the dopamine solution with well-defined micropatterns were obtained on these surfaces. Superhydrophilic micropatterns with well-controlled dimensions were then readily achieved on the superhydrophobic surfaces by the formation of polydopamine via in situ polymerization. The micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces prepared by this inkjet printing method showed enhanced water collection efficiency compared with uniform superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces. This method can be used for the facile large-scale patterning of superhydrophobic surfaces with high precision and superior pattern stability and is therefore a key step toward patterning superhydrophobic surfaces for practical applications. This journal is

  19. Direct surface magnetometry with photoemission magnetic x-ray dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Schumann, F.O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Element specific surface magnetometry remains a central goal of synchrotron radiation based studies of nanomagnetic structures. One appealing possibility is the combination of x-ray absorption dichroism measurements and the theoretical framework provided by the {open_quotes}sum rules.{close_quotes} Unfortunately, sum rule analysis are hampered by several limitations including delocalization of the final state, multi-electronic phenomena and the presence of surface dipoles. An alternative experiment, Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism in Photoelectron Spectroscopy, holds out promise based upon its elemental specificity, surface sensitivity and high resolution. Computational simulations by Tamura et al. demonstrated the relationship between exchange and spin orbit splittings and experimental data of linear and circular dichroisms. Now the authors have developed an analytical framework which allows for the direct extraction of core level exchange splittings from circular and linear dichroic photoemission data. By extending a model initially proposed by Venus, it is possible to show a linear relation between normalized dichroism peaks in the experimental data and the underlying exchange splitting. Since it is reasonable to expect that exchange splittings and magnetic moments track together, this measurement thus becomes a powerful new tool for direct surface magnetometry, without recourse to time consuming and difficult spectral simulations. The theoretical derivation will be supported by high resolution linear and circular dichroism data collected at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the Advanced Light Source.

  20. Direct surface magnetometry with photoemission magnetic x-ray dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W.; Schumann, F.O.

    1997-01-01

    Element specific surface magnetometry remains a central goal of synchrotron radiation based studies of nanomagnetic structures. One appealing possibility is the combination of x-ray absorption dichroism measurements and the theoretical framework provided by the open-quotes sum rules.close quotes Unfortunately, sum rule analysis are hampered by several limitations including delocalization of the final state, multi-electronic phenomena and the presence of surface dipoles. An alternative experiment, Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism in Photoelectron Spectroscopy, holds out promise based upon its elemental specificity, surface sensitivity and high resolution. Computational simulations by Tamura et al. demonstrated the relationship between exchange and spin orbit splittings and experimental data of linear and circular dichroisms. Now the authors have developed an analytical framework which allows for the direct extraction of core level exchange splittings from circular and linear dichroic photoemission data. By extending a model initially proposed by Venus, it is possible to show a linear relation between normalized dichroism peaks in the experimental data and the underlying exchange splitting. Since it is reasonable to expect that exchange splittings and magnetic moments track together, this measurement thus becomes a powerful new tool for direct surface magnetometry, without recourse to time consuming and difficult spectral simulations. The theoretical derivation will be supported by high resolution linear and circular dichroism data collected at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the Advanced Light Source

  1. Self-assembled metallic nanoparticle template — a new approach of surface nanostructuring at nanometer scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taleb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the formation of silver and copper nanostructures on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG modified with self-assembled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs is demonstrated. Surface patterning with nanometer resolution was achieved. Different methods such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were used to illustrate a selective deposition of silver and copper on Au NPs. The mechanism of silver and copper ions reduction on Au NP with n-dodecanethiol coating is discussed.

  2. Self-assembly of bis(phthalocyaninato)terbium on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhitao; Rauschenbach, Stephan; Stepanow, Sebastian; Kern, Klaus; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets represent the smallest stable magnetic entities available to technology, with promising applications in data storage and quantum computation in sight. Therefore, an interface between devices and single-molecule magnets must be developed, for which the self-assembly behavior at surfaces is highly relevant. The molecular magnet bis(phthalocyaninato)terbium (TbPc 2 ) represents a molecular system with interesting magnetic properties. In order to fabricate low dimensional nanostructures based on TbPc 2 , the self-assembly behavior on Cu(100), Cu(111) and Au(111) substrates is studied in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). On Cu(100), TbPc 2 does not aggregate even at high coverage, which yields a good zero-dimensional system. On Cu(111), the TbPc 2 molecules self-assemble into ribbon-like islands with a high aspect ratio, or an isotropically growing phase, depending on the coverage. On Au(111), TbPc 2 molecules form two-dimensional domains from the initial growth stage and extend to highly ordered films, which cover entire terraces at high coverage. The molecular ordering of TbPc 2 can be understood based on the behavior of single Pc adlayers, taking into account the molecular double-decker structure. The freedom in the dihedral angle between top and bottom Pc ligands allows one to optimize the molecular ordering through a flexible conformation. (invited comment)

  3. Active Self-Assembled Spinners: dynamic crystals, transport and induced surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Kokot, Gasper

    Strongly interacting colloids driven out-of-equilibrium by an external periodic forcing often develop nontrivial collective dynamics. Active magnetic colloids proved to be excellent model experimental systems to explore emergent behavior and active (out-of-equilibrium) self-assembly phenomena. Ferromagnetic micro-particles, suspended at a liquid interface and energized by a rotational homogeneous alternating magnetic field applied along the supporting interface, spontaneously form ensembles of synchronized self-assembled spinners with well-defined characteristic length. The size and the torque of an individual self-assembled spinner are controlled by the frequency of the driving magnetic field. Experiments reveal a rich collective dynamics in large ensembles of synchronized magnetic spinners that spontaneously form dynamic spinner lattices at the interface in a certain range of the excitation parameters. Non-trivial dynamics inside of the formed spinner lattices is observed. Transport of passive cargo particles and structure of the underlying self-induced surface flows is analyzed. The research was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering.

  4. Modeling of water transport through the membrane electrode assembly for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Zhao, T. S.; Yang, W. W.

    In this work, a one-dimensional, isothermal two-phase mass transport model is developed to investigate the water transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The liquid (methanol-water solution) and gas (carbon dioxide gas, methanol vapor and water vapor) two-phase mass transport in the porous anode and cathode is formulated based on classical multiphase flow theory in porous media. In the anode and cathode catalyst layers, the simultaneous three-phase (liquid and vapor in pores as well as dissolved phase in the electrolyte) water transport is considered and the phase exchange of water is modeled with finite-rate interfacial exchanges between different phases. This model enables quantification of the water flux corresponding to each of the three water transport mechanisms through the membrane for DMFCs, such as diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and convection. Hence, with this model, the effects of MEA design parameters on water crossover and cell performance under various operating conditions can be numerically investigated.

  5. Final Report: Photo-Directed Molecular Assembly of Multifunctional Inorganic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.G. Potter, Jr.

    2010-10-15

    This final report details results, conclusions, and opportunities for future effort derived from the study. The work involved combining the molecular engineering of photoactive Ti-alkoxide systems and the optical excitation of hydrolysis and condensation reactions to influence the development of the metal-oxygen-metal network at the onset of material formation. Selective excitation of the heteroleptic alkoxides, coupled with control of alkoxide local chemical environment, enabled network connectivity to be influenced and formed the basis for direct deposition and patterning of Ti-oxide-based materials. The research provided new insights into the intrinsic photoresponse and assembly of these complex, alkoxide molecules. Using a suite of electronic, vibrational, and nuclear spectroscopic probes, coupled with quantum chemical computation, the excitation wavelength and fluence dependence of molecular photoresponse and the nature of subsequent hydrolysis and condensation processes were probed in pyridine-carbinol-based Ti-alkoxides with varied counter ligand groups. Several methods for the patterning of oxide material formation were demonstrated, including the integration of this photoprocessing approach with conventional, dip-coating methodologies.

  6. A Diaphanous-related formin links Ras signaling directly to actin assembly in macropinocytosis and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junemann, Alexander; Filić, Vedrana; Winterhoff, Moritz; Nordholz, Benjamin; Litschko, Christof; Schwellenbach, Helena; Stephan, Till; Weber, Igor; Faix, Jan

    2016-11-22

    Phagocytosis and macropinocytosis are Ras-regulated and actin-driven processes that depend on the dynamic rearrangements of the plasma membrane that protrudes and internalizes extracellular material by cup-shaped structures. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying actin assembly in large-scale endocytosis remain elusive. Here, we show that the Diaphanous-related formin G (ForG) from the professional phagocyte Dictyostelium discoideum localizes to endocytic cups. Biochemical analyses revealed that ForG is a rather weak nucleator but efficiently elongates actin filaments in the presence of profilin. Notably, genetic inactivation of ForG is associated with a strongly impaired endocytosis and a markedly diminished F-actin content at the base of the cups. By contrast, ablation of the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein-2/3) complex activator SCAR (suppressor of cAMP receptor) diminishes F-actin mainly at the cup rim, being consistent with its known localization. These data therefore suggest that ForG acts as an actin polymerase of Arp2/3-nucleated filaments to allow for efficient membrane expansion and engulfment of extracellular material. Finally, we show that ForG is directly regulated in large-scale endocytosis by RasB and RasG, which are highly related to the human proto-oncogene KRas.

  7. One-Step Assembly of Molecular Separation Membranes by Direct Atomizing Oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Ren; Shan, Linglong; Yan, Hao; Li, Jie; Ji, Shulan; Lin, Haiqing; Zhang, Guojun

    2017-02-01

    Polymeric membranes are important materials for efficient sieving of targeted components at the molecular level and have made significant advancement in many industrial applications such as biofuel production, water purification, fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide capture. Although their separation efficiencies have been widely investigated, lack of more efficient, greener, and lower-cost membrane fabrication mechanisms is still a major hurdle for mass production, because the conventional membrane-making process is always time-consuming, highly inefficient, and consumes a large amount of organic solvents. Herein we report a one-step assembly concept capable of directly processing low-viscosity oligomers into polymer-based molecular separation membranes in an ultrafast and green manner. This process was implemented by alternate atomizing-depositing of low-viscosity oligomers and reaction auxiliary agents onto a rotating support and followed by an ultrafast interfacial reaction under solvent-free conditions. Without the need for dissolution processing of polymer, solvent evaporation, and any post-treatments, the whole technological process could be accomplished within a few seconds/minutes, which is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than conventional solution-coating technologies. The universality of this facile approach has also been demonstrated by successfully producing various defect-free polymeric membranes and homodispersed nanohybrid membranes with excellent and stable performance for bioalcohol production and recovery of different trace organics from dilute solutions.

  8. Computational aspects of optical lithography extension by directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kafai; Liu, Chi-chun; Pitera, Jed; Dechene, Daniel J.; Schepis, Anthony; Abdallah, Jassem; Tsai, Hsinyu; Guillorn, Mike; Cheng, Joy; Doerk, Gregory; Tjio, Melia; Rettner, Charles; Odesanya, Olalekan; Ozlem, Melih; Lafferty, Neal

    2013-04-01

    EUV insertion timing for High Volume Manufacturing is still an uncertainty due to source power and EUV mask infrastructure limitations. Directed Self Assembly (DSA) processes offer the promise of providing alternative ways to extend optical lithography cost-effectively for use in the 10nm node and beyond. The goal of this paper is to look into the technical prospect of DSA technology, particularly in the computational and DFM area. We have developed a prototype computational patterning toolset in-house to enable an early Design -Technology Co-Optimization to study the feasibility of using DSA in patterning semiconductor devices and circuits. From this toolset we can identify the set of DSA specific design restrictions specific to a DSA process and plan to develop a novel full chip capable computational patterning solution with DSA. We discuss the DSA Computational Lithography (CL) infrastructure using the via and fin layers as examples. Early wafer data is collected from the DSA testmask that was built using these new toolsets. Finally we discuss the DSA ecosystem requirements for enabling DSA lithography and propose how EDA vendors can play a role in making DSA Lithography (DSAL) a full-chip viable technology for multiple process layers.

  9. Site-selective biofunctionalization of aluminum nitride surfaces using patterned organosilane self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Shun; Lee, Hong-Mao; Gwo, Shangjr

    2010-02-16

    Surface biochemical functionalization of group-III nitride semiconductors has recently attracted much interest because of their biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and long-term chemical stability under demanding physiochemical conditions for chemical and biological sensing. Among III-nitrides, aluminum nitride (AlN) and aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) are particularly important because they are often used as the sensing surfaces for sensors based on field-effect transistor or surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor structures. To demonstrate the possibility of site-selective biofunctionalization on AlN surfaces, we have fabricated two-dimensional antibody micropatterns on AlN surfaces by using patterned self-assembled monolayer (SAM) templates. Patterned SAM templates are composed of two types of organosilane molecules terminated with different functional groups (amino and methyl), which were fabricated on AlN/sapphire substrates by combining photolithography, lift-off process, and self-assembly technique. Because the patterned SAM templates have different surface properties on the same surface, clear imaging contrast of SAM micropatterns can be observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) operating at a low accelerating voltage in the range of 0.5-1.5 kV. Furthermore, the contrast in surface potential of the binary SAM microstructures was confirmed by selective adsorption of negatively charged colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The immobilization of AuNPs was limited on the positively charged amino-terminated regions, while they were scarcely found on the surface regions terminated by methyl groups. In this work, selective immobilization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) antibodies was demonstrated by the specific protein binding of enhanced GFP (EGFP) labeling. The observed strong fluorescent signal from antibody functionalized regions on the SAM-patterned AlN surface indicates the retained biological activity of specific molecular recognition

  10. Selective Binding, Self-Assembly and Nanopatterning of the Creutz-Taube Ion on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Hang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface attachment properties of the Creutz-Taube ion, i.e., [(NH35Ru(pyrazineRu(NH35]5+, on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic types of surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results indicated that the Creutz-Taube ions only bound to hydrophilic surfaces, such as SiO2 and –OH terminated organic SAMs on gold substrates. No attachment of the ions on hydrophobic surfaces such as –CH3 terminated organic SAMs and poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA thin films covered gold or SiO2 substrates was observed. Further ellipsometric, atomic force microscopy (AFM and time-dependent XPS studies suggested that the attached cations could form an inorganic analog of the self-assembled monolayer on SiO2 substrate with a “lying-down” orientation. The strong electrostatic interaction between the highly charged cations and the anionic SiO2 surface was believed to account for these observations. Based on its selective binding property, patterning of wide (~200 nm and narrow (~35 nm lines of the Creutz-Taube ions on SiO2 surface were demonstrated through PMMA electron resist masks written by electron beam lithography (EBL.

  11. Towards neat methanol operation of direct methanol fuel cells: a novel self-assembled proton exchange membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cai, Weiwei; Ma, Liying; Zhang, Yunfeng; Chen, Zhangxian; Cheng, Hansong

    2015-04-18

    We report here a novel proton exchange membrane with remarkably high methanol-permeation resistivity and excellent proton conductivity enabled by carefully designed self-assembled ionic conductive channels. A direct methanol fuel cell utilizing the membrane performs well with a 20 M methanol solution, very close to the concentration of neat methanol.

  12. Directed self-assembly of colloidal dumbbells with an electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Johnson, P.M.; van Kats, C.M.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the assembly of colloidal particles with the shape of diatomic molecules (“dumbbells”) into crystals that we study with confocal microscopy. The literature on the preparation of nonspherical colloidal particles has grown steadily. Assembly of these particles into regular

  13. Directed self-assembly of nanoparticle array: A single electron device platform to make novel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason Kee Yang

    The biggest attraction of building nanometer structures is the emergence of novel properties and phenomena at these length scales. In the discipline of electronics particularly, nanoscale bridges the gap between the microscopic quantum world to the macroscopic classical world. The bridge can be tailored to effectively affect the material properties. One of the well-known phenomena that is altered at the nanoscale is the electron transport through a metal, i.e. the Ohm's law. As the size of the metal particle reduces to nanometer, Ohm's law breaks down due to trapping of a single electron charge, i.e. local charging, that prohibits the subsequent steam of electrons to pass through. This phenomenon is referred to as the Coulomb blockade, where the current is blocked below a threshold bias, VT. However, to observe a robust VT, the system has to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Here, fabrication and construction of a nano-system using directed self-assembled network of 1D necklace of 10 nm Au particles are described, which exhibits a robust single electron effect with a record high VT of 7.5 V at room temperature and a subsequent current, I rise as ( V/VT -- 1)ζ, where ζ is a critical constant, usually around 2. These physical parameters can be precisely tuned by tailoring the dimension and topology of the ensemble. The finding is important as nanoparticle based Single Electron Devices (SEDs) have become of great interest due to their orders of magnitude high sensitivity to gating. For over six decades of research on SEDs, it is clear that V T > 2 V at room temperature is required to make a robust device to eliminate the omnipresent "quantum noise" in these systems. Our system has not only shown a room temperature VT of well above 2 V but also its easy integrability with microelectronics circuits. Detailed scientific studies have been performed on the formation and structure of necklace array to understand the assembly process. Subsequent modification of the

  14. Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Liang, Yunchang; Schneider, Oliver; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2017-09-01

    The activity of heterogeneous catalysts—which are involved in some 80 per cent of processes in the chemical and energy industries—is determined by the electronic structure of specific surface sites that offer optimal binding of reaction intermediates. Directly identifying and monitoring these sites during a reaction should therefore provide insight that might aid the targeted development of heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts (those that participate in electrochemical reactions) for practical applications. The invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the electrochemical STM promised to deliver such imaging capabilities, and both have indeed contributed greatly to our atomistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. But although the STM has been used to probe and initiate surface reactions, and has even enabled local measurements of reactivity in some systems, it is not generally thought to be suited to the direct identification of catalytically active surface sites under reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate, however, that common STMs can readily map the catalytic activity of surfaces with high spatial resolution: we show that by monitoring relative changes in the tunnelling current noise, active sites can be distinguished in an almost quantitative fashion according to their ability to catalyse the hydrogen-evolution reaction or the oxygen-reduction reaction. These data allow us to evaluate directly the importance and relative contribution to overall catalyst activity of different defects and sites at the boundaries between two materials. With its ability to deliver such information and its ready applicability to different systems, we anticipate that our method will aid the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  15. Sub-5 nm Patterning by Directed Self-Assembly of Oligo(Dimethylsiloxane) Liquid Crystal Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickmans, Koen; Murphy, Jeffrey N; de Waal, Bas; Leclère, Philippe; Doise, Jan; Gronheid, Roel; Broer, Dick J; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2016-12-01

    Highly ordered nanopatterns are obtained at sub-5 nm periodicities by the graphoepitaxial directed self-assembly of monodisperse, oligo(dimethylsiloxane) liquid crystals. These hybrid organic/inorganic liquid crystals are of high interest for nanopatterning applications due to the combination of their ultrasmall feature sizes and their ability to be directed into highly ordered domains without additional annealing. © 2016 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Surface-assisted DNA self-assembly: An enzyme-free strategy towards formation of branched DNA lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanjadeo, Madhabi M; Nayak, Ashok K; Subudhi, Umakanta

    2017-04-01

    DNA based self-assembled nanostructures and DNA origami has proven useful for organizing nanomaterials with firm precision. However, for advanced applications like nanoelectronics and photonics, large-scale organization of self-assembled branched DNA (bDNA) into periodic lattices is desired. In this communication for the first time we report a facile method of self-assembly of Y-shaped bDNA nanostructures on the cationic surface of Aluminum (Al) foil to prepare periodic two dimensional (2D) bDNA lattice. Particularly those Y-shaped bDNA structures having smaller overhangs and unable to self-assemble in solution, they are easily assembled on the surface of Al foil in the absence of ligase. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis shows homogenous distribution of two-dimensional bDNA lattices across the Al foil. When the assembled bDNA structures were recovered from the Al foil and electrophoresed in nPAGE only higher order polymeric bDNA structures were observed without a trace of monomeric structures which confirms the stability and high yield of the bDNA lattices. Therefore, this enzyme-free economic and efficient strategy for developing bDNA lattices can be utilized in assembling various nanomaterials for functional molecular components towards development of DNA based self-assembled nanodevices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermodynamics and structure of liquid surfaces investigated directly with surface analytical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Gunther [Flinders Univ., Adelaide, SA (Australia). Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology; Morgner, Harald [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Wilhelm Ostwald Inst. for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

    2017-06-15

    Measuring directly the composition, the distribution of constituents as function of the depth and the orientation of molecules at liquid surfaces is essential for determining physicochemical properties of liquid surfaces. While the experimental tools that have been developed for analyzing solid surfaces can in principal be applied to liquid surfaces, it turned out that they had to be adjusted to the particular challenges imposed by liquid samples, e.g. by the unavoidable vapor pressure and by the mobility of the constituting atoms/molecules. In the present work it is shown, how electron spectroscopy and ion scattering spectroscopy have been used for analyzing liquid surfaces. The emphasis of this review is on using the structural information gained for determining the physicochemical properties of liquid surfaces. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from magneto-metal nanoparticle assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hua; Lai, Yuming; Niu, Dongzi; Sun, Shuqing

    2013-02-06

    Binary nanoparticles composed of a superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) core and an Au nanoshell (Fe(3)O(4)@Au) were prepared via a simple co-precipitation method followed by seed-mediated growth process. The nanoparticles exhibited functions of both fast magnetic response and local surface plasmon resonance. The Fe(3)O(4)@Au nanoparticles were used as probes for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using p-thiocresol (p-TC) as reporter molecule. With the ability of analyte capture and concentration magnetically, the Fe(3)O(4)@Au nanoparticles showed significant SERS properties with excellent reproducibility. Under non-optimized conditions, detection limit as low as 4.55 pM of analyte can be reached using Fe(3)O(4)@Au nanoparticle assemblies, which excel remarkably the cases with traditional Au nanoprobes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface Modification of Dental Titanium Implant by Layer-by-Layer Electrostatic Self-Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Shi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In vivo implants that are composed of titanium and titanium alloys as raw materials are widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. In the field of dental medicine, titanium is considered to be an ideal dental implant material. Good osseointegration and soft tissue closure are the foundation for the success of dental implants. Therefore, the enhancement of the osseointegration and antibacterial abilities of titanium and its alloys has been the focus of much research. With its many advantages, layer-by-layer (LbL assembly is a self-assembly technique that is used to develop multilayer films based on complementary interactions between differently charged polyelectrolytes. The LbL approach provides new methods and applications for the surface modification of dental titanium implant. In this review, the application of the LbL technique to surface modification of titanium including promoting osteogenesis and osseointegration, promoting the formation and healing of soft tissues, improving the antibacterial properties of titanium implant, achieving local drug delivery and sustained release is summarized.

  20. Bilayer self-assembly on a hydrophilic, deterministically nano-patterned surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Jung, Seung-Yong [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Alemseghed, Mussie G [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the in-situ, microscopic architecture of a self-assembled bilayer at the interface between a regularly nano-patterned surface and an aqueous sub-phase using neutron reflectometry. The substrate is patterned with a rectangular array of nano-scaled holes. Because of the high quality of the pattern, using neutron reflectometry, we are able to map the surface-normal density distribution of the patterned silicon, the penetration of water into the pattern, and the distribution of a deposited film inside and outside of the etched holes. In this study, 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) single bilayers were deposited on the hydrophilic patterned surface. For bilayers deposited either by vesicle fusion (VF) or by the Langmuir Schaefer (L-S) technique, the most consistent model found to fit the data shows that the lipids form bilayer coatings on top of the substrate as well as the bottoms of the holes in an essentially conformal fashion. However, while there is a single bilayer on the unetched silicon surface, the lipids coating the bottoms of the holes form a complex bimodal structure consistent with a rough surface produced by the etching process. This study provides insight into film transfer both outside and inside regular nano-patterned features.

  1. Directed self-assembly of epitaxial CoFe2O(4)-BiFeO3 multiferroic nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comes, Ryan; Liu, Hongxue; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Kasica, Richard; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A

    2012-05-09

    CoFe(2)O(4) (CFO)-BiFeO(3) (BFO) nanocomposites are an intriguing option for future memory and logic technologies due to the magnetoelectric properties of the system. However, these nanocomposites form with CFO pillars randomly located within a BFO matrix, making implementation in devices difficult. To overcome this, we present a technique to produce patterned nanocomposites through self-assembly. CFO islands are patterned on Nb-doped SrTiO(3) to direct the self-assembly of epitaxial CFO-BFO nanocomposites, producing square arrays of CFO pillars.

  2. Topographic characterization of the self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Wu, Jiafeng; Guo, Yan; Gong, Coucong; Song, Yonghai

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanocomposites of chitosan film were prepared by simple self-assembly from solvent media. • Chitosan molecules assembled on mica surface of nanoparticles, fibril and membrane with varied chitosan concentration. • Chitosan molecules assembled with different nanostructure under varied pH. • The optimum drying temperature for forming chitosan membrane is about 65 °C. - Abstract: In this work, the self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface formed from various solvents were investigated by using atomic force microscopy. The effects of various factors on the self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface, including solvents, the concentration of chitosan, the pH of solution and the drying temperature, were explored in detail. Our experimental data resulted in the conclusion that chitosan molecules could self-assemble on mica surface to form various nanostructures such as nanoparticles, fibril and film. Nanoparticles were always formed on mica surface from CCl 4 , C 6 H 6 , CH 2 Cl 2 solution, fibril preferred to form on mica surface from CH 3 CH 2 OH and CH 3 OH solution and the optimal solvent to form film was found to be CH 3 CN. Low concentration, pH and temperature were helpful for the formation of nanoparticles, medium concentration, pH and temperature resulted in fibril and high concentration, pH and temperature were often beneficial to forming chitosan films. The study of self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface would provide new insight into the development of chitosan-based load-bearing materials.

  3. Direct surface PEGylation of nanodiamond via RAFT polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yingge [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, Meiying [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Ke [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Hongye; Wan, Qing [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Tao, Lei [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fu, Lihua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we describe an efficient, practical and novel method to modify ND via direct immobilization of chain transfer agent for RAFT polymerization. - Highlights: • Surface PEGylation of ND via RAFT polymerization. • ND with high water dispersibility and excellent biocompatibility. • Controlled living polymerization. - Abstract: Nanodiamond (ND) is a novel class of carbon nanomaterials, which has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications because of its small size, high surface area and excellent biocompatibility. However, the biomedical applications of unmodified ND are still largely restricted because of their poor dispersibility in both aqueous and organic medium. In this work, we reported a novel strategy for the surface modification of ND via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. For preparation of the PEGylated ND (pPEGMA-ND), chain transfer agent (CTA) was immobilized onto ND through reaction between the hydroxyl group of ND and the carboxyl group of CTA, which was used as the initiator for surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. The successful preparation of pPEGMA-ND was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis in detail. Results demonstrated that pPEGMA-ND exhibited enhanced water dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility, making it promising for biomedical applications.

  4. Directed self-assembly lithography using coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Yuriko; Kasahara, Yusuke; Sato, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kubota, Hitoshi; Minegishi, Shinya; Miyagi, Ken; Kanai, Hideki; Kodera, Katsuyoshi; Kihara, Naoko; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Nomura, Satoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    In this study, half-pitch (HP) 15 nm line-and-space (L/S) metal wires were successfully fabricated and fully integrated on a 300 mm wafer by applying directed self-assembly (DSA) lithography and pattern transfer for semiconductor device manufacturing. In order to evaluate process performances of DSA, we developed a simple sub-15 nm L/S patterning process using polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) lamellar block copolymer (BCP), which utilizes trimming resist and shallow etching spin-on-glass (SOG) as pinning guide[1]-[4]. From the results of defect inspection after SOG etch using Electron Beam (EB) inspection system, defects were classified as typical DSA defects or defects relating to DSA pattern transfer. From the evaluation of DSA L/S pattern Critical Dimension (CD), roughness and local placement error using CD-SEM, it is considered that isolated PS lines are placed at the centerline between guides and that placement of paired PS lines depends on the guide width. The control of the guide resist CD is the key to local placement error and the paired lines adjacent to the guide shifted toward the outside (0.5 nm) along the centerline of the isolated line after SOG etch. We demonstrated fabrication of HP 15 nm metal wires in trenches formed by the DSA process with reactive ion etching (RIE), followed by metal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). By SEM observation of alignment errors between the trenches and connect spaces, overlay shift patterns (-4 nm) in guide lithography mask were fabricated without intra-wafer alignment errors.

  5. Direct plasma NOx reduction using single surface dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroushawi, Feisal; Stamate, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    NOx reduction using direct atmospheric barrier discharge in air-NO mixture at different voltages and flow rates is inversigated. Reduction rate of 80% is achieved at 3.18 W/cm2 power density and gas mixture of 20 slm air and 0.006 slm NO. The ozone for NO reduction is produced by a honeycomb...... structured DBD with a total surface of 12.56 cm2. The reduction process is investigated by FTIR spectroscopy, chemiluminsecence, mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy....

  6. Directed self-assembly of colloidal dumbbells with an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirörs, Ahmet Faik; Johnson, Patrick M; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout

    2010-09-21

    We demonstrate the assembly of colloidal particles with the shape of diatomic molecules ("dumbbells") into crystals that we study with confocal microscopy. The literature on the preparation of nonspherical colloidal particles has grown steadily. Assembly of these particles into regular three-dimensional crystalline lattices, however, is rarely, if ever, achieved and has not yet been studied quantitatively in 3D real space. We find that, by application of an electric field, such particles assemble quite readily. By varying the particle aspect ratio, range of interactions, and electric field strength, we find several different crystal structures of which three have never before been observed. Moreover, the electric field can be used to switch between different structures and manipulate/switch the photonic properties. Moreover, our work sheds light on fundamental questions related to the self-assembly of nonspherical particles.

  7. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  8. Molecular self-assembly in substituted alanine derivatives: XRD, Hirshfeld surfaces and DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, Periasamy; Srinivasan, Navaneethakrishnan; Sivaraman, Gandhi; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul; Rosli, Mohd Mustaqim; Krishnakumar, Rajaputi Venkatraman

    2014-06-01

    The molecular assemblage in the crystal structures of three modified chiral amino acids, two of which are isomeric D- and L-pairs boc-L-benzothienylalanine (BLA), boc-D-benzothienylalanine (BDA) and the other boc-D-naphthylalanine (NDA) differing from this pair very slightly in the chemical modification introduced, is accurately described. The aggregation of amino acid molecules is similar in all the crystals and may be described as a twisted double helical ladder in which two complementary long helical chains formed through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are interconnected through the characteristic head-to-tail N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Thus the molecular aggregation enabled through classical hydrogen bonds may be regarded as a mimic of the characteristic double helical structure of DNA. Also, precise structural information involving these amino acid molecules with lower symmetry exhibiting higher trigonal symmetry in their self-assembly is expected to throw light on the nature and strength of intermolecular interactions and their role in self-assembly of molecular aggregates, which are crucial in developing new or at least supplement existing crystal engineering strategies. Single crystal X-ray analysis and their electronic structures were calculated at the DFT level with a detailed analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitating a comparison of intermolecular interactions in building different supramolecular architectures.

  9. Directionally oriented LB films of an OPE derivative: assembly, characterization, and electrical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Luz M; Martín, Santiago; Pera, Gorka; Schauer, Phil A; Kay, Nicola J; López, María Carmen; Low, Paul J; Nichols, Richard J; Cea, Pilar

    2011-04-05

    Langmuir films have been fabricated from 4-[4'-(4''-thioacetyl-phenyleneethynylene)-phenyleneethynylene]-aniline (NOPES) after cleavage of the thioacetyl protecting group. Characterization by surface pressure vs area per molecule isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy reveal the formation of a high quality monolayer at the air-water interface. One layer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films were readily fabricated by the transfer of the NOPES Langmuir film onto solid substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) experiments conclusively demonstrate the formation of one layer LB films in which the functional group associated with binding to the substrate can be tailored by the film transfer conditions. Using LB methods this molecule could be transferred to gold samples with either the amine or thiol group attached to the gold surface. The amine group is directly attached to the gold substrate (Au-NH(2)-OPE-SH) when the substrate is initially immersed in the subphase and withdrawn during the transfer process; in contrast, monomolecular films in which the thiolate group is attached to the gold substrate (Au-S-OPE-NH(2)) are obtained when the substrate is initially out of the subphase and immersed during the transfer process. The morphology of these films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing the formation of homogeneous layers. Film homogeneity was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, which revealed a large passivation of gold electrodes covered by NOPES monolayers. Electrical properties for both polar orientated junctions have been investigated by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), with both orientations featuring a nonrectifying behavior.

  10. Chiral nematic self-assembly of minimally surface damaged chitin nanofibrils and its load bearing functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dongyeop X.; Cha, Yun Jeong; Nguyen, Hoang-Linh; Je, Hwa Heon; Jho, Yong Seok; Hwang, Dong Soo; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2016-03-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomaterials in nature, with 1010 tons produced annually as hierarchically organized nanofibril fillers to reinforce the exoskeletons of arthropods. This green and cheap biomaterial has attracted great attention due to its potential application to reinforce biomedical materials. Despite that, its practical use is limited since the extraction of chitin nanofibrils requires surface modification involving harsh chemical treatments, leading to difficulties in reproducing their natural prototypal hierarchical structure, i.e. chiral nematic phase. Here, we develop a chemical etching-free approach using calcium ions, called “natural way”, to disintegrate the chitin nanofibrils while keeping the essential moiety for the self-assembly, ultimately resulting in the reproduction of chitin’s natural chiral structure in a polymeric matrix. This chiral chitin nanostructure exceptionally toughens the composite. Our resultant chiral nematic phase of chitin materials can contribute to the understanding and use of the reinforcing strategy in nature.

  11. Nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan assembled layer-by-layer: An antibacterial surface for Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Nascimento, Vicente F; Murillo, Duber; Taketa, Thiago B; Sahoo, Prasana; de Souza, Alessandra A; Beppu, Marisa M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-01-20

    In this work, nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan (HA/CHI) assembled layer by layer were synthesized; their application as a potential antimicrobial material was demonstrated for the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium, here used as a model. For the synthesis, the influence of pH and ionic strength of these natural polymer stem-solutions on final characteristics of the HA/CHI nanofilms was studied in detail. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using widefield fluorescence microscopy. These results were correlated with the chemical properties of the nanofilms, studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as with their morphology and surface properties characterized using SEM and AFM. The present findings can be extended to design and optimize HA/CHI nanofilms with enhanced antimicrobial behavior for other type of phytopathogenic gram-negative bacteria species, such as Xanthomonas citri, Xanthomas campestri and Ralstonia solanacearum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Work function shifts of a zinc oxide surface upon deposition of self-assembled monolayers: a theoretical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, D; Van Regemorter, T; Beljonne, D; Cornil, J

    2014-10-14

    We have investigated at the theoretical Density Functional Theory level the way the work function of zinc oxide layers is affected upon deposition of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). 4-tert-Butylpyridine (4TBP) and various benzoic acids (BA) were adsorbed on the apolar (101[combining macron]0) ZnO and used as probe systems to assess the influence of several molecular parameters. For the benzoid acids, we have investigated the impact of changing the nature of the terminal group (H, CN, OCH3) and the binding mode of the carboxylic acid (monodentate versus bidentate) on the apolar (101[combining macron]0) surface. For each system, we have quantified the contribution from the molecular core and the anchoring group as well as of the degree of surface reconstruction on the work function shift. For the benzoic acids, the structural reorganization of the surface induces a negative shift of the work function by about 0.3 ± 0.15 eV depending on the nature of the binding mode, irrespective of the nature of the terminal function. The bond-dipole potential strongly contributes to the modification of the work function, with values in the range +1.2 to +2.0 eV. In the case of 4TBP, we further characterized the influence of the degree of coverage and of co-adsorbed species (H, OH, and water molecules) on the ZnO/SAM electronic properties as well as the influence of the ZnO surface polarity by considering several models of the polar (0001) ZnO surface. The introduction of water molecules in the (un)dissociated form at full coverage on the non-polar surface only reduces the work function by 0.3-0.4 eV compared to a reference system without co-adsorbed species. Regarding the polar surface, the work function is also significantly reduced upon deposition of a single 4BTP molecule (from -1.44 eV to -1.73 eV for our model structures), with a shift similar in direction and magnitude compared to the non-polar surfaces.

  13. Direct observation of a surface resonance state and surface band inversion control in black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, N.; Sanna, A.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Petaccia, L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Profeta, G.; Grüneis, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report a Cs-doping-induced band inversion and the direct observation of a surface resonance state with an elliptical Fermi surface in black phosphorus (BP) using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. By selectively inducing a higher electron concentration (1.7 ×1014cm-2 ) in the topmost layer, the changes in the Coulomb potential are sufficiently large to cause surface band inversion between the parabolic valence band of BP and a parabolic surface state around the Γ point of the BP Brillouin zone. Tight-binding calculations reveal that band gap openings at the crossing points in the two high-symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone require out-of-plane hopping and breaking of the glide mirror symmetry. Ab initio calculations are in very good agreement with the experiment if a stacking fault on the BP surface is taken into account. The demonstrated level of control over the band structure suggests the potential application of few-layer phosphorene in topological field-effect transistors.

  14. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan, E-mail: ajgu@suda.edu.cn; Liang, Guozheng, E-mail: lgzheng@suda.edu.cn

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A green technology is setup to build unique surface structure on aramid fiber (AF). • The method is layer-by-layer self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and layered double hydroxide. • The surface of AF is adjustable by controlling the self-assembly cycle number. • New AF has excellent surface activity, anti-UV, thermal and mechanical properties. • The origin behind attractive performances of new AFs was intensively studied. - Abstract: Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91–95%, about 29–14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and

  15. A three-layer model of self-assembly induced surface-energy variation experimentally extracted by using nanomechanically sensitive cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Guomin; Li Xinxin

    2011-01-01

    This research is aimed at elucidating surface-energy (or interfacial energy) variation during the process of molecule-layer self-assembly on a solid surface. A quasi-quantitative plotting model is proposed and established to distinguish the surface-energy variation contributed by the three characteristic layers of a thiol-on-gold self-assembled monolayer (SAM), namely the assembly-medium correlative gold/head-group layer, the chain/chain interaction layer and the tail/medium layer, respectively. The data for building the model are experimentally extracted from a set of correlative thiol self-assemblies in different media. The variation in surface-energy during self-assembly is obtained by in situ recording of the self-assembly induced nanomechanical surface-stress using integrated micro-cantilever sensors. Based on the correlative self-assembly experiment, and by using the nanomechanically sensitive self-sensing cantilevers to monitor the self-assembly induced surface-stressin situ, the experimentally extracted separate contributions of the three layers to the overall surface-energy change aid a comprehensive understanding of the self-assembly mechanism. Moreover, the quasi-quantitative modeling method is helpful for optimal design, molecule synthesis and performance evaluation of molecule self-assembly for application-specific surface functionalization.

  16. Porphyrins with directly meso-attached disaccharide moieties: Synthesis, self-assembly and cellular study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malachowska, M.; Sperduto, C.; Darmostuk, M.; Monti, D.; Venanzi, M.; Mancini, G.; D'Acunto, C.W.; Králová, Jarmila; Ruml, T.; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Drasar, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 7 (2016), s. 773-784 ISSN 1088-4246 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : derivatives * aggregation * steroids * sucrose * porphyrinoids * carbohydrates * self-assembly * cellular localisation * liposomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.043, year: 2016

  17. 75 FR 34390 - Airworthiness Directives; McCauley Propeller Systems Five-Blade Propeller Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...-since-new (TSN). This proposed AD results from a report of a crack in a propeller hub. We are proposing... a propeller assembly removed from a Jetstream 41 airplane. The cracked hub has 7,807 hours TSN. The life limit of the hub is 18,000 hours TSN. The crack was found on the rear of the hub, on the propeller...

  18. Template-Directed Self-Assembly of Alkanethiol Monolayers: Selective Growth on Preexisting Monolayer Edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, R.B.A.; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Reinhoudt, David; Poelsema, Bene

    2007-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers were investigated for their suitability as two-dimensional scaffolds for the selective growth of alkanethiol edge structures. Heterostructures with chemical contrast could be grown, whose dimensions were governed by both the initial pattern sizes and the process time.

  19. Surface characterization and direct bioelectrocatalysis of multicopper oxidases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivnitski, Dmitri M.; Khripin, Constantine; Luckarift, Heather R.; Johnson, Glenn R.; Atanassov, Plamen

    2010-01-01

    Multicopper oxidases (MCO) have been extensively studied as oxygen reduction catalysts for cathodic reactions in biofuel cells. Theoretically, direct electron transfer between an enzyme and electrode offers optimal energy conversion efficiency providing that the enzyme/electrode interface can be engineered to establish efficient electrical communication. In this study, the direct bioelectrocatalysis of three MCO (Laccase from Trametes versicolor, bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from the fungi Myrothecium verrucaria and ascorbate oxidase (AOx) from Cucurbita sp.) was investigated and compared as oxygen reduction catalysts. Protein film voltammetry and electrochemical characterization of the MCO electrodes showed that DET had been successfully established in all cases. Atomic force microscopy imaging and force measurements indicated that enzyme was immobilized as a monolayer on the electrode surface. Evidence for three clearly separated anodic and cathodic redox events related to the Type 1 (T1) and the trinculear copper centers (T2, T3) of various MCO was observed. The redox potential of the T1 center was strongly modulated by physiological factors including pH, anaerobic and aerobic conditions and the presence of inhibitors.

  20. Surface characterization and direct bioelectrocatalysis of multicopper oxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivnitski, Dmitri M., E-mail: ivnitski@unm.ed [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States)] [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXQL, Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 (United States); Khripin, Constantine [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States); Luckarift, Heather R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXQL, Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 (United States)] [Universal Technology Corporation, 1270 N. Fairfield Road, Dayton, OH 45432 (United States); Johnson, Glenn R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXQL, Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 (United States); Atanassov, Plamen, E-mail: plamen@unm.ed [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Multicopper oxidases (MCO) have been extensively studied as oxygen reduction catalysts for cathodic reactions in biofuel cells. Theoretically, direct electron transfer between an enzyme and electrode offers optimal energy conversion efficiency providing that the enzyme/electrode interface can be engineered to establish efficient electrical communication. In this study, the direct bioelectrocatalysis of three MCO (Laccase from Trametes versicolor, bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from the fungi Myrothecium verrucaria and ascorbate oxidase (AOx) from Cucurbita sp.) was investigated and compared as oxygen reduction catalysts. Protein film voltammetry and electrochemical characterization of the MCO electrodes showed that DET had been successfully established in all cases. Atomic force microscopy imaging and force measurements indicated that enzyme was immobilized as a monolayer on the electrode surface. Evidence for three clearly separated anodic and cathodic redox events related to the Type 1 (T1) and the trinculear copper centers (T2, T3) of various MCO was observed. The redox potential of the T1 center was strongly modulated by physiological factors including pH, anaerobic and aerobic conditions and the presence of inhibitors.

  1. Computer-aided design of nanostructures from self- and directed-assembly of soft matter building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dac

    2011-12-01

    Functional materials that are active at nanometer scales and adaptive to environment have been highly desirable for a huge array of novel applications ranging from photonics, sensing, fuel cells, smart materials to drug delivery and miniature robots. These bio-inspired features imply that the underlying structure of this type of materials should possess a well-defined ordering as well as the ability to reconfigure in response to a given external stimulus such as temperature, electric field, pH or light. In this thesis, we employ computer simulation as a design tool, demonstrating that various ordered and reconfigurable structures can be obtained from the self- and directed-assembly of soft matter nano-building blocks such as nanoparticles, polymer-tethered nanoparticles and colloidal particles. We show that, besides thermodynamic parameters, the self-assembly of these building blocks is governed by nanoparticle geometry, the number and attachment location of tethers, solvent selectivity, balance between attractive and repulsive forces, nanoparticle size polydispersity, and field strength. We demonstrate that higher-order nanostructures, i.e. those for which the correlation length is much greater than the length scale of individual assembling building blocks, can be hierarchically assembled. For instance, bilayer sheets formed by laterally tethered rods fold into spiral scrolls and helical structures, which are able to adopt different morphologies depending on the environmental condition. We find that a square grid structure formed by laterally tethered nanorods can be transformed into a bilayer sheet structure, and vice versa, upon shortening, or lengthening, the rod segments, respectively. From these inspiring results, we propose a general scheme by which shape-shifting particles are employed to induce the reconfiguration of pre-assembled structures. Finally, we investigate the role of an external field in assisting the formation of assembled structures that would

  2. Directed assembly of optoelectronically active alkyl-π-conjugated molecules by adding n-alkanes or π-conjugated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollamby, Martin J.; Karny, Maciej; Bomans, Paul H. H.; Sommerdjik, Nico A. J. M.; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Grillo, Isabelle; Pauw, Brian R.; Brown, Paul; Eastoe, Julian; Möhwald, Helmuth; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    Supramolecular assembly can yield ordered structures by taking advantage of the cumulative effect of multiple non-covalent interactions between adjacent molecules. The thermodynamic origin of many self-assembled structures in water is the balance between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments of the molecule. Here, we show that this approach can be generalized to use solvophobic and solvophilic segments of fully hydrophobic alkylated fullerene molecules. Addition of n-alkanes results in their assembly—due to the antipathy of C60 towards n-alkanes—into micelles and hexagonally packed gel-fibres containing insulated C60 nanowires. The addition of pristine C60 instead directs the assembly into lamellar mesophases by increasing the proportion of π-conjugated material in the mixture. The assembled structures contain a large fraction of optoelectronically active material and exhibit comparably high photoconductivities. This method is shown to be applicable to several alkyl-π-conjugated molecules, and can be used to construct organized functional materials with π-conjugated sections.

  3. Soft landing of polyatomic ions for selective modification of fluorinated self-assembled monolayer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai; Miller, Scott A.; Cooks, R. Graham; Pachuta, Steven J.

    1998-03-01

    Fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) surfaces comprised of CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2S- groups bound to a gold substrate were modified by deposition of mass-selected polyatomic ions at collision energies of ~10 eV. The modified material was characterized in situ by low-energy ion bombardment and by independent high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. Modification of F-SAM surfaces using hyperthermal (CH3)2SiNCS+ (m/z 116) and (CH3)3SiOSi(CH3)2 (m/z 147) projectile ion beams incorporated the intact projectile ions m/z 116 and mlz 147, respectively, which were released upon subsequent 60 eV [multiset union] sputtering. In addition to simple cases of soft landing of intact ions into a surface, two related soft landing channels, dissociative soft landing and reactive soft landing, are also identified. Surfaces modified by prolonged exposure to 35CICH2(CH3)2SiOSi(CH3)2+ (m/z 181) and its isotopic variant 37CICH2(CH3)2SiOSi(CH3)2+ (m/z 183), yielded only fragment ions derived from the projectile ions, primarily C3H10OSi235Cl+ (m/z 153) and C3H10OSi237Cl+ (m/z 155) upon [multiset union] sputtering as well as in the 15 keV Ga+TOF-SIMS spectra. In these cases, facile fragmentation occurs upon initial ion impact with the surface, the fragment ion being trapped at the interface in an overall process which is described as dissociative soft landing. Consistent with this, the fragment ions C3H10OSi235CI+ (m/z 153) and C3H10OSi237Cl+ (m/z 155) generated as such in the ion source were deposited without fragmentation and subsequently released intact by 60 eV [multiset union] sputtering. In the cases of some projectiles, such as protonated 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, the sputtered ions released from the modified surface included chemically transformed products due to reaction of the projectile ion at the surface. Such reactive soft landing processes occur by ion/molecule reactions at the interface, although details of their mechanism and its

  4. Dimensional scale effects on surface enhanced Raman scattering efficiency of self-assembled silver nanoparticle clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasolato, C. [Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Center for Life Nanoscience@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, V.le Regina Elena, 291, 00185 Rome (Italy); Domenici, F., E-mail: fabiodomenici@gmail.com, E-mail: paolo.postorino@roma1.infn.it; De Angelis, L.; Luongo, F.; Postorino, P., E-mail: fabiodomenici@gmail.com, E-mail: paolo.postorino@roma1.infn.it [Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Sennato, S. [Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); CNR-IPCS UOS Roma, Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Mura, F. [Dip. Scienze di Base Applicate all' Ingegneria, Università Sapienza, Via A. Scarpa, 16, 00185 Rome (Italy); Costantini, F. [Dip. Ingegneria Astronautica Elettrica ed Energetica, Università Sapienza, Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Bordi, F. [Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Center for Life Nanoscience@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, V.le Regina Elena, 291, 00185 Rome (Italy); CNR-IPCS UOS Roma, Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2014-08-18

    A study of the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) from micrometric metallic nanoparticle aggregates is presented. The sample is obtained from the self-assembly on glass slides of micro-clusters of silver nanoparticles (60 and 100 nm diameter), functionalized with the organic molecule 4-aminothiophenol in water solution. For nanoparticle clusters at the micron scale, a maximum enhancement factor of 10{sup 9} is estimated from the SERS over the Raman intensity ratio normalized to the single molecule contribution. Atomic force microscopy, correlated to spatially resolved Raman measurements, allows highlighting the connection between morphology and efficiency of the plasmonic system. The correlation between geometric features and SERS response of the metallic structures reveals a linear trend of the cluster maximum scattered intensity as a function of the surface area of the aggregate. On given clusters, the intensity turns out to be also influenced by the number of stacking planes of the aggregate, thus suggesting a plasmonic waveguide effect. The linear dependence results weakened for the largest area clusters, suggesting 30 μm{sup 2} as the upper limit for exploiting the coherence over large scale of the plasmonic response.

  5. Ozone Oxidation of Self-Assembled Monolayers on SiOx-Coated Zinc Selenide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, T. M.; Ryder, O. S.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne particles are important for visibility, human health, climate, and atmospheric reactions. Atmospheric particles contain a significant fraction of organics and such compounds present on airborne particles are susceptible to oxidation by atmospheric oxidants, such as OH, ozone, halogen atoms, and nitrogen trioxide. Oxidized organics associated with airborne particles are thought to be polar, hygroscopic species with enhanced cloud-nucleating properties. Oxide layers on silicon, or SiO2-coated substrates, act as models of environmentally relevant surfaces such as dust particles upon which organics adsorb. We have shown previously that ozone oxidation of unsaturated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystals leads to the formation of carbonyl groups and micron-sized, hydrophobic organic aggregates surrounded by carbon depleted substrate that do not have increased water uptake as previously assumed. Reported here are further ATR-FTIR studies of the oxidation of alkene SAMs on ZnSe and SiO2-coated ZnSe. These substrates have the advantage that they transmit below 1500 cm-1, allowing detection of additional product species. These experiments show that the loss of C=C and formation of carbonyl groups is also accompanied by formation of a peak at 1110 cm-1, attributed to the secondary ozonide. Details concerning the products and mechanism of ozonolysis of alkene SAMs on surfaces based on these new data are presented and the implications for the oxidation of alkenes on airborne dust particles are discussed.

  6. Spontaneous surface self-assembly in protein-surfactant mixtures: interactions between hydrophobin and ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun; Cox, Andrew R; Hedges, Nick; Webster, John R P

    2014-05-08

    The synergistic interactions between certain ethoxylated polysorbate nonionic surfactants and the protein hydrophobin result in spontaneous self-assembly at the air-water interface to form layered surface structures. The surface structures are characterized using neutron reflectivity. The formation of the layered surface structures is promoted by the hydrophobic interaction between the polysorbate alkyl chain and the hydrophobic patch on the surface of the globular hydrophobin and the interaction between the ethoxylated sorbitan headgroup and hydrophilic regions of the protein. The range of the ethoxylated polysorbate concentrations over which the surface ordering occurs is a maximum for the more hydrophobic surfactant polyoxyethylene(8) sorbitan monostearate. The structures at the air-water interface are accompanied by a profound change in the wetting properties of the solution on hydrophobic substrates. In the absence of the polysorbate surfactant, hydrophobin wets a hydrophobic surface, whereas the hydrophobin/ethoxylated polysorbate mixtures where multilayer formation occurs result in a significant dewetting of hydrophobic surfaces. The spontaneous surface self-assembly for hydrophobin/ethoxylated polysorbate surfactant mixtures and the changes in surface wetting properties provide a different insight into protein-surfactant interactions and potential for manipulating surface and interfacial properties and protein surface behavior.

  7. Molecular modeling of directed self-assembly of block copolymers: Fundamental studies of processing conditions and evolutionary pattern design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaira, Gurdaman Singh

    Rapid progress in the semi-conductor industry has pushed for smaller feature sizes on integrated electronic circuits. Current photo-lithographic techniques for nanofabrication have reached their technical limit and are problematic when printing features small enough to meet future industrial requirements. "Bottom-up'' techniques, such as the directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP), are the primary contenders to compliment current "top-down'' photo-lithography ones. For industrial requirements, the defect density from DSA needs to be less than 1 defect per 10 cm by 10 cm. Knowledge of both material synthesis and the thermodynamics of the self-assembly process are required before optimal operating conditions can be found to produce results adequate for industry. The work present in this thesis is divided into three chapters, each discussing various aspects of DSA as studied via a molecular model that contains the essential physics of BCP self-assembly. Though there are various types of guiding fields that can be used to direct BCPs over large wafer areas with minimum defects, this study focuses only on chemically patterned substrates. The first chapter addresses optimal pattern design by describing a framework where molecular simulations of various complexities are coupled with an advanced optimization technique to find a pattern that directs a target morphology. It demonstrates the first ever study where BCP self-assembly on a patterned substrate is optimized using a three-dimensional description of the block-copolymers. For problems pertaining to DSA, the methodology is shown to converge much faster than the traditional random search approach. The second chapter discusses the metrology of BCP thin films using TEM tomography and X-ray scattering techniques, such as CDSAXS and GISAXS. X-ray scattering has the advantage of being able to quickly probe the average structure of BCP morphologies over large wafer areas; however, deducing the BCP morphology

  8. A Ferrocene-Based Catecholamide Ligand: the Consequences of Ligand Swivel for Directed Supramolecular Self-Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugridge, Jeffrey; Fiedler, Dorothea; Raymond, Kenneth

    2010-02-04

    A ferrocene-based biscatecholamide ligand was prepared and investigated for the formation of metal-ligand supramolecular assemblies with different metals. Reaction with Ge(IV) resulted in the formation of a variety of Ge{sub n}L{sub m} coordination complexes, including [Ge{sub 2}L{sub 3}]{sup 4-} and [Ge{sub 2}L{sub 2}({mu}-OMe){sub 2}]{sup 2-}. The ligand's ability to swivel about the ferrocenyl linker and adopt different conformations accounts for formation of many different Ge{sub n}L{sub m} species. This study demonstrates why conformational ligand rigidity is essential in the rational design and directed self-assembly of supramolecular complexes.

  9. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan; Liang, Guozheng

    2017-07-01

    Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO2 and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91-95%, about 29-14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and modified fibers. The excellent comprehensive properties of BL-AFs demonstrate that the green method provided in this study is facile and effective to completely solve the bottlenecks of aramid fibers, and developing higher performance organic fibers.

  10. "SAMs meet MEMS": surface modification with self-assembled monolayers for the dry-demolding of photoplastic MEMS/NEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, B.J.; Kim, G.M.; Liebau, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David; Brugger, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In this contribution we demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as anti-adhesion coating to assist the removal of photoplastic MEMS/NEMS with a patterned metal layer from the surface without wet chemical sacrificial layer etching, so-called 'dry-demolding'. The SAMs functionality

  11. Ionic self-assembly of porphyrin nanostructures on the surface of charge-altered track-etched membranes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mongwaketsi, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available and Sn(IV) tetrakis(4-pyridyl)porphyrin were used to synthesize ionic self-assembled porphyrin nanorods. The track-etched membranes surface charge was changed from negative to positive using polyethyleneimine. The porphyrin nanorods were either filtered...

  12. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Diamond Nanoparticles onto Al- and N-Polar Sputtered Aluminum Nitride Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Taro; Reusch, Markus; Zuerbig, Verena; Cimalla, Volker; Lee, Kee-Han; Kurzyp, Magdalena; Arnault, Jean-Charles; Nebel, Christoph E; Ambacher, Oliver; Lebedev, Vadim

    2016-11-17

    Electrostatic self-assembly of diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) onto substrate surfaces (so-called nanodiamond seeding) is a notable technique, enabling chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of nanocrystalline diamond thin films on non-diamond substrates. In this study, we examine this technique onto differently polarized (either Al- or N-polar) c -axis oriented sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) film surfaces. This investigation shows that Al-polar films, as compared to N-polar ones, obtain DNPs with higher density and more homogeneously on their surfaces. The origin of these differences in density and homogeneity is discussed based on the hydrolysis behavior of AlN surfaces in aqueous suspensions.

  13. Layer by layer assembly of catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid onto titanium nitride nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode: Study of direct voltammetry and bioelectrocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadati, Shagayegh; Salimi, Abdollah; Hallaj, Rahman; Rostami, Amin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid were immobilized to GC/TiNnp with LBL assembly method. ► First a thin layer of NH 2 -IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation. ► With alternative assemble of IL and catalase with positive and negative charged, multilayer was formed. ► Immobilized catalase shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 reduction. ► Biosensor response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. - Abstract: A novel, simple and facile layer by layer (LBL) approach is used for modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrode with multilayer of catalase and nanocomposite containing 1-(3-Aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (amine terminated ionic liquid (NH 2 -IL)) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiNnp). First a thin layer of NH 2 -IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation method. Then, with alternative self assemble positively charged NH 2 -IL and negatively charged catalase a sensitive H 2 O 2 biosensor is constructed, whose response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active catalase per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and Michaelis–Menten constant (K M ) of immobilized catalase were 3.32 × 10 −12 mol cm −2 , 5.28 s −1 and 1.1 mM, respectively. The biosensor shows good stability, high reproducibility, long life-time, and fast amperometric response with the high sensitivity of 380 μA mM −1 cm −2 and low detection limit of 100 nM at concentration range up to 2.1 mM.

  14. Layer by layer assembly of catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid onto titanium nitride nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode: Study of direct voltammetry and bioelectrocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadati, Shagayegh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hallaj, Rahman; Rostami, Amin [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid were immobilized to GC/TiNnp with LBL assembly method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With alternative assemble of IL and catalase with positive and negative charged, multilayer was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized catalase shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biosensor response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. - Abstract: A novel, simple and facile layer by layer (LBL) approach is used for modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrode with multilayer of catalase and nanocomposite containing 1-(3-Aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (amine terminated ionic liquid (NH{sub 2}-IL)) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiNnp). First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation method. Then, with alternative self assemble positively charged NH{sub 2}-IL and negatively charged catalase a sensitive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} biosensor is constructed, whose response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active catalase per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}) of immobilized catalase were 3.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} mol cm{sup -2}, 5.28 s{sup -1} and 1.1 mM, respectively. The biosensor shows good stability, high reproducibility, long life-time, and fast amperometric response with the high sensitivity of 380 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and low detection limit of 100 nM at concentration range up to 2.1 mM.

  15. Cu-Cu diffusion bonding enhancement at low temperature by surface passivation using self-assembled monolayer of alkane-thiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. S.; Lim, D. F.; Singh, S. G.; Goulet, S. K.; Bergkvist, M.

    2009-11-01

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 1-hexanethiol is applied on copper (Cu) surface to retard surface oxidation during exposure in the ambient. This SAM layer can be desorbed effectively with an annealing step in inert N2 ambient to provide a clean Cu surface. Using this passivation method with SAM, wafers covered with thin Cu layer are passivated, stored, desorbed, and bonded at 250 °C. The bonded Cu layer presents clear evidence of substantial interdiffusion and grain growth despite prolonged exposure in the ambient. This method of passivation is proven to be effective and can be further optimized to enable high quality Cu-Cu direct bonding at low temperature for application in three-dimensional integration.

  16. Adsorption and self-assembly of octyl hydroxamic acid at a fluorite surface as revealed by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuming; Liu, Jin; Miller, Jan D

    2008-09-15

    In the study described here, the surface structure of a self-assembly octyl hydroxamic acid at a calcium fluoride (CaF(2)) surface is evaluated using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS). Of particular significance are the results that show octyl hydroxamic acid adsorbs at the fluorite surface from octanol solution and has more ordering and molecular conformation than the octyl hydroxamic acid adsorbed from solution. At the fluorite/0.1 M octyl hydroxamic acid octanol solution interface a bilayer-like structure consisting of an octyl hydroxamic acid layer in contact with fluorite and a tilted alcohol layer was observed by SFVS. The alcohol molecules are oriented with respect to the hydroxamic acid monolayer with the OH groups directed towards the bulk alcohol phase and the terminal CH(3) group oriented to face the alkyl chains of the hydroxamic acid monolayer.

  17. Collagen fibril surface displays a constellation of sites capable of promoting fibril assembly, stability, and hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgel, J.P.; Antipova, O.; Sagi, I.; Bitler, A.; Qiu, D.; Wang, R.; Xu, Y.; San Antonio, J.D. (IIT)

    2011-12-14

    Fibrillar collagens form the structural basis of organs and tissues including the vasculature, bone, and tendon. They are also dynamic, organizational scaffolds that present binding and recognition sites for ligands, cells, and platelets. We interpret recently published X-ray diffraction findings and use atomic force microscopy data to illustrate the significance of new insights into the functional organization of the collagen fibril. These data indicate that collagen's most crucial functional domains localize primarily to the overlap region, comprising a constellation of sites we call the 'master control region.' Moreover, the collagen's most exposed aspect contains its most stable part - the C-terminal region that controls collagen assembly, cross-linking, and blood clotting. Hidden beneath the fibril surface exists a constellation of 'cryptic' sequences poised to promote hemostasis and cell - collagen interactions in tissue injury and regeneration. These findings begin to address several important, and previously unresolved, questions: How functional domains are organized in the fibril, which domains are accessible, and which require proteolysis or structural trauma to become exposed? Here we speculate as to how collagen fibrillar organization impacts molecular processes relating to tissue growth, development, and repair.

  18. Directed self-assembly of CdS quantum dots on bacteriophage P22 coat protein templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, Anup; Gupta, Arunava; Bao Yuping; Zhou Ziyou; Prevelige, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    The hierarchical organization of inorganic nanostructures has potential applications in diverse areas such as photocatalytic systems, composites, drug delivery and biomedicine. An attractive approach for this purpose is the use of biological organisms as templates since they often possess highly ordered arrays of protein molecules that can be genetically engineered for specific binding. Indeed, recent studies have shown that viruses can be used as versatile templates for the assembly of a variety of nanostructured materials because of their unique structural and chemical diversity. These highly ordered protein templates can be employed or adapted for specific binding interactions. Herein we report the directed self-assembly of independently synthesized 5 nm CdS nanocrystal quantum dots on ∼60 nm procapsid shells derived from wild-type P22 bacteriophage. The bacteriophage P22 shell is comprised of hexameric and pentameric clusters of subunits known as capsomeres. The pre-synthesized CdS QDs show the corresponding hexameric and pentameric patterns of assembly on these P22 shells, possibly by interacting with particular protein pockets. (paper)

  19. Efficient small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells with high fill factors via pyrene-directed molecular self-assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Olivia P.

    2011-10-21

    Efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are constructed by attaching completely planar, symmetric end-groups to donor-acceptor electroactive small molecules. Appending C2-pyrene as the small molecule end-group to a diketopyrrolopyrrole core leads to materials with a tight, aligned crystal packing and favorable morphology dictated by π-π interactions, resulting in high power conversion efficiencies and high fill factors. The use of end-groups to direct molecular self-assembly is an effective strategy for designing high-performance small molecule OPV devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Direct assembly of in situ templated CdSe quantum dots via crystalline lamellae structure of polyamide 66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Nicolas; Brooks, Richard; Fahmi, Amir

    2012-03-01

    A simple concept is proposed for templating in situ synthesised CdSe quantum dots (QDs) into an organised nano-pattern using the crystalline lamellae structure of polyamide 66 (PA66). The morphology obtained for PA66 and the hybrid material on Si/SiO x solid substrate was characterised by means of atomic force microscope. Controlling the PA66 concentration in solution and the organic-inorganic interactions are found to be the keys factors to direct the assembly of CdSe QDs along the PA66 linear crystalline structure. This simple approach could be opened a new avenue for a large spectrum of innovative high-tech applications.

  1. Molecular Determinants Directing HIV-1 Gag Assembly to Virus-Containing Compartments in Primary Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inlora, Jingga; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Bedi, Sukhmani; Ono, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The subcellular sites of HIV-1 assembly, determined by the localization of the structural protein Gag, vary in a cell-type-dependent manner. In T cells and transformed cell lines used as model systems, HIV-1 assembles at the plasma membrane (PM). The binding and localization of HIV-1 Gag to the PM are mediated by the interaction between the matrix (MA) domain, specifically the highly basic region, and a PM-specific acidic phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. In primary macrophages, prominent accumulation of assembling or assembled particles is found in the virus-containing compartments (VCCs), which largely consist of convoluted invaginations of the PM. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of HIV-1 Gag targeting to the VCCs, we examined the impact of overexpression of polyphosphoinositide 5-phosphatase IV (5ptaseIV), which depletes cellular PI(4,5)P2, in primary macrophages. We found that the VCC localization and virus release of HIV-1 are severely impaired upon 5ptaseIV overexpression, suggesting an important role for the MA-PI(4,5)P2 interaction in HIV-1 assembly in primary macrophages. However, our analysis of HIV-1 Gag derivatives with MA changes showed that this interaction contributes to Gag membrane binding but is dispensable for specific targeting of Gag to the VCCs per se We further determined that deletion of the NC domain abolishes VCC-specific localization of HIV-1 Gag. Notably, HIV-1 Gag localized efficiently to the VCCs when the NC domain was replaced with a leucine zipper dimerization motif that promotes Gag multimerization. Altogether, our data revealed that targeting of HIV-1 Gag to the VCCs requires NC-dependent multimerization. In T cells and model cell lines, HIV-1 Gag localizes to the PM in a manner dependent on the MA-PI(4,5)P2 interaction. On the other hand, in primary macrophages, HIV-1 Gag localizes to convoluted intracellular membrane structures termed virus-containing compartments (VCCs). Although these

  2. Hydrogen bonds induced supramolecular self-assembly of azobenzene derivatives on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xinrui; Cheng, Zhiyu; Ren, Biye; Deng, Wenli

    2012-08-01

    The self-assembly of azobenzene derivatives (CnAzCOOH) with various lengths of peripheral alkyl chains (with carbon number of n = 8, 10, 12, 14, 16) were observed by scanning tunneling microscopy on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface. The effect of van der Waals interactions and the intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the two-dimensional self-assembly was systematically studied. No alkyl-chain length effect was observed according to the STM images. All kinds of CnAzCOOH adopting the same pattern self-assembled on the HOPG surface, suggesting the formation of the two-dimensional structures was dominated by the hydrogen bonding of the functional groups. It could be found that two CnAzCOOH molecules formed a hydrogen-bonded dimer with “head-to-head” fashion as expected; however, the dimers organized themselves in the form of relative complex lamellae. Three dimers as a group arranged side by side and formed a well-defined stripe with periodic dislocations due to the registry mechanism of the alkyl chain with the underlying HOPG surface. The hydrogen bonds between the adjacent dimers in one lamella were formed and dominated the self-assembled pattern.

  3. Correction: An unsymmetrical non-fullerene acceptor: synthesis via direct heteroarylation, self-assembly, and utility as a low energy absorber in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Abby-Jo; Li, Shi; Dayneko, Sergey V; Risko, Chad; Welch, Gregory C

    2017-09-21

    Correction for 'An unsymmetrical non-fullerene acceptor: synthesis via direct heteroarylation, self-assembly, and utility as a low energy absorber in organic photovoltaic cells' by Abby-Jo Payne et al., Chem. Commun., 2017, 53, 10168-10171.

  4. Moiré pattern induced by the electronic coupling between 1-octanol self-assembled monolayers and graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silly, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional self-assembly of 1-octanol molecules on a graphite surface is investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at the solid/liquid interface. STM images reveal that this molecule self-assembles into a compact hydrogen-bonded herringbone nanoarchitecture. Molecules are preferentially arranged in a head-to-head and tail-to-tail fashion. A Moiré pattern appears in the STM images when the 1-octanol layer is covering the graphite surface. The large Moiré stripes are perpendicular to the 1-octanol lamellae. Interpretation of the STM images suggests that the Moiré periodicity is governed by the electronic properties of the graphite surface and the 1-octanol layer periodicity. (paper)

  5. Directly drawn poly(3-hexylthiophene) field-effect transistors by electrohydrodynamic jet printing: improving performance with surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Jin; Lee, Hyungdong; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Park, Seonuk; Yudistira, Hadi Teguh; Choong, Chwee-Lin; Park, Jong-Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Byun, Doyoung

    2014-07-09

    In this study, direct micropatterning lines of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) without any polymer binder were prepared by electrohydrodynamic jet printing to form organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We controlled the dielectric surface by introducing self-assembled monolayers and polymer thin films to investigate the effect of surface modifications on the characteristics of printed P3HT lines and electrical performances of the OFETs. The morphology of the printed P3HT lines depended on the surface energy and type of substrate. The resulting OFETs exhibited high performance on octadecyltrichlorosilane-modified substrates, which was comparable to that of other printed P3HT OFETs. In order to realize the commercialization of the OFETs, we also fabricated a large-area transistor array, including 100 OFETs and low-operating-voltage flexible OFETs.

  6. PS-b-PHEMA: synthesis, characterization, and processing of a high χ polymer for directed self-assembly lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing; Lawson, Richard A.; Yeh, Wei-Ming; Jarnagin, Nathan D.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2013-03-01

    As an alternative lithography technique, directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers has shown to be promising for next generation high resolution patterning. PS-b-PMMA has been widely studied for its use as a block copolymer in directed self-assembly and has demonstrated patterned features down to size scales on the order of 20 nm pitch. However, due to the modest χ value for PS-b-PMMA (χ=0.038), this 20 nm feature pitch representes roughly the limiting capability of PS-b-PMMA. To achieve smaller pitch features, new block copolymers with higher χ values must be developed for use in DSA lithography. Here, poly(styrene)-b-poly(hydroxyehtylmethacrylate) or PS-b-PHEMS is introduced as one possible such high χ polymer. PS-b-PHEMA with controlled Mw and PDI was successfully synthesized via ATRP and fully characterized by NMR, GPC and FTIR. As a first demonstration of sub-20 nm pitch capability in PS-b-PHEMA, a 15 nm pitch size lamella structure in PS-b-PHEMA is shown. PS-b-PHEMA has good thermal stability, allowing it to be rapidly annealed thermally. PS-b-PHEMA also is shown to have improved etch contrast between the two blocks as compared to PS-b-PMMA. The χ value for PS-b-PHEMA is estimated to be 0.37 based on experimental pitch scaling studies, which is almost 10 times of the χ value for PS-b-PMMA.

  7. Assembling three-dimensional nanostructures on metal surfaces with a reversible vertical single-atom manipulation: A theoretical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianxing; Ye Xiang; Huang Lei; Xie Yiqun; Ke Sanhuang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulate the reversible vertical single-atom manipulations on several metal surfaces. ► We propose a method to predict whether a reversible vertical single-atom manipulation can be successful on several metal surfaces. ► A 3-dimensional Ni nanocluster is assembled on the Ni(1 1 1) surface using a Ni trimer-apex tip. - Abstract: We propose a theoretical model to show that pulling up an adatom from an atomic step requires a weaker force than from the flat surfaces of Al(0 0 1), Ni(1 1 1), Pt(1 1 0) and Au(1 1 0). Single adatom in the atomic step can be extracted vertically by a trimer-apex tip while can be released to the flat surface. This reversible vertical manipulation can then be used to fabricate a supported three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure on the Ni(1 1 1) surface. The present modeling can be used to predict whether the reversible vertical single-atom manipulation and thus the assembling of 3D nanostructures can be achieved on a metal surface.

  8. Diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes self-assembled on functionalized metal surfaces for potential application in drug-eluting stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Tayebeh; Habibi, Neda; Zarrabi, Ali; Fanaei, Maryam; Lee, Lai Yeng

    2016-09-01

    This study focuses on the potential of diphenylalanine self-assembled peptide nanotubes (FF Nts) for delivery of flufenamic acid (FA) from metal implants. Self-assembly of FF Nts was studied in solution and on surfaces of glass, silicone and gold substrates. FA was loaded inside the shell of FF Nts and subsequently FF/FA Nts were attached to gold surfaces. The substrate were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Release of FA from FF Nts were investigated by immersing coated metal substrates in phosphate-buffered saline for 12 days. Self-assembly of FF in water and solvent resulted in formation of nanotubes, which efficiently loaded 98% of FA with concentration of 20 µg/mL. FESEM images confirmed successful attachment of FF/FA Nts to functionalized gold substrates. In vitro release studies indicated using FF Nts has prolonged the release rate of FA for several days. Biocompatibility studied confirmed more than 50% of the cells were alive in concentration of 250-1000 µg/mL of FF Nts thus suggesting the potential of peptide based self-assemble nanostructures as an alternate system for polymer coating in drugs eluting stents. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2280-2290, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Self-assembly of P-chiral supramolecular phosphines on rhodium and direct evidence for Rh-catalyst-substrate interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Vijay S; Sen, Anirban; Shinde, Dinesh; Chikkali, Samir H

    2017-10-17

    Supramolecular phosphine-derived catalysts are known to provide high enantioselectivity in asymmetric transformations such as hydrogenation, but direct evidence unravelling the role of secondary interactions is largely missing. As a representative case study, the role of hydrogen bonding in asymmetric hydrogenation catalysed by p-chiral supramolecular phosphines is investigated. To establish the nature of hydrogen bonding in the self-assembled Rh-complex, NMR experiments were performed at different concentrations and temperatures. It was found that with increasing concentration of 1-(3-(phenyl(o-tolyl)phosphanyl)phenyl)urea ligand (L1), the NH and NH 2 peaks shift downfield. This indicated the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in L1. This observation was further supported by variable temperature NMR experiments wherein, with decreasing temperature, the NH and NH 2 resonances of L1 shifted downfield. The downfield shift once again suggests the existence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in L1. In contrast, the chemical shift of NH and NH 2 signals did not significantly change with increasing concentration of the self-assembled Rh-complex (C1). This observation suggested the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the self-assembled complex. The concentration experiment was further corroborated by variable temperature NMR experiments. No change in the chemical shift of NH 2 resonance could be detected with decreasing temperature, which corroborates the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in C1. In a stoichiometric experiment, C1 was treated with hydrogenation substrate N-acetyldehydrophenylalanine (S2) and the proton NMR was recorded. The NH 2 protons of the self-assembled Rh-complex were found to shift downfield, as compared to untreated parent C1. These observations indicated that there is a hydrogen bonding interaction between the Rh-complex and the substrate. To further attest this hypothesis, NH and NH 2 groups were exchanged with ND

  10. A direct role of Mad1 in the spindle assembly checkpoint beyond Mad2 kinetochore recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Sedgwick, Garry G

    2014-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures accurate chromosome segregation by delaying entry into anaphase until all sister chromatids have become bi-oriented. A key component of the SAC is the Mad2 protein, which can adopt either an inactive open (O-Mad2) or active closed (C-Mad2) conformation....... The conversion of O-Mad2 into C-Mad2 at unattached kinetochores is thought to be a key step in activating the SAC. The "template model" proposes that this is achieved by the recruitment of soluble O-Mad2 to C-Mad2 bound at kinetochores through its interaction with Mad1. Whether Mad1 has additional roles...... in the SAC beyond recruitment of C-Mad2 to kinetochores has not yet been addressed. Here, we show that Mad1 is required for mitotic arrest even when C-Mad2 is artificially recruited to kinetochores, indicating that it has indeed an additional function in promoting the checkpoint. The C-terminal globular...

  11. Morphologically and size uniform monodisperse particles and their shape-directed self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Joshua E.; Bell, Howard Y.; Ye, Xingchen; Murray, Christopher Bruce

    2017-09-12

    Monodisperse particles having: a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology are disclosed. Due to their uniform size and shape, the monodisperse particles self assemble into superlattices. The particles may be luminescent particles such as down-converting phosphor particles and up-converting phosphors. The monodisperse particles of the invention have a rare earth-containing lattice which in one embodiment may be an yttrium-containing lattice or in another may be a lanthanide-containing lattice. The monodisperse particles may have different optical properties based on their composition, their size, and/or their morphology (or shape). Also disclosed is a combination of at least two types of monodisperse particles, where each type is a plurality of monodisperse particles having a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology; and where the types of monodisperse particles differ from one another by composition, by size, or by morphology. In a preferred embodiment, the types of monodisperse particles have the same composition but different morphologies. Methods of making and methods of using the monodisperse particles are disclosed.

  12. Some Structural Observations of Self-Assembling, Fibrillar Gels Composed of Two-Directional Bolaform Arborols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.

    2005-01-12

    Arborols are dumbbell shaped molecules (bolaform amphiphiles) in which a hydrophobic spacer separates two hydrophilic end groups. They are a valuable model for naturally occurring fibers, such as actin or amyloid. Applications to materials science can be envisioned. On cooling from warm aqueous or methanolic solutions, arborols spontaneously assemble into long fibers. When the solutions are above a certain concentration that depends on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, this leads to thermally reversible gels stabilized by a mechanism that is poorly understood. With the help of wide angle X-ray scattering, details of the arborol fiber and gel structure were obtained on wet gels. The characteristic dimensions of the fibers vary in a sensible fashion with the molecular specifics. Solvent character appears to affect the average domain length of arborols stacked into fibers. Fluorescently labeled arborols were prepared. The label does not prevent incorporation into the fibrillar structure, rendering fibril bundles visible in wet gels. Bundles are visible in concentrated gels, but not in less concentrated sols. These results are consistent with observations of dried arborols using atomic force microscopy and with previously published freeze-fracture electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering experiments on dried gels.

  13. Self-Assembly of Chip-Size Components with Cavity Structures: High-Precision Alignment and Direct Bonding without Thermal Compression for Hetero Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsumasa Koyanagi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available New surface mounting and packaging technologies, using self-assembly with chips having cavity structures, were investigated for three-dimensional (3D and hetero integration of complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS. By the surface tension of small droplets of 0.5 wt% hydrogen fluoride (HF aqueous solution, the cavity chips, with a side length of 3 mm, were precisely aligned to hydrophilic bonding regions on the surface of plateaus formed on Si substrates. The plateaus have micro-channels to readily evaporate and fully remove the liquid from the cavities. The average alignment accuracy of the chips with a 1 mm square cavity was found to be 0.4 mm. The alignment accuracy depends, not only on the area of the bonding regions on the substrates and the length of chip periphery without the widths of channels in the plateaus, but also the area wetted by the liquid on the bonding regions. The precisely aligned chips were then directly bonded to the substrates at room temperature without thermal compression, resulting in a high shear bonding strength of more than 10 MPa.

  14. DNA-directed protein immobilization on mixed self-assembled monolayers via a streptavidin bringe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ladd, J.; Boozer, C.; Yu, Q.; Chen, S.; Homola, Jiří; Jiang, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 19 (2004), s. 8090-8095 ISSN 0743-7463 Grant - others:US FDA (US) FD-U-002250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : biosensors * surface plasmon resonance * optical sensors Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2004

  15. Efficient and Anisotropic Fog Harvesting on a Hybrid and Directional Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2016-12-05

    A straight throughout superhydrophilic track that contains high contrast and directional wettability on a superhydrophobic surface is designed. Despite droplets that tend to slide more easily along a direction parallel to the track, it is found that such hybrid strip-pattern surfaces have higher fog harvesting efficiency along a direction perpendicular to the tracks due to the larger accumulation area for droplet removal.

  16. Direct Trajectory Interpolation on the Surface using an Open CNC

    OpenAIRE

    Beudaert , Xavier; Lavernhe , Sylvain; Tournier , Christophe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Free-form surfaces are used for many industrial applications from aeronautical parts, to molds or biomedical implants. In the common machining process, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software generates approximated tool paths because of the limitation induced by the input tool path format of the industrial CNC. Then, during the tool path interpolation, marks on finished surfaces can appear induced by non smooth feedrate planning. Managing the geometry of the tool p...

  17. Directing neuronal cell growth on implant material surfaces by microstructuring.

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Uta; Fadeeva, Elena; Warnecke, Athanasia; Paasche, Gerrit; Müller, Peter; Chichkov, Boris; Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Günter

    2012-01-01

    For best hearing sensation, electrodes of auditory prosthesis must have an optimal electrical contact to the respective neuronal cells. To improve the electrode-nerve interface, microstructuring of implant surfaces could guide neuronal cells toward the electrode contact. To this end, femtosecond laser ablation was used to generate linear microgrooves on the two currently relevant cochlear implant materials, silicone elastomer and platinum. Silicone surfaces were structured by two different me...

  18. Investigation of Ruthenium Dissolution in Advanced Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cells Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Firdosy, S.; Koel, B. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed review of the Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cell (DMFC) stack and investigates the Ruthenium that was found at the exit of the stack. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) Pathways for Cell Degradation; 3) Cell Duration Testing; 4) Duration Testing, MEA Analysis; and 5) Stack Degradation Analysis.

  19. Archaeal surface appendages: their function and the critical role of N-linked glycosylation in their assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Ken F.; Nair, Divya B.; Jones, Gareth M.; Aizawa, S.-I.; Chong, James J. P.; Stark, Meg; Logan, Susan M.; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Kelly, John F.

    2011-10-01

    Many cultivated archaea are extremophiles and, as such, various archaea inhabit some of the most inhospitable niches on the planet in terms of temperature, pH, salinity and anaerobiosis. Different archaeal species have been shown to produce a number of unusual and sometimes unique surface structures. The best studied of these are flagella which are fundamentally different from bacterial flagella and instead bear numerous similarities to bacterial type IV pili in their structure and likely assembly. The major structural proteins, flagellins, are made as preproteins with type IV pilin-like signal peptides processed by a specific signal peptidase. In addition, the flagellins are glycoproteins with attached N-linked glycans. Both of these posttranslational modifications have been studied in the anaerobic archaeon, Methanococcus maripaludis, an organism which also possesses other surface appendages, an unusual version of type IV pili, whose major constituents are also glycoproteins. Analysis of mutants unable to make either or both of flagella and pili demonstrated that both are essential for attachment to surfaces. A number of mutants defective in the assembly and biosynthesis of the tetrasaccharide N-linked to the flagellins have been isolated. Investigations of these mutants by electron microscopy, mass spectrometry and motility assays have demonstrated that flagellins possessing no attached glycan or a glycan truncated to a single sugar cannot assemble flagella on their surface. Mutants which can attach a glycan of 2 or 3 sugars to flagellins assemble flagella but they are impaired in their swimming compared with wildtype cells which attach the tetrasaccharide to their flagellins.

  20. Self-assembly of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide-magnetic nanoparticles nanocomposite-based direct electrochemistry for reagentless glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakapongpan, Saithip; Poo-Arporn, Rungtiva P

    2017-07-01

    A novel approach of the immobilization of a highly selective and stable glucose biosensor based on direct electrochemistry was fabricated by a self-assembly of glucose oxidase (GOD) on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) modified on a magnetic screen-printed electrode (MSPE). The RGO-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite has remarkable enhancement in large surface areas, is favorable environment for enzyme immobilization, facilitates electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surfaces and possesses superparamagnetism property. The morphology and electrochemical properties of RGO-Fe 3 O 4 /GOD were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The modified electrode was a fast, direct electron transfer with an apparent electron transfer rate constant (k s ) of 13.78s -1 . The proposed biosensor showed fast amperometric response (3s) to glucose with a wide linear range from 0.05 to 1mM, a low detection limit of 0.1μM at a signal to noise ratio of 3 (S/N=3) and good sensitivity (5.9μA/mM). The resulting biosensor has high stability, good reproducibility, excellent selectivity and successfully applied detection potential at -0.45V. This mediatorless glucose sensing used the advantages of covalent bonding and self-assembly as a new approach for immobilizing enzymes without any binder. It would be worth noting that it opens a new avenue for fabricating excellent electrochemical biosensors. This is a new approach that reporting the immobilization of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) by electrostatic interaction and modified screen printed electrode. We propose the reagentless with fabrication method without binder and adhesive agents for immobilized enzyme. Fe 3 O 4 NPs increasing surface area to enhance the immobilization and prevent

  1. Encapsulated-guest rotation in a self-assembled heterocapsule directed toward a supramolecular gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Hitomi; Kobori, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Masamichi; Yoza, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The self-assembled heterocapsule 1·2, which is formed by the hydrogen bonds of tetra(4-pyridyl)-cavitand 1 and tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-cavitand 2, encapsulates 1 molecule of guests such as 1,4-diacetoxybenzene 3a, 1,4-diacetoxy-2,5-dimethylbenzene 3b, 1,4-diacetoxy-2,5-dialkoxybenzenes (3c, OCH3; 3d, OC2H5; 3e, OC3H7; 3f, OC4H9; 3g, OC5H11; 3h, OC6H13; 3i, OC8H17), 1,4-diacetoxy-2,5-difluorobenzene 4a, and 1,4-diacetoxy-2,3-difluorobenzene 4b. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of 3c@(1·2) showed that the acetoxy groups at the 1,4-positions of 3c are oriented toward the 2 aromatic cavity ends of 1·2 and that 3c can rotate along the long axis of 1·2. Thus, the 1·2 (stator) with the encapsulation guest (rotator) behaves as a supramolecular gyroscope. A variable temperature (VT) 1H NMR study in CDCl3 showed that 3a, 3b, 4a, and 4b within 1·2 rotate rapidly even at 218 K, whereas guest rotation is almost inhibited for 3h and 3i even at 323 K. In this respect, 4b with a large dipole moment is a good candidate for the rotator of 1·2. For 3c–3g, the enthalpic (ΔH‡) and entropic (ΔS‡) contributions to the free energy of activation (ΔG‡) for the guest-rotational steric barriers within 1·2 were obtained from Eyring plots based on line-shape analysis of the VT 1H NMR spectra. The value of ΔG‡ increased in the order 3c guest rotation within 1·2. PMID:19416810

  2. Roughness-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Fundamentals and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Neelesh

    2011-11-01

    Superhydrophobicity of rough surfaces has attracted global interest through the past decade. There are naturally occurring instances of such surfaces, e.g., lotus leaves, which led to the popular term ``lotus effect.'' Numerous applications in wide ranging areas such as drag reduction, self-cleaning, heat exchangers, energy conversion, condensation, anti-icing, textile, desalination, etc., are being explored by researchers worldwide. The signature configuration for superhydrophobicity has been ``bead-like'' drops on rough surfaces that roll-off easily. This becomes possible if the liquid does not impale the roughness grooves, and if the contact angle hysteresis is low. Finding appropriate surface roughness is therefore necessary. A thermodynamic framework to enable analysis of this problem will be presented. It will be noted that the success of rough superhydrophobic substrates relies on the presence of gas pockets in the roughness grooves underneath the liquid. These gas pockets could be those of air from the surrounding environment. Current design strategies rely on the availability of air. However, if the rough substrates are fully submerged in the liquid then the trapped air in the roughness grooves may not be sustained. A design approach based on sustaining a vapor phase of the liquid itself in the roughness grooves, instead of relying on the presence of air, will be presented. The resulting surfaces, referred to as vapor stabilizing substrates, are deemed to be robust against wetting transition even if no air is present. Applications of this approach include low drag surfaces, nucleate boiling at dramatically low superheats, among others. The concept can be generalized to other transitions on the phase diagram, thus enabling the design of rough surfaces for phase manipulation in general.

  3. The structure and assembly of surface layer proteins : a combined approach of in silico and experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horejs, C.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembly of matter is one of nature's most sophisticated strategies to organize molecules on a large scale and to create order from disorder. Surface (S-)layer proteins self-assemble in a highly reproducible and robust fashion in order to form crystalline layers that completely cover and protect prokaryotic cells. Long conserved during evolution, S-layers constitute a unique model system to study the molecular mechanisms of functional self-assembly, while additionally, they provide a basic matrix for the specific construction of ordered nanostructures. Due to their intrinsic capabilities to self-assemble into two-dimensional crystals, the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of single S-layer proteins demands an approach beyond conventional structure determination methods. In this work, computer simulations were combined with experimental techniques in order to study the structure and intra- and intermolecular potentials guiding the proteins to self-assemble into lattices with different symmetries. Molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo methods, small-angle X-ray scattering involving a new theoretical description, and AFM-based single-molecule force spectroscopy yield new insights into the three-dimensional structure of S-layer proteins, the location, type and distribution of amino acids in S-layer lattices, the molecular mechanisms behind the self-assembly process, the mechanical stability and adaptive structural conformations that S-layer proteins are able to establish. In silico studies - embedded in an adequate experimental and theoretical scaffold - offer the possibility to calculate structural and thermodynamic features of proteins, while this work demonstrates the growing impact of such theoretical techniques in the fascinating field of biophysics at the nano-scale. (author) [de

  4. Cell wall assembly and intracellular trafficking in plant cells are directly affected by changes in the magnitude of gravitational acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Pujol, Lauranne; Shojaeifard, Anahid; Brouwer, Iman; van Loon, Jack J W A; Geitmann, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in gravitational acceleration. To understand the effect of gravity on the metabolism and cellular functioning of non-specialized plant cells, we investigated a rapidly growing plant cell devoid of known statoliths and without gravitropic behavior, the pollen tube. The effects of hyper-gravity and omnidirectional exposure to gravity on intracellular trafficking and on cell wall assembly were assessed in Camellia pollen tubes, a model system with highly reproducible growth behavior in vitro. Using an epi-fluorescence microscope mounted on the Large Diameter Centrifuge at the European Space Agency, we were able to demonstrate that vesicular trafficking is reduced under hyper-gravity conditions. Immuno-cytochemistry confirmed that both in hyper and omnidirectional gravity conditions, the characteristic spatial profiles of cellulose and callose distribution in the pollen tube wall were altered, in accordance with a dose-dependent effect on pollen tube diameter. Our findings suggest that in response to gravity induced stress, the pollen tube responds by modifying cell wall assembly to compensate for the altered mechanical load. The effect was reversible within few minutes demonstrating that the pollen tube is able to quickly adapt to changing stress conditions.

  5. Cell wall assembly and intracellular trafficking in plant cells are directly affected by changes in the magnitude of gravitational acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Chebli

    Full Text Available Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in gravitational acceleration. To understand the effect of gravity on the metabolism and cellular functioning of non-specialized plant cells, we investigated a rapidly growing plant cell devoid of known statoliths and without gravitropic behavior, the pollen tube. The effects of hyper-gravity and omnidirectional exposure to gravity on intracellular trafficking and on cell wall assembly were assessed in Camellia pollen tubes, a model system with highly reproducible growth behavior in vitro. Using an epi-fluorescence microscope mounted on the Large Diameter Centrifuge at the European Space Agency, we were able to demonstrate that vesicular trafficking is reduced under hyper-gravity conditions. Immuno-cytochemistry confirmed that both in hyper and omnidirectional gravity conditions, the characteristic spatial profiles of cellulose and callose distribution in the pollen tube wall were altered, in accordance with a dose-dependent effect on pollen tube diameter. Our findings suggest that in response to gravity induced stress, the pollen tube responds by modifying cell wall assembly to compensate for the altered mechanical load. The effect was reversible within few minutes demonstrating that the pollen tube is able to quickly adapt to changing stress conditions.

  6. Rapid assembly of multiple DNA fragments through direct transformation of PCR products into E. coli and Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pinghua; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Guangxian; Wang, Yaoyue; Chen, Yulin

    2014-11-01

    This article describes a rapid, highly efficient and versatile method for seamlessly assembling multiple DNA fragments into a vector at any desired position. The inserted fragments and vector backbone were amplified by high-fidelity PCR containing 20 bp to 50 bp overlapping regions at 3' and/or 5' termini. These linearised fragments were equimolarly mixed, and then cyclised in a prolonged overlap extension PCR without adding primers. The resulting PCR products were DNA multimers that could be directly transformed into host strains, yielding the desired chimeric plasmid. The proposed method was illustrated by constructing an Escherichia coli co-expression vector. The feasibility of the method in Lactobacillus was further validated by assembling an E. coli-Lactobacillus shuttle vector. Results showed that three to four fragments could be simultaneously and precisely inserted in a vector in only 2-3 days using the proposed method. The acceptable transformation efficiency was determined through the tested host strains; more than 95% of the colonies were positive transformants. Therefore, the proposed method is sufficiently competent for high-efficiency insertion of multiple DNA fragments into a plasmid and has theoretically good application potential for gene cloning and protein expression because it is simple, easy to implement, flexible and yields highly positive clones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of surface-active agents in the preparation and assembly of quantum-sized nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognolo, G

    2003-12-01

    This overview summarises the use of surface-active agents for preparation of nanoparticles. It starts with description of the nanotechnology vision. Nanoparticle products are exemplified by using solid-state processes, e.g. for the production of ceramics or catalysts, as well as colloidal processes whereby the use of surface-active agents plays a major role. Several examples are given in the review, e.g. use of coordination ligands and nanoparticle self-assembly. The process of control of nanoparticle shape and its modulation is briefly described and examples are given to demonstrate such control.

  8. Sub-10-nm patterning process using directed self-assembly with high χ block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Naoko; Seino, Yuriko; Sato, Hironobu; Kasahara, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Miyagi, Ken; Minegishi, Shinya; Yatsuda, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki; Kanai, Hideki; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Kodera, Katsuyoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa; Hayakawa, Teruaki

    2015-04-01

    The perpendicularly orientated lamellar structure of the self-organized diblock copolymer is an attractive template for sub-10-nm line-and-space pattern formation. We propose a method of evaluating the neutral layer (NL) whose performance has an important bearing on the perpendicular orientation of the lamellar structure. The random copolymer of methyl methacrylate and i-butyl POSS methacrylate (MAIBPOSS) has been investigated as an NL for a polymethylmethacrylate-b-polymethacrylethylPOSS (PMMA-b-PMAIBPOSS) lamellar structure. PMMA-b-PMAIBPOSS material has the potential to form sub-10 nm line-and-space pattern, in addition to high etch selectivity due to its POSS structure. Under the free surface, PMMA-b-PMAIBPOSS film on the random copolymer layer showed horizontal orientation. However, a half-pitch of a 7-nm finger pattern structure was observed by peeling off the horizontally oriented layer. The upper portion of the PMMA-b-PMAIBPOSS film was eliminated till proximity of the random copolymer layer by CF4 gas etching. From the result, it was revealed that the PMMA-r-PMAIBPOSS works as an NL. It was confirmed that the contact angle analysis using an appropriate polymer is a suitable method for evaluation of the surface energy performance of the copolymer with the attribute of high segregation energy.

  9. Direct assembly of in situ templated CdSe quantum dots via crystalline lamellae structure of polyamide 66

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheval, Nicolas; Brooks, Richard [University of Nottingham, Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, Faculty of Engineering (United Kingdom); Fahmi, Amir, E-mail: Amir.Fahmi@hochschule-Rhein-waal.de [Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Technology and Bionics (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    A simple concept is proposed for templating in situ synthesised CdSe quantum dots (QDs) into an organised nano-pattern using the crystalline lamellae structure of polyamide 66 (PA66). The morphology obtained for PA66 and the hybrid material on Si/SiO{sub x} solid substrate was characterised by means of atomic force microscope. Controlling the PA66 concentration in solution and the organic-inorganic interactions are found to be the keys factors to direct the assembly of CdSe QDs along the PA66 linear crystalline structure. This simple approach could be opened a new avenue for a large spectrum of innovative high-tech applications.

  10. Fabrication and evaluation of 3D β-TCP scaffold by novel direct-write assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Min Woo; Kim, Jong Young [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Various scaffold fabrication methods have been explored to enhance the cell interaction effects and mechanical properties of scaffolds in bone regeneration. Rapid prototyping (RP) for tissue engineering is a useful technology that may provide a potential scaffolding structure to regenerate, restore, and repair a damaged bone tissue or organ, that is, RP is a promising tissue engineering technique through a 3D scaffold fabrication by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. In this study, 3D β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were fabricated by a novel direct-write assembly method. The mechanical property of β-TCP scaffolds was analyzed by stress-strain curves by using a compression testing machine. Furthermore, an in vitro CCK-8 assay of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells showed the significant cell attachment and proliferation in the β-TCP scaffold.

  11. Direct Adsorption and Molecular Self-Assembly of Octylthioacetates on Au(111) in the Vapor Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Sung; Kang, Hun Gu; Kim, You Young; Lee, Seong Keun; Noh, Jae Geun

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the direct adsorption of OTA on Au(111) in ethanol solution led to the formation of a disordered phase, whereas OTA SAMs grown from the vapor phase have an ordered 5 Χ √3 striped phase. Thus, vapor deposition was found to be a more effective technique, as compared to solution deposition, for improving the structural order of SAMs by direct adsorption of thioacetates on gold. Organic thiols are prone to easily oxidize to disulfides or other oxidized species that can affect the formation and structure of SAMs. The presence of disulfides or oxidized compounds in thiol samples often yields poorly ordered SAMs containing a high defect density and disordered phases. An approach that minimizes undesirable thiol oxidation is the use of a protected thiol that is deprotected in situ before or during SAM formation. The protection of thiol groups can be readily accomplished by acetylation. SAMs derived from acetyl protected thiols (thioacetates) on gold have usually been formed via an in situ deprotection process of the acetyl group in strong acidic or basic solutions. Other deprotection techniques have also been developed that use organic compounds such as triethylamine, tetrabutylammonium cyanide, and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, and organic SAMs with a high degree of structural order have been successfully constructed in solutions containing these deprotection reagents

  12. Confined Pattern-Directed Assembly of Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles in a Phase Separating Blend with a Homopolymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren; Lee, Bongjoon; Bockstaller, Michael R; Douglas, Jack F; Stafford, Christopher M; Kumar, Sanat K; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Karim, Alamgir

    The controlled organization of nanoparticle (NP) constituents into superstructures of well-defined shape, composition and connectivity represents a continuing challenge in the development of novel hybrid materials for many technological applications. We show that the phase separation of polymer-tethered nanoparticles immersed in a chemically different polymer matrix provides an effective and scalable method for fabricating defined submicron-sized amorphous NP domains in melt polymer thin films. We investigate this phenomenon with a view towards understanding and controlling the phase separation process through directed nanoparticle assembly. In particular, we consider isothermally annealed thin films of polystyrene-grafted gold nanoparticles (AuPS) dispersed in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. Classic binary polymer blend phase separation related morphology transitions, from discrete AuPS domains to bicontinuous to inverse domain structure with increasing nanoparticle composition is observed, yet the kinetics of the AuPS/PMMA polymer blends system exhibit unique features compared to the parent PS/PMMA homopolymer blend. We further illustrate how to pattern-align the phase-separated AuPS nanoparticle domain shape, size and location through the imposition of a simple and novel external symmetry-breaking perturbation via soft-lithography. Specifically, submicron-sized topographically patterned elastomer confinement is introduced to direct the nanoparticles into kinetically controlled long-range ordered domains, having a dense yet well-dispersed distribution of non-crystallizing nanoparticles. The simplicity, versatility and roll-to-roll adaptability of this novel method for controlled nanoparticle assembly should make it useful in creating desirable patterned nanoparticle domains for a variety of functional materials and applications.

  13. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Diamond Nanoparticles onto Al- and N-Polar Sputtered Aluminum Nitride Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Yoshikawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic self-assembly of diamond nanoparticles (DNPs onto substrate surfaces (so-called nanodiamond seeding is a notable technique, enabling chemical vapor deposition (CVD of nanocrystalline diamond thin films on non-diamond substrates. In this study, we examine this technique onto differently polarized (either Al- or N-polar c-axis oriented sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN film surfaces. This investigation shows that Al-polar films, as compared to N-polar ones, obtain DNPs with higher density and more homogeneously on their surfaces. The origin of these differences in density and homogeneity is discussed based on the hydrolysis behavior of AlN surfaces in aqueous suspensions.

  14. Hydrophobicity-driven self-assembly of protein and silver nanoparticles for protein detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Mehmet; Balz, Ben N; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2013-05-21

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a promising analytical technique for the detection and characterization of biological molecules and structures. The role of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces in the self-assembly of protein-metallic nanoparticle structures for label-free protein detection is demonstrated. Aggregation is driven by both the hydrophobicity of the surface as well as the charge of the proteins. The best conditions for obtaining a reproducible SERS signal that allows for sensitive, label-free protein detection are provided by the use of hydrophobic surfaces and 16 × 10(11) NPs per mL. A detection limit of approximately 0.5 μg mL(-1) is achieved regardless of the proteins' charge properties and size. The developed method is simple and can be used for reproducible and sensitive detection and characterization of a wide variety of biological molecules and various structures with different sizes and charge status.

  15. Large-Area Direct Laser-Shock Imprinting of a 3D Biomimic Hierarchical Metal Surface for Triboelectric Nanogenerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shengyu; Wang, Yixiu; Motlag, Maithilee; Gao, Shengjie; Xu, Jin; Nian, Qiong; Wu, Wenzhuo; Cheng, Gary J

    2018-03-01

    Ongoing efforts in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) focus on enhancing power generation, but obstacles concerning the economical and cost-effective production of TENGs continue to prevail. Micro-/nanostructure engineering of polymer surfaces has been dominantly utilized for boosting the contact triboelectrification, with deposited metal electrodes for collecting the scavenged energy. Nevertheless, this state-of-the-art approach is limited by the vague potential for producing 3D hierarchical surface structures with conformable coverage of high-quality metal. Laser-shock imprinting (LSI) is emerging as a potentially scalable approach for directly surface patterning of a wide range of metals with 3D nanoscale structures by design, benefiting from the ultrahigh-strain-rate forming process. Here, a TENG device is demonstrated with LSI-processed biomimetic hierarchically structured metal electrodes for efficient harvesting of water-drop energy in the environment. Mimicking and transferring hierarchical microstructures from natural templates, such as leaves, into these water-TENG devices is effective regarding repelling water drops from the device surface, since surface hydrophobicity from these biomicrostructures maximizes the TENG output. Among various leaves' microstructures, hierarchical microstructures from dried bamboo leaves are preferable regarding maximizing power output, which is attributed to their unique structures, containing both dense nanostructures and microscale features, compared with other types of leaves. Also, the triboelectric output is significantly improved by closely mimicking the hydrophobic nature of the leaves in the LSI-processed metal surface after functionalizing it with low-surface-energy self-assembled-monolayers. The approach opens doors to new manufacturable TENG technologies for economically feasible and ecologically friendly production of functional devices with directly patterned 3D biomimic metallic surfaces in energy

  16. Studies of the structure and phase transitions of nano-confined pentanedithiol and its application in directing hierarchical molecular assemblies on Au(1 1 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicki, Alison; Avery, Erin; Jurow, Matthew; Ewers, Bradley; Vilan, Ayelet; Drain, Charles Michael; Batteas, James

    2016-03-01

    Directing molecular devices into pre-designed integrated electronic circuits while enforcing selectivity and hierarchy is an inherent challenge for molecular electronics. Here we explore ways to direct the assembly of electrically-active molecular monolayers into specific locations as well as controlling their internal organization. We have accomplished this by two consecutive surface reactions: (1) forming pentanedithiol (C5DT) domains within an inert alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Au; and (2) selectively binding porphyrin derivatives to the C5DT domains. The C5DT domains were fabricated by phase segregation during co-adsorption from a mixed C5DT/dodecanethiol (C12) solution and nanografting with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM revealed that co-absorbed and nanografted C5DT domains were in a standing-up phase and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) showed that their molecular organization within about 5 nm, 40 nm, 50 nm and 120 nm domains, was dependent upon the size of the domain, such that structure of the C5DT transitions from (\\sqrt{3}   ×  \\sqrt{3} ) R30°, to (2  ×  2), and ultimately to a disordered phase with increasing domain size. This is due to the varying degrees of influence of the surrounding C12; providing sufficient van der Waals interactions as well as a geometric confinement to stabilize the standing-up phase of the C5DT. Understanding the molecular configuration of dithiol SAMs affords their use as a reactive template to subsequently bind active head groups. As a proof of principle, porphyrins with a pendant pentafluorophenyl ring were attached to the C5DT domains by a ‘click’ reaction between the fluorinated ring and the free thiol on the surface. From AFM and STM, these porphyrin derivatives reacted selectively with the C5DT domains with some porphyrins binding directly to the C5DT, subsequently allowing additional localized porphyrin deposition through pi-stacking.

  17. Directly thiolated modification onto the surface of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chuang, Hong; Cheng, Fong-Yu; Huang, Ying-Pei; Han, Chien-Chung; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Chen, Jen-Kun; Wu, Dian-Syue; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2014-05-28

    An efficient method for modifying the surface of detonation nanodiamonds (5 and 100 nm) with thiol groups (-SH) by using an organic chemistry strategy is presented herein. Thiolated nanodiamonds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, and the atomic percentage of sulfur was analyzed by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conjugation between thiolated nanodiamonds and gold nanoparticles was elucidated by transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrometry. Moreover, the material did not show significant cytotoxicity to the human lung carcinoma cell line and may prospectively be applied in bioconjugated technology. The new method that we elucidated may significantly improve the approach to surface modification of detonation nanodiamonds and build up a new platform for the application of nanodiamonds.

  18. Effect of surface roughness, chemical composition, and native oxide crystallinity on the orientation of self-assembled GaN nanowires on Ti foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, G.; Pettersen, S. V.; Pfüller, C.; Ramsteiner, M.; Grepstad, J. K.; Brandt, O.; Geelhaar, L.; Fernández-Garrido, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of almost randomly oriented, uniformly tilted, and vertically aligned self-assembled GaN nanowires (NWs), respectively, on different types of polycrystalline Ti foils. The NW orientation with respect to the substrate normal, which is affected by an in situ treatment of the foil surface before NW growth, depends on the crystallinity of the native oxide. Direct growth on the as-received foils results in the formation of ensembles of nearly randomly oriented NWs due to the strong roughening of the surface induced by chemical reactions between the impinging elements and Ti. Surface nitridation preceding the NW growth is found to reduce this roughening by transformation of the uppermost layers into TiN and TiO x N y species. These compounds are more stable against chemical reactions and facilitate the growth of uniformly oriented GaN NW ensembles on the surface of the individual grains of the polycrystalline Ti foils. If an amorphous oxide layer is present at the foil surface, vertically oriented NWs are obtained all across the substrate because this layer blocks the transfering of the epitaxial information from the underlying grains. The control of NW orientation and the understanding behind the achievement of vertically oriented NWs obtained in this study represent an important step towards the realization of GaN NW-based bendable devices on polycrystalline metal foils.

  19. Reactions of BBr(n)(+) (n = 0--2) at fluorinated and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayer surfaces: observations of chemical selectivity in ion--surface scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, N; Shen, J; Koskinen, J; Cooks, R G

    2001-07-01

    Ion-surface reactions involving BBr(n)(+) (n = 0--2) with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) surface were investigated using a multi-sector scattering mass spectrometer. Collisions of the B(+) ion yield BF(2)(+) at threshold energy with the simpler product ion BF(+)* appearing at higher collision energies and remaining of lower abundance than BF(2)(+) at all energies examined. In addition, the reactively sputtered ion CF(+) accompanies the formation of BF(2)(+) at low collision energies. These results stand in contrast with previous data on the ion-surface reactions of atomic ions with the F-SAM surface in that the threshold and most abundant reaction products in those cases involved the abstraction of a single fluorine atom. Gas-phase enthalpy data are consistent with BF(2)(+) being the thermodynamically favored product. The fact that the abundance of BF(2)(+) is relatively low and relatively insensitive to changes in collision energy suggests that this reaction proceeds through an entropically demanding intermediate at the vacuum--surface interface, one which involves interaction of the B(+) ion simultaneously with two fluorine atoms. By contrast with the reaction of B(+), the odd-electron species BBr(+)* reacts with the F-SAM surface to yield an abundant single-fluorine abstraction product, BBrF(+). Corresponding gas-phase ion--molecule experiments involving B(+) and BBr(+)* with C(6)F(14) also yield the products BF(+)* and BF(2)(+), but only in extremely low abundances and with no preference for double fluorine abstraction. Ion--surface reactions were also investigated for BBr(n)(+) (n = 0-2) with a hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayer (H-SAM) surface. Reaction of the B(+) ion and dissociative reactions of BBr(+)* result in the formation of BH(2)(+), while the thermodynamically less favorable product BH(+)* is not observed. Collisions of BBr(2)(+) with the H-SAM surface yield the dissociative ion-surface reaction products, BBrH(+) and BBrCH(3

  20. The directed self-assembly for the surface patterning by electron beam II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Sachiko T.

    2015-03-01

    When a low-energy electron beam (EB) or a low-energy ion beam (IB) irradiates a crystal of zincblende (ZnS)-type as crystalline Si (c-Si), a very similar {311} planar defect is often observed. Here, we used a molecular dynamics simulation for a c-Si that included uniformly distributed Frenkel-pairs, assuming a wide beam and sparse distribution of defects caused by each EB. We observed the formation of ? linear defects, which agglomerate to form planar defects labeled with the Miller index {311} as well as the case of IB irradiation. These were identified by a crystallographic analysis called pixel mapping (PM) method. The PM had suggested that self-interstitial atoms may be stabilized on a specific frame of a lattice made of invisible metastable sites in the ZnS-type crystal. This agglomeration appears as {311} planar defects. It was possible at a much higher temperature than room temperature,for example, at 1000 K. This implies that whatever disturbance may bring many SIAs in a ZnS-type crystal, elevated lattice vibration promotes self-organization of the SIAs to form {311} planar defects according to the frame of metastable lattice as is guided by a chart presented by crystallography.

  1. Phosphorene-directed self-assembly of asymmetric PS-b-PMMA block copolymer for perpendicularly-oriented sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziming; Zheng, Lu; Khurram, Muhammad; Yan, Qingfeng

    2017-10-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus, also known as phosphorene, is a new two-dimensional material which is of enormous interest for applications, mainly in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we for the first time employ phosphorene for directing the self-assembly of asymmetric polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer (BCP) thin film to form the perpendicular orientation of sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays in a hexagonal fashion normal to the interface. We experimentally demonstrate that none of the PS and PMMA blocks exhibit preferential affinity to the phosphorene-modified surface. Furthermore, the perpendicularly-oriented PS nanostructures almost stay unchanged with the variation of number of layers of few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes between 15-30 layers. Differing from the neutral polymer brushes which are widely used for chemical modification of the silicon substrate, phosphorene provides a novel physical way to control the interfacial interactions between the asymmetric PS-b-PMMA BCP thin film and the silicon substrate. Based on our results, it is possible to build a new scheme for producing sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays oriented perpendicularly to the few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes. Furthermore, the nanostructural microdomains could serve as a promising nanolithography template for surface patterning of phosphorene nanoflakes.

  2. Improvement of silicon direct bonding using surfaces activated by hydrogen plasma treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, W B; Lee Jae Sik; Sung, M Y

    2000-01-01

    The plasma surface treatment, using hydrogen gas, of silicon wafers was studied as a pretreatment for silicon direct bonding. Chemical reactions of the hydrogen plasma with the surfaces were used for both surface activation and removal of surface contaminants. Exposure of the silicon wafers to the plasma formed an active oxide layer on the surface. This layer was hydrophilic. The surface roughness and morphology were examined as functions of the plasma exposure time and power. The surface became smoother with shorter plasma exposure time and lower power. In addition, the plasma surface treatment was very efficient in removing the carbon contaminants on the silicon surface. The value of the initial surface energy, as estimated by using the crack propagation method, was 506 mJ/M sup 2 , which was up to about three times higher than the value for the conventional direct bonding method using wet chemical treatments.

  3. Polymer Vesicles as Robust Scaffolds for the Directed Assembly of Highly Crystalline Nanocrystals †

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingfeng

    2009-12-15

    We report the incorporation of various inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) (PbS, LaOF, LaF3, and TiO2, each capped by oleic acid, and CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs capped by trioctylphosphine oxide) into vesicles (d = 70-150 nm) formed by a sample of poly(styrene-b-acrylic acid) (PS4o4-b-PAA 62, where the subscripts refer to the degree of polymerization) in mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF), dioxane, and water. The block copolymer formed mixtures of crew-cut micelles and vesicles with some enhancement of the vesicle population when the NPs were present. The vesicle fraction could be isolated by selective sedimentation via centrifugation, followed by redispersion in water. The NPs appeared to be incorporated into the PAA layers on the internal and external walls of the vesicles (strongly favoring the former). NPs on the exterior surface of the vesicles could be removed completely by treating the samples with a solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) in water. The triangular nanoplatelets of LaF3 behaved differently. Stacks of these platelets were incorporated into solid colloidal entities, similar in size to the empty vesicles that accompanied them, during the coassembly as water was added to the polymer/LaF3/THF/ dioxane mixture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Self-assembled diacetylene molecular wire polymerization on an insulating hexagonal boron nitride (0001) surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makarova, Marina; Okawa, Y.; Verveniotis, E.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Joachim, Ch.; Aono, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 39 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 395303. ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : molecular self-assembly * insulating substrate * molecular electronics * polydiacetylene Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2016

  5. Work functions of self-assembled monolayers on metal surfaces by first-principles calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusu, P.C.; Brocks, G.

    2006-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations we show that the work function of noble metals can be decreased or increased by up to 2 eV upon the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers of organic molecules. We identify the contributions to these changes for several (fluorinated) thiolate molecules adsorbed

  6. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buice, E.S.; Alger, E.T.; Antipa, N.A.; Bhandarkar, S.D.; Biesiada, T.A.; Conder, A.D.; Dzenitis, E.G.; Flegel, M.S.; Hamza, A.V.; Heinbockel, C.L.; Horner, J.; Johnson, M.A.; Kegelmeyer, L.M.; Meyer, J.S.; Montesanti, R.C.; Reynolds, J.L.; Taylor, J.S.; Wegner, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 (micro)m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10(micro) diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1σ), which corresponds to approximately 5 (micro)m linear error on the capsule surface.

  7. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buice, E S; Alger, E T; Antipa, N A; Bhandarkar, S D; Biesiada, T A; Conder, A D; Dzenitis, E G; Flegel, M S; Hamza, A V; Heinbockel, C L; Horner, J; Johnson, M A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Meyer, J S; Montesanti, R C; Reynolds, J L; Taylor, J S; Wegner, P J

    2011-02-18

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 {micro}m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10{micro} diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1{sigma}), which corresponds to approximately 5 {micro}m linear error on the capsule surface.

  8. Micro-lubrication of Directionally Oriented Contact Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maršálek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of the set of software tools for detailed computational modelling of thin lubrication layers behaviour is presented in this paper. Individual chapters outline reasons for realization of its each part, explain the functionality of each software tool and the given mathematical definition or digital implementation of all important equations or formulae. The following are examples of partial results of the analysis carried out and the resulting flow factors databases for some kinds of rough surfaces, together with an example of the analysis result of the connecting rod sliding bearing of supercharged internal combustion engine.

  9. Convexity of Yield Surface with Directional Distortional Hardening Rules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plešek, Jiří; Feigenbaum, H. P.; Dafalias, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 4 (2010), s. 477-484 ISSN 0733-9399 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GA101/09/1630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : plasticity * elastoplasticity * yield surface * anisotropy Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.956, year: 2010 http:// apps .isiknowledge.cyom/summary.do?qid=1&product=WOS&SID=V14j7FndmFC1GJLOJm7&search_mode=GeneralSearch

  10. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min-Jung, E-mail: dslim@korea.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Device Materials, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-17

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a {zeta}-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and {approx} 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  11. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon; Song, Min-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a ζ-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and ∼ 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 ± 0.4 x 10 11 cm -2 ) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  12. The direct and indirect effects of fire on the assembly of insect herbivore communities: examples from the Florida scrub habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tania N; Holt, Robert D

    2012-04-01

    Disturbance is a major source of spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In fire-maintained systems, disturbance by fire is often used as a management tool to increase biological diversity, restore degraded habitats, and reduce pest outbreaks. Much attention has been given to how plant communities recover from fire, but relatively few studies have examined post-fire responses of higher order species, such as insect herbivores. Because dynamic feedbacks occur between plants and their consumers, which can in turn influence the response of the entire ecosystem, incorporating higher trophic level responses into our understanding of the effects of fire is essential. In this study, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to tease apart the direct and indirect effects of fire on insect herbivore assemblages found on three common oak species in the Florida scrub (Quercus inopina, Q. chapmanii, and Q. geminata). We investigated how fire affected herbivore abundance, richness, and community composition both directly and indirectly through environmental heterogeneity at different spatial scales (e.g., leaf quality, plant architecture, and habitat structure). We also investigated how seasonality and landscape heterogeneity influenced post-fire responses of insect herbivores and whether fire effects on herbivore assemblages varied among different host plants. Our general findings were that fire effects were (1) largely indirect, mediated through habitat structure (although direct fire effects were observed on Q. inopina herbivores), (2) non-linear through time due to self-thinning processes occurring in the scrub habitat, and (3) varied according to herbivore assemblage as a result of differences in the composition of species in each herbivore community. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to examine how fire influences the assembly of insect herbivore communities through both direct and indirect pathways and at multiple spatial scales.

  13. Underway sea surface temperature and salinity data from thermosalinographs collected from multiple platforms assembled by NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains sea surface oceanographic data in netCDF and ASCII formatted files assembled by the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological...

  14. Chemical template directed iodine patterns on the octadecyltrichlorosilane surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuguang

    2008-01-01

    A carboxylic-terminated nanometer-scale chemical pattern on an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) surface can guide the deposition and crystallization of iodine, forming an iodine pattern on the chemical pattern. The iodine in the pattern is gel-like when fabricated by the solution-deposit method. In contrast, a dendritic, snowflake-shaped polycrystalline iodine sheet is formed by the vapor-phase condensation method. The data demonstrate that iodine is a good tracing and visualizing agent for studying liquid behavior at the nano scale. The topography of the iodine stain reveals that the "coffee ring" effect can be suppressed by reducing the pattern size and increasing the evaporation rate. The chemical template-bound iodine pattern has an unusually low vapor pressure and it can withstand prolonged baking at elevated temperature, which differs significantly from bulk iodine crystals.

  15. Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-08-05

    We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps are to isolate the back-scattered surface waves, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. A deconvolution filter derived from the data can be used to collapse a dispersive arrival into a non-dispersive event. Results with synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. Applying this method to USArray data or passively recorded exploration data might open new opportunities in mapping tectonic features over the extent of the array.

  16. Spectroscopic evaluation of surface functionalization efficiency in the preparation of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane self-assembled monolayers on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Piersandro; Dacarro, Giacomo; Galli, Matteo; Patrini, Maddalena

    2009-04-15

    Four synthetic protocols have been examined for the preparation of a self-assembled monolayer of propanethiol functions on glass surfaces, through the wet reaction of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) on glass slides, in order to determine an optimal method to obtain dense -SH monolayers for further reaction with maleimide-bearing molecules. We have also demonstrated that the surface density of reactive -SH groups can be indagated by the coupling reaction with a maleimide-functionalized rhodamine dye and by the examination of the absorption spectra of the glass slides. The reaction of MPTS in dry toluene gives the most dense surface of reactive thiols, among the examined protocols. We have also evidenced that thermal curing of the MPTS functionalized slides induces thiol coupling and -S-S- formation, resulting in a dramatically lowered availability of -SH groups.

  17. Achieving a slippery, liquid-infused porous surface with anti-icing properties by direct deposition of flame synthesized aerosol nanoparticles on a thermally fragile substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Paxton; Haapanen, Janne; Stenroos, Christian; Niemelä-Anttonen, Henna; Harra, Juha; Koivuluoto, Heli; Teisala, Hannu; Lahti, Johanna; Tuominen, Mikko; Kuusipalo, Jurkka; Vuoristo, Petri; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.

    2017-04-01

    Slippery, liquid-infused porous surfaces offer a promising route for producing omniphobic and anti-icing surfaces. Typically, these surfaces are made as a coating with expensive and time consuming assembly methods or with fluorinated films and oils. We report on a route for producing liquid-infused surfaces, which utilizes a liquid precursor fed oxygen-hydrogen flame to produce titania nanoparticles deposited directly on a low-density polyethylene film. This porous nanocoating, with thickness of several hundreds of nanometers, is then filled with silicone oil. The produced surfaces are shown to exhibit excellent anti-icing properties, with an ice adhesion strength of ˜12 kPa, which is an order of magnitude improvement when compared to the plain polyethylene film. The surface was also capable of maintaining this property even after cyclic icing testing.

  18. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...

  19. DNA self-assembly-driven positioning of molecular components on nanopatterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymonik, M.; Davies, A. G.; Wälti, C.

    2016-09-01

    We present a method for the specific, spatially targeted attachment of DNA molecules to lithographically patterned gold surfaces—demonstrated by bridging DNA strands across nanogap electrode structures. An alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer was employed as a molecular resist, which could be selectively removed via electrochemical desorption, allowing the binding of thiolated DNA anchoring oligonucleotides to each electrode. After introducing a bridging DNA molecule with single-stranded ends complementary to the electrode-tethered anchoring oligonucleotides, the positioning of the DNA molecule across the electrode gap, driven by self-assembly, occurred autonomously. This demonstrates control of molecule positioning with resolution limited only by the underlying patterned structure, does not require any alignment, is carried out entirely under biologically compatible conditions, and is scalable.

  20. Tuning the EDTA-induced self-assembly and plasmonic spectral properties of gold nanorods: application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian-jun; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Chun-yu; Zhu, Jian; Zhao, Jun-wu

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-protected colloidal gold nanorods with different aspect ratios has been studied by adding the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Both the assembly strength and assembly configuration fashion of the gold nanorods could be tuned by changing the aspect ratio. For gold nanorods with small aspect ratio, side-by-side assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the blue shift of the longitudinal absorption and the increase of the transverse absorption lead to the great uplift of the middle spectrum dip as the EDTA is increased. For gold nanorods with large aspect ratio, end-to-end assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the longitudinal absorption peak fades down rapidly and a tailing absorption peak at longer wavelength uplifts greatly as the EDTA is increased. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the assembled gold nanorods has been studied using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as the Raman active probe. It has been found that both the side-by-side assembly and end-to-end assembly of the gold nanorods could effectively improve the Raman signal of the AFP. And the gold nanorod substrate with side-by-side assembly has higher SERS activity. Graphical Abstract: Side-by-side assembly of gold nanorods leads to the middle spectrum dip of LSPR uplift greatly as the EDTA is increased, which also effectively improves the SERS activity

  1. Room temperature wafer direct bonding of smooth Si surfaces recovered by Ne beam surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Yuichi; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Takagi, Hideki

    2013-06-01

    We examined the applicability of a Ne fast atom beam (FAB) to surface activated bonding of Si wafers at room temperature. With etching depth more than 1.5 nm, the bonding strength comparable to Si bulk strength was attained. Moreover, we found the improvement of the bonding strength by surface smoothing effect of the Ne FAB. Silicon surface roughness decreased from 0.40 to 0.17 nm rms by applying a Ne FAB of 30 nm etching depth. The bonding strength between surfaces recovered by Ne FAB surface smoothing was largely improved and finally became equivalent to Si bulk strength.

  2. Surface Modification of Self-Assembled Graphene Oxide for Cell Culture Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, John E., III

    Thin films show great promise for biological applications, from in situ monitoring to pharmaceutical testing. In this study, a graphene oxide (GO) thin film is prepared with the aim to further functionalize the film for pharmaceutical toxicity screening applications. GO was selected due to its capability to be reduced into an optically transparent and electrically conductive thin film. In addition, GO is derived from carbon, a widely abundant element, in contrast to many other thin films that rely on resource-limited precious metals. Special care was taken to select GO and GO film synthesis methods that minimize the amount of organic-based solvents, maintain reactions at atmospheric pressure and moderate temperatures, and are scalable for manufacturing. Chemical oxidation of graphite flakes was carried out via a modified Hummer's Method with a pre-oxidation step. The resulting GO flakes were self-assembled using commercially available 4-sulfocalix[4]arene. Analytical characterizations (e.g., elemental analysis, XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM, AFM) were performed to evaluate the success of graphite oxidation and formation of the self-assembled thin film. In order to gain a better understanding of the interactions between GO and sulfocalix (SCX), equilibrium conformations of the SCX molecule and truncated GO were calculated using Spartan'16 Parallels. This study demonstrates that the interaction between the GO and the SCX molecule to create a self-assembled thin film is the result of pi-pi stacking, as hypothesized by Sundramoorthy et al. (2015). The self-assembled GO film was successfully deposited on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate and functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), which renders the film capable of further functionalization with proteins for yielding a three-dimensional cell culture or co-culture platform for different applications.

  3. Self-assembly of nanoparticles onto the surfaces of polystyrene spheres with a tunable composition and loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilapil, Brandy K; Wang, Michael C P; Paul, Michael T Y; Nazemi, Amir; Gates, Byron D

    2015-02-06

    Functional colloidal materials were prepared by design through the self-assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) on the surfaces of polystyrene (PS) spheres with control over NP surface coverage, NP-to-NP spacing, and NP composition. The ability to control and fine tune the coating was extended to the first demonstration of the co-assembly of NPs of dissimilar composition onto the same PS sphere, forming a multi-component coating. A broad range of NP decorated PS (PS@NPs) spheres were prepared with uniform coatings attributed to electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions between stabilizing groups on the NPs and the functionalized surfaces of the PS spheres. This versatile two-step method provides more fine control than methods previously demonstrated in the literature. These decorated PS spheres are of interest for a number of applications, such as catalytic reactions where the PS spheres provide a support for the dispersion, stabilization, and recovery of NP catalysts. The catalytic properties of these PS@NPs spheres were assessed by studying the catalytic degradation of azo dyes, an environmental contaminant detrimental to eye health. The PS@NPs spheres were used in multiple, sequential catalytic reactions while largely retaining the NP coating.

  4. Self-Assembled Films as Corrosion Protective Coatings for Metal Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Gary

    1996-01-01

    .... Monolayers of stearic acid on aluminum surfaces were found to profoundly affect the wettability of Al surfaces by concentrated sulfuric acid, but not to act as a significant barrier to corrosion...

  5. Comb polymer architecture and particle size effects on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks for direct-write assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Jun

    Biphasic nanoparticle mixtures composed of attractive and repulsive colloidal species enable the direct-write assembly of 3D structures with much finer features than those produced by pure colloidal gels. These mixtures rely on the use of comb polymer dispersants to render one particle population stable, while the other population is attractive. In this thesis, we systematically investigate the effects of comb polymer architecture and particle size ratio on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks with the overarching aim of further advancing the direct-write assembly of 3D colloidal structures. We first investigated the effects of both pure polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and comb polymer dispersants composed of a PMAA backbone with methoxy-poly(ethylene oxide) (mPEO) teeth of varying molecular weights on the stability of barium titanate (BaTiO 3) suspensions. While each dispersant imparts stability to BaTiO 3 nanoparticles at low ionic strength (teeth (MWteeth = 2000) provides stability at higher ionic strengths over a broad range of particle sizes and counterion valencies. These results provide guidelines for tailoring the molecular architecture and functionality of comb polymer dispersants for optimal stabilization of the repulsive particle population within the biphasic inks. Next, particle size effects on the rheological properties of biphasic nanoparticle suspensions are studied. Shear elastic modulus, shear yield stress, and compressive yield stress are measured for mixtures of varying total volume fraction, attractive-to-repulsive volume fraction, and particle size ratio between attractive and repulsive species. Our observations indicate that the repulsive particles hinder the formation of the attractive gel network. The time required for shear elastic modulus to approach a steady-state value increases with the fraction of repulsive species. Furthermore, this behavior becomes more significant with increasing

  6. Simulation of self-assembled nanopatterns in binary alloys on the fcc(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Sebastian

    2008-07-01

    In this PhD thesis, we study the heteroepitaxial crystal growth by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Of particular interest in this work is the influence of the lattice mismatch of the adsorbates relative to the substrate on surface structures. In the framework of an off-lattice model, we consider one monolayer of adsorbate and investigate the emerging nanopatterns in equilibrium and their formation during growth. In chapter 1, a brief introduction is given, which describes the role of computer simulations in the field of the physics of condensed matter. Chapter 2 is devoted to some technical basics of experimental methods of molecular beam epitaxy and the theoretical description. Before a model for the simulation can be designed, it is necessary to make some considerations of the single processes which occur during epitaxial growth. For that purpose we look at an experimental setup and extract the main microscopic processes. Afterwards a brief overview of different theoretical concepts describing that physical procedures is given. In chapter 3, the model used in the simulations is presented. The aim is to investigate the growth of an fcc crystal in the [111] direction. In order to keep the simulation times within a feasible limit a simple pair potential, the Lennard-Jones potential, with continuous particle positions is used, which are necessary to describe effects resulting from the atomic mismatch in the crystal. Furthermore the detailed algorithm is introduced which is based on the idea to calculate the barrier of each diffusion event and to use the barriers in a rejection-free method. Chapter 4 is attended to the simulation of equilibrium. The influence of different parameters on the emerging structures in the first monolayer upon the surface, which is completely covered with two adsorbate materials, is studied. Especially the competition between binding energy and strain leads to very interesting pattern formations like islands or stripes. In chapter 5 the

  7. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, J; Charas, A; Matos, M; Alcacer, L; Cacialli, F

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  8. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Jorge [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Barbagallo, Nunzio [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Charas, Ana [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Matos, Manuel [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro-1, P-1949-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Alcacer, Luis [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Cacialli, Franco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-07

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  9. Simultaneous synthesis and assembly of silver nanoparticles to three-demensional superstructures for sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqiong; Wang, Wenqin; Chen, Tao; Chen, Zhong-Ren

    2014-12-10

    Construction of superstructures with controllable morphologies from NPs is of great scientific and technological importance. A one-step method for simultaneous synthesis and assembly of Ag NPs to three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous superstructures is demonstrated. By varying the adsorption time of Ag precursors, an array of well-defined Ag superstructures with different morphologies are harvested. A "hot spot"-rich substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is established, which exhibits high sensitivity in trace detection of molecules. It is believed that the presented 3D nanoporous Ag superstructures hold great potential for various uses, such as novel multifunctional sensing and monitoring chips or devices.

  10. Shape evolution of three-dimensional periodic structure fabricated by direct-write assembly of concentrated colloidal gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Scope and Method of Study. 3D periodic structures were fabricated by direct-write assembly of concentrated colloidal gels with self-supporting features. The rheological behavior of the gel was characterized in linear viscoelastic regions. The flow behavior of the gel was modeled by using structural kinetics theory. Based on this model, the dynamic extrusion process of the gel was simulated by incorporating slip wall boundary conditions. A viscoelastic catenary model was developed to describe span shape and compare the results to previous results that used a simple elastic beam theory. The shape evolution (i.e., spanning behavior) of spanning filaments observed was related to shear stress conditions and a limited set of rheological parameters. Findings and Conclusions. The rate and magnitude of microstructure change within a colloidal gel ink are crucial factors for shape evolution of 3D structures assembled by direct write techniques. The events that set the equilibrium shape of 3D structure occur within the initial few seconds after deposition and gels microstructure recovery within this period is critical to geometric fidelity. The shape evolution of 3D structures may be predicted by knowledge of the rheological behavior of the colloidal gel in shear loading. Rheological behavior can be related to the structural recovery time of the colloidal gel and this may be measured with a series of equilibrium flow measurements. Successful completion of this research advances science-based ink design methods and optimization of deposition variables. Better control of shape evolution will lead to improvements in advanced applications such as photonic band gap structures, artificial bone structures, and metal-ceramic composites. The improved connections between time-dependent shear behavior and shape evolution in an extrusion process will also impact other industries (e.g., clay extrusion for catalytic converter substrates) and improve industrial productivity through better

  11. Gold cleaning methods for preparation of cell culture surfaces for self-assembled monolayers of zwitterionic oligopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Junko; Kageyama, Tatsuto; Myasnikova, Dina; Onishi, Kisaki; Kobayashi, Yuka; Taruno, Yoko; Kanai, Takahiro; Fukuda, Junji

    2018-01-15

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used to elucidate interactions between cells and material surface chemistry. Gold surfaces modified with oligopeptide SAMs exhibit several unique characteristics, such as cell-repulsive surfaces, micropatterns of cell adhesion and non-adhesion regions for control over cell microenvironments, and dynamic release of cells upon external stimuli under culture conditions. However, basic procedures for the preparation of oligopeptide SAMs, including appropriate cleaning methods of the gold surface before modification, have not been fully established. Because gold surfaces are readily contaminated with organic compounds in the air, cleaning methods may be critical for SAM formation. In this study, we examined the effects of four gold cleaning methods: dilute aqua regia, an ozone water, atmospheric plasma, and UV irradiation. Among the methods, UV irradiation most significantly improved the formation of oligopeptide SAMs in terms of repulsion of cells on the surfaces. We fabricated an apparatus with a UV light source, a rotation table, and HEPA filter, to treat a number of gold substrates simultaneously. Furthermore, UV-cleaned gold substrates were capable of detaching cell sheets without serious cell injury. This may potentially provide a stable and robust approach to oligopeptide SAM-based experiments for biomedical studies. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-assembled organic radicals on Au(111) surfaces: a combined ToF-SIMS, STM, and ESR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Matteo; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gorini, Lapo; Piras, Federica M; Caneschi, Andrea; Magnani, Agnese; Menichetti, Stefano; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-02-27

    Electron spin resonance (ESR), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) have been used in parallel to characterize the deposition on gold surface of a series of nitronyl nitroxide radicals. These compounds have been specifically synthesized with methyl-thio linking groups suitable to interact with the gold surface to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), which can be considered relevant in the research for molecular-based spintronics devices, as suggested in recent papers. The degree of the expected ordering on the surface of these SAMs has been tuned by varying the chemical structure of synthesized radicals. ToF-SIMS has been used to support the evidence of the occurrence of the deposition process. STM has shown the different qualities of the obtained SAMs, with the degree of local order increasing as the degree of freedom of the molecules on the surface is decreased. Finally, ESR has confirmed that the deposition process does not affect the paramagnetic characteristics of radicals and that it affords a complete single-layered coverage of the surface. Further, the absence of angular dependence in the spectra indicates that the small regions of local ordering do not give rise to a long-range order and suggests a quite large mobility of the radical on the surface, probably due to the weak interaction with gold provided by the methyl-thio linking group.

  13. Self-assembled nanowire formation during Cu deposition on atomically flat Vse2 surfaces studied by microscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollensteiner, S.; Spiecker, E.; Dieker, C.; Jaeger, W.; Adelung, R.; Kipp, L.; Skibowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembled metallic nanostructures gain increasing interest in nanotechnologies and might find application in future electronic device fabrication. Upon UHV deposition of copper onto cleaved layered crystals of VSe 2 , self-assembled networks of nanowires and nanoclusters are observed to form and found to be remarkably stable even during storage under ambient conditions and at moderately increased temperatures. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy combined with scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy have been used to characterize the arrangements, structure and dimensions of the nanostructures and the substrate before metal deposition. On the flat parts of the substrate, self-similar nanowire networks form with wire diameters ranging from 8 to 250 nm and mesh dimensions ranging from 0.35 to 10 μm. The nanowires are preferentially aligned along low-index crystal directions and possess polycrystalline structure. Nanoclusters are formed within the meshes of the nanowire network. A model for the self-assembled growth of nanostructures during metal deposition, which takes into account the electronic charge exchange of adsorbed atoms with the substrate, will be discussed

  14. Dependence of surface distribution of self-assembled InSb nanodots on surface morphology and spacer layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, M.; Olivier, E.J.; Coetsee, E.; Swart, H.C.; Neethling, J.H.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembled InSb nanodots (NDs) were grown on a GaSb (1 0 0) substrate using metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The effects of etching depth of the substrate and thickness of the GaSb buffer layer on the density and size distribution of single and double layer dots were studied for detector applications. The etch depth of the substrate was varied up to 30 μm. In this particular study, the dots were grown at 450 °C and the GaSb spacer thickness was varied between 50 nm and 200 nm. The optimum substrate etch depth was found to be 30 μm while the best spacer thickness was found to be 200 nm.

  15. Click-assembling triazole membrane on copper surface via one-step or two-steps and their corrosion inhibition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhen; Yu, Yinzhe; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Lixin; Feng, Likui; Zhang, Daquan

    2018-01-01

    Triazole membrane was prepared on copper surface via one-step or two-steps click chemistry reaction of azide and alkyne compounds. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) suggests the formation of triazole membrane on copper surface through both of one-step and two-steps click-assembling. The electrochemical results indicate that the protection efficiency of triazole click-assembling membrane forming via one-step is better than that for two-steps. The surface film on copper via one-step click-assembling is mainly composed of the triazole membrane. As for two-steps click-assembling, the triazole membrane is mainly produced in the defect of the alkyne inhibition film.

  16. Modeling directional effects in land surface temperature derived from geostationary satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Olander

    This PhD-thesis investigates the directional effects in land surface temperature (LST) estimates from the SEVIRI sensor onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites. The directional effects are caused by the land surface structure (i.e. tree size and shape) interacting with the changing...... the illumination geometry changes both over the course of the day and with the seasons. In the present study, the directional effects are assessed at different scales using a modeling approach. The model applied, the Modified Geometry Projection (MGP) model, represents the surface as a composite of four components...... that the magnitude of the directional effects mainly depends on the tree cover, with moderate tree covers (20-40 %) causing the largest directional effects but with significant effects also at much sparser tree cover. The magnitude is also highly dependent on the temperature difference between the surface components...

  17. Molecular Assembly of Hemin on Single-Crystal Au(111)-electrode Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ling; Ulstrup, Jens; Zhang, Jingdong

    also acts as catalyst in electrochemical reduction of dioxygen and other small inert molecules such as nitrogen monoxide, and in electrochemiluminescent detection of dioxygen, peroxide, DNA, and proteins. л-л interactions of hemin with carbon materials have been broadly studied. Hemin onnoble metal......-defined single-crystal Au(111)-electrodesurfaces using electrochemistry combined with scanning tunnelling microscopy under electrochemical control. Hemin gives two voltammetric peaks assigned to adsorbed monomers and dimmers (Fig. 1A). In situ STM shows that hemin self-assembles in ordered monolayers through non...

  18. Directed Self-assembly of Block Copolymer with Sub-15 nm Domain Spacing Using Nanoimprinted Photoresist Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhenbin; Zhang, Wenxu; Coughlin, E. Bryan; Xiao, Shuaigang; Russell, Thomas

    There has been increasing interest in preparing block copolymer thin films with ultra-small domain spacings for use as etching masks for ultra-high resolution nanolithography. One method to prepare block copolymer materials with small feature sizes is salt doping, increasing the Flory-Huggins interaction and allowing microphase separation to be maintained at lower molecular weights. Lamellae-forming P2VP- b-PS- b-P2VP block copolymer with various molecular weight was synthesized using RAFT polymerization with a dual functional chain transfer agent. Copper (II) Chloride or Gold (III) chloride was found to be selectively associated with P2VP block and increase the unfavorable interactions between PS and P2VP blocks, driving the disordered block copolymer into the ordered state. A 14 nm lamellar spacing of P2VP- b-PS- b-P2VP thin film was prepared using copper (II) Chloride doping after acetone vapor annealing on neutral brushes. Metallic nano-wire arrays were prepared after selective infiltration of platinum salt into the P2VP domain and oxygen plasma treatment. The directed self-assembly of salt doped P2VP- b-PS- b-P2VP triblock copolymer having long-rang lateral order on nanoimprinted photoresist templates with shallow trenches was also studied.

  19. Enhancing charge-storage capacity of non-volatile memory devices using template-directed assembly of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raju Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar; Kusuma, Damar Yoga; Lee, Pooi See; Srinivasan, M P

    2012-04-07

    We demonstrate the controlled fabrication of aggregates of gold nanoparticles as a means of enhancing the charge-storage capacity of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices by up to 300% at a low biasing voltage of ±4 V. Aggregates of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles were obtained by directed electrostatic self-assembly onto an underlying nanopattern of positively charged centers. The underlying nanopatterns consist of amine functionalized gold nanoparticle arrays formed using amphiphilic diblock copolymer reverse micelles as templates. The hierarchical self-organization leads to a twelve-fold increase in the number density of the gold nanoparticles and therefore significantly increases the charge storage centers for the MIS device. The MIS structure showed counterclockwise C-V hysteresis curves indicating a good memory effect. A memory window of 1 V was obtained at a low biasing voltage of ±4 V. Furthermore, C-t measurements conducted after applying a charging bias of 4 V showed that the charge was retained beyond 20,000 s. The proposed strategy can be readily adapted for fabricating next generation solution processible non-volatile memory devices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  20. Challenges in line edge roughness metrology in directed self-assembly lithography: placement errors and cross-line correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantoudis, Vassilios; Papavieros, George; Gogolides, Evangelos; Pret, Alessandro Vaglio; Pathangi, Hari; Gronheid, Roel

    2017-04-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) lithography poses challenges in line edge roughness (LER)/line width roughness metrology due to its self-organized and pitch-based nature. To cope with these challenges, a characterization approach with metrics and/or updates of the older ones is required. To this end, we focus on two specific challenges of DSA line patterns: (a) the large correlations between the left and right edges of a line (line wiggling) and (b) the cross-line correlations, i.e., the resemblance of wiggling fluctuations of nearby lines. The first is quantified by the line center roughness whose low-frequency part is related to the local placement errors of device structures. For the second, we introduce the c-factor correlation function, which quantifies the strength of the correlations between lines versus their horizontal distance in pitches. The proposed characterization approach is first illustrated and explained in synthesized scanning electron microscope images with full control of their dimensional and roughness parameters; it is then applied to the analysis of line/space patterns obtained with the Liu-Nealey flow (post-Polymethyl methacrylate removal and pattern transfer), revealing the effects of pattern transfer on roughness and uniformity. Finally, we calculate the c-factor function of various next-generation lithography techniques and show their distinct footprint on the extent of cross-line correlations.

  1. Selective Binding, Self-Assembly and Nanopatterning of the Creutz-Taube Ion on Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuliang; Lieberman, Marya; Hang, Qingling; Bernstein, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The surface attachment properties of the Creutz-Taube ion, i.e., [(NH3)5Ru(pyrazine)Ru(NH3)5]5+, on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic types of surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the Creutz-Taube ions only bound to hydrophilic surfaces, such as SiO2 and –OH terminated organic SAMs on gold substrates. No attachment of the ions on hydrophobic surfaces such as –CH3 terminated organic SAMs and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) thin film...

  2. Interactions of doxorubicin with self-assembled monolayer-modified electrodes: electrochemical, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and gravimetric studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieciecka, Dorota; Krysinski, Pawel

    2011-02-01

    We present the results on the partitioning of doxorubicin (DOX), a potent anticancer drug, through the model membrane system, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold electrodes. The monolayers were formed from alkanethiols of comparable length with different ω-terminal groups facing the aqueous electrolyte: the hydrophobic -CH(3) groups for the case of dodecanethiol SAMs or hydrophilic -OH groups of mercaptoundecanol SAMs. The electrochemical experiments combined with the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and gravimetric studies show that doxorubicin is likely adsorbed onto the surface of hydrophilic monolayer, while for the case of the hydrophobic one the drug mostly penetrates the monolayer moiety. The adsorption of the drug hinders further penetration of doxorubicin into the monolayer moiety.

  3. Molecular and electronic structure of osmium complexes confined to Au(111) surfaces using a self-assembled molecular bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, Ezequiel de la; Herrera, Santiago E.; Adam, Catherine; Méndez De Leo, Lucila P.; Calvo, Ernesto J.; Williams, Federico J., E-mail: fwilliams@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE-CONICET, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química-Física, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina)

    2015-11-14

    The molecular and electronic structure of Os(II) complexes covalently bonded to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) surfaces was studied by means of polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopies, scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. Attachment of the Os complex to the SAM proceeds via an amide covalent bond with the SAM alkyl chain 40° tilted with respect to the surface normal and a total thickness of 26 Å. The highest occupied molecular orbital of the Os complex is mainly based on the Os(II) center located 2.2 eV below the Fermi edge and the LUMO molecular orbital is mainly based on the bipyridine ligands located 1.5 eV above the Fermi edge.

  4. On the lipid head group hydration of floating surface monolayers bound to self-assembled molecular protein layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lösche, M.; Erdelen, C.; Rump, E.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of monomolecular layers of the protein streptavidin, specifically bound to biotin-functionalized lipid monolayers at aqueous surfaces, has been characterized. Neutron and X-ray reflectivity measurements allowed an assessment of the organization of these self-assembled systems...... with molecular resolution. Emphasis here is placed on the hydration of the lipid head groups in the bound state. For three functionalized lipids with spacers of different lengths between the biotin and their chains it was observed that the head groups were dehydrated in monolayers of the pure lipids, which were...... kept at low surface pressure before protein adsorption. The introduction of dipole moments at the interface by the admixture of phospholipids or the application of lateral pressure on the lipid monolayer before protein adsorption were found to impose an extension of the spacer moieties. The biotin...

  5. Multi-Chlorine-Substituted Self-Assembled Molecules As Anode Interlayers: Tuning Surface Properties and Humidity Stability for Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaofang; Huang, Liqiang; Zhang, Lifu; Ai, Qingyun; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

    2017-03-15

    Self-assembled small molecules (SASMs) are effective materials to improve the interfacial properties between a metal/metal oxide and the overlying organic layer. In this work, surface modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode by a series of Cl-containing SASMs has been exploited to control the surface properties of ITO and device performance for organic photovoltaics. Depending on the position and degrees of chlorination for SASMs, we could precisely manipulate the work function of the ITO electrode, and chemisorption of SASMs on ITO as well. Consequently, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.1% was achieved with tetrachlorobenzoic acid (2,3,4,5-CBA) SASM by a simple solution-processed method based on PTB7-Th-PC 71 BM heterojunction. More intriguingly, we discover that device performance is closely associated with the humidity of ambient conditions. When the humidity increases from 35-55% to 80-95%, device performance with 2,3,4,5-CBA has negligible reduction, in contrast with other SASMs that show a sharp reduction in PCEs. The increased device performance is primarily attributed to a matched work function, stable chemisorption, and beneficial wettability with overlying active layer. These findings suggest an available approach for manufacturing inexpensive, stable, efficient, and environmentally friendly organic photovoltaics by appropriate self-assembled small molecules.

  6. Self-assembled platinum nanoparticles on sulfonic acid-grafted graphene as effective electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinlin; Li, Yanhong; Li, Shengli; Jiang, San Ping

    2016-02-15

    In this article, sulfonic acid-grafted reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) were synthesized using a one-pot method under mild conditions, and used as Pt catalyst supports to prepare Pt/S-rGO electrocatalysts through a self-assembly route. The structure, morphologies and physicochemical properties of S-rGO were examined in detail by techniques such as atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The S-rGO nanosheets show excellent solubility and stability in water and the average particle size of Pt nanoparticles supported on S-rGO is ~3.8 nm with symmetrical and uniform distribution. The electrocatalytic properties of Pt/S-rGO were investigated for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In comparison to Pt supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/VC) and Pt/rGO, the Pt/S-rGO electrocatalyst exhibits a much higher electrocatalytic activity, faster reaction kinetics and a better stability. The results indicate that Pt/S-rGO is a promising and effective electrocatalyst for MOR of DMFCs.

  7. Exploitation of the S-layer self-assembly system for site directed immobilization of enzymes demonstrated for an extremophilic laminarinase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiggerl, Helga; Breitwieser, Andreas; de Roo, Guy; Verwoerd, Theo; Scḧaffer, Christina; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    2015-01-01

    A fusion protein based on the S-layer protein SbpA from Bacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 and the enzyme laminarinase (LamA) from Pyrococcus furiosus was designed and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Due to the construction principle, the S-layer fusion protein fully retained the self-assembly capability of the S-layer moiety, while the catalytic domain of LamA remained exposed at the outer surface of the formed protein lattice. The enzyme activity of the S-layer fusion protein monolayer obtained upon recrystallization on silicon wafers, glass slides and different types of polymer membranes was determined colorimetrically and related to the activity of sole LamA that has been immobilized with conventional techniques. LamA aligned within the S-layer fusion protein lattice in a periodic and orientated fashion catalyzed twice the glucose release from the laminarin polysaccharide substrate in comparison to the randomly immobilized enzyme. In combination with the good shelf-life and the high resistance towards temperature and diverse chemicals, these novel composites are regarded a promising approach for site-directed enzyme immobilization. PMID:18035441

  8. Ect2/Pbl acts via Rho and polarity proteins to direct the assembly of an isotropic actomyosin cortex upon mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, André; Vlassaks, Evi; Pichaud, Franck; Baum, Buzz

    2015-03-09

    Entry into mitosis is accompanied by profound changes in cortical actomyosin organization. Here, we delineate a pathway downstream of the RhoGEF Pbl/Ect2 that directs this process in a model epithelium. Our data suggest that the release of Pbl/Ect2 from the nucleus at mitotic entry drives Rho-dependent activation of Myosin-II and, in parallel, induces a switch from Arp2/3 to Diaphanous-mediated cortical actin nucleation that depends on Cdc42, aPKC, and Par6. At the same time, the mitotic relocalization of these apical protein complexes to more lateral cell surfaces enables Cdc42/aPKC/Par6 to take on a mitosis-specific function-aiding the assembly of a relatively isotropic metaphase cortex. Together, these data reveal how the repolarization and remodeling of the actomyosin cortex are coordinated upon entry into mitosis to provide cells with the isotropic and rigid form they need to undergo faithful chromosome segregation and division in a crowded tissue environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 1,n-glycols as dialdehyde equivalents in iridium-catalyzed enantioselective carbonyl allylation and iterative two-directional assembly of 1,3-polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Kim, In Su; Hassan, Abbas; Del Valle, David J; Krische, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Unstable? We're able! 1,n-Glycols serve as synthetic equivalents to unstable dialdehydes in two-directional carbonyl allylation from the alcohol oxidation level under iridium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation conditions. Iterative asymmetric allylation employing 1,3-propanediol enables the rapid assembly of protected 1,3-polyol substructures with exceptional levels of stereocontrol.

  10. Heater assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Ueng, Tzoushin.

    1991-01-01

    An electrical resistance heater, installed in the H1 borehole, is used to thermally perturb the rock mass through a controlled heating and cooling cycle. Heater power levels are controlled by a Variac power transformer and are measured by wattmeters. Temperatures are measured by thermocouples on the borehole wall and on the heater assembly. Power and temperature values are recorded by the DAS described in Chapter 12. The heater assembly consists of a 3.55-m (11.6-ft) long by 20.3-cm (8-in.) O.D., Type 304 stainless steel pipe, containing a tubular hairpin heating element. The element has a heated length of 3 m (9.84 ft). The power rating of the element is 10 kW; however, we plan to operate the unit at a maximum power of only 3 kW. The heater is positioned with its midpoint directly below the axis of the P2 borehole, as shown in the borehole configuration diagram. This heater midpoint position corresponds to a distance of approximately 8.5 m (27.9 ft) from the H1 borehole collar. A schematic of the heater assembly in the borehole is shown. The distance from the borehole collar to the closest point on the assembly (the front end) is 6.5 m (21.3 ft). A high-temperature inflatable packer, used to seal the borehole for moisture collection, is positioned 50 cm (19.7 in.) ahead of the heater front end. The heater is supported and centralized within the borehole by two skids, fabricated from 25-mm (1-in.) O.D. stainless steel pipe. Thermocouples are installed at a number of locations in the H1 borehole. Four thermocouples that are attached to the heater skin monitor temperatures on the outer surface of the can, while three thermocouples that are held in place by rock sections monitor borehole wall temperatures beneath the heater. Temperatures are also monitored at the heater terminal and on the packer hardware

  11. Surface Modification of Titanium with Heparin-Chitosan Multilayers via Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Shu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM, like biomimetic surface modification of titanium implants, is a promising method for improving its biocompatibility. In this paper chitosan (Chi and heparin (Hep multilayer was coated on pure titanium using a layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly technique. The Hep-Chi multilayer growth was carried out by first depositing a single layer of positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL on the NaOH-treated titanium substrate (negatively charged surface, followed by alternate deposition of negatively charged Hep and positively charged Chi, and terminated by an outermost layer of Chi. The multilayer was characterized by DR-FTIR, SEM, and AFM, and osteoblasts were cocultured with the modified titanium and untreated titanium surfaces, respectively, to evaluate their cytocompatibility in vitro. The results confirmed that Hep-Chi multilayer was fabricated gradually on the titanium surface. The Hep-Chi multilayer-coated titanium improved the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Thus, the approach described here may provide a basis for the preparation of modified titanium surfaces for use in dental or orthopedic implants.

  12. Growth and Functionality of Cells Cultured on Conducting and Semi-Conducting Surfaces Modified with Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra K. Aithal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioengineering of dermal and epidermal cells on surface modified substrates is an active area of research. The cytotoxicity, maintenance of cell phenotype and long-term functionality of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells on conducting indium tin oxide (ITO and semi-conducting, silicon (Si and gallium arsenide (GaAs, surfaces modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs containing amino (–NH2 and methyl (–CH3 end groups have been investigated. Contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopic studies show that the monolayers are conformal and preserve their functional end groups. Morphological analyses indicate that HDFs grow well on all substrates except GaAs, exhibiting their normal spindle-shaped morphology and exhibit no visible signs of stress or cytoplasmic vacuolation. Cell viability analyses indicate little cell death after one week in culture on all substrates except GaAs, where cells died within 6 h. Cells on all surfaces proliferate except on GaAs and GaAs-ODT. Cell growth is observed to be greater on SAM modified ITO and Si-substrates. Preservation of cellular phenotype assessed through type I collagen immunostaining and positive staining of HDF cells were observed on all modified surfaces except that on GaAs. These results suggest that conducting and semi-conducting SAM-modified surfaces support HDF growth and functionality and represent a promising area of bioengineering research.

  13. A direct role for the Sec1/Munc18-family protein Vps33 as a template for SNARE assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W; Jeffrey, Philip D; Zick, Michael; Phillips, Ben P; Wickner, William T; Hughson, Frederick M

    2015-09-04

    Fusion of intracellular transport vesicles requires soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and Sec1/Munc18-family (SM) proteins. Membrane-bridging SNARE complexes are critical for fusion, but their spontaneous assembly is inefficient and may require SM proteins in vivo. We report x-ray structures of Vps33, the SM subunit of the yeast homotypic fusion and vacuole protein-sorting (HOPS) complex, bound to two individual SNAREs. The two SNAREs, one from each membrane, are held in the correct orientation and register for subsequent complex assembly. Vps33 and potentially other SM proteins could thus act as templates for generating partially zipped SNARE assembly intermediates. HOPS was essential to mediate SNARE complex assembly at physiological SNARE concentrations. Thus, Vps33 appears to catalyze SNARE complex assembly through specific SNARE motif recognition. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Surface functionalization for self-referencing surface plasmon resonance /SPR/ biosensors by multi-step self assembly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boozer, C.; Yu, Q.; Chen, S.; Lee, Ch.-Y.; Homola, Jiří; Yee, S. S.; Jiang, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 90, 1/3 (2003), s. 22-30 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : biosensors * surface plasmon resonance * optical sensors Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2003

  15. Development of self-assembled molecular structures on polymeric surfaces and their applications as ultrasonically responsive barrier coatings for on-demand, pulsatile drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Connie Sau-Kuen

    Nature in the form of DNA, proteins, and cells has the remarkable ability to interact with its environment by processing biological information through specific molecular recognition at the interface. As such, materials that are capable of triggering an appropriate biological response need to be engineered at the biomaterial surface. Chemically and structurally well-defined self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), biomimetics of the lipid bilayer in cell membranes, have been created and studied mostly on rigid metallic surfaces. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of methods to generate a molecularly designed surface for biomedical polymers and thus provides an enabling technology to engineer a polymeric surface precisely at a molecular and cellular level. To take this innovation one step further, we demonstrated that such self-assembled molecular structure coated on drug-containing polymeric devices could act as a stimulus-responsive barrier for controlled drug delivery. A simple, one-step procedure for generating ordered, crystalline methylene chains on polymeric surfaces via urethane linkages was successfully developed. The self-assemblies and molecular structures of these crystalline methylene chains are comparable to the SAM model surfaces, as evidenced by various surface characterization techniques (XPS, TOF-SIMS, and FTIR-ATR). For the first time, these self-assembled molecular structures are shown to function collectively as an ultrasound-responsive barrier membrane for pulsatile drug delivery, including delivery of low-molecular-weight ciprofloxacin and high-molecular-weight insulin. Encouraging results, based on the insulin-activated deoxyglucose uptakes in adipocytes, indicate that the released insulin remained biologically active. Both chemical and acoustic analyses suggest that the ultrasound-assisted release mechanism is primarily induced by transient cavitation, which causes temporary disruption of the self-assembled overlayer, and thus allows

  16. Characterization of Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers and Surface-Attached Interlocking Molecules Using Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, T; Willey, T

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the fundamental structure and substrate binding, as well as the direct measurement of conformational changes, are essential to the development of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and surface-attached interlocking molecules, catenanes and rotaxanes. These monolayers are vital to development of nano-mechanical, molecular electronic, and biological/chemical sensor applications. This dissertation investigates properties of functionalized SAMs in sulfur-gold based adsorbed molecular monolayers using quantitative spectroscopic techniques including near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of the gold-thiolate interface is addressed. A simple model SAM consisting of dodecanethiol adsorbed on Au(111) degrades significantly in less than 24 hours under ambient laboratory air. S 2p and O 1s XPS show the gold-bound thiolates oxidize to sulfinates and sulfonates. A reduction of organic material on the surface and a decrease in order are observed as the layer degrades. The effect of the carboxyl vs. carboxylate functionalization on SAM structure is investigated. Carboxyl-terminated layers consisting of long alkyl-chain thiols vs. thioctic acid with short, sterically separated, alkyl groups are compared and contrasted. NEXAFS shows a conformational change, or chemical switchability, with carboxyl groups tilted over and carboxylate endgroups more upright. Surface-attached loops and simple surface-attached rotaxanes are quantitatively characterized, and preparation conditions that lead to desired films are outlined. A dithiol is often insufficient to form a molecular species bound at each end to the substrate, while a structurally related disulfide-containing polymer yields surface-attached loops. Similarly, spectroscopic techniques show the successful production of a simple, surface-attached rotaxane that requires a ''molecular riveting'' step to hold the mechanically attached

  17. Self-assembling behaviour of Pt nanoparticles onto surface of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    platinum) onto the surface of host support (titanium dioxide) during photodeposition process as a function of solution pH has been explored in detail by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the ...

  18. Ionic self-assembly of surface functionalized metal-organic polyhedra nanocages and their ordered honeycomb architecture at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yantao; Zhang, Daojun; Gai, Fangyuan; Zhu, Xingqi; Guo, Ya-nan; Ma, Tianliang; Liu, Yunling; Huo, Qisheng

    2012-08-18

    Metal-organic polyhedra (MOP) nanocages were successfully surface functionalized via ionic self-assembly and the ordered honeycomb architecture of the encapsulated MOP nanocages was also fabricated at the air/water surface. The results provide a novel synthetic method and membrane processing technique of amphiphilic MOP nanocages for various applications.

  19. Direct measurement of surface-state conductance by microscopic four-point probe method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanikawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    For in situ measurements of local electrical conductivity of well defined crystal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum, we have developed microscopic four-point probes with a probe spacing of several micrometres, installed in a scanning-electron - microscope/electron-diffraction chamber. The probe...... is precisely positioned on targeted areas of the sample surface by using piezoactuators. This apparatus enables conductivity measurement with extremely high surface sensitivity, resulting in direct access to surface-state conductivity of the surface superstructures, and clarifying the influence of atomic steps...

  20. Self-assembled anchor layers/polysaccharide coatings on titanium surfaces: a study of functionalization and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognen Pop-Georgievski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials based on a titanium support and a thin, alginate hydrogel could be used in bone tissue engineering as a scaffold material that provides biologically active molecules. The main objective of this contribution is to characterize the activation and the functionalization of titanium surfaces by the covalent immobilization of anchoring layers of self-assembled bisphosphonate neridronate monolayers and polymer films of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and biomimetic poly(dopamine. These were further used to bind a bio-functional alginate coating. The success of the titanium surface activation, anchoring layer formation and alginate immobilization, as well as the stability upon immersion under physiological-like conditions, are demonstrated by different surface sensitive techniques such as spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The changes in morphology and the established continuity of the layers are examined by scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry and atomic force microscopy. The changes in hydrophilicity after each modification step are further examined by contact angle goniometry.

  1. Direct observation of surface reconstruction and termination on a complex metal oxide catalyst by electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Yihan

    2012-03-19

    On the surface: The surface reconstruction of an MoVTeO complex metal oxide catalyst was observed directly by various electron microscopic techniques and the results explain the puzzling catalytic behavior. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Versatile Surface Functionalization of Metal-Organic Frameworks through Direct Metal Coordination with a Phenolic Lipid Enables Diverse Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wei [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Xiang, Guolei [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Shang, Jin [Univ. of Hong Kong (China); Guo, Jimin [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Motevalli, Benyamin [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia); Durfee, Paul [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agola, Jacob Ongudi [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coker, Eric N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C. Jeffrey [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Here, a novel strategy for the versatile functionalization of the external surface of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed based on the direct coordination of a phenolic-inspired lipid molecule DPGG (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-galloyl) with metal nodes/sites surrounding MOF surface. X-ray diffraction and Argon sorption analysis prove that the modified MOF particles retain their structural integrity and porosity after surface modification. Density functional theory calculations reveal that strong chelation strength between the metal sites and the galloyl head group of DPGG is the basic prerequisite for successful coating. Due to the pH-responsive nature of metal-phenol complexation, the modification process is reversible by simple washing in weak acidic water, showing an excellent regeneration ability for water-stable MOFs. Moreover, the colloidal stability of the modified MOFs in the nonpolar solvent allows them to be further organized into 2 dimensional MOF or MOF/polymer monolayers by evaporation-induced interfacial assembly conducted on an air/water interface. Lastly, the easy fusion of a second functional layer onto DPGG-modified MOF cores, enabled a series of MOF-based functional nanoarchitectures, such as MOFs encapsulated within hybrid supported lipid bilayers (so-called protocells), polyhedral core-shell structures, hybrid lipid-modified-plasmonic vesicles and multicomponent supraparticles with target functionalities, to be generated. for a wide range of applications.

  3. Improvement on performance and efficiency of direct methanol fuel cells using hydrocarbon-based membrane electrode assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon-Hee; Yang, Min-Jee; Park, Jun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Faradaic efficiency and water transfer coefficient (WTC) of DMFC MEAs are calculated based on mass balance measurements. • Faradaic efficiency of the HC-based MEAs is generally improved over the Nafion-based MEAs. • Nafion-based MEAs show a WTC of 3, whereas the HC-based MEAs show a very low WTC of -2. • Low WTC of the HC-based MEAs indicates the back-diffusion of water from the cathode to the anode. • Performance of HC-based MEAs is improved as the fuel stoichiometry increases, maintaining high Faradaic efficiency. - Abstract: In order to improve the energy efficiency (fuel efficiency and electrical power) of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), the hydrocarbon (HC) membrane-based membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) are investigated under various operating conditions. The MEAs are then compared with the conventional Nafion-based MEA in terms of their efficiency and performance. The Faradaic efficiency and water transfer coefficient (WTC) are calculated based on mass balance measurements. The Faradaic efficiency of the HC-based MEAs is improved over the Nafion-based MEAs since methanol crossover decreased. The performance of HC-based MEAs shows strong dependency on the anode stoichiometry at high current densities probably because of the limited mass transport of fuel, which is not observed for the Nafion-based MEAs. The Nafion-based MEAs show a WTC of 3, whereas the HC-based MEAs show a very low WTC of −2, indicating the back-diffusion of water from the cathode to the anode. This may have limited mass transport by interrupting proton conduction at high current densities. The performance of HC-based MEAs at high current densities is improved as the fuel stoichiometry increases; High Faradaic efficiency is maintained by decreasing the cathode stoichiometry

  4. Sub-10nm lines and spaces patterning using grapho-epitaxial directed self-assembly of lamellar block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Yuriko; Sato, Hironobu; Kasahara, Yusuke; Minegishi, Shinya; Miyagi, Ken; Kubota, Hitoshi; Kanai, Hideki; Kodera, Katsuyoshi; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Kihara, Naoko; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Yamano, Hitoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa; Nomura, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Our target at EIDEC is to study the feasibility of directed self-assembly (DSA) technology for semiconductor device manufacturing through electrical yield verification by development of such as process, material, metrology, simulation and design for DSA. We previously developed a grapho/chemo-hybrid coordinated line epitaxial process for sub-15-nm line-and-space (L/S) patterning using polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) lamellar block copolymers (BCPs)1- 3. Electrical yield verification results showed that a 30% open yield was successfully achieved with a metal wire line length of 700 μm 4. In the next stage of the evaluation, a sub-10-nm L/S DSA patterning process based on graphoepitaxial DSA of 20-nm lamellar period organic BCPs was developed based on neutral layer and guide space width optimization. At a 30-nm guide height, problems such as BCP overflow and DSA line shorts were observed after the dry development. At a 60-nm guide height, grid-like short defects were observed under dry development shallow etch conditions and sub-10-nm L/S patterns were formed under optimized etch conditions with a suitable BCP film thickness margin. The process performance was evaluated in terms of defects and critical dimension measurements using an electron beam inspection system and critical dimension-scanning electron microscope metrology. The main DSA defects were short defects, and the spatial roughness appeared to be caused by the periodic pitches of these short defects and the guide roughness. We successfully demonstrated the fabrication of sub-10-nm metal wires consists of L/S, pad, connect and cut patterns with controlled alignment and stack structure through lithography, etching and CMP process on a 300- mm wafer using the fully integrated DSA process and damascene processing.

  5. Land Surface Albedo Estimation from Chinese HJ Satellite Data Based on the Direct Estimation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    He, Tao; Liang, Shunlin; Wang, Dongdong; Chen, Xiaona; Song, Dan-Xia; Jiang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring surface albedo at medium-to-fine resolution (<100 m) has become increasingly important for medium-to-fine scale applications and coarse-resolution data evaluation. This paper presents a method for estimating surface albedo directly using top-of-atmosphere reflectance. This is the first attempt to derive surface albedo for both snow-free and snow-covered conditions from medium-resolution data with a single approach. We applied this method to the multispectral data from the wide-...

  6. Surface structure and stereochemical properties of self-assembled monolayer materials. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoles, Giacinto

    2006-01-01

    This document reports the progress the authors have made in support of their proposal to generate well-characterized, well-ordered organic surfaces and to impinge upon the array of oriented organic molecules a well-collimated beam of radical atoms at a well-defined angle of incidence. Using the intensity of helium atom diffraction from the organic surface as a measure of the number of unreacted molecules at the surface, the authors will measure the rate of the reaction. They will then vary the angle of incidence of the reactive atom beam and repeat the measurement. In this manner they plan to map out the reactivity of the molecules on the surface as a function of the angle of incidence of the reactive moiety. To carry out this experiment requires that two fields of research be brought together: (1) molecular beam technology and (2) the science/art of growing well-ordered organic surfaces. The first half of this report describes recent helium diffraction results from molecular beam deposited organic monolayers (structural layer characterization work). The second half reports progress in constructing and characterizing the reactive atom (oxygen) beam source.

  7. Electrostatic interactions for directed assembly of high performance nanostructured energetic materials of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Guoping; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Benbo; Luo, Yunjun, E-mail: yjluo@bit.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Electrostatic self-assembly in organic solvent without intensively oxidative or corrosive environments, was adopted to prepare Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials as an energy generating material. The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. This spontaneous assembly method without any surfactant chemistry or other chemical and biological moieties decreased the aggregation of the same nanoparticles largely, moreover, the poor interfacial contact between the Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles was improved significantly, which was the key characteristic of high performance nanostructured energetic materials. In addition, the assembly process was confirmed as Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. The assembled Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials showed excellent performance with heat release of 2400 J/g, peak pressure of 0.42 MPa and pressurization rate of 105.71 MPa/s, superior to that in the control group Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured energetic materials prepared by sonication with heat release of 1326 J/g, peak pressure of 0.19 MPa and pressurization rate of 33.33 MPa/s. Therefore, the approach, which is facile, opens a promising route to the high performance nanostructured energetic materials. - Graphical abstract: The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A facile spontaneous electrostatic assembly strategy without surfactant was adopted. • The fuels and oxidizers assembled into densely packed nanostructured composites. • The assembled nanostructured energetic materials have excellent performance. • This high performance energetic material can be scaled up for practical application. • This

  8. Advanced manufacturing of intermediate temperature, direct methane oxidation membrane electrode assemblies for durable solid oxide fuel cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ITN proposes to create an innovative anode supported membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that is capable of long-term operation at...

  9. The assembly of rotaxane-like dye/cyclodextrin/surface complexes on aluminium trihydroxide or goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel J; Camp, Philip J; Gordon, Ross J; Henderson, David K; Henry, Dorothy C R; McNab, Hamish; De Silva, Sonali S; Tackley, Daniel; Tasker, Peter A; Wight, Paul

    2006-06-21

    Simple azo-dyes carrying phosphonic acid and arsonic acid substituents such as 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl azo)phenylphosphonic acid (5) and 4-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)phenylarsonic acid (6) bind more strongly to high surface area oxides such as aluminium trihydroxide and goethite than their carboxylic and sulfonic acid analogues and the phosphonate-functionalized dyes have been shown to have greater humidity fastness when printed onto commercial alumina-coated papers. Adsorption isotherm measurements provide evidence for the formation of ternary dye/cyclodextrin/surface complexes. Dyes which form such ternary complexes show higher light fastness when printed onto alumina coated papers in an ink formulation containing alpha-cyclodextrin.

  10. Solvent-Directed Assembly of a Pyridinium-Tailored Methyl Oleanolate Amphiphile: Stepwise Growth of Microrods and Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuxia; Hao, Jie; Wu, Jindan; Zhang, Xun; Hu, Jun; Ju, Yong

    2016-02-23

    Although a few architectures have been fabricated by the self-assembly of natural triterpenoids, the precise control of shape and size is rarely studied. Herein, a methyl oleanolate-bearing amphiphile, 1-[2-(methyl oleanolate)-2-oxoethyl]pyridinium bromide (MOP), has been designed and its assembly behavior was investigated. It was found that the morphologies of MOP assemblies ranged from nanoparticles to rigid microrods and flexible nanofibers in chloroform/p-xylene and methanol/water, respectively. During the assembly process, the systematical variational solvophobic/solvophilic effect resulted in the formation of spherical nanoparticles with opposite dipoles and converse bilayer structures. Moreover, such opposite molecular orientations lead to the inversion of supramolecular chirality and distinct mechanical properties. The driving forces and packing patterns of MOP in each solvent system were clearly demonstrated by the combination of NMR, UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), theoretical computation, and contact angle experiments, which revealed the roles of triterpenoids and pyridinium cations in the assembly process. This work provides a facile strategy to control the supramolecular structures in triterpenoid-based assemblies by adjusting the solvent polarity and composition.

  11. Surface-Dependent Transitions during Self-Assembly of Phospholipid Membranes on Mica, Silica, and Glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Martin; Billy, D.; Benda, Aleš; Speijer, H.; Hof, Martin; Hermens, W. T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 23 (2004), s. 10129-10137 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : silica and glass * phospholipid * surface-dependent Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2004

  12. De novo biofilm community assembly from tap water source communities favors Nitrotoga over Nitrospira under elevated nitrite surface loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    -through biofilm system to continuous immigration from a tap water metacommunity while applying different nitrite surface loading rates. After 63 days of operation, we extracted biofilms and analyzed the community composition via Illumina MiSeq targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Previous studies have shown...... in the metacommunity, Nitrotoga and Nitrospira were found at near equal abundances, in the biofilm community, elevated nitrite loading strongly selected for Nitrotoga over Nitrospira. The biofilms were also significantly different in their alpha-diversity (p... of the biofilm community decreased significantly (p=0.004) compared to the metacommunity. These observations indicate that the selection towards Nitrotoga and Nitrospira dominated community assembly under different nitrite loadings. Lastly, we compared our observations of community composition...

  13. Solvent effect on the formation of self-assembled monolayer on DLC surface between n-hexane and Vertrel XF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Manlin [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen University Town, Shenzhen 518055 (China)], E-mail: tanmanlin@hitsz.edu.cn; Zhang Huayu; Wang Yulei [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen University Town, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Ma Hongtao [SAE Technologies Development (Dongguan) Co. Ltd., Dongguan 523087 (China); Zhu Jiaqi [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150018 (China); Han Jiecai [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen University Town, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150018 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Self-assembled monolayers of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichloro-silane (FDTS) have been deposited on the diamond-like carbon (DLC) film-coated magnetic heads with two different solvents, n-hexane and Vertrel XF. In order to investigate the solvent effect on the monolayer formation, a series of FDTS monolayers were prepared by varying the solution concentrations which were respectively characterized by time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Results showed that high density of aggregations were present for the FDTS monolayers using the n-hexane solvent, while the monolayer formed on the DLC surface using the Vertrel XF solvent exhibited excellent quality and reproducibility and no aggregations were observed.

  14. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  15. Structuring of Functional Spider Silk Wires, Coatings, and Sheets by Self-Assembly on Superhydrophobic Pillar Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Linnea; Jansson, Ronnie; Hedhammar, My; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    Spider silk has recently become a material of high interest for a large number of biomedical applications. Previous work on structuring of silk has resulted in particles (0D), fibers (1D), films (2D), and foams, gels, capsules, or microspheres (3D). However, the manufacturing process of these structures is complex and involves posttreatment of chemicals unsuitable for biological applications. In this work, the self-assembly of recombinant spider silk on micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces is studied. For the first time, structuring of recombinant spider silk is achieved using superhydrophobic surfaces under conditions that retain the bioactivity of the functionalized silk. By tuning the superhydrophobic surface geometry and the silk solution handling parameters, this approach allows controlled generation of silk coatings, nanowires, and sheets. The underlying mechanisms and governing parameters are discussed. It is believed that the results of this work pave the way for fabrication of silk formations for applications including vehicles for drug delivery, optical sensing, antimicrobial coatings, and cell culture scaffolds. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Self-referenced directional enhanced Raman scattering using plasmon waveguide resonance for surface and bulk sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiu-mei; Gao, Ran; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2018-01-01

    Surface plasmon-coupled emission has been widely used in fluorescence imaging, biochemical sensing, and enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A self-referenced directional enhanced Raman scattering for simultaneous detection of surface and bulk effects by using plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) based surface plasmon-coupled emission has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Raman scattering was captured on the prism side in Kretschmann-surface plasmon-coupled emission. The distinct penetration depths (δ) of the evanescent field for the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes result in different detected distances of the Raman signal. The experimental results demonstrate that the self-referenced directional enhanced Raman scattering of the TE and TM modes based on the PWR can detect and distinguish the surface and bulk effects simultaneously, which appears to have potential applications in researches of chemistry, medicine, and biology.

  17. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  18. Dithiocarbamate Self-Assembled Monolayers as Efficient Surface Modifiers for Low Work Function Noble Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Dominik; Schäfer, Tobias; Schulz, Philip; Jung, Sebastian; Rittich, Julia; Mokros, Daniel; Segger, Ingolf; Maercks, Franziska; Effertz, Christian; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Wuttig, Matthias

    2016-09-06

    Tuning the work function of the electrode is one of the crucial steps to improve charge extraction in organic electronic devices. Here, we show that N,N-dialkyl dithiocarbamates (DTC) can be effectively employed to produce low work function noble metal electrodes. Work functions between 3.1 and 3.5 eV are observed for all metals investigated (Cu, Ag, and Au). Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) reveals a maximum decrease in work function by 2.1 eV as compared to the bare metal surface. Electronic structure calculations elucidate how the complex interplay between intrinsic dipoles and dipoles induced by bond formation generates such large work function shifts. Subsequently, we quantify the improvement in contact resistance of organic thin film transistor devices with DTC coated source and drain electrodes. These findings demonstrate that DTC molecules can be employed as universal surface modifiers to produce stable electrodes for electron injection in high performance hybrid organic optoelectronics.

  19. Surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donchev, V; Ivanov, T S; Borisov, K; Angelova, T; Cros, A; Cantarero, A; Fuster, D; Shtinkov, N; Gonzalez, Y; Gonzalez, L

    2010-01-01

    The optical properties of InAs/InP multi-layer quantum wire (QWR) structures of various spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Combined with empirical tight binding calculations, the spectra have revealed transitions assigned to QWR families with heights equal to integer number of 5, 6 and 7 monolayers. From the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results the atomic concentration of phosphorus in the wires has been estimated.

  20. Surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, V.; Ivanov, T. S.; Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Shtinkov, N.; Borisov, K.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.

    2010-02-01

    The optical properties of InAs/InP multi-layer quantum wire (QWR) structures of various spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Combined with empirical tight binding calculations, the spectra have revealed transitions assigned to QWR families with heights equal to integer number of 5, 6 and 7 monolayers. From the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results the atomic concentration of phosphorus in the wires has been estimated.

  1. Enantioselective extraction mediated by a chiral cavitand-salen covalently assembled on a porous silicon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Alessandro; Tudisco, Cristina; Ballistreri, Francesco P; Condorelli, Guglielmo G; Randazzo, Rosalba; Tomaselli, Gaetano A; Toscano, Rosa M; Trusso Sfrazzetto, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Andrea

    2014-05-21

    A chiral organic-inorganic hybrid material, based on a porous silicon surface functionalized with a chiral cavitand, was designed and synthesized. The affinity of this device in water toward a bromine-marked alkyl-ammonium salt has been evaluated using XPS detection. UV and CD measurements highlight the enantioselective extraction from a racemic mixture in water of the S-enantiomer of the selected guest (ee ≥ 80%).

  2. Surface Modification Engineered Assembly of Novel Quantum Dot Architectures for Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-09

    Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA-Saclay, France (July, 2004). 91. P. Vashishta, “Ultrascale simulations high performance computing and...Substantial progress was made in addressing both the above noted challenges. Indeed, since the usually employed approach of high temperature thermal de ...island size is 1. Here aSi is the lattice constant of Si, aSi =5.430 95 Å. Numbers correspond to the atomic planes z coordinate , measured in ML, Nz

  3. Fuel assembly cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable efficient and sufficient cleaning of a fuel assembly even in corners without disassembling the assembly and to effectively remove crud. Constitution: Cleaning water mixed with abrasive is injected into a fuel assembly contained within a cleaning device body to remove crud adhering to the fuel assembly. Since a coolant passage from the opening of the bottom surface is of the fuel assembly to the opening of the top surface is utilized as the cleaning water passage at this, the crud can be removed by the abrasive in the water stream even from narrow gaps of the fuel assembly. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland); Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo [Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Wood Materials Science, ETH Zürich, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 3, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Applied Wood Materials Laboratory, Empa − Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Österberg, Monika, E-mail: monika.osterberg@aalto.fi [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  5. Self Assembly and Many-Body Effects at Surfaces of Biomedical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Bernard M.

    I present research in systems of biomedical relevance consisting of agents near or comprising surfaces using computational approaches. The research topics include formation of bacterial biofilms, behavior of charged species near stacked, like-charged lamellae, and the conformational behavior of lamellae with strong self-attraction. In chapter 2, I present agent-based simulations and experimental analysis of bacterial surface colonization behavior. Results show that the bacterial population exhibits polyphenic motility despite being genetically homogeneous, and that the deposition of a polysaccharide causes the emergence of distinct bacterial subpopulations that specialize separately in microcolony nucleation and surface exploration. Chapter 3 considers aggregation behavior on a much smaller length scale, wherein an attraction between like-charged cellular lamellae is mediated by the antiviral molecule squalamine. Free-energy calculations along with structural analysis of the resulting compounds reveals that the squalamine molecules form bridging configurations that are highly effective at condensing membranes, and that the strength of this condensation is sufficient to eject the viral protein Rac1 from the lamellae. In chapter 4, I explore the ability of such condensed, charged lamellae to selectively exclude ions as a means to control ionic current. Simulations and theory of ion-selective graphene-oxide paper in series with a bulk salt solution under an applied field show how this exclusion leads to a nonlinear current-voltage relationship. Additionally, geometrical asymmetries are introduced into the system to achieve ionic current rectification. Chapter 5 studies the behavior of dilute graphene oxide sheets in poor solvent. In such a case, the conformations taken by the sheet are determined by a competition between its intrinsic bending rigidity and effective self-attraction. I show how self-attraction of a finite range and sufficient strength can overcome

  6. Symmetry-Directed Self-Assembly of a Tetrahedral Protein Cage Mediated by de Novo-Designed Coiled Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badieyan, Somayesadat; Sciore, Aaron; Eschweiler, Joseph D; Koldewey, Philipp; Cristie-David, Ajitha S; Ruotolo, Brandon T; Bardwell, James C A; Su, Min; Marsh, E Neil G

    2017-10-05

    The organization of proteins into new hierarchical forms is an important challenge in synthetic biology. However, engineering new interactions between protein subunits is technically challenging and typically requires extensive redesign of protein-protein interfaces. We have developed a conceptually simple approach, based on symmetry principles, that uses short coiled-coil domains to assemble proteins into higher-order structures. Here, we demonstrate the assembly of a trimeric enzyme into a well-defined tetrahedral cage. This was achieved by genetically fusing a trimeric coiled-coil domain to its C terminus through a flexible polyglycine linker sequence. The linker length and coiled-coil strength were the only parameters that needed to be optimized to obtain a high yield of correctly assembled protein cages. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7∘C. Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.

  8. Graphene Oxide-Directed Tunable Assembly of MoS2 Ultrathin Nanosheets for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyu; Zhao, Yanyan; Mølhave, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    GO nanosheets and controllable assembly in MoS2 ultrathinnanostructures, the resulting nanohybrids show optimizedelectrocatalytic hydrogen evolution properties in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. This work provides a facile method to increase theefficiency of hydrogen production for MoS2 based materialsand their analogues......Three dimensional (3D) hierarchical architectures based onmolybdenum disulfide (MoS2) an d reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are synthesized through a mixed solvothermal method.By simply increasing the amount of graphene oxide (GO) during the synthesis, the 3D assembly of MoS2 can be tunedfrom...

  9. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering ability and some UV protection, all achieved using an environmentally friendly coating process, which is beneficial to retain the natural appearance of wood and improve indoor air quality and comfort.

  10. Self-assembled monolayers of 1-alkenes on oxidized platinum surfaces as platforms for immobilized enzymes for biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose Maria; Bielen, Abraham A.M. [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB, Wageningen (Netherlands); Olthuis, Wouter [BIOS Lab on a Chip Group, MESA+ and MIRA Institutes, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Kengen, Servé W.M. [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, 6703HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Zuilhof, Han, E-mail: han.zuilhof@wur.nl [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia); Franssen, Maurice C.R., E-mail: maurice.franssen@wur.nl [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three different oxidases are covalently attached to alkene based SAMs on PtOx. • Attached enzymes remain active and their activity is assessed by chronoamperometry. • Functionalized PtOx allows electron mediator free chronoamperometry measurements. • The thus formed enzyme electrodes are useful as biosensors for glucose and lactate. • Immobilization of human HAOX foresees in vivo lactate monitoring in humans. - Abstract: Alkene-based self-assembled monolayers grafted on oxidized Pt surfaces were used as a scaffold to covalently immobilize oxidase enzymes, with the aim to develop an amperometric biosensor platform. NH{sub 2}-terminated organic layers were functionalized with either aldehyde (CHO) or N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester-derived groups, to provide anchoring points for enzyme immobilization. The functionalized Pt surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static water contact angle (CA), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Glucose oxidase (GOX) was covalently attached to the functionalized Pt electrodes, either with or without additional glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The responses of the acquired sensors to glucose concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 100 mM were monitored by chronoamperometry. Furthermore, lactate oxidase (LOX) and human hydroxyacid oxidase (HAOX) were successfully immobilized onto the PtOx surface platform. The performance of the resulting lactate sensors was investigated for lactate concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 20 mM. The successful attachment of active enzymes (GOX, LOX and HAOX) on Pt electrodes demonstrates that covalently functionalized PtOx surfaces provide a universal platform for the development of oxidase enzyme-based sensors.

  11. Direct Observation of Domain-Wall Surface Tension by Deflating or Inflating a Magnetic Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Vernier, Nicolas; Zhao, Weisheng; Yu, Haiming; Vila, Laurent; Zhang, Yue; Ravelosona, Dafiné

    2018-02-01

    The surface energy of a magnetic domain wall (DW) strongly affects its static and dynamic behaviors. However, this effect is seldom directly observed, and some of the related phenomena are not well understood. Moreover, a reliable method to quantify the DW surface energy is still absent. Here, we report a series of experiments in which the DW surface energy becomes a dominant parameter. We observe that a semicircular magnetic domain bubble can spontaneously collapse under the Laplace pressure induced by DW surface energy. We further demonstrate that the surface energy can lead to a geometrically induced pinning when the DW propagates in a Hall cross or from a nanowire into a nucleation pad. Based on these observations, we develop two methods to quantify the DW surface energy, which can be very helpful in the estimation of intrinsic parameters such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions or exchange stiffness in magnetic ultrathin films.

  12. Marine Acoustic Sensor Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruffa, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    A marine acoustic sensor assembly includes an acoustic panel having a forward surface and an after surface, a laser scanner oriented so as to project a laser beam onto the acoustic panel after surface...

  13. Self-assembling of large ordered DNA arrays using superhydrophobic patterned surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciasca, G; Papi, M; Chiarpotto, M; Palmieri, V; De Spirito, M; Businaro, L; Notargiacomo, A; De Ninno, A; Carta, S; Giovine, E; Gerardino, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a simple and robust method to realize highly ordered arrays of stretched and suspended DNA molecules over the millimeter length scale. To this end we used an ad hoc designed superhydrophobic surface made of high aspect-ratio silicon pillars, where we deposited a droplet containing genomic DNA. A precise positioning of DNA strands was achieved by shaping the silicon pillars so that sharpened features resembling tips were included. Such features allowed us to accurately control the droplet de-wetting dynamics, pinning DNA strands in a well-defined position above pillars. The proposed technique has the potential to positively impact on the development of novel DNA chips for genetic analysis. (paper)

  14. Chemical Dynamics Simulations of Thermal Desorption of Protonated Dialanine from a Perfluorinated Self-Assembled Monolayer Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohale, Swapnil C; Pratihar, Subha; Hase, William L

    2018-04-05

    Classical chemical dynamics simulation results are presented for the thermal desorption kinetics and energetics of protonated dialanine ions (ala 2 -H + ) physisorbed on/in a perfluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) surface. Previously developed analytic potentials were used for the F-SAM and the ala 2 -H + /F-SAM intermolecular interaction, and the AMBER valence force field was used for ala 2 -H + . The activation energy, E a = 13.2 kcal/mol, determined from the simulations is consistent with previous simulations of the ala 2 -H + /F-SAM binding energy. The A-factor, 7.8 × 10 11 s -1 , is about an order of magnitude lower than those representative of small molecule desorption from metal and semiconductor surfaces. This finding is consistent with the decreased entropies of ala 2 -H + and the F-SAM upon desorption. Using the Arrhenius parameters for ala 2 -H + desorption from the F-SAM, the lifetime of ala 2 -H + adsorbed on the F-SAM at 300 K is 5 × 10 -3 s. Larger peptide ions are expected to have longer adsorption lifetimes.

  15. Correlation between structural, optical, and electrical properties of self-assembled plasmonic nanostructures on the GaAs surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladskikh, Polina V.; Gladskikh, Igor A.; Toropov, Nikita A., E-mail: nikita.a.toropov@gmail.com; Baranov, Mikhail A.; Vartanyan, Tigran A. [ITMO University (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Self-assembled silver nanostructures on the industry-grade monocrystalline GaAs (100) wafer surface were obtained via physical vapor deposition and characterized by optical reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and current–voltage curve measurements. Reflection spectra of the samples with Ag equivalent thicknesses of 5, 7.5, and 10 nm demonstrated wide plasmonic bands in the visible range of spectra. Thermal annealing of the nanostructures led to narrowing of the plasmonic bands caused by major transformations of the film morphology. While the As prepared films predominantly had a small-scale labyrinth structure, after annealing well-separated silver nanoislands are formed on the gallium arsenide surface. A clear correlation between films morphology and their optical and electrical properties is elucidated. Annealing of the GaAs substrate with Ag nanostructures at 100 °C under control of the resistivity allowed us to obtain and fix the structure at the percolation threshold. It is established that the samples at the percolation threshold possess the properties of resistance switching and hysteresis.Graphical Abstract.

  16. In Situ Surface Tailoring with Zwitterionic Carboxybetaine Moieties on Self-Assembled Thin Film for Antifouling Biointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2014-01-01

    A novel biointerface bearing zwitterionic carboxybetaine moieties was developed for effective resistance to nonspecific adsorption of proteins and blood cells. Self-assembled thin films (SAFs) of (N,N-dimethylaminopropyl) trimethoxysilane were formed as mattress layers by either vapor or solution deposition. Subsequently, the tertiary amine head groups on SAFs were reacted with β-propiolactone to give zwitterionic carboxybetaine moieties via in situ synthesis. The optimal reaction time of 8 h for both preparation methods was verified by static contact angle measurements. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, 67.3% of amine groups on SAFs prepared from the vapor deposition was converted to the zwitterionic structures after reaction of β-propiolactone. The antifouling properties of the zwitterionic biointerfaces were quantitatively evaluated in the presence of protein solutions using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, showing a great improvement by factors of 6.5 and 20.2 from tertiary amine SAFs and bare SiO2 surfaces, respectively. More importantly, the zwitterionic SAFs were brought to contact with undiluted human blood in chaotic-mixer microfluidic systems; the results present their capability to effectively repel blood cell adhesion. Accordingly, in this work, development of carboxybetaine SAFs offers a facile yet effective strategy to fabricate biocompatible biointerfaces for a variety of potential applications in surface coatings for medical devices. PMID:28788445

  17. Flexible hybrid circuit fully inkjet-printed: Surface mount devices assembled by silver nanoparticles-based inkjet ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, J.; Vescio, G.; Xuriguera, E.; Medina-Rodriguez, B.; Cornet, A.; Cirera, A.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, inkjet-printed devices such as transistors are still unstable in air and have poor performances. Moreover, the present electronics applications require a high degree of reliability and quality of their properties. In order to accomplish these application requirements, hybrid electronics is fulfilled by combining the advantages of the printing technologies with the surface-mount technology. In this work, silver nanoparticle-based inkjet ink (AgNP ink) is used as a novel approach to connect surface-mount devices (SMDs) onto inkjet-printed pads, conducted by inkjet printing technology. Excellent quality AgNP ink-junctions are ensured with high resolution picoliter drop jetting at low temperature (˜150 °C). Electrical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations are carried out to assess the performance of the AgNP ink junction. Moreover, AgNP ink is compared with common benchmark materials (i.e., silver epoxy and solder). Electrical contact resistance characterization shows a similar performance between the AgNP ink and the usual ones. Mechanical characterization shows comparable shear strength for AgNP ink and silver epoxy, and both present higher adhesion than solder. Morphological inspections by field-emission scanning electron microscopy confirm a high quality interface of the silver nanoparticle interconnection. Finally, a flexible hybrid circuit on paper controlled by an Arduino board is manufactured, demonstrating the viability and scalability of the AgNP ink assembling technique.

  18. Role of land surface processes and diffuse/direct radiation partitioning in simulating the European climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Davin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of land processes and in particular of diffuse/direct radiation partitioning on surface fluxes and associated regional-scale climate feedbacks is investigated using ERA-40 driven simulations over Europe performed with the COSMO-CLM2 Regional Climate Model (RCM. Two alternative Land Surface Models (LSMs, a 2nd generation LSM (TERRA_ML and a more advanced 3rd generation LSM (Community Land Model version 3.5, and two versions of the atmospheric component are tested, as well as a revised coupling procedure allowing for variations in diffuse/direct light partitioning at the surface, and their accounting by the land surface component.

    Overall, the RCM performance for various variables (e.g., surface fluxes, temperature and precipitation is improved when using the more advanced 3rd generation LSM. These improvements are of the same order of magnitude as those arising from a new version of the atmospheric component, demonstrating the benefit of using a realistic representation of land surface processes for regional climate simulations. Taking into account the variability in diffuse/direct light partitioning at the surface further improves the model performance in terms of summer temperature variability at the monthly and daily time scales. Comparisons with observations show that the RCM realistically captures temporal variations in diffuse/direct light partitioning as well as the evapotranspiration sensitivity to these variations. Our results suggest that a modest but consistent fraction (up to 3 % of the overall variability in summer temperature can be explained by variations in the diffuse to direct ratio.

  19. Directed Self-Assembly of Micron-Sized Gold Nanoplatelets into Oriented Flexible Stacks with Tunable Interplate Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vutukuri, H.R.; Badaire, S; de Winter, Matthijs; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing demand for control over the interparticle spacing and the orientation of anisotropic metallic particles into self-assembled structures is fuelled by their use in potential applications such as in plasmonics, catalysis, sensing, and optoelectronics. Here, we present an improved high yield

  20. Four degree of freedom liquid dispenser for direct write capillary self-assembly with sub-nanoliter precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beroz, Justin; Bedewy, Mostafa; Reinker, Michael; Chhajer, Vipul; Awtar, Shorya; Hart, A John

    2012-01-01

    Capillary forces provide a ubiquitous means of organizing micro- and nanoscale structures on substrates. In order to investigate the mechanism of capillary self-assembly and to fabricate complex ordered structures, precise control of the meniscus shape is needed. We present a precision instrument that enables deposition of liquid droplets spanning from 2 nl to 300 μl, in concert with mechanical manipulation of the liquid-substrate interface with four degrees of freedom. The substrate has sub-100 nm positioning resolution in three axes of translation, and its temperature is controlled using thermoelectric modules. The capillary tip can rotate about the vertical axis while simultaneously dispensing liquid onto the substrate. Liquid is displaced using a custom bidirectional diaphragm pump, in which an elastic membrane is hydraulically actuated by a stainless steel syringe. The syringe is driven by a piezoelectric actuator, enabling nanoliter volume and rate control. A quantitative model of the liquid dispenser is verified experimentally, and suggests that compressibility in the hydraulic line deamplifies the syringe stroke, enabling sub-nanoliter resolution control of liquid displacement at the capillary tip. We use this system to contact-print water and oil droplets by mechanical manipulation of a liquid bridge between the capillary and the substrate. Finally, we study the effect of droplet volume and substrate temperature on the evaporative self-assembly of monodisperse polymer microspheres from sessile droplets, and demonstrate the formation of 3D chiral assemblies of micro-rods by rotation of the capillary tip during evaporative assembly.

  1. Direct epoxidation of propylene over stabilized Cu(+) surface sites on titanium-modified Cu2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Kattel, Shyam; Xiong, Ke; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Rykov, Sergei; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Rodriguez, José A; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J; Chen, Jingguang G

    2015-10-05

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate that by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu(+) active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide the epoxidation selectivity can be tuned. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, an oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hydrogen-bonding layer-by-layer-assembled biodegradable polymeric micelles as drug delivery vehicles from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Su; Park, Sang Wook; Hammond, Paula T

    2008-02-01

    We present the integration of amphiphilic block copolymer micelles as nanometer-sized vehicles for hydrophobic drugs within layer-by-layer (LbL) films using alternating hydrogen bond interactions as the driving force for assembly for the first time, thus enabling the incorporation of drugs and pH-sensitive release. The film was constructed based on the hydrogen bonding between poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as an H-bond donor and biodegradable poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) micelles as the H-bond acceptor when assembled under acidic conditions. By taking advantage of the weak interactions of the hydrogen-bonded film on hydrophobic surfaces, it is possible to generate flexible free-standing films of these materials. A free-standing micelle LbL film of (PEO-b-PCL/PAA)60 with a thickness of 3.1 microm was isolated, allowing further characterization of the bulk film properties, including morphology and phase transitions, using transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Because of the sensitive nature of the hydrogen bonding employed to build the multilayers, the film can be rapidly deconstructed to release micelles upon exposure to physiological conditions. However, we could also successfully control the rate of film deconstruction by cross-linking carboxylic acid groups in PAA through thermally induced anhydride linkages, which retard the drug release to the surrounding medium to enable sustained release over multiple days. To demonstrate efficacy in delivering active therapeutics, in vitro Kirby-Bauer assays against Staphylococcus aureus were used to illustrate that the drug-loaded micelle LbL film can release significant amounts of an active antibacterial drug, triclosan, to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Because the micellar encapsulation of hydrophobic therapeutics does not require specific chemical interactions, we believe this noncovalent approach provides a new route to integrating active small

  3. Mechanism for Formation of Surface Scale during Directional Solidification of Ni-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, G.; D'Souza, N.; Ryder, K. S.; Simmonds, S.; Dong, H. B.

    2012-04-01

    Surface scale occurs on the external surface of directionally solidified, single-crystal turbine components. It is one of the most important casting defects because it affects the grain orientation assessment and causes incipient surface melting during heat treatment. The formation of surface scale comprises a three-stage process: (1) formation of a 0.5- to 1.5- μm Al2O3 layer around the external surface of liquid metal as a result of the mold/metal reaction between the liquid and the mold prime coat; (2) separation of the solidified metal from the mold wall during cooling, where the Al2O3 layer is stripped away from the metal surface but remains adhered to the mold; and (3) subsequent oxidation of the "bare" metal to form an oxide scale at the surface. The scale comprises a mixture of oxides. It is found that TiO2, Cr2O3, and Al2O3 form on components cast using the 1st generation alloy, SRR99; however, in the case of castings using the 3rd-generation alloy, CMSX10N it is a predominately nickel-rich oxide (likely to be NiO). On the unscaled surface, the mold and metal are in intimate contact during casting, and subsequent cooling and the Al2O3 layer around the external surface prevents subsequent oxidation of the casting surface.

  4. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan; Hummelgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  5. Assembling of carbon nanotubes film responding to significant reduction wear and friction on steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Xue, Yong; Qiang, Li; Gao, Kaixong; Liu, Qiao; Yang, Baoping; Liang, Aiming; Zhang, Junyan

    2017-11-01

    Friction properties of carbon nanotubes have been widely studied and reported, however, the friction properties of carbon nanotubes related on state of itself. It is showing superlubricity under nanoscale, but indicates high shear adhesion as aligned carbon nanotube film. However, friction properties under high load (which is commonly in industry) of carbon nanotube films are seldom reported. In this paper, carbon nanotube films, via mechanical rubbing method, were obtained and its tribology properties were investigated at high load of 5 to 15 N. Though different couple pairs were employed, the friction coefficients of carbon nanotube films are nearly the same. Compared with bare stainless steel, friction coefficients and wear rates under carbon nanotube films lubrication reduced to, at least, 1/5 and 1/(4.3-14.5), respectively. Friction test as well as structure study were carried out to reveal the mechanism of the significant reduction wear and friction on steel surface. One can conclude that sliding and densifying of carbon nanotubes at sliding interface contribute to the sufficient decrease of friction coefficients and wear rates.

  6. Simultaneous modulation of surface composition, oxygen vacancies and assembly in hierarchical Co3O4 mesoporous nanostructures for lithium storage and electrocatalytic oxygen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyu; Zhao, Yanyan; Mølhave, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    in superior electrochemical properties when used as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and as an electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergistic effects of novel hierarchical morphology, crystal structure of the active......We developed a facile solution reductive method to simultaneously tune the surface composition, oxygen vacancies and three dimensional assembly in Co3O4 hierarchical nanostructures. The controllable surface composition, oxygen vacancies together with hierarchical micro/nanoarchitectures resulted...... materials, the improvement of intrinsic conductivity and inner surface area induced by the oxygen vacancies. The present strategy not only provides a facile method to assemble novel hierarchical architectures, but also paves a way to control surface structures (chemical composition and crystal defects...

  7. Self-assembling peptide detergents stabilize isolated photosystem ion a dry surface for an extended time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We used a class of designed peptide detergents to stabilize photosystem I (PS-I upon extended drying under N2 on a gold-coated-Ni-NTA glass surface. PS-I is a chlorophyll-containing membrane protein complex that is the primary reducer of ferredoxin and the electron acceptor of plastocyanin. We isolated the complex from the thylakoids of spinach chloroplasts using a chemical detergent. The chlorophyll molecules associated with the PS-I complex provide an intrinsic steady-state emission spectrum between 650 and 800 nm at -196.15 degrees C that reflects the organization of the pigment-protein interactions. In the absence of detergents, a large blue shift of the fluorescence maxima from approximately 735 nm to approximately 685 nm indicates a disruption in light-harvesting subunit organization, thus revealing chlorophyll-protein interactions. The commonly used membrane protein-stabilizing detergents, N-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside and N-octyl-beta-D-glucoside, only partially stabilized the approximately 735-nm complex with approximately 685-nm spectroscopic shift. However, prior to drying, addition of the peptide detergent acetyl-AAAAAAK at increasing concentration significantly stabilized the PS-I complex. Moreover, in the presence of acetyl-AAAAAAK, the PS-I complex is stable in a dried form at room temperature for at least 3 wk. Another peptide detergent, acetyl-VVVVVVD, also stabilized the complex but to a lesser extent. These observations suggest that the peptide detergents may effectively stabilize membrane proteins in the solid-state. These designed peptide detergents may facilitate the study of diverse types of membrane proteins.

  8. Research on the effect of coverage rate on the surface quality in laser direct writing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuetao; Tu, Dawei

    2017-07-01

    Direct writing technique is usually used in femtosecond laser two-photon micromachining. The size of the scanning step is an important factor affecting the surface quality and machining efficiency of micro devices. According to the mechanism of two-photon polymerization, combining the distribution function of light intensity and the free radical concentration theory, we establish the mathematical model of coverage of solidification unit, then analyze the effect of coverage on the machining quality and efficiency. Using the principle of exposure equivalence, we also obtained the analytic expressions of the relationship among the surface quality characteristic parameters of microdevices and the scanning step, and carried out the numerical simulation and experiment. The results show that the scanning step has little influence on the surface quality of the line when it is much smaller than the size of the solidification unit. However, with increasing scanning step, the smoothness of line surface is reduced rapidly, and the surface quality becomes much worse.

  9. Cell Adhesion on RGD-Displaying Knottins with Varying Numbers of Tryptophan Amino Acids to Tune the Affinity for Assembly on Cucurbit[8]uril Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, Shrikrishnan; Cavatorta, Emanuela; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Cell adhesion is studied on multivalent knottins, displaying RGD ligands with a high affinity for integrin receptors, that are assembled on CB[8]-methylviologen-modified surfaces. The multivalency in the knottins stems from the number of tryptophan amino acid moieties, between 0 and 4, that can form

  10. Effectiveness of WRF wind direction for retrieving coastal sea surface wind from synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Wind direction is required as input to the geophysical model function (GMF) for the retrieval of sea surface wind speed from a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The present study verifies the effectiveness of using the wind direction obtained from the weather research and forecasting model...... directions: the meso‐analysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (MANAL), the SeaWinds microwave scatterometer on QuikSCAT and the National Center for Environmental Prediction final operational global analysis data (NCEP FNL). In comparison with the errors of the SAR‐retrieved wind speeds obtained using...

  11. Development and characterization of membrane electrode assembly of direct methanol fuel cells using hydrocarbon membranes and supported catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoming

    Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an attractive power source for portable applications in the near future, due to the high energy density of liquid methanol. Towards commercialization of the DMFC, several technical and economic challenges need to be addressed though. The present study aims at developing and characterizing high performance membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for the DMFCs by using a hydrocarbon type membrane (PolyFuel 62) and supported catalysts (PtRu/C). First, methanol and water transport properties in the PolyFuel 62 membrane were examined by various material characterization methods. Compared with the currently used perflurosulfonated Nafion 212 membrane, the PolyFuel membrane has lower methanol crossover, especially at high testing temperature. In addition, based on results of water diffusivity test, water diffusion through the PolyFuel membrane was also lower compared with the Nafion membrane. In order to check the possible impacts of the low methanol and water diffusivities in the PolyFuel membrane, a MEA with this new type of membrane was developed and its performance was compared with a Nafion MEA with otherwise identical electrodes and GDLs. The results showed anode performance was identical, while cathode performance of the PolyFuel MEA was lower. More experiments combined with a transmission line model revealed that low water transport through the PolyFuel membrane resulted in a higher proton resistance in the cathode electrode and thus, leading to a low cathode performance. Thus increasing the water content in the cathode electrode is critical for using the PolyFuel membrane in the DMFC MEA. Then, a low loading carbon supported catalyst, PtRu/C, was prepared and tested as the anode electrode in a MEA of the DMFC. Compared with performance of an unsupported MEA, we could find that lower performance in the supported MEA was due to methanol transport limitation because of the denser and thicker supported catalyst layer. Accordingly, an

  12. A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces based on well-defined mulberry-like particles and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinxin; Pi, Pihui; Wen, Xiufang; Zheng, Dafeng; Xu, Mengyi; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2009-01-01

    A superhydrophobic surface was obtained by combining application of CaCO 3/SiO 2 mulberry-like composite particles, which originated from violent stirring and surface modification, and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane. Water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface were measured to be about 164 ± 2.5° and 5°, respectively. The excellent hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness (fabricated by composite particles) and the low surface energy (provided by polydimethylsiloxane). This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  13. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Designing and building nanowires: directed nanocrystal self-assembly into radically branched and zigzag PbS nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fan; Ma Xin; Gerlein, L Felipe; Cloutier, Sylvain G

    2011-01-01

    Lead sulfide nanowires with controllable optoelectronic properties would be promising building blocks for various applications. Here, we report the hot colloidal synthesis of radically branched and zigzag nanowires through self-attachment of star-shaped and octahedral nanocrystals in the presence of multiple surfactants. We obtained high-quality single-crystal nanowires with uniform diameter along the entire length, and the size of the nanowire can be tuned by tailoring the reaction parameters. This slow oriented attachment provides a better understanding of the intricacies of this complex nanocrystal assembly process. Meanwhile, these self-assembled nanowire structures have appealing lateral conformations with narrow side arms or highly faceted edges, where strong quantum confinement can occur. Consequently, the single-crystal nanowire structures exhibit strong photoluminescence in the near-infrared region with a large blue-shift compared to the bulk material.

  16. Is Agency Skin Deep? Surface Attributes Influence Infants' Sensitivity to Goal-Directed Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Jose J.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of surface attributes in infants' identification of agents, using a habituation paradigm designed to tap infants' interpretation of grasping as goal directed (Woodward, 1998). When they viewed a bare human hand grasping objects, 7- and 12-month-old infants focused on the relation between the hand and its goal.…

  17. Ambient Surface Analysis of Organic Monolayers using Direct Analysis in Real Time Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manova, R.K.; Joshi, S.; Debrassi, A.; Bhairamadgi, N.S.; Roeven, E.; Gagnon, J.; Tahir, M.N.; Claassen, F.W.; Scheres, L.M.W.; Wennekes, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Zuilhof, H.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    A better characterization of nanometer-thick organic layers (monolayers) as used for engineering surface properties, biosensing, nanomedicine, and smart materials will widen their application. The aim of this study was to develop direct analysis in real time high-resolution mass spectrometry

  18. An Improved Local Gradient Method for Sea Surface Wind Direction Retrieval from SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhang Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface wind affects the fluxes of energy, mass and momentum between the atmosphere and ocean, and therefore regional and global weather and climate. With various satellite microwave sensors, sea surface wind can be measured with large spatial coverage in almost all-weather conditions, day or night. Like any other remote sensing measurements, sea surface wind measurement is also indirect. Therefore, it is important to develop appropriate wind speed and direction retrieval models for different types of microwave instruments. In this paper, a new sea surface wind direction retrieval method from synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is developed. In the method, local gradients are computed in frequency domain by combining the operation of smoothing and computing local gradients in one step to simplify the process and avoid the difference approximation. This improved local gradients (ILG method is compared with the traditional two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT method and local gradients (LG method, using interpolating wind directions from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF reanalysis data and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP wind vector product. The sensitivities to the salt-and-pepper noise, the additive noise and the multiplicative noise are analyzed. The ILG method shows a better performance of retrieval wind directions than the other two methods.

  19. Applicability of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for the direct discrimination of ballpoint pen inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifar, R.M.; Verheul, J.M.; Ariese, F.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Gooijer, C.

    2001-01-01

    In situ surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) with excitation at 685 nm is suitable for the direct discrimination of blue and black ballpoint pen inks on paper. For black inks, shorter excitation wavelengths can also be used. For blue inks, SERRS at 514.5 and 457.9 nm does not

  20. Numerical investigation of turbomolecular pumps using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method with moving surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, R.; Dorsman, R.; Thielen, L.; Roos, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for performing numerical direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations on turbomolecular pumps in the free molecular and transitional flow regimes is described. The chosen approach is to use surfaces that move relative to the grid to model the effect of rotors and stators on a gas

  1. Continuous directional water transport on the peristome surface of Nepenthes alata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Liwen; Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Deyuan; Han, Zhiwu; Jiang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Numerous natural systems contain surfaces or threads that enable directional water transport. This behaviour is usually ascribed to hierarchical structural features at the microscale and nanoscale, with gradients in surface energy and gradients in Laplace pressure thought to be the main driving forces. Here we study the prey-trapping pitcher organs of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata. We find that continuous, directional water transport occurs on the surface of the ‘peristome’—the rim of the pitcher—because of its multiscale structure, which optimizes and enhances capillary rise in the transport direction, and prevents backflow by pinning in place any water front that is moving in the reverse direction. This results not only in unidirectional flow despite the absence of any surface-energy gradient, but also in a transport speed that is much higher than previously thought. We anticipate that the basic ‘design’ principles underlying this behaviour could be used to develop artificial fluid-transport systems with practical applications.

  2. Dichroic directional excitation of surface plasmon based on an integer-programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quansheng; Sun, Yuanchao; Wang, Yueke

    2015-04-01

    A silver film perforated with two subwavelength uniform slits is proposed for dichroic directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Under backside oblique illumination, the SPPs for two work wavelengths can propagate along the two opposite directions or in the same direction. Based on SPP interference, an integer-programming model is established for dichroic directional excitation of SPPs. The branch and bound method is introduced to find the optimal solutions for the integer-programming model, and therefore, the parameters of the structure and illumination angles can be obtained. The field distribution of the structure is investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) to verify our design. Our theoretical model can achieve dichroic directional excitation of SPPs, simultaneously.

  3. Recent near-surface wind directions inferred from mapping sand ripples on Martian dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zac Yung-Chun; Zimbelman, James R.

    2015-11-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) provides the capability to obtain orbital images of Mars that are of sufficient resolution to record wind ripple patterns on the surfaces of sand dunes. Ripple patterns provide valuable insights into aeolian erosion and deposition on Earth and Mars. In this study, we develop a systematic mapping procedure to examine sand ripple orientations and create surface process maps to evaluate the recent wind flow over the dunes, as well as the interplay of wind and dune shape. By carefully examining the morphology of the dunes and the location of grainflow and grainfall on dune slipfaces, the recent near-surface wind direction (short-term wind) can be identified. Results from the analysis of three dune fields on the floors of craters west of Hellas Basin show regional N, NW, SE, and ESE wind directions. In the three adjacent dune fields, surface process and flow maps suggest a complex wind pattern. The comparison of short-term wind with dune-constructing wind (long-term wind) shows NE and ESE winds may be persistent at least for the past thousands of years. The results also show that the orientation of inferred wind direction on linear dunes is correlated with the crestlines, which suggest that form-flow interaction may take place. The results of local wind flow documentation should improve Martian surface wind modeling and advance our understanding of sand transport, as well as the rates of sand mobility on both Mars and Earth.

  4. Studies on surface modification of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film by remote and direct Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Chen Jierong; Li Ru

    2008-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces are modified with remote and direct Ar plasma, and the effects of the modification on the hydrophilicity of PTFE are investigated. The surface microstructures and compositions of the PTFE film were characterized with the goniometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that the remote and direct plasma treatments modify the PTFE surface in morphology and composition, and both modifications cause surface oxidation of PTFE films, in the forming of some polar functional groups enhancing polymer wettability. When the remote and direct Ar plasma treats PTFE film, the contact angles decrease from the untreated 108-58 o and 65.2 o , respectively. The effect of the remote Ar plasma is more noticeable. The role of all kinds of active species, e.g. electrons, ions and free radicals involved in plasma surface modification is further evaluated. This shows that remote Ar plasma can restrain the ion and electron etching reaction and enhance radical reaction

  5. pH-sensitive diamond field-effect transistors (FETs) with directly aminated channel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kwang-Soup; Nakamura, Yusuke; Sasaki, Yuichi; Degawa, Munenori; Yang, Jung-Hoon; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    We have introduced pH sensors fabricated on diamond thin films through modification of the surface-terminated atom. We directly modified the diamond surface from hydrogen to amine or oxygen with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation under ammonia gas. The quantified amine site based on the spectra obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is 26% (2.6 x 10 14 cm -2 ) with UV irradiation for 8 h and its coverage is dependent on the UV irradiation time. This directly aminated diamond surface is stable with long-term exposure in air and electrolyte solution. We fabricated diamond solution-gate field-effect transistors (SGFETs) without insulating layers on the channel surface. These diamond SGFETs with amine modified by direct amination are sensitive to pH (45 mV/pH) over a wide range from pH 2 to 12 and their sensitivity is dependent on the density of binding sites corresponding to UV irradiation time on the channel surface

  6. Triangles and tetrahedra: metal directed self-assembly of metallo-supramolecular structures incorporating bis-beta-diketonato ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Jack K; Lindoy, Leonard F; Moubaraki, Boujema; Murray, Keith S; McMurtrie, John C

    2004-08-21

    The interaction of six aryl-linked bis-beta-diketones, including a new naphthylene linked species, with copper(II), iron(III) and, in one instance gallium(III), has been investigated with the aim of obtaining metallo-supramolecular assemblies exhibiting different geometries. New examples of two assembly types incorporating the above bis-beta-diketones (L) were generated. The first type is represented by a range of molecular triangles of formula [Cu(3)(L-H(2))(3)](solvent)(n) while the second is given by a corresponding selection of less-common neutral molecular tetrahedra of formula [Fe(4)(L-H(2))(6)](solvent)(n) as well as [Ga(4)(L-H(2))(6)].8.5THF.0.5H(2)O; an example of each type has been characterised by X-ray crystallography. A magnetochemical investigation of [Fe(4)(-H(2))(6)].6THF is reported. The susceptibility is Curie like and consistent with very weak coupling occurring between the iron(III) d(5)(high spin) centres. The X-ray structures of two trinuclear copper(II) as well as a tetranuclear iron(III) and a tetranuclear gallium(III) assembly confirm their discrete triangular and tetrahedral geometries, respectively. The structure of the gallium(III) species is closely related to that of the corresponding iron(III) species. The tetrahedral structures provide rare examples of such assemblies encapsulating guest solvent molecules--in each case tetrahydrofuran is incorporated in the central cavity.

  7. DNA Origami Directed Au Nanostar Dimers for Single-Molecule Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Swati; Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Sen, Tapasi

    2017-12-06

    We demonstrate the synthesis of Au nanostar dimers with tunable interparticle gap and controlled stoichiometry assembled on DNA origami. Au nanostars with uniform and sharp tips were immobilized on rectangular DNA origami dimerized structures to create nanoantennas containing monomeric and dimeric Au nanostars. Single Texas red (TR) dye was specifically attached in the junction of the dimerized origami to act as a Raman reporter molecule. The SERS enhancement factors of single TR dye molecules located in the conjunction region in dimer structures having interparticle gaps of 7 and 13 nm are 2 × 10 10 and 8 × 10 9 , respectively, which are strong enough for single analyte detection. The highly enhanced electromagnetic field generated by the plasmon coupling between sharp tips and cores of two Au nanostars in the wide conjunction region allows the accommodation and specific detection of large biomolecules. Such DNA-directed assembled nanoantennas with controlled interparticle separation distance and stoichiometry, and well-defined geometry, can be used as excellent substrates in single-molecule SERS spectroscopy and will have potential applications as a reproducible platform in single-molecule sensing.

  8. Multisensor satellite data integration for sea surface wind speed and direction determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, D. L.; Pihos, G. G.; Wheelock, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques to integrate meteorological data from various satellite sensors to yield a global measure of sea surface wind speed and direction for input to the Navy's operational weather forecast models were investigated. The sensors were launched or will be launched, specifically the GOES visible and infrared imaging sensor, the Nimbus-7 SMMR, and the DMSP SSM/I instrument. An algorithm for the extrapolation to the sea surface of wind directions as derived from successive GOES cloud images was developed. This wind veering algorithm is relatively simple, accounts for the major physical variables, and seems to represent the best solution that can be found with existing data. An algorithm for the interpolation of the scattered observed data to a common geographical grid was implemented. The algorithm is based on a combination of inverse distance weighting and trend surface fitting, and is suited to combing wind data from disparate sources.

  9. Morphology, directed self-assembly and pattern transfer from a high molecular weight polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block copolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Chen; Bai, Wubin; Fernandez Martin, Eduardo; Tu, Kun-Hua; Ntetsikas, Konstantinos; Liontos, George; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Ross, C. A.

    2017-04-01

    The self-assembly of block copolymers with large feature sizes is inherently challenging as the large kinetic barrier arising from chain entanglement of high molecular weight (MW) polymers limits the extent over which long-range ordered microdomains can be achieved. Here, we illustrate the evolution of thin film morphology from a diblock copolymer of polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) exhibiting total number average MW of 123 kg mol-1, and demonstrate the formation of layers of well-ordered cylindrical microdomains under appropriate conditions of binary solvent mix ratio, commensurate film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time. Directed self-assembly of the block copolymer within lithographically patterned trenches occurs with alignment of cylinders parallel to the sidewalls. Fabrication of ordered cobalt nanowire arrays by pattern transfer was also implemented, and their magnetic properties and domain wall behavior were characterized.

  10. Gamma counter shutter assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aday, R.W. Jr.; Barber, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A shutter assembly for a radioactivity measuring apparatus is described having a sample counting chamber, the assembly having a bulky solid lead cylinder with a sample access port extending therethrough for alignment with the sample chamber. The cylinder is rotated by a Geneva wheel arrangement having a drive wheel with a plurality of equi-angularly disposed pins perpendicular to the surface thereof engaging radially extending open-ended slots in a driven wheel secured to the lead cylinder for concurrent rotation therewith. The drive wheel is rotated at a constant speed with the driven wheel accelerating as a pin traverses the slot from the open end toward the driven wheel center and then decelerating as the pin traverses the reverse direction to provide precise positioning with adjacent pins engaging the open ends of adjacent slots in the stop position of the cylinder. 8 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures

  11. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  12. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-12-31

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  13. Cell Adhesion on RGD-Displaying Knottins with Varying Numbers of Tryptophan Amino Acids to Tune the Affinity for Assembly on Cucurbit[8]uril Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Shrikrishnan; Cavatorta, Emanuela; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2017-09-05

    Cell adhesion is studied on multivalent knottins, displaying RGD ligands with a high affinity for integrin receptors, that are assembled on CB[8]-methylviologen-modified surfaces. The multivalency in the knottins stems from the number of tryptophan amino acid moieties, between 0 and 4, that can form a heteroternary complex with cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) and surface-tethered methylviologen (MV 2+ ). The binding affinity of the knottins with CB[8] and MV 2+ surfaces was evaluated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Specific binding occurred, and the affinity increased with the valency of tryptophans on the knottin. Additionally, increased multilayer formation was observed, attributed to homoternary complex formation between tryptophan residues of different knottins and CB[8]. Thus, we were able to control the surface coverage of the knottins by valency and concentration. Cell experiments with mouse myoblast (C2C12) cells on the self-assembled knottin surfaces showed specific integrin recognition by the RGD-displaying knottins. Moreover, cells were observed to elongate more on the supramolecular knottin surfaces with a higher valency, and in addition, more pronounced focal adhesion formation was observed on the higher-valency knottin surfaces. We attribute this effect to the enhanced coverage and the enhanced affinity of the knottins in their interaction with the CB[8] surface. Collectively, these results are promising for the development of biomaterials including knottins via CB[8] ternary complexes for tunable interactions with cells.

  14. A molecular assembly system for presentation of antigens on the surface of HBc virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhina, Elena A.; Kuprianov, Victor V. [Centre ' Bioengineering' , Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Prosp. 60-letya Oktyabrya 7-1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stepanova, Ludmila A.; Tsybalova, Ludmila M. [Research Institute of Influenza, Russian Federation Ministry of Health and Social Development, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kiselev, Oleg I. [Research Institute of Influenza, Russian Federation Ministry of Health and Social Development, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); GenNanotech Ltd, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ravin, Nikolai V., E-mail: nravin@biengi.ac.ru [Centre ' Bioengineering' , Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Prosp. 60-letya Oktyabrya 7-1, Moscow (Russian Federation); GenNanotech Ltd, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Skryabin, Konstantin G. [Centre ' Bioengineering' , Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Prosp. 60-letya Oktyabrya 7-1, Moscow (Russian Federation); GenNanotech Ltd, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-20

    Hepatitis B virus-like particles, icosahedral structures formed by multiple core protein dimers, are promising immune-enhancing vaccine carriers for foreign antigens. Insertions into the surface-exposed immunodominant loop are especially immunogenic. However, the need to conserve the particulate structure to ensure high immunogenicity imposes restraints on the nature of the heterologous sequence that can be inserted. We propose a new approach to constructing HBc particles linked to the target epitopes that relies on non-covalent interactions between the epitope and pre-assembled unmodified HBc particles. Interaction was enabled by fusion of the epitope to the GSLLGRMKGA peptide, binding to the spike tips. This peptide may be used as a 'binding tag' allowing in vitro construction of HBc particles carrying the target peptide. Such virus-like particles carrying multiple copies of the extracellular domain of the M2 protein of different influenza strains appeared to be highly immunogenic and protected immunised mice against a lethal influenza challenge.

  15. Differential control of abdominal muscles during multi-directional support-surface translations in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark G; Tokuno, Craig D; Thorstensson, Alf; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2008-07-01

    The current study aimed to understand how deep and superficial abdominal muscles are coordinated with respect to activation onset times and amplitudes in response to unpredictable support-surface translations delivered in multiple directions. Electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded intra-muscularly using fine-wire electrodes inserted into the right rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles. Twelve young healthy male subjects were instructed to maintain their standing balance during 40 support surface translations (peak acceleration 1.3 m s(-2); total displacement 0.6 m) that were counter-balanced between four different directions (forward, backward, leftward, rightward). Differences between abdominal muscles in EMG onset times were found for specific translation directions. The more superficial RA (backward translations) and OE (forward and leftward translations) muscles had significantly earlier EMG onsets compared to TrA. EMG onset latencies were dependent on translation direction in RA, OE and OI, but independent of direction in TrA. EMG amplitudes in RA and OE were dependent on translation direction within the first 100 ms of activity, whereas responses from the two deeper muscles (TrA and OI) were independent of translation direction during this interval. The current results provide new insights into how abdominal muscles contribute to postural reactions during human stance. Response patterns of deep and superficial abdominal muscles during support surface translations are unlike those previously described during upper-body perturbations or voluntary arm movements, indicating that the neural mechanisms controlling individual abdominal muscles are task-specific to different postural demands.

  16. Radial Wettable Gradient of Hot Surface to Control Droplets Movement in Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shile; Wang, Sijie; Tao, Yuanhao; Shang, Weifeng; Deng, Siyan; Zheng, Yongmei; Hou, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    A radial wettable gradient was fabricated on the surface of graphite plate by a simple one-step anodic oxidation process. It was found that the direction and value of the wettable gradient could be easily controlled by adjusting current and oxidation time gradient. With the increase of surface temperature, droplets on surface not only exhibited the transition of boiling mode, but also showed the controlled radial spreading, evaporation and movement behaviors. These phenomena could be attributed to the cooperation of wettability force, hysteresis force and vapor pressure (Leidenfrost effect). Especially, the controlled radial convergence or divergence of droplets with high velocity were realized on the surfaces with either inside or outside radial gradient, which would have crucial applications in the design of microfluidic devices and the exploration of the biotechnology. PMID:25975722

  17. Surface Decoration on Polymeric Gate Dielectrics for Flexible Organic Field-Effect Transistors via Hydroxylation and Subsequent Monolayer Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Huang, Long-Biao; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Li; Sun, Qijun; Zhuang, Jiaqing; Peng, Haiyan; Yan, He; Roy, V A L

    2015-10-28

    A simple photochemical reaction based on confined photocatalytic oxidation (CPO) treatment and hydrolysis was employed to efficiently convert C-H bonds into C-OH groups on polymeric material surfaces, followed by investigation of monolayer self-assembly decoration on polymeric dielectrics via chemical bonding for the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) applications. This method is a low temperature process and has negligible etching effect on polymeric dielectric layers. Various types of self-assembled monolayers have been tested and successfully attached onto the hydroxylated polymeric dielectric surfaces through chemical bonding, ensuring the stability of decorated functional films during the subsequent device fabrication consisting of solution processing of the polymer active layer. With the surface decoration of functional groups, both n-type and p-type polymers exhibit enhanced carrier mobilities in the unipolar OFETs. In addition, enhanced and balanced mobilities are obtained in the ambipolar OFETs with the blend of polymer semiconductors. The anchored self-assembled monolayers on the dielectric surfaces dramatically preclude the solvent effect, thus enabling an improvement of carrier mobility up to 2 orders of magnitude. Our study opens a way of targeted modifications of polymeric surfaces and related applications in organic electronics.

  18. Surface-based molecular self-assembly: Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic Ln(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Dominic J; Kitchen, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The unique photophysical properties of the Ln(III) series has led to significant research efforts being directed towards their application in sensors. However, for "real-life" applications, these sensors should ideally be immobilised onto surfaces without loss of function. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique offers a promising method in which to achieve such immobilisation. This mini-review focuses on synthetic strategies for film formation, the effect that film formation has on the physical properties of the Ln(III) amphiphile, and concludes with examples of Ln(III) LB films being used as sensors.

  19. Approach to Interfacial and Intramolecular Electron Transfer of the Diheme Protein Cytochrome c(4) Assembled on Au(111) Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong; Taner, Arslan

    2010-01-01

    protein Pseudomonas stutzeri cytochrome c(4) has been a target for intramolecular, interheme ET. We report here voltammetric and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data for P. stutzeri cyt c(4) at single-crystal, atomically planar Au(111)-electrode surfaces modified by variable-length omega...... direction and a single two-ET peak in the anodic direction. Intramolecular, interheme ET with high, 8,000-30,000 s(-1), rate constants is notably an essential part of this mechanism. The high rate constants are in striking contrast to ET reactions of P. stutzeri cyt c4 with small reaction partners...... in homogeneous solution for which kinetic analysis clearly testifies to electrostatic cooperative effects but no intramolecular, interheme ET higher than 0.1-10 s(-1). This difference suggests a strong gating feature of the process. On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of P. stutzeri cyt c(4), gating...

  20. Experimental verification of directional liquid surface wave emission at band edge frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Yongqiang; Nie, Xiaofei

    2013-01-01

    Directional liquid surface wave emission at band edge frequencies is an interesting physical phenomenon and has already been studied in theoretical research. There has been no experimental validation of it to date, however. This paper has as its subject the experimental investigation of the emission effect when a point source is placed inside a finite square array of rigid cylinders standing vertically in liquid. Both the wave patterns and spatial intensities are obtained by experiment and compared with simulated results calculated by using the finite element method. We can see from this comparison that the two results correspond closely both at lower and upper band edge frequency. Obvious directional wave emission along a desired direction is observed in the source structures, confirming previous theoretical predictions. In the future, this method could serve as a directional liquid wave source in applications used in hydraulic and ocean engineering for the concentration of wave energy

  1. Land Surface Albedo Estimation from Chinese HJ Satellite Data Based on the Direct Estimation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao He

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring surface albedo at medium-to-fine resolution (<100 m has become increasingly important for medium-to-fine scale applications and coarse-resolution data evaluation. This paper presents a method for estimating surface albedo directly using top-of-atmosphere reflectance. This is the first attempt to derive surface albedo for both snow-free and snow-covered conditions from medium-resolution data with a single approach. We applied this method to the multispectral data from the wide-swath Chinese HuanJing (HJ satellites at a spatial resolution of 30 m to demonstrate the feasibility of this data for surface albedo monitoring over rapidly changing surfaces. Validation against ground measurements shows that the method is capable of accurately estimating surface albedo over both snow-free and snow-covered surfaces with an overall root mean square error (RMSE of 0.030 and r-square (R2 of 0.947. The comparison between HJ albedo estimates and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectral Radiometer (MODIS albedo product suggests that the HJ data and proposed algorithm can generate robust albedo estimates over various land cover types with an RMSE of 0.011–0.014. The accuracy of HJ albedo estimation improves with the increase in view zenith angles, which further demonstrates the unique advantage of wide-swath satellite data in albedo estimation.

  2. Controlling the stainless steel surface wettability by nanosecond direct laser texturing at high fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorčič, P.; Šetina-Batič, B.; Hočevar, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work investigates the influence of the direct laser texturing at high fluences (DLT-HF) on surface morphology, chemistry, and wettability. We use a Nd:YAG laser ( λ = 1064 nm) with pulse duration of 95 ns to process stainless steel surface. The surface morphology and chemistry after the texturing is examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), while the surface wettability is evaluated by measuring the static contact angle. Immediately after the texturing, the surface is superhydrophilic in a saturated Wenzel regime. However, this state is not stable and the superhydrophilic-to-superhydrophobic transition happens if the sample is kept in atmospheric air for 30 days. After this period, the laser-textured stainless steel surface expresses lotus-leaf-like behavior. By using a high-speed camera at 10,000 fps, we measured that the water droplet completely rebound from this superhydrophobic surface after the contact time of 12 ms.

  3. Surface hopping dynamics of direct trans --> cis photoswitching of an azobenzene derivative in constrained adsorbate geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Gereon; Granucci, Giovanni; Saalfrank, Peter

    2012-12-01

    With ongoing miniaturization of electronic devices, the need for individually addressable, switchable molecules arises. An example are azobenzenes on surfaces which have been shown to be switchable between trans and cis forms. Here, we examine the "direct" (rather than substrate-mediated) channel of the trans → cis photoisomerization after ππ* excitation of tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene physisorbed on surfaces mimicking Au(111) and Bi(111), respectively. In spirit of the direct channel, the electronic structure of the surface is neglected, the latter merely acting as a rigid platform which weakly interacts with the molecule via Van-der-Waals forces. Starting from thermal ensembles which represent the trans-form, sudden excitations promote the molecules to ππ*-excited states which are non-adiabatically coupled among themselves and to a nπ*-excited and the ground state, respectively. After excitation, relaxation to the ground state by internal conversion takes place, possibly accompanied by isomerization. The process is described here by "on the fly" semiclassical surface hopping dynamics in conjunction with a semiempirical Hamiltonian (AM1) and configuration-interaction type methods. It is found that steric constraints imposed by the substrate lead to reduced but non-vanishing, trans → cis reaction yields and longer internal conversion times than for the isolated molecule. Implications for recent experiments for azobenzenes on surfaces are discussed.

  4. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  5. Direct methods determination of the Si(111)-(6x6)Au surface structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grozea, D.; Landree, E.; Marks, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    The atomic structure of the Au 6 x 6 on Si(111) phase has been determined using direct methods and surface X-ray diffraction data. This surface structure is very complicated, with 14 independent gold atoms, relaxations in 24 independent silicon sites and three partially occupied gold sites. In one...... the gold structures in the coverage range 0.8-1.5 monolayers as pseudo-glasses with strong short-range order but varying degrees of long-range order. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. RIE challenges for sub-15 nm line-and-space patterning using directed self-assembly lithography with coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Y.; Seino, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kanai, H.; Sato, H.; Kubota, H.; Tobana, T.; Minegishi, S.; Miyagi, K.; Kihara, N.; Kodera, K.; Shiraishi, M.; Kawamonzen, Y.; Nomura, S.; Azuma, T.

    2015-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is one of the promising candidates for next-generation lithography. We developed a novel simple sub-15 nm line-and-space (L/S) patterning process, the "coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process," using grapho- and chemo-hybrid epitaxy. In this study we evaluate the DSA L/S pattern transfer margin. Since defect reduction is difficult in the case of the DSA pattern transfer process, there is a need to increase the pattern transfer margin. We also describe process integration for electrical yield verification.

  7. Launch Lock Assemblies with Reduced Preload and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Launch lock assemblies with reduced preload are provided. The launch lock assembly comprises first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and a pair of retracting assemblies. Each retracting assembly comprises a pair of toothed members having interacting toothed surfaces. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement. When the releasable clamp device is actuated, the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement and one toothed member of each retracting assembly moves in an opposite direction relative to the other one toothed member of the other retracting assembly to define an axial gap on each side of the first mount piece.

  8. Supramolecular self-assembly on the B-Si(111)-(√3x√3) R30° surface: From single molecules to multicomponent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoudi, Younes; Jeannoutot, Judicaël; Palmino, Frank; Chérioux, Frédéric; Copie, Guillaume; Krzeminski, Christophe; Cleri, Fabrizio; Grandidier, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the physical and chemical processes in which local interactions lead to ordered structures is of particular relevance to the realization of supramolecular architectures on surfaces. While spectacular patterns have been demonstrated on metal surfaces, there have been fewer studies of the spontaneous organization of supramolecular networks on semiconductor surfaces, where the formation of covalent bonds between organics and adatoms usually hamper the diffusion of molecules and their subsequent interactions with each other. However, the saturation of the dangling bonds at a semiconductor surface is known to make them inert and offers a unique way for the engineering of molecular patterns on these surfaces. This review describes the physicochemical properties of the passivated B-Si(111)-(√3x√3) R30° surface, that enable the self-assembly of molecules into a rich variety of extended and regular structures on silicon. Particular attention is given to computational methods based on multi-scale simulations that allow to rationalize the relative contribution of the dispersion forces involved in the self-assembled networks observed with scanning tunneling microscopy. A summary of state of the art studies, where a fine tuning of the molecular network topology has been achieved, sheds light on new frontiers for exploiting the construction of supramolecular structures on semiconductor surfaces.

  9. Directional Thermal Emission and Absorption from Surface Microstructures in Metalized Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    directional thermal emitter with enhanced surface durability due to its extended metal deposition thickness. 1.3.3 Dual-Cavity-Width Structure Design...crystals. The definition is applied to one-dimensionally periodic stacks, two-dimensionally periodic slabs , and three- dimensionally periodic complex...sufficiently to significantly effect the film durability and thermal conductivity, the profile of the cavity begins to change shape. Although a case

  10. Direct investigation of (sub-) surface preparation artifacts in GaAs based materials by FIB sectioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belz, Jürgen; Beyer, Andreas; Torunski, Torsten; Stolz, Wolfgang; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-04-15

    The introduction of preparation artifacts is almost inevitable when producing samples for (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). These artifacts can be divided in extrinsic artifacts like damage processes and intrinsic artifacts caused by the deviations from the volume strain state in thin elastically strained material systems. The reduction and estimation of those effects is of great importance for the quantitative analysis of (S)TEM images. Thus, optimized ion beam preparation conditions are investigated for high quality samples. Therefore, the surface topology is investigated directly with atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the actual TEM samples. Additionally, the sectioning of those samples by a focused ion beam (FIB) is used to investigate the damage depth profile directly in the TEM. The AFM measurements show good quantitative agreement of sample height modulation due to strain relaxation to finite elements simulations. Strong indications of (sub-) surface damage by ion beams are observed. Their influence on high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging is estimated with focus on thickness determination by absolute intensity methods. Data consolidation of AFM and TEM measurements reveals a 3.5 nm surface amorphization, negligible surface roughness on the scale of angstroms and a sub-surface damage profile in the range of up to 8.0 nm in crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) and GaAs-based ternary alloys. A correction scheme for thickness evaluation of absolute HAADF intensities is proposed and applied for GaAs based materials. - Highlights: • The damage by Ar-ion milling during TEM sample preparation is investigated directly. • After FIB sectioning damage and deep disorder of c-GaAs is seen in cross-section. • The influence of such disorder on conventional ADF measurements is estimated. • A correction for HAADF measurements is proposed with focus on thickness estimations.

  11. Multi-technique Characterization of Self-assembled Carboxylic Acid Terminated Alkanethiol Monolayers on Nanoparticle and Flat Gold Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techane, Sirnegeda D; Gamble, Lara J; Castner, David G

    2011-04-21

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 14, 25 and 40nm diameters were functionalized with different chain length (C6, C8, C11 and C16) carboxylic acid terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (COOH-SAMs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to examine the changes in surface chemistry as both AuNP diameter and SAM chain length were varied. COOH-SAMs on flat gold surfaces were also examined and compared to the COOH-SAM on AuNP results. For a given surface, as the COOH-SAM chain length increased the XPS C/Au atomic ratio increased due to an increased number of carbon atoms per molecule in the overlayer and an increased attenuation of the Au substrate signal. For the C16 COOH-SAMs, as the size of AuNPs decreased the XPS C/Au atomic ratio and the apparent SAM thickness increased due to the increased curvature of the smaller AuNPs. The C16 COOH-SAMs on the flat Au had the lowest XPS C/Au atomic ratio and apparent SAM thickness of any C16 COOH-SAM covered Au surface. The effective take-off angles of the COOH-SAMs were also calculated by comparing the apparent thickness of COOH-SAMs with literature values. The effective take-off angle for C16 COOH-SAM on 14nm, 25nm and 40nm diameter AuNPs and flat Au were found to be 57°, 53°, 51° and 39°, respectively, for data acquired in a mode that collects a wide range of photoelectron take-off angles. The effective take-off angle for C16 COOH-SAM on 14nm AuNP and flat Au decreased to 52° and 0°, respectively, for data acquired in a mode that collects a narrow range of photoelectron take-off angles. The ToF-SIMS results showed similar changes in surface chemistry with COOH-SAM chain length and AuNP size. For example, the ratio of the sum of the C(1-4)H(x)O(y) positive ion intensities to the sum of the Au-containing positive ions intensities increased with decreasing AuNP size and increasing COOH-SAM chain length. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy in the

  12. HJURP uses distinct CENP-A surfaces to recognize and to stabilize CENP-A/histone H4 for centromere assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Emily A; DeNizio, Jamie; Barnhart-Dailey, Meghan C; Panchenko, Tanya; Sekulic, Nikolina; Rogers, Danielle J; Foltz, Daniel R; Black, Ben E

    2012-04-17

    Centromeres are defined by the presence of chromatin containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A, whose assembly into nucleosomes requires the chromatin assembly factor HJURP. We find that whereas surface-exposed residues in the CENP-A targeting domain (CATD) are the primary sequence determinants for HJURP recognition, buried CATD residues that generate rigidity with H4 are also required for efficient incorporation into centromeres. HJURP contact points adjacent to the CATD on the CENP-A surface are not used for binding specificity but rather to transmit stability broadly throughout the histone fold domains of both CENP-A and H4. Furthermore, an intact CENP-A/CENP-A interface is a requirement for stable chromatin incorporation immediately upon HJURP-mediated assembly. These data offer insight into the mechanism by which HJURP discriminates CENP-A from bulk histone complexes and chaperones CENP-A/H4 for a substantial portion of the cell cycle prior to mediating chromatin assembly at the centromere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On the attempts to measure water (and other volatiles) directly at the surface of a comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. P.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G. H.; Barber, S. J.; Morse, A. D.

    2017-04-01

    The Ptolemy instrument on the Philae lander (of the Rosetta space mission) was able to make measurements of the major volatiles, water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, directly at the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We give some background to the mission and highlight those instruments that have already given insights into the notion of water in comets, and which will continue to do so as more results are either acquired or more fully interpreted. On the basis of our results, we show how comets may in fact be heterogeneous over their surface, and how surface measurements can be used in a quest to comprehend the daily cycles of processes that affect the evolution of comets. This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'.

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Sequence Assembly from Coconut Leaves and Seeds with a Focus on Factors Involved in RNA-Directed DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Lee, Chueh-Pai; Fu, Jason L.; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Matzke, Antonius J. M.; Matzke, Marjori

    2014-01-01

    Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a symbol of the tropics and a source of numerous edible and nonedible products of economic value. Despite its nutritional and industrial significance, coconut remains under-represented in public repositories for genomic and transcriptomic data. We report de novo transcript assembly from RNA-seq data and analysis of gene expression in seed tissues (embryo and endosperm) and leaves of a dwarf coconut variety. Assembly of 10 GB sequencing data for each tissue resulted in 58,211 total unigenes in embryo, 61,152 in endosperm, and 33,446 in leaf. Within each unigene pool, 24,857 could be annotated in embryo, 29,731 could be annotated in endosperm, and 26,064 could be annotated in leaf. A KEGG analysis identified 138, 138, and 139 pathways, respectively, in transcriptomes of embryo, endosperm, and leaf tissues. Given the extraordinarily large size of coconut seeds and the importance of small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation during seed development in model plants, we used homology searches to identify putative homologs of factors required for RNA-directed DNA methylation in coconut. The findings suggest that RNA-directed DNA methylation is important during coconut seed development, particularly in maturing endosperm. This dataset will expand the genomics resources available for coconut and provide a foundation for more detailed analyses that may assist molecular breeding strategies aimed at improving this major tropical crop. PMID:25193496

  15. De novo transcriptome sequence assembly from coconut leaves and seeds with a focus on factors involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Lee, Chueh-Pai; Fu, Jason L; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2014-09-04

    Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a symbol of the tropics and a source of numerous edible and nonedible products of economic value. Despite its nutritional and industrial significance, coconut remains under-represented in public repositories for genomic and transcriptomic data. We report de novo transcript assembly from RNA-seq data and analysis of gene expression in seed tissues (embryo and endosperm) and leaves of a dwarf coconut variety. Assembly of 10 GB sequencing data for each tissue resulted in 58,211 total unigenes in embryo, 61,152 in endosperm, and 33,446 in leaf. Within each unigene pool, 24,857 could be annotated in embryo, 29,731 could be annotated in endosperm, and 26,064 could be annotated in leaf. A KEGG analysis identified 138, 138, and 139 pathways, respectively, in transcriptomes of embryo, endosperm, and leaf tissues. Given the extraordinarily large size of coconut seeds and the importance of small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation during seed development in model plants, we used homology searches to identify putative homologs of factors required for RNA-directed DNA methylation in coconut. The findings suggest that RNA-directed DNA methylation is important during coconut seed development, particularly in maturing endosperm. This dataset will expand the genomics resources available for coconut and provide a foundation for more detailed analyses that may assist molecular breeding strategies aimed at improving this major tropical crop. Copyright © 2014 Huang et al.

  16. A versatile strategy towards non-covalent functionalization of graphene by surface-confined supramolecular self-assembly of Janus tectons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D, supramolecular self-assembly at surfaces is now well-mastered with several existing examples. However, one remaining challenge to enable future applications in nanoscience is to provide potential functionalities to the physisorbed adlayer. This work reviews a recently developed strategy that addresses this key issue by taking advantage of a new concept, Janus tecton materials. This is a versatile, molecular platform based on the design of three-dimensional (3D building blocks consisting of two faces linked by a cyclophane-type pillar. One face is designed to steer 2D self-assembly onto C(sp2-carbon-based flat surfaces, the other allowing for the desired functionality above the substrate with a well-controlled lateral order. In this way, it is possible to simultaneously obtain a regular, non-covalent paving as well as supramolecular functionalization of graphene, thus opening interesting perspectives for nanoscience applications.

  17. Supramolecular synthons on surfaces: Controlling dimensionality and periodicity of tetraarylporphyrin assemblies by the interplay of cyano and alkoxy substituents

    OpenAIRE

    Wintjes, Nikolai; Hornung, Jens; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Voigt, Tobias; Samuely, Tomáš; Thilgen, Carlo; Stöhr, Meike; Diederich, François; Jung, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    The self-assembly of three porphyrin derivatives was studied in detail on a Cu(111) substrate by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). All derivatives have two 4-cyanophenyl substituents in diagonally opposed meso-positions of the porphyrin core. but differ in the nature of the other two meso-alkoxyphenyl substituents. At coverages below 0.8 monolayers, two derivatives form molecular chains, which evolve into nanoporous networks at higher coverages. The third derivative self-assembles...

  18. Direct observation of surface-state thermal oscillations in SmB6 oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Brian; Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2018-01-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo insulator that exhibits a sharp increase in resistance following an activated behavior that levels off and saturates below 4 K. This behavior can be explained by the proposal of SmB6 representing a new state of matter, a topological Kondo insulator, in which a Kondo gap is developed, and topologically protected surface conduction dominates low-temperature transport. Exploiting its nonlinear dynamics, a tunable SmB6 oscillator device was recently demonstrated, where a small dc current generates large oscillating voltages at frequencies from a few Hz to hundreds of MHz. This behavior was explained by a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. However, a crucial aspect of this model, the predicted temperature oscillation in the surface state, has not been experimentally observed to date. This is largely due to the technical difficulty of detecting an oscillating temperature of the very thin surface state. Here we report direct measurements of the time-dependent surface-state temperature in SmB6 with a RuO2 microthermometer. Our results agree quantitatively with the theoretically simulated temperature waveform, and hence support the validity of the oscillator model, which will provide accurate theoretical guidance for developing future SmB6 oscillators at higher frequencies.

  19. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Direct measurements of meltwater runoff on the Greenland ice sheet surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C.; Yang, Kang; Pitcher, Lincoln H.; Overstreet, Brandon T.; Chu, Vena W.; Rennermalm, Åsa K.; Ryan, Jonathan C.; Cooper, Matthew G.; Gleason, Colin J.; Tedesco, Marco; Jeyaratnam, Jeyavinoth; van As, Dirk; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Langen, Peter L.; Cullather, Richard I.; Zhao, Bin; Willis, Michael J.; Hubbard, Alun; Box, Jason E.; Jenner, Brittany A.; Behar, Alberto E.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet surface influences surface mass balance (SMB), ice dynamics, and global sea level rise, but is estimated with climate models and thus difficult to validate. We present a way to measure ice surface runoff directly, from hourly in situ supraglacial river discharge measurements and simultaneous high-resolution satellite/drone remote sensing of upstream fluvial catchment area. A first 72-h trial for a 63.1-km2 moulin-terminating internally drained catchment (IDC) on Greenland's midelevation (1,207–1,381 m above sea level) ablation zone is compared with melt and runoff simulations from HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, RACMO2.3, MERRA-2, and SEB climate/SMB models. Current models cannot reproduce peak discharges or timing of runoff entering moulins but are improved using synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) theory. Retroactive SUH applications to two older field studies reproduce their findings, signifying that remotely sensed IDC area, shape, and supraglacial river length are useful for predicting delays in peak runoff delivery to moulins. Applying SUH to HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, and RACMO2.3 gridded melt products for 799 surrounding IDCs suggests their terminal moulins receive lower peak discharges, less diurnal variability, and asynchronous runoff timing relative to climate/SMB model output alone. Conversely, large IDCs produce high moulin discharges, even at high elevations where melt rates are low. During this particular field experiment, models overestimated runoff by +21 to +58%, linked to overestimated surface ablation and possible meltwater retention in bare, porous, low-density ice. Direct measurements of ice surface runoff will improve climate/SMB models, and incorporating remotely sensed IDCs will aid coupling of SMB with ice dynamics and subglacial systems.

  1. Interactive surface in the PapD chaperone cleft is conserved in pilus chaperone superfamily and essential in subunit recognition and assembly.

    OpenAIRE

    Slonim, L N; Pinkner, J S; Brändén, C I; Hultgren, S J

    1992-01-01

    The assembly of adhesive pili in Gram-negative bacteria is modulated by specialized periplasmic chaperone systems. PapD is the prototype member of the superfamily of periplasmic pilus chaperones. Previously, the alignment of chaperone sequences superimposed on the three dimensional structure of PapD revealed the presence of invariant, conserved and variable amino acids. Representative residues that protruded into the PapD cleft were targeted for site directed mutagenesis to investigate the pi...

  2. Surface electromyogram analysis of the direction of isometric torque generation by the first dorsal interosseous muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Suresh, Nina L.; Zev Rymer, William

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel technique using high density surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings can be used to detect the directional dependence of muscle activity in a multifunctional muscle, the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). We used surface EMG recordings with a two-dimensional electrode array to search for inhomogeneous FDI activation patterns with changing torque direction at the metacarpophalangeal joint, the locus of action of the FDI muscle. The interference EMG distribution across the whole FDI muscle was recorded during isometric contraction at the same force magnitude in five different directions in the index finger abduction-flexion plane. The electrode array EMG activity was characterized by contour plots, interpolating the EMG amplitude between electrode sites. Across all subjects the amplitude of the flexion EMG was consistently lower than that of the abduction EMG at the given force. Pattern recognition methods were used to discriminate the isometric muscle contraction tasks with a linear discriminant analysis classifier, based on the extraction of two different feature sets of the surface EMG signal: the time domain (TD) feature set and a combination of autoregressive coefficients and the root mean square amplitude (AR+RMS) as a feature set. We found that high accuracies were obtained in the classification of different directions of the FDI muscle isometric contraction. With a monopolar electrode configuration, the average overall classification accuracy from nine subjects was 94.1 ± 2.3% for the TD feature set and 95.8 ± 1.5% for the AR+RMS feature set. Spatial filtering of the signal with bipolar electrode configuration improved the average overall classification accuracy to 96.7 ± 2.7% for the TD feature set and 98.1 ± 1.6% for the AR+RMS feature set. The distinct EMG contour plots and the high classification accuracies obtained from this study confirm distinct interference EMG pattern distributions as a

  3. DNA directed protein immobilization on mixed ssDNA/oligo /ethylene glycol/ self-assembled monolayers for sensitive biosensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boozer, C.; Ladd, J.; Chen, S.; Yu, Q.; Homola, Jiří; Jiang, S. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 23 (2004), s. 6967-6972 ISSN 0003-2700 Grant - others:US FDA (US) FD-U-002250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : arrays * biosensors * surface plasmon resonance * gold Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 5.450, year: 2004

  4. Ultrasonic pumping of liquids in the two directions of a vertical tube by a vibrating surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    of the oscillations of the vibrating horizontal surface determine the direction in which the liquid is pumped. In addition, the size of the gap is also a relevant factor, which has to be significantly small. The carried out numerical simulations show that the Lagrangian excess pressure and the density of linear......It has been reported that it is possible to pump a liquid into the interior of a vertical pipe when its lower end is facing a vibrating plane surface immersed in the liquid. The column of liquid pumped in a thin pipe can be higher than 2 m if the gap between the pipe end and the vibrating...... horizontal surface is very small, around 0.01 mm. In this paper we present experimental results showing that, with a similar set up as the one mentioned above, it is also possible to pump liquids in the opposite direction, from the interior of the pipe through the gap. The general objective of the work has...

  5. Cell wall assembly and intracellular trafficking in plant cells are directly affected by changes in the magnitude of gravitational acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chebli, Y.; Pujol, L.; Shojaeifard, A.; Brouwer, I.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Geitmann, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in

  6. Cell Wall Assembly and Intracellular Trafficking in Plant Cells Are Directly Affected by Changes in the Magnitude of Gravitational Acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chebli, Y.; Pujol, L.; Shojaeifard, A.; Brouwer, I.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Geitmann, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in

  7. Electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance characterization of β-cyclodextrin-based self-assembled monolayers and evaluation of their inclusion complexes with glucocorticoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasconi, Marco; Mazzei, Franco

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the characterization of a self-assembled β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-derivative monolayer (β-CD-SAM) on a gold surface and the study of their inclusion complexes with glucocorticoids. To this aim the arrangement of a self-assembled β-cyclodextrin-derivative monolayer on a gold surface was monitored in situ by means of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and double-layer capacitance measurements. Film thickness and dielectric constant were evaluated for a monolayer of β-CD using one-color-approach SPR. The selectivity of the β-CD host surface was verified by using electroactive species permeable and impermeable in the β-CD cavity. The redox probe was selected according to its capacity to permeate the β-CD monolayer and its electrochemical behavior. In order to evaluate the feasibility of an inclusion complex between β-CD-SAM with some steroids such as cortisol and cortisone, voltammetric experiments in the presence of the redox probes as molecules competitive with the steroids have been performed. The formation constant of the surface host-guest by β-CD-SAM and the steroids under study was calculated.

  8. Nanoscale silicon substrate patterns from self-assembly of cylinder forming poly(styrene)-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block copolymer on silane functionalized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Dipu; Cummins, Cian; Rasappa, Sozaraj; Watson, Scott M D; Pike, Andrew R; Horrocks, Benjamin R; Fulton, David A; Houlton, Andrew; Liontos, George; Ntetsikas, Konstantinos; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Morris, Michael A

    2017-01-27

    Poly(styrene)-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) is an excellent block copolymer (BCP) system for self-assembly and inorganic template fabrication because of its high Flory-Huggins parameter (χ ∼ 0.26) at room temperature in comparison to other BCPs, and high selective etch contrast between PS and PDMS block for nanopatterning. In this work, self-assembly in PS-b-PDMS BCP is achieved by combining hydroxyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS-OH) brush surfaces with solvent vapor annealing. As an alternative to standard brush chemistry, we report a simple method based on the use of surfaces functionalized with silane-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). A solution-based approach to SAM formation was adopted in this investigation. The influence of the SAM-modified surfaces upon BCP films was compared with polymer brush-based surfaces. The cylinder forming PS-b-PDMS BCP and PDMS-OH polymer brush were synthesized by sequential living anionic polymerization. It was observed that silane SAMs provided the appropriate surface chemistry which, when combined with solvent annealing, led to microphase segregation in the BCP. It was also demonstrated that orientation of the PDMS cylinders may be controlled by judicious choice of the appropriate silane. The PDMS patterns were successfully used as an on-chip etch mask to transfer the BCP pattern to underlying silicon substrate with sub-25 nm silicon nanoscale features. This alternative SAM/BCP approach to nanopattern formation shows promising results, pertinent in the field of nanotechnology, and with much potential for application, such as in the fabrication of nanoimprint lithography stamps, nanofluidic devices or in narrow and multilevel interconnected lines.

  9. Direct observation of surface mode excitation and slow light coupling in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V.S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2007-01-01

    A scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to systematically study the properties of guided modes in linear and slow-light regimes of silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) with different terminations of the photonic lattice. High quality SNOM images...... are obtained for light at telecom wavelengths propagating in the PhCW, demonstrating directly, for the first time to our knowledge, drastic widening of the PhCW guided mode in the slow-light regime and excitation of surface waves at the PhCW interface along with their feeding into the guided mode...

  10. Laser direct writing of oxide structures on hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllenborn, Matthias; Birkelund, Karen; Grey, Francois

    1996-01-01

    A focused laser beam has been used to induce oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon. The scanning laser beam removes the hydrogen passivation locally from the silicon surface, which immediately oxidizes in air. The process has been studied as a function of power density and excitation wavelength...... be generated by laser direct oxidation and complemented with nanometer resolution by scanning probe techniques. The combined micro- and nanoscale pattern can be transferred to the silicon in a single etching step by either wet or dry etching techniques. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  11. Bearing splitting and near-surface source ranging in the direct zone of deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Nan; Zhou, Shi-Hong; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ren-He

    2016-12-01

    Sound multipath propagation is very important for target localization and identification in different acoustical zones of deep water. In order to distinguish the multipath characteristics in deep water, the Northwest Pacific Acoustic Experiment was conducted in 2015. A low-frequency horizontal line array towed at the depth of around 150 m on a receiving ship was used to receive the noise radiated by the source ship. During this experiment, a bearing-splitting phenomenon in the direct zone was observed through conventional beamforming of the horizontal line array within the frequency band 160 Hz-360 Hz. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained based on ray theory. In principle, the received signal in the direct zone of deep water arrives from two general paths including a direct one and bottom bounced one, which vary considerably in arrival angles. The split bearings correspond to the contributions of these two paths. The bearing-splitting phenomenon is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the bearing-time records and experimental results, and they are well consistent with each other. Then a near-surface source ranging approach based on the arrival angles of direct path and bottom bounced path in the direct zone is presented as an application of bearing splitting and is verified by experimental results. Finally, the applicability of the proposed ranging approach for an underwater source within several hundred meters in depth in the direct zone is also analyzed and demonstrated by simulations. Project supported by the Program of One Hundred Talented People of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 41561144006).

  12. Directed Self-Assembly of III-V Semiconductor Nanowire and 2D Atomic Crystal Nanosheet Arrays for Advanced Nanoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Theresa

    2014-03-01

    A variety of advanced materials and structures are being explored for next-generation ultra-low-power nanoelectronic devices to augment the capabilities provided by Si-based complementary logic. Interband tunneling field effect (TFET) transistors are particularly attractive because of their sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing (SS) and high current drive capabilities. This talk will provide an overview of recent progress to integrate abrupt, axially doped InGaAs nanowire TFET arrays and 2D atomic crystal nanosheets onto Si substrates using electric-field directed self-assembly. This strategy has enabled fabrication of the first lateral p+-i-n+ InGaAs nanowire TFETs with up to ten parallel aligned wires to study the effect of aggressive scaling on device figures of merit. Arrays of micron-scale, few-layer 2D layered group IV-monochalcogenide and transition metal dichalcogenide crystals are also being assembled for subsequent Hall and field-effect mobility measurements. STARnet LEAST Center.

  13. Directional Carrier Transfer in Strongly Coupled Binary Nanocrystal Superlattice Films Formed by Assembly and in Situ Ligand Exchange at a Liquid–Air Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yaoting; Li, Siming; Gogotsi, Natalie; Zhao, Tianshuo; Fleury, Blaise; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Baxter, Jason B.

    2017-02-16

    Two species of monodisperse nanocrystals (NCs) can self-assemble into a variety of complex 2D and 3D periodic structures, or binary NC superlattice (BNSL) films, based on the relative number and size of the NCs. BNSL films offer great promise for both fundamental scientific studies and optoelectronic applications; however, the utility of as-assembled structures has been limited by the insulating ligands that originate from the synthesis of NCs. Here we report the application of an in situ ligand exchange strategy at a liquid–air interface to replace the long synthesis ligands with short ligands while preserving the long-range order of BNSL films. This approach is demonstrated for BNSL structures consisting of PbSe NCs of different size combinations and ligands of interest for photovoltaic devices, infrared detectors, and light-emitting diodes. To confirm enhanced coupling introduced by ligand exchange, we show ultrafast (~1 ps) directional carrier transfer across the type-I heterojunction formed by NCs of different sizes within ligand-exchanged BNSL films. In conclusion, this approach shows the potential promise of functional BNSL films, where the local and long-range energy landscape and electronic coupling can be adjusted by tuning NC composition, size, and interparticle spacing.

  14. 75 FR 3141 - Airworthiness Directives; AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinder Assemblies, as Installed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... (MD-81), DC-9- 82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), and DC-9-87 (MD-87) airplanes. DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), and DC-10- 40 airplanes. MD-10-10F and MD-10-30F...-262-AD; Amendment 39-16179; AD 2009-21-10 R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; AVOX Systems and...

  15. Optimum concentration gradient of the electrocatalyst, Nafion® and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) in a membrane-electrode-assembly for enhanced performance of direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Hua; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Ki Rak; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2010-12-14

    A combinatorial library of membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) which consisted of 27 different compositions was fabricated to optimize the multilayer structure of direct methanol fuel cells. Each spot consisted of three layers of ink and a gradient was generated by employing different concentrations of the three components (Pt catalyst, Nafion® and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) of each layer. For quick evaluation of the library, a high-throughput optical screening technique was employed for methanol electro-oxidation reaction (MOR) activity. The screening results revealed that gradient layers could lead to higher MOR activity than uniform layers. It was found that the MOR activity was higher when the concentrations of Pt catalyst and Nafion ionomer decreased downward from the top layer to the bottom layer. On the other hand, higher MOR activity was observed when PTFE concentration increased downward from the top to the bottom layer.

  16. Supramolecular synthons on surfaces : Controlling dimensionality and periodicity of tetraarylporphyrin assemblies by the interplay of cyano and alkoxy substituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintjes, Nikolai; Hornung, Jens; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Voigt, Tobias; Samuely, Tomáš; Thilgen, Carlo; Stöhr, Meike; Diederich, François; Jung, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    The self-assembly of three porphyrin derivatives was studied in detail on a Cu(111) substrate by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). All derivatives have two 4-cyanophenyl substituents in diagonally opposed meso-positions of the porphyrin core. but differ in the nature of the other two

  17. Ecological and geographical study of administrative district surface water as a direction of students’ research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Перхач

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of ecologo-geographical study of surface water from lower administrative region are analyzed as one of the directions in Bachelor’s studies. The administrative low Stryi district in Lviv region is investigated. The main scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists on ecologo-geographical researches of surface water have been considered. The structure of research is taken into account. Natural geographical and hydrological conditions of Stryi district in Lviv region are characterized. The list of rivers and river basins of Stryi district which represent its river system is presented. The river system of presented territory and the main river Stryi are analyzed. Qualitative characteristics of water are presented according to norms about their use as potable water. Hydrogeographical and ecological problems of presented region are determined. The main directions of work with protection of water basin in Stryi district are offered: reconstruction of the existing systems of collection and cleaning of winter sewerage, intensification of fight against water loss in big human settlements, repair and substitution of water systems, inculcation of control schemes about the conditions of water systems, use of new methods and technologies to clean wastewater, creation of coastal protective strips.

  18. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Andreas; Gupta, Prasanth; Mohr, Berit; Hübner, René; Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert; Becker, Hans-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N, αγ)12C (Eres = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0-10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp2 hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  19. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, Andreas, E-mail: A.Markwitz@gns.cri.nz [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Gupta, Prasanth [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, Berit [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Hübner, René [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Becker, Hans-Werner [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, αγ){sup 12}C (E{sub res} = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0–10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp{sup 2} hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  20. Feedrate optimization in 5-axis machining based on direct trajectory interpolation on the surface using an open cnc

    OpenAIRE

    Beudaert , Xavier; Lavernhe , Sylvain; Tournier , Christophe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the common machining process of free-form surfaces, CAM software generates approximated tool paths because of the input tool path format of the industrial CNC. Then, marks on finished surfaces may appear due to non smooth feedrate planning during interpolation. The Direct Trajectory Interpolation on the Surface (DTIS) method allows managing the tool path geometry and the kinematical parameters to achieve higher productivity and a better surface quality. Machining ex...

  1. Self-assembled monolayers of bimetallic Au/Ag nanospheres with superior surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity for ultra-sensitive triphenylmethane dyes detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Linlin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Feng

    2018-02-15

    The bimetallic Au/Ag self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were constructed by using mono-dispersed Au/Ag nanospheres (Ag: 4.07%-34.53%) via evaporation-based assembly strategy. The composition-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy revealed that the Au/Ag (Ag: 16.83%) SAMs provide maximized activity for triphenylmethane dyes detection. With the inter-metallic synergy, the optimized SAMs enable the Raman intensity of crystal violet molecules to be about 223 times higher than that of monometallic Au SAMs. Moreover, the SERS signals with excellent uniformity (<5% variation) are sensitive down to 10 -13   M concentrations because of the optimal matching between bimetallic plasmon resonance and the incident laser wavelength.

  2. Photo-driven directional motion of droplets on the surface of a liquid crystal doped with photochromic azobenzene: theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Tachiya, M [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2005-12-14

    Recently, photo-driven directional motion of glycerol droplets on the surface of a liquid crystal doped with photochromic azobenzene derivatives has been reported. We present a theoretical model for this phenomenon. The motion of droplets is induced by a gradient in surface tension, which is produced by the combined effect of photo-isomerization and diffusion of surface azobenzenes. The theoretical relation between the surface tension and the surface concentration of cis isomers is proposed. The experimentally observed depletion zone of droplets can be reasonably well explained in terms of diffusion of droplets in the presence of the gradient in the surface tension.

  3. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  4. Unidirectional molecular assembly alignment on graphene enabled by nanomechanical symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liu; Nishihara, Taishi; Hijikata, Yuh; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Itami, Kenichiro

    2018-02-05

    Precise fabrication of molecular assemblies on a solid surface has long been of central interest in surface science. Their perfectly oriented growth only along a desired in-plane direction, however, remains a challenge, because of the thermodynamical equivalence of multiple axis directions on a solid-surface lattice. Here we demonstrate the successful fabrication of an in-plane, unidirectional molecular assembly on graphene. Our methodology relies on nanomechanical symmetry breaking effects under atomic force microscopy tip scanning, which has never been used in molecular alignment. Individual one-dimensional (1D) molecular assemblies were aligned along a selected symmetry axis of the graphene lattice under finely-tuned scanning conditions after removing initially-adsorbed molecules. Experimental statistics and computational simulations suggest that the anisotropic tip scanning locally breaks the directional equivalence of the graphene surface, which enables nucleation of the unidirectional 1D assemblies. Our findings will open new opportunities in the molecular alignment control on various atomically flat surfaces.

  5. Direct Measurement of Surface Dissolution Rates in Potential Nuclear Waste Forms: The Example of Pyrochlore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cornelius; Finkeldei, Sarah; Brandt, Felix; Bosbach, Dirk; Luttge, Andreas

    2015-08-19

    The long-term stability of ceramic materials that are considered as potential nuclear waste forms is governed by heterogeneous surface reactivity. Thus, instead of a mean rate, the identification of one or more dominant contributors to the overall dissolution rate is the key to predict the stability of waste forms quantitatively. Direct surface measurements by vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and their analysis via material flux maps and resulting dissolution rate spectra provide data about dominant rate contributors and their variability over time. Using pyrochlore (Nd2Zr2O7) pellet dissolution under acidic conditions as an example, we demonstrate the identification and quantification of dissolution rate contributors, based on VSI data and rate spectrum analysis. Heterogeneous surface alteration of pyrochlore varies by a factor of about 5 and additional material loss by chemo-mechanical grain pull-out within the uppermost grain layer. We identified four different rate contributors that are responsible for the observed dissolution rate range of single grains. Our new concept offers the opportunity to increase our mechanistic understanding and to predict quantitatively the alteration of ceramic waste forms.

  6. A direct methanol fuel cell system with passive fuel delivery based on liquid surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuming; Liang, Yung C.

    The existing direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) systems are fed with a fixed concentration of fuel, which are either a diluted methanol solution or an active fuel delivery driven by an attached active pump. Both approaches limit the power conversion density or degrade the overall efficiency of the DMFC system significantly. Such disadvantages become more severe in small-scale DMFCs, which require a high conversion efficiency and a small physical space suitable for portable electronics. In this paper, passive fuel delivery based on a surface tension driving mechanism was designed and integrated in a laboratory-made prototype to achieve consumption depending on fuel concentration and power-free fuel delivery. Unidirectional methanol-to-water smooth flow is achieved through the capillaries of a Teflon PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane based on the difference in liquid surface tension. The prototype was demonstrated to exhibit a better polarization performance and to last for an extended operating time compared to conventional DMFCs. Its high efficiency and load regulation performance were also demonstrated in contrast to an active DMFC supplied with a constant concentration fuel. The fuel delivery driven by the liquid surface tension effect demonstrated here is believed to be more applicable for future small-scale DMFCs for portable electronics.

  7. Correlation characteristics of signals reflected by the wavy surface of ocean in mirror direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkovskiy, Y. Y.; Nosov, A. V.; Savelyev, V. V.

    1985-06-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the correlation characteristics of pseudonoise signals reflected from a wave-covered surface in the mirror direction. The major measured quantity was the reciprocal correlation coefficient between the transmitted signal and the reflected signal. The transmitter was lowered from a ship on a 150 m cable. The receiver and preamplifier were lowered to the same depth from a buoy which was allowed to drift from the ship to a distance of 100-500 m, the changing distance changing the angle of the beam reflected from the surface of the ocean back down to the hydrophone. The radiator transmitted a pulsed signal with a pseudonoise carrier. The results were interpreted within the framework of ordinary correlation theory by processing several recordings, calculating the sign and ordinary correlation coefficients to determine the variation in sign correlation coefficient as a function of the ordinary correlation coefficient. Graphs of the average variation are presented. It was found that the medium did not distort the signal as it propagated through the water mass (within the limits of experimental accuracy). The correlation coefficient between the transmitted and reflected signals is thus determined entirely by the characteristics of reradiation of the sound by the wavecovered surface.

  8. Tunable wideband-directive thermal emission from SiC surface using bundled graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inampudi, Sandeep; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Coherent thermal radiation emitters based on diffraction gratings inscribed on surface of a polar material, such as silicon carbide, always possess high angular dispersion resulting in wideband-dispersive or monochromatic-directive emission. In this paper, we identify roots of the high angular dispersion as the rapid surface phonon polariton (SPhP) resonance of the material surface and the misalignment of the dispersion curve of the diffraction orders of the grating with respect to light line. We minimize the rapid variation of SPhP resonance by compensating the material dispersion using bundled graphene sheets and mitigate the misalignment by a proper choice of the grating design. Utilizing a modified form of rigorous coupled wave analysis to simultaneously incorporate atomic-scale graphene sheets and bulk diffraction gratings, we accurately compute the emissivity profiles of the composite structure and demonstrate reduction in the angular dispersion of thermal emission from as high as 30∘ to as low as 4∘ in the SPhP dominant wavelength range of 11-12 μ m . In addition, we demonstrate that the graphene sheets via their tunable optical properties allow a fringe benefit of dynamical variation of the angular dispersion to a wide range.

  9. Airborne hyperspectral observations of surface and cloud directional reflectivity using a commercial digital camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spectral radiance measurements by a digital single-lens reflex camera were used to derive the directional reflectivity of clouds and different surfaces in the Arctic. The camera has been calibrated radiometrically and spectrally to provide accurate radiance measurements with high angular resolution. A comparison with spectral radiance measurements with the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART-Albedometer showed an agreement within the uncertainties of both instruments (6% for both. The directional reflectivity in terms of the hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF was obtained for sea ice, ice-free ocean and clouds. The sea ice, with an albedo of ρ = 0.96 (at 530 nm wavelength, showed an almost isotropic HDRF, while sun glint was observed for the ocean HDRF (ρ = 0.12. For the cloud observations with ρ = 0.62, the cloudbow – a backscatter feature typically for scattering by liquid water droplets – was covered by the camera. For measurements above heterogeneous stratocumulus clouds, the required number of images to obtain a mean HDRF that clearly exhibits the cloudbow has been estimated at about 50 images (10 min flight time. A representation of the HDRF as a function of the scattering angle only reduces the image number to about 10 (2 min flight time.

    The measured cloud and ocean HDRF have been compared to radiative transfer simulations. The ocean HDRF simulated with the observed surface wind speed of 9 m s−1 agreed best with the measurements. For the cloud HDRF, the best agreement was obtained by a broad and weak cloudbow simulated with a cloud droplet effective radius of Reff = 4 μm. This value agrees with the particle sizes derived from in situ measurements and retrieved from the spectral radiance of the SMART-Albedometer.

  10. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  11. Nanoparticle Surface Specific Adsorption of Zein and Its Self-assembled Behavior of Nanocubes Formation in Relation to On-Off SERS: Understanding Morphology Control of Protein Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navdeep; Banipal, Tarlok Singh; Kaur, Gurinder; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh

    2016-01-27

    Zein, an industrially important protein, is characterized in terms of its food and pharmaceutical coating applications by using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on Au, Ag, and PbS nanoparticles (NPs). Its specific surface adsorption behavior on Ag NPs produced self-assembled zein nanocubes which demonstrated on and off SERS activity. Both SERS characterization as well as nanocube formation of zein helped us to understand the complex protein aggregation behavior in shape controlled morphologies, a process with significant ramifications in protein crystallization to achieve ordered morphologies. Interestingly, nanocube formation was promoted in the presence of Ag rather than Au or PbS NPs under in situ synthesis and discussed in terms of specific adsorption. Zein fingerprinting was much more clear and enhanced on Au surface in comparison to Ag while PbS did not demonstrate SERS due to its semiconducting nature.

  12. Time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry studies of self-assembly of dodecanethiol on a nanoporous gold surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Aly M; Huber, Andreas; Wenclawiak, Bernd W

    2013-03-19

    Preparation of a nanoporous gold surface by dealloying (etching) of a 585 gold plate (58.5% Au, 30% Ag, and 11.5% non-noble metals) was studied by applying acidic and thermal treatment of the gold plate. The gold plate surface was studied before and after the etching process using different analytical techniques like field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyzer (EDX), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). CV analysis of the gold surface has shown that overnight etching with warm nitric acid increases the surface area 20 times higher than before etching. FE-SEM analysis has shown that a nanoporous gold surface with pore diameter ≤100 nm was obtained. SIMS depth profile analysis and EDX analysis have shown that the nanoporous gold surface was obtained as a result of removing the silver and copper from the first layers of the plate. The nanoporous gold surface was used as a substrate for self-assembly of dodecanethiol and has shown a higher extraction efficiency than the unetched gold alloy.

  13. Fabrication of multi-scale periodic surface structures on Ti-6Al-4V by direct laser writing and direct laser interference patterning for modified wettability applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Murillo, D.; Aguilar-Morales, A. I.; Alamri, S.; Cardoso, J. T.; Jagdheesh, R.; Lasagni, A. F.; Ocaña, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, hierarchical surface patterns fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V alloy combining two laser micro-machining techniques are presented. The used technologies are based on nanosecond Direct Laser Writing and picosecond Direct Laser Interference Patterning. Squared shape micro-cells with different hatch distances were produced by Direct Laser Writing with depths values in the micro-scale, forming a well-defined closed packet. Subsequently, cross-like periodic patterns were fabricated by means of Direct Laser Interference Patterning using a two-beam configuration, generating a dual-scale periodic surface structure in both micro- and nano-scale due to the formation of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structure after the picosecond process. As a result a triple hierarchical periodic surface structure was generated. The surface morphology of the irradiated area was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Additionally, static contact angle measurements were made to analyze the wettability behavior of the structures, showing a hydrophobic behavior for the hierarchical structures.

  14. Black carbon aerosols over the Himalayas: direct and surface albedo forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar S. Nair

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC or dust over high-altitude Himalayan regions have potential implications on the regional climate and hydrological cycle over South Asia. Making use of extensive measurements of atmospheric BC from several Himalayan stations, an assessment of radiative forcing due to direct and snow-albedo darkening is examined. Generally, BC concentration in the atmosphere peaks during pre-monsoon season over the Himalayas and the climatological mean of atmospheric BC over Hanle (western Himalayas, 4.5 km msl and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (central Himalayas, 5 km msl are 106±27 ng m−3 and 190±95 ng m−3, respectively. Based on the optical and physical properties of composite aerosols measured at Hanle, clear sky direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of the atmosphere is estimated as 1.69 W m−2 over snow surface and −1.54 W m−2 over sandy surface during pre-monsoon season. The estimated amount of BC in the snow varied from 117 to 1.7 µg kg−1 for wide range of dry deposition velocities (0.01–0.054 cm s−1 of BC, snow depth (2–10 cm and snow densities (195–512 kg m−3. Using a size-resolved wet scavenging parametrisation, the amount of BC on snow due to wet scavenging is estimated as 29 µg kg−1 for an accumulated snow depth of 27 cm. For the range of 10–200 µg kg−1 of BC in snow, the diurnally averaged forcing due to snow darkening has been found to vary from 0.87 to 10.2 W m−2 for fresh snow and from 2.6 to 28.1 W m−2 for the aged snow, which is significantly higher than the DRF. The direct and surface albedo radiative forcing could lead to significant warming over the Himalayas during pre-monsoon.

  15. Self-assembly of coiled coil peptides into nanoparticles vs 2-d plates: effects of assembly pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Pochan, Darrin

    Molecular solution assembly, or self-assembly, is a process by which ordered nanostructures or patterns are formed by non-covalent interactions during assembly. Biomimicry, the use of bioinspired molecules or biologically relevant materials, is an important area of self-assembly research with peptides serving a critical role as molecular tools. The morphology of peptide assemblies can be controlled by adjusting solution conditions such as the concentration of peptides, the temperature, and pH. Herein, spherical nanostructures, which have potential for creating an encapsulation system, are formed by self-assembly when coiled coil peptides are combined in solution. These peptides are homotrimeric and heterodimeric coiled-coil bundles and the homotrimer is connected with each of heterodimer through their external surfaces via disulfide bonds. The resultant covalent constructs could co-assemble into complementary trimeric hubs, respectively. The two peptide constructs are directly mixed and assembled in solution in order to produce either spherical particles or 2-d plates depending on the solution conditions and kinetic pathway of assembly. In particular, structural changes of the self-assembled peptides are explored by control of the thermal history of the assembly solution.

  16. Label-free direct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of nucleic acids (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Luca; Morla-Folch, Judit; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Xie, Hainan; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Recently, plasmonic-based biosensing has experienced an unprecedented level of attention, with a particular focus on the nucleic acid detection, offering efficient solutions to engineer simple, fast, highly sensitive sensing platforms while overcoming important limitations of PCR and microarray techniques. In the broad field of plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has arisen as a powerful analytical tool for detection and structural characterization of biomolecules. Today applications of SERS to nucleic acid analysis largely rely on indirect strategies, which have been demonstrated very effective for pure sensing purposes but completely dismiss the exquisite structural information provided by the direct acquisition of the biomolecular vibrational fingerprint. Contrarily, direct label-free SERS of nucleic acid shows an outstanding potential in terms of chemical-specific information which, however, remained largely unexpressed mainly because of the inherent poor spectral reproducibility and/or limited sensitivity. To address these limitations, we developed a fast and affordable high-throughput screening direct SERS method for gaining detailed genomic information on nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and for the characterization and quantitative recognition of DNA interactions with exogenous agents. The simple strategy relies on the electrostatic adhesion of DNA/RNA onto positively-charged silver colloids that promotes the nanoparticle aggregation into stable clusters yielding intense and reproducible SERS spectra at picogram level (i.e. the analysis can be performed without the necessity of amplification steps thus providing realistic direct information of the nucleic acid in its native state). We anticipate this method to gain a vast impact and set of applications in different fields, including medical diagnostics, genomic screening, drug discovery, forensic science and even molecular electronics.

  17. Polyoxometalate-Surfactant Hybrids Directed Assembly of Ni3S2 into Hollow Microsphere as Pt-Comparable Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Lei, Jinlong; Wang, Jiahai

    2017-11-22

    A large surface area of catalytic sites and low electric resistance are desirable properties for electrocatalysts that lower the overpotential required for electrochemical reactions, such as the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), in this study. In the presence of polyoxometalate (POM) and triblock copolymer pluronic (P123) as a hybrid soft template, the hydrothermal sulfurization of nickel foam leads to the formation of a hollow microsphere, assembled from the Ni 3 S 2 motif. Sonication for preparing POM+P123 hybrids, while adjusting the POM content, is an effective strategy for synthesizing a Pt-like electrocatalyst with excellent hydrogen evolution efficiency. The reason is that both sonication and optimal POM content can simultaneously enhance the electroactive surface area and electron transfer of the Ni 3 S 2 electrocatalyst. Adopting the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional porous network, composed of Ni 3 S 2 hollow microspheres on the nickel foam, shows that the HER in an alkaline medium requires only 77 mV overpotential for a current density of 10 mA cm -2 , with a robust long-term stability during a 25 h test. The performance at a large current density outperforms the current benchmark electrocatalyst (Pt) for HER.

  18. Impedimetric immunosensor for human serum albumin detection on a direct aldehyde-functionalized silicon nitride surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, David, E-mail: caballero@unistra.fr [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); University of Barcelona, Department of Electronics, C/ Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, Elena [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Bausells, Joan [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica (CNM-IMB), CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Errachid, Abdelhamid, E-mail: abdelhamid.errachid-el-salhi@univ-lyon1.fr [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, LSA - UMR 5180, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Samitier, Josep [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); University of Barcelona, Department of Electronics, C/ Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An impedimetric label-free immunosensor was developed for the specific detection of human serum albumin proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-HSA antibodies were covalently immobilized on silicon nitride surfaces using a direct functionalization methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicon nitride offers multiple advantages compared to other common materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed sensor has high sensitivity and good selectivity for the detection of HSA proteins. - Abstract: In this work we report the fabrication and characterization of a label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on a silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) surface for the specific detection of human serum albumin (HSA) proteins. Silicon nitride provides several advantages compared with other materials commonly used, such as gold, and in particular in solid-state physics for electronic-based biosensors. However, few Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based biosensors have been developed; the lack of an efficient and direct protocol for the integration of biological elements with silicon-based substrates is still one of its the main drawbacks. Here, we use a direct functionalization method for the direct covalent binding of monoclonal anti-HSA antibodies on an aldehyde-functionalized Si-p/SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} structure. This methodology, in contrast with most of the protocols reported in literature, requires less chemical reagents, it is less time-consuming and it does not need any chemical activation. The detection capability of the immunosensor was tested by performing non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements for the specific detection of HSA proteins. Protein concentrations within the linear range of 10{sup -13}-10{sup -7} M were detected, showing a sensitivity of 0.128 {Omega} {mu}M{sup -1} and a limit of detection of 10{sup -14} M. The specificity of the sensor was also addressed by studying the

  19. Impedimetric immunosensor for human serum albumin detection on a direct aldehyde-functionalized silicon nitride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, David; Martinez, Elena; Bausells, Joan; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Samitier, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An impedimetric label-free immunosensor was developed for the specific detection of human serum albumin proteins. ► Anti-HSA antibodies were covalently immobilized on silicon nitride surfaces using a direct functionalization methodology. ► Silicon nitride offers multiple advantages compared to other common materials. ► The proposed sensor has high sensitivity and good selectivity for the detection of HSA proteins. - Abstract: In this work we report the fabrication and characterization of a label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on a silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) surface for the specific detection of human serum albumin (HSA) proteins. Silicon nitride provides several advantages compared with other materials commonly used, such as gold, and in particular in solid-state physics for electronic-based biosensors. However, few Si 3 N 4 -based biosensors have been developed; the lack of an efficient and direct protocol for the integration of biological elements with silicon-based substrates is still one of its the main drawbacks. Here, we use a direct functionalization method for the direct covalent binding of monoclonal anti-HSA antibodies on an aldehyde-functionalized Si-p/SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 structure. This methodology, in contrast with most of the protocols reported in literature, requires less chemical reagents, it is less time-consuming and it does not need any chemical activation. The detection capability of the immunosensor was tested by performing non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements for the specific detection of HSA proteins. Protein concentrations within the linear range of 10 −13 –10 −7 M were detected, showing a sensitivity of 0.128 Ω μM −1 and a limit of detection of 10 −14 M. The specificity of the sensor was also addressed by studying the interferences with a similar protein, bovine serum albumin. The results obtained show that the antibodies were efficiently immobilized and the proteins

  20. Defining the antibody cross-reactome directed against the influenza virus surface glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Choi, Angela; Hirsh, Ariana; Margine, Irina; Iida, Sayaka; Barrera, Aldo; Ferres, Marcela; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Bouvier, Nicole M; Ito, Kimihito; Medina, Rafael A; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Infection with influenza virus induces antibodies to the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, and these responses can be broadly protective. To assess the breadth and magnitude of antibody responses, we sequentially infected mice, guinea pigs and ferrets with divergent H1N1 or H3N2 subtypes of influenza virus. We measured antibody responses by ELISA of an extensive panel of recombinant glycoproteins representing the viral diversity in nature. Guinea pigs developed high titers of broadly cross-reactive antibodies; mice and ferrets exhibited narrower humoral responses. Then, we compared antibody responses after infection of humans with influenza virus H1N1 or H3N2 and found markedly broad responses and cogent evidence for 'original antigenic sin'. This work will inform the design of universal vaccines against influenza virus and can guide pandemic-preparedness efforts directed against emerging influenza viruses.