WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface-water-quality stations additional

  1. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  2. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    -treatment processes, and effective regulations. Phosphorus data for most of the study stations could not be analyzed because of the data limitations for trend tests. The only station with a significant negative trend in total phosphorus concentration is the Clinton River at Mount Clemens. However, scatter-plot analyses of phosphorus data indicate decreasing concentrations with time for most of the study stations. Positive trends in concentration of nitrogen compounds were detected at the Kalamazoo River near Saugatuck and Muskegon River near Bridgeton. Positive trends in both fecal coliform and total fecal coliform were detected at the Tahquamenon River near Paradise. Various different point and nonpoint sources could produce such positive trends, but most commonly the increase in concentrations of nitrogen compounds and fecal coliform bacteria are associated with agricultural practices and sewage-plant discharges. The constituent with the most numerous and geographically widespread significant trend is pH. The pH levels increased at six out of nine stations on all the major rivers in Michigan, with no negative trend at any station. The cause of pH increase is difficult to determine, as it could be related to a combination of anthropogenic activities and natural processes occurring simultaneously in the environment. Trends in concentration of major ions, such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, chloride, and potassium, were detected at eight out of nine stations. A negative trend was detected only in sulfate and fluoride concentrations; a positive trend was detected only in calcium concentration. The major ions with the most widespread significant trends are sodium and chloride; three positive and two negative trends were detected for sodium, and three negative and two positive trends were detected for chloride. The negative trends in chloride concentrations outnumbered the positive trends. This result indicates a slight improvement in surface-water quality because

  3. Automated delineation and characterization of watersheds for more than 3,000 surface-water-quality monitoring stations active in 2010 in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Gonzales, Sophia L.; Maltby, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, developed computer scripts and applications to automate the delineation of watershed boundaries and compute watershed characteristics for more than 3,000 surface-water-quality monitoring stations in Texas that were active during 2010. Microsoft Visual Basic applications were developed using ArcGIS ArcObjects to format the source input data required to delineate watershed boundaries. Several automated scripts and tools were developed or used to calculate watershed characteristics using Python, Microsoft Visual Basic, and the RivEX tool. Automated methods were augmented by the use of manual methods, including those done using ArcMap software. Watershed boundaries delineated for the monitoring stations are limited to the extent of the Subbasin boundaries in the USGS Watershed Boundary Dataset, which may not include the total watershed boundary from the monitoring station to the headwaters.

  4. The spatio-temporal variations of surface water quality in China during the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Pin; Song, Xiao; Wei, Xing; Feng, Boyan

    2015-03-01

    Surface water pollution has become a hot issue in recent years in that deterioration of surface water quality has hampered the sustainable development of China's economy. Previous studies have analyzed regional changes of water pollutants, but very few have studied at a national scale. By analyzing 9 water quality parameters recorded at 422 sampling stations nationwide, this studies summarized the spatial and temporal variations of surface water quality in China in "11th Five-Year Plan" period. Research showed that China's surface water quality is improving. But, further deterioration in several areas cannot be ignored. Human activities including over-urbanization and farming exerted a negative impact on surface water quality. Though the water quality in the upstream of major rivers located in northwest China was relatively better than that of other areas, deterioration of surface water quality has begun to emerge in the area. Additionally, the surface water quality in southern China was better than that of northern China. But some studies indicated that surface water quality was likely to worsen at a high speed. It was also found that different water quality parameters are characterized by spatial and temporal variations. These studies pointed out, the government should pay more attention to in the areas where the water quality parameters significantly exceeded the national standards. These studies provides theoretical basis for the decision-making and implementation of macro-scale water quality control policies.

  5. Surface water quality assessment by environmetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Hülya; Boyacioglu, Hayal

    2007-08-01

    This environmetric study deals with the interpretation of river water monitoring data from the basin of the Buyuk Menderes River and its tributaries in Turkey. Eleven variables were measured to estimate water quality at 17 sampling sites. Factor analysis was applied to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of underlying factors. Results revealed that, water quality was strongly affected from agricultural uses. Cluster analysis was used to classify stations with similar properties and results distinguished three groups of stations. Water quality at downstream of the river was quite different from the other part. It is recommended to involve the environmetric data treatment as a substantial procedure in assessment of water quality data.

  6. A microbiological assessment of the surface water quality in the Bodva river drainage area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Maťašová

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the surface water quality assessment in the partial drainage area of the Bodva river and its tributaries. The water quality in the sampled areas ranged between polluted and strongly polluted. The main cause of the pollution is the increased abundance of coliform and thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci. The reason the increase in their abundance is the dumping of the household waste water containing excrements and animal remains, and the unsatisfactorily treated water from the water treatment stations.

  7. Stormwater Priority Pollutants Versus Surface Water Quality Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater in urban areas comprises of a substantial part of the urban water cycle, dominating the flow in many small urban streams, and the pollution levels are sizeable. No stormwater quality criteria were found here and no European or national emission limit values exist. Stormwater pollutants...... however are present in levels exceeding most of the regulated surface water quality criteria and environmental quality standards. Therefore catchment characterisation is needed to chose suitable treatment prior to discharge into receiving surface waters, as the mixing may be insufficient in small streams....

  8. Spatial and temporal assessment of surface water quality in the Arka River, Akkar, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Claude; Nabbout, Rony; Kassouf, Amine

    2016-12-01

    Surface water quality monitoring constitutes a crucial and important step in any water quality management system. Twenty-three physicochemical and microbiological parameters were assessed in surface water samples collected from the Arka River located in the Akkar District, north of Lebanon. Eight sampling locations were considered along the river and seven sampling campaigns were performed in order to evaluate spatial and temporal influences. The extraction of relevant information from this relatively large data set was done using principal component analysis (PCA), being a very well established chemometric tool in this field. In a first step, extracted PCA loadings revealed the implication of several physicochemical parameters in the discriminations and trends highlighted by PCA scores, mainly due to soil leaching and seawater intrusion. However, further investigations showed the implication of organic and bacterial parameters in the discrimination of stations in the Akkar flatland. These discriminations probably refer to anthropogenic pollution coming from the agricultural area and the surrounding villages. Specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) indices confirmed these findings since values decreased for samples collected across the villages and the flatland, indicating an increase in anthropogenic dissolved organic matter. This study will hopefully help the national and local authorities to ameliorate the surface water quality management, enabling its proper use for irrigation purposes.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN AN ARSENIC CONTAMINATED VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud C. Saikia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of ground water has occurred in various parts of the world, becoming a menace in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra basin (West Bengal and Assam in India and Bangladesh. Recently arsenic has been detected in Cachar and Karimganj districts of barak valley, Assam, bordering Bangladesh. In this area coli form contamination comprises the major constraint towards utilization of its otherwise ample surface water resources. The local water management exploited ground water sources using a centralized piped water delivery scheme without taking into account the geologically arsenic-prone nature of the sediments and aquifers in this area. Thus surface water was the suggestive alternative for drinking water in this area. The present study investigated surface water quality and availability in a village of Karimganj district, Assam, India contaminated with arsenic for identifying the potential problems of surface water quality maintenance so that with effective management safe drinking water could be provided. The study revealed that the area was rich in freshwater ecosystems which had all physico-chemical variables such as water temperature, pH, DO, total alkalinity, free CO2, heavy metals like lead, chromium and cadmium within WHO standards. In contrast, coli form bacteria count was found far beyond permissible limit in all the sources. Around 60% people of the village preferred ground water for drinking and only 6% were aware of arsenic related problems. The problem of bacterial contamination could be controlled by implementing some ameliorative measures so that people can safely use surface water. Inhabitants of the two districts should be given proper education regarding arsenic contamination and associated health risk. Effluents should be treated to acceptable levels and standards before discharging them into natural streams.

  10. EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON THE SPATIAL VARIATION OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mir Sujaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is the impact of anthropogenic activities at the study areas due to rapid industrialization. The study was done to know the spatial variation of the water quality of the Tunggak River and surrounding area because of industrial activities. In-situ parameters and ex-situ data of chemical, bio-chemical parameters and heavy metals were collected monthly to fulfill the objectives. The samples were collected from 10 selected stations and analyses were carried out using standard methods. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. SPSS statistical software was used for data analysis. The results of the study revealed that industrial effluents were the major source of pollutants and caused of spatial variation among the stations. Less amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and higher concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, ammoniacal-nitrogen and heavy metals made the water un-usable except irrigation. Analyzed surface water was classified based on Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI Malaysia and found that the maximum stations except lower and uppermost were in class IV (highly polluted. Pollution rate was higher in the middle stations due to large number of industries were located in the middle and they discharged all their effluents in the river stream. Due to tidal interference in the lower stream and minimum industry in the upper stream pollution was less in those stations.

  11. Conductivity as an indicator of surface water quality in the proximity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... Conductivity as an indicator of surface water quality in the ... FeCr smelting did not significantly impact surface water quality, but that surface run-off and/or ..... farming-management/soil-water/salinity/measuring-the-salinity-.

  12. Surface water quality assessment by the use of combination of multivariate statistical classification and expert information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, M; Tsakovski, S; Simeonov, V; Namieśnik, J

    2010-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of surface water quality from an industrial-urban region located in northern Poland near to the city of Gdansk. Concentrations of thirteen chemicals including total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) and major ions in the samples collected at five sampling points during six campaigns were used as variables throughout the study. The originality in the monitoring data treatment and interpretation was the combination of a traditional classification approach (self-organizing maps of Kohonen) with PAH diagnostic ratios expertise to achieve a reliable pollution source identification. Thus, sampling points affected by pollution from traffic (petroleum combustion products), from crude oil processing (petroleum release related compounds), and from phosphogypsum disposal site were properly discriminated. Additionally, it is shown that this original assessment approach can be useful in finding specific pollution source tracers.

  13. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  14. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    This Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all WAWSC personnel involved in surface-water data activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the WAWSC change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. In the WAWSC, direct oversight and responsibility by the hydrographer(s) assigned to a surface-water station, combined with team approaches in all work efforts, assure high-quality data, analyses, reviews, and reports for cooperating agencies and the public.

  15. Surface water-quality activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Thomas G.

    2016-03-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborates with a variety of Federal, State, local, and tribal partners on scientific projects to provide reliable and impartial water-quality data and interpretation to resource managers, planners, stakeholders, and the general public. The themes related to surface water quality include the following:

  16. Monitoring surface water quality using social media in the context of citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Hong, Yang; Long, Di; Jing, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Surface water quality monitoring (SWQM) provides essential information for water environmental protection. However, SWQM is costly and limited in terms of equipment and sites. The global popularity of social media and intelligent mobile devices with GPS and photography functions allows citizens to monitor surface water quality. This study aims to propose a method for SWQM using social media platforms. Specifically, a WeChat-based application platform is built to collect water quality reports from volunteers, which have been proven valuable for water quality monitoring. The methods for data screening and volunteer recruitment are discussed based on the collected reports. The proposed methods provide a framework for collecting water quality data from citizens and offer a primary foundation for big data analysis in future research.

  17. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    W.Wilopo; R.Resili; D.P.E. Putra

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  18. Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization upon Surface Water Quality: A Pilot Study of Panzhihua Mining Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanguo Teng; Jie Yang; Rui Zuo; Jinsheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of urbanization and industrialization on surface water quality,a pilot study of Panzhihua (攀枝花) mining town was carried out.The urbanization of Panzhihua region was dominated by industry development and population growth.The level of urbanization showed that it was 18.44% in 1965,and reached 45.99% in 1983.Then,it reached 53.71% in 2005,so the urbanization process was very rapid in Panzhihua region.In the process of industrialization,the level of industrialization was fluctuated at around 70% from 1965 to 2005,which was influenced by mining,extracting,and smelting production.In the processes of urbanization,population growth caused an increase in life pollution sources,and an amount of effluents bearing coliform,COD (chemical oxygen demand),NH4+-N,and BOD5 (five-day biological oxygen demand) were released into Jinsha (金沙) River,which could cause decline in the surface water quality.While in the processes of industrialization (especially industrial scale expansion),more effluent bearing heavy metals could cause degradation of surface water quality.Thus,the measures,such as adjusting industry structure,optimizing the cleaning technology,and controlling pollution sources,should be enhanced to alleviate the current state of water quality exacerbation.

  19. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... event of inadequate cooling or lubrication of the unit. (d) Each compressor station gas engine that... compressor station must have vent slots or holes in the baffles of each compartment to prevent gas from being... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment...

  20. Modelling the response of surface water quality to the urbanization in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongming; Zhou, Jie; Wu, Yongjao; Zhang, Wanchang; Xie, Xiuping

    2008-03-01

    The study investigated the response of surface water quality to urbanization in Xi'an, China. We qualitatively described the change in urban land use from 1996 to 2003, analyzed the status of the surface water environment, and constructed a model of urban expansion to simulate the water environment's response to urbanization. Our results revealed that patterns of land use changed dramatically, the rate of economic growth exceeded that of urbanization during the study period, and increasing urban land use was correlated with fluctuations in water quality. The simulated results suggested that urbanization had reached the environmental carrying capacity based on the average land utility and the marginal costs of pollution.

  1. Surface Water Quality-Assurance Plan for the Indiana District of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James A.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2003-01-01

    This Surface Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Indiana District for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data.

  2. Effects of land use on surface-water quality in the East Everglades, Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bradley G.

    1982-01-01

    Water-quality characteristics were determined at five developed areas in the East Everglades, Dade County, Florida, during the 1978 wet season (June through October). These areas are designated as: Coopertown; Chekika Hammock State Park; residential area; rock-plowed tomato field; and Cracker Jack Slough agricultural area. Data from the developed areas were compared with data from four baseline sites in undeveloped areas to determine the effects of land use on the surface-water quality. The rock-plowed tomato field was the only area where surface-water quality was affected. Water quality at this field is affected by agricultural activities and chemical applications as indicated by increased concentrations of orthophosphate, organic nitrogen, organic carbon, copper, manganese, mercury, and potassium. The remaining four areas of land use had water-quality characteristics typical of baseline sites in nearby Northeast Shark River Slough or Taylor Slough. Chemical analyses of soil indicated chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticide residues at Coopertown and the two agricultural areas, Cracker Jack Slough and the rock-plowed tomato field. Trace elements in concentrations greater than base level occurred at both agricultural areas (manganese), Chekika Hammock State Park (manganese), and at Coopertown (lead and zinc). (USGS)

  3. Evaluation and Trend Analysis of Surface Water Quality in Zhengzhou in 1998-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Xile; Lu Changhe

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution is one of the major environmental prob- lems, especially in urban areas. Due to rapid urban expansion and industrialization, water pollution in Zhengzhou City, the capital of Henan Province in central China has become a serious problem for its development. In this study, the surface water quality was evalu- ated using Nemerow Comprehensive Pollution Index (NCPI), and the change trend was calculated using methods of Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, based on the monitoring data from 1998 to 2008. The results show that the NCP1 ranged from 3 to 50 in 70% of the monitoring cases, implying that most rivers were seriously polluted. However, this serious polltuon is expected to be gradually improved, as the concentration of water pollutants and NCPI declined significantly in most rivers. Water pollution in reservoirs was much lower than rivers, and the NCPI in the three monitored reservoirs was lower than 3 in most years, and shows a downward trend. Although the surface water quality was gradually improved, great efforts are still needed to enhance the protection and improvement of surface water environment.

  4. Global surface water quality hotspots under climate change and anthropogenic developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Yearsley, John R.

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, freshwater usage for various sectors (e.g. agriculture, industry, energy and domestic) has more than doubled. A growing global population will place further demands on water supplies, whereas the availability and quality of water resources will be affected by climate change and human impacts. These developments will increase imbalances between fresh water demand and supply in terms of both water quantity and water quality. Here we discuss a methodology to identify regions of the world where surface water quality is expected to deteriorate under climate change and anthropogenic developments. Our approach integrates global hydrological-water quality modelling, climate and socio-economic scenarios and relations of water quality with physical and socio-economic drivers.

  5. Application of water quality indices and analysis of the surface water quality monitoring network in semiarid North-Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Lesly; Kretschmer, Nicole; Oyarzún, Jorge; Meza, Francisco; Núñez, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Oyarzo, Paula; Garrido, Marcela; Suckel, Felipe; Amezaga, Jaime; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Surface water quality has increasing importance worldwide and is particularly relevant in the semiarid North-Central Chile, where agriculture and mining activities are imposing heavy pressure on limited water resources. The current study presents the application of a water quality index in four watersheds of the 29°-33°S realm for the period 1999-2008, based on the Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment approach and the Chilean regulation for irrigation water quality. In addition, two modifications to the index are tested and a comprehensive characterization of the existing monitoring network is performed through cluster analysis. The basins studied show fairly good water quality in the overall, specially the Limarí basin. On the other hand, the lower index values were obtained for the headwaters of Elqui, associated with the El Indio mining district. The first modification of the indicator (i.e., to consider parameters differentially according to their effect on human health or the environment) did not produce major differences with respect to the original index, given the generally good water quality. The second modification (i.e., to consider as threshold values the more restrictive figures derived from a set of regulations) yielded important differences in the indicator values. Finally, an adequate characterization of the monitoring network was obtained. The results presented spatial coherence and the information can be used as a basis for the optimization of the monitoring network if required.

  6. Surface-water quality assessment of the Clover Creek basin, Pierce County, Washington, 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing urbanization in the 67-square-mile Clover Creek Basin has generated interest in the effects of land-use changes on local water quality. To investigate these effects, water-quality and streamflow data were collected from 19 surface-water sites in the basin over a 16-month period from January 1991 through April 1992. These data were used to understand the effects of surficial geology, land-use practices, and wastewater disposal practices on surface-water quality within the basin. The basin was divided into four drainage subbasins with dissimilar hydrogeologic, land-use, and water-quality characteristics. In the Upper Clover Creek subbasin, the high permeability of surficial geologic materials promotes infiltration of precipitation to ground water and thus attenuates the response of streams to rainfall. Significant interaction occurs between surface and ground water in this subbasin, and nitrate concentrations and specific conductance values, similar to those found historically in local ground water, indicate that sources such as subsurface waste-disposal systems and fertilizers are affecting surface- water quality in this area. In the Spanaway subbasin, the presence of Spanaway and Tule Lakes affects water quality, primarily because of the reduced velocity and long residence time of water in the lakes. Reduced water velocity and long residence times (1) cause settling of suspended materials, thereby reducing concentrations of suspended sediment and constituents that are bound to the sediment; (2) promote biological activity, which tends to trap nutrients in the lakes; and (3) allow dispersion to attenuate peaks in discharge and water-quality constituent concentrations. In the North Fork subbasin, the low permeability of surficial geologic materials and areas of intensive land development inhibit infiltration of precipitation and thus promote surface runoff to streams. Surface pathways provide little attenuation of storm runoff and result in rapid increases

  7. Temporal aspects of surface water quality variation using robust statistical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan

    2012-01-01

    Robust statistical tools were applied on the water quality datasets with the aim of determining the most significance parameters and their contribution towards temporal water quality variation. Surface water samples were collected from four different sampling points during dry and wet seasons and analyzed for their physicochemical constituents. Discriminant analysis (DA) provided better results with great discriminatory ability by using five parameters with (P < 0.05) for dry season affording more than 96% correct assignation and used five and six parameters for forward and backward stepwise in wet season data with P-value (P < 0.05) affording 68.20% and 82%, respectively. Partial correlation results revealed that there are strong (r(p) = 0.829) and moderate (r(p) = 0.614) relationships between five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS) and dissolved solids (DS) controlling for the linear effect of nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)) and conductivity for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Multiple linear regression identified the contribution of each variable with significant values r = 0.988, R(2) = 0.976 and r = 0.970, R(2) = 0.942 (P < 0.05) for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Repeated measure t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between the seasons with significant value P < 0.05.

  8. Assessment of historical surface-water quality data in southwestern Colorado, 1990-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa D.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of selected physical and chemical surface-water-quality characteristics were analyzed at stream sites throughout the Dolores and San Juan River Basins in southwestern Colorado using historical data collected from 1990 through 2005 by various local, State, Tribal, and Federal agencies. Overall, streams throughout the study area were well oxygenated. Values of pH generally were near neutral to slightly alkaline throughout most of the study area with the exception of the upper Animas River Basin near Silverton where acidic conditions existed at some sites because of hydrothermal alteration and(or) historical mining. The highest concentrations of dissolved aluminum, total recoverable iron, dissolved lead, and dissolved zinc were measured at sites located in the upper Animas River Basin. Thirty-two sites throughout the study area had at least one measured concentration of total mercury that exceeded the State chronic aquatic-life criterion of 0.01 μg/L. Concentrations of dissolved selenium at some sites exceeded the State chronic water-quality standard of 4.6 μg/L. Total ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and total phosphorus concentrations generally were low throughout the study area. Overall, results from the trend analyses indicated improvement in water-quality conditions as a result of operation of the Paradox Valley Unit in the Dolores River Basin and irrigation and water-delivery system improvements made in the McElmo Creek Basin (Lower San Juan River Basin) and Mancos River Valley (Upper San Juan River Basin).

  9. Soil Erosion and Surface Water Quality Impacts of Natural Gas Development in East Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew McBroom

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to greater demands for hydrocarbons and improvements in drilling technology, development of oil and natural gas in some regions of the United States has increased dramatically. A 1.4 ha natural gas well pad was constructed in an intermittent stream channel at the Alto Experimental Watersheds in East Texas, USA (F1, while another 1.1 ha well pad was offset about 15 m from a nearby intermittent stream (F2. V-notch weirs were constructed downstream of these well pads and stream sedimentation and water quality was measured. For the 2009 water year, about 11.76 cm, or almost 222% more runoff resulted from F1 than F2. Sediment yield was significantly greater at F1, with 13,972 kg ha−1 yr−1 versus 714 kg ha−1yr−1 at F2 on a per unit area disturbance basis for the 2009 water year. These losses were greater than was observed following forest clearcutting with best management practices (111–224 kg ha−1. Significantly greater nitrogen and phosphorus losses were measured at F1 than F2. While oil and gas development can degrade surface water quality, appropriate conservation practices like retaining streamside buffers can mitigate these impacts.

  10. Temporal Aspects of Surface Water Quality Variation Using Robust Statistical Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust statistical tools were applied on the water quality datasets with the aim of determining the most significance parameters and their contribution towards temporal water quality variation. Surface water samples were collected from four different sampling points during dry and wet seasons and analyzed for their physicochemical constituents. Discriminant analysis (DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability by using five parameters with (P<0.05 for dry season affording more than 96% correct assignation and used five and six parameters for forward and backward stepwise in wet season data with P-value (P<0.05 affording 68.20% and 82%, respectively. Partial correlation results revealed that there are strong (rp=0.829 and moderate (rp=0.614 relationships between five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS and dissolved solids (DS controlling for the linear effect of nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH3 and conductivity for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Multiple linear regression identified the contribution of each variable with significant values r = 0.988, R2 = 0.976 and r = 0.970, R2 = 0.942 (P<0.05 for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Repeated measure t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between the seasons with significant value P<0.05.

  11. Multivariate statistical techniques for the assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality of pasture ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajorlo, Majid; Abdullah, Ramdzani B; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil; Halim, Ridzwan Abd; Hanif, Ahmad Husni Mohd; Willms, Walter D; Ebrahimian, Mahboubeh

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the applicability of multivariate statistical techniques including cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and factor analysis (FA) for the assessment of seasonal variations in the surface water quality of tropical pastures. The study was carried out in the TPU catchment, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The dataset consisted of 1-year monitoring of 14 parameters at six sampling sites. The CA yielded two groups of similarity between the sampling sites, i.e., less polluted (LP) and moderately polluted (MP) at temporal scale. Fecal coliform (FC), NO3, DO, and pH were significantly related to the stream grouping in the dry season, whereas NH3, BOD, Escherichia coli, and FC were significantly related to the stream grouping in the rainy season. The best predictors for distinguishing clusters in temporal scale were FC, NH3, and E. coli, respectively. FC, E. coli, and BOD with strong positive loadings were introduced as the first varifactors in the dry season which indicates the biological source of variability. EC with a strong positive loading and DO with a strong negative loading were introduced as the first varifactors in the rainy season, which represents the physiochemical source of variability. Multivariate statistical techniques were effective analytical techniques for classification and processing of large datasets of water quality and the identification of major sources of water pollution in tropical pastures.

  12. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment.

  13. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  14. Surface water quality management using an integrated discharge permit and the reclaimed water market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Shervin; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Water quality trading is a sustainable framework for surface water quality management. It uses discharge permits to reduce the total treatment costs. For example, the case of Gharesoo River in Iran shows that the nitrogen permit market between point and non-point sources is 37% more economical than the command and control framework. Nevertheless, the cost saving may be reduced to 6% by the end of the study period (2050). This depression may be due to the limited technical support for wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an integrated market is recommended in which the discharge permits and the reclaimed water are traded simultaneously. In this framework, the allocation of secondary treated domestic wastewater for irrigation can provide capacity for other pollutants to discharge into the surface water. This innovative approach may decrease the total treatment costs by 63% at present, while 65%, may be achieved by the end of the study period. Furthermore, this market is able to determine the environmental penalty, trading permits, and reuse prices. For example, the maximum ratio of the average reuse price to the penalty cost is determined as 1 to 10. It is introduced as an incentive indicator for stakeholders to consider the integrated market. Consequently, the applicability and the efficiency of using this approach are verified long term.

  15. Estimation of surface water quality in a Yazoo River tributary using the duration curve and recurrence interval approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Prem B. Parajuli; Daniel A. Marion

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with harmful chemicals and eutrophication of rivers and lakes with excess nutrients are serious environmental concerns. This study estimated surface water quality in a stream within the Yazoo River Basin (YRB), Mississippi, USA, using the duration curve and recurrence interval analysis techniques. Data from the US Geological Survey (USGS)...

  16. Decadal surface water quality trends under variable climate, land use, and hydrogeochemical setting in Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Liao, Lixia; Barnes, Kimberlee K.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in agriculture and climate is important for improving water quality. In the midwestern United States, expansion of corn cropping for ethanol production led to increasing N application rates in the 2000s during a period of extreme variability of annual precipitation. To examine the effects of these changes, surface water quality was analyzed in 10 major Iowa Rivers. Several decades of concentration and flow data were analyzed with a statistical method that provides internally consistent estimates of the concentration history and reveals flow-normalized trends that are independent of year-to-year streamflow variations. Flow-normalized concentrations of nitrate+nitrite-N decreased from 2000 to 2012 in all basins. To evaluate effects of annual discharge and N loading on these trends, multiple conceptual models were developed and calibrated to flow-weighted annual concentrations. The recent declining concentration trends can be attributed to both very high and very low discharge in the 2000s and to the long (e.g., 8 year) subsurface residence times in some basins. Dilution of N and depletion of stored N occurs in years with high discharge. Reduced N transport and increased N storage occurs in low-discharge years. Central Iowa basins showed the greatest reduction in flow-normalized concentrations, likely because of smaller storage volumes and shorter residence times. Effects of land-use changes on the water quality of major Iowa Rivers may not be noticeable for years or decades in peripheral basins of Iowa, and may be obscured in the central basins where extreme flows strongly affect annual concentration trends.

  17. Assessment of surface water quality of inland valleys for cropping in SW Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboyeji, O. S.; Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2017-05-01

    Inland valley agro-ecosystems which are a category of wetlands have potential for sustainable crop production relative to uplands. A major challenge to their utilisation in the study area is their heterogeneity in hydrology, morphology, soil types and agro-economy. The study assessed the surface water quality of three typologies of the agro-ecosystems—amphitheatre-like valley-heads (Am), valley-side (VS), and low depression (LD)—for cropping. Surface water of six sites were sampled during the wet and dry seasons. The physicochemical properties and metal concentrations of the samples were analysed. Descriptive statistics and water quality indices were used to assess the suitability of the waters of the agro-ecosystems for cropping. Results showed that the valleys have neutral to slightly alkaline waters. Values of physicochemical parameters are generally within the acceptable range for cropping. The concentration of major cations varied across the inland valley types, but exhibited similar characteristics within each valley. The dominance of the major cations is in the order of Na > Ca > K > Mg. ANOVA results indicated that there is no significant difference in the concentration of heavy metals across the valleys ( F = 2.044, p = 0.138, α = 0.05). Generally, most of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals have low concentrations and are non-toxic to plants. Values of water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids and permeability index) indicated that the concentrations of minerals in waters across the valley typologies are generally within permissible limits for cropping.

  18. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Site Optimization for Poyang Lake, the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a coupled method to optimize the surface water quality monitoring sites for a huge freshwater lake based on field investigations, mathematical analysis, and numerical simulation tests. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on the field investigated water quality data in the 5 years from 2008 to 2012, the water quality inter-annual variation coefficients at all the present sites and the water quality correlation coefficients between adjacent sites were calculated and analyzed to present an optimization scheme. A 2-D unsteady water quality model was established to get the corresponding water quality data at the optimized monitoring sites, which were needed for the rationality test on the optimized monitoring network. We found that: (1 the water quality of Piaoshan (No. 10 fluctuated most distinguishably and the inter-annual variation coefficient of NH3-N and TP could reach 99.77% and 73.92%, respectively. The four studied indexes were all closely related at Piaoshan (No. 10 and Tangyin (No. 11, and the correlation coefficients of COD and NH3-N could reach 0.91 and 0.94 separately. (2 It was suggested that the present site No. 10 be removed to avoid repeatability, and it was suggested that the three sites of Changling, Huzhong, and Nanjiang be added to improve the representativeness of the monitoring sites. (3 According to the rationality analysis, the 21 optimized water quality monitoring sites could scientifically replace the primary network, and the new monitoring network could better reflect the water quality of the whole lake.

  19. Persistent Urban Impacts on Surface Water Quality Mediated by Stormwater Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, R. S.; Brooks, P. D.; Neilson, B. T.; Bowen, G. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Hall, S. J.; Eiriksson, D.; Millington, M. R.; Gelderloos, A.

    2016-12-01

    rivers in the Wasatch Front and other alluvial systems, we can quantify how characteristics such as discharge patterns and land-use determine alluvial recharge controls on surface water quality.

  20. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mades, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a National Water-Quality Assessment program to (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of the current status of water quality for a large, diverse, and geographically distributed part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources; (2) define, where possible, trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relations of both status and trends in water quality to natural factors and the history of land use and land- and waste-management activities. The program is presently in a pilot phase that will test and modify, as necessary, concepts and approaches in preparation for possible full implementation of the program in the future. The upper Illinois River basin is one of four basins selected to test the concepts and approaches of the surface-water-quality element of the national program. The basin drains 10,949 square miles of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin. Three principal tributaries are the Kankakee and Des Plaines Rivers that join to form the Illinois River and the Fox River. Land use is predominantly agricultural; about 75 percent of the basin is cultivated primarily for production of corn and soybeans. About 13 percent of the basin is urban area, most of which is located in the Chicago metropolitan area. The population of the basin is about 7 million. About 6 million people live in the Des Plaines River basin. Many water-quality issues in the upper Illinois River basin are related to sediment, nutrients, potentially toxic inorganic and organic constituents, and to water-management practices. Occurrence of sediment and the chemical constituents in the rivers and lakes within the basin has the potential to adversely affect the water's suitability for aquatic life, recreation, or, through the consumption of fish, human health. The upper Illinois River basin project consists of five major activities. The first activity--analysis of existing information and preparation of a report that describes

  1. A Reaction-based Diagonalization Approach to Modeling Surface Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Yeh, G.; Zhang, F.; Wu, T.; Hu, G.

    2005-12-01

    There are many water quality models (e.g., WASP, QAUL2E/QUAL2K, CE-QUAL-ICM, RCA, RMA11, etc.) that have been employed by practitioners in surface water quality modeling. All of these models are similar to each others. The major differences among them are the number of water quality parameters included and the number of biogeochemical processes considered. Because of the limitation on the number of biogeochemical processes considered and, in a lesser extent, on the number of water quality parameters included, these models often perform only fairly in validation and their predictions may be unreliable, even though they can be adequately calibrated in most occasions and excellently in some occasions. Obviously, there is a need to develop a model that would allow the inclusion of any number of water quality parameters and enable the hypothesis of any number of biogeochemical processes. This paper presents the development of a numerical water quality model using a general paradigm of reaction-based approaches. In a reaction-based approach, all conceptualized biogoechemical processes are transformed into a reaction network. Through the decomposition of species governing equations via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network, (1) redundant fast reactions and irrelevant kinetic reactions are removed from the system, which alleviates the problem of unnecessary and erroneous formulation and parameterization of these reactions, and (2) fast reactions and slow reactions are decoupled, which enables robust numerical integrations. The system of species governing equations is transformed into two sets: algebraic equations (either mass action equations or users' specified) of equilibrium variables and differential equations of kinetic variables. As a result, the model alleviates the needs of using simple partitions for fast reactions and uses kinetic-variables instead of biogeochemical species as primary dependent variables. With the diagonalization strategy, it

  2. Geospatial Data Fusion and Multigroup Decision Support for Surface Water Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. Y.; Osidele, O.; Green, R. T.; Xie, H.

    2010-12-01

    Social networking and social media have gained significant popularity and brought fundamental changes to many facets of our everyday life. With the ever-increasing adoption of GPS-enabled gadgets and technology, location-based content is likely to play a central role in social networking sites. While location-based content is not new to the geoscience community, where geographic information systems (GIS) are extensively used, the delivery of useful geospatial data to targeted user groups for decision support is new. Decision makers and modelers ought to make more effective use of the new web-based tools to expand the scope of environmental awareness education, public outreach, and stakeholder interaction. Environmental decision processes are often rife with uncertainty and controversy, requiring integration of multiple sources of information and compromises between diverse interests. Fusing of multisource, multiscale environmental data for multigroup decision support is a challenging task. Toward this goal, a multigroup decision support platform should strive to achieve transparency, impartiality, and timely synthesis of information. The latter criterion often constitutes a major technical bottleneck to traditional GIS-based media, featuring large file or image sizes and requiring special processing before web deployment. Many tools and design patterns have appeared in recent years to ease the situation somewhat. In this project, we explore the use of Web 2.0 technologies for “pushing” location-based content to multigroups involved in surface water quality management and decision making. In particular, our granular bottom-up approach facilitates effective delivery of information to most relevant user groups. Our location-based content includes in-situ and remotely sensed data disseminated by NASA and other national and local agencies. Our project is demonstrated for managing the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program in the Arroyo Colorado coastal river basin

  3. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Raritan River basin, New Jersey, water years 1976-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Debra E.; Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Hickman, R. Edward

    1999-01-01

    Relations of water quality to streamflow were determined for 18 water-quality constituents at 21 surface-water stations within the drainage area of the Raritan River Basin for water years 1976-93. Surface-water-quality and streamflow data were evaluated for trends (through time) in constituent concentrations during high and low flows, and relations between constituent concentration and streamflow, and between constituent load and streamflow, were determined. Median concentrations were calculated for the entire period of study (water years 1976-93) and for the last 5 years of the period of study (water years 1989-93) to determine whether any large variation in concentration exists between the two periods. Medians also were used to determine the seasonal Kendall’s tau statistic, which was then used to evaluate trends in concentrations during high and low flows. Trends in constituent concentrations during high and low flows were evaluated to determine whether the distribution of the observations changes through time for intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) or constant (point sources and ground water) sources, respectively. Highand low-flow trends in concentrations were determined for some constituents at 13 of the 21 water-quality stations; 8 stations have insufficient data to determine trends. Seasonal effects on the relations of concentration to streamflow are evident for 16 of the 18 constituents. Negative slopes of relations of concentration to streamflow, which indicate a decrease in concentration at high flows, predominate over positive slopes because of the dilution of instream concentrations by storm runoff. The slopes of the regression lines of load to streamflow were determined in order to show the relative contributions to the instream load from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent sources (storm runoff). Greater slope values indicate larger contributions from storm runoff to instream load, which most likely indicate an increased

  4. Understanding the Impact of Intensive Horticulture Land-Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith K. Muriithi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid expansion of commercial horticulture production and related activities contribute to declining surface water quality. The study sought to understand the impacts on select rivers in Laikipia and Meru, production hotspots. The specific aims were (1 to identify prevailing surface water quality by examining variations of 14 physico-chemical parameters, and (2 to categorize measured surface water quality parameters into land use types highlighting potential pollutant source processes. Water samples were collected in July and August 2013 along 14 rivers in the study area. The data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant analysis (DA. Principal components (PCs explained 70% of the observed total variability of water quality, indicating a prevalence of heavy metal traces (cadmium, phosphate, and zinc. These were linked to the rigorous use of phosphate fertilizers and copper-based agrochemicals in intensive farming. DA provided four significant (p < 0.05 discriminant functions, with 89.5% correct assignment enabling the association of land use with observed water quality. Concentrations of dissolved solids, electro-conductivity, and salinity spiked at locations with intensive small-scale and large-scale horticulture. Understanding the impacts of intensive commercial horticulture and land use practices on water quality is critical to formulating ecologically sound watershed management and pollution abatement plans.

  5. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Using Remote Sensing%表面水质遥感监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张渊智; 聂跃平; 蔺启忠; 荆林海; 张兵

    2000-01-01

    主要讨论了应用多种传感器遥感技术进行表面水质监测研究的有效性。首先论述了纯水和不同水质的波谱特性,然后以芬兰海湾和芬兰南部湖泊为应用实例,进行多种遥感数据和主要水质参数之间的相关性分析,从而确定不同波谱段是否可以有效地监测表面水质的变化情况。本研究为新一代传感器的设计提供水质监测的重要参数,进一步的试验研究仍在进行之中。%This paper describes the possibility of surface water quality monitoring using remote sensing technolo gy and the spectral signatures of pure water and other types of water quality. Using airborne and spacebornedata (TM and ERS-2) analysed with in situ measurements of ground truth points for water quality parameters, some major factors of surface water quality can be derived from remote sensing data by case studies. Concurrent in situ surface water quality measurments, Landsat TM data and ERS-2 SAR data were obtained in the selected locations in August1997. In situ data included measurements of chlorophyll-a, total dissolved organic carbon and turbidity, Secchi disk depth, color index, estimated wave height, salinity and surface temperature. The Landsat TM and ERS-2 SAR data from locations of water samples were extracted and the digital data were examined in their raw states as well as numerous transformations. Significant correlations were observed between digital numbers and surface water quality parameters. The results indicate that it may be possible to derive surface water quality parameters using remote sensing data in our case study area. However, the technique still needs to be refined to detect differences within the range of water quality which is typically found in the area under study.

  6. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    proposed environmental water quality index (EWQI) lead to better trend in the impact of coal and coal seam gas mining activities on surface water quality when compared to the upstream reference water samples. Metal content limits were based on the impact points assigned by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, USA. For environmental and health impact assessment, the approach used in this study can be applied as a model to provide a basis to assess the anthropogenic contribution from the industrial and mining activities on the environment.

  7. Ground-water and surface-water quality data for the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch

  8. Groundwater Impacts on Urban Surface Water Quality in the Lowland Polder Catchments of the Amsterdam City Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Yu, L.; Van Breukelen, B. M.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water quality in the Amsterdam area is suffering from high nutrient levels. The sources and transport mechanisms of these nutrients are unclear due to the complex hydrology of the highly manipulated urban and sub-urban polder catchments. This study aimed at identifying the impact of groundwater on surface water quality in the polder catchments of the greater Amsterdam city area. Therefore, we exploited the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks to explain spatial patterns in surface water chemistry and their relations with landscape characteristics and groundwater impact. We selected and statistically analyzed 23 variables for 144 polders, covering a total area of 700 km2. Our dataset includes concentrations of total-N, total-P, ammonium, nitrate, bicarbonate, sulfate, calcium, and chloride in surface water and groundwater, seepage rate, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil type (calcite, humus and clay percentages). Our results show that nutrient levels in groundwater were generally much higher than in surface water and often exceeded the surface water Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs). This indicates that groundwater is a large potential source of nutrients in surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in both water compartments and close similarities in their spatial patterns confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water quality. Groundwater appeared to be a major source of chloride, bicarbonate and calcium in surface water and for N and P, leading to exceeding of EQSs in surface waters. In dry periods, the artificial redistribution of excess seepage water from deep polders to supply water to infiltrating polders further distributes the N and P loads delivered by groundwater over the area.

  9. Reach-scale variation surface water quality in a reticular canal system in the lower Yangtze River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, James Andrew; Chan, Faith Ka Shun; Zhu, Fangfang; Wang, Vickie; Higgitt, David Laurence

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of surface water pollution within a reticular canal system typical of those found in the lower Yangtze River Delta (YRD). For this purpose, surface water quality data was collected from a drainage canal that bisected the southeast district of Ningbo Municipality (Zhejiang) from 2013 to 2015. The sampling transect was designed to represent the change in land-use from the agriculture dominated rural hinterland, to the predominantly urban city-centre. To calculate the representative land-use fraction of each sampling location, the contributing area was defined using an uni-directional 1 km vector line-buffer around the 'upstream' section of canal. The spatial and temporal variation of EC, DO, NH3 and turbidity indicated a measureable difference between the urban and rural sections of the channel. Water quality indicators were most sensitive to urban and parkland land-use types. The study yielded an increased spatial resolution to knowledge of water-quality variability in the urban environment compared to previous studies within the YRD region. The results were used to make recommendations for the development of an effective long-term strategy for the improvement in surface water quality in this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River Basin in Washington: Overview of major findings, 1987-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, Jennifer L.; Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Bramblett, Karen L.; Pogue, Ted R.; Skach, Kenneth A.; Embrey, Sandra S.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Meador, Michael R.; Porter, Stephen D.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water-quality conditions were assessed in the Yakima River Basin, which drains 6,155 square miles of mostly forested, range, and agricultural land in Washington. The Yakima River Basin is one of the most intensively farmed and irrigated areas in the United States, and is often referred to as the “Nation’s Fruitbowl.” Natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants and flow regulation control water-quality conditions throughout the basin. This report summarizes the spatial and temporal distribution, sources, and implications of the dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, suspended sediment, nutrient, organic compound (pesticide), trace element, fecal indicator bacteria, radionuclide, and aquatic ecology data collected during the 1987–91 water years.

  11. Effects of variable climate, land use, and hydrogeochemical setting on decadal surface water quality trends, Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. T.; Bekins, B. A.; Kalkhoff, S.; Hirsch, R. M.; Liao, L.; Barnes, K.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen fluxes from agricultural lands are a major concern for ecological health and water quality. Understanding how these fluxes respond to changes in agricultural practices and climatic variations is important for improving water quality in agricultural settings. In the midwestern USA, intensification of corn cropping as a result of ethanol production led to increases in N application rates in the 2000s during a period including both extreme dry and wet conditions. To examine the effect of these recent changes, a study was conducted on surface water quality in 10 major Iowa Rivers. Long term (~20 to 30 years) water quality and flow data were analyzed with Weighted Regression on Time, Discharge and Season (WRTDS), a statistical method that provides internally consistent estimates of the concentration history and reveals decadal trends that are independent of random variations of stream flow from seasonal averages. Trends of surface water quality showed constant or decreasing flow-normalized concentrations of nitrate+nitrite-N from 2000 to 2012 in all basins. To evaluate effects of annual discharge and N loading on these trends, multiple conceptual models were developed and calibrated to annual concentrations. The recent declining concentration trends can be attributed to both very high and very low discharge in the 2000's and to the long (e.g. 8-year) subsurface residence times in some basins. Dilution of surface water nitrate and depletion of stored nitrate may occur in years with very high discharge. Limited transport of N to surface water and accumulation of stored N may occur in years with very low discharge. Central Iowa basins showed the greatest reduction in concentrations, likely because extensive tile drainage results in smaller storage volumes and shorter residence times, and the glacial sediments are naturally reducing. Effects of agricultural intensification from ethanol production and other factors will likely be delayed for years or decades in

  12. Impacts of land use and population density on seasonal surface water quality using a modified geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Mei, Kun; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Ting; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Minghua

    2016-12-01

    As an important regulator of pollutants in overland flow and interflow, land use has become an essential research component for determining the relationships between surface water quality and pollution sources. This study investigated the use of ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to identify the impact of land use and population density on surface water quality in the Wen-Rui Tang River watershed of eastern China. A manual variable excluding-selecting method was explored to resolve multicollinearity issues. Standard regression coefficient analysis coupled with cluster analysis was introduced to determine which variable had the greatest influence on water quality. Results showed that: (1) Impact of land use on water quality varied with spatial and seasonal scales. Both positive and negative effects for certain land-use indicators were found in different subcatchments. (2) Urban land was the dominant factor influencing N, P and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in highly urbanized regions, but the relationship was weak as the pollutants were mainly from point sources. Agricultural land was the primary factor influencing N and P in suburban and rural areas; the relationship was strong as the pollutants were mainly from agricultural surface runoff. Subcatchments located in suburban areas were identified with urban land as the primary influencing factor during the wet season while agricultural land was identified as a more prevalent influencing factor during the dry season. (3) Adjusted R(2) values in OLS models using the manual variable excluding-selecting method averaged 14.3% higher than using stepwise multiple linear regressions. However, the corresponding GWR models had adjusted R(2) ~59.2% higher than the optimal OLS models, confirming that GWR models demonstrated better prediction accuracy. Based on our findings, water resource protection policies should consider site-specific land-use conditions within each watershed to

  13. Application of multivariate statistical techniques in assessment of surface water quality in Second Songhua River basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑力燕; 于宏兵; 王启山

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), were applied to evaluate and interpret the surface water quality data sets of the Second Songhua River (SSHR) basin in China, obtained during two years (2012−2013) of monitoring of 10 physicochemical parameters at 15 different sites. The results showed that most of physicochemical parameters varied significantly among the sampling sites. Three significant groups, highly polluted (HP), moderately polluted (MP) and less polluted (LP), of sampling sites were obtained through Hierarchical agglomerative CA on the basis of similarity of water quality characteristics. DA identified pH, F, DO, NH3-N, COD and VPhs were the most important parameters contributing to spatial variations of surface water quality. However, DA did not give a considerable data reduction (40%reduction). PCA/FA resulted in three, three and four latent factors explaining 70%, 62%and 71%of the total variance in water quality data sets of HP, MP and LP regions, respectively. FA revealed that the SSHR water chemistry was strongly affected by anthropogenic activities (point sources: industrial effluents and wastewater treatment plants; non-point sources:domestic sewage, livestock operations and agricultural activities) and natural processes (seasonal effect, and natural inputs). PCA/FA in the whole basin showed the best results for data reduction because it used only two parameters (about 80%reduction) as the most important parameters to explain 72%of the data variation. Thus, this work illustrated the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of datasets and, in water quality assessment, identification of pollution sources/factors and understanding spatial variations in water quality for effective stream water quality management.

  14. Idaho's surface-water-quality monitoring program: results from five sites sampled during water years 1990-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality, implemented a statewide water-quality monitoring program in response to Idaho's antidegradation policy as required by the Clean Water Act. The program objective is to provide water-quality managers with a coordinated statewide network to detect trends in surface-water quality. The monitoring program includes the collection and analysis of samples from 56 sites on the Bear, Clearwater, Kootenai, Pend Oreille, Salmon, Snake, and Spokane Rivers and their tributaries (fig. 1). Samples are collected every year at 5 sites (annual sites) in drainage basins where long-term water-quality management is practiced, every other year at 19 sites (biennial sites) in basins where land and water uses change slowly, and every third year at 32 sites (triennial sites) where future development may affect water quality. Each year, 25 of the 56 sites are sampled. This report discusses results of sampling at five annual sites. During water years 1990-93 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1993), samples were collected six times per year at the five annual sites (fig. 1). Onsite analyses were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, bacteria (fecal coliform and fecal streptococci), and alkalinity. Laboratory analyses were made for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Suspended sediment, nitrate, fecal coliform, trace elements, and specific conductance were used to characterize surface-water quality. Because concentrations of all trace elements except zinc were near detection limits, only zinc is discussed.

  15. Surface Water Quality Assessment of the Jirania Brick Cluster – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Jamatia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the infrastructural development works, the demand for construction materials is increasing rapidly, which in turns lead to the rapid growth of brick manufacturing industries. Large demand of bricks in development and construction sectors has resulted in mushrooming of brick industries clusters at the outskirt of Agartala City. Jirania brick industries cluster is one of largest cluster of the Tripura State (India. Approximately 45% of total bricks of the State are being produced from the Jirania brick industries clusters. The use of conventional technology for brick making has resulted significant contribution of pollution load to the environment. The main components of environment which are being affected by the brick industries include but not limited to air, water, soil etc. The present study is carried out to identify the potential contribution of pollution load on surface water sources of the region from the mentioned brick industries. The surface water samples collected from nine sampling station located at different places in the area are analyzed and the experimental results of various quality parameters are presented in the paper. Such a study will help to estimate the total pollution load of the brick industry in the mentioned area.

  16. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin, Washington; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, S.W.; Rinella, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment program to: (1) provide a nationally consistent description of the current status of water quality, (2) define water quality trends that have occurred over recent decades, and (3) relate past and present water quality conditions to relevant natural features, the history of land and water use, and land management and waste management practices. At present (1987), The National Water Quality Assessment program is in a pilot studies phase, in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for possible full implementation of the program. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The Yakima River basin in Washington is one of the pilot surface water project areas. The Yakima River basin drains in area of 6,155 sq mi and contains about 1,900 river mi of perennial streams. Major land use activities include growing and harvesting timber, dryland pasture grazing, intense farming and irrigated agriculture, and urbanization. Water quality issues that result from these land uses include potentially large concentrations of suspended sediment, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and trace elements that may affect water used for human consumption, fish propagation and passage, contact recreation, livestock watering, and irrigation. Data will be collected in a nine year cycle. The first three years of the cycle will be a period of concentrated data acquisition and interpretation. For the next six years, sample collection will be done at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This nine year cycle would then be repeated. Three types of sampling activities will be used for data acquisition: fixed location station sampling, synoptic sampling, and intensive reach studies. (Lantz-PTT)

  17. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Hackensack, Passaic, Elizabeth, and Rahway River basins, New Jersey, water years 1976-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Debra E.; Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Hickman, R. Edward

    1998-01-01

    Relations of water quality to streamflow were determined for 18 water-quality constituents at 19 surface-water-quality stations within the drainage basins of the Hackensack, Passaic, Elizabeth, and Rahway Rivers in New Jersey for water years 1976-93. Surface-waterquality and streamflow data were evaluated for trends (through time) in constituent concentrations during high and low flows, and relations between constituent concentration and streamflow, and constituent load and streamflow, were determined. Median concentrations were calculated for the entire period of study (water years 1976-93) and for the last 5 years of the period of study (water years 1989-93) to determine whether any large variation in concentration exists between the two periods. Medians also were used to determine the seasonal Kendall’s tau statistic, which was then used to evaluate trends in concentrations during high and low flows.Trends in constituent concentrations during high and low flows were evaluated to determine whether the distribution of the observations changes over time for intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) or constant (point sources and ground water) sources, respectively. Highand low-flow concentration trends were determined for some constituents at 11 of the 19 waterquality stations; 8 stations have insufficient data to determine trends. Seasonal effects on the relations of concentration to streamflow are evident for 16 of the 18 constituents. Negative slopes of relations of concentration to streamflow, which indicate a decrease in concentration at high flows, predominate over positive slopes because of dilution of instream concentrations from storm runoff.The slopes of the regression lines of load to streamflow were determined in order to show the relative contributions to the instream load from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent sources (storm runoff). Greater slope values suggest larger contributions from storm runoff to instream load, which most

  18. Impact of biomass burning on surface water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarambal, P.; Balasubramanian, R.; Tkalich, P.; He, J.

    2010-03-01

    Atmospheric nutrients have recently gained attention as a significant additional source of new nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading to the ocean. The effect of atmospheric N on marine productivity depends on the biological availability of both inorganic and organic N and P forms. During October 2006, the regional smoke haze episode in Southeast Asia (SEA) that resulted from uncontrolled forest fires in Sumatra and Borneo blanketed large tracts of the region. In this work, we determined the composition of nutrients in aerosols and rainwater during haze and non-haze periods to assess their impacts on aquatic ecosystem in SEA for the first time. We compared atmospheric dry and wet deposition of N and P species in aerosol and rainwater in Singapore between haze and non haze periods. Air mass back trajectories showed that large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were a significant source of atmospheric nutrients to aquatic environments in Singapore and SEA region on hazy days. It was observed that the average concentrations of nutrients increased approximately by a factor of 3 to 8 on hazy days when compared with non-hazy days. The mean dry atmospheric fluxes (g/m2/year) of TN and TP observed during hazy and non-hazy days were 4.77±0.775 and 0.3±0.082, and 0.91±0.471 and 0.046±0.01, respectively. The mean wet deposition fluxes (g/m2/year) of TN and TP were 12.2±3.53 and 0.726±0.074, and 2.71±0.989 and 0.144±0.06 for hazy and non-hazy days, respectively. The occurrences of higher concentrations of nutrients from atmospheric deposition during smoke haze episodes may have adverse consequences on receiving aquatic ecosystems with cascading impacts on water quality.

  19. Summary of Surface-Water Quality Data from the Illinois River Basin in Northeast Oklahoma, 1970-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of streams in the Illinois River Basin of northeastern Oklahoma is potentially threatened by increased quantities of wastes discharged from increasing human populations, grazing of about 160,000 cattle, and confined animal feeding operations raising about 20 million chickens. Increasing numbers of humans and livestock in the basin contribute nutrients and bacteria to surface water and groundwater, causing greater than the typical concentrations of those constituents for this region. Consequences of increasing contributions of these substances can include increased algal growth (eutrophication) in streams and lakes; impairment of habitat for native aquatic animals, including desirable game fish species; impairment of drinking-water quality by sediments, turbidity, taste-and-odor causing chemicals, toxic algal compounds, and bacteria; and reduction in the aesthetic quality of the streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Scenic Rivers Commission, prepared this report to summarize the surface-water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five long-term surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The data summarized include major ions, nutrients, sediment, and fecal-indicator bacteria from the Illinois River Basin in Oklahoma for 1970 through 2007. General water chemistry, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll-a (an indicator of algal biomass), fecal-indicator bacteria counts, and sediment concentrations were similar among the five long-term monitoring sites in the Illinois River Basin in northeast Oklahoma. Most water samples were phosphorus-limited, meaning that they contained a smaller proportion of phosphorus, relative to nitrogen, than typically occurs in algal tissues. Greater degrees of nitrogen limitation occurred at three of the five sites which were sampled back to the 1970s, probably due to use of detergents containing greater concentrations of phosphorus than in subsequent

  20. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  1. A Community Multi-Omics Approach towards the Assessment of Surface Water Quality in an Urban River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, David J.; Karpe, Avinash V.; Ahmed, Warish; Cook, Stephen; Morrison, Paul D.; Staley, Christopher; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Palombo, Enzo A.

    2017-01-01

    A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR), Queensland, Australia) in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V5–V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem. Sites sampled represented the transition from less affected (upstream) to polluted (downstream) environments along the BR. Chemometric analysis of the combined datasets indicated a clear separation between the sampled environments. Burkholderiales and Cyanobacteria were common key factors for differentiation of pristine waters. Increased sugar alcohol and short-chain fatty acid production was observed by Actinomycetales and Rhodospirillaceae that are known to form biofilms in urban polluted and brackish waters. Results from this study indicate that a multi-omics approach enables a deep understanding of the health of an aquatic ecosystem, providing insight into the bacterial diversity present and the metabolic output of the population when exposed to environmental contaminants. PMID:28335448

  2. A Community Multi-Omics Approach towards the Assessment of Surface Water Quality in an Urban River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Beale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR, Queensland, Australia in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS of the V5–V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem. Sites sampled represented the transition from less affected (upstream to polluted (downstream environments along the BR. Chemometric analysis of the combined datasets indicated a clear separation between the sampled environments. Burkholderiales and Cyanobacteria were common key factors for differentiation of pristine waters. Increased sugar alcohol and short-chain fatty acid production was observed by Actinomycetales and Rhodospirillaceae that are known to form biofilms in urban polluted and brackish waters. Results from this study indicate that a multi-omics approach enables a deep understanding of the health of an aquatic ecosystem, providing insight into the bacterial diversity present and the metabolic output of the population when exposed to environmental contaminants.

  3. Temporal variability in groundwater and surface water quality in humid agricultural catchments; driving processes and consequences for regional water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Velde, van der Y.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the large temporal variability in surface water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. Neglecting these dynamics may easily lead to decreased effectiveness of measures to improve water quality and to inefficient water quality monitoring. The objective of

  4. Temporal variability in groundwater and surface water quality in humid agricultural catchments; driving processes and consequences for regional water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Velde, van der Y.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the large temporal variability in surface water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. Neglecting these dynamics may easily lead to decreased effectiveness of measures to improve water quality and to inefficient water quality monitoring. The objective of t

  5. Comparison of Surface Water Quality and Yields from Organically and Conventionally Produced Sweet Corn Plots with Conservation and Conventional Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Joshua; Osmond, D L; Line, D E; Hoyt, G D; Grossman, J M; Larsen, E M

    2015-11-01

    Organic agricultural systems are often assumed to be more sustainable than conventional farming, yet there has been little work comparing surface water quality from organic and conventional production, especially under the same cropping sequence. Our objective was to compare nutrient and sediment losses, as well as sweet corn ( L. var. ) yield, from organic and conventional production with conventional and conservation tillage. The experiment was located in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Four treatments, replicated four times, had been in place for over 18 yr and consisted of conventional tillage (chisel plow and disk) with conventional production (CT/Conven), conservation no-till with conventional production (NT/Conven), conventional tillage with organic production (CT/Org), and conservation no-till with organic production (NT/Org). Water quality (surface flow volume; nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment concentrations) and sweet corn yield data were collected in 2011 and 2012. Sediment and sediment-attached nutrient losses were influenced by tillage and cropping system in 2011, due to higher rainfall, and tillage in 2012. Soluble nutrients were affected by the nutrient source and rate, which are a function of the cropping system. Sweet corn marketable yields were greater in conventional systems due to high weed competition and reduced total nitrogen availability in organic treatments. When comparing treatment efficiency (yield kg ha /nutrient loss kg ha ), the NT/Conven treatment had the greatest sweet corn yield per unit of nutrient and sediment loss. Other treatment ratios were similar to each other; thus, it appears the most sustainably productive treatment was NT/Conven.

  6. Use of MODIS Terra Imagery to Estimate Surface Water Quality Standards, Using Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Thonotosassa is a highly eutrophied lake located in an area with rapidly growing population in the Tampa Bay watershed, Florida. The Florida Administrative Code has designated its use for "recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife." Although this lake has been the subject of efforts to improve water quality since 1970, overall water quality has remained below the acceptable state standards, and has a high concentration of nutrients. This condition is of great concern to public health since it has favored episodic blooms of Cyanobacteria. Some Cyanobacterial species release toxins that can reach humans through drinking water, fish consumption, and direct contact with contaminated water. The lake has been historically popular for fishing and water sports, and its overflow water drains into the Hillsborough River, the main supply of municipal water for the City of Tampa, this explains why it has being constantly monitored in situ for water quality by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPC). Advances in remote sensing technology, however, open the possibility of facilitating similar types of monitoring in this and similar lakes, further contributing to the implementation of surveillance systems that would benefit not just public health, but also tourism and ecosystems. Although traditional application of this technology to water quality has been focused on much larger coastal water bodies like bays and estuaries, this study evaluates the feasibility of its application on a 46.6 km2 freshwater lake. Using surface reflectance products from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, this study evaluates associations between remotely sensed data and in situ data from the EPC. The parameters analyzed are the surface water quality standards used by the State of Florida and general indicators of trophic status.

  7. Applicability of rapid and on-site measured enzyme activity for surface water quality monitoring in an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Sommer, Regina; Kumpan, Monika; Zessner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    For the near real time and on-site detection of microbiological fecal pollution of water, the measurement of beta-D- Glucuronidase (GLUC) enzymatic activity has been suggested as a surrogate parameter and has been already successfully operated for water quality monitoring of ground water resources (Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Due to possible short measure intervals of three hours, this method has high potential as a water quality monitoring tool. While cultivation based standard determination takes more than one working day (Cabral 2010) the potential advantage of detecting the GLUC activity is the high temporal measuring resolution. Yet, there is still a big gap of knowledge on the fecal indication capacity of GLUC (specificity, sensitivity, persistence, etc.) in relation to potential pollution sources and catchment conditions (Cabral 2010, Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Furthermore surface waters are a big challenge for automated detection devices in a technical point of view due to the high sediment load during event conditions. This presentation shows results gained form two years of monitoring in an experimental catchment (HOAL) dominated by agricultural land use. Two enzymatic measurement devices are operated parallel at the catchment outlet to test the reproducibility and precision of the method. Data from continuous GLUC monitoring under both base flow and event conditions is compared with reference samples analyzed by standardized laboratory methods for fecal pollution detection (e.g. ISO 16649-1, Colilert18). It is shown that rapid enzymatic on-site GLUC determination can successfully be operated from a technical point of view for surface water quality monitoring under the observed catchment conditions. The comparison of enzyme activity with microbiological standard analytics reveals distinct differences in the dynamic of the signals during event conditions. Cabral J. P. S. (2010) "Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water" International Journal of

  8. Effects of land use types on surface water quality across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the upper reach of the Hun River, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruizhao; Xu, Tianle; Yu, Lizhong; Zhu, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-05-01

    Surface water quality is vulnerable to pollution due to human activities. The upper reach of the Hun River is an important water source that supplies 52 % of the storage capacity of the Dahuofang Reservoir, the largest reservoir for drinking water in Northeast China, which is suffering from various human-induced changes in land use, including deforestation, reclamation/farming, urbanization and mine exploitation. To investigate the impacts of land use types on surface water quality across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient at a local scale, 11 physicochemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen [DO], turbidity, oxygen redox potential, conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5], chemical oxygen demand [COD], total nitrogen [TN], total phosphorus [TP], NO(3)(-)N, and NH(4)(+)-N) of water from 12 sampling sites along the upper reach of the Hun River were monitored monthly during 2009-2010. The sampling sites were classified into four groups (natural, near-natural, more disturbed, and seriously disturbed). The water quality exhibited distinct spatial and temporal characteristics; conductivity, TN, and NO(3)(-)-N were identified as key parameters indicating the water quality variance. The forest and farmland cover types played significant roles in determining the surface water quality during the low-flow, high-flow, and mean-flow periods based on the results of a stepwise linear regression. These results may provide incentive for the local government to consider sustainable land use practices for water conservation.

  9. Microearthquakes at Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Improved Detection and Location with Two Additional Caldera Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P. M.; House, L. S.; Ten Cate, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) has operated for 43 years, providing data to locate more than 2,500 earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Roughly 1-2 earthquakes are detected and located per month within about 150 km of Los Alamos, a total of over 900 from 1973 to present. LASN's primary purpose is to monitor seismicity close to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for seismic hazards; monitoring seismicity associated with the nearby Valles Caldera is secondary. Until 2010 the network was focused on monitoring seismic hazards and comprised only 7 stations, all near LANL or in the nearby Jemez Mountains. Just one station—PER, installed in 1998—was close enough to Valles Caldera to be able to detect microearthquakes located in or near the caldera. An initial study of the data from station PER between 1998 and 2002 identified and located 13 events with magnitudes less than 0.5 using the single-station hodogram technique. Those events were all located south of the caldera within a few kilometers of PER. Recently, two new digital broadband stations were installed inside the caldera, one on a northeastern ring-fracture dome, station CDAB, and the other on a northwestern dome, station SAMT. Also, station PER was upgraded with digital broadband instrumentation. Thus, LASN now can detect and record microearthquakes as small as magnitude -1.5 near the caldera, and they can be located using multiple arrival times. Several recent events located near station SAMT on the caldera's ring fracture are the first that have been seen in that area. Additional events were recorded (by all three stations) and located in the area south of the caldera where the earlier hodogram-only events were located. These new multi-station event recordings allow a more quantitative assessment of the uncertainties in the initial single-station hodogram locations. Each event is located using multiple arrival times as well as the hodogram method at as many as three stations. Thus

  10. Simulating the impacts of future land use and climate changes on surface water quality in the Des Plaines River watershed, Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cyril O; Weng, Qihao

    2011-09-15

    Modeling the effects of past and current land use composition and climatic patterns on surface water quality provides valuable information for environmental and land planning. This study predicts the future impacts of urban land use and climate changes on surface water quality within Des Plaines River watershed, Illinois, between 2010 and 2030. Land Change Modeler (LCM) was used to characterize three future land use/planning scenarios. Each scenario encourages low density residential growth, normal urban growth, and commercial growth, respectively. Future climate patterns examined include the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) B1 and A1B groups. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was employed to estimate total suspended solids and phosphorus concentration generated at a 10 year interval. The predicted results indicate that for a large portion of the watershed, the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) would be higher under B1 and A1B climate scenarios during late winter and early spring compared to the same period in 2010; while the summer period largely demonstrates a reverse trend. Model results further suggest that by 2020, phosphorus concentration would be higher during the summer under B1 climate scenario compared to 2010, and is expected to wane by 2030. The projected phosphorus concentrations during the late winter and early spring periods vary across climate and land use scenarios. The analysis also denotes that middle and high density residential development can reduce excess TSS concentration, while the establishment of dense commercial and industrial development might help ameliorate high phosphorus levels. The combined land use and climate change analysis revealed land use development schemes that can be adopted to mitigate potential future water quality impairment. This research provides important insights into possible adverse consequences on surface water quality and resources

  11. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Molson, John [Université Laval, Département de Géologie et Génie Géologique, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Schirmer, Mario [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ{sup 18}O-H{sub 2}O) as well as those of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}{sup −}) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological

  12. Assessment of temporal and spatial variations in surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques:A case study of Nenjiang River basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑力燕; 于宏兵; 王启山

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of temporal and spatial variations in surface water quality is important to evaluate the health of a watershed and make necessary management decisions to control current and future pollution of receiving water bodies. In this work, surface water quality data for 12 physical and chemical parameters collected from 10 sampling sites in the Nenjiang River basin during the years (2012−2013) were analyzed. The results show that river water quality has significant temporal and spatial variations. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) grouped 12 months into three periods (LF, MF and HF) and classified 10 monitoring sites into three regions (LP, MP and HP) based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. The principle component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA) was used to recognize the factors or origins responsible for temporal and spatial water quality variations. Temporal and spatial PCA/FA revealed that the Nenjiang River water chemistry was strongly affected by rock/water interaction, hydrologic processes and anthropogenic activities. This work demonstrates that the application of HCA and PCA/FA has achieved meaningful classification based on temporal and spatial criteria.

  13. A short report regarding the physicochemical properties of surface water quality in Karaçomak stream, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şuţan, Nicoleta Anca; Mutlu, Ekrem; Yanik, Telat; Dobre, Raluca

    2016-04-01

    Within the scope of present study, the water quality of stream Karaçomak in Kastamonu-Turkey was investigated. Water samples were collected from 9 stations selected on Karaçomak stream, considering the pollution points and the points, where the entrance of water into stream is high. The samples taken were analyzed in terms of water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, saltiness, electrical conductivity, chemical composition and heavy metal content, and for their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had heterogeneous intensity of environmental influence, but the considerable impact was noticed for the third and seventh stations. The present study highlights the need for continuous evaluation of water pollution level, and is intended to help in mitigating the environmental impacts and improve environmental performance.

  14. Surface-water quality in the upper San Antonio River Basin, Bexar County, Texas, 1992-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.; Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of chemicals in rivers and streams on human health or the ecology have long been a source of concern to water managers. Chemicals in rivers may result from natural or anthropogenic sources (such as industrial or residential practices) which are commonly associated with urbanized watersheds. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, examined water-quality data collected from periodic and stormflow sampling events at five sites in the upper San Antonio River Basin during 1992–98. These water-quality data were compared among sites as well as between periodic and stormflow events. The samples were collected from five continuous streamflow-gaging stations in Bexar County, Texas. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds, including selected pesticides.

  15. Effects of a drought period on physico-chemical surface water quality in a regional catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Zwolsman, Gertjan; Klaver, Gerard; Hendriks, A Jan

    2009-06-01

    Hydrological drought periods are expected to become more severe in North-Western Europe as a result of climate change. This may have implications for water quality, as demonstrated by declining water quality of large rivers (e.g. Rhine, Meuse) during droughts. However, similar investigations in regional catchment areas are lacking to date. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a drought period on the water quality of the Dommel River, a tributary of the Meuse river in the Netherlands. Water quality during the drought of 2003 was compared to that in reference years (2004-2006) for 18 physical/chemical parameters using ANOVA analysis. It was demonstrated that the drought period of 2003 did not significantly affect water quality, although the origin of river flow during the drought shifted from mainly overland flow to deep groundwater flow and (treated) communal effluents. Significant differences in water quality were noted for some monitoring stations during the study period, which could be related to operational water management such as cleaning of sediment traps in the river and improvements in communal effluent treatment. The results of this study are interesting to water managers in Western Europe as they contribute to understanding the potential impact of climate change on water quality/quantity patterns in regional water systems.

  16. 嘉兴市地表水质主要影响因素及治理对策分析%Analysis of Influencing Factors of Jiaxing Surface Water Quality and Strategies of Pollution Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕升; 陈吉; 苏营营

    2011-01-01

    选取区域内具有代表性的13个地袁水重点监测断面进行了系统调查,对近年来水质变化走势进行全面分析,对断面周边主要污染源进行排摸检查,分析了当前影响嘉兴市地表水质的主要因素,提出了持续改善区域水质的对策措施。%Jiaxing City lies in the downstream of Taihu Basin and belongs to the plain river network. The surface water quality got worse year by year since the 7th Five Years Programs. And during the 11th Five Years Programs, the worsening tendency was curbed and surface water quality was improved because of the pollution reduction policy. However, in the first half of this year, the surface water quality got worse again. In this study, thirteen typical river monitoring section planes were selected. With the analysis of surface water quality in recent years and checking of pollutant source around monitoring section planes, the study tries to find influencing factors of Jiaxing surface water quality and puts forward solutions of impro- ving the water quality in the area.

  17. Prediction and assessment of drought effects on surface water quality using artificial neural networks: case study of Zayandehrud River, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Hamid R; Malek Ahmadi, Kian

    2015-01-01

    Although drought impacts on water quantity are widely recognized, the impacts on water quality are less known. The Zayandehrud River basin in the west-central part of Iran plateau witnessed an increased contamination during the recent droughts and low flows. The river has been receiving wastewater and effluents from the villages, a number of small and large industries, and irrigation drainage systems along its course. What makes the situation even worse is the drought period the river basin has been going through over the last decade. Therefore, a river quality management model is required to include the adverse effects of industrial development in the region and the destructive effects of droughts which affect the river's water quality and its surrounding environment. Developing such a model naturally presupposes investigations into pollution effects in terms of both quality and quantity to be used in such management tools as mathematical models to predict the water quality of the river and to prevent pollution escalation in the environment. The present study aims to investigate electrical conductivity of the Zayandehrud River as a water quality parameter and to evaluate the effect of this parameter under drought conditions. For this purpose, artificial neural networks are used as a modeling tool to derive the relationship between electrical conductivity and the hydrological parameters of the Zayandehrud River. The models used in this research include multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function. Finally, these two models are compared in terms of their performance using the time series of electrical conductivity at eight monitoring-hydrometric stations during drought periods between the years 1997-2012. Results show that artificial neural networks can be used for modeling the relationship between electrical conductivity and hydrological parameters under drought conditions. It is further shown that radial basis function works better for the upstream stretches

  18. An integrated spatial snap-shot monitoring method for identifying seasonal changes and spatial changes in surface water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya; Jiang, Yongjun; Berg, Michael; Hunkeler, Daniel; Schirmer, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Integrated catchment-scale management approaches in large catchments are often hindered due to the poor understanding of the spatially and seasonally variable pathways of pollutants. High-frequency monitoring of water quality at random locations in a catchment is resource intensive and challenging. A simplified catchment-scale monitoring approach is developed in this study, for the preliminary identification of water quality changes - Integrated spatial snap-shot monitoring (ISSM). This multi-parameter monitoring approach is applied using the isotopes of water (δ18O-H2O and δD) and nitrate (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) together with the fluxes of nitrate and other solutes, which are used as chemical markers. This method involves selection of few sampling stations, which are identified as the hotspots of water quality changes within the catchment. The study was conducted in the peri-alpine Thur catchment in Switzerland, with two snap-shot campaigns (representative of two widely varying hydrological conditions), in summer 2012 (low flow) and spring 2013 (high flow). Significant spatial (varying with elevation) and seasonal changes in the sources of water were observed between the two seasons. A spatial variation of the sources of nitrate and the solute loads was observed, in tandem with the land use changes in the Thur catchment. There is a seasonal shift in the sources of nitrate, it varies from a strong treated waste water signature during the low flow season to a mixture of other sources (like soil nitrogen derived from agriculture), in the high flow season. This demonstrates the influence of other sources that override the influence of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) during high flow in the Thur River and its tributaries. This method is expected to be a cost-effective alternative, providing snap-shots, that can help in the preliminary identification of the pathways of solutes and their seasonal/spatial changes in catchments.

  19. INFLUENTIAL FACTORS IN SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN CATCHMENTS WITHIN THE PAMPA BIOME WITH DIFFERENT LAND USE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Lago Valente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify, by multivariate statistical technique, the physic, chemical and biological variables that best characterize the quality of surface waters in two small rural catchments with different land uses (eucalyptus silviculture (SC vs. pasture and extensive livestock (LC located in Rosário do Sul, RS - Brazil. Monitoring was conducted during the months of August 2011 to August 2012 and the following parameters were analyzed: Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, SO42-, Cl-, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, suspended and dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand , total coliforms, Escherichia coli and temperature, flow and rainfall. Through the use of FA/PCA, it was found that the model best fit to express water quality of in LC that was composed of five factors which account for 83.5% of the total variance, while for SC, four factors accounted for 85.12% of the variance. In LC, the five main factors were, respectively, soluble salts, diffuse pollution, solid, and both anthropogenic and organic factors. In SC, the four factors were namely: soluble salts, mineral, nutritional and diffuse pollution factors. The results of this study showed that by replacing the traditional soil usage (pasture and livestock with planted forest, diffuse pollution was attenuated but, however, it did not result in major changes in the physical-chemical and biological characteristics of the water. Another point to note is that factorial analysis did not result in a large reduction in the number of variables, once the best model fit occurred with the addition of 15 of 18 analyzed variables (LC and 17 of 18 analyzed variables (SC.

  20. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  1. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  2. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater and surface water quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains groundwater and surface-water quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater and surface water report for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater and surface-water quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater and surface-water quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  3. Application of techniques to identify coal-mine and power-generation effects on surface-water quality, San Juan River basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, C.L.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous analytical techniques were applied to determine water quality changes in the San Juan River basin upstream of Shiprock , New Mexico. Eight techniques were used to analyze hydrologic data such as: precipitation, water quality, and streamflow. The eight methods used are: (1) Piper diagram, (2) time-series plot, (3) frequency distribution, (4) box-and-whisker plot, (5) seasonal Kendall test, (6) Wilcoxon rank-sum test, (7) SEASRS procedure, and (8) analysis of flow adjusted, specific conductance data and smoothing. Post-1963 changes in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, specific conductance, suspended sediment concentration, or suspended sediment load in the San Juan River downstream from the surface coal mines were examined to determine if coal mining was having an effect on the quality of surface water. None of the analytical methods used to analyzed the data showed any increase in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, or specific conductance in the river downstream from the mines; some of the analytical methods used showed a decrease in dissolved solids concentration and specific conductance. Chaco River, an ephemeral stream tributary to the San Juan River, undergoes changes in water quality due to effluent from a power generation facility. The discharge in the Chaco River contributes about 1.9% of the average annual discharge at the downstream station, San Juan River at Shiprock, NM. The changes in water quality detected at the Chaco River station were not detected at the downstream Shiprock station. It was not possible, with the available data, to identify any effects of the surface coal mines on water quality that were separable from those of urbanization, agriculture, and other cultural and natural changes. In order to determine the specific causes of changes in water quality, it would be necessary to collect additional data at strategically located stations. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Surface-water quality changes after 5 years of nutrient management in the Little Conestoga Creek headwaters, Pennsylvania, 1989-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerkle, Edward H.; Gustafson-Minnich, Linda C.; Bilger, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    A 5.82-square-mile drainage basin in the headwaters of the Little Conestoga Creek in Lancaster County, Pa., was investigated from October 1989 through September 1991 as part of a longer-term effort to determine the effects of nutrient management on surface-water quality. A previous investigation found no statistical evidence that implementation of nutrient management from 1986 to 1989 affected water quality. Basin land use is 68 percent agriculture and includes all or part of 51 farms. Agricultural land under nutrient management ranged from 55 percent in 1989 to 80 percent in 1991. Nitrate nitrogen, the dominant nonpoint-source contaminant, averaged about 7.5 milligrams per liter in base flow. Implementation of nutrient management on 90 percent of applicable land in a 1.42-square-mile subbasin resulted in a 7 percent decrease in nitrogen applications from before nutrient management. Recognizing that some uncertainty exists in the nutrient-application data, the decrease consisted of a 44-percent decrease in commercial fertilizer nitrogen combined with a 3-percent increase in manure nitrogen applications. Manure accounted for 83 percent of the applied nitrogen. Amounts of nitrate nitrogen in the top 4 feet of soil ranged from 43 to 315 pounds per acre in the subbasin and were not substantially reduced from before nutrient management. Statistical analysis of nutrient and suspended-sediment concentrations detected few significant step trends in water quality in a comparison with water quality before nutrient management. A decrease in base-flow concentrations of dissolved ammonium and suspended sediment was detected at a site draining a 1.43-square-mile subbasin with 40-percent implementation of nutrient-management plans. An increase in base-flow concentrations of suspended sediment was detected at a site draining the 1.42-square-mile subbasin with 90-percent implementation. A comparison of the dissolved nitrate plus nitrite in base-flow relations between paired

  5. On the possibility of generation of cold and additional electric energy at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Borisova, P. N.

    2017-06-01

    A layout of a cogeneration plant for centralized supply of the users with electricity and cold (ECCG plant) is presented. The basic components of the plant are an expander-generator unit (EGU) and a vapor-compression thermotransformer (VCTT). At the natural-gas-pressure-reducing stations, viz., gas-distribution stations and gas-control units, the plant is connected in parallel to a throttler and replaces the latter completely or partially. The plant operates using only the energy of the natural gas flow without burning the gas; therefore, it can be classified as a fuelless installation. The authors compare the thermodynamic efficiencies of a centralized cold supply system based on the proposed plant integrated into the thermal power station scheme and a decentralized cold supply system in which the cold is generated by electrically driven vapor-compression thermotransformers installed on the user's premises. To perform comparative analysis, the exergy efficiency was taken as the criterion since in one of the systems under investigation the electricity and the cold are generated, which are energies of different kinds. It is shown that the thermodynamic efficiency of the power supply using the proposed plant proves to be higher within the entire range of the parameters under consideration. The article presents the results of investigating the impact of the gas heating temperature upstream from the expander on the electric power of the plant, its total cooling capacity, and the cooling capacities of the heat exchangers installed downstream from the EGU and the evaporator of the VCTT. The results of calculations are discussed that show that the cold generated at the gas-control unit of a powerful thermal power station can be used for the centralized supply of the cold to the ventilation and conditioning systems of both the buildings of the power station and the neighboring dwelling houses, schools, and public facilities during the summer season.

  6. [CALCULATION OF RADIATION LOADS ON THE ANTHROPOMORPHIC PHANTOM ONBOARD THE SPACE STATION IN THE CASE OF ADDITIONAL SHIELDING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of calculating doses from space ionizing radiation for a modeled orbital station cabin outfitted with an additional shield aimed to reduce radiation loads on cosmonaut. The shield is a layer with the mass thickness of -6 g/cm2 (mean density = 0.62 g/cm3) that covers the outer cabin wall and consists of wet tissues and towels used by cosmonauts for hygienic purposes. A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom imitates human body. Doses were calculated for the standard orbit of the International space station (ISS) with consideration of the longitudinal and transverse phantom orientation relative to the wall with or without the additional shield. Calculation of dose distribution in the human body improves prediction of radiation loads. The additional shield reduces radiation exposure of human critical organs by -20% depending on their depth and body spatial orientation in the ISS compartment.

  7. Surface-Water Quality of the Skokomish, Nooksack, and Green-Duwamish Rivers and Thornton Creek, Puget Sound Basin, Washington, 1995-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrey, S.S.; Frans, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Streamflow and surface-water-quality data were collected from November 1995 through April 1998 (water years 1996-98) from a surface-water network in the Puget Sound Basin study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. Water samples collected monthly and during storm runoff events were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, organic carbon, and suspended sediment, and at selected sites, samples were analyzed for pesticides and volatile organic compounds. Eleven sites were established in three major watersheds--two in the Skokomish River Basin, three in the Nooksack River Basin, five in the Green-Duwamish River Basin, and one site in Thornton Creek Basin, a small tributary to Lake Washington. The Skokomish River near Potlatch, Nooksack River at Brennan, and Duwamish River at Tukwila are integrators of mixed land uses with the sampling sites locally influenced by forestry practices, agriculture, and urbanization, respectively. The remaining eight sites are indicators of relatively homogeneous land use/land cover in their basins. The site on the North Fork Skokomish River is an indicator site chosen to measure reference or background conditions in the study unit. In the Nooksack River Basin, the site on Fishtrap Creek is an indicator of agriculture, and the Nooksack River at North Cedarville is an indicator site of forestry practices in the upper watershed. In the Green-Duwamish River Basin, Springbrook Creek is an urban indicator, Big Soos Creek is an indicator of a rapidly developing suburban basin; Newaukum Creek is an indicator of agriculture; and the Green River above Twin Camp Creek is an indicator of forestry practices. Thornton Creek is an indicator of high-density urban residential and commercial development. Conditions during the first 18 months of sampling were dominated by above-normal precipitation. For the Seattle-Tacoma area, water year 1997 was the wettest of the 3 years during the sample-collection period. Nearly 52

  8. Seleção dos indicadores da qualidade das águas superficiais pelo emprego da análise multivariada Surface water quality indicators in low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil, using multivariable analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. de Andrade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores antrópicos e naturais que determinam a qualidade das águas superficiais na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foram identificados pelo emprego da técnica de Análise Fatorial/Análise da Componente Principal (AF/ACP. Foram realizadas quatro campanhas no período de fev./2003 a mar./2004, em sete pontos de amostragem localizados ao longo do Rio Acaraú. Foram analisados 25 parâmetros físico-químicos e bacteriológicos. Pelo emprego da AF/ACP, identificou-se que o modelo de melhor ajuste para expressar a qualidade das águas na Bacia do Baixo Acaraú foi aquele composto por quatro fatores, explicando 82,1% da variância total. O primeiro fator representa a componente de sólidos em suspensão, expressando o processo de erosão e escoamento superficial. O segundo fator é definido por uma componente de nutrientes associados aos esgotos sanitários, às áreas agrícolas e a outras fontes de poluição difusa; o terceiro fator é indicativo da ação antrópica (componente orgânica, enquanto o quarto representa os sais solúveis que expressam o processo natural do intemperismo das rochas. Outro ponto observado é que a análise fatorial não resultou em grande redução no número de variáveis, uma vez que o melhor ajuste do modelo ocorreu com a inclusão de 18 das 25 variáveis analisadas.Multivariate statistical technique, factor analysis/principal component analysis (FA/PCA, was applied to identify the human activity effects and natural processes on surface water quality in Low Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil. Water samples were collected in four different campaigns from Feb/2003 to Mar/2004, at seven sampling stations sited in low Acaraú watershed. Twenty-five physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters were examined in this study. The FA/PCA allowed the identification of the total variance. The best model was adjusted with four components, explaining 82.1% of the data variance. The first factor was mainly associated with suspended

  9. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Surface Water Quality Base on Excel VBA%基于ExcelVBA的模糊综合评判地表水水质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤信彬

    2012-01-01

    地表水水质是地质环境质量评价主因素之一,对永安市小陶镇10组地表水水质数据选用模糊综合评价法,基于Micro Soft office Excel VBA编程进行了综合快速评价。评价结果表明:下游各项污染指标均略高于上游;盆地外围支流的地表水水质均较好,除西学溪锌偏高微超标外,其它均在Ⅱ类水质范围内。实验证明利用VBA完成模糊综合评判方法有效性,并具有可移值性,只须修改少量代码即可完成其它区域的水质评价。%Affecting surface water quality evaluation of the geological environment is one of the main factors. This article on the city of Yongan small Tao Zhen in 10 groups of surface water quality data using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, based on the MicroSoft office Ex- celVBA programming in the comprehensive evaluation. The evaluation results indicate that.the pollution indices were slightly higher than the downstream upstream tributaries, in the periphery of the surface water quality are good, except the Western Creek ( Zn ) high zinc micro over standard, others are in class Ⅱ water range. The experiment has proved that the use of VBA to complete the comprehensive fuzzy evaluation method can effectively be sex, and has portability, only modification of a small amount of code can be completed other re- gional water quality evaluation.

  10. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    300 pCi/L (picoCuries per liter). Differences in selected major and minor ion concentrations and radon-222 activities were statistically significant between some lithologies and are related to differences in mineralogy. Ground water from felsic gneiss and schist generally contained higher radon-222 activities than the other lithologies; activities as high as 10,000 pCi/L were measured in a water sample from the felsic gneiss. Differences in the concentrations of nitrate, sodium, and chloride, and the frequency of pesticide detections in ground water were statistically significant between samples from wells in some land-use categories. Concentrations of nitrate generally were greatest in agricultural and in industrial and commercial areas and can be attributed to the use of fertilizers on the land surface and other agricultural activities. Much of the industrial and commercial land use is in areas previously used for or related to mushroom production. Concentrations of chloride and sodium also were greatest in water from wells in agricultural and industrial and commercial areas, probably because of the use of fertilizer and road salt. Concentrations of nitrate, chloride, and sodium in water samples from wells in forested and residential land use did not differ statistically significantly from each other. The herbicides metolachlor and atrazine were the most frequently detected pesticides and were detected more frequently in agricultural areas than in areas with other land uses; their presence is related to their use in crop production. VOC's were detected infrequently and only in residential and industrial and commercial areas. The relation between ground-water quality and surface-water quality is assessed by comparing nitrate and chloride concentrations in the 1993 ground-water samples and 1993-94 base-flow samples. Base-flow samples were collected at eight stream sites in the headwaters of the West Branch of Red Clay Creek in 1994 and at two long-term stream-monito

  11. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    300 pCi/L (picoCuries per liter). Differences in selected major and minor ion concentrations and radon-222 activities were statistically significant between some lithologies and are related to differences in mineralogy. Ground water from felsic gneiss and schist generally contained higher radon-222 activities than the other lithologies; activities as high as 10,000 pCi/L were measured in a water sample from the felsic gneiss. Differences in the concentrations of nitrate, sodium, and chloride, and the frequency of pesticide detections in ground water were statistically significant between samples from wells in some land-use categories. Concentrations of nitrate generally were greatest in agricultural and in industrial and commercial areas and can be attributed to the use of fertilizers on the land surface and other agricultural activities. Much of the industrial and commercial land use is in areas previously used for or related to mushroom production. Concentrations of chloride and sodium also were greatest in water from wells in agricultural and industrial and commercial areas, probably because of the use of fertilizer and road salt. Concentrations of nitrate, chloride, and sodium in water samples from wells in forested and residential land use did not differ statistically significantly from each other. The herbicides metolachlor and atrazine were the most frequently detected pesticides and were detected more frequently in agricultural areas than in areas with other land uses; their presence is related to their use in crop production. VOC's were detected infrequently and only in residential and industrial and commercial areas. The relation between ground-water quality and surface-water quality is assessed by comparing nitrate and chloride concentrations in the 1993 ground-water samples and 1993-94 base-flow samples. Base-flow samples were collected at eight stream sites in the headwaters of the West Branch of Red Clay Creek in 1994 and at two long-term stream-monito

  12. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 4. Historical surface-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico, 1965 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maest, Ann S.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; LoVetere, Sara H.

    2004-01-01

    Historical water-quality samples collected from the Red River over the past 35 years were compiled, reviewed for quality, and evaluated to determine influences on water quality over time. Hydrologic conditions in the Red River were found to have a major effect on water quality. The lowest sulfate concentrations were associated with the highest flow events, especially peak, rising limb, and falling limb conditions. The highest sulfate concentrations were associated with the early part of the rising limb of summer thunderstorm events and early snowmelt runoff, transient events that can be difficult to capture as part of planned sampling programs but were observed in some of the data. The first increase in flows in the spring, or during summer thunderstorm events, causes a flushing of sulfide oxidation products from scars and mine-disturbed areas to the Red River before being diluted by rising river waters. A trend of increasing sulfate concentrations and loads over long time periods also was noted at the Questa Ranger Station gage on the Red River, possibly related to mining activities, because the same trend is not apparent for concentrations upstream. This trend was only apparent when the dynamic events of snowmelt and summer rainstorms were eliminated and only low-flow concentrations were considered. An increase in sulfate concentrations and loads over time was not seen at locations upstream from the Molycorp, Inc., molybdenum mine and downstream from scar areas. Sulfate concentrations and loads and zinc concentrations downstream from the mine were uniformly higher, and alkalinity values were consistently lower, than those upstream from the mine, suggesting that additional sources of sulfate, zinc, and acidity enter the river in the vicinity of the mine. During storm events, alkalinity values decreased both upstream and downstream of the mine, indicating that natural sources, most likely scar areas, can cause short-term changes in the buffering capacity of the Red

  13. Review of Selected References and Data sets on Ambient Ground- and Surface-Water Quality in the Metedeconk River, Toms River, and Kettle Creek Basins, New Jersey, 1980-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert S.; Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    leach trace elements and release asbestos fibers from plumbing materials. Reported concentrations of nitrate, volatile organic compounds, trace elements, and pesticides in samples from the monitored mainstem and tributary streams within the study area generally are below maximum contaminant levels for drinking water or below detection limits. Results of studies in other areas indicate that pesticide concentrations in surface water could be considerably higher during high flows soon after the application of pesticides to crops than during low flows. Fecal coliform bacteria counts in streams vary considerably. Concentrations or counts of these classes of surface-water-quality constituents likely are functions of the intensity and type of upstream development. Results of limited monitoring for radionuclide concentrations reported by the Brick Township Municipal Utilities Authority of the Metedeconk River indicate that radionuclide concentrations or activities do not exceed maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. As a consequence of organic matter in surface water, the formati ultraviolet absorbance in samples from the Metedeconk River and the Toms River exceeded the alternative compliance criteria for source water (2.0 milligrams per liter for total organic carbon and 0.02 absorbance units-liters per milligram-centimeter for specific ultraviolet absorbance) with respect to treatment requirements for preventing elevated concentrations of disinfection by-products in treated water. Water-quality and treatment issues associated with use of ground and surface water for potable supply in the study area are related to human activities and naturally occurring factors. Additional monitoring and analysis of ground and surface water would be needed to determine conclusively the occurrence and distribution of some contaminants and the relative importance of various potential contaminant sources, transport and attenuation mechanisms, and transport pathways.

  14. Review of Selected References and Data sets on Ambient Ground- and Surface-Water Quality in the Metedeconk River, Toms River, and Kettle Creek Basins, New Jersey, 1980-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert S.; Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    leach trace elements and release asbestos fibers from plumbing materials. Reported concentrations of nitrate, volatile organic compounds, trace elements, and pesticides in samples from the monitored mainstem and tributary streams within the study area generally are below maximum contaminant levels for drinking water or below detection limits. Results of studies in other areas indicate that pesticide concentrations in surface water could be considerably higher during high flows soon after the application of pesticides to crops than during low flows. Fecal coliform bacteria counts in streams vary considerably. Concentrations or counts of these classes of surface-water-quality constituents likely are functions of the intensity and type of upstream development. Results of limited monitoring for radionuclide concentrations reported by the Brick Township Municipal Utilities Authority of the Metedeconk River indicate that radionuclide concentrations or activities do not exceed maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. As a consequence of organic matter in surface water, the formati ultraviolet absorbance in samples from the Metedeconk River and the Toms River exceeded the alternative compliance criteria for source water (2.0 milligrams per liter for total organic carbon and 0.02 absorbance units-liters per milligram-centimeter for specific ultraviolet absorbance) with respect to treatment requirements for preventing elevated concentrations of disinfection by-products in treated water. Water-quality and treatment issues associated with use of ground and surface water for potable supply in the study area are related to human activities and naturally occurring factors. Additional monitoring and analysis of ground and surface water would be needed to determine conclusively the occurrence and distribution of some contaminants and the relative importance of various potential contaminant sources, transport and attenuation mechanisms, and transport pathways.

  15. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; results of investigations through April 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin (10,949 square miles) was conducted during water years 1987-91. This assessment involved interpretation of available data; 4 years of intensive data collection, including monthly sample collection at eight fixed-monitoring stations in the basin; and synoptic studies of selected water-quality constituents at many sites. The number of exceedances of water-quality criteria for chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc in water was essentially the same at similar stations between 1978-86 and 1987-90. For water and sediment, a large signature for many trace inorganic constituents was observed from the Chicago metropolitan area, mainly from the Des Plaines River Basin and continuing down the Illinois River. Loads of trace inorganic constituents in water were 2-13 times greater from the Chicago metropolitan area than from rural areas in the upper Illinois River Basin. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc appeared to be relatively enriched in biota in the upper Illinois River Basin compared to other river basins. Biota from some urban sites were enriched with respect to several elements. For example, relatively large concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and nickel were observed in biota from sites in the Chicago River in the metropolitan area and the Calumet River. Results of pesticide sampling in 1988 and 1989 identified the pesticides bromacil, diazinon, malathion, prometon, and simazine as urban related and alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and metribuzin as agricultural related. Phenol concentrations never exceeded general-use and secondary-contact water-quality standards of 100 and 300 micrograms per liter, respectively. Pentachlorophenol concentrations observed at the Illinois River at Marseilles, Ill., between 1981 and 1992 decreased beginning in 1987. A breakdown product of the organochlorine pesticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), p

  16. Similaridade da qualidade das águas superficiais da bacia do Curu, Ceará Similarity of surface water quality at Curu watershed, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helba Araújo de Queiroz Palácio

    2009-12-01

    stations, spreading out along the rivers during four campaigns of collection (January, March, May and August of 2005, totalizing 28 samples. The water attributes analyzed were: pH, Ce, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, CO3-, HCO3-, SO4-, PO4(3-, NH4- and NO3-. Four homogeneous groups were identified. They were independent of their geographic position. They were identified expressing the influence of weather seasonality. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (RAS defined the dissimilarity of group 1 in relation to the others. The values of nitrate and phosphorus defined the similarity of group 2; while the Electric Conductivity (CE, RAS, sodium and chloride ions determined the non homogeneity between groups 3 and 4. Although the salinity level of water (CE>0,5d Sm-1 was not suitable to human consume, the Na+ and Cl- concentration do not present risks to human health. In relation to irrigation, only one group presented salinity risk from low to moderate, while SAR showed the same risk level for all groups.

  17. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum

  18. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned officers...

  19. Synthesis and interpretation of surface-water quality and aquatic biota data collected in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, 1979-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Rice, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    acidity. Long-term (20- and 30-year) trends in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) and pH may indicate some improvement (decreasing acidity), but short-term (5-year) trends suggest increasing acidity. The long-term increase in pH occurred park-wide, although the increases were minimal in watersheds having siliciclastic bedrock. The long-term increases in ANC were mostly limited to watersheds with basaltic bedrock. Trends in concentrations of stream-water sulfate, another constituent of atmospheric deposition, indicated long-term improvements (declines in concentration) in watersheds having basaltic bedrock, long-term increases in concentration in watersheds having granitic bedrock, but no trend in watersheds with siliciclastic bedrock. Park-wide increases in mean, median, and maximum water temperatures were detected over the last 20 years. The average annual increase in mean water temperature park-wide was 0.04 °C, which equates to about 1.2 °C over the last 30 years. Short-term trends generally coincided with long-term trends but were more variable. Water temperatures generally tracked air temperatures, and additional analyses of longer-term (greater than 80 years) regional air-temperature data showed that the most recent increases in air temperature are not unprecedented. Analysis of spatial patterns in water quality demonstrated that watersheds with higher mean elevations, lower land-surface gradients, and greater proportions of basaltic and carbonate geology are least affected by acidification and tend to be improving over time. Watersheds having greater proportions of siliciclastic and granitic geology, with smaller watershed areas and higher minimum watershed elevation tend to be affected by acidification and are experiencing continued degradation in water quality. There was no apparent spatial pattern in the water-temperature trends. Benthic macroinvertebrate community metrics were found to be highly correlated with geology and, to a lesser extent, watershed area

  20. Surface-water-quality conditions and relation to taste-and-odor occurrences in the Lake Olathe Watershed, Northeast Kansas, 2000-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, David P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Porter, Stephen D.; Pope, Larry M.

    2004-01-01

    Surface water in the Lake Olathe watershed, located in northeast Kansas, was sampled from June 2000 through December 2002 to characterize water-quality conditions in relation to physical properties, major ions, sediment, nutrients, selected trace elements, selected pesticides, fecal indicator bacteria, phytoplankton, and taste-and-odor compounds. In addition, two continuous real-time water-quality monitors were operated?one in Cedar Creek at Highway 56, the main tributary to Lake Olathe, and one in Lake Olathe, a supplemental domestic water supply and recreational resource for the city of Olathe. Median concentrations of dissolved and total forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in samples from Cedar Creek were larger than in samples from Lake Olathe, indicating that nutrients in the watershed were transported to Lake Olathe by Cedar Creek from June 2000 through December 2002. Increased concentrations of total phosphorus in samples from the hypolimnion of Lake Olathe compared to the epilimnion indicated that release of total phosphorus from bottom sediments occurred in the lake. Of the 50 pesticides analyzed in water samples from Cedar Creek and Lake Olathe, 10 pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than 0.01 microgram per liter in samples from Cedar Creek, and 9 pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than 0.01 microgram per liter in Lake Olathe, including four herbicides with concentrations exceeding 1.0 microgram per liter. Atrazine was detected at larger concentrations than any other pesticide in samples from both Cedar Creek and Lake Olathe during 2001 and 2002. Concentrations did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water annual average criterion of 3.0 micrograms per liter; however, concentrations in single samples were larger than 3.0 micrograms per liter. Regression analysis was used to assist in the estimation of sediment and chemical loads and yields. The estimated mean orthophosphate load for 2001 and 2002

  1. SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA DUMITRAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an increasingly important and why it is important to surfacewater quality, which is given by the analysis of physical - chemical, biological andobserving the investigation of water, biota, environments investigation. Analysis ofthe Prut river in terms of biological and physical elements - chemical. Evaluationof ecological and chemical status of water was done according to order of approvalof the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to determine the ecologicalstatus of water bodies

  2. SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental pollution derived from domestic and industrial activities. Due to the inadequacy of controlled waste management strategies and waste treatment plants ... Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved ... appropriate waste water purifying plants. ..... University of Turku, Finland. 2.

  3. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The monitoring data were collected for the multiple programmatic purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) and have been reported in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Annual Monitoring report presents only the results of the monitoring data evaluations required for waste management sites addressed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Regime. The Annual Monitoring Report also serves as a consolidated reference for the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained throughout the Bear Creek Regime under the auspices of the Y-12 GWPP. This report provides an evaluation of the CY 1996 monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater and surface water quality and long-term concentration trends of regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters.

  4. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  5. Advances in impacts of climate change on surface water quality%全球气候变化对地表水环境质量影响研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏星辉; 吴琼; 牟新利

    2012-01-01

    全球气候变化对水文循环有着重要的影响,由气候变化所引起水资源量的时空分布和水质变化等问题已成为各国科学家和政府关注的热点.目前,气候变化对水资源的影响研究多集中于水量,而有关水质方面的影响研究相对较少.全球气候变化主要包括降水,气温,辐射和风速等气象因子的变化.本文综述了温度的升高、降水的增多或减少、风速和风型的变化、光照时间长短以及辐射增强等变化对地表水环境质量影响的研究进展;阐述了气候变化背景下,气象因子如何通过影响水体中污染物的来源、迁移转化方式、生化反应速率和生态效应等过程而直接或间接对地表水环境质量产生影响.并在对现有研究成果进行总结分析的基础上,从微观、中观和宏观的角度提出了气候变化对水环境质量影响的研究展望.%Global climate change is having an impact on the water cycle. The spatial and temporal variation in water quantity and quality due to climate change has aroused great concerns among scientists and politicians all over the world. At present, most research activities concentrate on the assessment of climate change impacts on surface water quantity, and only few reports focuse on the water quality concern. Global climate change mainly includes changes in precipitation, temperature, radiation and wind speed. This paper reviews the research advances in the assessment of surface water quality due to the effects of rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, as well as the variation in wind-speed patterns, the radiation enhancement, and the changes in sunshine time. The paper demonstrates how changes in these climate parameters over time and space affect the surface water quality and environment. This is done through analyzing the direct and indirect influences of parameter variations on the water pollutant sources, migrations and transformations, as well

  6. Qualidade das águas superficiais e avaliação do estado trófico do Rio Arari (Ilha de Marajó, norte do Brasil Surface water's quality and trophic status assessment in the Arari River (Marajo Island, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Charles Castor Alves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A deterioração da qualidade da água pode ser causada tanto por resultado da pressão antrópica sobre os ambientes aquáticos em maiores escalas, como por fatores naturais em menores escalas, tal como ocorre em parte da bacia hidrográfica do Rio Arari (Ilha de Marajó, Pará. Este artigo teve como objetivo a avaliação da qualidade das águas superficiais e o estado trófico do Rio Arari, no trecho entre Santana e Cachoeira do Arari, considerando as variações temporais e espaciais de variáveis físicas, químicas e biológicas da água em dois períodos hidrológicos distintos de 2009: descarga máxima (abril e maio e descarga mínima (setembro e novembro. Os Índices de Qualidade da Água (IQA e Estado Trófico (IET foram determinados simultaneamente em amostras de água superficial durante 12 horas consecutivas nas três estações de coleta ao longo do Rio Arari. Os valores do IQA variaram entre "Ruim" e "Regular", e estão provavelmente relacionadas aos elevados níveis de coliformes fecais, baixas concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e pH ácido do Rio Arari. Conforme o IET, o rio pode ser classificado como supereutrófico e hipereutrófico, reflexo da grande disponibilidade de nutrientes (e.g. fósforo e elevada biomassa fitoplanctônica em termos de clorofila a. O Rio Arari está sob um processo de eutrofização natural, visto que as fontes de contaminação antrópica ainda são incipientes, mas elas podem contribuir para um processo de longo prazo de eutrofização artificial.The deterioration of the water quality may be caused either by the result of human pressure on aquatic environments in larger scales, or by natural factors in smaller scales, such as part of the Arari River basin (Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil .This work aimed to evaluate the surface water's quality and the trophic state of the Arari River, between Santana and Cachoeira do Arari localities, taking into account the seasonal and spatial variations

  7. Nueva metodología para valorar la calidad de las aguas superficiales para su uso como clase 2 en Costa Rica New methodology for evaluating the surface waters quality to be used as Class 2 in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo-Brenes

    2013-06-01

    de los indicados por nuestra legislación, lo cual hace inviable su uso en nuestro país. Fue necesario, por tanto, proponer nuevas fórmulas de cálculo para la determinación del SI que sean aplicables a Costa Rica y acordes con su legislación. Fue necesario también proponer una nueva categorización de la calidad del agua clase 2 que, además, se puede utilizar con cualquier índice que se desee evaluar.The surface water quality determination is based through the analysis of a fair amount of physic chemicals, microbiological and biological water quality variables, as well as water quality indexes. The Costa Rican regulation considers the use of two indexes: one based on benthic invertebrate analysis and the other on the Water Quality Holland Classification Index. The last one requires only three physic chemical variables that could generate some ambiguity and lack of strength in that index. It is therefore recommended not to discard the use of other indexes mentioned in the literature. Most of them require transforming the unit’s variable as dimensionless (SI in a 0-100 scale. For the SI calculation, the Cude, Nasiriam, Dinius, Prakash, Prati, Walski-Parker and Stoner formulas were used. The SI should show a 0-100 scale variation. As a rule, the more concentration of a variable, the more tendency to 0 of the SI, which it is expected to have a close relationship with Costa Rican regulations.  The objective of this research was to verify the aplicability of calculation formulas in order to obtain the SI and its posible aplication in our country, considering our own environment and regulations. All the analysis were focused on Class 2 mentioned in our national regulation. After the analysis of different formulas proposed by researchers, it was found that most of them were appropiate for their own environment but not for ours. Some are appropiate for different types of waters and their regulations are different for our country. It was necessary to propose new

  8. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing: Results of DBA and sodium formate additive tests at Southwestern Electric Power company`s Pirkey Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    Tests were conducted at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Henry W. Pirkey Station wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency. The Pirkey FGD system includes four absorber modules, each with dual slurry recirculation loops and with a perforated plate tray in the upper loop. The options tested involved the use of dibasic acid (DBA) or sodium formate as a performance additive. The effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was done to determine the cost effectiveness of the high-efficiency options. Results are-summarized below.

  9. 实验室信息管理系统在四川省跨界断面水质资金扣缴监测工作中的应用%Application of Laboratory Information Management System in Ecological Compensation Water Monitoring of Funds Withholding for Cross -section Surface Water Quality of Min and Tuo Rivers in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁朝旭

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the construction goal ,construction process and operation condition of laboratory information management system (LIMS) in ecological compensation water monitoring of funds withholding for cross -section surface water quality of Min and Tuo Rivers in Sichuan Province .On the basis of practice in the last two years ,it puts forward some suggestions for the construction of LIMS in environmental monitoring field .%介绍了四川省跨界断面水质资金扣缴工作环境监测实验室信息管理系统( LIMS)的构建目标、建设过程以及运行情况,在近两年的实际应用基础上,提出了实验室信息管理系统在环境监测领域建立的几点建议。

  10. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, along with the required data evaluations specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime. This report provides additional evaluation of the CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater contamination and long-term concentration trends for regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters.

  11. Evaluation of calendar year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Chesnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Chesnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chesnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chesnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chesnut Ridge bordered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) to the north, Scarboro Road to the east, Bethel Valley Road to the south, and an unnamed drainage basin southwest of the Y-12 Plant. Groundwater quality monitoring is performed at hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities in the regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The CY 1996 monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Chesnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, along with the required evaluations of applicable site-specific monitoring data (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1997a). This report provides additional evaluation of the CY 1996 data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater geochemistry and long-term concentration trends of regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters.

  12. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  13. Floating Vegetated Mats For Improving Surface Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of surface and ground waters is an environmental concern. Pollution from both point and nonpoint sources can render water unsuitable for use. Surface waters of concern include streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, canals, and wastewater lagoons. Lagooned wastewater from confined animal feedi...

  14. Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of surface, spring and borehole waters associated with the ophiolite rocks of Cyprus shows five broad water types (1 Mg-HCO3, (2 Na-SO4-Cl-HCO3, (3 Na-Ca-Cl-SO4-OH-CO3, (4 Na-Cl-SO4 and (5 Ca-SO4. The waters represent a progression in chemical reactivity from surface waters that evolve within a groundwater setting due to hydrolysis of the basic/ultrabasic rock as modified by CO2-weathering. An increase in salinity is also observed which is due to mixing with a saline end-member (modified sea-water and dissolution of gypsum/anhydrite. In some cases, the waters have pH values greater than 11. Such high values are associated with low temperature serpentinisation reactions. The system is a net sink for CO2. This feature is related not only to the hydrolysis of the primary minerals in the rock, but also to CaCO3 or Ca-Mg-CO3 solubility controls. Under hyperalkaline conditions, virtually all the carbon dioxide is lost from the water due to the sufficiently high calcium levels and carbonate buffering is then insignificant. Calcium sulphate solubility controls may also be operative when calcium and sulphate concentrations are particularly high. Keywords: Cyprus, Troodos, ophiolite, serpentinisation, spring, stream, water quality, bromide, iodine, boron, trace elements, hyperalkaline.

  15. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  16. Final EIS for the Proposed Homeporting of Additional Surface Ships at Naval Station, Mayport, FL. Volume 1. Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-21

    and the native population’s transition from nomadic, big game subsistence/settlement patterns to a more sedentary lifestyle residing along the...Dental Clinic, Chapel, Child Development Center, and NAVSTA Mayport Family Housing. Final EIS for the Proposed Homeporting of Additional Surface Ships...for the more coastal lifestyle (Brockington & Associates 1998, Hardy Heck Moore Inc. 2001). The Late Archaic sub-period underwent another climate

  17. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  18. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  19. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  20. 流域地表水体污染过程的时空差异及其影响机制分析:以温榆河中上游地区为例%Analysis of Seasonal Variations of Surface Water Quality in the Middle and Upper Reaches of Wenyu River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽蓉; 孙然好; 陈利顶

    2011-01-01

    以温榆河流域中上游地区作为研究区,通过2009年6~8月的地表水质监测,分析了水质的季节变化特征和空间差异.结果表明,温榆河上游与中游山前平原区的地表水体污染表现出明显不同的时空差异:①在温愉河上游山区,总氮、硝酸盐、氨氨及总有机碳在6~8月总体表现为先上升后下降的趋势,溶解氧及化学需氧量呈先下降后上升趋势;②在温榆河中游山前平原区,总氮、总磷、磷酸盐、化学需氧量从6~8月总体上星先下降后上升趋势,溶解氧浓度呈下降趋势;③温榆河从上游山区至中游山前平原区,地表水质自净化能力在降低,营养盐污染趋势在加强;④温榆河流域上游山区和中游山前平原区水体污染过程和形成机制存在差异.山区水体在污染过程上具有短历时特性,雨季洪峰地表径流将大量陆地非点源污染物携带进入水体,加剧了地表水体污染;山前平原区因存在不同类型的污染源.水体污染过程特征不明显,雨季洪峰径流在一定程度上对地表水体污染起到了稀释作用.本研究结果可以为水生态功能分区提供科学依据.%The middle and upper reaches of Wenyu River was chosen as a case study area, and the temp-spatial difference of surface water quality was systematically studied by water sampling from June to August of 2009. It was found that distinct seasonal variations was exhibited on surface water quality in the study area. In the mountain regions, TP, TN, NO3- -N, NH4+ -N and TOC concentration in the water increase from June to July, and then decline remarkably, whereas the DO and COD concentration in the water display an opposite pattern. However, in the piedmont plains of Wenyu River middle reaches, TN, TP, PO3-4 -P and COD concentration decrease sharply from June to July and then increase substantially in August, while DO concentration shows a decline tendency from June to August. Furthermore, from

  1. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  2. Cognitive Achievement and Motivation in Hands-on and Teacher-Centred Science Classes: Does an additional hands-on consolidation phase (concept mapping) optimise cognitive learning at work stations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Sabine; Bogner, Franz X.

    2010-05-01

    Our study monitored the cognitive and motivational effects within different educational instruction schemes: On the one hand, teacher-centred versus hands-on instruction; on the other hand, hands-on instruction with and without a knowledge consolidation phase (concept mapping). All the instructions dealt with the same content. For all participants, the hands-on approach as well as the concept mapping adaptation were totally new. Our hands-on approach followed instruction based on "learning at work stations". A total of 397 high-achieving fifth graders participated in our study. We used a pre-test, post-test, retention test design both to detect students' short-term learning success and long-term learning success, and to document their decrease rates of newly acquired knowledge. Additionally, we monitored intrinsic motivation. Although the teacher-centred approach provided higher short-term learning success, hands-on instruction resulted in relatively lower decrease rates. However, after six weeks, all students reached similar levels of newly acquired knowledge. Nevertheless, concept mapping as a knowledge consolidation phase positively affected short-term increase in knowledge. Regularly placed in instruction, it might increase long-term retention rates. Scores of interest, perceived competence and perceived choice were very high in all the instructional schemes.

  3. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  4. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  5. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  6. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  7. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  8. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  9. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  10. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  11. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  12. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  13. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  14. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  15. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  16. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    OCDS) ................................................... 077 BIRJAND 408090 8612 (OCDS) ............................................. ( 381 BUSHEHR...ALL HOURS # 2 1 0 1 0 # 0 # 1 # 1 1 CACECR-IB 080 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMM ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID...082. L@ OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SIJ44ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID: OIMB LOCATION: 32054’N, 59016’E ELEVATION (FEET): 4823 LST

  17. Integrating GIS, remote sensing and mathematical modelling for surface water quality management in irrigated watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azab, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The intensive uses of limited water resources, the growing population rates and the various increasing human activities put high and continuous stresses on these resources. Major problems affecting the water quality of rivers, streams and lakes may arise from inadequately treated sewage, poor land

  18. Spatio-temporal dynamics of surface water quality in a Portuguese peri-urban catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    Urban development poses great pressure on water resources, but the impact of different land-uses on streamwater quality in partly urbanized catchments is not well understood. Focussing on a Portuguese peri-urban catchment, this paper explores the impact of a mosaic of different urban and non-urban land-uses on streamwater quality, and the influence of a seasonal Mediterranean climate on pollutant dynamics. The catchment has a 40% urban cover, dispersed amongst patches of woodland (56%) and agricultural fields (4%). Apart from the catchment outlet, streamwater quality was assessed at three sub-catchment sites: (i) Porto Bordalo, encompassing a 39% urban area with a new major road; (ii) Espírito Santo, draining a sub-catchment with 49% urban cover, mostly comprising detached houses surrounded by gardens; and (iii) Quinta, with a 25% urban cover. The Porto Bordalo sub-catchment is underlain by limestone, whereas the Espírito Santo and Quinta sub-catchments overlie sandstone. Water quality variables (notably nutrients, heavy metals and COD) were assessed for samples collected at different stages in the storm hydrograph responses to ten rainfall events occurring between October 2011 and March 2013. Urban areas had great impacts on COD, with highest median concentrations in Espírito Santo (18.0 mg L-1) and lowest in Quinta (9.5 mgL-1). In Espírito Santo, the management of gardens triggered greatest median concentrations of N-NO3 (1.46 mgL-1, pwater quality dynamics. COD and nutrient variables (N-Nk, N-NH4, N-NO3 and P) attained highest concentrations after the summer. Low discharges led to high pollutant concentrations at baseflow of N-NH4 in ESAC and Porto Bordalo (up to 1.63 mgL-1 and 1.04 mgL-1, respectively). The first storm events after the summer led to flushing of accumulated pollutants to produce serious concentrations of N-Nk in Porto Bordalo (2.05 mgL-1) and Zn at ESAC and Porto Bordalo (up to 0.55 mgL-1 and 0.59 mgL-1, respectively), all recorded at peak flows. In wettest periods, greater flow connectivity over the hillslopes led to pollutant concentrations of N-Nk at ESAC, Espírito Santo and Quinta (up to 2.07 mgL-1, 2.54 mgL-1 and 2.83 mgL-1, respectively). Also high levels of Cu and Zn occurred at ESAC (1.74 mgL-1and 0.77 mgL-1) during the falling limb. Baseflow chemistry was influenced by bedrock, with highest median concentrations of Ca and Mg, lowest values of Na, and higher pH recorded in limestone (ppollutants, linked to urban patterns and storm drainage system, should help enable urban planners to minimize adverse impacts of urbanization on water quality.

  19. Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpla, I; Jung, A-V; Baures, E; Clement, M; Thomas, O

    2009-11-01

    Besides climate change impacts on water availability and hydrological risks, the consequences on water quality is just beginning to be studied. This review aims at proposing a synthesis of the most recent existing interdisciplinary literature on the topic. After a short presentation about the role of the main factors (warming and consequences of extreme events) explaining climate change effects on water quality, the focus will be on two main points. First, the impacts on water quality of resources (rivers and lakes) modifying parameters values (physico-chemical parameters, micropollutants and biological parameters) are considered. Then, the expected impacts on drinking water production and quality of supplied water are discussed. The main conclusion which can be drawn is that a degradation trend of drinking water quality in the context of climate change leads to an increase of at risk situations related to potential health impact.

  20. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of surface water quality of Pratapgarh district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    The hydrogeochemical study of surface water in Pratapgarh district has been carried out to assess the major ion chemistry and water quality for drinking and domestic purposes. For this purpose, twenty-five surface water samples were collected from river, ponds and canals and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, hardness, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), major anions (HCO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-) and dissolved silica concentration. The analytical results show mildly acidic to alkaline nature of surface water resources of Pratapgarh district. HCO3 - and Cl- are the dominant anions, while cation chemistry is dominated by Na+ and Ca2+. The statistical analysis and data plotted on the Piper diagram reveals that the surface water chemistry is mainly controlled by rock weathering with secondary contributions from agriculture and anthropogenic sources. Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 -, Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- and Na+-HCO3 --Cl- are the dominant hydrogeochemical facies in the surface water of the area. For quality assessment, values of analysed parameters were compared with Indian and WHO water quality standards, which shows that the concentrations of TDS, F-, NO3 -, Na+, Mg2+ and total hardness are exceeding the desirable limits in some water samples. Water Quality Index (WQI) is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of any water body. The computed WQI values of Pratapgarh district surface water range from 28 to 198 with an average value of 82, and more than half of the study area is under excellent to good category.

  1. Use of neural networks for monitoring surface water quality changes in a neotropical urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Oliveira Souza; Silva, Priscila Ferreira; Sabará, Millôr Godoy; da Costa, Esly Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports the using of neural networks for water quality analysis in a tropical urban stream before (2002) and after sewerage building and the completion of point-source control-based sanitation program (2003). Mathematical modeling divided water quality data in two categories: (a) input of some in situ water quality variables (temperature, pH, O2 concentration, O2 saturation and electrical conductivity) and (b) water chemical composition (N-NO2(-); N-NO3(-); N-NH4(+) Total-N; P-PO4(3-); K+; Ca2+; Mg+2; Cu2+; Zn2+ and Fe+3) as the output from tested models. Stream water data come from fortnightly sampling in five points along the Ipanema stream (Southeast Brazil, Minas Gerais state) plus two points downstream and upstream Ipanema discharge into Doce River. Once the best models are consistent with variables behavior we suggest that neural networking shows potential as a methodology to enhance guidelines for urban streams restoration, conservation and management.

  2. Multivariate statistical analysis for the surface water quality of the Luan River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-wei ZHAO; Fu-yi CUI

    2009-01-01

    In order to analyze the characteristics of surface water resource quality for the reconstruction of old water treatment plant, multivariate statistical techniques such as cluster analysis and factor analysis were applied to the data of Yuqiao Reservoir--surface water resource of the Luan River, China. The results of cluster analysis demonstrate that the months of one year were divided into 3 groups and the characteristic of clusters was agreed with the seasonal characteristics in North China. Three factors were derived from the complicated set using factor analysis. Factor 1 included turbidity and chlorophyll, which seemed to be related to the anthropogenic activities; factor 2 included alkaline and hardness, which were related to the natural characteristic of surface water; and factor 3 included Cl and NO-N affected by mineral and agricultural activities. The sinusoidal shape of the score plots of the three factors shows that the temporal variations caused by natural and human factors are linked to seasouality.

  3. Sampling design for compliance monitoring of surface water quality: A case study in a Polder area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Knotters, M.

    2008-01-01

    International agreements such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) ask for efficient sampling methods for monitoring natural resources. In this paper a general methodology for designing efficient, statistically sound monitoring schemes is described. An important decision is the choice between a

  4. Global surface water quality hotspots under climate change and anthropogenic developments

    OpenAIRE

    Van Vliet, M.; Yearsley, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, freshwater usage for various sectors (e.g. agriculture, industry, energy and domestic) has more than doubled. A growing global population will place further demands on water supplies, whereas the availability and quality of water resources will be affected by climate change and human impacts. These developments will increase imbalances between fresh water demand and supply in terms of both water quantity and water quality. Here we discuss a methodology to identify regi...

  5. A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeboonruang, Uma

    2012-06-30

    The release of wastewater from various land uses is threatening the quality of surface water. Different land uses pose varying degrees of danger to water resources. The hazardous extent of each activity depends on the amount and characteristics of the wastewater. The concept of the contamination potential index (CPI) of an activity is introduced and applied here. The index depends on the quantity of wastewater from a single source and on various chemicals in the waste whose concentrations are above allowable standards. The CPI concept and the land use impact assessment are applied to the surface water conditions in Nakhon Nayok Province in the central region of Thailand. The land uses considered in this study are residential area, industrial zone, in-season and off-season rice farming, and swine and poultry livestock. Multiple linear regression analysis determines the impact of the CPIs of these land uses on certain water quality characteristics, i.e., total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, phosphate, and chloride concentrations, using CPIs and previous water quality measurements. The models are further verified according to the current CPIs and measured concentrations. The results of the backward and forward modeling show that the land uses that affect water quality are off-season rice farming, raising poultry, and residential activity. They demonstrate that total dissolved solids and conductivity are reasonable parameters to apply in the land use assessment.

  6. Real time monitoring of urban surface water quality using a submersible, tryptophan-like fluorescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Kieran; Bradley, Chris; Hannah, David; Stevens, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Due to the recent development of field-deployable optical sensor technology, continuous quantification and characterization of surface water dissolved organic matter (DOM) is possible now. Tryptophan-like (T1) fluorescence has the potential to be a particularly useful indicator of human influence on water quality as T1 peaks are associated with the input of labial organic carbon (e.g. sewage or farm waste) and its microbial breakdown. Hence, real-time recording of T1 fluorescence could be particular useful for monitoring waste water infrastructure, treatment efficiency and the identification of contamination events at higher temporal resolution than available hitherto. However, an understanding of sensor measurement repeatability/transferability and interaction with environmental parameters (e.g. turbidity) is required. Here, to address this practical knowledge gap, we present results from a rigorous test of a commercially available submersible tryptophan fluorometer (λex 285, λem 350). Sensor performance was first examined in the laboratory by incrementally increasing turbidity under controlled conditions. Further to this the sensor was integrated into a multi-parameter sonde and field tests were undertaken involving: (i) a spatial sampling campaign across a range of surface water sites in the West Midlands, UK; and (ii) collection of high resolution (sub-hourly) samples from an urban stream (Bournbrook, Birmingham, U.K). To determine the ability of the sensor to capture spatiotemporal dynamics of urban waters DOM was characterized for each site or discrete time step using Excitation Emission Matrix spectroscopy and PARAFAC. In both field and laboratory settings fluorescence intensity was attenuated at high turbidity due to suspended particles increasing absorption and light scattering. For the spatial survey, instrument readings were compared to those obtained by a laboratory grade fluorometer (Varian Cary Eclipse) and a strong, linear relationship was apparent (R2 > 0.7). Parallel water sampling and laboratory analysis identified the potential for correction of T1 fluorescence intensity based on turbidity readings. These findings highlight the potential utility of real time monitoring of T1 fluorescence for a range of environmental applications (e.g. monitoring sewage treatment processes and tracing polluting DOM sources). However, if high/variable suspended sediment loads are anticipated concurrent monitoring of turbidity is required for accurate readings.

  7. Surface water quality evaluation and modeling of Ghataprabha River, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandara, B K; Varadarajan, N; Venkatesh, B; Choubey, V K

    2012-03-01

    Belgaum city is a developmental hub of Karnataka State in India. In the recent time, the Government of Karnataka has planned to set up many processing industries in the vicinity of Belgaum to meet the growing needs of the region and to ease out the pressure on the already existing industrial hubs in Karnataka State. Ghataprabha, a tributary of river Krishna, is one of the major sources of water supply to Belgaum city and adjoining areas. During the last decade, a lot of anthropogenic activities such as unplanned agricultural activities are ongoing in many parts of the catchment. Therefore, people of Belgaum are more concerned about the quality of water in Ghataprabha river. Considering the significance of water quality of the river, surface water samples were collected during Pre- and Post-monsoon season from selected locations and analyzed for both physical and chemical constituents in the laboratory. The results indicate that the chemical parameters such as bicarbonates, sulphates, chlorides, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium are within the permissible limits. QUAL2E model was applied to assess the impact of point and non-point sources of pollution on the river water quality. Results show that the water quality conditions are highly acceptable all along the river stretch. Further, the variation of DO-BOD(5) with river discharge was also estimated. Also, a significant variations in DO (decrease in DO) with the increase in river flow was observed. However, at the downstream end, considerable improvement in DO was noticed which is attributed to the damming effect of the reservoir.

  8. Influences of terrestrial determinants on the stability of surface water quality response to climate drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiping; Kahn, Afed; Wang, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Water quality mainly depends upon the terrestrial characteristics of landscape. The current study was conducted to unveil relationships between climate elasticity of water quality (CEWQ) and terrestrial determinants based on 13 monitoring sites from three typical watersheds of Yukon, Mekong and Murray. Anthropogenic biomes and surficial geological composition was computed at basin scale. It was found that the response pattern of (T, TN-UF) and (T, water temperature) are exclusively characterized by temperature. Temperature elasticity is variable in space as compared to precipitation elasticity. The results implied that anthropogenic biomes are stronger determinants as compared to surficial geology when analyzing their relationships with CEWQ. Some important association was found between CEWQ and anthropogenic biomes which includes: positive association of dense settlements with (P, NOX-F) and (P, P-F), positive linkage of croplands with (P, NOX-F) and (P, NH4-F), negative relationship of rangelands with (P, NOX-F) and (P, DOC), and negative linkage of rangelands with (T, P-UF) and (T, water temperature). Similarly some important association was found between CEWQ and surficial geology which includes: negative linkage of clay with (P, P-F) and negative relationships of gravel and clay with (T, P-UF). This indicates that dense settlements and croplands are the main factors influencing the stability of CEWQ, and limiting high flow volume during rain will be critical for enhancing water quality.

  9. Using integrated multivariate statistics to assess the hydrochemistry of surface water quality, Lake Taihu basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Mu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural factors and anthropogenic activities both contribute dissolved chemical loads to  lakes and streams.  Mineral solubility,  geomorphology of the drainage basin, source strengths and climate all contribute to concentrations and their variability. Urbanization and agriculture waste-water particularly lead to aquatic environmental degradation. Major contaminant sources and controls on water quality can be asssessed by analyzing the variability in proportions of major and minor solutes in water coupled to mutivariate statistical methods.   The demand for freshwater needed for increasing crop production puulation and industrialization occurs almost everywhere in in China and these conflicting needs have led to widespread water contamination. Because of heavy nutrient loadings from all of these sources, Lake Taihu (eastern China notably suffers periodic hyper-eutrophication and drinking water deterioration, which has led to shortages of freshwater for the City of Wuxi and other nearby cities. This lake, the third largest freshwater body in China, has historically beeen considered a cultural treasure of China, and has supported long-term fisheries. The is increasing pressure to remediate the present contamination which compromises both aquiculture and the prior economic base centered on tourism.  However, remediation cannot be effectively done without first characterizing the broad nature of the non-point source pollution. To this end, we investigated the hydrochemical setting of Lake Taihu to determine how different land use types influence the variability of surface water chemistry in different water sources to the lake. We found that waters broadly show wide variability ranging from  calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate hydrochemical facies type to mixed sodium-sulfate-chloride type. Principal components analysis produced three principal components that explained 78% of the variance in the water quality and reflect three major types of water chemistry. Agricultural land use is associated with greater concentrations of nutrients; urban areas with high concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, fluoride and potassium; and natural weathering with calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate. Discriminant analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis produce complementary and similar results. Broadly speaking, future remediation to reduce nutrient loadings to the lake or industrial contamination can now be focused on specific land use practices, which are readily identifiable by using statistics in conjunction with GIS.  

  10. Environmental protection management by monitoring the surface water quality in Semenic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana SÂMBOTIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Environment seems to have been the war against all. In fact recently most people polluted the environment and those few are cared for his cleaning. Today, the relationship evolvedas societies have changed in favour of ensuring environmental protection. With modern technology, performance, monitoring the environment becomes part of human activity ever more necessary, more possible and more efficient. The quality of the environment, its components: air, water, soil, plants, vegetable and animal products, is a condition "sine qua non" for the life of the modern man. The consequences of environmental pollution areso dangerous that modern man cannot afford considering them. Through this paper I will study the environmental quality by monitoring the surfaces waters from the Semenic- Gărâna area.

  11. Remote sensing of surface water quality in relation to catchment condition in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masocha, Mhosisi; Murwira, Amon; Magadza, Christopher H. D.; Hirji, Rafik; Dube, Timothy

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of river catchments is one of the most important contemporary environmental problems affecting water quality in tropical countries. In this study, we used remotely sensed Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess how catchment condition varies within and across river catchments in Zimbabwe. We then used non-linear regression to test whether catchment condition assessed using the NDVI is significantly (α = 0.05) related with levels of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) measured at different sampling points in thirty-two sub-catchments in Zimbabwe. The results showed a consistent negative curvilinear relationship between Landsat 8 derived NDVI and TSS measured across the catchments under study. In the drier catchments of the country, 98% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI, while in wetter catchments, 64% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI. Our results suggest that NDVI derived from free and readily available multispectral Landsat series data (Landsat 8) is a potential valuable tool for the rapid assessment of physical water quality in data poor catchments. Overall, the finding of this study underscores the usefulness of readily available satellite data for near-real time monitoring of the physical water quality at river catchment scale, especially in resource-constrained areas, such as the sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. FANN-Based Surface Water Quality Evaluation Model and Its Application in the Shaoguan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Meini; LI Dingfang; YANG Jinbo; XIONG Wei

    2007-01-01

    A fuzzy neural network model is proposed to evaluate water quality. The model contains two parts: first, fuzzy mathematics theory is used to standardize the samples; second, the RBF neural network and the BP neural network are used to train the standardized samples. The proposed model was applied to assess the water quality of 16 sections in 9 rivers in the Shaoguan area in 2005. The evaluation result was compared with that of the RBF neural network method and the reported results in the Shaoguan area in 2005. It indicated that the performance of the proposed fuzzy neural network model is practically feasible in the application of water quality assessment and its operation is simple.

  13. FERRY-BASED MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN NORTH CAROLINA ESTUARIES. (R828677C001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Porter, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and South Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. (USGS)

  15. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  16. Space station, 1959 to . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  17. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  18. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  19. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  20. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to se

  1. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  2. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  3. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  4. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  5. The Roman stational liturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mieczkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The papal stational liturgy in Rome was a particular kind of worship service from the Christian Antiquity to the XIV century. Its essential elements are four. Its always took place under the leadership of the pope or his representative. This form of liturgy was mobile: it was celebrated in different basilicas or churches of Rome. Third, the choice of church depended on the feast, liturgical seasons or commemoration being celebrated. Fourth, the stational liturgy was the urban liturgical celebration of the day. The highpoint of this system was Lent. Throughout the entire system Church of Rome manifested its own unity. The station was usually the Pope’s solemn mass in the stational church for the whole city. But on certain days in the year the Pope went in another church (collecta, from which a solemn procession was made to the stational church.

  6. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  7. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  8. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  9. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  10. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  11. Additivity dominance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  12. Sulfite Additives

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The CMA recommends that sulfites be banned as food preservatives when satisfactory and safe alternatives are available. When there is no suitable substitute strict labelling requirements on foods should be imposed for sulfite additives. The association supports the efforts of the Health Protection Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare to regulate sulfites in the food and drug industry to prevent adverse reactions in people sensitive to sulfites. The CMA recommends that the D...

  13. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  14. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  15. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  16. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  17. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  18. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  19. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  20. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  1. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  2. Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  3. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  4. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  5. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  6. Space Station Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  7. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  8. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  9. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  10. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  11. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  12. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  13. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  14. LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-11-01

    LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore.

  15. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  16. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  17. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  18. OMV servicing missions from Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Wright, Jerome L.; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will provide a means of bringing large observatories to the Space Station for servicing and redeployment to their operating altitudes. However, there are many constraints which must be met in mission planning. The missions must be designed so that propellant consumption is within the usable allowance, but contingency operations can still be accomplished. The vehicle was designed specifically to accommodate such missions, with emphasis upon servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. The OMV has been designed for operations from the Shuttle Orbiter and the Space Station. It will readily accommodate basing at the Space Station and executing observatory retrieval and redeployment missions. Mission profiles have been designed which allow retrieval with contingency hold before descent, and which allow contingency return of the observatory if it fails to reactivate properly. This capability will be a major addition to the Space Transportation System and will increase the utility of the Space Station.

  19. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  20. The Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, R.; Hieatt, J.

    1984-11-01

    The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term experiments, as a base for planetary missions asembly, launch, and retrieval, and for loading and launching multiple satellites on an orbital transfer vehicle. Materials processing research will be carried out in the Station, as will various scientific and commercial remote sensing activities. The first operational version (1990) will require four Shuttle launches to reach an assembled mass of 70,000 kg drawing 30 kWe from solar panels and housing a crew of five. By the year 2000 the station will support 10-12 crew members in five habitat modules, will be 31 m long, will have cost $18-20 billion, and will be returning $2 billion per year. The station will be periodically reboosted to higher orbits that decay suficiently for orbiter rendezvous for supplies and assignments.

  1. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  3. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  4. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, Trinity River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1997-02-01

    Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 76 gaging stations; and data for 15 partial-record stations comprised of 9 flood-hydrograph, 3 low-flow, and 3 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  5. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 2. San Jacinto River basin, Brazos River basin, San Bernard River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1997-02-01

    Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 74 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 41 gaging stations; and data for 44 partial-record stations comprised of 18 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, and 16 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  6. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...

  7. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  8. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  10. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  11. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  12. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. From city’s station to station city: an integrative spatial approach to the (re)development of station areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Conceição, A.

    2015-01-01

    The spaces of station areas do not fully achieve the liveability level sought out by recent redevelopment projects. Additionally, the role that architecture plays in their spatial definition seems to be constrained, likely because of the projects’ highly complex interdisciplinary planning processes.

  14. Technical Design Report, Second Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bechtol, D. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Bethea, Katie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Carden, W. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chae, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, A. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Counce, Deborah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Craft, K. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Richard M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curry, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayton, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dean, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dye, T. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Eason, Bob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckroth, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fincrock, C. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Fritts, S. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gawne, Ken R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hess, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Horak, Charlie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Lorelei L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Larry C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, B. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Johnson, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Laughon, Gregory J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Kelly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Michilini, M. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Middendorf, Mark E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Neal, Ed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nemec, B. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Peters, Roy Cecil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reagan, G. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rennich, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saethre, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schubert, James Phillip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, C. Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strong, William Herb [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tallant, Kathie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tennant, David Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibadeau, Barbara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trumble, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Trotter, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Webb, Steven B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Derrick C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, Karen S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jinkui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Second Target Station (STS) is a proposed upgrade for SNS. It includes a doubling of the accelerator power and an additional instrument hall. The new instrument hall will receive a 467 kW 10 Hz beam. The parameters and preliminary design aspects of the STS are presented for the accelerator, target systems, instrument hall, instruments and civil construction aspects.

  15. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  16. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  17. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  18. Mesocarnivore Photo Stations [ds26

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This database was established to record furbearer and raptor presence through photographs taken at camera stations. The general study area where camera stations were...

  19. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  20. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  1. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  2. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    265 MEXICO - Acapulco 768056 8403 ................................ 267 Campeche 766950 8403................271 Chetumal 767500...0 0 1 # # I I # or I OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 1CAO ID: NILC LOCATION: 18030’N, 88*18’W...0 0 0 0 0 0 # ALL HOURS I # # 1 # # # # # # 1 1 ]% OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY SUPPLEMENT STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 ICAO ID

  3. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  4. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  5. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  6. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  7. Compressor station layout considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; Ohanian, Sebouh; Lubomirsky, Matt [Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses issues that influence the decision on the arrangement of compressors and the type of equipment in gas pipeline compressor stations. Different concepts such as multiple small units versus single large units are considered, both regarding their impact on the individual station and the overall pipeline. The necessity of standby units is discussed. Various concepts for drivers (gas turbine, gas motor and electric motor) and compressors (centrifugal and reciprocating) are analyzed. The importance of considering all possible operating conditions is stressed. With the wide range of possible operating conditions for the pipeline in mind, the discussion is brought into the general context of operational flexibility, availability, reliability, installation issues, remote control, and operability of gas turbine driven centrifugal compressors compared to other solutions such as electric motor driven compressors or gas engine driven reciprocating compressors. The impact of different concepts on emissions and fuel cost is discussed. Among the assumptions in this paper are the performance characteristics of the compressor. This paper outlines how these performance characteristics influence the conclusions. (author)

  8. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  9. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  10. Application for the Tape Station

    CERN Document Server

    Solero, A

    2003-01-01

    The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

  11. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  12. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  13. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  14. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  15. Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality : from field-scale processes to catchment-scale monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838403

    2010-01-01

    Clean water is essential for our existence on earth. In areas with intensive agricultural land use, such as The Netherlands, groundwater and surface water resources are threatened. The leaching of agrochemicals from agricultural fields leads to contamination of drinking water resources and toxic

  16. Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality : from field-scale processes to catchment-scale monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Clean water is essential for our existence on earth. In areas with intensive agricultural land use, such as The Netherlands, groundwater and surface water resources are threatened. The leaching of agrochemicals from agricultural fields leads to contamination of drinking water resources and toxic alg

  17. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the five heavy metals, the risk coefficient of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni had light levels of contamination while the level of Cd contamination posed the most serious potential ecological risk, with an index value between 14.1 and 234. The study concluded that order of magnitude to this five heavy metals contamination is Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni.

  18. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Increasing human pressures on the natural environment through the demand for increased agricultural productivity have exacerbated and deteriorated water quality conditions within many environments due to an unbalancing of the nutrient cycle. As a consequence, increased agricultural diffuse water pollution has resulted in elevated concentrations of nutrients within surface water and groundwater bodies. This deterioration in water quality has direct consequences for the health of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity, human health, and the use of water as a resource for public water supply and recreation. To mitigate these potential impacts and to meet commitments under the EU Drinking Water and Water Framework Directives, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impacts that agricultural land use and management practices have on water quality. Water quality models are one of the tools available which can be used to facilitate this aim. These simplified representations of the physical environment allow a variety of changes to be simulated within a catchment, including for example changes in agricultural land use and management practices, allowing for predictions of the impacts of those measures on water quality to be developed and an assessment to be made of their effectiveness in improving conditions. The aim of this research is to apply the water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to the Wensum catchment (area 650 km2), situated in the East of England, to predict the impacts of potential changes in land use and land management practices on water quality as part of a process to select those measures that in combination will have the greatest potential to improve water quality. Model calibration and validation is conducted at three sites within the catchment against observations of river discharge and nitrate and total phosphorus loads at a monthly time-step using the optimisation algorithm SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Version 2) within the program SWAT-CUP (SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Programs). Model performance is assessed against a variety of statistical measures including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) and percentage bias (PBIAS). Various mitigation scenarios are modelled within the catchment, including changes in fertiliser application rates and timing and the introduction of different tillage techniques and cover-crop regimes. The effects of the applied measures on water quality are examined and recommendations made on which measures have the greatest potential to be applied within the catchment to improve water quality. This study reports the findings of that analysis and presents techniques by which diffuse agricultural pollution can be reduced within catchments through the implementation of multiple on-farm measures. The methodology presented has the potential to be applied within other catchments, allowing tailored mitigation strategies to be developed. Ultimately, this research provides 'tested' mitigation options that can be applied within the Wensum and similar catchments to improve water quality and to ensure that certain obligatory water quality standards are achieved.

  19. Multivariate analysis of surface water quality in the Three Gorges area of China and implications for water management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhao; Guo Fu; Kun Lei; Yanwu Li

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques,cluster analysis,non-parametric tests,and factor analysis were applied to analyze a water quality dataset including 13 parameters at 37 sites of the Three Gorges area,China,from 2003-2008 to investigate spatio-temporal variations and identify potential pollution sources.Using cluster analysis,the twelve months of the year were classified into three periods of lowflow (LF),normal-flow (NF),and high-flow (HF); and the 37 monitoring sites were divided into low pollution (LP),moderate pollution (MP),and high pollution (HP).Dissolved oxygen (DO),potassium permanganate index (CODMn),and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+-N)were identified as significant variables affecting temporal and spatial variations by non-parametric tests.Factor analysis identified that the major pollutants in the HP region were organic matters and nutrients during NF,heavy metals during LF,and petroleum during HF.In the MP region,the identified pollutants primarily included organic matter and heavy metals year-around,while in the LP region,organic pollution was significant during both NF and HF,and nutrient and heavy metal levels were high during both LF and HF.The main sources of pollution came from domestic wastewater and agricultural activities and runoff; however,they contributed differently to each region in regards to pollution levels.For the HP region,inputs from wastewater treatment plants were significant; but for MP and LP regions,water pollution was more likely from the combined effects of agriculture,domestic wastewater,and chemical industry.These results provide fundamental information for developing better water pollution control strategies for the Three Gorges area.

  20. Irrigation system and land use effect on surface water quality in river, at lake Dianchi, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Tanaka; Takahiro Sato; Kazuo Watanabe; Ying Wang; Dan Yang; Hiromo Inoue; Kunzhi Li

    2013-01-01

    The surface water samples were collected in river Dahe and its tributaries,which flow into severely eutrophic lake Dianchi,Yunnan Province,China,in order to elucidate factors controlling water quality fluctuations.The temporal and spatial distribution of water quality tendency was observed.The water quality of each river is dependent on the hydrology effect such water gate and circulating irrigation system.We must consider the hydrology effect to accurately understand water quality variations of river in this study field.In river without highly circulating irrigation system or water gate effect,the downstream nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration increase occurred in area dominated by open field cultivation,whereas the NO3-N concentration was constant or decreased in area dominated by greenhouse land use.This result suggests that greenhouse covers the soil from precipitation,and nitrate load of greenhouse could be less than that of open field cultivation while the rainfall event.In the upper reaches of river,where is dominated by open field cultivation,there were no sharp increase dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus concentration,but P load was accumulated in the lower reaches of river,whose predominant land use is greenhouse.Although the P sources is unclear in this study,greenhouse area may have potential of P loads due to its high P content in greenhouse soil.Considering hydrology effect is necessary to determine what the major factor is influencing the water quality variation,especially in area with highly complicated irrigation system in this studying site.

  1. Effects of impervious cover on the surface water quality and aquatic ecosystem of the Kyeongan stream in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum-Yeon; Park, Shin-Jeong; Paule, Ma Cristina; Jun, Woosong; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2012-08-01

    The extent of impervious cover in a watershed has been linked to the quality of an urban aquatic environment. The Kyeongan watershed in South Korea was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the total impervious area (TIA) and the aquatic ecosystem of the watershed, including water quality and aquatic life using a relatively high-resolution (0.4 m) image. The TIA was found to be approximately 12% of the watershed, which indicates that the quality of its environment was being adversely affected by it. For water quality, Pearson correlation analyses showed that all water quality parameters studied were found to be positively correlated with TIA at p water quality. Some water quality parameters, such as nitrite (NO2-), total phosphorus, and phosphate (PO4(3-)) were highly affected by discharges from wastewater treatment plants. Water quality data suggest that TIA could be used to predict the water quality of streams. For ecological parameters, the diatom index for organic pollution and trophic diatom index were found to be highly correlated with TIA, whereas physical habitat and benthic macroinvertebrates were poorly correlated with TIA. However, the results indicate that the extent of impervious cover can be a useful indicator for predicting the status of specific ecosystem of streams.

  2. Surface Water Quality Assessment of Wular Lake, A Ramsar Site in Kashmir Himalaya, Using Discriminant Analysis and WQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Aijaz Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate techniques, discriminant analysis, and WQI were applied to analyze a water quality data set including 27 parameters at 5 sites of the Lake Wular in Kashmir Himalaya from 2011 to 2013 to investigate spatiotemporal variations and identify potential pollution sources. Spatial and temporal variations in water quality parameters were evaluated through stepwise discriminant analysis (DA. The first spatial discriminant function (DF accounted for 76.5% of the total spatial variance, and the second DF accounted for 19.1%. The mean values of water temperature, EC, total-N, K, and silicate showed a strong contribution to discriminate the five sampling sites. The mean concentration of NO2-N, total-N, and sulphate showed a strong contribution to discriminate the four sampling seasons and accounted for most of the expected seasonal variations. The order of major cations and anions was Ca2+>Mg2+> Na+>K+ and Cl->SO42->SiO22- respectively. The results of water quality index, employing thirteen core parameters vital for drinking water purposes, showed values of 49.2, 46.5, 47.3, 40.6, and 37.1 for sites I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively. These index values reflect that the water of lake is in good condition for different purposes but increased values alarm us about future repercussions.

  3. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  4. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  5. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  6. Solar-Assisted Electric Vehicle Charging Station Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Durfee, Norman [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Overbey, Randall M [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been awarded $6.8 million in the Department of Energy (DOE) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds as part of an overall $114.8 million ECOtality grant with matching funds from regional partners to install 125 solar-assisted Electric Vehicle (EV) charging stations across Knoxville, Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis. Significant progress has been made toward completing the scope with the installation of 25 solar-assisted charging stations at ORNL; six stations at Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and 27 stations at Nissan's Smyrna and Franklin sites, with three more stations under construction at Nissan's new lithium-ion battery plant. Additionally, the procurement process for contracting the installation of 34 stations at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), and Nashville sites is underway with completion of installation scheduled for early 2012. Progress is also being made on finalizing sites and beginning installations of 30 stations in Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis by EPRI and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The solar-assisted EV charging station project has made great strides in fiscal year 2011. A total of 58 solar-assisted EV parking spaces have been commissioned in East and Middle Tennessee, and progress on installing the remaining 67 spaces is well underway. The contract for the 34 stations planned for Knoxville, UTK, and Nashville should be underway in October with completion scheduled for the end of March 2012; the remaining three Nissan stations are under construction and scheduled to be complete in November; and the EPRI/TVA stations for Chattanooga, Vanderbilt, and Memphis are underway and should be complete by the end of March 2012. As additional Nissan LEAFs are being delivered, usage of the charging stations has increased substantially. The project is on course to complete all 125 solar-assisted EV charging stations in time to collect meaningful data

  7. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  8. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  9. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  10. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  11. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  12. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  13. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  14. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kurz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  15. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  16. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  17. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-utility stations. 80.107 Section 80.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  18. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  19. 75 FR 67784 - STP Nuclear Operating Company South Texas Project Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Groundwater Impacts Installation of the CFRWs would have insignificant impacts on groundwater flow and surface... a gap between the bottom of the CFRWs and the top of the Shallow Aquifer, groundwater flow would not... surface water quality. BMPs would be ] described in a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) that...

  20. Cooperative Proxy Caching for Wireless Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mobile cache model to facilitate the cooperative proxy caching in wireless base stations. This mobile cache model uses a network cache line to record the caching state information about a web document for effective data search and cache space management. Based on the proposed mobile cache model, a P2P cooperative proxy caching scheme is proposed to use a self-configured and self-managed virtual proxy graph (VPG, independent of the underlying wireless network structure and adaptive to the network and geographic environment changes, to achieve efficient data search, data cache and date replication. Based on demand, the aggregate effect of data caching, searching and replicating actions by individual proxy servers automatically migrates the cached web documents closer to the interested clients. In addition, a cache line migration (CLM strategy is proposed to flow and replicate the heads of network cache lines of web documents associated with a moving mobile host to the new base station during the mobile host handoff. These replicated cache line heads provide direct links to the cached web documents accessed by the moving mobile hosts in the previous base station, thus improving the mobile web caching performance. Performance studies have shown that the proposed P2P cooperative proxy caching schemes significantly outperform existing caching schemes.

  1. Space Station Science Supported by Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Curreri, Peter A.; Smith, Tommy R.

    2003-01-01

    The science program at Marshall Space Flight Center will be reviewed in the context of the overall NASA science program. An overview will be given on how Marshall science supports the International Space Station research program. The Microgravity research capabilities at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall civil service and contractor scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in New Initiative Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. The specific scientific instruments that have been developed for Materials Science and Biotechnology Research on the International Space Station will be discussed.

  2. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  3. Effect of Surface Geology on Ground Motions: The Case of Station TAP056 - Chutzuhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Wen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Tatun mountain area of northern Taiwan are two strong motion stations approximately 2.5 km apart, TAP056 and TAP066 of the TSMIP network. The accelerometer at station TAP056 is often triggered by earthquakes, but that at TAP066 station is not. Comparisons of vertical and horizontal peak ground accelerations reveal PGA in the vertical, east-west, and north-south components at TAP056 station to be 3.89, 7.57, and 5.45 times those at station TAP066, respectively. The PGA ratio does not seem to be related to earthquake source or path. Fourier spectra of earthquake records at station TAP056 always have approximately the same dominant frequency; however, those at station TAP066 are different due to different sources and paths of different events. This shows that spectra at TAP056 station are mainly controlled by local site effects. The spectral ratios of TAP056/TAP066 show the S-wave is amplified at around 8 ~ 10 Hz. The horizontal/vertical spectral ratios of station TAP056 also show a dominant frequency at about 6 and 8 ~ 10 Hz. After dense microtremor surveying and the addition of one accelerometer just 20 meters away from the original observation station, we can confirm that the top soft soil layer upon which the observation station is constructed generates the local site response at station TAP056.

  4. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  5. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  6. 47 CFR 78.69 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice was given. (v) Date and time notice was given to the Flight Service Station (Federal Aviation... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.69 Station records. Each licensee of a CARS station shall... time of the beginning and end of each period of transmission of each channel; (b) For all stations,...

  7. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  8. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation (Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation (Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  9. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  10. ERTS-1 DCS technical support provided by Wallops Station. [ground truth stations and DCP repair depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.

    1975-01-01

    Wallops Station accepted the tasks of providing ground truth to several ERTS investigators, operating a DCP repair depot, designing and building an airborne DCP Data Acquisition System, and providing aircraft underflight support for several other investigators. Additionally, the data bank is generally available for use by ERTS and other investigators that have a scientific interest in data pertaining to the Chesapeake Bay area. Working with DCS has provided a means of evaluating the system as a data collection device possibly applicable to ongoing Earth Resources Program activities in the Chesapeake Bay area as well as providing useful data and services to other ERTS investigators. The two areas of technical support provided by Wallops, ground truth stations and repair for DCPs, are briefly discussed.

  11. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  12. 77 FR 16175 - Station Blackout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency ac power system). Station blackout does not... plant achieves safe shutdown by relying on components that are not ac powered, such as turbine- or..., or seismic activity and that preexisting licensing requirements specified sufficient...

  13. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  14. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  15. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  16. Barrow Meteoroloigcal Station (BMET) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2004-11-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data.

  17. OMV Deployed From Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), at right, prepares to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope after being deployed from an early Space Station configuration (left). As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  18. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  19. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.

    1993-01-01

    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  20. Power Factor Improvement for Pumping Stations using Capacitor Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, M. M.; Abd El-gawad, Amal F.; Ramadan, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems affects the performance of pumping stations is its relative high operational cost. As three-phase induction motors are the main prime mover of pumping stations and considered the most widely used electrical motors due to their reliability, ease of maintenance. However, its major problem is the low power factor which results in high electric energy consumption. Energy will be saved when power factor is improved. The main objective of this paper is studying the power factor improvement in El sadaa Pumping Station because of its low operating efficiency which goes from 20 % to 25 %and calculating penalty, ponus and savings in each cases. The correction is achieved by the addition of capacitor banks in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied to the starter, applied at the switchboard or the distribution panel. A model of this station is created using MatlabTM Simulink. Then the determination of induction motor parameters is performed. The station model is discussed. From the simulation results, the power factor enhancement of the pumping station is highlighted.

  1. A method of time transfer between remote stations via LRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Evan; Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; McGarry, Jan F.; Mao, Dandan

    2014-05-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is a standard geodetic technique that uses the round trip time of light from a ground station to a satellite to determine distance. When combined with a spacecraft detector and timing system, this technique can also be used to transfer time between ground stations, demonstrated by the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) project by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiaes (CNES) and Observatorire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) as well as the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project by the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. We describe an additional method of time transfer using simultaneous one-way laser ranging (LR) by two or more ground stations to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). A one way ranging is necessary, as two way ranging via retroreflectors for time transfer becomes impractical at lunar distances. The method will utilize the one-way LR currently being performed as a part of the LRO mission, allowing time transfer to be a by-product of the conventional usage of the data. Each ground station is referenced to a Master Clock using a multifrequency all-view GPS receiver at both the ground station and Master Clock locations.The Master Clock is located close enough to the ground station to make ionospheric differences in signal path negligible. Two or more stations range to LRO at the same time and their times of arrival are compared. Results from a ground-based experiment are shown, with sub-nanosecond precision shown to be achievable. Ultimately this measurement will provide a more precise and accurate relation of timing standards between stations, leading to a marked improvement in orbit determination.

  2. Principal facts for about 16,000 gravity stations in the Nevada test site and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. N.; Ponce, D. A.; Oliver, H. W.; Healey, D. L.

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity includes portions of the Goldfield, Caliente, Death Valley, and Las Vegas. This report documents and consolidates previously published and recently compiled gravity data to establish a gravity data base of about 16,000 stations for the NTS and vicinity. While compiling data sets, redundant stations and stations having doubtful locations or gravity values were excluded. Details of compiling the gravity data sets are discussed in later sections. Where feasible, an accuracy code has been assigned to each station so that the accuracy or reliability of each station can be evaluated. This data base was used in preparing complete Bouguer and isostatic gravity maps of the NTS and vicinity. Since publication of the complete Bouguer gravity map, additional data were incorporated into the isostatic gravity map. Gravity data were compiled from five sources: 14,183 stations from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 326 stations from Exploration Data Consultants (EDCON) of Denver, Colorado, 906 stations from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), 212 stations from the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD), and 48 stations from the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). This investigation is an effort to study several areas for potential storage of high-level radioactive waste. Gravity stations established under YMP are shown. The objective of this gravity survey was to explore for the presence of plutons.

  3. Efficient 3-D Placement of an Aerial Base Station in Next Generation Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yaliniz, R. Irem Bor; El-Keyi, Amr; Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    2016-01-01

    Agility and resilience requirements of future cellular networks may not be fully satisfied by terrestrial base stations in cases of unexpected or temporary events. A promising solution is assisting the cellular network via low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with base stations, i.e., drone-cells. Although drone-cells provide a quick deployment opportunity as aerial base stations, efficient placement becomes one of the key issues. In addition to mobility of the drone-cells in the ve...

  4. Fuel efficiency, availability and compressor station configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubomirsky, Matt; Kurz, Rainer [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Klimov, Pavel [Intergas Central Asia, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2009-12-19

    Compressor stations play a very important role in the success of a gas pipeline design and a careful selection of centrifugal compressors and drivers are key aspects for the success of the project. The state of the art design available today for this equipment provides overall high thermodynamic performance and consequently minimizes installed power requirements and energy usage with significant savings on operating expenses during the economic life of the project For any application of machinery in a pipeline compression station, one of the key questions to answer is the number of units to install to meet the flow requirements of the pipeline. Depending on the load profile of the pipeline, the answers may look different. Other factors to consider include the fact that gas turbines can produce a significant amount of additional power at lower ambient temperatures. So, even for constant load of the pipeline, the relative load of the driver changes. In this paper, a typical transcontinental pipeline with multiple compressor stations is evaluated. The determination of the exact hydraulic behavior of the pipeline is part of the modeling effort. The site ambient conditions, with a significant swing in ambient temperatures are considered. The issue discussed in this paper evolves around the availability that can be achieved with various configurations, based on actually achieved reliability and availability numbers. The other large impact on operating costs, fuel consumption will be discussed. Here, the choice of the number of installed units has a distinct impact on annual fuel consumption, as well as the capacity of the pipeline during various scenarios. (author)

  5. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afeni

    using total station start with staffing and budget, in addition to systems design and ... different survey methods and equipment) have great influence in selection of .... If the point is not too high for a hydraulic water hose to reach, the prism can be .... decisions and design changes with supporting evidence (i.e. planned versus ...

  6. Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. Permanent presence - Making it work; Proceedings of the Twenty-second Goddard Memorial Symposium, Greenbelt, MD, March 15, 16, 1984. [role of future Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, I. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: electrophoresis operations in space for pharmaceutical processing; Space Station program operations; and Space Station platform configurations. Consideration is also given to: the human role in future space systems; EVA operations; spherical shell applications; and a container material for alloy processing in near-zero gravity. Among additional topics discussed are: Space Station platform thermal control; environmental control and life support for an evolving capability manned Space Station; and the commercial prospects of the Space Station.

  8. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  9. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    Art (Publication due in 2012)). But it seems to differ noticeable from the ideologically driven concept(s) of the 20th century avant-garde. The paper will suggest that we in experiments with openness and structure, with an ambivalent engagement in popular culture and everyday life, and complex double......This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... carries the same meaning and function in a contemporary culture. Utopia Station unfolded over a long period of time, starting with different gatherings in 2002, continuing with diverse ‘stations’ at the Venice Biennial (2003), Haus der Kunst in Munich (2004), and the World Social Forum in Porte Alegre...

  10. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  11. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  12. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    1 ARUBA Reina Beatrix 789820 Dec 86 (OCDS) --....................................... 5 ARGENTINA Buenos Alres/Ezeiza 875760 Apr 89 (CB...74 Oruro/Mendoza 852420 Feb 87 (OCDS) ...................................... 78 Potosi/ Rojas 852930 Feb 87 (OCDS...F 0 0 0 f 21-23 LST 0 0 0 0 # 0 F 1 0 0 0 F ALL HOURS # f F 0 0 # 0 F F 0 0 0 F 004 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: REINA BEATRIX INTL

  13. Space station particulate contamination environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.; Clifton, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of particulate contamination on the Space Station will mostly be from pre-launch operations. The adherence and subsequent release of these particles during space flight are discussed. Particle size, release velocity, and release direction are important in determining particle behavior in the vicinity of the vehicle. The particulate environment at the principal science instrument locations is compared to the space shuttle bay environment. Recommendations for possibly decreasing the particulate contamination are presented.

  14. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  15. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,422 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  16. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,313 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1989 and June 30, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  17. Space Station Systems: a Bibliography with Indexes (Supplement 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 950 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  18. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,158 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1988 and June 30, 1988. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  19. Preserving spatial linear correlations between neighboring stations in simulating daily precipitation using extended Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababaei, Behnam; Sohrabi, Teymour; Mirzaei, Farhad

    2014-10-01

    Most stochastic weather generators have their focus on precipitation because it is the most important variable affecting environmental processes. One of the methods to reproduce the precipitation occurrence time series is to use a Markov process. But, in addition to the simulation of short-term autocorrelations in one station, it is sometimes important to preserve the spatial linear correlations (SLC) between neighboring stations as well. In this research, an extension of one-site Markov models was proposed to preserve the SLC between neighboring stations. Qazvin station was utilized as the reference station and Takestan (TK), Magsal, Nirougah, and Taleghan stations were used as the target stations. The performances of different models were assessed in relation to the simulation of dry and wet spells and short-term dependencies in precipitation time series. The results revealed that in TK station, a Markov model with a first-order spatial model could be selected as the best model, while in the other stations, a model with the order of two or three could be selected. The selected (i.e., best) models were assessed in relation to preserving the SLC between neighboring stations. The results depicted that these models were very capable in preserving the SLC between the reference station and any of the target stations. But, their performances were weaker when the SLC between the other stations were compared. In order to resolve this issue, spatially correlated random numbers were utilized instead of independent random numbers while generating synthetic time series using the Markov models. Although this method slightly reduced the model performances in relation to dry and wet spells and short-term dependencies, the improvements related to the simulation of the SLC between the other stations were substantial.

  20. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  1. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  2. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made at a code speed not in excess of 20 words per minute; or (2) By arranging for the primary station... visual presentation or a clearly understandable aural presentation of the translator station's...

  3. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  4. Automatic Control of Water Pumping Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhannad Alrheeh; JIANG Zhengfeng

    2006-01-01

    Automatic Control of pumps is an interesting proposal to operate water pumping stations among many kinds of water pumping stations according to their functions.In this paper, our pumping station is being used for water supply system. This paper is to introduce the idea of pump controller and the important factors that must be considering when we want to design automatic control system of water pumping stations. Then the automatic control circuit with the function of all components will be introduced.

  5. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  6. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  7. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  8. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  9. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for transmission by: (1) Stations in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service; (2) General aviation ground... continuity of any public communication in progress, provided that station identification is transmitted at... carrier; (2) For general aviation airborne mobile stations in the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service,...

  10. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A...

  11. A historical perspective on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, W. Ray

    1991-01-01

    The historical development of space stations is presented through a series of various spacecraft configurations including: (1) Salut 6; (2) Skylab; (3) the Space Operations Center (SOC); (4) the Manned Science and Applications Space Platform; (5) Space Station Freedom; and (4) the Mir Space Station.

  12. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent...

  13. Survey of International Space Station Charging Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

    2009-01-01

    With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

  14. Optimal Facility Location Model Based on Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Siting Urban Refueling Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact factors and principles of siting urban refueling stations and proposes a three-stage method. The main objective of the method is to minimize refueling vehicles’ detour time. The first stage aims at identifying the most frequently traveled road segments for siting refueling stations. The second stage focuses on adding additional refueling stations to serve vehicles whose demands are not directly satisfied by the refueling stations identified in the first stage. The last stage further adjusts and optimizes the refueling station plan generated by the first two stages. A genetic simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem in the second stage and the results are compared to those from the genetic algorithm. A case study is also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and algorithm. The results indicate the proposed method can provide practical and effective solutions that help planners and government agencies make informed refueling station location decisions.

  15. The International Space Station: a pathway to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H; Gerstenmaier, William H; Bartoe, John-David F; Mustachio, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 6 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  16. Streamflow characteristics at hydrologic bench-mark stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Hydrologic Bench-Mark Network was established in the 1960's. Its objectives were to document the hydrologic characteristics of representative undeveloped watersheds nationwide and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. The network, which consists of 57 streamflow gaging stations and one lake-stage station in 39 States, is planned for permanent operation. This interim report describes streamflow characteristics at each bench-mark site and identifies time trends in annual streamflow that have occurred during the data-collection period. The streamflow characteristics presented for each streamflow station are (1) flood and low-flow frequencies, (2) flow duration, (3) annual mean flow, and (4) the serial correlation coefficient for annual mean discharge. In addition, Kendall's tau is computed as an indicator of time trend in annual discharges. The period of record for most stations was 13 to 17 years, although several stations had longer periods of record. The longest period was 65 years for Merced River near Yosemite, Calif. Records of flow at 6 of 57 streamflow sites in the network showed a statistically significant change in annual mean discharge over the period of record, based on computations of Kendall's tau. The values of Kendall's tau ranged from -0.533 to 0.648. An examination of climatological records showed that changes in precipitation were most likely the cause for the change in annual mean discharge.

  17. Development Progress of the Neutron Imaging Station in CPHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongshun; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yigang; Wang, Xuewu

    The neutron imaging station based on the proton-linac-driven neutron source at CPHS, is presently under construction at Tsinghua University. Itis driven by a high-intensity proton linac (ECR proton source, LEBT, RFQ, DTL and HEBT) with a 13-MeV proton beam and a beryllium target station for neutron production. The facility has achieved its mid-term objective to deliver a 3 MeV proton beam directly from the RFQ output to the neutron target station by the HEBT, with a peak current of 22 mA and a pulse length of 100 μs.In addition the neutron imaging station of the first stage to provide neutron radiography is installed. In this paper, the instrument design and engineering construction status of the neutron imaging station of CPHS is presented, including the preliminary neutron imaging experiments and the results. The beam energy of the CPHS will be enhanced to 13 MeV after the DTL is ready in 2015.

  18. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  19. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  20. 47 CFR 90.476 - Interconnection of fixed stations and certain mobile stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of fixed stations and certain... Systems § 90.476 Interconnection of fixed stations and certain mobile stations. (a) Fixed stations and...)(11), 90.35(c)(42), and 90.267 are not subject to the interconnection provisions of §§ 90.477 and...

  1. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  2. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  3. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Hannah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  4. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  5. Connecticut Highlands Technical Report - Documentation of the Regional Rainfall-Runoff Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the supporting data and describes the data sources, methodologies, and assumptions used in the assessment of existing and potential water resources of the Highlands of Connecticut and Pennsylvania (referred to herein as the “Highlands”). Included in this report are Highlands groundwater and surface-water use data and the methods of data compilation. Annual mean streamflow and annual mean base-flow estimates from selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging stations were computed using data for the period of record through water year 2005. The methods of watershed modeling are discussed and regional and sub-regional water budgets are provided. Information on Highlands surface-water-quality trends is presented. USGS web sites are provided as sources for additional information on groundwater levels, streamflow records, and ground- and surface-water-quality data. Interpretation of these data and the findings are summarized in the Highlands study report.

  6. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  7. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Additive Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duvenaud, David; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a Gaussian process model of functions which are additive. An additive function is one which decomposes into a sum of low-dimensional functions, each depending on only a subset of the input variables. Additive GPs generalize both Generalized Additive Models, and the standard GP models which use squared-exponential kernels. Hyperparameter learning in this model can be seen as Bayesian Hierarchical Kernel Learning (HKL). We introduce an expressive but tractable parameterization of the kernel function, which allows efficient evaluation of all input interaction terms, whose number is exponential in the input dimension. The additional structure discoverable by this model results in increased interpretability, as well as state-of-the-art predictive power in regression tasks.

  9. Environmental interactions on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Gabriel, Stephen B.; Murphy, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the key environment/system interactions associated with the Space Station and its companion polar platform and defines the range of test environments that will need to be simulated. These environments include the neutral atmosphere, the ionospheric plasma, natural and man-made particulates, the ambient magnetic field, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the ram/wake environment. The system/environment interactions include glow, oxygen erosion, drag, radiation effects, induced electric fields, high-voltage solar-array effects, and EMC/EMI associated with plasma/neutral gas operations. The Space Station and its associated systems pose unique demands on the ability to simulate these effects; synergistic effects require multiple environments to be simulated simultaneously, and the long life requirements require proper scaling of the exposure time. The analysis of specific effects and the calibration or improvement of ground test techniques will likely require in situ evaluation. Qualification and acceptance testing, because of cost and the impractically of extensive on-orbit analysis/modification, will likely remain ground test objectives except in very rare cases.

  10. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  11. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  12. Stream Station video server system; Video saba sochi `Stream station`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A video server system Stream Station is developed for delivering moving images to the client on the VOD (video on demand) basis. In this system, video data compressed using the MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) technique are stored in a RAID (redundant arrays of independent disks) system, and is outputted as analog video data after expansion in a decoder provided at the output stage. The server system easily realizes a VOD system using the existing in-house cable TV facilities for instance for hotel rooms. The data for this purpose may be either in the MPEG1 or MPEG2 format, pictures may be simultaneously transmitted via as many as 32 channels at the maximum, and the storage holds 256 gigabytes at the maximum. It incorporates a video server architecture developed by Toshiba Corporation, and the data transfer rate from data readout to transmission is totally warranted. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  14. Food additives data book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jim; Hong-Shum, Lily

    2011-01-01

    .... Compiled by food industry experts with a proven track record of producing high quality reference work, this volume is the definitive resource for technologists using food additives"-- "The use...

  15. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  16. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  17. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  18. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  19. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  20. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  1. ACSSB land mobile earth station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Shinichi; Ikegami, Tetsushi; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Kawahara, Hideki; Tada, Shun-Ichi

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the performance of the land mobile earth station using the Amplitude Companded Single Sideband (ACSSB) modulation technique developed for mobile satellite communications and results of the field experiments which were conducted in rural, suburban, and urban areas. This ACSSB system uses a 3-kHz pilot tone, and the voice frequency band is from 300 to 2500 Hz. The experiments show that the required C/N0 for voice communications is 40 dBHz and the required C/N0 for pilot signal tracking is 34 dBHz. Voice quality in rural and suburban areas was degraded slightly. In urban areas shadowings due to the presence of large buildings and trees caused signal losses. A comparison of the ACSSB system with the conventional narrow-band frequency-modulation system indicates that the ACSSB system can transmit voice signals more efficiently.

  2. Influence of urbanization on the thermal environment of meteorological station:Satellite-observed evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Tao; HUANG Yong; WANG Hong; SHI Chun-E; YANG Yuan-Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, five national meteorological stations in Anhui province are taken as typical examples to explore the effects of local urbanization on their thermal environment by using Landsat data from 1990 to 2010. Satellite-based land use/land cover (LULC), land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are used to investigate the effects. The study shows that LULC around meteorological stations changed significantly due to urban expansion. Fast urbanization is the main factor that affects the spatial-temporal distribution of thermal environment around meteorological stations. Moreover, the normalized LST and NDVI exhibit strong inverse correlations around meteorological stations, so the variability of LST can be monitored through evaluating the variability of NDVI. In addition, station-relocation plays an important role in improving representativeness of thermal environment. Notably, the environment representativeness was improved, but when using the data from the station to study climate change, the relocation-induced inhomogeneous data should be considered and adjusted. Consequently, controlling the scale and layout of the urban buildings and constructions around meteorological stations is an effective method to ameliorate observational thermal environment and to improve regional representativeness of station observation. The present work provides observational evidences that high resolution Landsat images can be used to evaluate the thermal environment of meteorological stations.

  3. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  4. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  5. Repair-level analysis for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M.; Yaniec, J.

    1992-01-01

    To assign repair or discard-at-failure designations for orbital replacement units (ORUs) used on Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (SSFEPS), new algorithms and methods were required. Unique parameters, such as upmass costs, extravehicular activity costs and intravehicular activity (IVA) costs specific to Space Station Freedom's maintenance concept were incorporated into the Repair-Level Analysis (RLA). Additional outputs were also required of the SSFEPS RLA that were not required of previous RLAs. These outputs included recommendations for the number of launches that an ORU should be capable of attaining and an economic basis for condemnation rate. These unique parameters were not addressable using existing RLA models: therefore, a new approach was developed. In addition, it was found that preemptive analysis could be performed using spreadsheet-based Boolean expressions to represent the logical condition of the items under analysis.

  6. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  7. Additives for the Axe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On May 1,China will begin to ban the production and use of two food additives commonly used to "bleach" flour,benzoyl peroxide and calcium peroxide.The decision was made after 10 years of wrangling between the policy makers,manufacturers,scientists and consumers.The Ministry of Health said in a statement it was applying the ban in response to consumers’ concerns about chemical substances in food,and technical improvements that had made the two additives unnecessary in flour processing.Minister of Health Chen Zhu has also said

  8. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  9. METALLOGRAPHIC SAMPLE PREPARATION STATION-CONSTRUCTIVE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM Florin Timotei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to present the issues involved in the case of the constructive conception of a station for metallographic sample preparation. This station is destined for laboratory work. The metallographic station is composed of a robot ABB IRB1600, a metallographic microscope, a gripping device, a manipulator, a laboratory grinding and polishing machine. The robot will be used for manipulation of the sample preparation and the manipulator take the sample preparation for processing.

  10. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 6 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Snow Drift Management Summit Station...Drift Management Summit Station Greenland Robert B. Haehnel and Matthew F. Bigl U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Cold...Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) EP-ARC-15-33, “Monitoring and Managing Snow Drifting at Summit Station, Greenland” ERDC

  11. Weather station with a web server

    OpenAIRE

    Repinc, Matej

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis we present the process of making a cheap weather station using Arduino prototyping platform and its functionality. The weather station monitors current temperature, humidity of air and air pressure. The station has its own simple HTTP server that is used to relay current data in two different formats: JSON encoded data and simple HTML website. The weather station can also send data to a pre-defined server used for data collection. We implemented a web site where data an...

  12. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  13. China Tightens Control over Petrol Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Huiping

    2002-01-01

    @@ China has recently mounted a nationwide campaign to standardize petrol stations. Based on the reports from China Central Television, all the petrol station that have not been licensed with "Oil Products Retail Permit" issued by the provincial economic and trade commission will be halted for business operation. Such petrol stations will be allowed to resume business if they are in line with the local industrial development plan and obtain the permits after going though all the necessary formalities. The petrol stations that are not in line with the development plan will be closed before August 31,2002.

  14. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    . However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... of introducing remote radio head modules are discussed. Substantial flexibility is provided in terms of power consumption, as a result of combining efficient hardware with intelligent software. Additionally, it is underlined that designing eco-sustainable systems needs to follow a holistic approach towards...

  15. Biobased lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  16. Valles Caldera, New Mexico Microearthquakes: Improved Detection and Location with Expanded Caldera Station Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, L. S.; Roberts, P. M.; Ten Cate, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) has operated for 44 years, providing data to locate more than 2,500 earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Roughly 1-2 earthquakes are detected and located per month within about 150 km of Los Alamos, a total of over 900 from 1973 to present. LASN's primary purpose is to monitor seismicity close to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for seismic hazards; monitoring seismicity associated with the nearby Valles Caldera is secondary. Until 2010 the network comprised only 7 stations, all near LANL or in the nearby Jemez Mountains. Just one station (PER, installed in 1998) was close enough to Valles Caldera to be able to detect microearthquakes located in or near the caldera. An initial study of the data from station PER between 1998 and 2002 identified and located 13 events with magnitudes less than 0.5 using the single-station hodogram technique. Those events were all located south of the caldera within a few kilometers of PER. Recently, two new digital broadband stations were installed inside the caldera, one on a northeastern ring-fracture dome, station CDAB, and the other on a northwestern dome, station SAMT. Also, station PER was upgraded with digital broadband instrumentation. Thus, LASN now can detect and record microearthquakes as small as magnitude -1.5 near the caldera, and they can be located using arrival times at multiple stations. Several recent events located near station SAMT on the caldera's ring fracture are the first that have been seen in that area. Additional events were recorded (by all three stations) and located in the area south of the caldera where the earlier hodogram-only events were located. These new multi-station event recordings allow a more quantitative assessment of the uncertainties in the initial single-station hodogram locations. Each event is located using multiple arrival times as well as the hodogram method at as many as three stations. Thus, improvements can be made to the

  17. Citizen Science Seismic Stations for Monitoring Regional and Local Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, J. J.; Myers, S.; Srikrishna, D.

    2016-12-01

    The earth has tens of thousands of seismometers installed on its surface or in boreholes that are operated by many organizations for many purposes including the study of earthquakes, volcanos, and nuclear explosions. Although global networks such as the Global Seismic Network and the International Monitoring System do an excellent job of monitoring nuclear test explosions and other seismic events, their thresholds could be lowered with the addition of more stations. In recent years there has been interest in citizen-science approaches to augment government-sponsored monitoring networks (see, for example, Stubbs and Drell, 2013). A modestly-priced seismic station that could be purchased by citizen scientists could enhance regional and local coverage of the GSN, IMS, and other networks if those stations are of high enough quality and distributed optimally. In this paper we present a minimum set of hardware and software specifications that a citizen seismograph station would need in order to add value to global networks. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  19. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 4 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-31

    This publication includes 86 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the fourth quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  20. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data Through Quarter 3 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-07

    This publication includes 80 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Spring 2016 for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the third quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  1. East Baton Rouge Fire Stations, UTM15 NAD83, LAGIC (2002) [ebr_fire_stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset consists of twenty-nine (29) geocoded points representing fire stations in East Baton Rouge parish, Louisiana. Thirty (30) fire station, disctrict, and...

  2. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  3. Thermoelectrical power stations in 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, M. (University of Padova, Italy)

    1968-01-01

    In Italy in 1967, geothermal electric power production was 2.66% of the national energy production. The implementation of traditional and nuclear power plants is described. The trend in conventional thermoelectric power plants is characterized by ever-increasing block capacities (100-160 MW at present), they are expected to increase to 600 MW in Europe and to 1200 MW in the USA 10 years from now. Nuclear power plants with pressurized-water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and graphite-gas reactors have been built recently in Italy. Studies are being conducted in the area of high-speed reactors and breeder reactors. A description is presented of a power station using geothermal energy. At the end of 1967, geothermal power plants with an electrical capacity of 340 MW were in operation. Generally, U.S. thermoelectrical engine blocks with high productivity were used. The thermodynamic characteristics of these blocks are described in detail. The most powerful engine in the field in Italy- a turbocompressore Franco Tosi- was constructed in the ENEL central Castlenuovo Val Cecina in the Larderello region. The compressor is fed by a combined flow of steam, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. It is characterized by a load of 22 t/h and an input pressure of 0.0905 atm at the outlet. The absorbed power is 2.28 MW at a velocity of 50 rotations/sec. Thirty figures are presented.

  4. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  5. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Dekkers, K.; De Vos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and wa

  6. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Dekkers, K.; De Vos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and

  7. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part II. Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting Stations According to Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This second part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers amplitude modulation broadcasting stations according to frequency in ascending order. Information included covers call letters,…

  8. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part I. Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting Stations According to Country and City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This first part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers amplitude modulation broadcasting stations. Information is indexed alphabetically by country and city. Within a city, stations…

  9. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part III. Frequency Modulation Broadcasting Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This third part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers frequency modulation broadcasting stations. It contains two sections: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the…

  10. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  11. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealing...

  12. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  13. Present trends in HVDC converter station design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Contract for new Scottish hydro station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A£4M (US$6M) Contract has been awarded to Miller Civil Engineering Services for the construction of Scottish and Southern Energy's new 3MW hydro power station on the river Cuileig, near Ullapoot in Scotland, The plant will be the pow, er company's first new hydroelectric station since the 1960s. Construction is set to take 12 months, beginning in mid November,

  15. Modeling Array Stations in SIG-VISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, N.; Moore, D.; Russell, S.

    2013-12-01

    We add support for array stations to SIG-VISA, a system for nuclear monitoring using probabilistic inference on seismic signals. Array stations comprise a large portion of the IMS network; they can provide increased sensitivity and more accurate directional information compared to single-component stations. Our existing model assumed that signals were independent at each station, which is false when lots of stations are close together, as in an array. The new model removes that assumption by jointly modeling signals across array elements. This is done by extending our existing Gaussian process (GP) regression models, also known as kriging, from a 3-dimensional single-component space of events to a 6-dimensional space of station-event pairs. For each array and each event attribute (including coda decay, coda height, amplitude transfer and travel time), we model the joint distribution across array elements using a Gaussian process that learns the correlation lengthscale across the array, thereby incorporating information of array stations into the probabilistic inference framework. To evaluate the effectiveness of our model, we perform ';probabilistic beamforming' on new events using our GP model, i.e., we compute the event azimuth having highest posterior probability under the model, conditioned on the signals at array elements. We compare the results from our probabilistic inference model to the beamforming currently performed by IMS station processing.

  16. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancharov, A.I. E-mail: a.i.ancharov@inp.nsk.su; Evdokov, O.V.; Tolochko, B.P.; Sukhorukov, A.V.; Baru, S.E.; Savinov, G.A.; Kosov, A.V.; Sheromov, M.A.; Sikka, S.K.; Momin, S.N

    2000-06-21

    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.

  17. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    CERN Document Server

    Ancharov, A I; Tolochko, B P; Sukhorukov, A V; Baru, S E; Savinov, G A; Kosov, A V; Sheromov, M A; Sikka, S K; Momin, S N

    2000-01-01

    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.

  18. Plans for Learning Stations. Tractor Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This shop guide gives graphic illustration of twenty-eight learning stations in a tractor mechanics shop, at each of which a specific learning activity occurs. The authors suggest that each station (most of them constructed of plywood or sheet metal and angle iron) be self-contained, having its own appropriate tools, supplies, parts, and set of…

  19. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  20. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2003-01-01

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealing...

  1. Rocky Mountain Research Station: Strategic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Eskew

    2003-01-01

    A strategic plan is a tool for charting a path into the future. This Strategic Framework will help guide the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station over the next decade during inevitable socioeconomic and environmental change. It is the product of a dialog with our stakeholders and employees to examine the Station's capabilities, anticipate research...

  2. 47 CFR 74.781 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.781 Station records. (a) The licensee of a low power TV, TV translator, or TV... extinguishment or improper functioning of a tower light: (1) The nature of such extinguishment or...

  3. Modeling passenger flows in public transport stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kırlangıçoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many architectural design parameters for public transport stations which include urban and station level studies. Each station must be designed in accordance with the basic passenger requirements such as accessibility, safety, comfort, satisfaction and etc. Circulation spaces must be formed and sized to meet the minimum movement needs of passengers. For an underground station; main entrance region, position of gates, location and number of turnstiles, escalators, stairs, ramps, passageways, intermediate concourses and platforms must be arranged to minimize walking distances and to prevent congestion. In this study, circulation of passengers is simulated in a quantitatively verifiable manner, taking into account how individuals interact with each other and with the physical obstacles in their environment in a metro station. Virtual experiments are performed to see the continuity and density of pedestrian flow at different levels of Haram Area East Metro Station of the first metro line of Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. According to the predictions, more than 40.000 passengers are expected to use this station in one hour after a Friday prayer during Ramadan period in the year of 2040. That means a critically high travel demand and it is really significant to design the most convenient underground station for these passengers to fulfil the necessary requirements.

  4. Nagymaros power station on the River Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobilka, J.

    1987-02-01

    This article deals with the economic aspects of Austrian cooperation in power station construction as practised in the consulting activities of Oesterreichische Donaukraftwerke AG, and discusses in detail this company's participation in the construction of the main structure for the Nagymaros power station on the Danube under a general contract.

  5. 78 FR 44035 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 RIN 3150-AJ08 Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies AGENCY: Nuclear... concerning nuclear power plant licensees' and applicants' station blackout mitigation strategies. The... Mitigation Strategies,'' is available in ADAMS under Accession No. ML13171A061. NRC's PDR: You may...

  6. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  7. Solar radiation observation stations updated to 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.A.; Cristina, J.R.; Williams, B.B.

    1979-04-01

    The type of sensing and recording equipment for 420 stations in the US are listed alphabetically by states. The stations are divided according to whether or not they are in the basic National Weather Service, NOAA, network. Reports of summarized solar radiation data are listed in an appendix. (MHR)

  8. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  9. Regeneration of water at space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Sinyak, Yu. E.; Samsonov, N. M.; Bobe, L. S.; Protasov, N. N.; Andreychuk, P. O.

    2011-05-01

    The history, current status and future prospects of water recovery at space stations are discussed. Due to energy, space and mass limitations physical/chemical processes have been used and will be used in water recovery systems of space stations in the near future. Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station (ISS) the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine are described. A perspective physical/chemical system for water supply will be composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. Innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for Lunar and Mars missions have to be tested on the international space station.

  10. New approaches to enhancing efficiency of freight railway stations performance within industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ваагн Емілійович Парунакян

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time freight stations operation is complicated by raised dynamics of production and transport processes. Under the given handling capacity, this circumstance affects duration of processing of inbound and internal flow of freight cars. In connection with the abovementioned, the article covers new approaches to the analysis and evaluation of operating characteristics, and designing of railway freight stations within industrial enterprises. These approaches base on the system adaptation of the railway freight stations structural layouts and parameters of technical facilities to new working conditions and production demands. As the criterion of optimization of freight station operation, the index of “transportation work” (freight car-hour was offered. It allows differentiating the elemental flows of freight cars from the overall flow of freight cars at the freight station. It also allows identifying structure, volumes and other parameters of train operation (duration of processing measured in freight car-hours, interpretational and technological idle time denoting the location and the reason for their occurrence. Moreover, the analysis and evaluation of yard operation is offered to be carried out via handling capacity balance, which illustrates the relation between the overall volume of transportation work and the amount of trains handled at the station. This allows establishing additional transportation work and makes it possible to evaluate the real (objective necessity in throughput and handling capacity of station facilities in particular, and the station in general. The operating characteristics that have been examined determine the new methodical approaches to designing of composition-and-structural layouts and parameters of industrial freight stations. As the basis for optimization of the station, the certain method of morphological analysis and synthesis of technical decisions can be accepted, with its modification due to the

  11. 47 CFR 22.165 - Additional transmitters for existing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-ground Radiotelephone Service. Ground stations may be added to Commercial Aviation air-ground systems at... the same channel. This section does not apply to Basic Exchange Telecommunications Radio Systems. (h... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional transmitters for existing...

  12. The Displacement of Base Station in Mobile Communication with Genetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the displacement of a base station with optimization approach. A genetic algorithm is used as optimization approach. A new representation that describes base station placement, transmitted power with real numbers, and new genetic operators is proposed and introduced. In addition, this new representation can describe the number of base stations. For the positioning of the base station, both coverage and economy efficiency factors were considered. Using the weighted objective function, it is possible to specify the location of the base station, the cell coverage, and its economy efficiency. The economy efficiency indicates a reduction in the number of base stations for cost effectiveness. To test the proposed algorithm, the proposed algorithm was applied to homogeneous traffic environment. Following this, the proposed algorithm was applied to an inhomogeneous traffic density environment in order to test it in actual conditions. The simulation results show that the algorithm enables the finding of a near optimal solution of base station placement, and it determines the efficient number of base stations. Moreover, it can offer a proper solution by adjusting the weighted objective function.

  13. The Displacement of Base Station in Mobile Communication with Genetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the displacement of a base station with optimization approach. A genetic algorithm is used as optimization approach. A new representation that describes base station placement, transmitted power with real numbers, and new genetic operators is proposed and introduced. In addition, this new representation can describe the number of base stations. For the positioning of the base station, both coverage and economy efficiency factors were considered. Using the weighted objective function, it is possible to specify the location of the base station, the cell coverage, and its economy efficiency. The economy efficiency indicates a reduction in the number of base stations for cost effectiveness. To test the proposed algorithm, the proposed algorithm was applied to homogeneous traffic environment. Following this, the proposed algorithm was applied to an inhomogeneous traffic density environment in order to test it in actual conditions. The simulation results show that the algorithm enables the finding of a near optimal solution of base station placement, and it determines the efficient number of base stations. Moreover, it can offer a proper solution by adjusting the weighted objective function.

  14. Characterization of airborne bacteria at an underground subway station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Marius; Granum, Per Einar; Bruheim, Per; Blatny, Janet Martha

    2012-03-01

    The reliable detection of airborne biological threat agents depends on several factors, including the performance criteria of the detector and its operational environment. One step in improving the detector's performance is to increase our knowledge of the biological aerosol background in potential operational environments. Subway stations are enclosed public environments, which may be regarded as potential targets for incidents involving biological threat agents. In this study, the airborne bacterial community at a subway station in Norway was characterized (concentration level, diversity, and virulence- and survival-associated properties). In addition, a SASS 3100 high-volume air sampler and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based isolate screening procedure was used for these studies. The daytime level of airborne bacteria at the station was higher than the nighttime and outdoor levels, and the relative bacterial spore number was higher in outdoor air than at the station. The bacterial content, particle concentration, and size distribution were stable within each environment throughout the study (May to September 2010). The majority of the airborne bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus, but a total of 37 different genera were identified in the air. These results suggest that anthropogenic sources are major contributors to airborne bacteria at subway stations and that such airborne communities could harbor virulence- and survival-associated properties of potential relevance for biological detection and surveillance, as well as for public health. Our findings also contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for biological detection/surveillance systems by providing information that can be used to mimic real-life operational airborne environments in controlled aerosol test chambers.

  15. Sarks as additional fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  16. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  17. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  18. Evaluating Pseudorange Multipath at CGPS Stations Spanning Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, G.; Bennett, R. A.; Spinler, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    A research study was conducted in order to quantify and analyze the amount of pseudorange multipath at continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations spanning Mexico. These CGPS stations are administered by a variety of organizations, including government agencies and public universities, and thus serve a wide range of positioning needs. Despite the diversity of the networks and their intended audiences, a core function of all of the networks is to provide a stable framework for high-precision positioning in support of diverse commercial and scientific applications. CGPS data from a large number of publicly available networks located in Mexico were studied. These include the RGNA (National Active Geodetic Network) administered by INEGI (National Institute of Statistics and Geography), the PBO network (Plate Boundary Observatory) funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and operated by UNAVCO (University NAVstar Consortium), the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), which is a collaboration effort of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the UNAM network, operated by the National Seismological System (SSN) and the Institute of Geophysics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the Suominet Geodetic Network (SNG) and the CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) network, operated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). A total of 54 CGPS stations were evaluated, where dual-frequency geodetic-grade receivers collected GPS data continuously during the period from 1994 to 2013. It is usually assumed that despite carefully selected locations, all CGPS stations are to some extent, affected by the presence of signal multipath. In addition, the geographic distribution of stations provides a nation-wide access to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For real-time kinematic (RTK) and rapid static applications that depend on

  19. The role of bypass diodes in the failure of solar battery charging stations in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greacen, C.; Green, D. [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall no. 3050, University of California, 94720-3050 Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-12-15

    This paper focuses on the failure of bypass diodes in solar battery charging stations (SBCS) in Thailand. The Thai government has installed over 1000 SBCS in unelectrified villages to be used to charge 12-V batteries for household lights and small appliances. The unnecessary inclusion of bypass diodes in these systems created an unexpected failure mode when villagers misconnected their batteries with reverse polarity. In a survey of 31 stations, 18 stations were disabled by burnt-out bypass diodes. The electrical engineering theory of this failure mode is analyzed. In addition, we discuss how the bypass diode failures have been compounded by lack of end-user feedback to the implementing agencies.

  20. Enhancing base station connectivity with directional information of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High-performance smartphones with various sensor capabilities, including the inertial measurement unit, allow us to have higher freedom to localize our movements and utilize them for other applications. In this paper, we present a simple method to estimate the heading of a user using only a digital compass, accelerometer, and gyroscope. Several experiments were conducted using an Apple iPhone. In addition, we also present an algorithm to reduce the number of handover attempts in a dense base station environment. A series of simulations were conducted on OPNET in various emulated environments to present the effectiveness of the proposed method. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm effectively reduces the ping-pong effect in a dense base station environment.

  1. Commissioning and operation of the CEBAF end station refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenius, D.; Bevins, B.; Chronis, W.C.; Ganni, V.; Kashy, D.; Keesee, M.; Wilson, J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    The CEBAF End Station Helium Refrigerator (ESR) System provides refrigeration at 80 K, 20 K and 4.5 K to three End Station experimental halls. The facility consists of a two stage helium screw compressor system, 4.5 K refrigerator, cryogen distribution valve box, and transfer lines to the individual experimental halls. The 4.5 K cold box and compressors were originally part of the ESCAR 1,500 W, 4 K refrigeration system at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which was first commissioned fin 1977. The compressors, 4.5 K cold box, and control system design were modified to adapt the plant for the requirements of the CEBAF experimental halls. Additional subsystems of cryogen distribution, transfer lines, warm gas management, and computer control interface were added. This paper describes the major plant subsystems, modifications, operational experiences and performance.

  2. Portable Fan Assembly for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Arthur A.; Roman, Monsi C.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is responsible for the design and fabrication of a Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The PFA will be used to enhance ventilation inside the ISS modules as needed for crew comfort and for rack rotation. The PFA consists of the fan on-orbit replaceable unit (ORU) and two noise suppression packages (silencers). The fan ORU will have a mechanical interface with the Seat Track Equipment Anchor Assembly, in addition to the power supply module which includes a DC-DC converter, on/standby switch, speed control, power cable and connector. This paper provides a brief development history, including the criteria used for the fan, and a detailed description of the PFA operational configurations. Space Station requirements as well as fan performance characteristics are also discussed.

  3. Exposure of firefighters to diesel emissions in fire stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froines, J.R.; Hinds, W.C.; Duffy, R.M.; Lafuente, E.J.; Liu, W.C.

    1987-03-01

    Personal sampling techniques were used to evaluate firefighter exposure to particulates from diesel engine emissions. Selected fire stations in New York, Boston and Los Angeles were studied. Firefighter exposure to total particulates increased with the number of runs conducted during an 8-hr period. In New York and Boston where the response level ranged from 7 to 15 runs during an 8-hr shift, the resulting exposure levels of total airborne particulates from diesel exhaust were 170 to 480 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (TWA). Methylene chloride extracts of the diesel particulates averaged 24% of the total. The authors' findings suggest that additional research is necessary to assess fire station concentrations of vehicle diesel exhaust that may have adverse health consequences to firefighters.

  4. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  5. Life sciences research on the space station: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station will provide an orbiting, low gravity, permanently manned facility for scientific research, starting in the 1990s. The facilities for life sciences research are being designed to allow scientific investigators to perform research in Space Medicine and Space Biology, to study the consequences of long-term exposure to space conditions, and to allow for the permanent presence of humans in space. This research, using humans, animals, and plants, will provide an understanding of the effects of the space environment on the basic processes of life. In addition, facilities are being planned for remote observations to study biologically important elements and compounds in space and on other planets (exobiology), and Earth observations to study global ecology. The life sciences community is encouraged to plan for participation in scientific research that will be made possible by the Space Station research facility.

  6. Modelling of Train Noise in Underground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.

    1996-08-01

    TNS, a computer model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of train noise in underground stations, is developed. The train is regarded as a series of sections, and the train noise distribution in a station is calculated by inputting the sound attenuation from a train section source in the underground system (i.e., the station and tunnel). This input can be obtained by physical scale modelling. The prediction by TNS in an underground station in London shows good agreement with site measurements. A series of computations in the station demonstrates that: (1) the overall level of the train noise in the area near the end walls is slightly less than the other areas; (2) some conventional architectural acoustic treatments in the station are effective when a train is still in the tunnel but not as helpful when the train is already in the station; and (3) train noise has a significant effect on the speech intelligibility of public address systems as measured by the Speech Transmission Index (STI).

  7. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2012-10-26

    This report presents the results of a 10-year project conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to determine the feasibility of coproducing hydrogen with electricity. The primary objective was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a hydrogen energy station using a high-temperature fuel cell designed to produce power and hydrogen. This four-phase project had intermediate go/no-go decisions and the following specific goals: Complete a technical assessment and economic analysis of the use of high-temperature fuel cells, including solid oxide and molten carbonate, for the co-production of power and hydrogen (energy park concept). Build on the experience gained at the Las Vegas H2 Energy Station and compare/contrast the two approaches for co-production. Determine the applicability of co-production from a high-temperature fuel cell for the existing merchant hydrogen market and for the emerging hydrogen economy. Demonstrate the concept on natural gas for six months at a suitable site with demand for both hydrogen and electricity. Maintain safety as the top priority in the system design and operation. Obtain adequate operational data to provide the basis for future commercial activities, including hydrogen fueling stations. Work began with the execution of the cooperative agreement with DOE on 30 September 2001. During Phase 1, Air Products identified high-temperature fuel cells as having the potential to meet the coproduction targets, and the molten carbonate fuel cell system from FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FuelCell Energy) was selected by Air Products and DOE following the feasibility assessment performed during Phase 2. Detailed design, construction and shop validation testing of a system to produce 250 kW of electricity and 100 kilograms per day of hydrogen, along with site selection to include a renewable feedstock for the fuel cell, were completed in Phase 3. The system also completed six months of demonstration operation at the

  8. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1020 - Station license period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., New Mexico and Idaho: (i) Radio stations, October 1, 1997. (ii) Television stations, October 1, 1998..., October 1, 1995. (ii) Television stations, October 1, 1996. (2) North Carolina and South Carolina: (i) Radio stations, December 1, 1995. (ii) Television stations, December 1, 1996. (3) Florida, Puerto...

  10. 14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair station must prepare and follow a repair station manual acceptable to...

  11. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  12. Ozone Trend Analysis at Pedregal Station in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Garfias Vázquez; Javier Audry Sánchez; Francisco Javier Garfias y Ayala

    2005-01-01

    Pedregal Station is located in a residential area in the southwest portion of Mexico City, where the worst ozone episodes are registered. Three models for forecasting ozone are analyzed based on the 19 mean semester maximum values of daily ozone registered at Pedregal Station. The logarithm model seems to fit best the available data. Its use suggests that near 10 years have to elapse fom July 2005, before air quality is recovered. Additional control measures are suggested, such as, doubling c...

  13. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  14. Automation of a water pumping station

    OpenAIRE

    Mesec, Rožle

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis we displayed an automation of an industrial facility on an example of a water pumping station. We described the structure of a typical automated system and presented it's key components. We designed a water pumping station with three main components – a water pump, a reservoir and a drain. The proposed water pumping station could be used for suplying water to a small settlement, in case the settlement had access to a water source with adequate capacity in it's vicinity. As part ...

  15. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  16. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  17. Reference Station Selection for Improved Geometric Spacing During Baseline Processing in OPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kevin; Weston, Neil

    2013-04-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) designed, implemented and continues to operate a web-based GPS processing tool known as the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS). There are several versions of OPUS in operation, mainly because no one algorithm is optimized to process GPS data collected between 15 minutes and 48 hours. For short duration datasets, NGS designed OPUS Rapid Static (OPUS-RS), a version that uses up to nine CORS located nearby to interpolate the ionosphere around the rover. OPUS Static (OPUS-S) on the other hand, is one of the most heavily used versions of OPUS and processes datasets that span between two and 48 hours in duration. OPUS-S chooses five nearby CORS to form individual baselines with the rover and then each is processed independently. The latest version of OPUS to be presented here is OPUS Networks (OPUS-Net) and is currently in beta testing. OPUS-Net selects up to 10 IGS reference stations and three regional CORS to perform a simultaneous least squares adjustment with the rover dataset. For OPUS-Net, the three CORS are primarily used to better estimate the troposphere while the position of the unknown station and the three CORS are determined from the more precisely known and monitored IGS reference stations. All versions of OPUS require sets of baselines between the rover and reference stations which have known positions and velocities. Because of the nature of atmospheric corrections during relative positioning, evenly-spaced geometric distribution will result in the most stable and reliable solutions. We have developed an algorithm to choose reference stations with the best geometric distribution at a given location. Rather than selecting the stations by distance, the new algorithm builds station lists by azimuth groups (zones) and selects the closest station in a zone. The process is repeated until a predefined number of stations have been selected in each zone. Also, additional functionality has been added for the operational

  18. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) All distress calls, automatic-alarm signals, urgency and safety signals made or intercepted, the... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and corrections...

  19. Alum Astronaut Phones From International Space Station

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the second time inside of a year, faculty, staff and some family members at the Naval Postgraduate School were honored to participate in a video-teleconference with a member of the International Space Station (ISS) crew.

  20. Redundancy Calibration of Phased Array Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Noorishad, Parisa; van Ardenne, Arnold; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Our aim is to assess the benefits and limitations of using the redundant visibility information in regular phased array systems for improving the calibration. Regular arrays offer the possibility to use redundant visibility information to constrain the calibration of the array independent of a sky model and a beam models of the station elements. It requires a regular arrangement in the configuration of array elements and identical beam patterns. We revised a calibration method for phased array stations using the redundant visibility information in the system and applied it successfully to a LOFAR station. The performance and limitations of the method were demonstrated by comparing its use on real and simulated data. The main limitation is the mutual coupling between the station elements, which leads to non-identical beams and stronger baseline dependent noise. Comparing the variance of the estimated complex gains with the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) indicates that redundancy is a stable and optimum method for cali...

  1. Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge : Station Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify and...

  2. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  3. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  4. CDMP COOP Station History Indexing Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 66-page document entitled 'Station history COOP Rework via WSSRD and stragglers NC4 & NC3: Keying Rules,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC's...

  5. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  6. case study of afam power station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    checking of emergency failure of components or .... 1, 2002. Madueme. 87. Table 7: History of Afam generating plans from 1962 to 1997 ... was no maintenance management section in the power station ... Training School, 1998. 5. Clifton, R.N. ...

  7. Outdoor Field Experience with Autonomous Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, L; Blanco, A; Carolino, N; Cerda, M A; Conceicao, R; Cunha, O; Ferreira, M; Fonte, P; Luz, R; Mendes, L; Pereira, A; Pimenta, M; Sarmento, R; Tome, B

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Resistive Plate Chambers were employed in the Cosmic Ray Experiments COVER-PLASTEX and ARGO/YBJ. In both experiments the detectors were housed indoors, likely owing to gas distribution requirements and the need to control environment variables that directly affect RPCs operational stability. But in experiments where Extended Air Shower (EAS) sampling is necessary, large area arrays composed by dispersed stations are deployed, rendering this kind of approach impossible. In this situation, it would be mandatory to have detectors that could be deployed in small standalone stations, with very rare opportunities for maintenance, and with good resilience to environmental conditions. Aiming to meet these requirements, we started some years ago the development of RPCs for Autonomous Stations. The results from indoor tests and measurements were very promising, both concerning performance and stability under very low gas flow rate, which is the main requirement for Autonomous Stations. In this w...

  8. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  9. Strategic planning for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Carolyn S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept for utilization and operations planning for the International Space Station Freedom was developed in a NASA Space Station Operations Task Force in 1986. Since that time the concept has been further refined to definitize the process and products required to integrate the needs of the international user community with the operational capabilities of the Station in its evolving configuration. The keystone to the process is the development of individual plans by the partners, with the parameters and formats common to the degree that electronic communications techniques can be effectively utilized, while maintaining the proper level and location of configuration control. The integration, evaluation, and verification of the integrated plan, called the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP), is being tested in a multilateral environment to prove out the parameters, interfaces, and process details necessary to produce the first COUP for Space Station in 1991. This paper will describe the concept, process, and the status of the multilateral test case.

  10. development development of base transceiver station selection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Placement of base transceiver station (BTSs) by different operators on a particular site as ... Although the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) viewed that ..... vacant space on the AIRTEL mast which could.

  11. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  12. Space Station concept development group studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  13. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  14. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  15. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  16. Nuclear applications in manned space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooksbank, W. A., Jr.; Sieren, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    The zirconium hydride reactor, coupled to a thermo-electric or Brayton conversion system, and the Pu 238 isotope/Brayton system, are considered to be the viable nuclear candidates for the modular space station electrical power system. The basic integration aspects of these nuclear electrical power systems are reviewed, including unique requirements imposed by the buildup and incremental utilization considerations of the modular station. Also treated are the various programmatic aspects of nuclear power system design and selection.

  17. Predictive Attitude Maintenance For A Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, Philip D.

    1989-01-01

    Paper provides mathematical basis for predictive management of angular momenta of control-moment gyroscopes (CMG's) to control attitude of orbiting space station. Numerical results presented for pitch control of proposed power-tower space station. Based on prior orbit history and mathematical model of density of atmosphere, predictions made of requirements on dumping and storage of angular momentum in relation to current loading state of CMG's and to acceptable attitude tolerances.

  18. Connecting strangers at a train station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Böttcher, Niels; Pellarin, Lars

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual instrument or a performance space, placed at Høje Tåstrup train station in Denmark, which is meant to establish communicative connections between strangers, by letting users of the system create soundscapes together across the rails. We discuss mapping...... to the development of an interactive installation which takes place in Hoje Taastrup train station in Denmark....

  19. Check valve slam analysis in pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.; Habán, V.; Dokoupil, P.

    2016-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for technological process. The check valve in the station was replaced with a new one. The regular test of black out discovered the high pressure pulsations accompanied with noticeable pipeline movement of discharge pipe. It was caused by late check valve closing, probably, when the back flow reached the highest possible velocity. This statement was supported with analysis of results of pressure measurement near the check valve and with a numerical simulation of the flow in the pipeline system.

  20. The Auroral Station in Adventdalen, Svalbard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Auroral Station in Adventdalen near Longyearbyen, Svalbard (78°N, 15°E). The main instruments at the site are for optical observation of aurora and airglow, but magnetic and radar observations are also carried out. Emission spectra show the difference between the dayside and nightside optical aurora. A newly compiled mesospheric temperature series from the station is also presented, derived through 20 years of spectral measurements of the hydroxyl airglow layer.

  1. Description of Measurements on Biogas Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Novosád

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on performance analysis for three biogas stations situated within the territory of the Czech Republic. This paper contains basic details of the individual biogas stations as well as description of their types. It also refers to the general description of the measurement gauge involved, with specifications of its potential use. The final part of this paper deals with the analysis of course data obtained, with special regard to voltage, current, active power and reactive power data.

  2. Connecting strangers at a train station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Böttcher, Niels; Pellarin, Lars

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual instrument or a performance space, placed at Høje Tåstrup train station in Denmark, which is meant to establish communicative connections between strangers, by letting users of the system create soundscapes together across the rails. We discuss mapping...... to the development of an interactive installation which takes place in Hoje Taastrup train station in Denmark....

  3. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite (Waite, 1973). The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program (Fledderman 2003). The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  4. Compression station anti-surge system considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; White, Robert C. [Solar Turbines Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Centrifugal compressor surge and its prevention have drawn significant attention in the literature. An important aspect of surge avoidance lies in the design of the compressor station and, in particular, the piping upstream and downstream of the compressor. Most anti-surge systems are perfectly capable of avoiding surge during normal operating conditions. However, unplanned emergency shutdowns present a significant challenge, and surge avoidance in these cases depends to a large degree on the station layout. Furthermore, the concepts used in the anti surge system (valves, piping, coolers) also impact the start-up of the station, or of individual units of the station. In this paper a simplified surge control system model is presented and used to develop simpler rules that help with proper sizing of upstream and downstream piping systems, as well as the necessary control element. Since the design of the surge control and recycle system also affects the start-up of units and stations, start-up considerations for stations with and without cooled recycle loops are discussed. (author)

  5. Space station interior noise analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-02-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  6. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  7. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  8. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station's Logistics and Maintenance program has had to develop new technologies and a management approach for both space and ground operations. The ISS will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines - it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally completed in 2006. It has over 6,000 orbital replaceable units (ORU), and spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operations. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station for both space and ground operations. It started with the basic support concept developed for Department of Defense systems, and then it was tailored for the unique requirements of a manned space vehicle. Space logistics is a new concept that has wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. This paper discusses what type of organization has been put into place to support both space and ground operations and discusses each element of that organization. In addition, some of the unique operations approaches this organization has had to develop is discussed.

  9. Performance Assessment in the PILOT Experiment On Board Space Stations Mir and ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Bernd; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Dudukin, Alexander; Shevchenko, Lev; Bronnikov, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this investigation into the performance and reliability of Russian cosmonauts in hand-controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station (experiment PILOT) was to enhance overall mission safety and crew training efficiency. The preliminary findings on the Mir space station suggested that a break in docking training of about 90 d significantly degraded performance. Intensified experiment schedules on the International Space Station (ISS) have allowed for a monthly experiment using an on-board simulator. Therefore, instead of just three training tasks as on Mir, five training flights per session have been implemented on the ISS. This experiment was run in parallel but independently of the operational docking training the cosmonauts receive. First, performance was compared between the experiments on the two space stations by nonparametric testing. Performance differed significantly between space stations preflight, in flight, and postflight. Second, performance was analyzed by modeling the linear mixed effects of all variances (LME). The fixed factors space station, mission phases, training task numbers, and their interaction were analyzed. Cosmonauts were designated as a random factor. All fixed factors were found to be significant and the interaction between stations and mission phase was also significant. In summary, performance on the ISS was shown to be significantly improved, thus enhancing mission safety. Additional approaches to docking performance assessment and prognosis are presented and discussed.

  10. Considering the dynamic refueling behavior in locating electric vehicle charging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Sun, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) will certainly play an important role in addressing the energy and environmental challenges at current situation. However, location problem of EV charging stations was realized as one of the key issues of EVs launching strategy. While for the case of locating EV charging stations, more influence factors and constraints need to be considered since the EVs have some special attributes. The minimum requested charging time for EVs is usually more than 30minutes, therefore the possible delay time due to waiting or looking for an available station is one of the most important influence factors. In addition, the intention to purchase and use of EVs that also affects the location of EV charging stations is distributed unevenly among regions and should be considered when modelling. Unfortunately, these kinds of time-spatial constraints were always ignored in previous models. Based on the related research of refuelling behaviours and refuelling demands, this paper developed a new concept with dual objectives of minimum waiting time and maximum service accessibility for locating EV charging stations - named as Time-Spatial Location Model (TSLM). The proposed model and the traditional flow-capturing location model are applied on an example network respectively and the results are compared. Results demonstrate that time constraint has great effects on the location of EV charging stations. The proposed model has some obvious advantages and will help energy providers to make a viable plan for the network of EV charging stations.

  11. Using multivariate techniques to assess the effects of urbanization on surface water quality: a case study in the Liangjiang New Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Hu, Xuebin; He, Qiang; Wu, Zhengsong; Cheng, Hao; Hu, Zhenlong; Mazumder, Asit

    2017-04-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has been causing dramatic deterioration in the water quality of rivers and threatening aquatic ecosystem health. In this paper, multivariate techniques, such as factor analysis (FA) and cluster analysis (CA), were applied to analyze the water quality datasets for 19 rivers in Liangjiang New Area (LJNA), China, collected in April (dry season) and September (wet season) of 2014 and 2015. In most sampling rivers, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and fecal coliform exceeded the Class V guideline (GB3838-2002), which could thereby threaten the water quality in Yangtze and Jialing Rivers. FA clearly identified the five groups of water quality variables, which explain majority of the experimental data. Nutritious pollution, seasonal changes, and construction activities were three key factors influencing rivers' water quality in LJNA. CA grouped 19 sampling sites into two clusters, which located at sub-catchments with high- and low-level urbanization, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed the nutrients (total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrite), fecal coliform, and conductivity in cluster 1 were significantly greater than in cluster 2. Thus, catchment urbanization degraded rivers' water quality in Liangjiang New Area. Identifying effective buffer zones at riparian scale to weaken the negative impacts of catchment urbanization was recommended.

  12. Evaluation of Surface Water Quality by Using GIS and a Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) Model in a Coal Mining Area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; De Maio, Marina; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Twenty eight surface water samples were collected from fourteen sites of the West Bokaro coalfield, India. The concentration of Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Se, Al, Cr, Ba, and Fe were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of seasonal fluctuations and a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. Metal concentrations were higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. The Zn, Ni, Mn, As, Se, Al, Ba, Cu, and Cr concentrations did not exceed the desirable limits for drinking water in either season. However, at many sites, concentrations of Fe were above the desirable limit of the WHO (2006) and Indian drinking water standard (BIS 2003) in both seasons. The water that contained higher concentrations of Fe would require treatment before domestic use.

  13. Regional-scale models for relating land cover to basin surface-water quality using remotely sensed data in a GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, V L; Ierodiaconou, D; Stagnitti, F; Hamilton, A J; Walter, M T; Mitchell, B; Boland, A-M

    2008-07-01

    Plant-based management systems implementing deep-rooted, perennial vegetation have been identified as important in mitigating the spread of secondary dryland salinity due to its capacity to influence water table depth. The Glenelg Hopkins catchment is a highly modified watershed in the southwest region of Victoria, where dryland salinity management has been identified as a priority. Empirical relationships between the proportion of native vegetation and in-stream salinity were examined in the Glenelg Hopkins catchment using a linear regression approach. Whilst investigations of these relationships are not unique, this is the first comprehensive attempt to establish a link between land use and in-stream salinity in the study area. The results indicate that higher percentage land cover with native vegetation was negatively correlated with elevated in-stream salinity. This inverse correlation was consistent across the 3 years examined (1980, 1995, and 2002). Recognising the potential for erroneously inferring causal relationships, the methodology outlined here was both a time and cost-effective tool to inform management strategies at a regional scale, particularly in areas where processes may be operating at scales not easily addressed with on-site studies.

  14. Surface water quality in a water run-off canal system: A case study in Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Mahmood Siddiqi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in a run-off canal system in an industrial area was evaluated for a range of physical and chemical properties comprising trace metals (including mercury (Hg, chromium (Cr, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, salinity, pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and dissolved oxygen. High concentrations of potassium (K (1.260–2.345 mg/l and calcium (Ca (19.170–35510 mg/l demonstrated that the salinity in the water was high, which indicates that industrial effluents from fertilizer manufacturing and Chlor-alkali units are being discharged into the canal system. Almost all the metal concentrations in water and sediment were within the thresholds established by the local regulatory body. Concentrations of Cr (0.0154–0.0184 mg/l, Mn (0.0608–0.199 mg/l, Fe (0.023–0.035 mg/l, COD (807–916 mg/l, and turbidity (633 ± 15–783 ± 22 NTU were high where the canal discharges into the Persian Gulf; these discharges may compromise the health of the aquatic ecosystem. There is concern about the levels of Hg in water (0.00135–0.0084 mg/l, suspended sediment (0.00308–0.0096 mg/l, and bed sediment (0.00172–0.00442 mg/l because of the bio-accumulative nature of Hg. We also compared the total Hg concentrations in fish from Jubail, and two nearby cities. Hg contents were highest in fish tissues from Jubail. This is the first time that heavy metal pollution has been assessed in this water run-off canal system; information about Hg is of particular interest and will form the basis of an Hg database for the area that will be useful for future investigations.

  15. Surface-water quality and suspended-sediment quantity and quality within the Big River Basin, southeastern Missouri, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2016-01-28

    Missouri was the leading producer of lead in the United States—as well as the world—for more than a century. One of the lead sources is known as the Old Lead Belt, located in southeast Missouri. The primary ore mineral in the region is galena, which can be found both in surface deposits and underground as deep as 200 feet. More than 8.5 million tons of lead were produced from the Old Lead Belt before operations ceased in 1972. Although active lead mining has ended, the effects of mining activities still remain in the form of large mine waste piles on the landscape typically near tributaries and the main stem of the Big River, which drains the Old Lead Belt. Six large mine waste piles encompassing more than 2,800 acres, exist within the Big River Basin. These six mine waste piles have been an available source of trace element-rich suspended sediments transported by natural erosional processes downstream into the Big River.

  16. The effects of nutrient losses from agriculture on ground and surface water quality: the position of science in developing indicators for regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Scholefield, D.; Cabral, F.; Hofmans, G.

    2004-01-01

    The magnitude of current nutrient losses from agriculture to ground and surface water calls for effective environmental policy, including the use of regulation. Nutrient loss is experienced in many countries despite differences in the organisation and intensity of agricultural production. However, a

  17. Synthesis of thirty years of surface water quality and aquatic biota data in Shenandoah National Park: Collaboration between the US Geological Survey and the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Jastram, John D.; Wofford, John E.B.; Schaberl, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The eastern United States has been the recipient of acidic atmospheric deposition (hereinafter, “acid rain”) for many decades. Deleterious effects of acid rain on natural resources have been well documented for surface water (e.g., Likens et al. 1996; Stoddard et al. 2001), soils (Bailey et al. 2005), forest health (Long et al. 2009), and habitat suitability for stream biota (Baker et al. 1993). Shenandoah National Park (SNP) is located in northern and central Virginia and consists of a long, narrow strip of land straddling the Blue Ridge Mountains (Figure 1). The park’s elevated topography and location downwind of the Ohio River valley, where many acidic emissions to the atmosphere are generated (NSTC 2005), have made it a target for acid rain. Characterizing the link between air quality and water quality as related to acid rain, contaminants, soil conditions, and forest health is a high priority for research and monitoring in SNP. The US Geological Survey (USGS) and SNP have had a long history of collaboration on documenting acid rain effects on the park’s natural resources, starting in 1985 and continuing to the present (Lynch and Dise 1985; Rice et al. 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007; Deviney et al. 2006, 2012; Jastram et al. 2013).

  18. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin in Washington: major-and minor-element data for sediment, water, and aquatic biota, 1987-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Fluter, Shelley L.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Rinella, Joseph F.; Crawford, J. Kent; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Bridges, Jennifer L.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Major- and minor-element concentrations are presented for streambed and suspended sediment, filtered- and unfiltered-water, and aquatic-biota samples collected during 1987-91 from the Yakima River Basin in south-central Washington. The samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-quality Assessment (NAWQA) program which is designed to provide results that are useful in understanding and managing the Nation's water resources. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of chemical data, statistical summaries, and quality- control data. These data may be used by scientists and resource managers to describe (1) spatial distribution of selected major and minor elements in sediment, water, and aquatic biota of the Yakima River Basin; (2) temporal variation for element concentrations in filtered water and in suspended sediment at selected sites; (3) suita- bility of surface water for preservation of aquatic life and protection of human health; and (4) major natural and anthropogenic sources of major and minor elements in the Yakima River Basin that affect observed water-quality conditions.

  19. A review of selected inorganic surface water quality-monitoring practices: are we really measuring what we think, and if so, are we doing it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Successful environmental/water quality-monitoring programs usually require a balance between analytical capabilities, the collection and preservation of representative samples, and available financial/personnel resources. Due to current economic conditions, monitoring programs are under increasing pressure to do more with less. Hence, a review of current sampling and analytical methodologies, and some of the underlying assumptions that form the bases for these programs seems appropriate, to see if they are achieving their intended objectives within acceptable error limits and/or measurement uncertainty, in a cost-effective manner. That evaluation appears to indicate that several common sampling/processing/analytical procedures (e.g., dip (point) samples/measurements, nitrogen determinations, total recoverable analytical procedures) are generating biased or nonrepresentative data, and that some of the underlying assumptions relative to current programs, such as calendar-based sampling and stationarity are no longer defensible. The extensive use of statistical models as well as surrogates (e.g., turbidity) also needs to be re-examined because the hydrologic interrelationships that support their use tend to be dynamic rather than static. As a result, a number of monitoring programs may need redesigning, some sampling and analytical procedures may need to be updated, and model/surrogate interrelationships may require recalibration.

  20. Linking Land Use Changes to Surface Water Quality Variability in Lake Victoria: Some Insights From Remote Sensing (GC41B-1101)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; Mugo, Robinson; Wanjohi, James; Farah, Hussein; Wahome, Anastasia; Flores, Africa; Irwin, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Various land use changes driven by urbanization, conversion of grasslands and woodlands into farmlands, intensification of agricultural practices, deforestation, land fragmentation and degradation are taking place in Africa. In Kenya, agriculture is the main driver of land use conversions. The impacts of these land use changes are observable in land cover maps, and eventually in the hydrological systems. Reduction or change of natural vegetation cover types increases the speed of surface runoff and reduces water and nutrient retention capacities. This can lead to high nutrient inputs into lakes, resulting in eutrophication, siltation and infestation of floating aquatic vegetation. To assess if changes in land use could be contributing to increased phytoplankton blooms and sediment loads into Lake Victoria, we analyzed land use land cover data from Landsat, as well as surface chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter from MODIS-Aqua sensor.

  1. Streambed-material characteristics and surface-water quality, Green Pond Brook and tributaries, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1983-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, D.A.; Lacombe, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study designed to determine whether Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contain contaminated streambed sediments and to characterize the quaity of water in the brook. Results of previous investigations at Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County, New Jersey, indicate that significant contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil is present at the arsenal. Forty-five streambed-material samples were collected for analysis to determine whether contaminants have migrated to the brook from the surrounding area. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, base/neutral- and acid-etractable compounds, insecticides, and other constituents. Results of an electromagnetic-conductivity and natural-gamma-ray survey were used to describe the distribution of particle sizes in streambed and substreambed sediments. Historical results of analyses of streambed-material and surface-water samples also are presented. Samples of streambed material from three areas in Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contained organic and (or) inorganic constituents in concentrations greater than those typically found at the arsenal. These areas are Green Pond Brook, from the area near the outflow of Picatinny Lake downstream to Farley Avenue; Bear Swamp Brook, from the area near building 241 downstream to the confluence with Green Pond Brook; and Green Pond Brook, from the open burning area downstream to the dam near building 1178. Contaminants identified include trace elements, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine insecticides. Surface water in Green Pond Brook contained several volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dichloroethylene, at maximum concen- trations of 3.8, 4.6, and 11 micrograms per liter, respectively. Volatilization is expected to remove volatile organic compounds in the steep, fast- flowing reaches of the brook. No organic or inorganic constituents were detected in surface- water samples in concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Only two constituents, iron and manganese, were detected in concen- trations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations.

  2. Advancing Understanding of the Surface Water Quality Regime of Contemporary Mixed-Land-Use Watersheds: An Application of the Experimental Watershed Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Kellner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A representative watershed was instrumented with five gauging sites (n = 5, partitioning the catchment into five nested-scale sub-watersheds. Four physiochemical variables were monitored: water temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, and dissolved oxygen (DO. Data were collected four days per week from October 2010–May 2014 at each gauging site. Statistical analyses indicated significant differences (p < 0.05 between nearly every monitoring site pairing for each physiochemical variable. The water temperature regime displayed a threshold/step-change condition, with an upshifted and more variable regime attributable to the impacts of urban land uses. TDS, pH, and DO displayed similar spatiotemporal trends, with increasing median concentrations from site #1 (agriculture to #3 (mixed-use urban and decreasing median concentrations from site #3 to #5 (suburban. Decreasing concentrations and increasing streamflow volume with stream distance, suggest the contribution of dilution processes to the physiochemical regime of the creek below urban site #3. DO concentrations exceeded water quality standards on an average of 31% of observation days. Results showed seasonal trends for each physiochemical parameter, with higher TDS, pH, and DO during the cold season (November–April relative to the warm season (May–October. Multivariate modeling results emphasize the importance of the pH/DO relationship in these systems, and demonstrate the potential utility of a simple two factor model (water temperature and pH in accurately predicting DO. Collectively, results highlight the interacting influences of natural (autotrophic photosynthesis, organic detritus loading and anthropogenic (road salt application factors on the physiochemical regime of mixed-land-use watersheds.

  3. Characterization of surface-water quality based on real-time monitoring and regression analysis, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, south-central Kansas, December 1998 through June 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Because of the considerable wildlife benefits offered by the Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in south-central Kansas, there is a desire to ensure suitable water...

  4. Impact of waste dump on surface water quality and aquatic insect diversity of Deepor Beel (Ramsar site), Assam, North-east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dharitri; Gupta, Susmita

    2017-10-06

    Water and aquatic insects were collected seasonally from site 1, the low-lying area of the dump near Deepor Beel, and from sites 2 and 3 of the main wetland and analysed. While dissolved oxygen (DO) increased from site 1 to site 3 in each season, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), total alkalinity (TA) and free CO2 (F-CO2) decreased. Pb and Cd were found to exceed the limits set for drinking water in all the sites and seasons. Species richness (SpR) was found highest (23) at site 2 and lowest (14) at site 1. Sensitive species was absent. The Shannon (H') values at site 1 were sites 2 and 3 were > 1 in most of the seasons. Biological monitoring scores (Biological Monitoring Working Party and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number-Average Level) in different sites and seasons inferred severely poor to moderate water quality. At site 1, significant negative correlations were seen for Pb and Cr with SpR while Ni and Cu with insect density (ID). At site 2, TA had highly significant positive correlations with SpR and ID while Cu showed negative correlation with SpR. At site 3, ID had significant negative relationships with air temperature, water temperature, depth, TA, F-CO2, PO4(3-) and Cr. Canonical correspondence analysis triplot has clearly separated site 1 associated with tolerant species and highly influenced by TA, TDS, EC, F-CO2, Cr, Ni, Cd and Zn confirming high anthropogenic activities on that site. Tolerant and semitolerant species were present at site 2 (influenced by depth and transparency) and site 3 (influenced by Pb and WT) both. Results of this study discerned that the dump site is the point source of pollution.

  5. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  6. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.

  7. Modern power station practice incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PM

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains two additional features which enhance the value of Modern Power Station Practice as a whole: a cumulative subject index and a detailed list of tables of contents for the entire work. The cumulative index provides access to the vast body of information presented in the set, and also indicates at a glance the breadth and depth of the treatment through the use of inclusive page ranges for major topics. In order to allow the reader the greatest flexibility in using the index there are many cross-references. The entries themselves are qualified by up to two descriptive subheadi

  8. Evaluation of the single part lapping station pressure control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentesana, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    The electro-pneumatic pressure control system of a single part lapping station was evaluated to determine operating characteristics and to establish operating procedures and the suitability of control loop components. The effects of variations in upstream pressure, bleed valve opening, lap head clearance, control valve position, and system leaks on steady-state gain and system stability were investigated. Operating methods were established for adjusting machine parameters to linearize steady-state gain over the entire design pressure range. Component changes and additions were recommended for improved system performance. Limits on lap head clearance based on lap head discharge coefficients were established.

  9. Telescope site survey at the US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVittorio, Michael; Harris, Frederick; Subasavage, John; Cenko, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    We present the status of site testing being done at and near the US Naval Observatory's Flagstaff Station (NOFS). Differential image motion monitors (DIMM) will be used to measure r0, the Fried seeing parameter, at each candidate site. DIMM results will be correlated with image quality as measured by the NOFS 1.55-m telescope. In addition, sky darkness measurements will be made and analysis of water column measurements made nearby by NOAA will be discussed. Site history, measurement methodology, and preliminary results will be presented.

  10. Channel characterization in high-speed railway station environments at 1.89 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Tao, Cheng; Salous, Sana; Liu, Liu; Tan, Zhenhui

    2015-11-01

    Channel characterization is the prerequisite condition for the research and development of the next-generation high-speed railway (HSR) communication system. Train station is one of typical HSR scenarios, where channel characteristics have not yet been investigated sufficiently. In this paper, wideband multiantenna channel measurements are performed at 1.89 GHz in an open-type train station environment based on long-term evolution networks along Beijing to Tianjin HSR in China. Large-scale characteristics of the HSR station channel, focusing on path loss, shadow fading (SF), and the autocorrelation property of SF, are studied. Moreover, small-scale characteristics, such as Ricean K-factor, delay spread, and spatial correlation, are analyzed and modeled. In addition, the stationary region is characterized using the RUN test method. The obtained results provide useful information for deployment and assessment of the future HSR communication system in the HSR station scenario.

  11. Green Cellular - Optimizing the Cellular Network for Minimal Emission from Mobile Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Ezri, Doron

    2009-01-01

    Wireless systems, which include cellular phones, have become an essential part of the modern life. However the mounting evidence that cellular radiation might adversely affect the health of its users, leads to a growing concern among authorities and the general public. Radiating antennas in the proximity of the user, such as antennas of mobile phones are of special interest for this matter. In this paper we suggest a new architecture for wireless networks, aiming at minimal emission from mobile stations, without any additional radiation sources. The new architecture, dubbed Green Cellular, abandons the classical transceiver base station design and suggests the augmentation of transceiver base stations with receive only devices. These devices, dubbed Green Antennas, are not aiming at coverage extension but rather at minimizing the emission from mobile stations. We discuss the implications of the Green Cellular architecture on 3G and 4G cellular technologies. We conclude by showing that employing the Green Cell...

  12. NASA Alternate Access to Station Service Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. D.; Crumbly, C.

    2002-01-01

    The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for commercial and government services. The "service" concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the "service" is not only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research and enable industry to develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is implementing NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply

  13. Reevaluation of long-term Umkehr data and ozone profiles at Japanese stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Koji; Sasaki, Toru; Nakane, Hideaki; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Evans, Robert D.

    2009-04-01

    Umkehr observations have been routinely conducted at Japanese stations, Sapporo, Tsukuba, Kagoshima, and Naha, and the Antarctic station, Syowa, for more than 50 years. Umkehr data are a valuable source of information on long-term changes in the ozone vertical profile; however, the Umkehr record at Japanese stations has evident discontinuities. The majority of the discontinuities are related to the exchange of instruments for calibration (for total ozone measurements) and the replacement of instruments. These discontinuities may be related to the difference in instrument characteristics. In this article, reevaluation of the long-term Umkehr data in Japanese network is done by assessment of instrument-related changes in compared N values that exhibit solar zenith angle and total ozone dependence in addition to the step changes. The systematic errors are evaluated by simultaneous intercomparisons of each instrument with the reference instrument. Through this reevaluation, most discontinuities in a station's Umkehr time series are successfully corrected, and new sets of ozone vertical profiles are derived. The ozone profiles retrieved by two available Umkehr retrieval algorithms are compared with ozonesonde observations at every station and ozone lidar observations at Tsukuba. The results show that the revised Umkehr ozone profiles show improved consistency with both types of auxiliary ozone observations as compared to the old data sets, especially with regard to ozonesonde observations (difference of less than 5%). Trend analyses of the revised Umkehr ozone profile time series show a significant decrease in stratospheric ozone over Japan during the 1980s. It also varies between stations, with Naha showing the least significant trend among Japanese stations and Sapporo exhibiting as much as 6% of ozone decline per decade. In addition, a positive and statistically significant trend is detected in tropospheric ozone column at Naha (˜5.5% per decade) and Tsukuba (˜3

  14. Radio-location of mobile stations in third generation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Manojle Šunjevarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile station localization in mobile networks started with simple methods (e.g. Cell-ID method which required only slight modifications of network infrastructures. Principally, it was about network localization by which a localization service became available to all types of mobile phones. Due to low precision, the initiated development of more sophisticated methods has not been finished yet. Among the advanced location-based methods are those based on the measurement of location parameters in the time domain. In this paper the general consideration of radio location methods in 3G (UMTS radio networks is presented. The use of time based measurement methods was analysed in detail. Due to the limited article length, the use of other locating methods in 3G networks (based on power measurements, on radio direction measurement, and on cells identification – Cell ID and global positioning system - GPS are not described. Introduction Mobile station localization within modern cellular networks increases the level of user security and opens wide opportunities for commercial operators who provide this service. The major obstacle for the implementation of this service, which also prevents its practical usage, is the modification of the existing network infrastructure. In general, depending on the infrastructure used, positioning methods can be divided into two groups: integrated and independent. Integrated methods are primarily created for communication networks. A possibility to locate users represents just an additional service within a radio network. Independent methods are totally detached from the communication network in which the user whose location is being determined is. Radio location methods Determining the location of a mobile radio station is performed by determining the intersection of two or more lines of position. These lines represent the position of the set of points at which the mobile station may be located. These lines can be: (a

  15. Seismic interferometry with antipodal station pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Chi; Tsai, Victor C.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we analyze continuous data from all Global Seismographic Network stations between year 2000 and 2009 and demonstrate that several body wave phases (e.g., PP, PcPPKP, SKSP, and PPS) propagating between nearly antipodal station pairs can be clearly observed without array stacking using the noise/coda cross-correlation method. Based on temporal correlations with global seismicity, we show that the observed body waves are clearly earthquake related. Moreover, based on single-earthquake analysis, we show that the earthquake coda energy observed between ~10,000 and 30,000 s after a large earthquake contributes the majority of the signal. We refine our method based on these observations and show that the signal can be significantly improved by selecting only earthquake coda times. With our improved processing, the PKIKP phase, which does not benefit from the focusing effect near the antipode, can now also clearly be observed for long-distance station pairs.

  16. Centaur operations at the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.; Thompson, W.; Bennett, F.; Holdridge, J.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted on the feasibility of using a Centaur vehicle as a testbed to demonstrate critical OTV technologies at the Space Station. Two Technology Demonstration Missions (TDMs) were identified: (1) Accommodations, and (2) Operations. The Accommodations TDM contained: (1) berthing, (2) checkout, maintenance and safing, and (3) payload integration missions. The Operations TDM contained: (1) a cryogenic propellant resupply mission, and (2) Centaur deployment activities. A modified Space Station Co-Orbiting Platform (COP) was selected as the optimum refueling and launch node due to safety and operational considerations. After completion of the TDMs, the fueled Centaur would carry out a mission to actually test deployment and help offset TDM costs. From the Station, the Centaur could carry a single payload in excess of 20,000 pounds to geosynchronous orbit or multiple payloads.

  17. Impact of suntracking on Space Station controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Richard; Hu, Tsay-Hsin G.; Barber, Mark; Holmes, Eric

    The multibody dynamics of the Space Station is studied as affected by the suntracking motions of the photovotaic arrays. Dynamic responses are simulated for the Station being controlled by control moment gyros (CMGs). Controllability is shown to be a function of flight orientation, stage (inertial properties, CP-CG offset) and the suntracking dynamics. For certain combinations of these parameters, the aerodynamic, inertial disturbances and motor torques from alpha joint(s) arising from near-perfect suntracking are too large for the control moment gyro system to control. However, by imposing slight restrictions on the dynamics of the suntracking, CMGs are able to provide Station attitude stability with excellent pointing performance and an excellent microgravity environment.

  18. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log and radio watches. (a) Licensees of voluntary ships are not required to maintain radio station logs....

  20. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge of a station or hospital of the Service is authorized to adopt such rules and issue such instructions... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1225 - Station inspections by FCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspections by FCC. 73.1225 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1225 Station inspections by FCC. (a) The... FCC during the station's business hours, or at any time it is in operation. (b) In the course of...

  2. 47 CFR 74.3 - FCC inspections of stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FCC inspections of stations. 74.3 Section 74.3... Services in Part 74 § 74.3 FCC inspections of stations. (a) The licensee of a station authorized under this part must make the station available for inspection by representatives of the FCC during the...

  3. 76 FR 20249 - Update Station License Expiration Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ..., Arizona, Utah, New Mexico and Idaho: (i) Radio stations, October 1, 2013. (ii) Television stations... reflect the current license expiration dates for radio and television broadcast stations. The current... through 2015 for television stations; these expiration dates are long out of date. Modifying the rule...

  4. 47 CFR 80.72 - Antenna requirements for coast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for coast stations. 80.72 Section 80.72 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.72 Antenna requirements for coast stations. All emissions of a coast station a...

  5. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or...

  6. 47 CFR 73.621 - Noncommercial educational TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noncommercial educational TV stations. 73.621... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.621 Noncommercial educational TV stations... telecommunications service in § 73.646 are applicable to noncommercial educational TV stations. (g)...

  7. Gravitational biology on the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  8. XTP for the NASA space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Space Station is a truly international effort; therefore, its communications systems must conform to established international standards. Thus, NASA is requiring that each network-interface unit implement a full suite of ISO protocols. However, NASA is understandably concerned that a full ISO stack will not deliver performance consistent with the real-time demands of Space Station control systems. Therefore, as a research project, the suitability of the Xpress transfer protocol (XTP) is investigated along side a full ISO stack. The initial plans for implementing XTP and comparing its performance to ISO TP4 are described.

  9. Frontiers of technology. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, R.; Nolan, M.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the Space Station technology assessment efforts conducted by NASA under its Advanced Development Program, which has over the last three years enlisted 14 different disciplines in the refinement of every aspect of Space Station interior and exterior design. Major investigations have delved into the application of novel coatings to materials subjected to prolonged exposure to radiation, the design of berthing and docking mechanisms, the demonstration of EVA structural assembly methods in a neutral buoyancy water tank, and an investigation of the effects of meteoroids and space debris on EVA garments, which have prompted the development of a novel 'hard' suit.

  10. Rawhide Energy Station, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    The staff of Platte River Power Authority's Rawhide Energy Station have been racking up operating stats and an environmental performance record that is the envy of other plant managers. In the past decade Rawhide has enjoyed an equivalent availability factor in the mid to high 90s and an average capacity factor approaching 90%. Still not content with this performance, Rawhide invested in new technology and equipment upgrades to further optimise performance, reduce emissions, and keep cost competitive. The Energy Station includes four GE France 7EA natural gas-fired turbines totalling 260 MW and a 274 MW coal-fired unit located in northeastern Colorado. 7 figs.

  11. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  12. The Lizard Wireless Station of Guglielmo Marconi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montstein, Christian

    2014-08-01

    During the vacation with my wife in Cornwall, we by chance were walking by the Lizard wireless station, originally installed by Guglielmo Marconi and recently refurbished by The National Trust/UK. Fortunately the shed was open for public visitors and a student was present telling stories about the station and its history. The historic equipment was demonstrated by sending some Morse codes. The high voltage sparks and its sound were quite impressive while in the background the Morse code receiver punched dots and dashes onto the strip chart.

  13. Study of Electromagnetism Compatibility of Bleeper Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Transmitted power will decrease, cross-modulate distortion and inter-modulate distortion will be caused and antenna pattern will shift if transmitted antennas are fixed together. All these will lead to the alteration of area coverage. According to the basic theory of electromagnetism compatibility a computer model is established. We do some quantitative analysis of the problems above and give total number, arrangement mode and distance between antennas of bleeper station that operate at 150 MHz. The relation of these factors above are also given. All these are basis of the arrangement of antenna group of bleeper station.

  14. MODELING WORK OF SORTING STATION USING UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gorbova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is the construction of methods and models for the graphical representation process of sorting station, using the unified modeling language (UML. Methodology. Methods of graph theory, finite automata and the representation theory of queuing systems were used as the methods of investigation. A graphical representation of the process was implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language UML. The sorting station process representation is implemented as a state diagram and actions through a set of IBM Rational Rose. Graphs can show parallel operation of sorting station, the parallel existence and influence of objects process and the transition from one state to another. The IBM Rational Rose complex allows developing a diagram of work sequence of varying degrees of detailing. Findings. The study has developed a graphical representation method of the process of sorting station of different kind of complexity. All graphical representations are made using the UML. They are represented as a directed graph with the states. It is clear enough in the study of the subject area. Applying the methodology of the representation process, it allows becoming friendly with the work of any automation object very fast, and exploring the process during algorithms construction of sorting stations and other railway facilities. This model is implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language (UML using a combination of IBM Rational Rose. Originality. The representation process of sorting station was developed by means of the Unified Modeling Language (UML use. Methodology of representation process allows creating the directed graphs based on the order of execution of the works chain, objects and performers of these works. The UML allows visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting, formalizing the representation process of sorting station and developing sequence diagrams of works of varying degrees of detail. Practical

  15. Estimate of arsenic emission amount from the coal power stations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Kunli; ZHANG Xinmin; CHEN Changhe; LU Yilun

    2004-01-01

    To study the amount of arsenic emission from the coal power stations (mainly Permo-Carboniferous coal) in China in different combustion conditions, the arsenic content of the coal, the fly ash and the cinder in high- temperature power stations as well as mid-low temperature power stations have been analyzed. This note provides a rough estimate of the total amount of arsenic emission as well as emission ratio from steam coal combustion in China. The results show that by combustion of 1 t of Permo-Carbonif- erous coal (containing roughly 5 mg/kg arsenic), high-tem- perature power stations emit roughly 0.40 g arsenic into the atmosphere and the arsenic emission rate is about 7.70%; mid-low power stations emit roughly 0.15 g arsenic into the atmosphere and the arsenic emission rate is about 2.97%. A total of 600 million tons coal is burnt annually in China power stations, and the coal comes mainly from Permo- Carboniferous depositing in the North China Plate and northwest China coal mines. Taking the average arsenic content of the coal used at the value of 5 mg/kg, the total annual arsenic emission from steam coal combustion into the atmosphere is about 195.0 t. Most of the arsenic in coal can be released in the process of coal combustion, and the most of the released arsenic can be seized by the fly ash and then both of them are seized by the dust catcher of power station, so the arsenic emission ratio to the atmosphere is declined; in addition, research on the arsenic emission amount and emission rules from the coal power stations in China should go on the coal power stations with the dry-process dust catchers by the experiments results. In the wet process of dust catcher, 20% of the arsenic in the fly ash is dissolved in the water of sedimentation tank in high-temperature power station; in the mid-low temperature power station there are 70% of the arsenic in the fly ash dissolved in the water of sedimentation tank, this is an important source of arsenic pollution in

  16. A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within

  17. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. 25.137 Section 25.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL... space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition for Declaratory Ruling” requesting authority to operate with a non-U.S. licensed space station to serve the...

  18. 47 CFR 73.878 - Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC of station logs and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC... (LPFM) § 73.878 Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC of station logs and records. (a) The... FCC during the station's business hours, and at any time it is in operation. In the course of...

  19. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV... TV or TV translator station or change the facilities of an existing station will not be accepted...

  20. Levitation Technology in International Space Station Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinart-Ramirez, Y.; Cooley, V. M.; Love, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique multidisciplinary orbiting laboratory for science and technology research, enabling discoveries that benefit life on Earth and exploration of the universe. ISS facilities for containerless sample processing in Materials Science experiments include levitation devices with specimen positioning control while reducing containment vessel contamination. For example, ESA's EML (ElectroMagnetic Levitator), is used for melting and solidification of conductive metals, alloys, or semiconductors in ultra-high vacuum, or in high-purity gaseous atmospheres. Sample heating and positioning are accomplished through electromagnetic fields generated by a coil system. EML applications cover investigation of solidification and microstructural formation, evaluation of thermophysical properties of highly reactive metals (whose properties can be very sensitive to contamination), and examination of undercooled liquid metals to understand metastable phase convection and influence convection on structural changes. MSL utilization includes development of novel light-weight, high-performance materials. Another facility, JAXA's ELF (Electrostatic Levitation Furnace), is used to perform high temperature melting while avoiding chemical reactions with crucibles by levitating a sample through Coulomb force. ELF is capable of measuring density, surface tension, and viscosity of samples at high temperatures. One of the initial ELF investigations, Interfacial Energy-1, is aimed at clarification of interfacial phenomena between molten steels and oxide melts with industrial applications in control processes for liquid mixing. In addition to these Materials Science facilities, other ISS investigations that involve levitation employ it for biological research. For example, NASA's "Magnetic 3D Culturing and Bioprinting" investigation uses magnetic levitation for three-dimensional culturing and positioning of magnetized cells to generate spheroid assemblies