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Sample records for surface-emitting laser structures

  1. Ring cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujagic, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are electrically driven semiconductor lasers, which have undergone a steady improvement since the first demonstration in 1994. These are now well established as reliable sources of coherent light in the mid-infrared (MIR) and terahertz (THz)range of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-300 μm). The rapid progress of this type of lasers is based on a high degree of freedom in tailoring the emission wavelength within a large variety of semiconductor heterostructure designs and materials. These properties have attracted the attention of various applications such as gas analysis, chemical sensing, spectral imaging and free-space telecommunication. In order to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and efficiency of today's sensor systems, high optical power, continuous wave and room temperature performance, single-mode operation and low divergence optical beams, are highly desirable qualities of a compact laser source in this field of research. Since all of these features cannot be provided by a conventional edge-emitting device at the same time, research has put focus on the development of surface emitting devices. Nowadays, the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the most prominent representative for this type of light emitters. With its capability of producing narrow circular beams, the feasibility of two-dimensional arrays and on-wafer testing, such a coherent light source results in a reduction of the fabrication effort and production costs. Since the radiation in QCLs is strictly polarized normal to the epitaxial layer plane, fabrication of VCSELs based on QC structures is not viable. The subject of this work is the design and realization of 'ring cavity surface emitting lasers' (ring-CSELs). This type of lasers employs a circular ring cavity and a resonant distributed feedback (DFB) surface grating. Ring-CSELs were fabricated on the basis of MIR and THz QC structures, which cover a wavelength range from 4 μm to 93

  2. Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szedlak, Rolf; Hayden, Jakob; Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Holzbauer, Martin; Harrer, Andreas; Schwarz, Benedikt; Hinkov, Borislav; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Acedo, Pablo; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2018-01-01

    We review recent advances in chemical sensing applications based on surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Such lasers can be implemented in monolithically integrated on-chip laser/detector devices forming compact gas sensors, which are based on direct absorption spectroscopy according to the Beer-Lambert law. Furthermore, we present experimental results on radio frequency modulation up to 150 MHz of surface emitting ring QCLs. This technique provides detailed insight into the modulation characteristics of such lasers. The gained knowledge facilitates the utilization of ring QCLs in combination with spectroscopic techniques, such as heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy for gas detection and analysis.

  3. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, G. M. T. [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Hosea, T. J. C., E-mail: j.hosea@surrey.ac.uk [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J. [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität Munchen, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-07

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices.

  4. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, G. M. T.; Hosea, T. J. C.; Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J.; Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C.

    2014-01-01

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices

  5. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for medical diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor

    This thesis deals with the design and fabrication of tunable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The focus has been the application of tunable VCSELs in medical diagnostics, specifically OCT. VCSELs are candidates as light sources for swept-source OCT where their high sweep rate, wide...

  6. Modeling of circular-grating surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, Ali M.

    Grating-coupled surface-emitting lasers became an area of growing interest due to their salient features. Emission from a broad area normal to the wafer surface, makes them very well suited in high power applications and two- dimensional laser arrays. These new possibilities have caused an interest in different geometries to fully develop their potential. Among them, circular-grating lasers have the additional advantage of producing a narrow beam with a circular cross section. This special feature makes them ideal for coupling to optical fibers. All existing theoretical models dealing with circular- grating lasers only consider first-order gratings, or second-order gratings, neglecting surface emission. In this thesis, the emphasis is to develop accurate models describing the laser performance by considering the radiation field. Toward this aim, and due to the importance of the radiation modes in surface-emitting structures, a theoretical study of these modes in multilayer planar structures has been done in a rigorous and systematic fashion. Problems like orthogonality of the radiation modes have been treated very accurately. We have considered the inner product of radiation modes using the distribution theory. Orthogonality of degenerate radiation modes is an important issue. We have examined its validity using the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that orthogonality of degenerate radiation modes in a very special case leads to the Brewster theorem. In addition, simple analytical formulas for the normalization of radiation modes have been derived. We have shown that radiation modes can be handled in a much easier way than has been thought before. A closed-form spectral dyadic Green's function formulation of multilayer planar structures has been developed. In this formulation, both rectangular and cylindrical structures can be treated within the same mathematical framework. The Hankel transform of some auxiliary functions defined on a circular aperture has

  7. Transverse-mode-selectable microlens vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Lee, Yong Tak

    2010-01-01

    A new vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a thin microlens is suggested and numerically investigated. The laser can be made to emit in either a high-power Gaussian-shaped single-fundamental mode or a high-power doughnut-shaped higher-order mode. The physical origin...

  8. Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J S; O'sullivan, T; Sarmiento, T; Lee, M M; Vo, S

    2011-01-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting at 850 nm have experienced explosive growth in the past decade because of their many attractive optical features and incredibly low-cost manufacturability. This review reviews the foundations for GaAs-based VCSEL technology as well as the materials and device challenges to extend the operating wavelength to both shorter and longer wavelengths. We discuss some of the applications that are enabled by the integration of VCSELs with both active and passive semiconductor elements for telecommunications, both in vivo and in vitro biosensing, high-density optical storage and imaging at wavelengths much less than the diffraction limit of light

  9. Submonolayer Quantum Dots for High Speed Surface Emitting Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov ND

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe report on progress in growth and applications of submonolayer (SML quantum dots (QDs in high-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs. SML deposition enables controlled formation of high density QD arrays with good size and shape uniformity. Further increase in excitonic absorption and gain is possible with vertical stacking of SML QDs using ultrathin spacer layers. Vertically correlated, tilted or anticorrelated arrangements of the SML islands are realized and allow QD strain and wavefunction engineering. Respectively, both TE and TM polarizations of the luminescence can be achieved in the edge-emission using the same constituting materials. SML QDs provide ultrahigh modal gain, reduced temperature depletion and gain saturation effects when used in active media in laser diodes. Temperature robustness up to 100 °C for 0.98 μm range vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs is realized in the continuous wave regime. An open eye 20 Gb/s operation with bit error rates better than 10−12has been achieved in a temperature range 25–85 °Cwithout current adjustment. Relaxation oscillations up to ∼30 GHz have been realized indicating feasibility of 40 Gb/s signal transmission.

  10. 2 W high efficiency PbS mid-infrared surface emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, A.; Sugiyama, Y.; Isaji, Y.; Kodama, K.; Takano, Y.; Sakata, H.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.

    2011-09-01

    High efficiency laser operation with output power exceeding 2 W was obtained for vertical external-cavity PbS based IV-VI compound surface emitting quantum-well structures. The laser showed external quantum efficiency as high as 16%. Generally, mid-infrared III-V or II-VI semiconductor laser operation utilizing interband electron transitions are restricted by Auger recombination and free carrier absorption. Auger recombination is much lower in the IV-VI semiconductors, and the free-carrier absorption is significantly reduced by an optically pumped laser structure including multi-step optical excitation layers.

  11. Optoelectronic integrated circuits utilising vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S D; Fyodorov, V B; Tsvetkov, V V

    1999-01-01

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits with additional optical inputs/outputs, in which vertical-cavity surface-emitting (VCSE) lasers perform the data transfer functions, are considered. The mutual relationship and the 'affinity' between optical means for data transfer and processing, on the one hand, and the traditional electronic component base, on the other, are demonstrated in the case of implementation of three-dimensional interconnects with a high transmission capacity. Attention is drawn to the problems encountered when semiconductor injection lasers are used in communication lines. It is shown what role can be played by VCSE lasers in solving these problems. A detailed analysis is made of the topics relating to possible structural and technological solutions in the fabrication of single lasers and of their arrays, and also of the problems hindering integrating of lasers into emitter arrays. Considerable attention is given to integrated circuits with optoelectronic smart pixels. Various technological methods for vertical integration of GaAs VCSE lasers with the silicon substrate of a microcircuit (chip) are discussed. (review)

  12. Commercial mode-locked vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, C. Robin; Paboeuf, David; Ortega, Tiago; Lubeigt, Walter; Bialkowski, Bartlomiej; Lin, Jipeng; Hempler, Nils; Maker, Gareth T.; Malcolm, Graeme P. A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the latest efforts in the development of commercial optically-pumped semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) at M Squared Lasers. Two types of SDLs are currently being developed: an ultrafast system and a continuous wave single frequency system under the names of Dragonfly and Infinite, respectively. Both offer a compact, low-cost, easy-to-use and maintenance-free tool for a range of growing markets including nonlinear microscopy and quantum technology. To facilitate consumer uptake of the SDL technology, the performance specifications aim to closely match the currently employed systems. An extended Dragonfly system is being developed targeting the nonlinear microscopy market, which typically requires 1-W average power pulse trains with pulse durations below 200 fs. The pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of the commonly used laser systems, typically Titanium-sapphire lasers, is 80 MHz. This property is particularly challenging for mode-locked SDLs which tend to operate at GHz repetition rates, due to their short upper state carrier lifetime. Dragonfly has found a compromise at 200 MHz to balance mode-locking instabilities with a low PRF. In the ongoing development of Dragonfly, additional pulse compression and nonlinear spectral broadening stages are used to obtain pulse durations as short as 130 fs with an average power of 0.85 W, approaching the required performance. A variant of the Infinite system was adapted to provide a laser source suitable for the first stage of Sr atom cooling at 461 nm. Such a source requires average powers of approximately 1 W with a sub-MHz linewidth. As direct emission in the blue is not a viable approach at this stage, an SDL emitting at 922 nm followed by an M Squared Lasers SolTiS ECD-X doubler is currently under development. The SDL oscillator delivered >1 W of single frequency (RMS frequency noise <150kHz) light at 922 nm.

  13. Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhti, T; Okhotnikov, O; Konttinen, J; Gomes, L A; Peng, C S; Karirinne, S; Pavelescu, E-M; Pessa, M

    2003-01-01

    A novel quaternary compound semiconductor material, Ga 1-x In x N y As 1-y (0 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.014 As 0.986 /GaAs quantum wells with special strain-mediating layers. The laser characterization was carried out by using a fibre pigtailed 980 nm pump laser diode, 980/1300 nm wavelength division multiplexer and an optical spectrum analyser. A high optical output power of 3.5 mW was coupled lenslessly into a standard single-mode fibre

  14. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser vapor sensor using swelling polymer reflection modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgård; Dohn, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Vapor detection using a low-refractive index polymer for reflection modulation of the top mirror in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is demonstrated. The VCSEL sensor concept presents a simple method to detect the response of a sensor polymer in the presence of volatile organic...

  15. Acetone vapor sensing using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode coated with polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2009-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental on a new vapor sensor, using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coated with a polymer sensor coating, which can detect acetone vapor at a volume fraction of 2.5%. The sensor provides the advantage of standard packaging, small form...

  16. Polymer-coated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode vapor sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    We report a new method for monitoring vapor concentration of volatile organic compounds using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The VCSEL is coated with a polymer thin film on the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The analyte absorption is transduced to the electrical domain ...

  17. Design of photonic crystal surface emitting lasers with indium-tin-oxide top claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shen-Che; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Chiu, Han-Lun; Lan, Shao-Wun; Chang, Tsu-Chi; Li, Heng; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2018-02-01

    Electrically pumped GaAs-based photonic crystal surface emitting lasers were fabricated using a simple fabrication process by directly capping the indium-tin-oxide transparent conducting thin film as the top cladding layer upon a photonic crystal layer. Optimization of the separate-confinement heterostructures of a laser structure is crucial to improving characteristics by providing advantageous optical confinements. The turn-on voltage, series resistance, threshold current, and slope efficiency of the laser with a 100 × 100 μm2 photonic crystal area operated at room temperature were 1.3 V, 1.5 Ω, 121 mA, and 0.2 W/A, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated a single-lobed lasing wavelength of 928.6 nm at 200 mA and a wavelength redshift rate of 0.05 nm/K in temperature-dependent measurements. The device exhibited the maximum output power of approximately 400 mW at an injection current of 2 A; moreover, divergence angles of less than 1° for the unpolarized circular-shaped laser beam were measured at various injection currents. Overall, the low threshold current, excellent beam quality, small divergence, high output power, and high-operating-temperature (up to 343 K) of our devices indicate that they can potentially fill the requirements for next-generation light sources and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Ultrafast directional beam switching in coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, C. Z.; Goorjian, P.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a strategy to performing ultrafast directional beam switching using two coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The proposed strategy is demonstrated for two VCSELs of 5.6 μm in diameter placed about 1 μm apart from the edges, showing a switching speed of 42 GHz with a maximum far-field angle span of about 10 degree. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Spectral-Modulation Characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas'kovskaya, M. I.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Zibrov, S. A.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Velichanskii, V. L.

    2018-01-01

    The requirements imposed on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in a number of metrological problems in which optical pumping of alkali atoms is used are considered. For lasers produced by different manufacturers, these requirements are compared with the experimentally observed spectral characteristics at a constant pump current and in the microwave modulation mode. It is shown that a comparatively small number of lasers in the microwave modulation mode make it possible to obtain the spectrum required for atomic clocks based on the coherent population-trapping effect.

  20. 850-nm Zn-diffusion vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with with oxide-relief structure for high-speed and energy-efficient optical interconnects from very-short to medium (2km) reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jason (Jyehong); Yang, Ying-Jay

    2015-03-01

    High-speed and "green" ~850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have lately attracted lots of attention due to their suitability for applications in optical interconnects (OIs). To further enhance the speed and its maximum allowable linking distance of VCSELs are two major trends to meet the requirement of OI in next generation data centers. Recently, by use of the advanced 850 nm VCSEL technique, data rate as high as 64 Gbit/sec over 57m and 20 Gbit/sec over 2km MMF transmission have been demonstrated, respectively. Here, we will review our recent work about 850 nm Zn-diffusion VCSELs with oxide-relief apertures to further enhance the above-mentioned performances. By using Zn-diffusion, we can not only reduce the device resistance but also manipulate the number of optical modes to benefit transmission. Combing such device, which has excellent single-mode (SMSR >30 dB) and high-power (~7mW) performance, with advanced modulation format (OFDM), record-high bit-rate-distance-product through MMF (2.3 km×28 Gbit/sec) has been demonstrated. Furthermore, by selective etching away the oxide aperture inside Zn-diffusion VCSEL, significant enhancement of device speed, D-factor, and reliability can be observed. With such unique VCSEL structure, >40 Gbit/sec energy-efficient transmission over 100m MMF under extremely low-driving current density (<10kA/cm2) has been successfully demonstrated.

  1. Operation of a novel hot-electron vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Naci; O'Brien-Davies, Angela; Thoms, A. B.; Potter, Richard J.; Poolton, Nigel; Adams, Michael J.; Masum, J.; Bek, Alpan; Serpenguzel, Ali; Aydinli, Atilla; Roberts, John S.

    1998-07-01

    The hot Electron Light Emission and Lasing in Semiconductor Heterostructures devices (HELLISH-1) is novel surface emitter consisting of a GaAs quantum well, within the depletion region, on the n side of Ga1-xAlxAs p- n junction. It utilizes hot electron transport parallel to the layers and injection of hot electron hole pairs into the quantum well through a combination of mechanisms including tunnelling, thermionic emission and diffusion of `lucky' carriers. Super Radiant HELLISH-1 is an advanced structure incorporating a lower distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Combined with the finite reflectivity of the upper semiconductor-air interface reflectivity it defines a quasi- resonant cavity enabling emission output from the top surface with a higher spectral purity. The output power has increased by two orders of magnitude and reduced the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 20 nm. An upper DBR added to the structure defines HELLISH-VCSEL which is currently the first operational hot electron surface emitting laser and lases at room temperature with a 1.5 nm FWHM. In this work we demonstrate and compare the operation of UB-HELLISH-1 and HELLISH-VCSEL using experimental and theoretical reflectivity spectra over an extensive temperature range.

  2. 5-μm vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) for spectroscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Felder, F.; Fill, M.; Zogg, H.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2010-08-01

    Mid-IR tunable VECSELs (Vertical External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers) emitting at 4-7 μm wavelengths and suitable for spectroscopic sensing applications are described. They are realized with lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) narrow band gap materials. The active part, a single 0.6-2-μm thick PbTe or PbSe gain layer, is grown onto an epitaxial Bragg mirror consisting of two or three Pb1- y Eu y Te/BaF2 quarter-wavelength layer pairs. All layers are deposited by MBE in a single run employing a BaF2 or Si substrate, no further processing is needed. The cavity is completed with an external curved top mirror, which is again realized with an epitaxial Bragg structure. Pumping is performed optically with a 1.5-μm laser. Maximum output power for pulsed operation is currently up to >1 Wp at -173°C and >10 mW at 10°C. In continuous wave (CW) operation, 18 mW at 100 K are reached. Still higher operating temperatures and/or powers are expected with better heat-removal structures and better designs employing QW (Quantum-Wells). Advantages of mid-IR VECSELs compared to edge-emitting lasers are their very good beam quality (circular beam with 15 μm are accessible with Pb1- y X y Z (X=Sr, Eu, Sn, Z=Se, Te) and/or including QW.

  3. Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, David; Greve, Anders; Hvam, Jørn M.; Boisen, Anja; Yvind, Kresten

    2009-03-01

    We have experimentally investigated self-mixing interference produced by the feedback of light from a polymer micrometer-sized cantilever into a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for sensing applications. In particular we have investigated how the visibility of the optical output power and the junction voltage depends on the laser injection current and the distance to the cantilever. The highest power visibility obtained from cantilevers without reflective coatings was ˜60%, resulting in a very high sensitivity of 45 mV/nm with a noise floor below 1.2 mV. Different detection schemes are discussed.

  4. Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Greve, Anders; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2009-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated self-mixing interference produced by the feedback of light from a polymer micrometer-sized cantilever into a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for sensing applications. In particular we have investigated how the visibility of the optical output power...... and the junction voltage depends on the laser injection current and the distance to the cantilever. The highest power visibility obtained from cantilevers without reflective coatings was 60%, resulting in a very high sensitivity of 45 mV/nm with a noise floor below 1.2 mV. Different detection schemes are discussed....

  5. Sub-monolayer dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, S.A.; Maleev, N.A.; Kuz'menkov, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum-dot active region and doped with AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. 3 μm aperture single-mode VCSELs demonstrate lasing at 980 nm with threshold current of 0.6 mA, maximum output power of 4 mW and external differential efficiency as high as 68%. Ultimately low internal optical losses were measured for these multimode sub-monolayer quantum dot VCSELs [ru

  6. VCSELs Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The huge progress which has been achieved in the field is covered here, in the first comprehensive monograph on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) since eight years. Apart from chapters reviewing the research field and the laser fundamentals, there are comprehensive updates on red and blue emitting VCSELs, telecommunication VCSELs, optical transceivers, and parallel-optical links for computer interconnects. Entirely new contributions are made to the fields of vectorial three-dimensional optical modeling, single-mode VCSELs, polarization control, polarization dynamics, very-high-speed design, high-power emission, use of high-contrast gratings, GaInNAsSb long-wavelength VCSELs, optical video links, VCSELs for optical mice and sensing, as well as VCSEL-based laser printing. The book appeals to researchers, optical engineers and graduate students.

  7. High-power, format-flexible, 885-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chad; Talantov, Fedor; Garrett, Henry; Berdin, Glen; Cardellino, Terri; Millenheft, David; Geske, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    High-power, format flexible, 885 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays have been developed for solid-state pumping and illumination applications. In this approach, a common VCSEL size format was designed to enable tiling into flexible formats and operating configurations. The fabrication of a common chip size on ceramic submount enables low-cost volume manufacturing of high-power VCSEL arrays. This base VCSEL chip was designed to be 5x3.33 mm2, and produced up to 50 Watts of peak continuous wave (CW) power. To scale to higher powers, multiple chips can be tiled into a combination of series or parallel configurations tailored to the application driver conditions. In actively cooled CW operation, the VCSEL array chips were packaged onto a single water channel cooler, and we have demonstrated 0.5x1, 1x1, and 1x3 cm2 formats, producing 150, 250, and 500 Watts of peak power, respectively, in under 130 A operating current. In QCW operation, the 1x3 cm2 VCSEL module, which contains 18 VCSEL array chips packaged on a single water cooler, produced over 1.3 kW of peak power. In passively cooled packages, multiple chip configurations have been developed for illumination applications, producing over 300 Watts of peak power in QCW operating conditions. These VCSEL chips use a substrate-removed structure to allow for efficient thermal heatsinking to enable high-power operation. This scalable, format flexible VCSEL architecture can be applied to wavelengths ranging from 800 to 1100 nm, and can be used to tailor emission spectral widths and build high-power hyperspectral sources.

  8. Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Hobrecker, F.; Zogg, H.

    2010-10-01

    A tunable PbTe based mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser is described. The active part is a ˜1 μm thick PbTe layer grown epitaxially on a Bragg mirror on the Si-substrate. The cavity is terminated with a curved Si/SiO Bragg top mirror and pumped optically with a 1.55 μm laser. Cavity length is <100 μm in order that only one longitudinal mode is supported. By changing the cavity length, up to 5% wavelength continuous and mode-hop free tuning is achieved at fixed temperature. The total tuning extends from 5.6 to 4.7 μm at 100-170 K operation temperature.

  9. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers from all-inorganic perovskite quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Handong; Wang, Yue; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Haibo

    We report the breakthrough in realizing the challenging while practically desirable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on the CsPbX3 inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (IPNCs). These laser devices feature record low threshold (9 µJ/cm2), unidirectional output (beam divergence of 3.6º) and superb stability. We show that both single-mode and multimode lasing operation are achievable in the device. In contrast to traditional metal chacogenide colloidal quantum dots based lasers where the pump thresholds for the green and blue wavelengths are typically much higher than that of the red, these CsPbX3 IPNC-VCSEL devices are able to lase with comparable thresholds across the whole visible spectral range, which is appealing for achieving single source-pumped full-color lasers. We further reveal that these lasers can operate in quasi-steady state regime, which is very practical and cost-effective. Given the facile solution processibility, our CsPbX3 IPNC-VCSEL devices may hold great potential in developing low-cost yet high-performance lasers, promising in revolutionizing the vacuum-based epitaxial semiconductor lasers.

  10. Photodegradation and polarization properties of vertical external surface-emitting organic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leang, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Although organic solid-state dye lasers can provide wavelength tunability in the whole visible spectrum and offers perspectives of low-cost compact lasers, they are still limited by several drawbacks, especially photodegradation. The geometry of a Vertical External Cavity Surface-emitting Organic Laser (VECSOL) enables organic lasers to reach high energies, excellent conversion efficiencies and good beam quality, it also enables an external control on many parameters, a feature that we have used here to study the photodegradation phenomenon as well as some polarization properties of organic solid-state lasers. In the first part of this thesis, we studied the lifetime of the laser upon varying several parameters (pump pulse-width, repetition rate, output coupling,...) and we found that the intracavity laser intensity, independently of the pump intensity, had a major on photodegradation rate. Moreover, we observed that the profile of the laser beam was also degrading with time: while it is Gaussian in the beginning it gradually shifts to an annular shape. In the second part, we investigated the polarization properties of VECSOLs, with a special emphasis on fluorescence properties of some typical dyes used in lasers. The crucial role played by resonant non-radiative energy transfers between dye molecules (HOMO-FRET) is evidenced and enables explaining the observed fluorescence depolarization, compared to the expected limiting fluorescence anisotropy. Energy transfers happen to play a negligible role above laser threshold, as the organic laser beam is shown to be linearly polarized in a wide range of experimental conditions when excitation occurs in the first singlet state. (author) [fr

  11. The simulation of thermal characteristics of 980 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tianxiao; Cui, Bifeng; Hao, Shuai; Wang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    In order to design a single mode 980 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a 2 μm output aperture is designed to guarantee the single mode output. The effects of different mesa sizes on the lattice temperature, the output power and the voltage are simulated under the condition of continuous working at room temperature, to obtain the optimum process parameters of mesa. It is obtained by results of the crosslight simulation software that the sizes of mesa radius are between 9.5 to 12.5 μm, which cannot only obtain the maximum output power, but also improve the heat dissipation of the device. Project supported by the Beijing Municipal Eduaction Commission (No. PXM2016_014204_500018) and the Construction of Scientific and Technological Innovation Service Ability in 2017 (No. PXM2017_014204_500034).

  12. Reactive ion beam etching for microcavity surface emitting laser fabrication: technology and damage characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, A.; Tadokoro, T.; Koyama, F.; Iga, K.

    1993-01-01

    Reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) is an effective dry etching technique for the fabrication of micro-sized surface emitting (SE) lasers and optoelectronic devices. In this chapter, some etching characteristics for GaAs, InP and GaInAsP with a Cl 2 gas using an RIBE system are discussed. Micro-sized circular mesas including GaInAsP/InP multilayers with vertical sidewalls were fabricated. RIBE-induced damage in InP substrates was estimated by C-V and PL measurement. In addition, the removal of the induced damage by the second RIBE with different conditions for the InP wafer was proposed. The sidewall damage is characterized by photoluminescence emitted from the etched sidewall of a GaInAsP/InP DH wafer. (orig.)

  13. Proton irradiation effects in oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Swift, G.M.; Guertin, S.; Schwank, J.R.; Armendariz, M.G.; Hash, G.L.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes are employed as the emitter portion of opto-couplers that are used in space applications. Proton irradiation studies on VCSELs were performed at the Indiana University cyclotron facility. The beam energy was set at 192 MeV, the beam current was 200 nA that is equivalent to a flux of approximately 1*10 11 protons/cm 2 .s. We conclude that the oxide confined VCSELs examined in this study show more than sufficient radiation hardness for nearly all space applications. The observed proton-induced decreases in light output and the corresponding increases in laser threshold current can be explained in terms of proton-induced displacement damage which introduces non-radiative recombination centers in the active region of the lasers and causes a decrease in laser efficiency. These radiation effects accentuate the detrimental thermal effects observed at high currents. We also note that forward bias annealing is effective in these devices in producing at least partial recovery of the light output, and that this may be a viable hardness assurance technique during a flight mission. (A.C.)

  14. PbSe quantum well mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, M.; Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.

    2011-05-01

    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers based on PbSe/PbSrSe multi-quantum-well structures on Si-substrates are realized. A modular design allows growing the active region and the bottom Bragg mirror on two different Si-substrates, thus facilitating comparison between different structures. Lasing is observed from 3.3 to 5.1 μm wavelength and up to 52 °C heat sink temperature with 1.55 μm optical pumping. Simulations show that threshold powers are limited by Shockley-Read recombination with lifetimes as short as 0.1 ns. At higher temperatures, an additional threshold power increase occurs probably due to limited carrier diffusion length and carrier leakage, caused by an unfavorable band alignment.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of an optically injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaofeng; Pan Wei; Luo Bin; Ma Dong; Wang Yong; Li Nuohan

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with external optical injection are studied numerically. We consider a master-slave configuration where the dynamic characteristics of the slave are affected by the optical injection from the master, and we also establish the corresponding Simulink model. The period-doubling route as well as the period-halving route is observed, where the regular, double-periodic, and chaotic pulsings are found. By adjusting the injection strength properly, the laser can be controlled to work at a given state. The effects of frequency detuning on the nonlinear behaviors are also investigated in terms of the bifurcation diagrams of photon density with the frequency detuning. For weak injection case, the nonlinear dynamics shown by the laser are quite different when the value of frequency detuning varies contrarily (positive and negative direction). If the optical injection is strong enough, the slave can be locked by the master even though the frequency detuning is relatively large

  16. Spin-controlled ultrafast vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höpfner, Henning; Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-05-01

    Spin-controlled semiconductor lasers are highly attractive spintronic devices providing characteristics superior to their conventional purely charge-based counterparts. In particular, spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) promise to offer lower thresholds, enhanced emission intensity, spin amplification, full polarization control, chirp control and ultrafast dynamics. Most important, the ability to control and modulate the polarization state of the laser emission with extraordinarily high frequencies is very attractive for many applications like broadband optical communication and ultrafast optical switches. We present a novel concept for ultrafast spin-VCSELs which has the potential to overcome the conventional speed limitation for directly modulated lasers by the relaxation oscillation frequency and to reach modulation frequencies significantly above 100 GHz. The concept is based on the coupled spin-photon dynamics in birefringent micro-cavity lasers. By injecting spin-polarized carriers in the VCSEL, oscillations of the coupled spin-photon system can by induced which lead to oscillations of the polarization state of the laser emission. These oscillations are decoupled from conventional relaxation oscillations of the carrier-photon system and can be much faster than these. Utilizing these polarization oscillations is thus a very promising approach to develop ultrafast spin-VCSELs for high speed optical data communication in the near future. Different aspects of the spin and polarization dynamics, its connection to birefringence and bistability in the cavity, controlled switching of the oscillations, and the limitations of this novel approach will be analysed theoretically and experimentally for spin-polarized VCSELs at room temperature.

  17. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Matthias; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Felder, Ferdinand; Zogg, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  18. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fill, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Debernardi, Pierluigi [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy); Felder, Ferdinand [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Zogg, Hans [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-11

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  19. Surface-Emitting Distributed Feedback Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers in Metal-Metal Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Williams, Benjamin S.; Qin, Qi; Lee, Alan W. M.; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Single-mode surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantumcascade lasers operating around 2.9 THz are developed in metal-metal waveguides. A combination of techniques including precise control of phase of reflection at the facets, and u e of metal on the sidewalls to eliminate higher-order lateral modes allow robust single-mode operation over a range of approximately 0.35 THz. Single-lobed far-field radiation pattern is obtained using a pi phase-shift in center of the second-order Bragg grating. A grating device operating at 2.93 THz lased up to 149 K in pulsed mode and a temperature tuning of 19 .7 GHz was observed from 5 K to 147 K. The same device lased up to 78 K in continuous-wave (cw) mode emitting more than 6 m W of cw power at 5 K. ln general, maximum temperature of pulsed operation for grating devices was within a few Kelvin of that of multi-mode Fabry-Perot ridge lasers

  20. Transverse and polarization effects in index-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, M. S.; Masoller, C.; Mandel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We study numerically the polarization dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) operating in the fundamental transverse mode. We use an extension of the spin-flip model that not only accounts for the vector nature of the laser field, but also considers spatial transverse effects. The model assumes two orthogonal, linearly polarized fields, which are coupled to two carrier populations, associated with different spin sublevels of the conduction and valence bands in the quantum-well active region. Spatial effects are taken into account by considering transverse profiles for the two polarizations, for the two carrier populations, and for the carrier diffusion. The optical profile is the LP 01 mode, suitable for describing index-guided VCSEL's with cylindrical symmetry emitting on the fundamental transverse mode for both polarizations. We find that in small-active-region VCSEL's, fast carrier diffusion induces self-sustained oscillations of the total laser output, which are not present in larger-area devices or with slow carrier diffusion. These self-pulsations appear close to threshold, and, as the injection current increases, they grow in amplitude; however, there is saturation and the self-pulsations disappear at higher injection levels. The dependence of the oscillation amplitude on various laser parameters is investigated, and the results are found to be in good qualitative agreement with those reported by Van der Sande et al. [Opt. Lett. 29, 53 (2004)], based on a rate-equation model that takes into account transverse inhomogeneities through an intensity-dependent confinement factor

  1. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; Margalith, T.; Lee, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  2. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2015-07-06

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  3. Optical Injection Locking of Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Digital and Analog Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Devang

    With the rise of mobile (cellphones, tablets, notebooks, etc.) and broadband wireline communications (Fiber to the Home), there are increasing demands being placed on transmitters for moving data from device to device and around the world. Digital and analog fiber-optic communications have been the key technology to meet this challenge, ushering in ubiquitous Internet and cable TV over the past 20 years. At the physical layer, high-volume low-cost manufacturing of semiconductor optoelectronic devices has played an integral role in allowing for deployment of high-speed communication links. In particular, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) have revolutionized short reach communications and are poised to enter more markets due to their low cost, small size, and performance. However, VCSELs have disadvantages such as limited modulation performance and large frequency chirp which limits fiber transmission speed and distance, key parameters for many fiber-optic communication systems. Optical injection locking is one method to overcome these limitations without re-engineering the VCSEL at the device level. By locking the frequency and phase of the VCSEL by the direct injection of light from another laser oscillator, improved device performance is achieved in a post-fabrication method. In this dissertation, optical injection locking of VCSELs is investigated from an applications perspective. Optical injection locking of VCSELs can be used as a pathway to reduce complexity, cost, and size of both digital and analog fiber-optic communications. On the digital front, reduction of frequency chirp via bit pattern inversion for large-signal modulation is experimentally demonstrated showing up to 10 times reduction in frequency chirp and over 90 times increase in fiber transmission distance. Based on these results, a new reflection-based interferometric model for optical injection locking was established to explain this phenomenon. On the analog side, the resonance

  4. Few-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: Optional emission of transverse modes with different polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chuyu; Zhang, Xing; Hofmann, Werner; Yu, Lijuan; Liu, Jianguo; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2018-05-01

    Few-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers that can be controlled to emit certain modes and polarization states simply by changing the biased contacts are proposed and fabricated. By directly etching trenches in the p-doped distributed Bragg reflector, the upper mesa is separated into several submesas above the oxide layer. Individual contacts are then deposited. Each contact is used to control certain transverse modes with different polarization directions emitted from the corresponding submesa. These new devices can be seen as a prototype of compact laser sources in mode division multiplexing communications systems.

  5. Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzson, Béla; Jágerská, Jana; Looser, Herbert; Graf, Manuel; Felder, Ferdinand; Fill, Matthias; Tappy, Luc; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-06-20

    A broadly tunable mid-infrared vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is employed in a direct absorption laser spectroscopic setup to measure breath acetone. The large wavelength coverage of more than 30 cm -1 at 3.38 μm allows, in addition to acetone, the simultaneous measurement of isoprene, ethanol, methanol, methane, and water. Despite the severe spectral interferences from water and alcohols, an unambiguous determination of acetone is demonstrated with a precision of 13 ppbv that is achieved after 5 min averaging at typical breath mean acetone levels in synthetic gas samples mimicking human breath.

  6. 4.5 μm wavelength vertical external cavity surface emitting laser operating above room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Felder, F.; Fill, M.; Zogg, H.

    2009-05-01

    A midinfrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser with 4.5 μm emission wavelength and operating above room temperature has been realized. The active part consists of a single 850 nm thick epitaxial PbSe gain layer. It is followed by a 2 1/2 pair Pb1-yEuyTe/BaF2 Bragg mirror. No microstructural processing is needed. Excitation is done optically with a 1.5 μm wavelength laser. The device operates up to 45 °C with 100 ns pulses and delivers 6 mW output power at 27 °C heat-sink temperature.

  7. A GaInAsP/InP Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser for 1.5 m m operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sceats, R.; Balkan, N.; Adams, M. J.; Masum, J.; Dann, A. J.; Perrin, S. D.; Reid, I.; Reed, J.; Cannard, P.; Fisher, M. A.; Elton, D. J.; Harlow, M. J.

    1999-04-01

    We present the results of our studies concerning the pulsed operation of a bulk GaInAsP/InP vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The device is tailored to emit at around 1.5 m m at room temperature. The structure has a 45 period n-doped GaInAsP/InP bottom distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), and a 4 period Si/Al2O3 dielectric top reflector defining a 3-l cavity. Electroluminescence from a 16 m m diameter top window was measured in the pulsed injection mode. Spectral measurements were recorded in the temperature range between 125K and 240K. Polarisation, lasing threshold current and linewidth measurements were also carried out at the same temperatures. The threshold current density has a broad minimum at temperatures between 170K and 190K, (Jth=13.2 kA/cm2), indicating a good match between the gain and the cavity resonance in this temperature range. Maximum emitted power from the VCSEL is 0.18 mW at 180K.

  8. High-Speed Semiconductor Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for Optical Data-Transmission Systems (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Bobrov, M. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Sakharov, A. V.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The main problems of providing a high-speed operation semiconductor lasers with a vertical microcavity (so-called "vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers") under amplitude modulation and ways to solve them have been considered. The influence of the internal properties of the radiating active region and the electrical parasitic elements of the equivalent circuit of lasers are discussed. An overview of approaches that lead to an increase of the cutoff parasitic frequency, an increase of the differential gain of the active region, the possibility of the management of mode emission composition and the lifetime of photons in the optical microcavities, and reduction of the influence of thermal effects have been presented. The achieved level of modulation bandwidth of ˜30 GHz is close to the maximum achievable for the classical scheme of the direct-current modulation, which makes it necessary to use a multilevel modulation format to further increase the information capacity of optical channels constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  9. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Chen, Kevin, E-mail: pec9@pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Liu, Lei; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.

  10. Exploiting broad-area surface emitting lasers to manifest the path-length distributions of finite-potential quantum billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y T; Tuan, P H; Chang, K C; Hsieh, Y H; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2016-01-11

    Broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with different cavity sizes are experimentally exploited to manifest the influence of the finite confinement strength on the path-length distribution of quantum billiards. The subthreshold emission spectra of VCSELs are measured to obtain the path-length distributions by using the Fourier transform. It is verified that the number of the resonant peaks in the path-length distribution decreases with decreasing the confinement strength. Theoretical analyses for finite-potential quantum billiards are numerically performed to confirm that the mesoscopic phenomena of quantum billiards with finite confinement strength can be analogously revealed by using broad-area VCSELs.

  11. Fast pulsing dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating in the low-frequency fluctuation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciamanna, M.; Rogister, F.; Megret, P.; Blondel, M.; Masoller, C.; Abraham, N. B.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with optical feedback operating in the low-frequency fluctuation regime. By focusing on the fast pulsing dynamics, we show that the two linearly polarized modes of the laser exhibit two qualitatively different behaviors: they emit pulses in phase just after a power dropout and they emit pulses out of phase after the recovery process of the output power. As a consequence, two distinct statistical distributions of the fast pulsating total intensity are observed, either monotonically decaying from the noise level or peaked around the mean intensity value. We further show that gain self-saturation of the lasing transition strongly modifies the shape of the intensity distribution

  12. Modular PbSrS/PbS mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.; Cao, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Ishida, A.

    2011-07-01

    A mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) based on undoped PbS is described herein. A 200 nm-thick PbS active layer embedded between PbSrS cladding layers forms a double heterostructure. The layers are grown on a lattice and thermal expansion mismatched Si-substrate. The substrate is placed onto a flat bottom Bragg mirror again grown on a Si substrate, and the VECSEL is completed with a curved top mirror. Pumping is done optically with a 1.55 μm laser diode. This leads to an extremely simple modular fabrication process. Lasing wavelengths range from 3-3.8 μm at 100-260 K heat sink temperature. The lowest threshold power is ˜210 mWp and highest output power is ˜250 mWp. The influence of the different recombination mechanism as well as free carrier absorption on the threshold power is modeled.

  13. Integration of electro-absorption modulator in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo-Lombart, L.; Calvez, S.; Arnoult, A.; Rumeau, A.; Viallon, C.; Thienpont, H.; Panajotov, K.; Almuneau, G.

    2018-02-01

    VCSELs became dominant laser sources in many short optical link applications such as datacenter, active cables, etc. Actual standards and commercialized VCSEL are providing 25 Gb/s data rates, but new solutions are expected to settle the next device generation enabling 100 Gb/s. Directly modulated VCSEL have been extensively studied and improved to reach bandwidths in the range of 26-32 GHz [Chalmers, TU Berlin], however at the price of increased applied current and thus reduced device lifetime. Furthermore, the relaxation oscillation limit still subsists with this solution. Thus, splitting the emission and the modulation functions as done with DFB lasers is a very promising alternative [TI-Tech, TU Berlin]. Here, we study the vertical integration of an ElectroAbsorption Modulator (EAM) within a VCSEL, where the output light of the VCSEL is modulated through the EAM section. In our original design, we finely optimized the EAM design to maximize the modulation depth by implementing perturbative Quantum Confined Stark Effect (QCSE) calculations, while designing the vertical integration of the EAM without penalty on the VCSEL static performances. We will present the different fabricated vertical structures, as well as the experimental electrical and optical static measurements for those configurations demonstrating a very good agreement with the reflectivity and absorption simulations obtained for both the VCSEL and the EAM-VCSEL structures. Finally, to reach very high frequency modulation we studied the BCB electrical properties up to 110 GHz and investigated coplanar and microstrip lines access to decrease both the parasitic capacitance and the influence of the substrate.

  14. Single-exposure two-dimensional superresolution in digital holography using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Luis; Zalevsky, Zeev; Micó, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    We present a new implementation capable of producing two-dimensional (2D) superresolution (SR) imaging in a single exposure by aperture synthesis in digital lensless Fourier holography when using angular multiplexing provided by a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array. The system performs the recording in a single CCD snapshot of a multiplexed hologram coming from the incoherent addition of multiple subholograms, where each contains information about a different 2D spatial frequency band of the object's spectrum. Thus, a set of nonoverlapping bandpass images of the input object can be recovered by Fourier transformation (FT) of the multiplexed hologram. The SR is obtained by coherent addition of the information contained in each bandpass image while generating an enlarged synthetic aperture. Experimental results demonstrate improvement in resolution and image quality.

  15. Impact of optical feedback on current-induced polarization behavior of 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Jia-Gui; Tang, Xi; Fan, Li; Panajotov, Krassimir; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2013-06-01

    Polarization switching (PS) between two orthogonal linearly polarized fundamental modes is experimentally observed in commercial free-running 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) (Raycan). The characteristics of this PS are strongly modified after introducing a polarization-preserved (PP) or polarization-orthogonal (PO) optical feedback. Under the case that the external cavity is approximately 30 cm, the PP optical feedback results in the PS point shifting toward a lower injection current, and the region within which the two polarization modes coexist is enlarged with the increase of the PP feedback strength. Under too-strong PP feedback levels, the PS disappears. The impact of PO optical feedback on VCSEL polarization behavior is quite similar to that of PP optical feedback, but larger feedback strength is needed to obtain similar results.

  16. Steady-state characteristics of lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Tsutsui, N.; Khmyrova, I.; Ikegami, T.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Taniyama, H.; Aida, T.

    2001-09-01

    We developed an analytical device model for lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LJVCSELs) with a quantum well active region. The model takes into account the features of the carrier injection, transport, and recombination in LJVCSELs as well as the features of the photon propagation in the cavity. This model is used for the calculation and analysis of the LJVCSEL steady-state characteristics. It is shown that the localization of the injected electrons primarily near the p-n junction and the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons significantly effects the LJVCSELs performance, in particular, the LJVCSEL threshold current and power-current characteristics. The reincarnation of electrons and holes due to the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons can substantially decrease the threshold current.

  17. A Study of the interaction of radiation and semiconductor lasers: an analysis of transient and permanent effects induced on edge emitting and vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailharey, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of laser diodes under transient environment is presented in this work. The first section describes the basic phenomena of radiation interaction with matter. The radiative environments, the main characteristics of laser diodes and the research undertaken on the subject are presented and discussed. The tests on 1300 nm edge emitting laser diode are presented in the second section. The response to a transient ionizing excitation is explored using a 532 nm laser beam. The time of return to steady state after the perturbation is decomposed into several steps: decrease of the optical power during excitation, turn-on delay, relaxation oscillations and optical power offset. Their origins are analyzed using the device structure. To include all the phenomena in a numerical simulation of the device, an individual study of low conductivity materials used for the lateral confinement of the current density is undertaken. The effects of a single particle traversing the optical cavity and an analysis of permanent damages induced by neutrons are also determined. In the last section, 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSEL) are studied. The behavior of these devices which performances are in constant evolution, is investigated as a function of both temperature and polarization. Then VCSEL are submitted to transient ionizing irradiation and their responses are compared to those of edge emitting diodes. When proton implantation is used in the process, we observe the same behavior for both technologies. VCSEL were submitted to neutron fluence and we have studied the influence of the damages on threshold current, emission patterns and maximum of optical power. (author) [fr

  18. Ultrafast pulse amplification in mode-locked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böttge, C. N., E-mail: boettge@optics.arizona.edu; Hader, J.; Kilen, I.; Moloney, J. V. [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2014-12-29

    A fully microscopic many-body Maxwell–semiconductor Bloch model is used to investigate the influence of the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics on the short-pulse amplification in mode-locked semiconductor microlaser systems. The numerical solution of the coupled equations allows for a self-consistent investigation of the light–matter coupling dynamics, the carrier kinetics in the saturable absorber and the multiple-quantum-well gain medium, as well as the modification of the light field through the pulse-induced optical polarization. The influence of the pulse-induced non-equilibrium modifications of the carrier distributions in the gain medium and the saturable absorber on the single-pulse amplification in the laser cavity is identified. It is shown that for the same structure, quantum wells, and gain bandwidth the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics lead to two preferred operation regimes: one with pulses in the (sub-)100 fs-regime and one with multi-picosecond pulses. The recovery time of the saturable absorber determines in which regime the device operates.

  19. Theory and Modeling of Lasing Modes in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Klein

    1998-01-01

    modes that the VCSEL can support are then determined by matching the gain necessary for the optical system in both magnitude and phase to the gain available from the laser's electronic system. Examples are provided.

  20. Near-infrared wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for HF detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Nevrlý, V.; Dorogan, A.; Ferus, Martin; Iakovlev, V.; Sirbu, A.; Mereuta, A.; Caliman, A.; Suruceanu, G.; Kapon, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 147, NOV 2014 (2014), s. 53-59 ISSN 0022-4073 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14022 Grant - others:Ministerstvo financí, Centrum zahraniční pomoci(CZ) PF049 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : High resolution absorption spectroscopy * Monitoring of hydrogen fluoride, methane, and ammonia * Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2014

  1. Evolution of the Novalux extended cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser (NECSEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, John G.

    2016-03-01

    Novalux Inc was an enterprise founded by Aram Mooradian in 1998 to commercialise a novel electrically pumped vertical extended cavity semiconductor laser platform, initially aiming to produce pump lasers for optical fiber telecommunication networks. Following successful major investment in 2000, the company developed a range of single- and multi-mode 980 nm pump lasers emitting from 100-500 mW with excellent beam quality and efficiency. This rapid development required solution of several significant problems in chip and external cavity design, substrate and DBR mirror optimization, thermal engineering and mode selection. Output coupling to single mode fiber was exceptional. Following the collapse of the long haul telecom market in late 2001, a major reorientation of effort was undertaken, initially to develop compact 60-100 mW hybrid monolithically integrated pumplets for metro/local amplified networks, then to frequency-doubled blue light emitters for biotech, reprographics and general scientific applications. During 2001-3 I worked at Novalux on a career break from University College Cork, first as R&D Director managing a small group tasked with producing new capabilities and product options based on the NECSEL platform, including high power, pulsed and frequency doubled versions, then in 2002 as Director of New Product Realization managing the full engineering team, leading the transition to frequency doubled products.

  2. Transverse mode selection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via deep impurity-induced disordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas R.; Kesler, Benjamin; Dallesasse, John M.

    2017-02-01

    Top emission 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) demonstrating transverse mode selection via impurity-induced disordering (IID) are presented. The IID apertures are fabricated via closed ampoule zinc diffusion. A simple 1-D plane wave model based on the intermixing of Group III atoms during IID is presented to optimize the mirror loss of higher-order modes as a function of IID strength and depth. In addition, the impact of impurity diffusion into the cap layer of the lasers is shown to improve contact resistance. Further investigation of the mode-dependent characteristics of the device imply an increase in the thermal impedance associated with the fraction of IID contained within the oxide aperture. The optimization of the ratio of the IID aperture to oxide aperture is experimentally determined. Single fundamental mode output of 1.6 mW with 30 dBm side mode suppression ratio is achieved by a 3.0 μm oxide-confined device with an IID aperture of 1.3 μm indicating an optimal IID aperture size of 43% of the oxide aperture.

  3. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser incorporating a high contrast grating mirror as a sensing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Magdalena; Gebski, Marcin; Piskorski, Łukasz; Dems, Maciej; Wasiak, M.; Panajotov, Krassimir; Lott, James A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel optical sensing system based on one device that both emits and detects light consisting of a verticalcavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) incorporating an high contrast grating (HCG) as a top mirror. Since HCGs can be very sensitive to the optical properties of surrounding media, they can be used to detect gases and liquid. The presence of a gas or a liquid around an HCG mirror causes changes of the power reflectance of the mirror, which corresponds to changes of the VCSEL's cavity quality factor and current-voltage characteristic. By observation of the current-voltage characteristic we can collect information about the medium around the HCG. In this paper we investigate how the properties of the HCG mirror depend on the refractive index of the HCG surroundings. We present results of a computer simulation performed with a three-dimensional fully vectorial model. We consider silicon HCGs on silica and designed for a 1300 nm VCSEL emission wavelength. We demonstrate that our approach can be applied to other wavelengths and material systems.

  4. Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine; Zhao, Xiaoxue; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2008-04-01

    As wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs) are expected to be first deployed to transport high capacity services to business customers, real-time knowledge of fiber/device faults and the location of such faults will be a necessity to guarantee reliability. Nonetheless, the added benefit of implementing fault monitoring capability should only incur minimal cost associated with upgrades to the network. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a fault monitoring and localization scheme based on a highly-sensitive and potentially low-cost monitor in conjunction with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The VCSELs are used as upstream transmitters in the WDM-PON. The proposed scheme benefits from the high reflectivity of the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror of optical injection-locked (OIL) VCSELs to reflect monitoring channels back to the central office for monitoring. Characterization of the fault monitor demonstrates high sensitivity, low bandwidth requirements, and potentially low output power. The added advantage of the proposed fault monitoring scheme incurs only a 0.5 dB penalty on the upstream transmissions on the existing infrastructure.

  5. Chaos synchronization in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based on rotated polarization-preserved optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazhan, Salam; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Busawon, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of the rotating polarization-preserved optical feedback on the chaos synchronization of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is investigated experimentally. Two VCSELs' polarization modes (XP) and (YP) are gradually rotated and re-injected back into the VCSEL. The anti-phase dynamics synchronization of the two polarization modes is evaluated using the cross-correlation function. For a fixed optical feedback, a clear relationship is found between the cross-correlation coefficient and the polarization angle θp. It is shown that high-quality anti-phase polarization-resolved chaos synchronization is achieved at higher values of θp. The maximum value of the cross-correlation coefficient achieved is -0.99 with a zero time delay over a wide range of θp beyond 65° with a poor synchronization dynamic at θp less than 65°. Furthermore, it is observed that the antiphase irregular oscillation of the XP and YP modes changes with θp. VCSEL under the rotating polarization optical feedback can be a good candidate as a chaotic synchronization source for a secure communication system.

  6. Attractor hopping between polarization dynamical states in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser subject to parallel optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-le Coarer, Florian; Quirce, Ana; Valle, Angel; Pesquera, Luis; Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Panajotov, Krassimir; Sciamanna, Marc

    2018-03-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results of noise-induced attractor hopping between dynamical states found in a single transverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to parallel optical injection. These transitions involve dynamical states with different polarizations of the light emitted by the VCSEL. We report an experimental map identifying, in the injected power-frequency detuning plane, regions where attractor hopping between two, or even three, different states occur. The transition between these behaviors is characterized by using residence time distributions. We find multistability regions that are characterized by heavy-tailed residence time distributions. These distributions are characterized by a -1.83 ±0.17 power law. Between these regions we find coherence enhancement of noise-induced attractor hopping in which transitions between states occur regularly. Simulation results show that frequency detuning variations and spontaneous emission noise play a role in causing switching between attractors. We also find attractor hopping between chaotic states with different polarization properties. In this case, simulation results show that spontaneous emission noise inherent to the VCSEL is enough to induce this hopping.

  7. Single-mode temperature and polarisation-stable high-speed 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaruk, D E; Blokhin, S A; Maleev, N A; Bobrov, M A; Pavlov, M M; Kulagina, M M; Vashanova, K A; Zadiranov, Yu M; Ustinov, V M; Kuzmenkov, A G; Vasil'ev, A P; Gladyshev, A G; Blokhin, A A; Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (JSV Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" >Fefelov, A G

    2014-01-01

    A new intracavity-contacted design to realize temperature and polarization-stable high-speed single-mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is proposed. Temperature dependences of static and dynamic characteristics of the 4.5 pm oxide aperture InGaAlAs VCSEL were investigated in detail. Due to optimal gain-cavity detuning and enhanced carrier localization in the active region the threshold current remains below 0.75 mA for the temperature range within 20-90°C, while the output power exceeds 1 mW up to 90°C. Single-mode operation with side-mode suppression ratio higher than 30 dB and orthogonal polarization suppression ratio more than 18 dB was obtained in the whole current and temperature operation range. Device demonstrates serial resistance less than 250 Ohm, which is rather low for any type of single-mode short- wavelength VCSELs. VCSEL demonstrates temperature robust high-speed operation with modulation bandwidth higher than 13 GHz in the entire temperature range of 20-90°C. Despite high resonance frequency the high-speed performance of developed VCSELs was limited by the cut-off frequency of the parasitic low pass filter created by device resistances and capacitances. The proposed design is promising for single-mode high-speed VCSEL applications in a wide spectral range

  8. Amplification of an Autodyne Signal in a Bistable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser with the Use of a Vibrational Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that a vibrational resonance in a polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser can be used to increase the laser response in autodyne detection of microvibrations from reflecting surfaces. In this case, more than 25-fold signal amplification is achieved. The influence of the asymmetry of the bistable potential on the microvibration-detection efficiency is studied.

  9. Proton Irradiation Effects in Oxide-Confined Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz, M.G.; Barnes, C.E.; Choquette, K.D.; Guertin, S.; Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Swift, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Recent space experience has shown that the use of commercial optocouplers can be problematic in spacecraft, such as TOPEX/Poseidon, that must operate in significant radiation environments. Radiation--induced failures of these devices have been observed in space and have been further documented at similar radiation doses in the laboratory. The ubiquitous use of optocouplers in spacecraft systems for a variety of applications, such as electrical isolation, switching and power transfer, is indicative of the need for optocouplers that can withstand the space radiation environment. In addition, the distributed nature of their use implies that it is not particularly desirable to shield optocouplers for use in radiation environments. Thus, it will be important for the space community to have access to radiation hardened/tolerant optocouplers. For many microelectronic and photonic devices, it is difficult to achieve radiation hardness without sacrificing performance. However, in the case of optocouplers, one should be able to achieve both superior radiation hardness and performance for such characteristics as switching speed, current transfer ratio (CTR), minimum power usage and array power transfer, if standard light emitting diodes (LEDs), such as those in the commercial optocouplers mentioned above, are avoided, and VCSELs are employed as the emitter portion of the optocoupler. The physical configuration of VCSELs allows one to achieve parallel use of an array of devices and construct a multichannel optocoupler in the standard fashion with the emitters and detectors looking at each other. In addition, detectors similar in structure to the VCSELs can be fabricated which allows bidirectional functionality of the optocoupler. Recent discussions suggest that VCSELs will enjoy widespread applications in the telecommunications and data transfer fields

  10. Growth of 1.5 micron gallium indium nitrogen arsenic antimonide vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistey, Mark Allan

    Fiber optics has revolutionized long distance communication and long haul networks, allowing unimaginable data speeds and noise-free telephone calls around the world for mere pennies per hour at the trunk level. But the high speeds of optical fiber generally do not extend to individual workstations or to the home, in large part because it has been difficult and expensive to produce lasers which emitted light at wavelengths which could take advantage of optical fiber. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of a new class of semiconductors known as dilute nitrides. Dilute nitrides such as GaInNAs can be grown directly on gallium arsenide, which allows well-established processing techniques. More important, gallium arsenide allows the growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), which can be grown in dense, 2D arrays on each wafer, providing tremendous economies of scale for manufacturing, testing, and packaging. Unfortunately, GaInNAs lasers have suffered from what has been dubbed the "nitrogen penalty," with high thresholds and low efficiency as the fraction of nitrogen in the semiconductor was increased. This thesis describes the steps taken to identify and essentially eliminate the nitrogen penalty. Protecting the wafer surface from plasma ignition, using an arsenic cap, greatly improved material quality. Using a Langmuir probe, we further found that the nitrogen plasma source produced a large number of ions which damaged the wafer during growth. The ions were dramatically reduced using deflection plates. Low voltage deflection plates were found to be preferable to high voltages, and simulations showed low voltages to be adequate for ion removal. The long wavelengths from dilute nitrides can be partly explained by wafer damage during growth. As a result of these studies, we demonstrated the first CW, room temperature lasers at wavelengths beyond 1.5mum on gallium arsenide, and the first GaInNAs(Sb) VCSELs beyond 1

  11. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  12. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Megalini, L.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lee, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-18

    We demonstrate a III-nitride nonpolar vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched aperture. The PEC lateral undercut etch is used to selectively remove the multi-quantum well (MQW) region outside the aperture area, defined by an opaque metal mask. This PEC aperture (PECA) creates an air-gap in the passive area of the device, allowing one to achieve efficient electrical confinement within the aperture, while simultaneously achieving a large index contrast between core of the device (the MQW within the aperture) and the lateral cladding of the device (the air-gap formed by the PEC etch), leading to strong lateral confinement. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion-beam analysis is used to investigate the precision of the PEC etch technique in defining the aperture. The fabricated single mode PECA VCSEL shows a threshold current density of ∼22 kA/cm{sup 2} (25 mA), with a peak output power of ∼180 μW, at an emission wavelength of 417 nm. The near-field emission profile shows a clearly defined single linearly polarized (LP) mode profile (LP{sub 12,1}), which is in contrast to the filamentary lasing that is often observed in III-nitride VCSELs. 2D mode profile simulations, carried out using COMSOL, give insight into the different mode profiles that one would expect to be displayed in such a device. The experimentally observed single mode operation is proposed to be predominantly a result of poor current spreading in the device. This non-uniform current spreading results in a higher injected current at the periphery of the aperture, which favors LP modes with high intensities near the edge of the aperture.

  13. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Shen, Chao; Margalith, T.; Ng, Tien Khee; Denbaars, S. P.; Ooi, Boon S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  14. Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser for Operation at 1.5 µm with Integral AlGaInAs/InP Bragg mirrors

    OpenAIRE

    Linnik, M.; Christou, A.

    2001-01-01

    The design and performance of a low threshold selectively oxidized Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) fabricated for operation at a wavelength of 1.55 µm is based on III-V quaternary semiconductor alloys and is grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy technique. The theoretical investigation of the optical properties of the compound semiconductor alloys allows one to select the optimum materials for highly reflective Bragg mirrors. The simulation of the designed VCSEL performance has been ...

  15. An efficient approach to characterizing and calculating carrier loss due to heating and barrier height variation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Wu; Summers, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine quantitatively the internal carrier loss arising from heating and barrier height variation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting quantum well laser (VCSEL). However, it is generally difficult to realize this goal using purely theoretical formulas due to difficulty in deriving the parameters relating to the quantum well structure. In this paper, we describe an efficient approach to characterizing and calculating the carrier loss due to the heating and the barrier height change in the VCSEL. In the method, the thermal carrier loss mechanism is combined with gain measurement and calculation. The carrier loss is re-characterized in a calculable form by constructing the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current using the measured gain data and then substituting them for the quantum well-related parameters in the formula. The result can be expressed as a product of an exponential weight factor linked to the barrier height change and the difference between the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current. The gain variation at cavity frequency due to thermal carrier loss and gain detuning processes is measured by using an AlInGaAs–AlGaAs VCSEL structure. This work provides a useful approach to analysing threshold and loss properties of the VCSEL, particularly, gain offset design for high temperature operation of VCSELs. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. Self-sustained pulsation in the oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Ustinov, V. M.; Sokolovskii, G. S.; Maleev, N. A.; Blokhin, S. A.; Deryagin, A. G.; Chumak, S. V.; Shulenkov, A. S.; Mikhrin, S. S.; Kovsh, A. R.; McRobbie, A. D.; Sibbett, W.; Cataluna, M. A.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the observation of strong self-pulsations in molecular-beam epitaxy-grown oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots. At continuous-wave operation, self-pulsations with pulse durations of 100-300 ps and repetition rates of 0.2-0.6 GHz were measured. The average optical power of the pulsations was 0.5-1.0 mW at the laser continuous-wave current values of 1.5-2.5 mA

  17. Continuous wave vertical cavity surface emitting lasers at 2.5 μm with InP-based type-II quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprengel, S.; Andrejew, A.; Federer, F.; Veerabathran, G. K.; Boehm, G.; Amann, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    A concept for electrically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for emission wavelength beyond 2 μm is presented. This concept integrates type-II quantum wells into InP-based VCSELs with a buried tunnel junction as current aperture. The W-shaped quantum wells are based on the type-II band alignment between GaInAs and GaAsSb. The structure includes an epitaxial GaInAs/InP and an amorphous AlF 3 /ZnS distributed Bragg reflector as bottom and top (outcoupling) mirror, respectively. Continuous-wave operation up to 10 °C at a wavelength of 2.49 μm and a peak output power of 400 μW at −18 °C has been achieved. Single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB for mesa diameters up to 14 μm is presented. The long emission wavelength and current tunability over a wavelength range of more than 5 nm combined with its single-mode operation makes this device ideally suited for spectroscopy applications

  18. 1.3 μm wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding: A prospect for polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Yae L.; Geske, Jon; Gan, Kian-Giap; Chiu, Yi-Jen; DenBaars, Steven P.; Bowers, John E.

    2003-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) which consists of a (311)B InP-based active region and (100) GaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), with an aim to control the in-plane polarization of output power. Crystal growth on (311)B InP substrates was performed under low-migration conditions to achieve good crystalline quality. The VCSEL was fabricated by wafer bonding, which enables us to combine different materials regardless of their lattice and orientation mismatch without degrading their quality. The VCSEL was polarized with a power extinction ratio of 31 dB.

  19. Comparison of Mesa and Device Diameter Variation in Double Wafer-Fused Multi Quantum-Well, Long-Wavelength, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, P.S.; Kandiah, K.; Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis; Shaari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LW-VCSELs) have profound advantages compared to traditional edge-emitting lasers offering improved properties with respect to mode selectivity, fibre coupling, threshold currents and integration into 2D arrays or with other electronic devices. Its commercialization is gaining momentum as the local and access network in optical communication system expand. Numerical modeling of LW-VCSEL utilizing wafer-fused InP-based multi-quantum wells (MQW) and GaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) is presented in this paper. Emphasis is on the device and mesa/pillar diameter design parameter comparison and its effect on the device characteristics. (author)

  20. A UWOC system based on a 6 m/5.2 Gbps 680 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Shing

    2018-02-01

    This study proves that an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) based on a 6 m/5.2 Gbps 68 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based system is superior to a 405 nm UWOC system. This UWOC application is the first to use a VCSEL at approximately 680 nm. The experiment also proved that a 680 nm VCSEL has the same transmission distance as that of an approximately 405 nm laser diode. The 680 nm VCSEL has a 5.2 Gbps high transmission rate and can transmit up to 6 m. Thus, the setup is the best alternative solution for high-speed UWOC applications.

  1. Mid-infrared PbTe vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrate with above 1 W output power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Chappuis, D.; Corda, M.; Zogg, H.

    2009-12-01

    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) emitting above 1 W output power in pulsed mode and up to 17 mW in continuous mode at -172 °C were realized. Emission wavelength changes from 5 μm at -172 °C to 3.6 μm at 20 °C heat sink temperature. The active medium is a one wavelength thick PbTe layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si-substrate. It is followed by a 2.5 pair Pb1-yEuyTe/EuTe epitaxial Bragg mirror. The cavity is completed with an external curved Pb1-yEuyTe/BaF2 mirror. The VECSEL is optically pumped with 1.55 μm wavelength laser and In-soldered to Cu heat sink. No microstructural processing is needed.

  2. An iterative model for the steady state current distribution in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop an iterative model for the analysis of the current distribution in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using a circuit network modeling approach. This iterative model divides the VCSEL structure into numerous annular elements and uses a circuit network consisting of resistors and diodes. The measured sheet resistance of the p-distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), the measured sheet resistance of the layers under the oxide layer, and two empirical adjustable parameters are used as inputs to the iterative model to determine the resistance of each resistor. The two empirical values are related to the anisotropy of the resistivity of the p-DBR structure. The spontaneous current, stimulated current, and surface recombination current are accounted for by the diodes. The lateral carrier transport in the quantum well region is analyzed using drift and diffusion currents. The optical gain is calculated as a function of wavelength and carrier density from fundamental principles. The predicted threshold current densities for these VCSELs match the experimentally measured current densities over the wavelength range of 0.83 mum to 0.86 mum with an error of less than 5%. This model includes the effects of the resistance of the p-DBR mirrors, the oxide current-confining layer and spatial hole burning. Our model shows that higher sheet resistance under the oxide layer reduces the threshold current, but also reduces the current range over which single transverse mode operation occurs. The spatial hole burning profile depends on the lateral drift and diffusion of carriers in the quantum wells but is dominated by the voltage drop across the p-DBR region. To my knowledge, for the first time, the drift current and the diffusion current are treated separately. Previous work uses an ambipolar approach, which underestimates the total charge transferred in the quantum well region, especially under the oxide region. However, the total

  3. Control of emitted light polarization in a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to circularly polarized optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, S. S., E-mail: ssmalh@essex.ac.uk; Hurtado, A.; Al Seyab, R. K.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC), Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate the control of the light polarization emitted by a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) at room temperature. This is achieved by means of a combination of polarized optical pumping and polarized optical injection. Without external injection, the polarization of the optical pump controls that of the spin-VCSEL. However, the addition of the externally injected signal polarized with either left- (LCP) or right-circular polarization (RCP) is able to control the polarization of the spin-VCSEL switching it at will to left- or right-circular polarization. A numerical model has been developed showing a very high degree of agreement with the experimental findings.

  4. InGaN multiple-quantum-well epifilms on GaN-sillicon substrates for microcavities and surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, June Key; Cho, Hoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Park, Si Hyun; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian; Dawson, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We report the processing of InGaN/GaN epifilms on GaN-silicon substrates. High-quality InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on GaN-silicon substrates, and their membranes were successfully fabricated using a selective wet etching of silicon followed by a dry etching of the AlGaN buffer layer. With atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we investigated the physical and the optical properties of the InGaN/GaN MQWs membranes. On the InGaN/GaN MQW membranes, dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBRs) were successfully deposited, which give, new possibilities for use in GaN microcavity and surface-emitting laser fabrication.

  5. GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SeungGeun; Forman, Charles A.; Lee, Changmin; Kearns, Jared; Young, Erin C.; Leonard, John T.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2018-06-01

    We report the first demonstration of III–nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contacts grown completely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). For the TJs, n++-GaN was grown on in-situ activated p++-GaN after buffered HF surface treatment. The electrical properties and epitaxial morphologies of the TJs were first investigated on TJ LED test samples. A VCSEL with a TJ intracavity contact showed a lasing wavelength of 408 nm, a threshold current of ∼15 mA (10 kA/cm2), a threshold voltage of 7.8 V, a maximum output power of 319 µW, and a differential efficiency of 0.28%.

  6. Complex-enhanced chaotic signals with time-delay signature suppression based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to chaotic optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjun; Duan, Yingni; Zhong, Zhuqiang

    2018-03-01

    A chaotic system is constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), where a slave VCSEL subject to chaotic optical injection (COI) from a master VCSEL with the external feedback. The complex degree (CD) and time-delay signature (TDS) of chaotic signals generated by this chaotic system are investigated numerically via permutation entropy (PE) and self-correlation function (SF) methods, respectively. The results show that, compared with master VCSEL subject to optical feedback, complex-enhanced chaotic signals with TDS suppression can be achieved for S-VCSEL subject to COI. Meanwhile, the influences of several controllable parameters on the evolution maps of CD of chaotic signals are carefully considered. It is shown that the CD of chaotic signals for S-VCSEL is always higher than that for M-VCSEL due to the CIO effect. The TDS of chaotic signals can be significantly suppressed by choosing the reasonable parameters in this system. Furthermore, TDS suppression and high CD chaos can be obtained simultaneously in the specific parameter ranges. The results confirm that this chaotic system may effectively improve the security of a chaos-based communication scheme.

  7. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55 dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 μm long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  8. Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Margalith, T.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a III-nitride tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contact. The violet nonpolar VCSEL employing the TJ is compared to an equivalent VCSEL with a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contact. The TJ VCSEL shows a threshold current density (J th ) of ∼3.5 kA/cm 2 , compared to the ITO VCSEL J th of 8 kA/cm 2 . The differential efficiency of the TJ VCSEL is also observed to be significantly higher than that of the ITO VCSEL, reaching a peak power of ∼550 μW, compared to ∼80 μW for the ITO VCSEL. Both VCSELs display filamentary lasing in the current aperture, which we believe to be predominantly a result of local variations in contact resistance, which may induce local variations in refractive index and free carrier absorption. Beyond the analyses of the lasing characteristics, we discuss the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth of the TJ, as well as its unexpected performance based on band-diagram simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the intrinsic advantages of using a TJ intracavity contact in a VCSEL using a 1D mode profile analysis to approximate the threshold modal gain and general loss contributions in the TJ and ITO VCSEL

  9. Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Margalith, T.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    We report on a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a III-nitride tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contact. The violet nonpolar VCSEL employing the TJ is compared to an equivalent VCSEL with a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contact. The TJ VCSEL shows a threshold current density (J{sub th}) of ∼3.5 kA/cm{sup 2}, compared to the ITO VCSEL J{sub th} of 8 kA/cm{sup 2}. The differential efficiency of the TJ VCSEL is also observed to be significantly higher than that of the ITO VCSEL, reaching a peak power of ∼550 μW, compared to ∼80 μW for the ITO VCSEL. Both VCSELs display filamentary lasing in the current aperture, which we believe to be predominantly a result of local variations in contact resistance, which may induce local variations in refractive index and free carrier absorption. Beyond the analyses of the lasing characteristics, we discuss the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth of the TJ, as well as its unexpected performance based on band-diagram simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the intrinsic advantages of using a TJ intracavity contact in a VCSEL using a 1D mode profile analysis to approximate the threshold modal gain and general loss contributions in the TJ and ITO VCSEL.

  10. Direct visualization of the in-plane leakage of high-order transverse modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers mediated by oxide-aperture engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Oxide-confined apertures in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) can be engineered such that they promote leakage of the transverse optical modes from the non- oxidized core region to the selectively oxidized periphery of the device. The reason of the leakage is that the VCSEL modes in the core can be coupled to tilted modes in the periphery if the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Three-dimensional modeling of a practical VCSEL design reveals i) significantly stronger leakage losses for high-order transverse modes than that of the fundamental one as high-order modes have a higher field intensity close to the oxide layers and ii) narrow peaks in the far-field profile generated by the leaky component of the optical modes. Experimental 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSELs produced in the modeled design demonstrate i) single-mode lasing with the aperture diameters up to 5μm with side mode suppression ratio >20dB at the current density of 10kA/cm2; and ii) narrow peaks tilted at 37 degrees with respect to the vertical axis in excellent agreement with the modeling data and confirming the leaky nature of the modes and the proposed mechanism of mode selection. The results indicate that in- plane coupling of VCSELs, VCSELs and p-i-n photodiodes, VCSEL and delay lines is possible allowing novel photonic integrated circuits. We show that the approach enables design of oxide apertures, air-gap apertures, devices created by impurity-induced intermixing or any combinations of such designs through quantitative evaluation of the leaky emission.

  11. Novel Cavities in Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers for Emission in Broad Spectral Region by Means of Nonlinear Frequency Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Michal L.

    Optically pumped semiconductor vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSEL) were first demonstrated in the mid 1990's. Due to the unique design properties of extended cavity lasers VECSELs have been able to provide tunable, high-output powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. These features offer a wide range of possible applications in areas such as medicine, spectroscopy, defense, imaging, communications and entertainment. Nowadays, newly developed VECSELs, cover the spectral regions from red (600 nm) to around 5 microm. By taking the advantage of the open cavity design, the emission can be further expanded to UV or THz regions by the means of intracavity nonlinear frequency generation. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate and extend the capabilities of high-power VECSELs by utilizing novel nonlinear conversion techniques. Optically pumped VECSELs based on GaAs semiconductor heterostructures have been demonstrated to provide exceptionally high output powers covering the 900 to 1200 nm spectral region with diffraction limited beam quality. The free space cavity design allows for access to the high intracavity circulating powers where high efficiency nonlinear frequency conversions and wavelength tuning can be obtained. As an introduction, this dissertation consists of a brief history of the development of VECSELs as well as wafer design, chip fabrication and resonator cavity design for optimal frequency conversion. Specifically, the different types of laser cavities such as: linear cavity, V-shaped cavity and patented T-shaped cavity are described, since their optimization is crucial for transverse mode quality, stability, tunability and efficient frequency conversion. All types of nonlinear conversions such as second harmonic, sum frequency and difference frequency generation are discussed in extensive detail. The theoretical simulation and the development of the high-power, tunable blue and green VECSEL by the means of type I

  12. Enhancement of slope efficiency and output power in GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a SiO2-buried lateral index guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Masaru; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Akagi, Takanobu; Tazawa, Komei; Tanaka, Kazufumi; Saito, Tatsuma; Takeuchi, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    We have achieved a high output power of 6 mW from a 441 nm GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) under continuous wave (CW) operation, by reducing both the internal loss and the reflectivity of the front cavity mirror. A preliminary analysis of the internal loss revealed an enormously high transverse radiation loss in a conventional GaN-based VCSEL without lateral optical confinement (LOC). Introducing an LOC structure enhanced the slope efficiency by a factor of 4.7, with a further improvement to a factor of 6.7 upon reducing the front mirror reflectivity. The result was a slope efficiency of 0.87 W/A and an external differential quantum efficiency of 32% under pulsed operation. A flip-chip-bonded VCSEL also exhibited a high slope efficiency of 0.64 W/A and an external differential quantum efficiency of 23% for the front-side output under CW operation. The reflectivity of the cavity mirror was adjusted by varying the number of AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector pairs from 46 to 42, corresponding to reflectivity values from 99.8% to 99.5%. These results demonstrate that a combination of internal loss reduction and cavity mirror control is a very effective way of obtaining a high output GaN-based VCSEL.

  13. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-10-01

    We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll.

  14. Systematic characterization of a 1550 nm microelectromechanical (MEMS)-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with 7.92 THz tuning range for terahertz photomixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, M. T.; Preu, S.; Cesar, J.; Paul, S.; Hajo, A. S.; Neumeyr, C.; Maune, H.; Küppers, F.

    2018-01-01

    Continuous-wave (CW) terahertz (THz) photomixing requires compact, widely tunable, mode-hop-free driving lasers. We present a single-mode microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) featuring an electrothermal tuning range of 64 nm (7.92 THz) that exceeds the tuning range of commercially available distributed-feedback laser (DFB) diodes (˜4.8 nm) by a factor of about 13. We first review the underlying theory and perform a systematic characterization of the MEMS-VCSEL, with particular focus on the parameters relevant for THz photomixing. These parameters include mode-hop-free CW tuning with a side-mode-suppression-ratio >50 dB, a linewidth as narrow as 46.1 MHz, and wavelength and polarization stability. We conclude with a demonstration of a CW THz photomixing setup by subjecting the MEMS-VCSEL to optical beating with a DFB diode driving commercial photomixers. The achievable THz bandwidth is limited only by the employed photomixers. Once improved photomixers become available, electrothermally actuated MEMS-VCSELs should allow for a tuning range covering almost the whole THz domain with a single system.

  15. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    TM, p) polarizations, for PCSEL-I and -II respectively. One can see that all of these bands are very flat at the edges close to Γ point, which... organised In0. 5Ga0. 5As quantum dot laser on silicon. Electron. Lett. 41, 742–744 (2005). 7. Balakrishnan, G. et al. Room-Temperature Optically Pumped

  16. Single-photon emission at a rate of 143 MHz from a deterministic quantum-dot microlens triggered by a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehahn, A.; Gschrey, M.; Schnauber, P.; Schulze, J.-H.; Rodt, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T., E-mail: tobias.heindel@tu-berlin.de; Reitzenstein, S. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Gaafar, M.; Vaupel, M.; Stolz, W.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Koch, M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2015-07-27

    We report on the realization of a quantum dot (QD) based single-photon source with a record-high single-photon emission rate. The quantum light source consists of an InGaAs QD which is deterministically integrated within a monolithic microlens with a distributed Bragg reflector as back-side mirror, which is triggered using the frequency-doubled emission of a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (ML-VECSEL). The utilized compact and stable laser system allows us to excite the single-QD microlens at a wavelength of 508 nm with a pulse repetition rate close to 500 MHz at a pulse width of 4.2 ps. Probing the photon statistics of the emission from a single QD state at saturation, we demonstrate single-photon emission of the QD-microlens chip with g{sup (2)}(0) < 0.03 at a record-high single-photon flux of (143 ± 16) MHz collected by the first lens of the detection system. Our approach is fully compatible with resonant excitation schemes using wavelength tunable ML-VECSELs, which will optimize the quantum optical properties of the single-photon emission in terms of photon indistinguishability.

  17. Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougal, Michael; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Follman, David

    2011-06-01

    We describe the factors that go into the component choices for a short wavelength IR (SWIR) imager, which include the SWIR sensor, the lens, and the illuminator. We have shown the factors for reducing dark current, and shown that we can achieve well below 1.5 nA/cm2 for 15 μm devices at 7 °C. In addition, we have mated our InGaAs detector arrays to 640×512 readout integrated integrated circuits to make focal plane arrays (FPAs). The resulting FPAs are capable of imaging photon fluxes with wavelengths between 1 and 1.6 μm at low light levels. The dark current associated with these FPAs is extremely low, exhibiting a mean dark current density of 0.26 nA/cm2 at 0 °C. Noise due to the readout can be reduced from 95 to 57 electrons by using off-chip correlated double sampling. In addition, Aerius has developed laser arrays that provide flat illumination in scenes that are normally light-starved. The illuminators have 40% wall-plug efficiency and provide low-speckle illumination, and provide artifact-free imagery versus conventional laser illuminators.

  18. Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) as materials for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range of 4–5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkeev, D. A., E-mail: d.pashkeev@gmail.com; Selivanov, Yu. G.; Chizhevskii, E. G.; Zasavitskiy, I. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The optical properties of epitaxial layers and heterostructures based on Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) are analyzed in the context of designing Bragg mirrors and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the midinfrared spectral range. It is shown that the optimal heteropair for laser microcavities is Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te(x ≈ 0.06)/EuTe. On the basis of this heteropair, highly reflective Bragg mirrors consisting of just three periods and featuring a reflectance of R ⩾ 99.8% at the center of the stop band are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on BaF{sub 2} (111) substrates. Single-mode optically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the 4–5 μm spectral range operating at liquid-nitrogen temperatures are demonstrated.

  19. Single-mode 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with Zn-diffusion and oxide-relief apertures for > 50 Gbit/sec OOK and 4-PAM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jyehong; Ledentsov, N. N.; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2017-02-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) has become the most important light source in the booming market of short-reach (targeted at 56 Gbit/sec data rate per channel (CEI-56G) with the total data rate up to 400 Gbit/sec. However, the serious modal dispersion of multi-mode fiber (MMF), limited speed of VCSEL, and its high resistance (> 150 Ω) seriously limits the >50 Gbit/sec linking distance (50 Gbit/sec transmission due to that it can save one-half of the required bandwidth. Nevertheless, a 4.7 dB optical power penalty and the linearity of transmitter would become issues in the 4-PAM linking performance. Besides, in the modern OI system, the optics transreceiver module must be packaged as close as possible with the integrated circuits (ICs). The heat generated from ICs will become an issue in speed of VSCEL. Here, we review our recent work about 850 nm VCSEL, which has unique Zn-diffusion/oxide-relief apertures and special p- doping active layer with strong wavelength detuning to further enhance its modulation speed and high-temperature (85°C) performances. Single-mode (SM) devices with high-speed ( 26 GHz), reasonable resistance ( 70 Ω) and moderate output power ( 1.5 mW) can be achieved. Error-free 54 Gbit/sec OOK transmission through 1km MMF has been realized by using such SM device with signal processing techniques. Besides, the volterra nonlinear equalizer has been applied in our 4-PAM 64 Gbit/sec transmission through 2-km OM4 MMF, which significantly enhance the linearity of device and outperforms fed forward equalization (FFE) technique. Record high bit-rate distance product of 128.km is confirmed for optical-interconnect applications.

  20. 20 Gbit/s error free transmission with ~850 nm GaAs-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) containing InAs-GaAs submonolayer quantum dot insertions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, J. A.; Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Stinz, A.; Hopfer, F.; Mutig, A.; Fiol, G.; Bimberg, D.; Blokhin, S. A.; Karachinsky, L. Y.; Novikov, I. I.; Maximov, M. V.; Zakharov, N. D.; Werner, P.

    2009-02-01

    We report on the modeling, epitaxial growth, fabrication, and characterization of 830-845 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) that employ InAs-GaAs quantum dot (QD) gain elements. The GaAs-based VCSELs are essentially conventional in design, grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy, and include top and bottom gradedheterointerface AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors, a single selectively-oxidized AlAs waveguiding/current funneling aperture layer, and a quasi-antiwaveguiding microcavity. The active region consists of three sheets of InAs-GaAs submonolayer insertions separated by AlGaAs matrix layers. Compared to QWs the InAs-GaAs insertions are expected to offer higher exciton-dominated modal gain and improved carrier capture and retention, thus resulting in superior temperature stability and resilience to degradation caused by operating at the larger switching currents commonly employed to increase the data rates of modern optical communication systems. We investigate the robustness and temperature performance of our QD VCSEL design by fabricating prototype devices in a high-frequency ground-sourceground contact pad configuration suitable for on-wafer probing. Arrays of VCSELs are produced with precise variations in top mesa diameter from 24 to 36 μm and oxide aperture diameter from 1 to 12 μm resulting in VCSELs that operate in full single-mode, single-mode to multi-mode, and full multi-mode regimes. The single-mode QD VCSELs have room temperature threshold currents below 0.5 mA and peak output powers near 1 mW, whereas the corresponding values for full multi-mode devices range from about 0.5 to 1.5 mA and 2.5 to 5 mW. At 20°C we observe optical transmission at 20 Gb/s through 150 m of OM3 fiber with a bit error ratio better than 10-12, thus demonstrating the great potential of our QD VCSELs for applications in next-generation short-distance optical data communications and interconnect systems.

  1. Near Field and Far Field Effects in the Taguchi-Optimized Design of AN InP/GaAs-BASED Double Wafer-Fused Mqw Long-Wavelength Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. S.; Kandiah, K.; Mandeep, J. S.; Shaari, S.; Apte, P. R.

    Long-wavelength VCSELs (LW-VCSEL) operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength regime offer the advantages of low dispersion and optical loss in fiber optic transmission systems which are crucial in increasing data transmission speed and reducing implementation cost of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. LW-VCSELs are attractive light sources because they offer unique features such as low power consumption, narrow beam divergence and ease of fabrication for two-dimensional arrays. This paper compares the near field and far field effects of the numerically investigated LW-VCSEL for various design parameters of the device. The optical intensity profile far from the device surface, in the Fraunhofer region, is important for the optical coupling of the laser with other optical components. The near field pattern is obtained from the structure output whereas the far-field pattern is essentially a two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the near-field pattern. Design parameters such as the number of wells in the multi-quantum-well (MQW) region, the thickness of the MQW and the effect of using Taguchi's orthogonal array method to optimize the device design parameters on the near/far field patterns are evaluated in this paper. We have successfully increased the peak lasing power from an initial 4.84 mW to 12.38 mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and optical wavelength of 1.55 μm using Taguchi's orthogonal array. As a result of the Taguchi optimization and fine tuning, the device threshold current is found to increase along with a slight decrease in the modulation speed due to increased device widths.

  2. High-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator with a surface-emitted ring-cavity configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Xu, Wentao; Duan, Pan; Yan, Chao; Tang, Longhuang; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-05-15

    A surface-emitted ring-cavity terahertz (THz) wave parametric oscillator has been demonstrated for high-energy THz output and fast frequency tuning in a wide frequency range. Through the special optical design with a galvano-optical scanner and four-mirror ring-cavity structure, the maximum THz wave output energy of 12.9 μJ/pulse is achieved at 1.359 THz under the pump energy of 172.8 mJ. The fast THz frequency tuning in the range of 0.7-2.8 THz can be accessed with the step response of 600 μs. Moreover, the maximum THz wave output energy from this configuration is 3.29 times as large as that obtained from the conventional surface-emitted THz wave parametric oscillator with the same experimental conditions.

  3. Semiconductor lasers stability, instability and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the fascinating recent advances made concerning the chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers, and discusses their applications and future prospects in detail. It emphasizes the dynamics in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, and semiconductor lasers are also demonstrated. Semiconductor lasers with new structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are intriguing and promising devices. Current topics include fast physical number generation using chaotic semiconductor lasers for secure communication, development of chaos, quantum-dot semiconductor lasers and quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. This fourth edition has been significantly expanded to reflect the latest developments. The fundamental theory of laser chaos and the chaotic dynamics in se...

  4. Dielectric structures with bound modes for microcavity lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.M.; Allaart, K.; Lenstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Cavity modes of dielectric microsphcres and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, in spite of their high Q, are never exactly bound, but have a finite width due to leakage at the borders. We propose types of microstructures that sustain three-dimensionally bound modes of the radiation field when

  5. Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference-frequency generation without quasi-phase-matching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Yuri H

    2010-08-01

    A scheme of terahertz (THz)-wave surface-emitted difference-frequency generation (SEDFG), which lacks the drawbacks associated with the usage of periodically orientation-inverted structures, is proposed. It is shown that both material birefringence of the bulk LiNbO(3) crystal and modal birefringence of GaAs/AlAs waveguide are sufficient to obtain SEDFG up to a frequency of approximately 3THz. The simplicity of the proposed scheme, along with the fact that there is a much smaller THz-wave decay in nonlinear crystal, makes it a good candidate for the practical realization of efficient THz generation. The use of a GaAs waveguide with an oxidized AlAs layer is proposed for enhanced THz-wave SEDFG in the vicinity of the GaAs polariton resonance at 8THz.

  6. Laser measurements and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leander, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear states amenable to laser studies are reviewed with respect to their structure. Systematic predictions are made, e.g., for magnetic moments of parity-mixed intrinsic orbitals in the Ac isotopes and for the shape of the known high-spin isomers in the Pb region

  7. A high-energy, low-threshold tunable intracavity terahertz-wave parametric oscillator with surface-emitted configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y Y; Xu, D G; Jiang, H; Zhong, K; Yao, J Q

    2013-01-01

    A high-energy, low-threshold THz-wave output has been experimentally demonstrated with an intracavity terahertz-wave parametric oscillator based on a surface-emitted configuration, which was pumped by a diode-side-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Different beam sizes and repetition rates of the pump light have been investigated for high-energy and high-efficiency THz-wave generation. The maximum THz-wave output energy of 283 nJ/pulse was obtained at 1.54 THz under an intracavity 1064 nm pump energy of 59 mJ. The conversion efficiency was 4.8 × 10 −6 , corresponding to a photon conversion efficiency of 0.088%. The pump threshold was 12.9 mJ/pulse. A continuously tunable range from 0.75 to 2.75 THz was realized. (paper)

  8. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

  9. Dissipative Structures At Laser-Solid Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanai, Laszlo

    1989-05-01

    The questions which are discussed in this lecture refer to one of sections of laser-solid interactions, namely: to formation of different dissipative structures on the surface of metals and semiconductors when they are irradiated by intensive laser light in chemically active media (f.e.air). Some particular examples of the development at different spatial and time instabilities, periodic and stochastic structures, auto-wave processes are present-ed using testing materials vanadium metal and semiconducting V205 single crystals and light sources: cw and pulsed CO2 and YAG lasers.

  10. Semiconductor Lasers Stability, Instability and Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2013-01-01

    This third edition of “Semiconductor Lasers, Stability, Instability and Chaos” was significantly extended.  In the previous edition, the dynamics and characteristics of chaos in semiconductor lasers after the introduction of the fundamental theory of laser chaos and chaotic dynamics induced by self-optical feedback and optical injection was discussed. Semiconductor lasers with new device structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are interesting devices from the viewpoint of chaotic dynamics since they essentially involve chaotic dynamics even in their free-running oscillations. These topics are also treated with respect to the new developments in the current edition. Also the control of such instabilities and chaos control are critical issues for applications. Another interesting and important issue of semiconductor laser chaos in this third edition is chaos synchronization between two lasers and the application to optical secure communication. One o...

  11. Underwater laser cutting of metallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Schildknecht, J.; Ramaswami, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of an european contract, the feasibility of the underwater cutting with a CO 2 laser power is studied. The aim of this work is the dismantling metallic structures of reactors pools. The paper analyzes the general concept of the experimental device, the underwater cutting head, the experimenting vessel, examples of cuttings in dismantling situation with a 500 W CO 2 laser, and examples of cuttings with a 5 kW CO 2 laser. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Advanced Modulation Formats and Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto

    transmission link with real-time demodulation. Furthermore, advanced modulation formats are considered in this thesis to expand the state-of-the-art in high-speed short-range data transmission system based on VCSELs. First, directly modulation of a VCSEL with a 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal...... at 50 Gb/s is achieved. This is the highest data rate ever transmitted with a single VCSEL at the time of this thesis work. The capacity of this system is increased to 100 Gb/s by using polarization multiplexing emulation and forward error correction techniques. Compared to a non return-to-zero on-off...

  13. Design and Fabrication of 850 and 980 nm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, N

    2004-01-01

    .... VCSELs on GaAs substrates were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy technique. In this report we present detailed procedures to design and fabricate 850-nm top-emitting and 980-nm bottom-emitting VCSELs...

  14. Hybrid Laser Welding of Large Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farhang

    Manufacturing of large steel structures requires the processing of thick-section steels. Welding is one of the main processes during the manufacturing of such structures and includes a significant part of the production costs. One of the ways to reduce the production costs is to use the hybrid...... laser welding technology instead of the conventional arc welding methods. However, hybrid laser welding is a complicated process that involves several complex physical phenomena that are highly coupled. Understanding of the process is very important for obtaining quality welds in an efficient way....... This thesis investigates two different challenges related to the hybrid laser welding of thick-section steel plates. Employing empirical and analytical approaches, this thesis attempts to provide further knowledge towards obtaining quality welds in the manufacturing of large steel structures....

  15. Advanced vectorial simulation of VCSELs with nano structures invited paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The single-mode properties and design issues of three vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures incorporating nano structures are rigorously investigated. Nano structuring enables to deliver selective pumping or loss to the fundamental mode as well as stabilizing the output...... polarization state. Comparison of three vectorial simulation methods reveals that the modal expansion method is suitable for treating the nano structured VCSEL designs....

  16. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com... geometries . The overarching challenge is to move away from traditional planar semiconductor photolitho- graphic techniques, which severely limit the type of

  17. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, B

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss simulated photonic crystal structure designs for laser-driven particle acceleration. They focus on three-dimensional planar structures based on the so-called ''woodpile'' lattice, demonstrating guiding of a speed-of-light accelerating mode by a defect in the photonic crystal lattice. They introduce a candidate geometry and discuss the properties of the accelerating mode. They also discuss the linear beam dynamics in the structure present a novelmethod for focusing the beam. In addition they describe ongoing investigations of photonic crystal fiber-based structures

  18. Craterlike structures on the laser cut surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulyatyev, V. B.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of the laser cut surface morphology remain topical. It is related with the fact that the surface roughness is the main index of the cut quality. The present paper deals with the experimental study of the relatively unstudied type of defects on the laser cut surface, dimples, or craters. According to the measurement results, amount of craters per unit of the laser cut surface area rises as the sheet thickness rises. The crater diameter rises together with the sheet thickness and distance from the upper sheet edge. The obtained data permit concluding that the defects like craters are observed predominantly in the case of thick sheets. The results agree with the hypothesis of crater formation as impact structures resulting from the melt drops getting on the cut channel walls upon separation from the cut front by the gas flow.

  19. Laser direct writing (LDW of magnetic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Alasadi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct writing (LDW has been used to pattern 90nm thick permalloy (Ni81Fe19 into 1-D and 2-D microstructures with strong shape anisotropy. Sub-nanosecond laser pulses were focused with a 0.75 NA lens to a 1.85μm diameter spot, to achieve a fluence of approximately 350 mJ.cm-2 and ablate the permalloy film. Computer-controlled sample scanning then allowed structures to be defined. Scan speeds were controlled to give 30% overlap between successive laser pulses and reduce the extent of width modulation in the final structures. Continuous magnetic wires that adjoined the rest of the film were fabricated with widths from 650 nm - 6.75μm and magneto-optical measurements showed coercivity reducing across this width range from 47 Oe to 11 Oe. Attempts to fabricate wires narrower than 650nm resulted in discontinuities in the wires and a marked decrease in coercivity. This approach is extremely rapid and was carried out in air, at room temperature and with no chemical processing. The 6-kHz laser pulse repetition rate allowed wire arrays across an area of 4 mm x 0.18 mm to be patterned in 85 s.

  20. Laser direct writing (LDW) of magnetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasadi, Alaa; Claeyssens, F.; Allwood, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Laser direct writing (LDW) has been used to pattern 90nm thick permalloy (Ni81Fe19) into 1-D and 2-D microstructures with strong shape anisotropy. Sub-nanosecond laser pulses were focused with a 0.75 NA lens to a 1.85μm diameter spot, to achieve a fluence of approximately 350 mJ.cm-2 and ablate the permalloy film. Computer-controlled sample scanning then allowed structures to be defined. Scan speeds were controlled to give 30% overlap between successive laser pulses and reduce the extent of width modulation in the final structures. Continuous magnetic wires that adjoined the rest of the film were fabricated with widths from 650 nm - 6.75μm and magneto-optical measurements showed coercivity reducing across this width range from 47 Oe to 11 Oe. Attempts to fabricate wires narrower than 650nm resulted in discontinuities in the wires and a marked decrease in coercivity. This approach is extremely rapid and was carried out in air, at room temperature and with no chemical processing. The 6-kHz laser pulse repetition rate allowed wire arrays across an area of 4 mm x 0.18 mm to be patterned in 85 s.

  1. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques

  2. Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds Calculated Using Multiple Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Laboratory (Ret.), private communication. 33. S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy , 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003. DOI: 10.1002/0471434027. 34. J. K...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--15-9665 Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds ...NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds Calculated Using Multiple

  3. Mode structure of a quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A. A.; Suris, R. A.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the mode structure of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) cavity considering the surface plasmon-polariton modes and familiar modes of hollow resonator jointly, within a single model. We present a comprehensive mode structure analysis of the laser cavity, varying its geometric parameters and free electron concentration inside cavity layers within a wide range. Our analysis covers, in particular, the cases of metal-insulator-metal and insulator-metal-insulator waveguides. We discuss the phenomenon of negative dispersion for eigenmodes in detail and explain the nature of this phenomenon. We specify a waveguide parameters domain in which negative dispersion exists. The mode structure of QCL cavity is considered in the case of the anisotropic electrical properties of the waveguide materials. We show that anisotropy of the waveguide core results in propagation of Langmuir modes that are degenerated in the case of the isotropic core. Comparative analysis of optical losses due to free carrier absorption is presented for different modes within the frequency range from terahertz to ultraviolet frequencies.

  4. A Simple Laser Teaching Aid for Transverse Mode Structure Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cheng; Zhang, Shulian

    2009-01-01

    A teaching aid for demonstrating the transverse mode structure in lasers is described. A novel device called "multi-dimension adjustable combined cat-eye reflector" has been constructed from easily available materials to form a He-Ne laser resonator. By finely adjusting the cat-eye, the boundary conditions of the laser cavity can be altered, which…

  5. Modal loss mechanism of micro-structured VCSELs studied using full vector FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Du-Ho; Vu, Ngoc Hai; Kim, Jin-Tae; Hwang, In-Kag

    2011-09-12

    Modal properties of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with holey structures are studied using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We investigate loss behavior with respect to the variation of structural parameters, and explain the loss mechanism of VCSELs. We also propose an effective method to estimate the modal loss based on mode profiles obtained using FDTD simulation. Our results could provide an important guideline for optimization of the microstructures of high-power single-mode VCSELs.

  6. Towards friction control using laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Schmidt, M.; Zaeh, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the study of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the description of their tribological properties in order to facilitate the knowledge for contact mechanical applications. To obtain laser parameters for LIPSS formation, we propose to execute two

  7. UV laser cleaving of air-polymer structured fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canning, J.; Buckley, E.; Groothoff, N.; Luther-Davies, B.; Zagari, J.

    2002-01-01

    The demonstration of ultraviolet (UV) laser ablation technique for cleaving of air-polymer structure (APF) fiber was presented. ArF exciplex laser with an unstable resonator cavity with pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuations was used for the study. The thermal diffusion time across a 200 µm diameter

  8. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Pilot, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations; Fredrick, P.; Ramaswami, V.S.; Muys, P. [Radius Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    1994-12-31

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO{sub 2} and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO{sub 2} laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  9. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO 2 and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO 2 laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  10. Laser machining micro-structures on diamond surface with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingtao; Guo, Bing; Zhao, Qingliang

    2018-02-01

    Micro-structure surface on diamond material is widely used in a series of industrial and scientific applications, such as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), microelectronics, textured or micro-structured diamond machining tools. The efficient machining of micro-structure on diamond surface is urgently demanded in engineering. In this paper, laser machining square micro-structure on diamond surface was studied with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser. The influences of laser machining parameters, including the laser power, scanning speed, defocusing quantity and scanning pitch, were researched in view of the ablation depth, material removal rate and machined surface topography. Both the ablation depth and material removal rate increased with average laser power. A reduction of the growth rate of the two parameters was induced by the absorption of the laser plasma plume at high laser power. The ablation depth non-linearly decreased with the increasing of the scanning speed while the material removal rate showed an opposite tendency. The increasing of the defocusing quantity induced complex variation of the ablation depth and the material removal rate. The maximum ablation depth and material removal rate were achieved at a defocusing position. The ablation depth and material removal rate oppositely varied about the scanning pitch. A high overlap ratio was meaningful for achieving a smooth micro-structure surface topography. Laser machining with a large defocusing quantity, high laser power and small scanning pitch was helpful for acquiring the desired micro-structure which had a large depth and smooth micro-structure surface topography.

  11. Structural changes in femtosecond laser modified regions inside fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juodkazis, Saulius; Kohara, Shinji; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Norihisa; Vailionis, Arturas; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Saito, Akira; Rode, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Structural characterization of photomodified microvolumes formed by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside silica glass was carried out using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The observed distinct separation between the O–O and Si–Si pair correlation peaks can be interpreted as a phase separation induced by microexplosions at the focal volume. The mechanisms of structural transitions induced by femtosecond laser pulses inside dielectrics are discussed

  12. Growth of GaAs-based VCSEL/RCE Structures for Optoelectronic Applications via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Somintac; E. Estacio,; M. F. Bailon; A. A. Salvador

    2003-01-01

    High intensity and sharp emission peaks, at light-hole (842 nm) and heavy-hole (857 nm) excitonic transitionsfor a 90 Å GaAs quantum well (QW) were observed for vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)structure. Excellent wavelength selectivity and sensitivity were demonstrated by resonant cavity enhanced(RCE) photodetector at 859 nm, corresponding to the energy level of a 95 Å GaAs quantum well.

  13. Pulsed Laser Interactions with Silicon Nano structures in Emitter Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huat, V.L.C.; Leong, C.S.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Saleem Hussain Zaidi

    2015-01-01

    Silicon wafer thinning is now approaching fundamental limits for wafer thickness owing to thermal expansion mismatch between Al and Si, reduced yields in wet-chemical processing as a result of fragility, and reduced optical absorption. An alternate manufacturing approach is needed to eliminate current manufacturing issues. In recent years, pulsed lasers have become readily available and costs have been significantly reduced. Pulsed laser interactions with silicon, in terms of micromachining, diffusions, and edge isolation, are well known, and have become industrial manufacturing tools. In this paper, pulsed laser interactions with silicon nano structures were identified as the most desirable solution for the fundamental limitations discussed above. Silicon nano structures have the capability for extremely high absorption that significantly reduces requirements for laser power, as well as thermal shock to the thinner wafer. Laser-assisted crystallization, in the presence of doping materials, leads to nano structure profiles that are highly desirable for sunlight absorption. The objective of this paper is the replacement of high temperature POCl_3 diffusion by laser-assisted phosphorus layers. With these improvements, complete low-temperature processing of thinner wafers was achievable with 3.7 % efficiency. Two-dimensional laser scanning was proved to be able to form uniformly annealed surfaces with higher fill factor and open-circuit voltage. (author)

  14. Long-term vacuum tests of single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes used for a scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C.; Ellmeier, M.; Piris, J.; Lammegger, R.; Jernej, I.; Magnes, W.; Murphy, E.; Pollinger, A.; Erd, C.; Baumjohann, W.

    2017-11-01

    Scalar magnetometers measure the magnitude of the magnetic field, while vector magnetometers (mostly fluxgate magnetometers) produce three-component outputs proportional to the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field. While scalar magnetometers have a high accuracy, vector magnetometers suffer from parameter drifts and need to be calibrated during flight. In some cases, full science return can only be achieved by a combination of vector and scalar magnetometers.

  15. Measuring canopy structure with an airborne laser altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Evans, D.L.; Jacobs, D.; Everitt, J.H.; Weltz, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Quantification of vegetation patterns and properties is needed to determine their role on the landscape and to develop management plans to conserve our natural resources. Quantifying vegetation patterns from the ground, or by using aerial photography or satellite imagery is difficult, time consuming, and often expensive. Digital data from an airborne laser altimeter offer an alternative method to quantify selected vegetation properties and patterns of forest and range vegetation. Airborne laser data found canopy heights varied from 2 to 6 m within even-aged pine forests. Maximum canopy heights measured with the laser altimeter were significantly correlated to measurements made with ground-based methods. Canopy shape could be used to distinguish deciduous and evergreen trees. In rangeland areas, vegetation heights, spatial patterns, and canopy cover measured with the laser altimeter were significantly related with field measurements. These studies demonstrate the potential of airborne laser data to measure canopy structure and properties for large areas quickly and quantitatively

  16. Structural defects in laser- and electron-beam annealed silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, J.

    1979-01-01

    Laser and electron beam pulses provide almost an ideal source of heat by which thin layers of semiconductors can be rapidly melted and solidified with heating and cooling rates exceeding 10 80 C/sec. Microstructural modifications obtained as a function of laser parameters are examined and it is shown that both laser and electron beam pulses can be used to remove displacement damage, dislocations, dislocation loops and precipitates. Annealing of defects underneath the oxide layers in silicon is possible within a narrow energy window. The formation of cellular structure provides a rather clear evidence of melting which leads to segregation and supercooling, and subsequent cell formation

  17. Effects of laser fluence on the structural properties of pulsed laser deposited ruthenium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wai-Keat; Wong, Hin-Yong; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Tou, Teck-Yong [Multimedia University, Centre for Advanced Devices and Systems (CADS), Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yong, Thian-Khok [Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yap, Seong-Shan [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Institute of Physics, Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Ruthenium (Ru) has received great interest in recent years for applications in microelectronics. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) enables the growth of Ru thin films at low temperatures. In this paper, we report for the first time the characterization of pulsed laser deposited Ru thin films. The deposition processes were carried out at room temperature in vacuum environment for different durations with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 355-nm laser wavelength, employing various laser fluences ranging from 2 J/cm{sup 2} to 8 J/cm{sup 2}. The effect of the laser fluence on the structural properties of the deposited Ru films was investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ru droplets, some spherical in shape and some flattened into round discs were found on the deposited Ru. The droplets were correlated to ripple formations on the target during the laser-induced ejection from the target. In addition, crystalline Ru with orientations of (100), (101), and (002) was observed in the XRD spectra and their intensities were found to increase with increasing laser fluence and film thickness. Grain sizes ranging from 20 nm to 35 nm were deduced using the Scherrer formula. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) show that the composition of the plume and the deposited Ru film was of high purity. (orig.)

  18. Effects of laser fluence on the structural properties of pulsed laser deposited ruthenium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wai-Keat; Wong, Hin-Yong; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Tou, Teck-Yong; Yong, Thian-Khok; Yap, Seong-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) has received great interest in recent years for applications in microelectronics. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) enables the growth of Ru thin films at low temperatures. In this paper, we report for the first time the characterization of pulsed laser deposited Ru thin films. The deposition processes were carried out at room temperature in vacuum environment for different durations with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 355-nm laser wavelength, employing various laser fluences ranging from 2 J/cm 2 to 8 J/cm 2 . The effect of the laser fluence on the structural properties of the deposited Ru films was investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ru droplets, some spherical in shape and some flattened into round discs were found on the deposited Ru. The droplets were correlated to ripple formations on the target during the laser-induced ejection from the target. In addition, crystalline Ru with orientations of (100), (101), and (002) was observed in the XRD spectra and their intensities were found to increase with increasing laser fluence and film thickness. Grain sizes ranging from 20 nm to 35 nm were deduced using the Scherrer formula. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) show that the composition of the plume and the deposited Ru film was of high purity. (orig.)

  19. Below-bandgap photoreflection spectroscopy of semiconductor laser structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, Aleksandr E; Chernikov, Maksim A; Ryabushkin, Oleg A; Trubenko, P; Moshegov, N; Ovchinnikov, A

    2004-01-01

    A new method of modulated light reflection - below-bandgap photoreflection, is considered. Unlike the conventional photoreflection method, the proposed method uses optical pumping by photons of energy smaller than the bandgap of any layer of a semiconductor structure under study. Such pumping allows one to obtain the modulated reflection spectrum for all layers of the structure without excitation of photoluminescence. This method is especially promising for the study of wide-gap semiconductors. The results of the study of semiconductor structures used in modern high-power multimode semiconductor lasers are presented. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. LASER SURFACE CLADDING FOR STRUCTURAL REPAIR

    OpenAIRE

    SANTANU PAUL

    2018-01-01

    Laser cladding is a powder deposition technique, which is used to deposit layers of clad material on a substrate to improve its surface properties. It has widespread application in the repair of dies and molds used in the automobile industry. These molds and dies are subjected to cyclic thermo-mechanical loading and therefore undergo localized damage and wear. The final clad quality and integrity is influenced by various physical phenomena, namely, melt pool morphology, microst...

  1. Cellular growth and dislocation structures in laser-nitrided titanium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, A.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1997-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopic observations were made of different dislocation structures in laser-nitrided titanium. Equidistant edge dislocations in the bulk and periodic surface structures exhibit a periodicity within the same order of magnitude. An analysis is presented in which both periodic

  2. Elaboration of submicron structures on PEEK polymer by femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouti, S.; Beaugiraud, B.; Salvia, M.; Mauclair, C.; Pascale-Hamri, A.; Benayoun, S.; Valette, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare PEEK polymer under two crystalline forms: semi-crystalline and amorphous. • We assess topographical modifications of surface morphologies after femtosecond laser irradiation. • At low laser energy regime, there is an influence of the crystallinity rate on topographical features of surface morphologies. • At high laser energy regime, the contribution of the crystallinity tends to disappear. - Abstract: In this work, laser parameters initiating the emergence of periodic structures, so-called ripples on poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) surfaces, are investigated. PEEK was used in its semi-crystalline and amorphous forms. Polymer surfaces were treated locally by performing a matrix of laser impacts to highlight the influence of the crystallinity in ultrashort laser interaction. Different surface morphologies or ripples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and optical interferometry. A map of the presence of these different morphologies according to the laser fluence and the number of pulses was established. Analysis by optical interferometry was carried out and led to the calculations of ablation efficiency. Some significant differences were demonstrated between amorphous and semi-crystalline surfaces. This work revealed topographical information on the local behavior of the irradiated material. Finally, the crystallinity rate of polymer surface seems to be a determinant factor for the periodic nanostructured appearance

  3. Elaboration of submicron structures on PEEK polymer by femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammouti, S., E-mail: sabrina.hammouti@ec-lyon.fr [LTDS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Beaugiraud, B.; Salvia, M. [LTDS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Mauclair, C. [LaHC, Université Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Professeur Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); MANUTECH-USD, 20 rue du Professeur Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Pascale-Hamri, A. [MANUTECH-USD, 20 rue du Professeur Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Benayoun, S. [LTDS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Valette, S. [LTDS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); MANUTECH-USD, 20 rue du Professeur Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • We compare PEEK polymer under two crystalline forms: semi-crystalline and amorphous. • We assess topographical modifications of surface morphologies after femtosecond laser irradiation. • At low laser energy regime, there is an influence of the crystallinity rate on topographical features of surface morphologies. • At high laser energy regime, the contribution of the crystallinity tends to disappear. - Abstract: In this work, laser parameters initiating the emergence of periodic structures, so-called ripples on poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) surfaces, are investigated. PEEK was used in its semi-crystalline and amorphous forms. Polymer surfaces were treated locally by performing a matrix of laser impacts to highlight the influence of the crystallinity in ultrashort laser interaction. Different surface morphologies or ripples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and optical interferometry. A map of the presence of these different morphologies according to the laser fluence and the number of pulses was established. Analysis by optical interferometry was carried out and led to the calculations of ablation efficiency. Some significant differences were demonstrated between amorphous and semi-crystalline surfaces. This work revealed topographical information on the local behavior of the irradiated material. Finally, the crystallinity rate of polymer surface seems to be a determinant factor for the periodic nanostructured appearance.

  4. Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, Shmuel; Pukhov, Anatoly; Zigler, Arie

    2007-01-01

    The ability to select and stabilize a single filament during propagation of an ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse in air makes it possible to examine the longitudinal structure of the plasma channel left in its wake. We present detailed measurements of plasma density variations along laser propagation. Over the length of the filament, electron density variations of 3 orders of magnitude are measured. They display evidence of a meter-long postionization range, along which a self-guided structure is observed coupled with a low plasma density, corresponding to ∼3 orders of magnitude decrease from the peak density level

  5. Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Shmuel; Pukhov, Anatoly; Zigler, Arie

    2007-04-01

    The ability to select and stabilize a single filament during propagation of an ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse in air makes it possible to examine the longitudinal structure of the plasma channel left in its wake. We present detailed measurements of plasma density variations along laser propagation. Over the length of the filament, electron density variations of 3 orders of magnitude are measured. They display evidence of a meter-long postionization range, along which a self-guided structure is observed coupled with a low plasma density, corresponding to ˜3 orders of magnitude decrease from the peak density level.

  6. Multiple quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-wakefield acceleration with spatially structured laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y.; Li, M. H.; Li, Y. F.; Wang, J. G.; Tao, M. Z.; Han, Y. J.; Zhao, J. R.; Huang, K.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, J. L.; Li, Y. T. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen, L. M., E-mail: lmchen@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, D. Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Sheng, Z. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Zhang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-08-15

    By adjusting the focus geometry of a spatially structured laser pulse, single, double, and treble quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were generated, respectively, in laser-wakefield acceleration. Single electron beam was produced as focusing the laser pulse to a single spot. While focusing the laser pulse to two spots that are approximately equal in energy and size and intense enough to form their own filaments, two electron beams were produced. Moreover, with a proper distance between those two focal spots, three electron beams emerged with a certain probability owing to the superposition of the diffractions of those two spots. The energy spectra of the multiple electron beams are quasi-monoenergetic, which are different from that of the large energy spread beams produced due to the longitudinal multiple-injection in the single bubble.

  7. Refining femtosecond laser induced periodical surface structures with liquid assist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, L.S.; Ng, E.Y.K.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LIPSS on silicon wafer was made in air and in ethanol environment. ► Ethanol environment produce cleaner surface ripples. ► Ethanol environment decrease spatial wavelength of the LIPSS by 30%. ► More number of pulses produce smaller spatial wavelength in air. ► Number of pulses do not influence spatial wavelength in ethanol environment. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures were generated on silicon wafer using femtosecond laser. The medium used in this study is both air and ethanol. The laser process parameters such as wavelength, number of pulse, laser fluence were kept constant for both the mediums. The focus of the study is to analyze spatial wavelength. When generating surface structures with air as a medium and same process parameter of the laser, spatial wavelength results showed a 30% increase compared to ethanol. The cleanliness of the surface generated using ethanol showed considerably less debris than in air. The results observed from the above investigation showed that the medium plays a predominant role in the generation of surface structures.

  8. Laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallo, L., E-mail: hallo@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Mezel, C., E-mail: candice.mezel@cea.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); CEA Le Ripault, 37260 Monts (France); Guillemot, F., E-mail: fabien.guillemot@inserm.fr [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Chimier, B., E-mail: chimier@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Bourgeade, A., E-mail: antoine.bourgeade@cea.fr [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France); Regan, C., E-mail: regan@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Duchateau, G., E-mail: duchateau@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Souquet, A., E-mail: agnes.souquet@inserm.fr [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Hebert, D., E-mail: david.hebert@cea.fr [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study we model nanomaterial structuring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser energy deposition is discussed first. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full and approximate models are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic material response is addressed via hydrodynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sild effects are accounted for - Abstract: Interaction of ultrafast laser, i.e. from the femtosecond (fs) to the nanosecond (ns) regime, with initially transparent matter may produce very high energy density hot spots in the bulk as well as at the material surface, depending on focusing conditions. In the fs regime, absorption is due to ionisation of the dielectric, which enables absorption process to begin, and then hydrodynamic to take place. In the ns regime both absorption and hydrodynamic are coupled to each other, which complexifies considerably the comprehension but matter structuration looks similar. A numerical tool including solution of 3D Maxwell equations and a rate equation for free electrons is first compared to some available simple models of laser energy absorption. Then, subsequent material deformation, i.e. structuration, is determined by solving hydrodynamic equations, including or not solid behaviour. We show that nature of the final structures strongly depends on the amount of deposited energy and on the shape of the absorption zone. Then we address some problems related to laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials in the fs, ps and ns regimes.

  9. Optical properties of a multibarrier structure under intense laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, D. A.; Akimov, V.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Morales, A. L.; Tulupenko, V.; Duque, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    Using the diagonalization method and within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations, the energy spectrum and the wave functions are investigated in biased multibarrier structure taking into account the effects of nonresonant intense laser fields. We calculated the optical properties from the susceptibility using a nonperturbative formalism recently reported. We study the changes in the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refraction index for several values of the dressing laser parameter and for some specific values of the electric field applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure. It is concluded from our study that the peaks in the optical absorption spectrum have redshifts or blueshifts as a function of the laser parameter and the electric field. These parameters could be suitable tools for tuning the electronic and optical properties of the multibarrier structure.

  10. Femtosecond laser surface structuring of molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: Kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biophotonics Lab: National Laser Centre Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano, Itala (Italy); Sechoghela, P.; Mongwaketsi, N. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Ramponi, R. [Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN)–CNR, Piazza Leanardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Color change of the molybdenum thin film from shinny to violet–yellowish color after laser irradiation at various laser powers. • Formation of the molybdenum dioxide coating after laser exposure, as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction spectrometry. • Selective solar absorbing nature of the laser exposed films. • Study of the binding energies is presented in this contribution using the XPS spectrometry. - Abstract: This contribution reports on the femtosecond surface structuring of molybdenum thin coatings deposited by electron beam evaporation onto Corning glass substrates. The 1-D type periodic grating lines created by such an ablation showed that the widths of the shallow grooves followed a logarithmic dependence with the laser energy incident on the molybdenum film. The electronic valence “x” of the created oxide surface layer MoO{sub x} was found to be incident laser power dependent via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations. Such a photo-induced MoO{sub x}–Mo nanocomposite exhibited effective selective solar absorption in the UV–vis–IR spectral range.

  11. Orientation dependent emission properties of columnar quantum dash laser structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, S.; Podemski, P.; Sek, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Ridha, P.; Fiore, A.; Patriarche, G.; Höfling, S.; Forchel, A.

    2009-01-01

    InAs columnar quantum dash (CQDash) structures on (100) InP have been realized by gas source molecular beam epitaxy for stacking numbers of up to 24. Laser devices show low threshold current densities between 0.73 and 3.5 kA/ cm2, dependent on the CQDash orientation within the cavity.

  12. Laser target fabrication, structure and method for its fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a laser target structure and its method of fabrication. The target structure comprises a target plate containing an orifice across which a pair of crosshairs are affixed. A microsphere is affixed to the crosshairs and enclosed by at least one hollow shell comprising two hemispheres attached together and to the crosshairs so that the microsphere is juxtapositioned at the center of the shell.

  13. Fabrication of submicron proteinaceous structures by direct laser writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serien, Daniela [Center for International Research on Integrative Biomedical Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, Shoji, E-mail: takeuchi@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for International Research on Integrative Biomedical Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); ERATO Takeuchi Biohybrid Innovation Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    In this paper, we provide a characterization of truly free-standing proteinaceous structures with submicron feature sizes depending on the fabrication conditions by model-based analysis. Protein cross-linking of bovine serum albumin is performed by direct laser writing and two-photon excitation of flavin adenine dinucleotide. We analyze the obtainable fabrication resolution and required threshold energy for polymerization. The applied polymerization model allows prediction of fabrication conditions and resulting fabrication size, alleviating the application of proteinaceous structure fabrication.

  14. Biomimetic surface structuring using cylindrical vector femtosecond laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulas, Evangelos; Manousaki, Alexandra; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    We report on a new, single-step and scalable method to fabricate highly ordered, multi-directional and complex surface structures that mimic the unique morphological features of certain species found in nature. Biomimetic surface structuring was realized by exploiting the unique and versatile angular profile and the electric field symmetry of cylindrical vector (CV) femtosecond (fs) laser beams. It is shown that, highly controllable, periodic structures exhibiting sizes at nano-, micro- and dual- micro/nano scales can be directly written on Ni upon line and large area scanning with radial and azimuthal polarization beams. Depending on the irradiation conditions, new complex multi-directional nanostructures, inspired by the Shark’s skin morphology, as well as superhydrophobic dual-scale structures mimicking the Lotus’ leaf water repellent properties can be attained. It is concluded that the versatility and features variations of structures formed is by far superior to those obtained via laser processing with linearly polarized beams. More important, by exploiting the capabilities offered by fs CV fields, the present technique can be further extended to fabricate even more complex and unconventional structures. We believe that our approach provides a new concept in laser materials processing, which can be further exploited for expanding the breadth and novelty of applications.

  15. Structural modification of silica glass by laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jian; Sullivan, James; Zayac, John; Bennett, Ted D.

    2004-01-01

    The thermophysical nature of rapid CO 2 laser heating of silica glass is explored using a numerical simulation that considers the structural state of the glass, as characterized by the fictive temperature. The fictive temperature reflects the thermodynamic temperature at which the glass structure would be in equilibrium. To demonstrate that the thermophysical model can accurately predict the structural change in the glass, the fictive temperature is measured experimentally utilizing the fact that the fictive temperature change corresponds to a change of glass properties that can be revealed through wet chemical etching. The relationship between the etch rate and the fictive temperature is determined by preparing and etching samples of known fictive temperature. Wet chemical etching is used to measure the fictive temperature over the entire laser affected zone and the results are found to compare favorably with the results of the thermophysical model. The model and experimental measurements demonstrate that rapid laser processing results in an increased fictive temperature near the surface of the glass. The fictive temperature increase is about 1000 K and is uniform to within 5% over the laser affected zone. Near the boundary of this zone, the fictive temperature transitions abruptly to the value of the surrounding untreated glass

  16. Laser-based structural sensing and surface damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldur, Burcu

    Damage due to age or accumulated damage from hazards on existing structures poses a worldwide problem. In order to evaluate the current status of aging, deteriorating and damaged structures, it is vital to accurately assess the present conditions. It is possible to capture the in situ condition of structures by using laser scanners that create dense three-dimensional point clouds. This research investigates the use of high resolution three-dimensional terrestrial laser scanners with image capturing abilities as tools to capture geometric range data of complex scenes for structural engineering applications. Laser scanning technology is continuously improving, with commonly available scanners now capturing over 1,000,000 texture-mapped points per second with an accuracy of ~2 mm. However, automatically extracting meaningful information from point clouds remains a challenge, and the current state-of-the-art requires significant user interaction. The first objective of this research is to use widely accepted point cloud processing steps such as registration, feature extraction, segmentation, surface fitting and object detection to divide laser scanner data into meaningful object clusters and then apply several damage detection methods to these clusters. This required establishing a process for extracting important information from raw laser-scanned data sets such as the location, orientation and size of objects in a scanned region, and location of damaged regions on a structure. For this purpose, first a methodology for processing range data to identify objects in a scene is presented and then, once the objects from model library are correctly detected and fitted into the captured point cloud, these fitted objects are compared with the as-is point cloud of the investigated object to locate defects on the structure. The algorithms are demonstrated on synthetic scenes and validated on range data collected from test specimens and test-bed bridges. The second objective of

  17. Laser cutting sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yecheng; Wang, Maolu; Zhang, Hongzhi; Yang, Lijun; Fu, Xihong; Wang, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Silicon-glass devices are widely used in IC industry, MEMS and solar energy system because of their reliability and simplicity of the manufacturing process. With the trend toward the wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) technology, the suitable dicing method of silicon-glass bonded structure wafer has become necessary. In this paper, a combined experimental and computational approach is undertaken to investigate the feasibility of cutting the sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass (SGS) wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) method. A 1064 nm semiconductor laser cutting system with double laser beams which could simultaneously irradiate on the top and bottom of the sandwich structure wafer has been designed. A mathematical model for describing the physical process of the interaction between laser and SGS wafer, which consists of two surface heating sources and two volumetric heating sources, has been established. The temperature stress distribution are simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The crack propagation process is analyzed by using the J-integral method. In the FEM model, a stationary planar crack is embedded in the wafer and the J-integral values around the crack front edge are determined using the FEM. A verification experiment under typical parameters is conducted and the crack propagation profile on the fracture surface is examined by the optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and J-integral value.

  18. High-brightness tapered laser diodes with photonic crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Du, Weichuan; Kun, Zhou; Gao, Songxin; Ma, Yi; Tang, Chun

    2018-02-01

    Beam quality of tapered laser diodes is limited by higher order lateral mode. On purpose of optimizing the brightness of tapered laser diodes, we developed a novel design of tapered diodes. This devices based on InGaAs/AlGaAs asymmetry epitaxial structure, containing higher order lateral mode filtering schemes especially photonic crystal structures, which fabricated cost effectively by using standard photolithography and dry etch processes. Meanwhile, the effects of photonic crystal structures on mode control are also investigated theoretically by FDBPM (Finite-Difference Beam Propagation Method) calculation. We achieved a CW optical output power of 6.9W at 940nm for a single emitter with 4 mm cavity length. A nearly diffraction limited beam of M2 ≍1.9 @ 0.5W has been demonstrated, and a highest brightness of β =75MW/(cm2 ·sr) was reached.

  19. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on niobium by femtosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, A.; Dias, A.; Gomez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S. M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2014-01-01

    The surface morphology of a Niobium sample, irradiated in air by a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 800 nm and pulse duration of 100 fs, was examined. The period of the micro/nanostructures, parallel and perpendicularly oriented to the linearly polarized fs-laser beam, was studied by means of 2D Fast Fourier Transform analysis. The observed Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) were classified as Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (periods about 600 nm) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS, showing a periodicity around 300 nm, both of them perpendicularly oriented to the polarization of the incident laser wave. Moreover, parallel high spatial frequency LIPSS were observed with periods around 100 nm located at the peripheral areas of the laser fingerprint and overwritten on the perpendicular periodic gratings. The results indicate that this method of micro/nanostructuring allows controlling the Niobium grating period by the number of pulses applied, so the scan speed and not the fluence is the key parameter of control. A discussion on the mechanism of the surface topology evolution was also introduced

  20. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on niobium by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, A.; Dias, A.; Gomez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S. M. [CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); CEIT-IK4 and Tecnun, University of Navarra, Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain)

    2014-05-07

    The surface morphology of a Niobium sample, irradiated in air by a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 800 nm and pulse duration of 100 fs, was examined. The period of the micro/nanostructures, parallel and perpendicularly oriented to the linearly polarized fs-laser beam, was studied by means of 2D Fast Fourier Transform analysis. The observed Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) were classified as Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (periods about 600 nm) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS, showing a periodicity around 300 nm, both of them perpendicularly oriented to the polarization of the incident laser wave. Moreover, parallel high spatial frequency LIPSS were observed with periods around 100 nm located at the peripheral areas of the laser fingerprint and overwritten on the perpendicular periodic gratings. The results indicate that this method of micro/nanostructuring allows controlling the Niobium grating period by the number of pulses applied, so the scan speed and not the fluence is the key parameter of control. A discussion on the mechanism of the surface topology evolution was also introduced.

  1. Collaborative Research: Tomographic imaging of laser-plasma structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Michael [University of Texas at Austin

    2018-01-18

    The interaction of intense short laser pulses with ionized gases, or plasmas, underlies many applications such as acceleration of elementary particles, production of energy by laser fusion, generation of x-ray and far-infrared “terahertz” pulses for medical and materials probing, remote sensing of explosives and pollutants, and generation of guide stars. Such laser-plasma interactions create tiny electron density structures (analogous to the wake behind a boat) inside the plasma in the shape of waves, bubbles and filaments that move at the speed of light, and evolve as they propagate. Prior to recent work by the PI of this proposal, detailed knowledge of such structures came exclusively from intensive computer simulations. Now “snapshots” of these elusive, light-velocity structures can be taken in the laboratory using dynamic variant of holography, the technique used to produce ID cards and DVDs, and dynamic variant of tomography, the technique used in medicine to image internal bodily organs. These fast visualization techniques are important for understanding, improving and scaling the above-mentioned applications of laser-plasma interactions. In this project, we accomplished three things: 1) We took holographic pictures of a laser-driven plasma-wave in the act of accelerating electrons to high energy, and used computer simulations to understand the pictures. 2) Using results from this experiment to optimize the performance of the accelerator, and the brightness of x-rays that it emits. These x-rays will be useful for medical and materials science applications. 3) We made technical improvements to the holographic technique that enables us to see finer details in the recorded pictures. Four refereed journal papers were published, and two students earned PhDs and moved on to scientific careers in US National Laboratories based on their work under this project.

  2. 1-W quasi-cw near-diffraction-limited semiconductor laser pumped optically by a fibre-coupled diode bar

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanjal, S.; Hoogland, S.; Roberts, J.S.; Hayward, R.A.; Clarkson, W.A.; Tropper, Anne

    2000-01-01

    We describe a diode-bar-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser, which in quasi-cw operation emitted a peak power of >1 W at 1020 nm in a circular, near diffraction-limited beam.

  3. STRUCTURE FORMATION OF ALLOYS ON IRON BASIS AFTER LASER ALLOYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigations on influence of laser treatment regimes of gas-thermal and adhesive coatings from self-fluxing powders on iron basis and after melting with modifying plaster on their roughness and phase composition. One of mathematical planning methods that is a complete factor experiment method has been used for investigation of parameters’ influence on micro-geometry of coatings. The executed investigations have made it possible to observe a general regularity which does not depend on a type of alloying plaster: while increasing speed of laser beam relatively to treated part, beam diameter value of Ra parameter is becoming less. Decrease in height of surface irregularities in case of increasing laser beam speed is related with intensification of evaporation processes. An increase in beam diameter diminishes Ra parameter of the surface. This is due to the fact that decrease in power density occurs at high rate of beam defocusing. Overlapping coefficient does not exert a pronounced effect on Ra parameter of fused coatings. While increasing the speed of laser beam relatively to the part structure is transferred from dendrite into supersaturated one with carbide and boride precipitations. It has been established that technological parameters of laser treatment and particularly speed of laser beam influence on coating composition. While increasing the speed up to v5 = 5 × 10–3 m/s amount of chromium has become larger by 1.5-fold that resulted in increase of micro-hardness of the coating from 9.5–10.1 GPa up to 11.04–15.50 GPa.

  4. Laser induced structural transformation in chalcogenide based superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zallo, Eugenio; Wang, Ruining; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Superlattices made of alternating layers of nominal GeTe and Sb 2 Te 3 have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. A structural irreversible transformation into ordered GeSbTe alloy is induced by high power laser light exposure. The intensity ratio of anti-Stokes and Stokes scattering under laser illumination gives a maximum average temperature in the sample of 177 °C. The latter is lower than the growth temperature and of 400 °C necessary by annealing to transform the structure in a GeSbTe alloy. The absence of this configuration after in situ annealing even up to 300 °C evidences an electronic excitation induced-transition which brings the system into a different and stable crystalline state.

  5. Modal testing and analysis of NOVA laser structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdick, R.B.; Weaver, H.J.; Pastrnak, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    NOVA, currently the world's most powerful laser system, is an ongoing project at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. The project seeks to develop a feasible method of achieving controlled fusion reaction, initiated by multiple laser beams targeted on a tiny fuel pellet. The NOVA system consists of several large steel framed structures, the largest of which is the Target Chamber Tower. In conjunction with design engineers, the tower was first modelled and analyzed by sophisticated finite element techniques. A modal test was then conducted on the tower structure to evaluate its vibrational characteristics and seismic integrity as well as for general comparison to the finite element results. This paper will discuss the procedure used in the experimental modal analysis and the results obtained from that test

  6. Laser induced structural transformation in chalcogenide based superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zallo, Eugenio, E-mail: zallo@pdi-berlin.de; Wang, Ruining; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-30

    Superlattices made of alternating layers of nominal GeTe and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. A structural irreversible transformation into ordered GeSbTe alloy is induced by high power laser light exposure. The intensity ratio of anti-Stokes and Stokes scattering under laser illumination gives a maximum average temperature in the sample of 177 °C. The latter is lower than the growth temperature and of 400 °C necessary by annealing to transform the structure in a GeSbTe alloy. The absence of this configuration after in situ annealing even up to 300 °C evidences an electronic excitation induced-transition which brings the system into a different and stable crystalline state.

  7. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C., E-mail: weber@ikv-aachen.de [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T. [Surface Engineering Institute (IOT), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Steger, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT), Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  8. Structural damage identification based on laser ultrasonic propagation imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chen-Ciang; Jang, Si-Gwang; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2009-06-01

    An ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) system consisted of a Q-switched Nd-YAG pulsed laser and a galvanometer laser mirror scanner was developed. The system which requires neither reference data nor fixed focal length could be used for health monitoring of curved structures. If combined with a fiber acoustic wave PZT (FAWPZT) sensor, it could be used to inspect hot target structures that present formidable challenges to the usage of contact piezoelectric transducers mainly due to the operating temperature limitation of transducers and debonding problem due to the mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion between the target, transducer and bonding material. The inspection of a stainless steel plate with a curvature radius of about 4 m, having 2mm×1mm open-crack was demonstrated at 150°C using a FAWPZT sensor welded on the plate. Highly-curved surfaces scanning capability and adaptivity of the system for large laser incident angle up to 70° was demonstrated on a stainless steel cylinder with 2mm×1mm open-crack. The imaging results were presented in ultrasonic propagation movie which was a moving wavefield emerged from an installed ultrasonic sensor. Damages were localized by the scattering wavefields. The result images enabled easy detection and interpretation of structural defects as anomalies during ultrasonic wave propagation.

  9. Microsized structures assisted nanostructure formation on ZnSe wafer by femtosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shutong; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2014-01-01

    Micro/nano patterning of ZnSe wafer is demonstrated by femtosecond laser irradiation through a diffracting pinhole. The irradiation results obtained at fluences above the ablation threshold are characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The microsized structure with low spatial frequency has a good agreement with Fresnel diffraction theory. Laser induced periodic surface structures and laser-induced periodic curvelet surface structures with high spatial frequency have been found on the surfaces of microsized structures, such as spikes and valleys. We interpret its formation in terms of the interference between the reflected laser field on the surface of the valley and the incident laser pulse

  10. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for measuring tree crown structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, H.; Seifert, S.; Huang, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for describing and modelling of tree crown structure and dynamics. We first present a general approach for the metabolic and structural scaling of tree crowns. Out of this approach we emphasize those normalization and scaling parameters which become accessible by TLS. For example we show how the individual tree leaf area index, convex hull, and its space-filling by leaves can be extracted out of laser scan data. This contributes to a theoretical and empirical substantiation of crown structure models which were missing so far for e.g. quantification of structural and species diversity in forest stands, inventory of crown biomass, species detection by remote sensing, and understanding of self- and alien-thinning in pure and mixed stands. Up to now works on this topic delivered a rather scattered empirical knowledge mainly by single inventories of trees and stands. In contrast, we recommend to start with a model approach, and to complete existing data with repeated TLS inventories in order to come to a consistent and theoretically based model of tree crowns. (author) [de

  11. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  12. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM. The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  13. 5 nm structures produced by direct laser writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, E; Jinga, S; Andronescu, E; Vasile, B S; Rotiu, E; Ionescu, L; Mazilu, C

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a new approach to overcome the optical diffraction limit by using novel materials. In the paper, we report experimental results obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and optical absorption spectroscopy, for a fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramic containing rare-earth ions such as samarium (Sm). Using a home built dynamic tester, with a low power laser, we recorded nanostructures having 5 nm line widths. In the line structure, measurements reveal the presence of silver nanocrystals with few nanometre sizes. HRTEM shows that there is a random orientation of the nanocrystals. A writing mechanism with three steps is proposed.

  14. Holographic Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Shvets, G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-07-31

    In the 1870s, English photographer Eadweard Muybridge captured motion pictures within one cycle of a horse’s gallop, which settled a hotly debated question of his time by showing that the horse became temporarily airborne. In the 1940s, Manhattan project photographer Berlin Brixner captured a nuclear blast at a million frames per second, and resolved a dispute about the explosion’s shape and speed. In this project, we developed methods to capture detailed motion pictures of evolving, light-velocity objects created by a laser pulse propagating through matter. These objects include electron density waves used to accelerate charged particles, laser-induced refractive index changes used for micromachining, and ionization tracks used for atmospheric chemical analysis, guide star creation and ranging. Our “movies”, like Muybridge’s and Brixner’s, are obtained in one shot, since the laser-created objects of interest are insufficiently repeatable for accurate stroboscopic imaging. Our high-speed photographs have begun to resolve controversies about how laser-created objects form and evolve, questions that previously could be addressed only by intensive computer simulations based on estimated initial conditions. Resolving such questions helps develop better tabletop particle accelerators, atmospheric ranging devices and many other applications of laser-matter interactions. Our photographic methods all begin by splitting one or more “probe” pulses from the laser pulse that creates the light-speed object. A probe illuminates the object and obtains information about its structure without altering it. We developed three single-shot visualization methods that differ in how the probes interact with the object of interest or are recorded. (1) Frequency-Domain Holography (FDH). In FDH, there are 2 probes, like “object” and “reference” beams in conventional holography. Our “object” probe surrounds the light-speed object, like a fleas swarming around a

  15. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-30

    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  16. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  17. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua

    2014-12-01

    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  18. Deriving structural forest parameters using airborne laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsdorf, F.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning is a relatively young and precise technology to directly measure surface elevations. With today's high scanning rates, dense 3-D pointclouds of coordinate triplets (xyz) can be provided, in which many structural aspects of the vegetation are contained. The challenge now is to transform this data, as far as possible automatically, into manageable information relevant to the user. In this paper we present two such methods: the first extracts automatically the geometry of individual trees, with a recognition rate of over 70% and a systematic underestimation of tree height of only 0.6 metres. The second method derives a pixel map of the canopy density from the pointcloud, in which the spatial patterns of vegetation cover are represented. These patterns are relevant for habitat analysis and ecosystem studies. The values derived by this method correlate well with field measurements, giving a measure of certainty (R 2 ) of 0.8. The greatest advantage of airborne laser scanning is that it provides spatially extensive, direct measurements of vegetation structure which show none of the extrapolation errors of spot measurements. A large challenge remains in integrating these new products into the user's processing chains and workflows, be it in the realm of forestry or in that of ecosystem research. (author) [de

  19. Planar integrated metasurfaces for highly-collimated terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guozhen; Dupont, Emmanuel; Fathololoumi, Saeed; Wasilewski, Zbigniew R.; Ban, Dayan; Liang, Hou Kun; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Siu Fung; Li, Lianhe H.; Davies, Alexander Giles; Linfield, Edmund H.; Liu, Hui Chun; Wang, Qi Jie

    2014-01-01

    We report planar integration of tapered terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with metasurface waveguides that are designed to be spoof surface plasmon (SSP) out-couplers by introducing periodically arranged SSP scatterers. The resulting surface-emitting THz beam profile is highly collimated with a divergence as narrow as ~4° × 10°, which indicates a good waveguiding property of the metasurface waveguide. In addition, the low background THz power implies a high coupling efficiency for the THz radiation from the laser cavity to the metasurface structure. Furthermore, since all the structures are in-plane, this scheme provides a promising platform where well-established surface plasmon/metasurface techniques can be employed to engineer the emitted beam of THz QCLs controllably and flexibly. More importantly, an integrated active THz photonic circuit for sensing and communication applications could be constructed by incorporating other optoelectronic devices such as Schottky diode THz mixers, and graphene modulators and photodetectors. PMID:25403796

  20. Support structures for optical components in the Laser Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finucane, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The laser system in the Laser Demonstration Facility is mounted on an array of 108 support columns. This milestone report describes the design, analyses, testing, fabrication, installation, and performance characteristics of these supports

  1. Laser plasmas as x-ray sources for lithographic imaging of submicron structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, F.; van Dorssen, G.E.; van der Wiel, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser radiation can be used efficiently to generate x-rays for lithographic imaging of submicron patterns, e.g., for VLSI device fabrication. Due to their short wavelength and high average power, excimer lasers show much potential for this application. Results are presented of scaling studies for high repetition rate excimer laser application, using the frequency doubled output of a low repetition rate Nd:YAG/Glass laser. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray emission of the laser plasma are shown. The power density in the laser focus was 3 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . With this source Si x-ray masks with submicron Au absorber profiles are imaged into high sensitivity x-ray photoresist. For the exposures 80 laser shots sufficed to yield high quality submicron structures. Extrapolation of the results to a high power excimer laser reduces the exposure time of the photoresists to several seconds, enabling a wafer throughput at an industrial level

  2. Wetland Microtopographic Structure is Revealed with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, J.; Stovall, A. E.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Slesak, R.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland microtopographic structure and its function has been the subject of research for decades, and several investigations suggest that microtopography is generated by autogenic ecohydrologic processes. But due to the difficulty of capturing the true spatial variability of wetland microtopography, many of the hypotheses for self-organization have remained elusive to test. We employ a novel method of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) that reveals an unprecedented high-resolution (structure of wetland microtopography in 10 black ash (Fraxinus nigra) stands of northern Minnesota, USA. Here we present the first efforts to synthesize this information and show that TLS provides a good representation of real microtopographic structure, where TLS accurately measured hummock height, but occlusion of low points led to a slight negative bias. We further show that TLS can accurately locate microtopographic high points (hummocks), as well as estimate their height and area. Using these new data, we estimate distributions in both microtopographic elevation and hummock area in each wetland and relate these to monitored hydrologic regime; in doing so, we test hypotheses linking emergent microtopographic patterns to putative hydrologic controls. Finally, we discuss future efforts to enumerate consequent influences of microtopography on wetland systems (soil properties and vegetation composition).

  3. High power CW output from low confinement asymmetric structure diode laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordache, G.; Buda, M.; Acket, G.A.; Roer, van de T.G.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.; Karouta, F.; Jagadish, C.; Tan, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    High power continuous wave output from diode lasers using low loss, low confinement, asymmetric structures is demonstrated. An asymmetric structure with an optical trap layer was grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Gain guided 50 µm wide stripe 1-3 mm long diode lasers were studied. 1.8 W

  4. Physical mechanisms of SiNx layer structuring with ultrafast lasers by direct and confined laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, S.; Heinrich, G.; Wollgarten, M.; Huber, H. P.; Schmidt, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the production process of silicon microelectronic devices and high efficiency silicon solar cells, local contact openings in thin dielectric layers are required. Instead of photolithography, these openings can be selectively structured with ultra-short laser pulses by confined laser ablation in a fast and efficient lift off production step. Thereby, the ultrafast laser pulse is transmitted by the dielectric layer and absorbed at the substrate surface leading to a selective layer removal in the nanosecond time domain. Thermal damage in the substrate due to absorption is an unwanted side effect. The aim of this work is to obtain a deeper understanding of the physical laser-material interaction with the goal of finding a damage-free ablation mechanism. For this, thin silicon nitride (SiN x ) layers on planar silicon (Si) wafers are processed with infrared fs-laser pulses. Two ablation types can be distinguished: The known confined ablation at fluences below 300 mJ/cm 2 and a combined partial confined and partial direct ablation at higher fluences. The partial direct ablation process is caused by nonlinear absorption in the SiN x layer in the center of the applied Gaussian shaped laser pulses. Pump-probe investigations of the central area show ultra-fast reflectivity changes typical for direct laser ablation. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that the Si surface under the remaining SiN x island is not damaged by the laser ablation process. At optimized process parameters, the method of direct laser ablation could be a good candidate for damage-free selective structuring of dielectric layers on absorbing substrates

  5. Formation of periodic structures by laser ablation of metals in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, P.V. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: pawel@kapella.gpi.ru; Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-30

    Experimental results are presented on ablation of metals (W, Cu, brass and bronze) in a liquid environment (e.g., ethanol or water) by irradiation with either a pulsed copper vapor laser (0.51 {mu}m) or a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1.06 {mu}m). The target material is ejected into surrounding liquid in the form of nanoparticles. In a certain range of laser parameters (fluence and number of laser shots) the surface of the solid target is composed of micro-cones having a regular structure. The distance between neighboring micro-cones in the structure depends on the laser spot size. The structures allow the observation of up-conversion of the laser frequency due to generation of the second harmonics in the eye retina.

  6. Direct laser writing of auxetic structures: present capabilities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengsbach, Stefan; Lantada, Andrés Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and that display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several micromanufacturing technologies have already been applied to the development of auxetic geometries and devices, additional precision is needed to take full advantage of their special mechanical properties. In this study we present a very promising approach for the development of auxetic metamaterials and devices based on the use of direct laser writing. The process stands out for its precision and complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries attainable without the need of supporting structures. To our knowledge it represents one of the first examples of the application of this technology to the manufacture of auxetic geometries and mechanical metamaterials, with details even more remarkable than those shown in very recent studies, almost reaching the current limit of this additive manufacturing technology. We have used some special 3D auxetic designs whose remarkable NPR has been previously highlighted. (paper)

  7. A Lightweight Structure Redesign Method Based on Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new design method of lightweight parts fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM based on the “Skin-Frame” and to explore the influence of fabrication defects on SLM parts with different sizes. Some standard lattice parts were designed according to the Chinese GB/T 1452-2005 standard and manufactured by SLM. Then these samples were tested in an MTS Insight 30 compression testing machine to study the trends of the yield process with different structure sizes. A set of standard cylinder samples were also designed according to the Chinese GB/T 228-2010 standard. These samples, which were made of iron-nickel alloy (IN718, were also processed by SLM, and then tested in the universal material testing machine INSTRON 1346 to obtain their tensile strength. Furthermore, a lightweight redesigned method was researched. Then some common parts such as a stopper and connecting plate were redesigned using this method. These redesigned parts were fabricated and some application tests have already been performed. The compression testing results show that when the minimum structure size is larger than 1.5 mm, the mechanical characteristics will hardly be affected by process defects. The cylinder parts were fractured by the universal material testing machine at about 1069.6 MPa. These redesigned parts worked well in application tests, with both the weight and fabrication time of these parts reduced more than 20%.

  8. Structural enzymology using X-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kupitz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC is a technique designed to image enzyme catalyzed reactions in which small protein crystals are mixed with a substrate just prior to being probed by an X-ray pulse. This approach offers several advantages over flow cell studies. It provides (i room temperature structures at near atomic resolution, (ii time resolution ranging from microseconds to seconds, and (iii convenient reaction initiation. It outruns radiation damage by using femtosecond X-ray pulses allowing damage and chemistry to be separated. Here, we demonstrate that MISC is feasible at an X-ray free electron laser by studying the reaction of M. tuberculosis ß-lactamase microcrystals with ceftriaxone antibiotic solution. Electron density maps of the apo-ß-lactamase and of the ceftriaxone bound form were obtained at 2.8 Å and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively. These results pave the way to study cyclic and non-cyclic reactions and represent a new field of time-resolved structural dynamics for numerous substrate-triggered biological reactions.

  9. Photonic quasi-crystal terahertz lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Nobile, Michele; Ronzani, Alberto; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Castellano, Fabrizio; Talora, Valerio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-crystal structures do not present a full spatial periodicity but are nevertheless constructed starting from deterministic generation rules. When made of different dielectric materials, they often possess fascinating optical properties, which lie between those of periodic photonic crystals and those of a random arrangement of scatterers. Indeed, they can support extended band-like states with pseudogaps in the energy spectrum, but lacking translational invariance, they also intrinsically feature a pattern of ‘defects’, which can give rise to critically localized modes confined in space, similar to Anderson modes in random structures. If used as laser resonators, photonic quasi-crystals open up design possibilities that are simply not possible in a conventional periodic photonic crystal. In this letter, we exploit the concept of a 2D photonic quasi crystal in an electrically injected laser; specifically, we pattern the top surface of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a Penrose tiling of pentagonal rotational symmetry, reaching 0.1-0.2% wall-plug efficiencies and 65 mW peak output powers with characteristic surface-emitting conical beam profiles, result of the rich quasi-crystal Fourier spectrum.

  10. STRUCTURED-LIGHT BASED 3D LASER SCANNING OF SEMI-SUBMERGED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Lucht

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we look at 3D acquisition of semi-submerged structures with a triangulation based underwater laser scanning system. The motivation is that we want to simultaneously capture data above and below water to create a consistent model without any gaps. The employed structured light scanner consist of a machine vision camera and a green line laser. In order to reconstruct precise surface models of the object it is necessary to model and correct for the refraction of the laser line and camera rays at the water-air boundary. We derive a geometric model for the refraction at the air-water interface and propose a method for correcting the scans. Furthermore, we show how the water surface is directly estimated from sensor data. The approach is verified using scans captured with an industrial manipulator to achieve reproducible scanner trajectories with different incident angles. We show that the proposed method is effective for refractive correction and that it can be applied directly to the raw sensor data without requiring any external markers or targets.

  11. Structured-Light Based 3d Laser Scanning of Semi-Submerged Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lucht, J.; Bleier, M.; Leutert, F.; Schilling, K.; Nüchter, A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we look at 3D acquisition of semi-submerged structures with a triangulation based underwater laser scanning system. The motivation is that we want to simultaneously capture data above and below water to create a consistent model without any gaps. The employed structured light scanner consist of a machine vision camera and a green line laser. In order to reconstruct precise surface models of the object it is necessary to model and correct for the refraction of the laser line and camera rays at the water-air boundary. We derive a geometric model for the refraction at the air-water interface and propose a method for correcting the scans. Furthermore, we show how the water surface is directly estimated from sensor data. The approach is verified using scans captured with an industrial manipulator to achieve reproducible scanner trajectories with different incident angles. We show that the proposed method is effective for refractive correction and that it can be applied directly to the raw sensor data without requiring any external markers or targets.

  12. Evolution and mechanism of the periodical structures formed on Ti plate under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong, E-mail: ld20501@126.com; Chen, Chuansong, E-mail: chencs@sdnu.edu.cn; Man, Baoyuan, E-mail: byman@sdnu.edu.cn; Meng, Xue; Sun, Yanna, E-mail: sunyuannaa@163.com; Li, Feifei

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the evolution and succession of three types of fs-laser induced periodic surface structures (FLIPSSs). • Achieve the laser processing window of each type of the FLIPSS. • Explain the formation and evolvement of the ripple structure in the respective of surface plasma wave (SPW). • Ascribe the interaction between the transmitted laser and the reflected laser at the two surfaces of the biconvex lens to the formation of ring structure. - Abstract: This work investigates the femtosencond laser (fs-laser) induced periodical surface structures (FLIPSS) on titanium plate including the concentric rings, microgrooves and subwavelength ripples. The evolution of the three types of the structures at different laser fluence and shot number is investigated experimentally in detail. The competition mechanisms exist among the different FLIPSS. A processing window for each resulting FLIPSS is obtained. In order to give an overall understanding of the FLIPSS, the formation mechanisms of each type of FLIPSS are discussed. The formation of the ripples is well explained by the propagating of the surface plasma wave (SPW) on the air/Ti interface. The evolutions of the ripple distribution are well understood according to this model as well. It is concluded that the interaction of the scattered wave of the laser light with the surface wave is concluded to give rise to the microgroove structure. According to our observation, the shape of the concentric rings does not change with the variation of the laser fluence and pulse number. The structure could be originated from the optical interference between the transmitted and reflected laser beams by the two surfaces of the biconvex lens. This investigation could not only make a further understanding of the formations of FLIPSS but also provide the possibility to control the surface morphologies in laser processing.

  13. Hydrodynamic modeling of laser interaction with micro-structured targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velechovsky, Jan; Limpouch, Jiri; Liska, Richard; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A model is developed for numerical simulations of laser absorption in plasmas made of porous materials, with particular interest in low-density foams. Laser absorption is treated on two spatial scales simultaneously. At the microscale, the expansion of a thin solid pore wall is modeled in one dimension and the information obtained is used in the macroscale fluid simulations for the description of the plasma homogenization behind the ionization front. This two-scale laser absorption model is implemented in the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian hydrocode PALE. In conclusion, the numerical simulations of laser penetration into low-density foams compare favorably with published experimental data.

  14. Spherical distribution structure of the semiconductor laser diode stack for pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tianzhuo; Yu Jin; Liu Yang; Zhang Xue; Ma Yunfeng; Fan Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    A semiconductor laser diode stack is used for pumping and 8 semiconductor laser diode arrays of the stack are put on a sphere, and the output of every bar is specially off-axis compressed to realize high coupling efficiency. The output beam of this semiconductor laser diode stack is shaped by a hollow duct to the laser active medium. The efficiency of the hollow light pipe, which is used for semiconductor laser diode stack coupling, is analyzed by geometric optics and ray tracing. Geometric optics analysis diagnoses the reasons for coupling loss and guides the design of the structure. Ray tracing analyzes the relation between the structural parameters and the output characteristics of this pumping system, and guides parameter optimization. Simulation and analysis results show that putting the semiconductor laser diode arrays on a spherical surface can increase coupling efficiency, reduce the optimum duct length and improve the output energy field distribution. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Laser Structuring of Thin Layers for Flexible Electronics by a Shock Wave-induced Delamination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Pierre; Ehrhardt, Martin; Zimmer, Klaus

    The defect-free laser-assisted structuring of thin films on flexible substrates is a challenge for laser methods. However, solving this problem exhibits an outstanding potential for a pioneering development of flexible electronics. Thereby, the laser-assisted delamination method has a great application potential. At the delamination process: the localized removal of the layer is induced by a shock wave which is produced by a laser ablation process on the rear side of the substrate. In this study, the thin-film patterning process is investigated for different polymer substrates dependent on the material and laser parameters using a KrF excimer laser. The resultant structures were studied by optical microscopy and white light interferometry (WLI). The delamination process was tested at different samples (indium tin oxide (ITO) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU8) on polyimide (PI) and indium tin oxide/copper indium gallium selenide/molybdenum (ITO/CIGS/Mo) on PI.

  16. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on tool steel by multiple picosecond laser pulses of different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorčič, Peter, E-mail: peter.gregorcic@fs.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sedlaček, Marko; Podgornik, Bojan [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Reif, Jürgen [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet – BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Low number of differently polarized ps laser pulses is superimposed on tool steel. • Last pulses determine the ripples orientation for single spot and coherent traces. • Previously formed structures are overridden by later incident pulses. • Ripples contrast depends on total exposure, independent on pulses’ polarization. • Weak role of pre-formed structures makes interference scenarios questionable. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are produced on cold work tool steel by irradiation with a low number of picosecond laser pulses. As expected, the ripples, with a period of about 90% of the laser wavelength, are oriented perpendicular to the laser polarization. Subsequent irradiation with the polarization rotated by 45° or 90° results in a corresponding rotation of the ripples. This is visible already with the first pulse and becomes almost complete – erasing the previous orientation – after as few as three pulses. The phenomenon is not only observed for single-spot irradiation but also for writing long coherent traces. The experimental results strongly defy the role of surface plasmon-polaritons as the predominant key to LIPSS formation.

  17. Pulsed laser deposition to synthesize the bridge structure of artificial nacre: Comparison of nano- and femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaibari, Ammar A.; Molian, Pal

    2012-11-01

    Nature offers inspiration to new adaptive technologies that allow us to build amazing shapes and structures such as nacre using synthetic materials. Consequently, we have designed a pulsed laser ablation manufacturing process involving thin film deposition and micro-machining to create hard/soft layered "brick-bridge-mortar" nacre of AlMgB14 (hard phase) with Ti (soft phase). In this paper, we report pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to mimic brick and bridge structures of natural nacre in AlMgB14. Particulate formation inherent in PLD is exploited to develop the bridge structure. Mechanical behavior analysis of the AlMgB14/Ti system revealed that the brick is to be 250 nm thick, 9 μm lateral dimensions while the bridge (particle) is to have a diameter of 500 nm for a performance equivalent to natural nacre. Both nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) pulsed lasers were employed for PLD in an iterative approach that involves varying pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, and target-to-substrate distance to achieve the desired brick and bridge characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical profilometer were used to evaluate the film thickness, particle size and density, stoichiometry, and surface roughness of thin films. Results indicated that both ns-pulsed and fs-pulsed lasers produce the desired nacre features. However, each laser may be chosen for different reasons: fs-pulsed laser is preferred for much shorter deposition time, better stoichiometry, uniform-sized particles, and uniform film thickness, while ns-pulsed laser is favored for industrial acceptance, reliability, ease of handling, and low cost.

  18. Laser Materials Processing for NASA's Aerospace Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Hunyady, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, and surface treatment. Due to the multifunctional nature of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed, these attributes are attractive in order to support long-term missions in space. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications. Specifically, size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials are all concerns. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in solidstate laser (e.g., diode-pumped lasers) and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques in space has increased significantly. A review of the historical development of lasers from their infancy to the present will be used to show how these issues may be addressed. The review will also indicate where further development is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. Both short- and long-term space missions will benefit from the development of a universal laser-based tool with low power consumption, improved process flexibility, compactness (e.g., miniaturization), robustness, and automation for maximum utility with a minimum of human interaction. The potential advantages of using lasers with suitable wavelength and beam properties for future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will be discussed. The laser processing experiments in the present report were performed using a diode pumped, pulsed/continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (50 W max average laser power), with a 1064 nm wavelength. The processed materials included Ti-6AI-4V, Al-2219 and Al-2090. For Phase I of this project, the laser process conditions were varied and optimized

  19. The study of the structural stability of the spiral laser beams propagation through inhomogeneous phase medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental results of the investigation of light beams that retain their intensity structure during propagation and focusing. Spiral laser beams are a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotation with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Functionality laser manipulators can be significantly enhanced by using spiral beams whose intensity remains invariable. It is well known, that these beams has non-zero orbital angular momentum. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. In this paper we investigate the structural stability of the laser beams having a spiral phase structure by passing them through an inhomogeneous phase medium. Laser beam is passed through a medium is characterized by a random distribution of phase in the range 0..2π. The modeling was performed using VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH). Compared the intensity distribution of the spiral and ordinary laser beam after the passage of the inhomogeneous medium. It is shown that the spiral beams exhibit a significantly better structural stability during the passage phase heterogeneous environments than conventional laser beams. The results obtained in the simulation are tested experimentally. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical results.

  20. Femtosecond Laser Structuring in Optical Fiber and Transparent Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Peter R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser processing is optimized for writing optical circuits, optical resonators, and microfluidic devices inside the cladding of single-mode optical fiber that couple efficiently with the fiber core waveguide. The laser processes open new directions towards Labon-a-Fiber.

  1. Structural monitoring of tunnels using terrestrial laser scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenbergh, R.C.; Uchanski, L.; Bucksch, A.; Van Gosliga, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years terrestrial laser scanning is rapidly evolving as a surveying technique for the monitoring of engineering objects like roof constructions, mines, dams, viaducts and tunnels. The advantage of laser scanning above traditional surveying methods is that it allows for the rapid

  2. Effect of External Optical Feedback for Nano-laser Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the effect of optical feedback on a photonic crystal nanolaser, comparing with conventional in-plane and vertical-cavity lasers.......We theoretically investigated the effect of optical feedback on a photonic crystal nanolaser, comparing with conventional in-plane and vertical-cavity lasers....

  3. X-ray lasers for structural and dynamic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, J C H; Weierstall, U; Chapman, H N

    2012-01-01

    Research opportunities and techniques are reviewed for the application of hard x-ray pulsed free-electron lasers (XFEL) to structural biology. These include the imaging of protein nanocrystals, single particles such as viruses, pump–probe experiments for time-resolved nanocrystallography, and snapshot wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) from molecules in solution. The use of femtosecond exposure times, rather than freezing of samples, as a means of minimizing radiation damage is shown to open up new opportunities for the molecular imaging of biochemical reactions at room temperature in solution. This is possible using a ‘diffract-and-destroy’ mode in which the incident pulse terminates before radiation damage begins. Methods for delivering hundreds of hydrated bioparticles per second (in random orientations) to a pulsed x-ray beam are described. New data analysis approaches are outlined for the correlated fluctuations in fast WAXS, for protein nanocrystals just a few molecules on a side, and for the continuous x-ray scattering from a single virus. Methods for determining the orientation of a molecule from its diffraction pattern are reviewed. Methods for the preparation of protein nanocrystals are also reviewed. New opportunities for solving the phase problem for XFEL data are outlined. A summary of the latest results is given, which now extend to atomic resolution for nanocrystals. Possibilities for time-resolved chemistry using fast WAXS (solution scattering) from mixtures is reviewed, toward the general goal of making molecular movies of biochemical processes. (key issues reviews)

  4. Experimental coherent control of lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.; Ramsay, A.J.; Cleaver, J.R.A.; Heberle, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate coherent control of a laser. A resonant 100-fs optical pulse is injected into a vertical cavity surface emitting laser to introduce a field component with well-defined phase and thereby excite beating oscillations between the transverse lasing modes. By changing the relative phase between two injected pulses, we can enhance or destroy the beating oscillations and select which lasing modes are excited. We discuss resonant pulse injection into lasers and show how mode competition improves controllability by suppressing the phase-sensitive effects of the carriers

  5. KrF laser ablation of a polyethersulfone film: Effect of pulse duration on structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazokian, Hedieh; Selimis, Alexandros; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Mollabashi, Mahmoud; Barzin, Jalal; Jelvani, Saeid

    2011-01-01

    Polyethersulfone (PES) films were processed with KrF laser irradiation of different pulse durations (τ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy were employed for the examination of the morphology and chemical composition of the irradiated surfaces, respectively. During ablation with 500 fs and 5 ps pulses, localized deformations (beads), micro-ripple and conical structures were observed on the surface depending on the irradiation fluence (F) and the number of pulses (N). In addition, the number density of the structures is affected by the irradiation parameters (τ, F, N). Furthermore, at longer pulse durations (τ = 30 ns), conical structures appear at lower laser fluence values, which are converted into columnar structures upon irradiation at higher fluences. The Raman spectra collected from the top of the structures following irradiation at different pulse durations revealed graphitization of the ns laser treated areas, in contrast to those processed with ultra-short laser pulses.

  6. Nanometer sized structures grown by pulsed laser deposition

    KAUST Repository

    ElZein, Basma

    2015-10-01

    Nanometer sized materials can be produced by exposing a target to a laser source to remove material from the target and deposit the removed material onto a surface of a substrate to grow a thin film in a vacuum chamber

  7. Mimicking lizard-like surface structures upon ultrashort laser pulse irradiation of inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, U.; Kirner, S. V.; Emonts, C.; Comanns, P.; Skoulas, E.; Mimidis, A.; Mescheder, H.; Winands, K.; Krüger, J.; Stratakis, E.; Bonse, J.

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic materials, such as steel, were functionalized by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation (fs- to ps-range) to modify the surface's wetting behavior. The laser processing was performed by scanning the laser beam across the surface of initially polished flat sample material. A systematic experimental study of the laser processing parameters (peak fluence, scan velocity, line overlap) allowed the identification of different regimes associated with characteristic surface morphologies (laser-induced periodic surface structures, grooves, spikes, etc.). Analyses of the surface using optical as well as scanning electron microscopy revealed morphologies providing the optimum similarity to the natural skin of lizards. For mimicking skin structures of moisture-harvesting lizards towards an optimization of the surface wetting behavior, additionally a two-step laser processing strategy was established for realizing hierarchical microstructures. In this approach, micrometer-scaled capillaries (step 1) were superimposed by a laser-generated regular array of small dimples (step 2). Optical focus variation imaging measurements finally disclosed the three dimensional topography of the laser processed surfaces derived from lizard skin structures. The functionality of these surfaces was analyzed in view of wetting properties.

  8. Mode-locking of an InAs Quantum Dot Based Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Using Atomic Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-16

    catalyzed on either a copper foil or on nickel coated substrates. The graphene must be transferred off of these substrates and then on to the DBR/spacer to...properties of graphene in both the exfoliated single layer graphene (SLG) and few layer graphene (FLG) flakes . Sun et al. make use of bile salts to...semiconductors and dielectrics is the transfer of CVD graphene grown on copper foils. The graphene is grown on thin Cu-foils by CVD using methane and

  9. Application of a Novel Laser-Doppler Velocimeter for Turbulence: Structural Measurements in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowe, Kevin T; Simpson, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    An advanced laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV), deemed the 'comprehensive LDV', is designed to acquire fully-resolved turbulence structural measurements in high Reynolds number two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers...

  10. Surface electronic and structural properties of nanostructured titanium oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusi, M.; Maccallini, E.; Caruso, T.; Casari, C. S.; Bassi, A. Li; Bottani, C. E.; Rudolf, P.; Prince, K. C.; Agostino, R. G.

    Titanium oxide nanostructured thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were here characterized with a multi-technique approach to investigate the relation between surface electronic, structural and morphological properties. Depending on the growth parameters, these films present

  11. Keratin film ablation for the fabrication of brick and mortar skin structure using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Bibi Safia; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Dou, Yuehua; Alam, Khan; Attaullah, Shehnaz; Zari, Islam

    2015-09-01

    The patterning of thin keratin films has been explored to manufacture model skin surfaces based on the "bricks and mortar" view of the relationship between keratin and lipids. It has been demonstrated that laser light is capable of preparing keratin-based "bricks and mortar" wall structure as in epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin. "Bricks and mortar" pattern in keratin films has been fabricated using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm wavelength) and femtosecond laser (800 and 400 nm wavelength). Due to the very low ablation threshold of keratin, femtosecond laser systems are practical for laser processing of proteins. These model skin structures are fabricated for the first time that will help to produce potentially effective moisturizing products for the protection of skin from dryness, diseases and wrinkles.

  12. Mode structure of delay-coupled semiconductor lasers: influence of the pump current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzgraeber, Hartmut; Krauskopf, Bernd; Lenstra, Daan

    2005-01-01

    We consider two identical, mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers and show that their compound laser modes (CLMs)-the basic continuous wave solutions-depend rather sensitively on the pump current of the lasers. Specifically, we show with figures and accompanying animations how the underlying CLM structure and the associated locking region, where both lasers operate stably with the same frequency, change as a function of the pump current. Our results provide a natural transition between rather different CLM structures that have been reported in the literature. Moreover, we demonstrate how the locking region as well as the different types of instabilities at its boundary depend on the pump current. This is of fundamental interest for the dynamics of coupled lasers and their possible application

  13. Evidence of liquid phase during laser-induced periodic surface structures formation induced by accumulative ultraviolet picosecond laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, T. T. D.; Petit, A.; Semmar, N., E-mail: nadjib.semmar@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, UMR7344, CNRS/University of Orleans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, BP6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Vayer, M. [ICMN, UMR 7374, CNRS/University of Orleans, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, CS 40059, 45071 Orleans Cedex (France); Sauldubois, A. [CME, UFR Sciences, University of Orleans, 1 Rue de Chartres, BP 6759, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-11-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were formed on Cu/Si or Cu/glass thin films using Nd:YAG laser beam (40 ps, 10 Hz, and 30 mJ/cm{sup 2}). The study of ablation threshold is always achieved over melting when the variation of the number of pulses increases from 1 to 1000. But the incubation effect is leading to reduce the threshold of melting as increasing the number of laser pulse. Also, real time reflectivity signals exhibit typical behavior to stress the formation of a liquid phase during the laser-processing regime and helps to determine the threshold of soft ablation. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analyses have shown the topology of the micro-crater containing regular spikes with different height. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) allows finally to show three distinguished zones in the close region of isolated protrusions. The central zone is a typical crystallized area of few nanometers surrounded by a mixed poly-crystalline and amorphous area. Finally, in the region far from the protrusion zone, Cu film shows an amorphous structure. The real time reflectivity, AFM, and HR-TEM analyses evidence the formation of a liquid phase during the LIPSS formation in the picosecond regime.

  14. Effect of Thermal Fields on the Structure of Corrosion-Resistant Steels Under Different Modes of Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, T. V.; Gusarov, A. V.; Protasov, K. E.; Filatova, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of temperature fields on the structure and properties of corrosion-resistant chromium steels under different modes of laser treatment is investigated. A model of heat transfer under laser impact on target is used to plot thermal fields and cycles and cooling rates. It is shown that the model used for computing thermal fields gives tentative geometric sizes of the fusion zones under laser treatment and selective laser fusion. The cooling rate is shown to have decisive influence on the structure of corrosion-resistant steels after laser treatment with surface fusion in devices for pulsed, continuous, and selective laser melting.

  15. Activity of respiratory system during laser irradiation of brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, N. A.; Sergeyeva, L. I.

    1984-06-01

    The performance of one of the principal links of the respiratory system, the respiratory center, was studied as a function of the exposure of the medulla oblongata and the sensomotor zone of the cerebral hemisphere cortex to low level laser irradiation in the red wavelength of the spectrum. Experiments were done on white rats under barbital anesthesia. Under such conditions a substantial effect was observed on the activity of the respiratory center. Laser light may display activating or inhibitory influences, in some cases the bilateral symmetry of the activity of the respiratory center is affected indicating deep changes in the integrative mechanism of the functioning of the right and left sides of the hemispheres. The laser beam effect depends on many factors: specific light properties, duration of the exposure, repetition of exposures, initial functional state of the CNS, etc.

  16. A hybrid structured-light measurement using a laser projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiayu; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Dong; Wang, Chao; Fei, Zixuan; Li, Huanhuan

    2017-06-01

    The Fringe Projection System (FPS) and the Laser Stripe Projection System (LSPS) both have the limitations in 3D measurements. For a shiny and diffusive surface with complex shape, neither of the systems could manage it individually at a low cost. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a method combining these two ways of projections together using a laser projector, which could project fringe patterns and scanning-laser-stripes both. In this method, we obtain two disparity maps and two quality maps by FPS and LSPS, respectively. Then combine two disparity maps together by quality maps and reconstruct the surface of the object with the combined disparity map. Real experiments are carried out to verify the proposed method and to evaluate the system performance. The plain, the colored and the metal plastic mixed objects are all reconstructed successfully in the proposed method.

  17. Structure changes in steels and hard metal induced by nanosecond and femtosecond laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Gabriel; Romano, Valerio; Weber, Heinz P.; Haefke, Henry; Gerbig, Yvonne; Sentis, Marc L.; Hermann, Joerg; Bruneau, Sebastien

    2003-11-01

    Investigations on the occurrence of structure and hardness changes (for two sorts of steel and for a hard metal substrate) in the immediate vicinity of laser induced craters are presented in this work. Experiments with femtosecond pulses were performed in air with a Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 100 fs) at mean fluences of 2, 5 and 10 J/cm2. Series of microcraters were induced with 100 to 5,000 laser pulses per hole. Experiments with similar fluences, but 10 to 40 pules per hole, were performed on the same materials using a Nd:YAG delivering 100 ns pulese. After laser irradiation, cuts were made through the processed samples and the changes occurred in the crystalline structure of the target materials were evidenced by metallographical analysis of the resulting cross-sections. Hardness measurements were performed in points situated in the immediate vicinity of the laser-induced pores. Affected zones in the material surrounding laser induced pores were always found in the ns-regime, however with different properties for various laser parameters. In the fs-regime, zones of modified materials were also found and in such zones a significant hardness increasing was evidenced; the limit of the low fluences regime, where no structure changes occurred, was found to be slightly above 2 J/cm2.

  18. Human dental enamel and dentin structural effects after Er:YAG laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Darlon Martíns; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; de Mendonça, Adriano Augusto Melo; Elossais, André Afif; Saad, José Roberto Cury; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Ideally projected to be applied on soft tissues, infrared lasers were improved by restorative dentistry to be used in hard dental tissues cavity preparations--namely enamel and dentin. This paper evidentiates the relevant aspects of infrared Erbium laser's action mechanism and its effects, and characterizes the different effects deriving from the laser's beams emission. The criteria for use and selection of optimal parameters for the correct application of laser systems and influence of supporting factors on the process, such as water amount and its presence in the ablation process, protection exerted by the plasma shielding and structural factors, which are indispensable in dental tissues cavity preparation related to restorative technique, are subordinated to optical modifications caused by the interaction of the energy dissipated by these laser light emission systems in the targeted tissue substrate. Differences in the action of infrared Erbium laser system in regard to the nature of the ablation process and variations on the morphological aspects observed in the superficial structure of the target tissue irradiated, may be correlated to the structural optical modifications of the substrate produced by an interaction of the energy propagated by laser systems.

  19. Chromium surface alloying of structural steels during laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurov, I.E.; Nagornykh, S.N.; Sivukhin, G.A.; Solenov, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Results of matrix alloying from the surface layer and creation of considerably increased chromium concentration in the depth which permits to increase the efficiency of laser treatment of steels (12Kh18N10T and 38KhN3M) in the process of their further mechanical polishing, are presented. The treatment was realized by continuous CO 2 -laser at different power densities and scanning rates are presented. A model describing the creation of anomalous distributions of the alloying element in steels is plotted

  20. Target micro-displacement measurement by a "comb" structure of intensity distribution in laser plasma propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.

    2015-05-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.

  1. Multiphoton microscopy in every lab: the promise of ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaury, Florian; Voigt, Fabian F.; Bethge, Philipp; Waldburger, Dominik; Link, Sandro M.; Carta, Stefano; van der Bourg, Alexander; Helmchen, Fritjof; Keller, Ursula

    2017-07-01

    We use an ultrafast diode-pumped semiconductor disk laser (SDL) to demonstrate several applications in multiphoton microscopy. The ultrafast SDL is based on an optically pumped Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL) passively mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) and generates 170-fs pulses at a center wavelength of 1027 nm with a repetition rate of 1.63 GHz. We demonstrate the suitability of this laser for structural and functional multiphoton in vivo imaging in both Drosophila larvae and mice for a variety of fluorophores (including mKate2, tdTomato, Texas Red, OGB-1, and R-CaMP1.07) and for endogenous second-harmonic generation in muscle cell sarcomeres. We can demonstrate equivalent signal levels compared to a standard 80-MHz Ti:Sapphire laser when we increase the average power by a factor of 4.5 as predicted by theory. In addition, we compare the bleaching properties of both laser systems in fixed Drosophila larvae and find similar bleaching kinetics despite the large difference in pulse repetition rates. Our results highlight the great potential of ultrafast diode-pumped SDLs for creating a cost-efficient and compact alternative light source compared to standard Ti:Sapphire lasers for multiphoton imaging.

  2. Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bryan; Mayer, Marie A.; Shambat, Gary; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E.; Vučković, Jelena

    2011-05-01

    Efficient, low-threshold and compact semiconductor laser sources are under investigation for many applications in high-speed communications, information processing and optical interconnects. The best edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers have thresholds on the order of 100 µA (refs 1,2), but dissipate too much power to be practical for many applications, particularly optical interconnects. Optically pumped photonic-crystal nanocavity lasers represent the state of the art in low-threshold lasers; however, to be practical, techniques to electrically pump these structures must be developed. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser in gallium arsenide pumped by a lateral p-i-n junction formed by ion implantation. Continuous-wave lasing is observed at temperatures up to 150 K. Thresholds of only 181 nA at 50 K and 287 nA at 150 K are observed--the lowest thresholds ever observed in any type of electrically pumped laser.

  3. Remote defect imaging for plate-like structures based on the scanning laser source technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Maeda, Atsuya; Nakao, Shogo

    2018-04-01

    In defect imaging with a scanning laser source technique, the use of a fixed receiver realizes stable measurements of flexural waves generated by laser at multiple rastering points. This study discussed the defect imaging by remote measurements using a laser Doppler vibrometer as a receiver. Narrow-band burst waves were generated by modulating laser pulse trains of a fiber laser to enhance signal to noise ratio in frequency domain. Averaging three images obtained at three different frequencies suppressed spurious distributions due to resonance. The experimental system equipped with these newly-devised means enabled us to visualize defects and adhesive objects in plate-like structures such as a plate with complex geometries and a branch pipe.

  4. Structural evolution and drawability in laser dieless drawing of fine nickel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonggang; Quick, Nathaniel R.; Kar, Aravinda

    2003-01-01

    Drawability of Nickel 200 wires in laser dieless drawing was investigated. Influencing factors under consideration include the laser power, the heat-treatment state (as-drawn or annealed), and the initial wire diameter. Microstructural evolutions in laser dieless drawing were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wires exhibit optimal drawability at an intermediate laser power range corresponding to the wire temperature in the range of 1000-1300 K. The as-drawn precursor wire has better drawability than that of the annealed wire. The drawability decreases as the precursor wire diameter deceases. Microcrystalline structures were found in nickel 200 wires after being laser-drawn from as-drawn precursor wires. These experimental observations are explained using the concepts of dynamic recovery and recrystallization

  5. Structural characterization on in vitro porcine skin treated by ablative fractional laser using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kairui; Zhou, Kanheng; Ling, Yuting; O'Mahoney, Paul; Ewan, Eadie; Ibbotson, Sally H.; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Zhihong

    2018-02-01

    Ablative fractional skin laser is widely applied for various skin conditions, especially for cosmetic repairing and promoting the located drug delivery. Although the influence of laser treatment over the skin has been explored before in means of excision and biopsy with microscopy, these approaches are invasive, only morphological and capable of distorting the skin. In this paper the authors use fresh porcine skin samples irradiated by the lasers, followed by detected by using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This advanced optical technique has the ability to present the high resolution structure image of treated sample. The results shows that laser beams can produce holes left on the surface after the irradiation. The depth of holes can be affected by changes of laser energy while the diameter of holes have no corresponding relation. Plus, OCT, as a valuable imaging technology, is capable of monitoring the clinical therapy procedure and assisting the calibration.

  6. Synthesis of tungsten oxide nano structures by laser pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwakikunga, BW

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the proposal to synthesise materials by laser assisted pyrolysis in the 1970s, and its practical realisation in 1982, a number of researchers have used this method in obtaining nano-powders from liquid droplets. This study revisits...

  7. Electron acceleration by femtosecond laser interaction with micro-structured plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Andy James

    Laser-driven accelerators are a promising and compact alternative to RF accelerator technology for generating relativistic electron bunches for medical, scientific, and security applications. This dissertation presents three experiments using structured plasmas designed to advance the state of the art in laser-based electron accelerators, with the goal of reducing the energy of the drive laser pulse and enabling higher repetition rate operation with current laser technology. First, electron acceleration by intense femtosecond laser pulses in He-like nitrogen plasma waveguides is demonstrated. Second, significant progress toward a proof of concept realization of quasi-phasematched direct acceleration (QPM-DLA) is presented. Finally, a laser wakefield accelerator at very high plasma density is studied, enabling relativistic electron beam generation with ˜10 mJ pulse energies. Major results from these experiments include: • Acceleration of electrons up to 120 MeV from an ionization injected wakefield accelerator driven in a 1.5 mm long He-like nitrogen plasma waveguide • Guiding of an intense, quasi-radially polarized femtosecond laser pulse in a 1 cm plasma waveguide. This pulse provides a strong drive field for the QPM-DLA concept. • Wakefield acceleration of electrons up to ˜10 MeV with sub-terawatt, ˜10 mJ pulses interacting with a thin (˜200 mum), high density (>1020 cm-3) plasma. • Observation of an intense, coherent, broadband wave breaking radiation flash from a high plasma density laser wakefield accelerator. The flash radiates > 1% of the drive laser pulse energy in a bandwidth consistent with half-cycle (˜1 fs) emission from violent unidirectional acceleration of electron bunches from rest. These results open the way to high repetition rate (>˜kHz) laser-driven generation of relativistic electron beams with existing laser technology.

  8. Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Jianwu; Zhang Chengyun; Liu Haiying; Dai Qiaofeng; Wu Lijun [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lan, Sheng, E-mail: slan@scnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gopal, Achanta Venu [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Lysak, Tatiana M. [Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-15

    Ripples with a subwavelength period were induced on the surface of a stainless steel (301 L) foil by femtosecond laser pulses. By optimizing the irradiation fluence of the laser pulses and the scanning speed of the laser beam, ripples with large amplitude ({approx}150 nm) and uniform period could be obtained, rendering vivid structural colors when illuminating the surface with white light. It indicates that these ripples act as a surface grating that diffracts light efficiently. The strong dependence of the ripple orientation on the polarization of laser light offers us the opportunity of decorating different regions of the surface with different types of ripples. As a result, different patterns can be selectively displayed with structural color when white light is irradiated on the surface from different directions. More interestingly, we demonstrated the possibility of decorating the same region with two or more types of ripples with different orientations. In this way, different patterns with spatial overlapping can be selectively displayed with structural color. This technique may find applications in the fields of anti-counterfeiting, color display, decoration, encryption and optical data storage.

  9. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  10. The analytical approach to optimization of active region structure of quantum dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V V; Savelyev, A V; Zhukov, A E; Omelchenko, A V; Maximov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Using the analytical approach introduced in our previous papers we analyse the possibilities of optimization of size and structure of active region of semiconductor quantum dot lasers emitting via ground-state optical transitions. It is shown that there are optimal length' dispersion and number of QD layers in laser active region which allow one to obtain lasing spectrum of a given width at minimum injection current. Laser efficiency corresponding to the injection current optimized by the cavity length is practically equal to its maximum value

  11. The analytical approach to optimization of active region structure of quantum dot laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    Using the analytical approach introduced in our previous papers we analyse the possibilities of optimization of size and structure of active region of semiconductor quantum dot lasers emitting via ground-state optical transitions. It is shown that there are optimal length' dispersion and number of QD layers in laser active region which allow one to obtain lasing spectrum of a given width at minimum injection current. Laser efficiency corresponding to the injection current optimized by the cavity length is practically equal to its maximum value.

  12. Electron structure of atoms in laser plasma: The Debye shielding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Tokuei; Okutsu, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    The electronic structure and the energy spectra of multielectron atoms in laser plasmas are examined by the Debye shielding model. The effect of the plasma environment on the electrons bound in an atom is taken into account by introducing the screened Coulomb-type potentials into the electronic Hamiltonian of an atom in place of the standard nuclear attraction and electron repulsion potentials. The capabilities of this new Hamiltonian are demonstrated for He and Li in laser plasmas. (author)

  13. Shaping of few-cycle laser pulses via a subwavelength structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liang; Xie Xiao-Tao; Zhan Zhi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the propagation of few-cycle laser pulses in resonant two-level dense media with a subwavelength structure, which is described by the full Maxwell—Bloch equations without the frame of slowly varying envelope and rotating wave approximations. The input pulses can be shaped into shorter ones with a single or less than one optical cycle. The effect of the parameters of the subwavelength structure and laser pulses is studied. Our study shows that the media with a subwavelength structure can significantly shape the few-cycle pulses into a subcycle pulse, even for the case of chirp pulses as input fields. This suggests that such subwavelength structures have potential application in the shaping of few-cycle laser pulses. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. Nuclear structure considerations for gamma-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strottman, D.; Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Presented are initial results in our investigation of the nuclear physics issues of gamma-ray lasers. These include the questions of what is known from existing experimental data, where does one optimally search for nuclei displaying simultaneously both closely lying levels and nuclear isomerism, and which theoretical models does one employ for systematic searches for candidate nuclei and for calculation of detailed candidate level properties

  15. Combinatorial experiment in Ni-Ti thin films by laser interference structuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.W.; Gachot, C.; Leibenguth, P.; Muecklich, F.

    2005-01-01

    Combinatorial experiments are achieved on periodically structured Ni-Ti thin film composition spreads by laser interference irradiation using a Nd:YAG laser. Continuous Ni-Ti compositional spreads covering almost the whole binary system are prepared by combining sputter mask, shutter and movement of substrate. The continuous compositional spread is subsequently micro-structured into a sample library consisting of well-defined lines of individual samples by laser interference irradiation. The composition and microstructure effects in continuous spread and sample libraries after laser structuring are explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and white light interferometry (WLI) microscopy. The sample library consists of individual samples with a distance of about 5 μm and a composition resolution as high as 0.1 at.% in between. Although, there are certain difficulties so far in obtaining the optimized laser fluence for the spread, the laser interference irradiation provides an effective way to prepare thin film libraries with around 200 sample lines within 1 mm

  16. Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost swept lasing light source for NASA DFRC's fiber optics sensing system (FOSS) to perform structural health monitoring on current and future aerospace vehicles. This is the regular update of the Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems website.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayers grown by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant, K. Mohan; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Pryds, Nini

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the structural and the magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayered thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition onto Si (001) substrates at room temperature. he Fe layer thickness is varied from 70 to 150 nm and its effect on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Gd/Fe ...

  18. Investigating the interaction of x-ray free electron laser radiation with grating structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudin, J.; Ozkan, C.; Chalupsky, J.; Bajt, S.; Burian, T.; Vysin, L.; Coppola, N.; Farahani, S. D.; Chapman, H. N.; Galasso, G.; Hajkova, V.; Harmand, M.; Juha, L.; Jurek, M.; Loch, R. A.; Möller, S.; Nagasono, M.; Stormer, M.; Sinn, H.; Saksl, K.; Sobierajski, R.; Schulz, J.; Sovak, P.; Toleikis, S.; Tiedtke, K.; Tschentscher, T.; Krzywinski, J.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of free electron laser pulses with grating structure is investigated using 4.6 +/- 0.1 nm radiation at the FLASH facility in Hamburg. For fluences above 63.7 +/- 8.7 mJ/cm(2), the interaction triggers a damage process starting at the edge of the grating structure as evidenced by

  19. Formation of Porous Structure with Subspot Size under the Irradiation of Picosecond Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was presented in this paper on porous structure with microsize holes significantly smaller than laser spot on the stainless steel 304 target surface induced by a picosecond Nd:van regenerative amplified laser, operating at 1064 nm. The target surface variations were studied in air ambience. The estimated surface damage threshold was 0.15 J/cm2. The target specific surface changes and phenomena observed supported a complementary study on the formation and growth of the subspot size pit holes on metal surface with dependence of laser pulse number of 50–1000 and fluences of 0.8 and 1.6 J/cm2. Two kinds of porous structures were presented: periodic holes are formed from Coulomb Explosion during locally spatial modulated ablation, and random holes are formed from the burst of bubbles in overheated liquid during phase explosion. It can be concluded that it is effective to fabricate a large metal surface area of porous structure by laser scanning regime. Generally, it is also difficult for ultrashort laser to fabricate the microporous structures compared with traditional methods. These porous structures potentially have a number of important applications in nanotechnology, industry, nuclear complex, and so forth.

  20. Macular Structures, Optical Components, and Visual Acuity in Preschool Children after Intravitreal Bevacizumab or Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Sung; See, Lai-Chu; Chang, Shu-Hao; Wang, Nan-Kai; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Lai, Chi-Chun; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Wu, Wei-Chi

    2018-05-10

    To investigate the macular structures, optical components, and visual acuity in preschool-aged children with a history of type I retinopathy of prematurity who underwent either intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB), laser, or a combination of treatments. Comparative interventional case series. A referred medical center in Taiwan. 80 eyes from 42 patients (33 IVB-treated eyes from 17 children, 24 laser-treated eyes from 13 children, and 23 laser + IVB-treated eyes from 12 children). Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The retinal thickness in the foveal area and the associated morphologic changes in foveal depression. Compared with the laser-treated and laser + IVB-treated eyes, the IVB-treated eyes had less myopia and deeper anterior chamber depths but presented similar axial lengths and corneal curvatures (P = .001, .002, .95 and .16, respectively). The IVB-treated eyes had significantly thinner foveal, parafoveal, and perifoveal retinal thicknesses (P < .01 for all) and a higher incidence of foveal depression than the laser- or laser + IVB-treated eyes. The macular and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses did not differ among the groups (P = .21 and .63, respectively). Moreover, compared with the eyes treated with laser or laser + IVB, the IVB-treated eyes had better uncorrected visual acuity, although a significant difference was not observed in best-corrected visual acuity (P = .008 and .29, respectively). Compared with laser therapy, IVB-treated eyes were associated with deeper anterior chamber depths and thinner foveal, parafoveal and perifoveal thicknesses. Moreover, these IVB-treated eyes had less refractive errors and better uncorrected visual acuity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Structuring of poly ether ether ketone by ArF excimer laser radiation in different atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Gottmann, J.; Kreutz, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    Structuring of poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) by 193 nm ArF excimer laser radiation has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in different atmospheres (air, vacuum, Ar, O 2 ) in order to study its influence on the quality of the structures and the formation of the debris. Repetition rate makes little effect on the ablation rate and roughness of the structure in presence of any kind of atmosphere, indicating for the structuring of PEEK by ArF laser radiation a large window of processing. The roughness at the bottom of the structures and the morphology of the side walls are strongly affected by the properties of the atmosphere. The smallest roughness is achieved at 0.6 J/cm 2 for all kinds of processing gases. Debris around the structures can be diminished by structuring in vacuum. Plasma expansion speed has been measured by using high speed photography

  2. The effect of near-infrared MLS laser radiation on cell membrane structure and radical generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Jolanta; Pasternak, Kamila; Zavodnik, Ilya; Irzmański, Robert; Wróbel, Dominika; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic effects of low-power laser radiation of different wavelengths and light doses are well known, but the biochemical mechanism of the interaction of laser light with living cells is not fully understood. We have investigated the effect of MLS (Multiwave Locked System) laser near-infrared irradiation on cell membrane structure, functional properties, and free radical generation using human red blood cells and breast cancer MCF-4 cells. The cells were irradiated with low-intensity MLS near-infrared (simultaneously 808 nm, continuous emission and 905 nm, pulse emission, pulse-wave frequency, 1,000 or 2,000 Hz) laser light at light doses from 0 to 15 J (average power density 212.5 mW/cm(2), spot size was 3.18 cm(2)) at 22 °C, the activity membrane bound acetylcholinesterase, cell stability, anti-oxidative activity, and free radical generation were the parameters used in characterizing the structural and functional changes of the cell. Near-infrared low-intensity laser radiation changed the acetylcholinesterase activity of the red blood cell membrane in a dose-dependent manner: There was a considerable increase of maximal enzymatic rate and Michaelis constant due to changes in the membrane structure. Integral parameters such as erythrocyte stability, membrane lipid peroxidation, or methemoglobin levels remained unchanged. Anti-oxidative capacity of the red blood cells increased after MLS laser irradiation. This irradiation induced a time-dependent increase in free radical generation in MCF-4 cells. Low-intensity near-infrared MLS laser radiation induces free radical generation and changes enzymatic and anti-oxidative activities of cellular components. Free radical generation may be the mechanism of the biomodulative effect of laser radiation.

  3. Laser irradiation effects on the surface, structural and mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy 2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Daniel; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; kalsoom, Umm-i.-; Ali, Nisar

    2014-02-01

    Laser irradiation effects on surface, structural and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy (Al-Cu alloy 2024) have been investigated. The specimens were irradiated for various fluences ranging from 3.8 to 5.5 J/cm2 using an Excimer (KrF) laser (248 nm, 18 ns, 30 Hz) under vacuum environment. The surface and structural modifications of the irradiated targets have been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), respectively. SEM analysis reveals the formation of micro-sized craters along the growth of periodic surface structures (ripples) at their peripheries. The size of the craters initially increases and then decreases by increasing the laser fluence. XRD analysis shows an anomalous trend in the peak intensity and crystallite size of the specimen irradiated for various fluences. A universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester were employed in order to investigate the mechanical properties of the irradiated targets. The changes in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness were found to be anomalous with increasing laser fluences. The changes in the surface and structural properties of Al-Cu alloy 2024 after laser irradiation have been associated with the changes in mechanical properties.

  4. Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of laser-induced periodic surface structures on nickel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedao, Xxx, E-mail: sedao.xxx@gmail.com [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France); Maurice, Claire [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 St-Etienne (France); Garrelie, Florence; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France); Quey, Romain; Blanc, Gilles [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 St-Etienne (France); Pigeon, Florent [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlight: •Lattice rotation and its distribution in laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the subsurface region on a nickel substrate are revealed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). -- Abstract: We report on the structural investigation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) generated in polycrystalline nickel target after multi-shot irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to reveal lattice rotation caused by dislocation storage during LIPSS formation. Localized crystallographic damages in the LIPSS are detected from both surface and cross-sectional EBSD studies. A surface region (up to 200 nm) with 1–3° grain disorientation is observed in localized areas from the cross-section of the LIPSS. The distribution of the local disorientation is inhomogeneous across the LIPSS and the subsurface region.

  5. Morphology of IR and UV Laser-induced Structural Changes on Silicon Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Jarquin, J.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Fernandez-Guasti, M.; Hernandez-Pozos, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Using scanning electronic microscopy, we analyze the structural changes induced in silicon (100) wafers by focused IR (1064 nm) and UV (355 nm) nanosecond laser pulses. The experiments were performed in the laser ablation regime. When a silicon surface is irradiated by laser pulses in an O2 atmosphere conical microstructures are obtained. The changes in silicon surface morphology depend both on the incident radiation wavelength and the environmental atmosphere. We have patterned Si surfaces with a single focused laser spot and, in doing the experiments with IR or UV this reveals significant differences in the initial surface cracking and pattern formation, however the final result consist of an array of microcones when the experiment is carried out in oxygen. We employ a random scanning technique to irradiate silicon surfaces over large areas. In this form we have obtained large patterned areas

  6. Laser direct writing of thin-film copper structures as a modification of lithographic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F; Ostendorf, A; Stute, U

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible, mask-free and efficient technique for UV-laser micropatterning of photosensitive resist by laser direct writing (LDW). Photo resist spun on gold sputtered silicon wafers has been laser structured by a scanner guided 266nm DPSSL and electroplated. Ablation behaviour and optimum seed layer preparation in relation to parameters like pulse energy, scanning speed and number of scanned cycles and the electroplating results are discussed. The resulting adhesive strength was measured by a μ-sear device and the gold seed layer-plated copper interface investigated by SEM and EDX to explain correlation to identified bonding behaviour. Improved adhesive strength was observed with higher laser pulse energy and reduced number of cycle

  7. Laser self-mixing interferometry in VCSELs - an ultra-compact and massproduceable deflection detection system for nanomechanical polymer cantilever sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2008-01-01

    We have realised an ultra-compact deflection detection system based on laser self-mixing interferometry in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL). The system can be used together with polymer nanomechanical cantilevers to form chemical sensors capable of detecting less than 1nm deflection....

  8. Auger coefficient in GaInN-based laser structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draeger, Alexander Daniel; Netzel, Carsten; Brendel, Moritz; Joenen, Holger; Rossow, Uwe; Hangleiter, Andreas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Todays GaInN-based light emitting devices such as LEDs and laser diodes show excellent properties in terms of quantum efficiency or threshold current in the violet-blue spectral region. With increasing wavelength towards the green this performance decreases strongly. In particular at longer wavelengths, the quantum efficiency decreases for higher current densities, called the efficiency droop. This phenomenon is still subject to intensive research and different mechanisms such as Auger recombination, losses due to dislocations and carrier escape have been named as possible explanations. We combine optical gain measurements using the variable stripe length technique with model calculations of the optical gain spectra to derive the carrier lifetime. From the dependence of the inverse effective lifetime on carrier density we determine the recombination coefficients for radiative, nonradiative and Auger recombination. The Auger coefficients we obtained are about 1-2 x 10{sup -31} cm{sup 6}/s for GaInN quantum wells with 2.5eVlaser threshold.

  9. Dielectric laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons at a photonic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, John

    2013-08-29

    This thesis reports on the observation of dielectric laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons via the inverse Smith-Purcell effect in the optical regime. Evanescent modes in the vicinity of a periodic grating structure can travel at the same velocity as the electrons along the grating surface. A longitudinal electric field component is used to continuously impart momentum onto the electrons. This is only possible in the near-field of a suitable photonic structure, which means that the electron beam has to pass the structure within about one wavelength. In our experiment we exploit the third spatial harmonic of a single fused silica grating excited by laser pulses derived from a Titanium:sapphire oscillator and accelerate non-relativistic 28 keV electrons. We measure a maximum energy gain of 280 eV, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 25 MeV/m, already comparable with state-of-the-art radio-frequency linear accelerators. To experience this acceleration gradient the electrons approach the grating closer than 100 nm. We present the theory behind grating-based particle acceleration and discuss simulation results of dielectric laser acceleration in the near-field of photonic grating structures, which is excited by near-infrared laser light. Our measurements show excellent agreement with our simulation results and therefore confirm the direct acceleration with the light field. We further discuss the acceleration inside double grating structures, dephasing effects of non-relativistic electrons as well as the space charge effect, which can limit the attainable peak currents of these novel accelerator structures. The photonic structures described in this work can be readily concatenated and therefore represent a scalable realization of dielectric laser acceleration. Furthermore, our structures are directly compatible with the microstructures used for the acceleration of relativistic electrons demonstrated in parallel to this work by our collaborators in

  10. Structural changes in connective tissues caused by a moderate laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagratashvili, Viktor N; Bagratashvili, N V; Sviridov, A P; Shakh, G Sh; Ignat'eva, Natalia Yu; Lunin, Valery V; Grokhovskaya, T E; Averkiev, S V

    2002-01-01

    The structural changes in adipose and fibrous tissues caused by 2- and 3-W IR laser irradiation are studied by the methods of IR and Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is shown that heating of fibrous tissue samples to 50 0 C and adipose tissue samples to 75 0 C by IR laser radiation changes the supramolecular structure of their proteins and triacylglycerides, respectively, without the intramolecular bond breaking. Heating of fibrous tissue to 70 0 C and adipose tissue to 90 - 110 0 C leads to a partial reversible denaturation of proteins and to oxidation of fats.

  11. Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Kuang, E-mail: z.kuang@liv.ac.uk [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brodie Building, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom); Dun Liu; Perrie, Walter; Edwardson, Stuart; Sharp, Martin; Fearon, Eamonn; Dearden, Geoff; Watkins, Ken [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brodie Building, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Fast parallel femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring is demonstrated using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The Gratings and Lenses algorithm, which is simple and computationally fast, is used to calculate computer generated holograms (CGHs) producing diffractive multiple beams for the parallel processing. The results show that the finite laser bandwidth can significantly alter the intensity distribution of diffracted beams at higher angles resulting in elongated hole shapes. In addition, by synchronisation of applied CGHs and the scanning system, true 3D micro-structures are created on Ti6Al4V.

  12. Laser printed glass planar lightwave circuits with integrated fiber alignment structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, A.; Radosavljevic, A.; Missinne, J.; Van Thourhout, D.; Van Steenberge, G.

    2018-02-01

    Femtosecond laser inscription allows straightforward manufacturing of glass planar lightwave circuits such as waveguides, interferometers, directional couplers, resonators and more complex structures. Fiber alignment structures are needed to facilitate communication with the glass planar lightwave circuit. In this study, a technique is described to create optical waveguides and alignment structures in the same laser exposure step. Using an industrial ytterbium-doped 1030 nm fiber laser pulses of 400 fs were focused into glass with a 0.4 NA objective causing permanent alteration of the material. Depending on laser parameters this modification allows direct writing of waveguides or the creation of channels after exposing the irradiated volumes to an etchant such as KOH. Writing of channels and waveguides with different laser powers, frequencies, polarisations, stage translation speeds and scan densities were investigated in fused silica and borosilicate glass. Waveguides with controlled dimensions were created, as well as etched U-grooves with a diameter of 126 μm and a sidewall roughness Ra of 255 nm. Cut back measurements were performed giving a waveguide propagation loss of 1.1 dB/cm in borosilicate glass. A coupling loss of 0.7 dB was measured for a transition between the waveguide and standard single mode fiber at 1550 nm, using index matching liquid. The described technique eliminates active alignment requirements and is useful for many applications such as microfluidic sensing, PLCs, fan-out connectors for multicore fibers and quantum optical networks.

  13. Direct Laser Writing of Nanophotonic Structures on Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQattan, Bader; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-04-24

    Contact lenses are ubiquitous biomedical devices used for vision correction and cosmetic purposes. Their application as quantitative analytical devices is highly promising for point-of-care diagnostics. However, it is a challenge to integrate nanoscale features into commercial contact lenses for application in low-cost biosensors. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm, 3 ns pulse, 240 mJ) in holographic interference patterning mode was utilized to produce optical nanostructures over the surface of a hydrogel contact lens. One-dimensional (925 nm) and two-dimensional (925 nm × 925 nm) nanostructures were produced on contact lenses and analyzed by spectroscopy and angle-resolve measurements. The holographic properties of these nanostructures were tested in ambient moisture, fully hydrated, and artificial tear conditions. The measurements showed a rapid tuning of optical diffraction from these nanostructures from 41 to 48°. The nanostructures were patterned near the edges of the contact lens to avoid any interference and obstruction to the human vision. The formation of 2D nanostructures on lenses increased the diffraction efficiency by more than 10%. The versatility of the holographic laser ablation method was demonstrated by producing four different 2D nanopattern geometries on contact lenses. Hydrophobicity of the contact lens was characterized by contact angle measurements, which increased from 59.0° at pristine condition to 62.5° at post-nanofabrication. The holographic nanostructures on the contact lens were used to sense the concentration of Na + ions. Artificial tear solution was used to simulate the conditions in dry eye syndrome, and nanostructures on the contact lenses were used to detect the electrolyte concentration changes (±47 mmol L -1 ). Nanopatterns on a contact lens may be used to sense other ocular diseases in early stages at point-of-care settings.

  14. Investigation on Mechanical Properties’ Anisotropy of Rod Units in Lattice Structures Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chenchen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lattice structure with high strength and low mass using selective laser melting (SLM has been a hot topic. However, there are some problems in the fabrication of lattice structure by SLM. Rod unit is the basic component of lattice structure and its performance affects the whole structure. It is necessary to investigate the influence of selective laser melting on rod unit’s mechanical properties. A series of rod units with different inclination angle and diameter were fabricated by SLM in this research. And the mechanical properties of these units were measured by tensile test. The results show that the rod units with different diameters and inclination angles have good mechanical properties and show no difference. It is a good news for lattice structure designing for there is no necessary to consider the mechanical properties’ anisotropy of rod units.

  15. Numerical simulations of novel high-power high-brightness diode laser structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucke, Konstantin; Rogg, Joseph; Kelemen, Marc T.; Poprawe, Reinhart; Weimann, Guenter

    2001-07-01

    One of the key topics in today's semiconductor laser development activities is to increase the brightness of high-power diode lasers. Although structures showing an increased brightness have been developed specific draw-backs of these structures lead to a still strong demand for investigation of alternative concepts. Especially for the investigation of basically novel structures easy-to-use and fast simulation tools are essential to avoid unnecessary, cost and time consuming experiments. A diode laser simulation tool based on finite difference representations of the Helmholtz equation in 'wide-angle' approximation and the carrier diffusion equation has been developed. An optimized numerical algorithm leads to short execution times of a few seconds per resonator round-trip on a standard PC. After each round-trip characteristics like optical output power, beam profile and beam parameters are calculated. A graphical user interface allows online monitoring of the simulation results. The simulation tool is used to investigate a novel high-power, high-brightness diode laser structure, the so-called 'Z-Structure'. In this structure an increased brightness is achieved by reducing the divergency angle of the beam by angular filtering: The round trip path of the beam is two times folded using internal total reflection at surfaces defined by a small index step in the semiconductor material, forming a stretched 'Z'. The sharp decrease of the reflectivity for angles of incidence above the angle of total reflection leads to a narrowing of the angular spectrum of the beam. The simulations of the 'Z-Structure' indicate an increase of the beam quality by a factor of five to ten compared to standard broad-area lasers.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Woodpile Structures for Direct Laser Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuinness, C.; Colby, E.; England, R.J.; Ng, J.; Noble, R.J.; /SLAC; Peralta, E.; Soong, K.; /Stanford U., Ginzton Lab.; Spencer, J.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Byer, R.L.; /Stanford U., Ginzton Lab.

    2010-08-26

    An eight and nine layer three dimensional photonic crystal with a defect designed specifically for accelerator applications has been fabricated. The structures were fabricated using a combination of nanofabrication techniques, including low pressure chemical vapor deposition, optical lithography, and chemical mechanical polishing. Limits imposed by the optical lithography set the minimum feature size to 400 nm, corresponding to a structure with a bandgap centered at 4.26 {micro}m. Reflection spectroscopy reveal a peak in reflectivity about the predicted region, and good agreement with simulation is shown. The eight and nine layer structures will be aligned and bonded together to form the complete seventeen layer woodpile accelerator structure.

  17. Polarization-gradient laser cooling as a way to create strongly localized structures for atom lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, O. N.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Tumaikin, A. M.; Yudin, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    Generally, conditions for deep sub-Doppler laser cooling do not match conditions for strong atomic localization, that takes place in a deeper optical potential and leads to higher temperature. Moreover, for a given detuning in a deep optical potential the secular approximation, which is frequently used for a quantum description of laser cooling, fails. Here we investigate the atomic localization in optical potential, using a full quantum approach for atomic density matrix beyond the secular approximation. It is shown that laser cooling in a deep optical potential, created by a light field with polarization gradients, can be used as an alternative method for the formation of high contrast spatially localized structures of atoms for the purposes of atom lithography and atomic nanofabrication. Finally, we analyze possible limits for the width and contrast of localized atomic structures that can be reached in this type of light mask

  18. Identification of inks and structural characterization of contemporary artistic prints by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oujja, M.; Vila, A.; Rebollar, E.; Garcia, J.F.; Castillejo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of the inks used in artistic prints and the order in which different ink layers have been applied on a paper substrate are important factors to complement the classical stylistic aspects for the authentication of this type of objects. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is investigated to determine the chemical composition and structural distribution of the constituent materials of model prints made by applying one or two layers of several blue and black inks on an Arches paper substrate. By using suitable laser excitation conditions, identification of the inks was possible by virtue of emissions from key elements present in their composition. Analysis of successive spectra on the same spot allowed the identification of the order in which the inks were applied on the paper. The results show the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the chemical and structural characterization of artistic prints

  19. Formation of silver microbelt structures by laser irradiation of silver nanoparticles in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamiri R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reza Zamiri1, Azmi Zakaria1,2, Mohd Shahril Husin1, Zaidan Abd Wahab1, Forough Kalaei Nazarpour3 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 3Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: In the present work, we prepared silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of pure silver plate in ethanol and then irradiated the silver nanoparticles using a 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Transmission electron microscopic images of the sample after irradiation clearly showed formation of big structures, such as microrods and microbelts in ethanol. The obtained microbelts had a width of about 0.166 µm and a length of 1.472 µm. The reason for the formation of such a big structure is the tendency of the nanoparticles to aggregate in ethanol before irradiation, which causes fusion of the nanoparticles. Keywords: nanomaterial, laser ablation, nanoparticles

  20. Femtosecond laser surface structuring and oxidation of chromium thin coatings: Black chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: Kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 0001 Pretoria (South Africa); Muller, T.F.G. [University of the Western Cape, Physics Department, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Julies, B. [University of the Western Cape, Physics Department, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Manikandan, E. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Ramponi, R. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Oxidation of the chromium thin film to chromium oxide by femtosecond laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. • Solar absorber from chromium oxide that low percentage reflectance. • Femtosecond laser oxidation, with a de-focused laser. • Chromium oxide formation by femtosecond laser in normal ambient. - Abstract: In view of their potential applications as selective solar absorbers, chromium coatings on float glass substrates were nano/micro structured by femtosecond laser in air. Raman and X-rays diffraction investigations confirmed the formation of an ultra-porous α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at the surface; higher is the input laser power, enhanced is the crystallinity of the α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer with the Cr underneath it in addition to the photo-induced porosity acted as a classical ceramic–metal nano-composite making the reflectance to decrease significantly within the spectral range of 190–1100 nm. The average reflectance decreased from 70 to 2%.

  1. Growth of surface structures correlated with structural and mechanical modifications of brass by laser-induced Si plasma ions implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, M. Shahid; Yousaf, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Laser-produced Si plasma is employed as an ion source for implantation on the brass substrate for its surface, structural, and mechanical modifications. Thomson parabola technique is employed for the measurement of energy and flux of Si ions using CR-39. In response to stepwise increase in number of laser pulses from 3000 to 12000, four brass substrates were implanted by laser-induced Si plasma ions of energy 290 keV at different fluxes ranging from 45 × 1012 to 75 × 1015 ions/cm2. SEM analysis reveals the formation of nano/micro-sized irregular shaped cavities and pores for the various ion fluxes for varying numbers of laser pulses from 3000 to 9000. At the maximum ion flux for 12,000 pulses, distinct and organized grains with hexagonal and irregular shaped morphology are revealed. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis exhibits that a new phase of CuSi (311) is identified which confirms the implantation of Si ions in brass substrate. A significant decrease in mechanical properties of implanted brass, such as Yield Stress (YS), Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), and hardness, with increasing laser pulses from 3000 to 6000 is observed. However, with increasing laser pulses from 9000 to a maximum value of 12,000, an increase in mechanical properties like hardness, YS, and UTS is observed. The generation as well as annihilation of defects, recrystallization, and intermixing of Si precipitates with brass matrix is considered to be responsible for variations in surface, structural, and mechanical modifications of brass.

  2. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deri, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a ∼ 200 (micro)s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  3. Laser-assisted fabrication of gold nanoparticle-composed structures embedded in borosilicate glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Nedyalkov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present results on laser-assisted formation of two- and three-dimensional structures comprised of gold nanoparticles in glass. The sample material was gold-ion-doped borosilicate glass prepared by conventional melt quenching. The nanoparticle growth technique consisted of two steps – laser-induced defect formation and annealing. The first step was realized by irradiating the glass by nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses over a wide range of fluences and number of applied pulses. The irradiation by nanosecond laser pulses (emitted by a Nd:YAG laser system induced defect formation, expressed by brown coloration of the glass sample, only at a wavelength of 266 nm. At 355, 532 and 1064 nm, no coloration of the sample was observed. The femtosecond laser irradiation at 800 nm also induced defects, again observed as brown coloration. The absorbance spectra indicated that this coloration was related to the formation of oxygen deficiency defects. After annealing, the color of the irradiated areas changed to pink, with a corresponding well-defined peak in the absorbance spectrum. We relate this effect to the formation of gold nanoparticles with optical properties defined by plasmon excitation. Their presence was confirmed by high-resolution TEM analysis. No nanoparticle formation was observed in the samples irradiated by nanosecond pulses at 355, 532 and 1064 nm. The optical properties of the irradiated areas were found to depend on the laser processing parameters; these properties were studied based on Mie theory, which was also used to correlate the experimental optical spectra and the characteristics of the nanoparticles formed. We also discuss the influence of the processing conditions on the characteristics of the particles formed and the mechanism of their formation and demonstrate the fabrication of structures composed of nanoparticles inside the glass sample. This technique can be used for the preparation of 3D nanoparticle systems

  4. Analysis of irradiation processes for laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Huis In 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of errors on the irradiation process for laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was studied theoretically with energy density simulations. Therefore an irradiation model has been extended by a selection of technical variations. The influence of errors has been found in a

  5. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on steel and titanium alloy for tribological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonse, J.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2014-10-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were generated on stainless steel (100Cr6) and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon irradiation with multiple femtosecond laser pulses (pulse duration 30 fs, central wavelength 790 nm). The experimental conditions (laser fluence, spatial spot overlap) were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry for the processing of large surface areas (5 × 5 mm2) covered homogeneously by the nanostructures. The irradiated surface regions were subjected to white light interference microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealing spatial periods around 600 nm. The tribological performance of the nanostructured surface was characterized by reciprocal sliding against a ball of hardened steel in paraffin oil and in commercial engine oil as lubricants, followed by subsequent inspection of the wear tracks. For specific conditions, on the titanium alloy a significant reduction of the friction coefficient by a factor of more than two was observed on the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) surface when compared to the non-irradiated one, indicating the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications.

  6. The structure of new germanates, gallates, borates and silicates with laser, piezo, ferroelectric and ion conducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokonev, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of structure investigation of more than 50 new crystalline germanates, gallates, borogermanates, borates, and silicates with laser, piezo, ferroelectric, and ion-conducting properties are described. The structure - properties relationship is examined. 71 refs.; 24 figs.; 10 tabs

  7. Quasi-crystalline and disordered photonic structures fabricated using direct laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnik, Artem D.; Pinegin, Konstantin V.; Bulashevich, Grigorii A.; Rybin, Mikhail V.; Limonov, Mikhail F.; Samusev, Kirill B.

    2017-09-01

    Direct laser writing is a rapid prototyping technology that has been utilized for the fabrication of micro- and nano-scale materials that have a perfect structure in most of the cases. In this study we exploit the direct laser writing to create several classes of non-periodic materials, such as quasi-crystalline lattices and three-dimensional (3D) objects with an orientation disorder in structural elements. Among quasi-crystalline lattices we consider Penrose tiling and Lévy-type photonic glasses. Images of the fabricated structures are obtained with a scanning electron microscope. In experiment we study the optical diffraction from 3D woodpile photonic structures with orientation disorder and analyze diffraction patters observed on a flat screen positioned behind the sample. With increasing of the disorder degree, we find an impressive transformation of the diffraction patterns from perfect Laue picture to a speckle pattern.

  8. In-volume structuring of a bilayered polymer foil using direct laser interference patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rößler, Florian; Günther, Katja; Lasagni, Andrés F.

    2018-05-01

    Periodic surface patterns can provide materials with special optical properties, which are usable in decorative or security applications. However, they can be sensitive to contact wear and thus their lifetime and functionality are limited. This study describes the use of direct laser interference patterning for structuring a multilayered polymer film at its interface creating periodic in-volume structures which are resistant to contact wear. The spatial period of the structures are varied in the range of 1.0 μm to 2.0 μm in order to produce decorative elements. The pattern formation at the interface is explained using cross sectional observations and a thermal simulation of the temperature evolution during the laser treatment at the interface. Both, the diffraction efficiency and direct transmission are characterized by light intensity measurements to describe the optical behavior of the produced periodic structures and a decorative application example is presented.

  9. Determining the Velocity Fine Structure by a Laser Anemometer with Fixed Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, Peter; Mikkelsen, Torben

    We have studied the velocity structure functions and spectra which can be determined by a CW-laser anemometer and a (pulsed) lidar anemometer. We have found useful theoretical expressions for both types of anemometers and compared their filtering of the alongbeam turbulent velocity. The purpose h...... been to establish a basis for remote determining of turbulence fine-structure in terms of the rate of dissipation of specific kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer....

  10. Determining the velocity fine structure by a laser anemometer with fixed orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, P.; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2011-02-15

    We have studied the velocity structure functions and spectra which can be determined by a CW-laser anemometer and a (pulsed) lidar anemometer. We have found useful theoretical expressions for both types of anemometers and compared their filtering of the along-beam turbulent velocity. The purpose has been to establish a basis for remote determining of turbulence fine-structure in terms of the rate of dissipation of specific kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer. (Author)

  11. Development of High-Gradient Dielectric Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byer, Robert L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Edward L. Ginzton Lab.

    2013-11-07

    The thrust of Stanford's program is to conduct research on high-gradient dielectric accelerator structures driven with high repetition-rate, tabletop infrared lasers. The close collaboration between Stanford and SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) is critical to the success of this project, because it provides a unique environment where prototype dielectric accelerator structures can be rapidly fabricated and tested with a relativistic electron beam.

  12. Laser Control of Self-Organization Process in Microscopic Region and Fabrication of Fine Microporous Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Yukimasa; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2012-01-01

    We present a controlling technique of microporous structure by laser irradiation during self-organization process. Self-organization process is fabrication method of microstructure. Polymer solution was dropped on the substrate at high humid condition. Water in air appears dropping air temperature below the dew point. The honeycomb structure with regularly aligned pores on the film was fabricated by attaching water droplets onto the solution surface. We demonstrate that it was possible to pre...

  13. Mode structure in an optically pumped D2O far infrared ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, D.C.; Soumagne, G.; Siegrist, M.R.

    1989-07-01

    The mode structures in an optically pumped D 2 O far infrared ring laser and a corresponding linear resonator have been compared. While single mode operation can be obtained over the whole useful pressure range in the ring structure, this is only possible at pressures greater than 8 Torr in the linear resonator case. A numerical model predicts quite well the pulse shape, pressure dependence and influence of the resonator quality in the ring cavity. (author) 12 figs., 8 refs

  14. Bonding structure and mechanical properties of B-C-N thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition at different laser fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.B.; Xiao, J.L.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Boron carbon nitride (B-C-N) thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition under different laser fluences changing from 1.0 to 3.0 J/cm"2. The influence of laser fluence on microstructure, bonding structure, and mechanical properties of the films was studied, so as to explore the possibility of improving their mechanical properties by controlling bonding structure. The bonding structure identified by FT-IR and XPS indicated the coexistence of B-N, B-C, N-C and N=C bonds in the films, suggesting the formation of a ternary B-C-N hybridization. There is a clear evolution of bonding structure in the B-C-N films with the increasing of laser fluence. The variation of the mechanical properties as a function of laser fluence was also in accordance with the evolution of B-C and sp"3 N-C bonds whereas contrary to that of sp"2 B-N and N=C bonds. The hardness and modulus reached the maximum value of 33.7 GPa and 256 GPa, respectively, at a laser fluence of 3.0 J/cm"2, where the B-C-N thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition possessed the highest intensity of B-C and N-C bonds and the lowest fraction of B-N and N=C bonds. - Highlights: • Improvement of mechanical property by controlling bonding structure is explored. • A clear evolution of bonding structure with the increasing of laser fluence • Variation of property is in accordance with the evolution of B−C and N−C bonds.

  15. Observation of Rayleigh-Taylor-like structures in a laser-accelerated foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.R.; Emery, M.H.; Stamper, J.A.; McLean, E.A.; Obenschain, S.P.; Peckerar, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-accelerated targets have been predicted to be subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability. The development of the instability was studied by introducing mass thickness variations in foil targets and observing the development of the target nonuniformities by side-on flash x radiography. Observations were made of target structures and mass redistribution effects which resemble Rayleigh-Taylor bubbles and spikes, including not only advanced broadening of the spike tips on the laser-irradiated side of the foil but also projections of mass on the unirradiated side. The observations compare well with numerical simulations

  16. Design of titania nanotube structures by focused laser beam direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enachi, Mihai; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Sarua, Andrei; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report on electrochemical fabrication of titania films consisting of nanotubes (NTs) and their treatment by focused laser beam. The results of sample characterization by optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, and Raman scattering scanning spectroscopy are compared to those inherent to specimens subjected to thermal treatment in a furnace. The obtained data demonstrate possibilities for controlling crystallographic structure of TiO 2 NTs by focused laser beam direct writing. These findings open new prospects for the design and fabrication of spatial architectures based on titania nanotubes

  17. Integration of High-Resolution Laser Displacement Sensors and 3D Printing for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel experimental design for complex structural health monitoring (SHM studies achieved by integrating 3D printing technologies, high-resolution laser displacement sensors, and multiscale entropy SHM theory. A seven-story structure with a variety of composite bracing systems was constructed using a dual-material 3D printer. A wireless Bluetooth vibration speaker was used to excite the ground floor of the structure, and high-resolution laser displacement sensors (1-μm resolution were used to monitor the displacement history on different floors. Our results showed that the multiscale entropy SHM method could detect damage on the 3D-printed structures. The results of this study demonstrate that integrating 3D printing technologies and high-resolution laser displacement sensors enables the design of cheap, fast processing, complex, small-scale civil structures for future SHM studies. The novel experimental design proposed in this study provides a suitable platform for investigating the validity and sensitivity of SHM in different composite structures and damage conditions for real life applications in the future.

  18. Integration of High-Resolution Laser Displacement Sensors and 3D Printing for Structural Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Kuo, Shih-Yu; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2017-12-22

    This paper presents a novel experimental design for complex structural health monitoring (SHM) studies achieved by integrating 3D printing technologies, high-resolution laser displacement sensors, and multiscale entropy SHM theory. A seven-story structure with a variety of composite bracing systems was constructed using a dual-material 3D printer. A wireless Bluetooth vibration speaker was used to excite the ground floor of the structure, and high-resolution laser displacement sensors (1-μm resolution) were used to monitor the displacement history on different floors. Our results showed that the multiscale entropy SHM method could detect damage on the 3D-printed structures. The results of this study demonstrate that integrating 3D printing technologies and high-resolution laser displacement sensors enables the design of cheap, fast processing, complex, small-scale civil structures for future SHM studies. The novel experimental design proposed in this study provides a suitable platform for investigating the validity and sensitivity of SHM in different composite structures and damage conditions for real life applications in the future.

  19. Tailored optical vector fields for ultrashort-pulse laser induced complex surface plasmon structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, J; Perrie, W; Allegre, O J; Heil, T; Jin, Y; Fearon, E; Eckford, D; Edwardson, S P; Dearden, G

    2015-05-18

    Precise tailoring of optical vector beams is demonstrated, shaping their focal electric fields and used to create complex laser micro-patterning on a metal surface. A Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) and a micro-structured S-waveplate were integrated with a picosecond laser system and employed to structure the vector fields into radial and azimuthal polarizations with and without a vortex phase wavefront as well as superposition states. Imprinting Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) elucidates the detailed vector fields around the focal region. In addition to clear azimuthal and radial plasmon surface structures, unique, variable logarithmic spiral micro-structures with a pitch Λ ∼1μm, not observed previously, were imprinted on the surface, confirming unambiguously the complex 2D focal electric fields. We show clearly also how the Orbital Angular Momentum(OAM) associated with a helical wavefront induces rotation of vector fields along the optic axis of a focusing lens and confirmed by the observed surface micro-structures.

  20. Laser cleaning of parchment: structural, thermal and biochemical studies into the effect of wavelength and fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Craig J.; Vest, Marie; Cooper, Martin; Wess, Tim J.

    2004-01-01

    Laser cleaning of parchment is a novel technique that has the potential to provide contactless, chemical-free cleaning of historically important documents. However, the effect of laser cleaning on the collagenous structure of parchment is still poorly understood, as is the effect of the wavelength or the energy density (fluence level) used to clean parchment. In this study, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), shrinkage temperature (Ts) measurements by the micro hot table technique and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of parchment samples after laser cleaning reveal the effect of cleaning to the structural, thermal and molecular characteristics of parchment, respectively. The effect of cleaning at infrared (1064 nm), green (532 nm) and ultraviolet (266 nm) wavelengths at a range of fluence levels is investigated. SAXS is used to investigate the removal of dirt from parchment. Laser cleaning at IR or green wavelengths appears not to alter the collagen diffraction pattern from SAXS, the shrinkage activity or shrinkage temperature from Ts measurements or the molecular integrity of parchment as shown by SDS-PAGE. However, parchments cleaned at the ultraviolet wavelength display structural damage and a reduction in hydrothermal stability and molecular integrity

  1. Digitally controlled chirped pulse laser for sub-terahertz-range fiber structure interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Hefferman, Gerald; Wei, Tao

    2017-03-01

    This Letter reports a sweep velocity-locked laser pulse generator controlled using a digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) circuit. This design is used for the interrogation of sub-terahertz-range fiber structures for sensing applications that require real-time data collection with millimeter-level spatial resolution. A distributed feedback laser was employed to generate chirped laser pulses via injection current modulation. A DPLL circuit was developed to lock the optical frequency sweep velocity. A high-quality linearly chirped laser pulse with a frequency excursion of 117.69 GHz at an optical communication band was demonstrated. The system was further adopted to interrogate a continuously distributed sub-terahertz-range fiber structure (sub-THz-fs) for sensing applications. A strain test was conducted in which the sub-THz-fs showed a linear response to longitudinal strain change with predicted sensitivity. Additionally, temperature testing was conducted in which a heat source was used to generate a temperature distribution along the fiber structure to demonstrate its distributed sensing capability. A Gaussian temperature profile was measured using the described system and tracked in real time, as the heat source was moved.

  2. Active optical system for advanced 3D surface structuring by laser remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütsch, O.; Temmler, A.; Stollenwerk, J.; Willenborg, E.; Loosen, P.

    2015-03-01

    Structuring by laser remelting enables completely new possibilities for designing surfaces since material is redistributed but not wasted. In addition to technological advantages, cost and time benefits yield from shortened process times, the avoidance of harmful chemicals and the elimination of subsequent finishing steps such as cleaning and polishing. The functional principle requires a completely new optical machine technology that maintains the spatial and temporal superposition and manipulation of three different laser beams emitted from two laser sources of different wavelength. The optical system has already been developed and demonstrated for the processing of flat samples of hot and cold working steel. However, since particularly the structuring of 3D-injection molds represents an application example of high innovation potential, the optical system has to take into account the elliptical beam geometry that occurs when the laser beams irradiate a curved surface. To take full advantage of structuring by remelting for the processing of 3D surfaces, additional optical functionality, called EPS (elliptical pre-shaping) has to be integrated into the existing set-up. The development of the beam shaping devices not only requires the analysis of the mechanisms of the beam projection but also a suitable optical design. Both aspects are discussed in this paper.

  3. Polarization and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano structures on stainless steel with antireflection property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caizhen; Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Li, Yuan; Ding, Renjie; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Yuxin; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, micro/nano structures on stainless steel were prepared in single spot irradiation mode and scan mode by using femtosecond laser technique. The influence of polarization and fluence on the formation of micro/nano structures were explored. Surface morphology, microstructure, roughness and composition of prepared samples were characterized. The antireflection property and wettability of laser treated samples were also tested and compared with that of original stainless steel.Results showed that the laser-induced spot consists of two distinct regions due to the Gaussian beam profile: a core region of moth-eye-like structure and a peripheral region of nanoparticles-covered laser-induced periodic surface structure (NC-LIPSS). The proportion of the core region and dimension of micro/nano structure increase with increasing laser fluence. Polarization can be used to tune the direction of NC-LIPSS. Atomic ratios of Cr and Mn increase and atomic ratio of Ni decreases after laser irradiation. Oxygen is not detected on laser irradiated samples, indicating that oxidation reactions are not significant during the interaction process between femtosecond laser and 304 stainless steel. These are good for the application of stainless steel as its physical properties would not change or even enhanced. The overlaps between two laser scan lines significantly influence the surface roughness and should be controlled carefully during the preparation process. The laser irradiated surface has a better antireflection property in comparison with that of original stainless steel, which may due to the scattering and absorption of micro/nano structures. Contact angle of micro/nano structured stainless steel decreases with the increase of laser fluence. The hydrophilic property can be explained by Wenzel's model. The interference between the surface plasmon wave and the incident light wave leads to the formation of NC-LIPSS.

  4. X-ray laser diffraction for structure determination of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. Edward; Gao, Xiang; Barty, Anton; Kang, Yanyong; He, Yuanzheng; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; White, Thomas A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Han, Gye Won; Xu, Qingping; de Waal, Parker W.; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Wang, Meitian; Li, Dianfan; Caffrey, Martin; Chapman, Henry N.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2016-04-01

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) is a recent advancement in structural biology for solving crystal structures of challenging membrane proteins, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which often only produce microcrystals. An XFEL delivers highly intense X-ray pulses of femtosecond duration short enough to enable the collection of single diffraction images before significant radiation damage to crystals sets in. Here we report the deposition of the XFEL data and provide further details on crystallization, XFEL data collection and analysis, structure determination, and the validation of the structural model. The rhodopsin-arrestin crystal structure solved with SFX represents the first near-atomic resolution structure of a GPCR-arrestin complex, provides structural insights into understanding of arrestin-mediated GPCR signaling, and demonstrates the great potential of this SFX-XFEL technology for accelerating crystal structure determination of challenging proteins and protein complexes.

  5. Specific features of waveguide recombination in laser structures with asymmetric barrier layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polubavkina, Yu. S., E-mail: polubavkina@mail.ru; Zubov, F. I.; Moiseev, E. I.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Maximov, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University (Russian Federation); Semenova, E. S.; Yvind, K. [Technical University of Denmark, DTU Fotonik (Denmark); Asryan, L. V. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (United States); Zhukov, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The spatial distribution of the intensity of the emission caused by recombination appearing at a high injection level (up to 30 kA/cm{sup 2}) in the waveguide layer of a GaAs/AlGaAs laser structure with GaInP and AlGaInAs asymmetric barrier layers is studied by means of near-field scanning optical microscopy. It is found that the waveguide luminescence in such a laser, which is on the whole less intense as compared to that observed in a similar laser without asymmetric barriers, is non-uniformly distributed in the waveguide, so that the distribution maximum is shifted closer to the p-type cladding layer. This can be attributed to the ability of the GaInP barrier adjoining the quantum well on the side of the n-type cladding layer to suppress the hole transport.

  6. Specific features of waveguide recombination in laser structures with asymmetric barrier layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polubavkina, Yu; Zubov, F. I.; Moiseev, E.

    2017-01-01

    microscopy. It is found that the waveguide luminescence in such a laser, which is on the whole less intense as compared to that observed in a similar laser without asymmetric barriers, is non-uniformly distributed in the waveguide, so that the distribution maximum is shifted closer to the p-type cladding......The spatial distribution of the intensity of the emission caused by recombination appearing at a high injection level (up to 30 kA/cm2) in the waveguide layer of a GaAs/AlGaAs laser structure with GaInP and AlGaInAs asymmetric barrier layers is studied by means of near-field scanning optical...... layer. This can be attributed to the ability of the GaInP barrier adjoining the quantum well on the side of the n-type cladding layer to suppress the hole transport....

  7. Attosecond time-energy structure of X-ray free-electron laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, N.; Hartmann, G.; Heider, R.; Wagner, M. S.; Ilchen, M.; Buck, J.; Lindahl, A. O.; Benko, C.; Grünert, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Liu, J.; Lutman, A. A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Moeller, S. P.; Planas, M.; Robinson, J.; Kazansky, A. K.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Viefhaus, J.; Feurer, T.; Kienberger, R.; Coffee, R. N.; Helml, W.

    2018-04-01

    The time-energy information of ultrashort X-ray free-electron laser pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source is measured with attosecond resolution via angular streaking of neon 1s photoelectrons. The X-ray pulses promote electrons from the neon core level into an ionization continuum, where they are dressed with the electric field of a circularly polarized infrared laser. This induces characteristic modulations of the resulting photoelectron energy and angular distribution. From these modulations we recover the single-shot attosecond intensity structure and chirp of arbitrary X-ray pulses based on self-amplified spontaneous emission, which have eluded direct measurement so far. We characterize individual attosecond pulses, including their instantaneous frequency, and identify double pulses with well-defined delays and spectral properties, thus paving the way for X-ray pump/X-ray probe attosecond free-electron laser science.

  8. The Effect of Rare Earth on the Structure and Performance of Laser Clad Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ruiliang; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Dong, Qing

    Laser cladding is one kind of advanced surface modification technology and has the abroad prospect in making the wear-resistant coating on metal substrates. However, the application of laser cladding technology does not achieve the people's expectation in the practical production because of many defects such as cracks, pores and so on. The addiction of rare earth can effectively reduce the number of cracks in the clad coating and enhance the coating wear-resistance. In the paper, the effects of rare earth on metallurgical quality, microstructure, phase structure and wear-resistance are analyzed in turns. The preliminary discussion is also carried out on the effect mechanism of rare earth. At last, the development tendency of rare earth in the laser cladding has been briefly elaborated.

  9. Structural features of silver-doped phosphate glasses in zone of femtosecond laser-induced modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, A. A.; Nazarov, I. A.; Olshin, P. K.; Povolotskiy, A. V.; Sokolov, I. A.; Manshina, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Femtosecond (fs) laser writing of two-dimensional microstructures (waveguides) is demonstrated in bulk phosphate glasses doped with silver ions. Silver-content phosphate and silver-content niobium-phosphate glasses with high concentration of silver oxide 55 mol% were used as samples for fs laser writing. The chemical network structure of the synthesized samples is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy and was found to be strongly sensitive to Nb incorporation. It was found that the direct laser writing process enables not only reorganization of glass network, but also formation of color centers and silver nanoparticles that are revealed in appearance of luminescence signal and plasmon absorption. The process of NPs' formation is more efficient for Nb-phosphate glass, while color centers are preferably formed in phosphate glass.

  10. Interaction of ultra high intensity laser pulse with structured target and fast particle generation in a stable mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A.A. [Max-Born Institute, Berlin (Germany); Platonov, K.Yu. [Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    It is shown that the relief structure with optimum parameters can significantly increase the short-pulse laser absorption, which is connected with the enhancement of moving electrons between relief ledges. Analytical modeling and numerical simulations confirm this argumentation. In the considered cases, degradation of a structure by a laser pre-pulse is the most important factor and for this scheme to work, one needs a very high-contrast laser-pulse and a nanosecond laser pre-pulse duration. The limitation on laser pulse duration is not so strong because after destruction of a first relief a secondary dynamic structure of ion density appears. Thus, high absorption connected with a relief existence continues during a long time that gives a possibility for structure targets to be more efficient compared to a plane one. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Laser-assisted preparation and photoelectric properties of grating-structured Pt/FTO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Nai-fei, E-mail: rnf_ujs@126.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing, E-mail: lij_huang@126.com [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Bao-jia [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Ming [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Pt layers were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on commercial FTO glasses. • Pt/FTO films were irradiated by laser for inducing gratings and annealing. • An ideal grating-structured Pt/FTO film was obtained using a fluence of 1.05 J/cm{sup 2}. • The grating-structured Pt/FTO film exhibited excellent photoelectric properties. • Laser-assisted treatment is effective for improving performance of FTO-based films. - Abstract: In order to improve the transparency and conductivity of commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, platinum (Pt) layers were deposited on the FTO film by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering, followed by being irradiating with a 532 nm nanosecond pulsed laser for the dual purpose of inducing grating structures and annealing. Introducing a Pt layer decreased the average transmittance (400–800 nm) and the sheet resistance of the initial FTO film from 80.2% and 8.4 Ω/sq to 68.6% and 7.9 Ω/sq, respectively. The ideal grating-structured Pt/FTO film was obtained by laser irradiation with a fluence of 1.05 J/cm{sup 2}, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that this film underwent optimal annealing. As a result, it exhibited an average transmittance (400–800 nm) of 84.1% and a sheet resistance of 6.8 Ω/sq. These results indicated that laser-assisted treatment combined with introduction of metal layer can effectively improve photoelectric properties of FTO single-layer films.

  12. Matlab fractal techniques used to study the structural degradation caused by alpha radiation to laser mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioan, M.-R.

    2018-01-01

    Almost all optical diagnostic systems associated with classical particle accelerators or with new state-of-the-art particle accelerators, such as those developed within the European Collaboration ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics) (involving extreme power laser beams), contain in their infrastructure high quality laser mirrors, used for their reflectivity and/or their partial transmittance. These high quality mirrors facilitate the extraction and handling of optical signals. When optical mirrors are exposed to high energy ionizing radiation fields, their optical and structural properties will change over time and their functionality will be affected, meaning that they will provide imprecise information. In some experiments, being exposed to mixed laser and accelerated particle beams, the deterioration of laser mirrors is even more acute, since the destruction mechanisms of both types of beams are cumulated. The main task of the work described in this paper was to find a novel specific method to analyse and highlight such degradation processes. By using complex fractal techniques integrated in a MATLAB code, the effects induced by alpha radiation to laser mirrors were studied. The fractal analysis technique represents an alternative approach to the classical Euclidean one. It can be applied for the characterization of the defects occurred in mirrors structure due to their exposure to high energy alpha particle beams. The proposed method may be further integrated into mirrors manufacturing process, as a testing instrument, to obtain better quality mirrors (enhanced resistance to high energy ionizing beams) by using different types of reflective coating materials and different deposition techniques. Moreover, the effect of high energy alpha ionizing particles on the optical properties of the exposed laser mirrors was studied by using spectrophotometric techniques.

  13. Formation of organic layer on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumaru, Naoki, E-mail: yasuma@fukui-nct.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Sentoku, Eisuke [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Kiuchi, Junsuke [Eyetec Co., Ltd., Sabae, Fukui 916-0016 (Japan)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surface analyses of two types of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on titanium were conducted. • The parallel-oriented ultrafine LIPSS showed the almost same roughness and chemical states as the non-irradiated Ti surface. • The well-known perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were typically covered with an organic layer similar to a cellulose derivative. - Abstract: Two types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formed on titanium by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses (λ = 800 nm, τ = 180 fs, ν = 1 kHz) in air were investigated experimentally. At a laser fluence F above the ablation threshold, LIPSS with a minimum mean spacing of D < λ⁄2 were observed perpendicular to the laser polarization direction. In contrast, for F slightly below than the ablation threshold, ultrafine LIPSS with a minimum value of D < λ/10 were formed parallel to the polarization direction. The surface roughness of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was almost the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, unlike the high roughness of the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS. In addition, although the surface state of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were covered with an organic thin film similar to a cellulose derivative that cannot be easily formed by conventional chemical synthesis. The results of these surface analyses indicate that these two types of LIPSS are formed through different mechanisms. This fs-laser processing technique may become a new technology for the artificial synthesis of cellulose derivatives.

  14. Structural features of silver-doped phosphate glasses in zone of femtosecond laser-induced modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileva, A.A., E-mail: anvsilv@gmail.com [Saint-Petersburg State University, Institute of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nazarov, I.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Olshin, P.K.; Povolotskiy, A.V. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Institute of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sokolov, I.A. [St.Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); LTD “AtomTjazhMash”, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Manshina, A.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Institute of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Femtosecond (fs) laser writing of two-dimensional microstructures (waveguides) is demonstrated in bulk phosphate glasses doped with silver ions. Silver-content phosphate and silver-content niobium–phosphate glasses with high concentration of silver oxide 55 mol% were used as samples for fs laser writing. The chemical network structure of the synthesized samples is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy and was found to be strongly sensitive to Nb incorporation. It was found that the direct laser writing process enables not only reorganization of glass network, but also formation of color centers and silver nanoparticles that are revealed in appearance of luminescence signal and plasmon absorption. The process of NPs' formation is more efficient for Nb-phosphate glass, while color centers are preferably formed in phosphate glass. - Graphical abstract: Formation of silver NPs on the surface of 0.5Ag{sub 2}O–0.4P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–0,1Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass induced by CW laser irradiation. - Highlights: • The structure of 0.5Ag{sub 2}O–0.1Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–0.4P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 0.55Ag{sub 2}O–0.45P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. • Fs laser writing induces formation of silver NPs in investigated glasses. • Surface plasmon resonance in the absorption spectra confirms the formation of NP. • The possibility of CW laser induced formation of silver NPs on the surface of sample with niobium is shown.

  15. Structural features of silver-doped phosphate glasses in zone of femtosecond laser-induced modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileva, A.A.; Nazarov, I.A.; Olshin, P.K.; Povolotskiy, A.V.; Sokolov, I.A.; Manshina, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond (fs) laser writing of two-dimensional microstructures (waveguides) is demonstrated in bulk phosphate glasses doped with silver ions. Silver-content phosphate and silver-content niobium–phosphate glasses with high concentration of silver oxide 55 mol% were used as samples for fs laser writing. The chemical network structure of the synthesized samples is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy and was found to be strongly sensitive to Nb incorporation. It was found that the direct laser writing process enables not only reorganization of glass network, but also formation of color centers and silver nanoparticles that are revealed in appearance of luminescence signal and plasmon absorption. The process of NPs' formation is more efficient for Nb-phosphate glass, while color centers are preferably formed in phosphate glass. - Graphical abstract: Formation of silver NPs on the surface of 0.5Ag 2 O–0.4P 2 O 5 –0,1Nb 2 O 5 glass induced by CW laser irradiation. - Highlights: • The structure of 0.5Ag 2 O–0.1Nb 2 O 5 –0.4P 2 O 5 and 0.55Ag 2 O–0.45P 2 O 5 glasses was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. • Fs laser writing induces formation of silver NPs in investigated glasses. • Surface plasmon resonance in the absorption spectra confirms the formation of NP. • The possibility of CW laser induced formation of silver NPs on the surface of sample with niobium is shown

  16. Development of a hard nano-structured multi-component ceramic coating by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masanta, Manoj; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, Rakesh; Nath, A.K.; Roy Choudhury, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports laser-assisted synthesis of a multi-component ceramic composite coating consisting of aluminum oxide, titanium di-boride and titanium carbide (Al 2 O 3 -TiB 2 -TiC). A pre-placed powder mixture of aluminum (Al), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and boron carbide (B 4 C) was made to undergo self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) by laser triggering. Laser subsequently effected cladding of the products of SHS on the substrate. The effect of laser scanning speed on the hardness, microstructure and phase composition of the composite coating was investigated. The coating exhibited an increase in hardness and a decrease in grain size with increase in laser scanning speed. A maximum micro-hardness of 2500 HV 0.025 was obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the top surface of the coating revealed the presence of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium di-boride (TiB 2 ) and titanium carbide (TiC) along with some non-stoichiometric products of the Ti-Al-B-C-O system. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) analysis revealed some nano-structured TiB 2 and Al 2 O 3 , which are discussed in detail.

  17. Laser micromachining of screen-printed graphene for forming electrode structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tien-Li; Chen, Zhao-Chi; Tseng, Shih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Homogeneous graphene films were prepared by the screen-printing process. • Optimal single-line ablation was performed by ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulses. • Influence of ablation parameters on graphene/glass substrate was clarified. • Electrical measurements of ablated graphene-based device can be investigated. - Abstract: There has been increasing research interest in electronic applications of graphene-based devices fabricated using electrode patterning techniques. This study presents a laser ablation technique along with a screen printing process for fabricating graphene patterns on a glass substrate. First, homogeneous multilayer films on the glass substrate are coated with graphene ink by using the screen printing process. Subsequently, optimal ablation was performed using an ultraviolet nanosecond laser, and the effective number of pulses decreased with an increase in the scanning speed and a decrease in the overlapping rate. Here, the pulsed overlap of a laser spot was determined to be approximately 90% for 75 pulses at a scanning speed of 250 mm/s. Experimental results showed continuous single-line ablation along the laser scanning path in the graphene films. Furthermore, linear current–voltage (I–V) curves showed the multilayer graphene characteristics of ablated devices for forming electrode structures.

  18. Development of a hard nano-structured multi-component ceramic coating by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanta, Manoj [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Ganesh, P.; Kaul, Rakesh [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Nath, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Roy Choudhury, A., E-mail: roychoudhuryasimava@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2009-05-20

    The present paper reports laser-assisted synthesis of a multi-component ceramic composite coating consisting of aluminum oxide, titanium di-boride and titanium carbide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiB{sub 2}-TiC). A pre-placed powder mixture of aluminum (Al), titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) was made to undergo self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) by laser triggering. Laser subsequently effected cladding of the products of SHS on the substrate. The effect of laser scanning speed on the hardness, microstructure and phase composition of the composite coating was investigated. The coating exhibited an increase in hardness and a decrease in grain size with increase in laser scanning speed. A maximum micro-hardness of 2500 HV{sub 0.025} was obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the top surface of the coating revealed the presence of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), titanium di-boride (TiB{sub 2}) and titanium carbide (TiC) along with some non-stoichiometric products of the Ti-Al-B-C-O system. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) analysis revealed some nano-structured TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which are discussed in detail.

  19. Internal structure of laser supported detonation waves by two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Kawamura, Koichi; Fukuda, Akio; Wang Bin; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Hatai, Keigo; Fukui, Akihiro; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of the internal structure of the laser supported detonation (LSD) waves, such as the electron density n e and the electron temperature T e profiles behind the shock wave were measured using a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer along with emission spectroscopy. A TEA CO 2 laser with energy of 10 J/pulse produced explosive laser heating in atmospheric air. Results show that the peak values of n e and T e were, respectively, about 2 x 10 24 m -3 and 30 000 K, during the LSD regime. The temporal variation of the laser absorption coefficient profile estimated from the measured properties reveals that the laser energy was absorbed perfectly in a thin layer behind the shock wave during the LSD regime, as predicted by Raizer's LSD model. However, the absorption layer was much thinner than a plasma layer, the situation of which was not considered in Raizer's model. The measured n e at the shock front was not zero while the LSD was supported, which implies that the precursor electrons exist ahead of the shock wave.

  20. Fabrication of sub-micrometric metallic hollow-core structures by laser interference lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Noemi; Tavera, Txaber [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra) Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Rodriguez, Ainara [CIC Microgune, Paseo Mikeletegi 48, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain); Ellman, Miguel; Ayerdi, Isabel; Olaizola, Santiago M. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra) Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrays of hollow-core sub-micrometric structures are fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser interference lithography is used for the pattering of the resist sacrificial layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal of the sacrificial layer gives rise to metallic channels with a maximum crosssectional area of 0.1 {mu}m{sup 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures can be used in nanofluidics. - Abstract: This work presents the fabrication of hollow-core metallic structures with a complete laser interference lithography (LIL) process. A negative photoresist is used as sacrificial layer. It is exposed to the pattern resulting from the interference of two laser beams, which produces a structure of photoresist lines with a period of 600 nm. After development of the resist, platinum is deposited on the samples by DC sputtering and the resist is removed with acetone. The resulting metallic structures consist in a continuous platinum film that replicates the photoresist relief with a hollow core. The cross section of the channels is up to 0.1 {mu}m{sup 2}. The fabricated samples are characterized by FESEM and FIB. This last tool helps to provide a clear picture of the shape and size of the channels. Conveniently dimensioned, this array of metallic submicrometric channels can be used in microfluidic or IC cooling applications.

  1. Fabrication of sub-micrometric metallic hollow-core structures by laser interference lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Noemí; Tavera, Txaber; Rodríguez, Ainara; Ellman, Miguel; Ayerdi, Isabel; Olaizola, Santiago M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Arrays of hollow-core sub-micrometric structures are fabricated. ► Laser interference lithography is used for the pattering of the resist sacrificial layer. ► The removal of the sacrificial layer gives rise to metallic channels with a maximum crosssectional area of 0.1 μm 2 . ► These structures can be used in nanofluidics. - Abstract: This work presents the fabrication of hollow-core metallic structures with a complete laser interference lithography (LIL) process. A negative photoresist is used as sacrificial layer. It is exposed to the pattern resulting from the interference of two laser beams, which produces a structure of photoresist lines with a period of 600 nm. After development of the resist, platinum is deposited on the samples by DC sputtering and the resist is removed with acetone. The resulting metallic structures consist in a continuous platinum film that replicates the photoresist relief with a hollow core. The cross section of the channels is up to 0.1 μm 2 . The fabricated samples are characterized by FESEM and FIB. This last tool helps to provide a clear picture of the shape and size of the channels. Conveniently dimensioned, this array of metallic submicrometric channels can be used in microfluidic or IC cooling applications.

  2. Structure and Morphology Effects on the Optical Properties of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Films Laser Deposited on a Glass Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Kucherik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving nanosecond laser system is used for laser-assisted thermodiffusion deposition of metallic nanoparticles from water-based colloidal solutions. The results obtained for both gold and silver nanoparticles show that film morphology strongly depends on laser scanning speed and the number of passages. We show, furthermore, the possibility of producing bimetallic Au:Ag thin films by laser irradiation of the mixed solutions. As a result of several laser scans, granular nanometric films are found to grow with a well-controlled composition, thickness, and morphology. By changing laser scanning parameters, film morphology can be varied from island structures to quasi-periodic arrays. The optical properties of the deposited structures are found to depend on the film composition, thickness, and mean separation between the particles. The transparency spectra of the deposited films are shown to be defined by their morphology.

  3. Smart skin structures for identifying and locating laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Goeller, R.M.; Murray, H.S.

    1992-12-31

    A pyramidal arrangement of wavelength-selective optical detectors can be used to determine the identity (wavelength), intensity, and direction-of-arrival of faser irradiation. The advantages of this technique are that only unobtrusive, skin-like structures are required and that large collection areas provide high sensitivity. The disadvantage is that the angular resolution (approximately 5 degrees in a 60 degree field-of--view) is less than that which can be achieved using methods requiring thicker structures. The detector elements are large-area, polyvinylidine fluoride, pyroelectric devices with wavelength selective coatinits. Four identical arrays of these elements are situated on the top and sides of a frustrated, three--sided prism. Since only the relative orientations are significant, these faces can be selected regions on the surface of an existing structure. We first describe the construction of the detectors and the system, then develop the mathematical description of the system. Using coated detectors whose performance has been experimentally verified, we will model the response to in-channel, monochromatic irradiation and then describe the data analysis algorithm. Although we will limit our model to a simple, two-channel system, the concept and algorithm can easily be extended to a system of any reasonable number of nonoverlapping channels.

  4. Smart skin structures for identifying and locating laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Goeller, R.M.; Murray, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    A pyramidal arrangement of wavelength-selective optical detectors can be used to determine the identity (wavelength), intensity, and direction-of-arrival of faser irradiation. The advantages of this technique are that only unobtrusive, skin-like structures are required and that large collection areas provide high sensitivity. The disadvantage is that the angular resolution (approximately 5 degrees in a 60 degree field-of--view) is less than that which can be achieved using methods requiring thicker structures. The detector elements are large-area, polyvinylidine fluoride, pyroelectric devices with wavelength selective coatinits. Four identical arrays of these elements are situated on the top and sides of a frustrated, three--sided prism. Since only the relative orientations are significant, these faces can be selected regions on the surface of an existing structure. We first describe the construction of the detectors and the system, then develop the mathematical description of the system. Using coated detectors whose performance has been experimentally verified, we will model the response to in-channel, monochromatic irradiation and then describe the data analysis algorithm. Although we will limit our model to a simple, two-channel system, the concept and algorithm can easily be extended to a system of any reasonable number of nonoverlapping channels.

  5. Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation approach to the emission of radiation by sources located inside finite-sized dielectric structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, T.; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    uses for analyzing the emission of light by sources in some antennas and optical components such as vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, microdisk lasers, and light emitting diodes. The methods also have prospective uses in quantum electrodynamics for studies of spontaneous emission from, e...

  6. Prototyping chips in minutes: Direct Laser Plotting (DLP) of functional microfluidic structures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Limu

    2013-10-10

    We report a fast and simple prototyping method to fabricate polymer-based microfluidic chips using Direct Laser Plotting (DLP) technique, by which various functional micro-structures can be realized within minutes, in a mask-free and out-of-cleanroom fashion. A 2D Computer-Aid-Design (CAD) software was employed to layout the required micro-structures and micro-channels, a CO2 laser plotter was then used to construct the microstructures. The desired patterns can be plotted directly on PDMS substrates and bio-compatible polymer films by manipulating the strength and density of laser pulses. With the DLP technique, chip-embedded micro-electrodes, micro-mixers and 3D microfluidic chips with 5 layers, which normally require several days of work in a cleanroom facility, can be fabricated in minutes in common laboratory. This novel method can produce microfluidic channels with average feature size of 100 μm, while feature size of 50 μm or smaller is achievable by making use of the interference effect from laser impulsion. In this report, we present the optimized parameters for successful fabrication of 3D microchannels, micro-mixers and microfluidic chips for protein concentration measurements (Bovine Serum Albumine (BSA) test), and a novel procedure to pattern flexible embedding electrodes on PDMS-based microfluidic chips. DLP offers a convenient and low cost alternative to conventional microfluidic channel fabrication technique which relies on complicated and hazardous soft lithography process.

  7. Proposal for a study of laser acceleration of electrons using micrograting structures at ATF (Phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.; Claus, J.; Fernow, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    We propose to investigate new methods of particle acceleration using a short-pulse CO 2 laser as the power source and grating-like structures as accelerator ''cavities''. Phase I of this program is intended to demonstrate the principle of the method. We will focus the laser light to a 3 mm line on the surface of the microstructure. The structure is used to transform the electric field pattern of the incoming transversely polarized laser beam to a mode which has a component along the electron beam direction in the vicinity of the surface. With 6 mJ of laser energy and a 6 ps pulse length, the electric field in the spot will be around 1 GV/m. The electron beam from the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) will be focused transversely within the few micron transverse dimension of the microstructure. The maximum expected acceleration for a 1 GV/m field and a 3 mm acceleration length is 3 MeV. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Structural strengthening of rocket nozzle extension by means of laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, M.; Brox, L.; Hallberg, M.

    2012-03-01

    Commercial space operations strive to maximize the payload per launch in order to minimize the costs of each kg launched into orbit; this yields demand for ever larger launchers with larger, more powerful rocket engines. Volvo Aero Corporation in collaboration with Snecma and Astrium has designed and tested a new, upgraded Nozzle extension for the Vulcain 2 engine configuration, denoted Vulcain 2+ NE Demonstrator The manufacturing process for the welding of the sandwich wall and the stiffening structure is developed in close cooperation with FORCE Technology. The upgrade is intended to be available for future development programs for the European Space Agency's (ESA) highly successful commercial launch vehicle, the ARIANE 5. The Vulcain 2+ Nozzle Extension Demonstrator [1] features a novel, thin-sheet laser-welded configuration, with laser metal deposition built-up 3D-features for the mounting of stiffening structure, flanges and for structural strengthening, in order to cope with the extreme load- and thermal conditions, to which the rocket nozzle extension is exposed during launch of the 750 ton ARIANE 5 launcher. Several millimeters of material thickness has been deposited by laser metal deposition without disturbing the intricate flow geometry of the nozzle cooling channels. The laser metal deposition process has been applied on a full-scale rocket nozzle demonstrator, and in excess of 15 kilometers of filler wire has been successfully applied to the rocket nozzle. The laser metal deposition has proven successful in two full-throttle, full-scale tests, firing the rocket engine and nozzle in the ESA test facility P5 by DLR in Lampoldshausen, Germany.

  9. AFM study of excimer laser patterning of block-copolymer: Creation of ordered hierarchical, hybrid, or recessed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Švanda, Jan; Siegel, Jakub; Švorčík, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combination of bottom-up (BCP separation) and top-down (laser patterning) technologies allows obtaining hierarchical structures. • Surface morphologies were determined by the order of patterning steps (laser modification, annealing, surface reconstruction). • Tuning the order of steps enables the reorientation of BCP domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. • The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, plasmonics, information storage, sensors and smart surfaces. - Abstract: We report fabrication of the varied range of hierarchical structures by combining bottom-up self-assembly of block copolymer poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with top-down excimer laser patterning method. Different procedures were tested, where laser treatment was applied before phase separation and after phase separation or phase separation and surface reconstruction. Laser treatment was performed using either polarized laser light with the aim to create periodical pattern on polymer surface or non-polarized light for preferential removing of polystyrene (PS) part from PS-b-P4VP. Additionally, dye was introduced into one part of block copolymer (P4VP) with the aim to modify its response to laser light. Resulting structures were analyzed by XPS, UV–vis and AFM techniques. Application of polarized laser light leads to creation of structures with hierarchical, recessed or hybrid geometries. Non-polarized laser beam allows pronouncing the block copolymer phase separated structure. Tuning the order of steps or individual step conditions enables the efficient reorientation of block-copolymer domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, photonics, plasmonics, information storage, optical devices, sensors and smart surfaces.

  10. Layered surface structure of gas-atomized high Nb-containing TiAl powder and its impact on laser energy absorption for selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. H.; Lin, S. F.; Hou, Y. H.; Wang, D. W.; Zhou, P.; Han, P. L.; Li, Y. L.; Yan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Ti45Al8Nb alloy (in at.%) is designed to be an important high-temperature material. However, its fabrication through laser-based additive manufacturing is difficult to achieve. We present here that a good understanding of the surface structure of raw material (i.e. Ti45Al8Nb powder) is important for optimizing its process by selective laser melting (SLM). Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were conducted to determine the surface structure of Ti45Al8Nb powder. An envelope structure (∼54.0 nm in thickness) was revealed for the powder, consisting of TiO2 + Nb2O5 (as the outer surface layer)/Al2O3 + Nb2O5 (as the intermediate layer)/Al2O3 (as the inner surface layer)/Ti45Al8Nb (as the matrix). During SLM, this layered surface structure interacted with the incident laser beam and improved the laser absorptivity of Ti45Al8Nb powder by ∼32.21%. SLM experiments demonstrate that the relative density of the as-printed parts can be realized to a high degree (∼98.70%), which confirms good laser energy absorption. Such layered surface structure with appropriate phase constitution is essential for promoting SLM of the Ti45Al8Nb alloy.

  11. Dark-field study of rear-side density structure in laser-accelerated foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamper, J.A.; Gold, S.H.; Obenschain, S.P.; McLean, E.A.; Sica, L.

    1981-01-01

    A dark-field, laser-probing diagnostic has produced the first high-resolution photographs of density structure on the rear side of laser-accelerated foils. This diagnostic allows the preferential sampling of the steep-gradient region of an expanding plasma and permits two-dimensional, multiple-time recordings on a single photograph. The studies are aimed at understanding the early-time physics of target implosions for inertial-confinement fusion. Both long (500 psec) and short (150 psec) probe pulses were used to study the rear-side plasmas of thin foils accelerated by the rocket-like reaction to a hot plasma ablated from the front side by the laser radiation. The longer pulse results, both for angular scatter and the life-time of small, transverse structure, imply a relatively cold (1 eV) rear side plasma. The short pulses provide high resolution photographs of the complete structure. One of these was a vortex-like structure, suggestive of the remnants of a hydrodynamic instability. These observations are relevant to two of the basic requirements of inertial-confinement fusion: cold fuel isentrope and implosion symmetry

  12. Laser induced surface structuring of Cu for enhancement of field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Mahreen; Bashir, Shazia; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Shahid Rafique, Muhammad; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq

    2018-02-01

    The effect of Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz) laser induced surface structuring of copper (Cu) for enhancement of field emission (FE) properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was employed to investigate the surface structural and compositional modifications. The surface structuring was explored by scanning electron microscope investigation. FE properties were studied under UHV conditions in a parallel plate configuration of planar un-irradiated Cu anode and laser irradiated Cu cathode. The Fowler-Nordheim plots were drawn to confirm the dominance of FE behavior of the measured I-V characteristics. The obtained values of turn-on field ‘E o’, field enhancement factor ‘β’ and maximum current density ‘J max’ come out to be to be in the range of 5.5-8.5 V μm-1, 1380-2730 and 147-375 μA cm-2 respectively for the Cu samples irradiated at laser irradiance ranging from 13 to 50 GW cm-2. The observed enhancement in the FE properties has been correlated with the growth of various surface structures such as ridged protrusions, cones and pores/tiny holes. The porous morphology is found to be responsible for a significant enhancement in the FE parameters.

  13. Structural characterization of AlN films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekeres, A.; Fogarassy, Zs.; Petrik, P.; Vlaikova, E.; Cziraki, A.; Socol, G.; Ristoscu, C.; Grigorescu, S.; Mihailescu, I.N.

    2011-01-01

    We obtained AlN thin films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from a polycrystalline AlN target using a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (248 nm, 25 ns, intensity of ∼4 x 10 8 W/cm 2 , repetition rate 3 Hz, 10 J/cm 2 laser fluence). The target-Si substrate distance was 5 cm. Films were grown either in vacuum (10 -4 Pa residual pressure) or in nitrogen at a dynamic pressure of 0.1 and 10 Pa, using a total of 20,000 subsequent pulses. The films structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectral ellipsometry (SE). Our TEM and XRD studies showed a strong dependence of the film structure on the nitrogen content in the ambient gas. The films deposited in vacuum exhibited a high quality polycrystalline structure with a hexagonal phase. The crystallite growth proceeds along the c-axis, perpendicular to the substrate surface, resulting in a columnar and strongly textured structure. The films grown at low nitrogen pressure (0.1 Pa) were amorphous as seen by TEM and XRD, but SE data analysis revealed ∼1.7 vol.% crystallites embedded in the amorphous AlN matrix. Increasing the nitrogen pressure to 10 Pa promotes the formation of cubic (≤10 nm) crystallites as seen by TEM but their density was still low to be detected by XRD. SE data analysis confirmed the results obtained from the TEM and XRD observations.

  14. Structural and Optical Properties of Eu Doped ZnO Nanorods prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Alarawi, Abeer

    2014-06-23

    Nano structured wide band gap semiconductors have attracted attention of many researchers due to their potential electronic and optoelectronic applications. In this thesis, we report successful synthesis of well aligned Eu doped ZnO nano-rods prepared, for the first time to our knowledge, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) without any catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns shows that these Eu doped ZnO nanorods are grown along the c-axis of ZnO wurtzite structure. We have studied the effect of the PLD growth conditions on forming vertically aligned Eu doped ZnO nanorods. The structural properties of the material are investigated using a -scanning electron microscope (SEM). The PLD parameters must be carefully controlled in order to obtain c-axis oriented ZnO nanorods on sapphire substrates, without the use of any catalyst. The experiments conducted in order to identify the optimal growth conditions confirmed that, by adjusting the target-substrate distance, substrate temperature, laser energy and deposition duration, the nanorod size could be successfully controlled. Most importantly, the results indicated that the photoluminescence (PL) properties reflect the quality of the ZnO nanorods. These parameters can change the material’s structure from one-dimensional to two-dimensional however the laser energy and frequency affect the size and the height of the nanorods; the xygen pressure changes the density of the nanorods.

  15. Laser spectroscopic and theoretical studies of the structures and encapsulation motifs of functional molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebata, Takayuki; Kusaka, Ryoji [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8526 (Japan); Xantheas, Sotiris S. [Chemical and Materials Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, MS K1-83, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Extensive laser spectroscopic and theoretical studies have been recently carried out with the aim to reveal the structure and dynamics of encapsulation complexes in the gas phase. The characteristics of the encapsulation complexes are governed by the fact that (i) most of the host molecules are flexible and (ii) the complexes form high dimensional structures by using weak non-covalent interactions. These characteristics result in the possibility of the coexistence of many conformers in close energetic proximity. The combination of supersonic jet/laser spectroscopy and high level quantum chemical calculations is essential in tackling these challenging problems. In this report we describe our recent studies on the structures and dynamics of the encapsulation complexes formed by calix[4]arene (C4A), dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether (DB18C6), and benzo-18-crown-6-ether (B18C6) 'hosts' interacting with N{sub 2}, acetylene, water, and ammonia 'guest' molecules. The gaseous host-guest complexes are generated under jet-cooled conditions. We apply various laser spectroscopic methods to obtain the conformer- and isomer-specified electronic and IR spectra. The experimental results are complemented with quantum chemical calculations ranging from density functional theory to high level first principles calculations at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory. We discuss the possible conformations of the bare host molecules, the structural changes they undergo upon complexation, and the key interactions that are responsible in stabilizing the specific complexes.

  16. Fine Structure in Helium-like Fluorine by Fast-Beam Laser Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, E. G.; Thompson, J. K.; Silver, J. D.

    1998-05-01

    With the aim of providing an additional precise test of higher-order corrections to high precision calculations of fine structure in helium and helium-like ions(T. Zhang, Z.-C. Yan and G.W.F. Drake, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 1715 (1996)., a measurement of the 2^3P_2,F - 2^3P_1,F' fine structure in ^19F^7+ is in progress. The method involves doppler-tuned laser spectroscopy using a CO2 laser on a foil-stripped fluorine ion beam. We aim to achieve a higher precision, compared to an earlier measurement(E.G. Myers, P. Kuske, H.J. Andrae, I.A. Armour, H.A. Klein, J.D. Silver, and E. Traebert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47), 87 (1981)., by using laser beams parallel and anti-parallel to the ion beam, to obtain partial cancellation of the doppler shift(J.K. Thompson, D.J.H. Howie and E.G. Myers, Phys. Rev. A 57), 180 (1998).. A calculation of the hyperfine structure, allowing for relativistic, QED and nuclear size effects, will be required to obtain the ``hyperfine-free'' fine structure interval from the measurements.

  17. One-step fabrication of superhydrophobic hierarchical structures by femtosecond laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukosuyev, Maxym V.; Lee, Jason; Cho, Seong Jin; Lim, Geunbae; Jun, Martin B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface patterns by femtosecond laser ablation in open air. • Micron scale ridge-like structure with superimposed submicron convex features. • Hydrophobic or even superhydrophobic behavior with no additional silanization. - Abstract: Hydrophobic surface properties are sought after in many areas of research, engineering, and consumer product development. Traditionally, hydrophobic surfaces are produced by using various types of coatings. However, introduction of foreign material onto the surface is often undesirable as it changes surface chemistry and cannot provide a long lasting solution (i.e. reapplication is needed). Therefore, surface modification by transforming the base material itself can be preferable in many applications. Femtosecond laser ablation is one of the methods that can be used to create structures on the surface that will exhibit hydrophobic behavior. The goal of the presented research was to create micro and nano-scale patterns that will exhibit hydrophobic properties with no additional post treatment. As a result, dual scale patterned structures were created on the surface of steel aluminum and tungsten carbide samples. Ablation was performed in the open air with no subsequent treatment. Resultant surfaces appeared to be strongly hydrophobic or even superhydrophobic with contact angle values of 140° and higher. In conclusion, the nature of surface hydrophobicity proved to be highly dependent on surface morphology as the base materials used are intrinsically hydrophilic. It was also proven that the hydrophobicity inducing structures could be manufactured using femtosecond laser machining in a single step with no subsequent post treatment

  18. One-step fabrication of superhydrophobic hierarchical structures by femtosecond laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukosuyev, Maxym V.; Lee, Jason [Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria (Canada); Cho, Seong Jin; Lim, Geunbae [Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Martin B.G., E-mail: mbgjun@uvic.ca [Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface patterns by femtosecond laser ablation in open air. • Micron scale ridge-like structure with superimposed submicron convex features. • Hydrophobic or even superhydrophobic behavior with no additional silanization. - Abstract: Hydrophobic surface properties are sought after in many areas of research, engineering, and consumer product development. Traditionally, hydrophobic surfaces are produced by using various types of coatings. However, introduction of foreign material onto the surface is often undesirable as it changes surface chemistry and cannot provide a long lasting solution (i.e. reapplication is needed). Therefore, surface modification by transforming the base material itself can be preferable in many applications. Femtosecond laser ablation is one of the methods that can be used to create structures on the surface that will exhibit hydrophobic behavior. The goal of the presented research was to create micro and nano-scale patterns that will exhibit hydrophobic properties with no additional post treatment. As a result, dual scale patterned structures were created on the surface of steel aluminum and tungsten carbide samples. Ablation was performed in the open air with no subsequent treatment. Resultant surfaces appeared to be strongly hydrophobic or even superhydrophobic with contact angle values of 140° and higher. In conclusion, the nature of surface hydrophobicity proved to be highly dependent on surface morphology as the base materials used are intrinsically hydrophilic. It was also proven that the hydrophobicity inducing structures could be manufactured using femtosecond laser machining in a single step with no subsequent post treatment.

  19. Investigation of the hyperfine structure of Praseodymium-transitions using laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim Khan

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of the electron levels in an atom is one of the prerequisite for understanding the electron-electron and electron-nucleus interactions inside an atom and for the classification of the atomic spectrum of an element. The spin-orbit interaction is the largest relativistic effect and is responsible for the fine structure splitting in an atom. The hyperfine structure splitting of the fine structure atomic energy levels arise as a result of the interaction between spinning and orbiting electrons and electromagnetic multipole nuclear moments. The electronic ground state configuration of praseodymium 59 Pr 141 is [Xe] 4f 3 6s 2 , with ground state level 4 I 9/2 . Because of its 5 outer electrons Praseodymium has a high density of energy levels which give rise to an extremely line rich emission spectrum. Due to this fact praseodymium serves as an efficient testing ground for hyperfine structure studies. The thesis is mainly devoted to the finding of previously unknown energy levels by the investigation of spectral lines and their hyperfine structures. In a hollow cathode discharge lamp praseodymium atoms and ions in ground and excited states are excited to high lying states by laser light. The excitation source is a tunable ring-dye laser system, operated with Stilbene 3, Rhodamine 6G, Kiton Red, DCM and LD 700. A high resolution Fourier Transform spectrum is used for extracting excitation wavelengths. Then the laser wavelength is tuned to a strong hyperfine component of the spectral line to be investigated, and a search for fluorescence from excited levels is performed. From the observed hyperfine structure pattern, J-values and hyperfine interaction constants A of the combining levels are determined. This information, together with excitation and fluorescence wavelengths, allows us to find the energies of the involved levels. During the course of this dissertation 313 new energy levels of Pr I and 4 new energy levels of Pr II were discovered

  20. Structure of potassium isotopes studied with collinear laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082445

    By exploring the structure of different nuclei, one can learn about the interaction between the nucleons, their building blocks. In this field of research, there is a strong interplay between experiment and theory. In particular, theory has a crucial role in the interpretation of the experimental results, while new experimental results provide testing ground and directions for theorists. In the light- and mid-mass regions of the nuclear chart, the shell model is very successful and widely used for calculations of the ground- as well as excited- states properties. It is based on associated larger energy gaps between single particle energy levels for isotopes with certain proton (Z) and neutron (N) numbers, which are called "magic numbers". It was believed that these numbers (8, 20, 28, ...) are preserved for all nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. However, during the last decades studies of the isotopes with an unbalanced number of protons and neutrons revealed that in these isotopes the shell gaps could chan...

  1. Multi-image mosaic with SIFT and vision measurement for microscale structures processed by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Bin; Tu, Paul; Wu, Chen; Chen, Lei; Feng, Ding

    2018-01-01

    In femtosecond laser processing, the field of view of each image frame of the microscale structure is extremely small. In order to obtain the morphology of the whole microstructure, a multi-image mosaic with partially overlapped regions is required. In the present work, the SIFT algorithm for mosaic images was analyzed theoretically, and by using multiple images of a microgroove structure processed by femtosecond laser, a stitched image of the whole groove structure could be studied experimentally and realized. The object of our research concerned a silicon wafer with a microgroove structure ablated by femtosecond laser. First, we obtained microgrooves at a width of 380 μm at different depths. Second, based on the gray image of the microgroove, a multi-image mosaic with slot width and slot depth was realized. In order to improve the image contrast between the target and the background, and taking the slot depth image as an example, a multi-image mosaic was then realized using pseudo color enhancement. Third, in order to measure the structural size of the microgroove with the image, a known width streak ablated by femtosecond laser at 20 mW was used as a calibration sample. Through edge detection, corner extraction, and image correction for the streak images, we calculated the pixel width of the streak image and found the measurement ratio constant Kw in the width direction, and then obtained the proportional relationship between a pixel and a micrometer. Finally, circular spot marks ablated by femtosecond laser at 2 mW and 15 mW were used as test images, and proving that the value Kw was correct, the measurement ratio constant Kh in the height direction was obtained, and the image measurements for a microgroove of 380 × 117 μm was realized based on a measurement ratio constant Kw and Kh. The research and experimental results show that the image mosaic, image calibration, and geometric image parameter measurements for the microstructural image ablated by

  2. Scattering properties of ultrafast laser-induced refractive index shaping lenticular structures in hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Kaitlin T.; Germer, Thomas A.; Butler, Sam C.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Huxlin, Krystel R.; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2018-02-01

    We present measurements of light scatter induced by a new ultrafast laser technique being developed for laser refractive correction in transparent ophthalmic materials such as cornea, contact lenses, and/or intraocular lenses. In this new technique, called intra-tissue refractive index shaping (IRIS), a 405 nm femtosecond laser is focused and scanned below the corneal surface, inducing a spatially-varying refractive index change that corrects vision errors. In contrast with traditional laser correction techniques, such as laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), IRIS does not operate via photoablation, but rather changes the refractive index of transparent materials such as cornea and hydrogels. A concern with any laser eye correction technique is additional scatter induced by the process, which can adversely affect vision, especially at night. The goal of this investigation is to identify sources of scatter induced by IRIS and to mitigate possible effects on visual performance in ophthalmic applications. Preliminary light scattering measurements on patterns written into hydrogel showed four sources of scatter, differentiated by distinct behaviors: (1) scattering from scanned lines; (2) scattering from stitching errors, resulting from adjacent scanning fields not being aligned to one another; (3) diffraction from Fresnel zone discontinuities; and (4) long-period variations in the scans that created distinct diffraction peaks, likely due to inconsistent line spacing in the writing instrument. By knowing the nature of these different scattering errors, it will now be possible to modify and optimize the design of IRIS structures to mitigate potential deficits in visual performance in human clinical trials.

  3. Focused-ion-beam nano-structured rib channel waveguides in KY(WO4)2 for laser applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardillou, F.; Romanyuk, Y.E.; Pavius, M.; Borca, C.N.; Salathé, R.P.; Pollnau, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Bulk $KY(WO_4)_2$ (hereafter KYW) laser crystals doped with rare-earth ions are recognized to be among the most promising host materials for obtaining novel solid-state lasers. The rare-earth ions $RE^{3+}$ are easily incorporated in the KYW structure by replacing the $Y{3+}$ ions, resulting in a

  4. The effect of laser irradiation on electrical and structural properties of ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kameli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, ZnO thin film was prepared by sol-gel process on glass substrates. The deposited films were dried at 100 and 240 ˚C and then annealed at 300, 400 and 500 ˚C. The two-probe measurement showed that resistance of as-prepared films is very high. The KrF excimer (λ=248 nm laser irradiation with 1000 pulses, frequency of 1 Hz and 90 mJ/cm2 energy on surface of film resulted in the reduction of the films electrical resistance. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns confirmed the improved hexagonal wurtzite structure of film, and AFM and FE-SEM analyses showed regular and spherical grain was formed on the surface. The particle size was increased from ~10 to ~30 nm after leaser irradiation. Generally, it was showed that electrical, structural and morphological properties of films improve considerably by laser irradiation.

  5. Structural Integration of Sensors/Actuators by Laser Beam Melting for Tailored Smart Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töppel, Thomas; Lausch, Holger; Brand, Michael; Hensel, Eric; Arnold, Michael; Rotsch, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Laser beam melting (LBM), an additive laser powder bed fusion technology, enables the structural integration of temperature-sensitive sensors and actuators in complex monolithic metallic structures. The objective is to embed a functional component inside a metal part without losing its functionality by overheating. The first part of this paper addresses the development of a new process chain for bonded embedding of temperature-sensitive sensor/actuator systems by LBM. These systems are modularly built and coated by a multi-material/multi-layer thermal protection system of ceramic and metallic compounds. The characteristic of low global heat input in LBM is utilized for the functional embedding. In the second part, the specific functional design and optimization for tailored smart components with embedded functionalities are addressed. Numerical and experimental validated results are demonstrated on a smart femoral hip stem.

  6. Production of photofission fragments and study of their nuclear structure by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangrskij, Yu.P.; Zemlyanoj, S.G.; Karaivanov, D.V.; Marinova, K.P.; Markov, B.N.; Mel'nikova, L.M.; Myshinskij, G.V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Zhemenik, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The prospective nuclear structure investigations of the fission fragments by resonance laser spectroscopy methods are discussed. Research in this field is currently being carried out as part of the DRIBs project, which is under development at the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR. The fission fragments under study are mainly very neutron-rich nuclei near the proton (Z=50) and neutron (N=50 and 82) closed shells, nuclei in the region of strong deformation (N>60 and N>90) and nuclei with high-spin isomeric states. Resonance laser spectroscopy is used successfully in the study of the structure of such nuclei. It allows one to determine a number of nuclear parameters (mean-square charge radius, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments) and to make conclusions about the collective and single particle properties of the nuclei

  7. Hidden corrosion detection in aircraft aluminum structures using laser ultrasonics and wavelet transform signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M Z; Gouyon, R; Lepoutre, F

    2003-06-01

    Preliminary results of hidden corrosion detection in aircraft aluminum structures using a noncontact laser based ultrasonic technique are presented. A short laser pulse focused to a line spot is used as a broadband source of ultrasonic guided waves in an aluminum 2024 sample cut from an aircraft structure and prepared with artificially corroded circular areas on its back surface. The out of plane surface displacements produced by the propagating ultrasonic waves were detected with a heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Time-frequency analysis of the signals using a continuous wavelet transform allowed the identification of the generated Lamb modes by comparison with the calculated dispersion curves. The presence of back surface corrosion was detected by noting the loss of the S(1) mode near its cutoff frequency. This method is applicable to fast scanning inspection techniques and it is particularly suited for early corrosion detection.

  8. Finding the displacement of wood structure in heritage building by 3D laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Wang, R. Z.; Lin, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    Heritage buildings are highly prone to long term damage from the microclimate, scourge and vandalism, which can result in damaged materials, structures, painting and cultural heritage items. This study will focus on finding the displacement of wood structural members through the use of a 3D laser scanner and the 4D concept of time. The results will compare the scans from different periods to find the difference (if any) in the structural member position. Wood structures usually consist of numerous wood members connected to form the structure. However, these members can be damaged in various ways such as physical mechanisms, chemical reactions, and biological corrosion. When damage to the wood structure occurs, the structural displacement can be affected, and if affected severely, can lead to a building collapse. Monitoring of the structural displacement is the best way to discover damage immediately and to preserve the heritage building. However, the Cultural Heritage Preservation Law in Taiwan prohibits the installation of monitoring instruments (e.g strain gauge, accelerometer) in historic structures (heritage buildings). Scanning the wood structure with 3D lasers is the most non-intrusive method and quickly achieves displacement through visualization. The displacement scan results can be compared with different periods and different members to analyze the severity of damage. Once the 3D scanner is installed, the whole building is scanned, and point clouds created to build the visual building model. The structural displacement can be checked via the building model and the differences are measured between each member to find the high risk damaged areas or members with large displacement. Early detection of structural damage is the most effective way means of preservation.

  9. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolamo, D.; Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies

  10. 980 nm tapered lasers with photonic crystal structure for low vertical divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong; Qu, Hongwei; Zhao, Pengchao; Liu, Yun; Zheng, Wanhua

    2016-10-01

    High power tapered lasers with nearly diffraction-limited beam quality have attracted much attention in numerous applications such as nonlinear frequency conversion, optical pumping of solid-state and fiber lasers, medical treatment and others. However, the large vertical divergence of conventional tapered lasers is a disadvantage, which makes beam shaping difficult and expensive in applications. Diode lasers with photonic crystal structure can achieve a large mode size and a narrow vertical divergence. In this paper, we present tapered lasers with photonic crystal structure emitting at 980 nm. The epitaxial layer is grown using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The device has a total cavity length of 2 mm, which consists of a 400-um long ridge-waveguide section and a 1600-um long tapered section. The taper angle is 4°. An output power of 3.3 W is achieved with a peak conversion efficiency of 35% in pulsed mode. The threshold current is 240 mA and the slope efficiency is 0.78 W/A. In continuous wave mode, the output power is 2.87 W, which is limited by a suddenly failure resulting from catastrophic optical mirror damage. The far field divergences with full width at half maximum are 12.3° in the vertical direction and 2.9° in the lateral direction at 0.5 A. At high injection level the vertical divergence doesn't exceed 16°. Beam quality factor M2 is measured based on second moment definition in CW mode. High beam quality is demonstrated by M2 value of less than 2 in both vertical and lateral directions.

  11. Synthesis of nano-structured materials by laser-ablation and their application to sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Suehiro, J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of nano-structured materials of ZnO and Pd by laser ablation and their applications to sensors. The synthesis of ZnO nano-wires was performed by nano-particle assisted deposition (NPAD) where nano-crystals were grown with nano-particles generated by laser-ablating a ZnO sintered target in an Ar background gas. The synthesized ZnO nano-wires were characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and the photoluminescent characteristics were examined under an excitation with the third harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. The nano-wires with a diameter in the range from 50 to 150 nm and a length of up to 5 μm were taken out of the substrate by laser blow-off technique and/or sonication. It was confirmed that the nano-wires showed the stimulated emission under optical pumping, indicating a high quality of the crystalinity. Pd nano-particles were generated by laser-ablating a Pd plate in pure water. The transmission electron microscope observation revealed that Pd nano-particles with a diameter in the range from 3 nm to several tens of nanometers were produced. Using these nano-structured materials, we successfully fabricated sensors by the dielectrophoresis techniques. In the case of the ultraviolet photosensor, a detection sensitivity of 10 nW/cm 2 was achieved and in the case of hydrogen sensing, the response time of less than 10 s has been demonstrated with Pd nano-particles

  12. Spatial beam shaping using a micro-structured optical fiber and all-fiber laser amplification system for large-scale laser facilities seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Spatial beam shaping is an important topic for the lasers applications. For various industrial areas (marking, drilling, laser-matter interaction, high-power laser seeding...) the optical beam has to be flattened. Currently, the state of the art of the beam shaping: 'free-space' solutions or highly multimode fibers, are not fully suitable. The first ones are very sensitive to any perturbations and the maintenance is challenging, the second ones cannot deliver a coherent beam. For this reason, we present in this manuscript a micro-structured optical single-mode fiber delivering a spatially flattened beam. This 'Top-Hat' fiber can shape any beam in a spatially coherent beam what is a progress with respect to the highly multimode fibers used in the state of the art. The optical fibers are easy to use and very robust, what is a strong benefit with respect to the 'free-space' solutions. Thanks to this fiber, we could realize an all-fiber multi-stage laser chain to amplify a 10 ns pulse to 100 μJ. Moreover the temporal, spectral and spatial properties were preserved. We adapted this 'Top-Hat' fiber to this multi-stage laser chain, we proved the capability and the interest of this fiber for the spatial beam shaping of the laser beams in highly performing and robust laser systems. (author) [fr

  13. Both antireflection and superhydrophobicity structures achieved by direct laser interference nanomanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn; Maple, Carsten [JR3CN and CNM, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Ziang [JR3CN and CNM, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, 130022 (China); Yue, Yong [JR3CN and CNM, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); DCSSE, Xi' an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi [JR3CN and IRAC, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 3JU (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-21

    Inspired by nature, a number of techniques have been developed to fabricate the bionic structures of lotus leaves and moth eyes in order to realize the extraordinary functions of self-cleaning and antireflection. Compared with the existing technologies, we present a straightforward method to fabricate well-defined micro and nano artificial bio-structures in this work. The proposed method of direct laser interference nanomanufacturing (DLIN) takes a significant advantage of high efficiency as only a single technological procedure is needed without pretreatment, mask, and pattern transfer processes. Meanwhile, the corresponding structures show both antireflection and superhydrophobicity properties simultaneously. The developed four-beam nanosecond laser interference system configuring the TE-TE-TE-TE and TE-TE-TE-TM polarization modes was set up to generate periodic micro cone and hole structures with a huge number of nano features on the surface. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the periodic microcone structure exhibits excellent properties with both a high contact angle (CA = 156.3°) and low omnidirectional reflectance (5.9–15.4%). Thus, DLIN is a novel and promising method suitable for mass production of self-cleaning and antireflection surface structures.

  14. Femtosecond-laser fabrication of cyclic structures in the bulk of transparent dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartapetov, S K; Ganin, D V; Lapshin, K E; Obidin, A Z [Physics Instrumentation Center, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    We report the results of the experiments on developing precision micromachining technology, obtained under the conditions of focusing the pulses of a femtosecond (FS) laser into the volume of a transparent material, which is important, particularly, in the processing of biomaterials in ophthalmology. The implementation conditions and some characteristic features of the special regime of micromachining are determined, when at a definite relation between the sample scanning velocity and the repetition rate of FS pulses the region, destroyed by the laser radiation, is shifted along the optical axis towards the objective and back, forming cyclic patterns inside the sample. It is supposed that the main causes of the damage region shift are the induced modification of the refractive index and the reduction of the damage threshold due to the change in the material density and structure in the microscopic domain, adjacent to the boundary of the cavity produced by the previous pulse. The results of the performed study with the above regime taken into account were used in the technology of precision cutting of crystals, glasses and polymers. The best quality of the cut surface is achieved under the conditions, eliminating the appearance of the cyclic regime. In the samples of polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate and fused silica the cylindrical cavities were obtained with the aspect ratio higher than 200, directed along the laser beam, and microcapillaries with the diameter 1 – 2 μm in the direction, perpendicular to this beam. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  15. Periodic structures on germanium induced by high repetition rate femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yanbin; Xie, Changxin; Liu, Kaijun; Zhou, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are studied on germanium surface in air by the femtosecond pulsed laser with repetition frequency of 76 MHz and wavelength λ of 800 nm. Three types of LIPSS were found and they are low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL), high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL), and LSFL superimposed with HSFL. The period ΛLSFL of LSFL shrinks quickly from approximately 650 nm to 400 nm (∼λ/2) when lowering the scanning speed. Comparatively, the period ΛHSFL of HSFL keeps almost constant between 90 and 100 nm (∼λ/8) when the scanning speed and the laser pulse energy vary. LSFL and HSFL coexist when the laser pulse energy is around 3.3 nJ/pulse and the scanning speed ranges between 3 and 8 mm/s. The surface plasmon polariton waves make a contribution to the formation of LIPSS and the fourth harmonic generation (FHG) might be involved in the formation of HSFL.

  16. Surface modification induced by UV nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser structuring on biometals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, M. Paula; López, Ana J.; Ramil, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Laser surface texturing is a promising tool for improving metallic biomaterials performance in dental and orthopedic bone-replacing applications. Laser ablation modifies the topography of bulk material and might alter surface properties that govern the interactions with the surrounding tissue. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of surface modifications in two biometals, stainless steel 316L and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by UV nanosecond Nd:YVO4. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface textured by parallel micro-grooves reveals a thin layer of remelted material along the grooves topography. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction allowed us to appreciate a grain refinement of original crystal structure and consequently induced residual strain. Changes in the surface chemistry were determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; in this sense, generalized surface oxidation was observed and characterization of the oxides and other compounds such hydroxyl groups was reported. In case of titanium alloy, oxide layer mainly composed by TiO2 which is a highly biocompatible compound was identified. Furthermore, laser treatment produces an increase in oxide thickness that could improve the corrosion behavior of the metal. Otherwise, laser treatment led to the formation of secondary phases which might be detrimental to physical and biocompatibility properties of the material.

  17. Structural and morphological transformations of TiO2 nanotube arrays induced by excimer laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ming-Yi; Thang, Nguyen Van; Wang Chih; Leu Jihperng

    2012-01-01

    The structural and morphological transformations of TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) were investigated as a function of the laser fluence using parallel and tilted modes. Results showed that the crystallinity of the ELA-treated TNAs reached only about 50% relative to that of TNAs treated by furnace anneal at 400 °C for 1 h. The phase transformation starts from the top surface of the TNAs with surface damage resulting from short penetration depth and limited one-dimensional heat transport from the surface to the bottom under extremely short pulse duration (25 ns) of the excimer laser. When a tilted mode was used, the crystallinity of TNAs treated by ELA at 85° was increased to 90% relative to that by the furnace anneal. This can be attributed to the increased area of the laser energy interaction zone and better heat conduction to both ends of the TNAs. - Highlights: ► We examined the morphology and microstructure of TNAs treated by ELA. ► Crystallinity of parallel ELA-treated TNAs reached ∼50% of furnace anneal. ► Tilted ELA at 85o enhanced the degree of crystallization in TNAs to 90%.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of High Power InGaN Blue-Violet Lasers with an Array Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Ji; Shu-Ming, Zhang; De-Sheng, Jiang; Zong-Shun, Liu; Li-Qun, Zhang; Jian-Jun, Zhu; De-Gang, Zhao; Li-Hong, Duan; Hui, Yang

    2010-01-01

    InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with an array structure are successfully fabricated on sapphire substrates. The laser diode consists of four emitter stripes which share common electrodes on one laser chip. An 800-μm-long cavity is formed by cleaving the substrate along the (1100) orientation using laser scriber. The threshold current and voltage of the laser array diode are 2 A and 10.5 V, respectively. A light output peak power of 12 W under pulsed current injection at room temperature is achieved. We simulate the electric properties of GaN based laser diode in a co-planar structure and the results show that minimizing the difference of distances between the different ridges and the n-electrode and increasing the electrical conductivity of the n-type GaN are two effective ways to improve the uniformity of carrier distribution in emitter stripes. Two pairs of emitters on a chip are arranged to be located near the two n-electrode pads on the left and right sides, and the four stripe emitters can laser together. The laser diode shows two sharp peaks of light output at 408 and 409 nm above the threshold current. The full widths at half maximum for the parallel and perpendicular far field patterns are 8 o and 32 o , respectively

  19. Hybrid vertical-cavity laser with lateral emission into a silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Xue, Weiqi; Taghizadeh, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    into the waveguide integrated with the laser. This laser has the advantages of long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, such as low threshold and high side-mode suppression ratio, while allowing integration with silicon photonic circuits, and is fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. It has......We experimentally demonstrate an optically-pumped III-V/Si vertical-cavity laser with lateral emission into a silicon waveguide. This on-chip hybrid laser comprises a distributed Bragg reflector, a III-V active layer, and a high-contrast grating reflector, which simultaneously funnels light...

  20. First-principles assessment of potential ultrafast laser-induced structural transition in Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bévillon, E.; Colombier, J.P., E-mail: jean.philippe.colombier@univ-st-etienne.fr; Stoian, R.

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • First-principles theory calculations in nonequilibrium conditions. • Electronic temperatures fully and consistently taken into account. • Evaluation of an ultrafast laser-induced solid-to-solid transition in Ni. • Relative energies, phonon spectra and energy path are evaluated. • Discussion on the generation of non-thermal forces in metals. - Abstract: The possibility to trigger ultrafast solid-to-solid transitions in transition metals under femtosecond laser irradiation is investigated by means of first-principles calculations. Electronic heating can drastically modify screening, charge distribution and atomic binding features, potentially determining new structural relaxation paths in the solid phase, before thermodynamic solid-to-liquid transformations set in. Consequently, we evaluate here the effect of electronic excitation on structural stability and conditions for structural transitions. Ni is chosen as a case study for the probability of a solid transition, and the stability of its FCC phase is compared to the non-standard HCP structure while accounting for the heating of the electronic subsystem. From a phonon spectra analysis, we show that the thermodynamic stability order reverses at an electronic temperature of around 10{sup 4} K. Both structures exhibit a dynamic stability, indicating they present a metastability depending on the heating. However, the general hardening of phonon modes with the increase of the electronic temperature points out that no transformation will occur, as confirmed by the study of a typical FCC to HCP diffusionless transformation path, showing an increasing energy barrier. Finally, based on electronic density of states interpretation, the tendency of different metal categories to undergo or not an ultrafast laser-induced structural transition is discussed.

  1. Strength analysis and modeling of cellular lattice structures manufactured using selective laser melting for tooling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is rapidly developing and gaining popularity for direct metal fabrication systems like selective laser melting (SLM). The technology has shown significant improvement for high-quality fabrication of lightweight design-efficient structures such as conformal cooling channels...... in injection molding tools and lattice structures. This research examines the effect of cellular lattice structures on the strength of workpieces additively manufactured from ultra high-strength steel powder. Two commercial SLM machines are used to fabricate cellular samples based on four architectures— solid......, hollow, lattice structure and rotated lattice structure. Compression test is applied to the specimens while they are deformed. The analytical approach includes finite element (FE), geometrical and mathematical models for prediction of collapse strength. The results from the the models are verified...

  2. Polarized Raman study on the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yang; Yao, Yingbang; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2014-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films on different substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Interestingly, the Raman spectra of BiFeO3 films exhibit distinct polarization dependences

  3. Parametric study of self-forming ZnO Nanowall network with honeycomb structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    El Zein, B.; Boulfrad, Samir; Jabbour, Ghassan E.; Doghè che, Elhadj Hadj

    2014-01-01

    The successful synthesis of catalyst free zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanowall networks with honeycomb like structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is demonstrated in this paper. The synthesis was conducted directly on Silicon (Si) (1 0 0) and Glass

  4. Tuning by means of laser annealing of electronic and structural properties of nc-Si/a-Si:H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliani, E.; Somaschini, C.; Sanguinetti, S.; Grilli, E.; Guzzi, M.; Le Donne, A.; Binetti, S.; Pizzini, S.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G.

    2009-01-01

    We report the effect of laser annealing on the structural and electronic properties of nc-Si/a-Si:H samples grown close to the amorphous to nanocrystalline transition. The nc-Si/a-Si:H thin films were produced by low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition through a gas discharge containing SiH 4 . The samples were subjected to different laser fluencies and were characterized for changes in their structural and electronic properties via Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The laser annealing effects are twofold: i) the nanocrystalline phase grows, during the laser treatment, respect to the amorphous phase; ii) the photoluminescence spectra show the suppression, after laser annealing, of the frequencies above the crystalline Si band-gap.

  5. Sensing signatures mediated by chemical structure of molecular solids in laser-induced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jorge; Moros, Javier; Laserna, J Javier

    2015-03-03

    Laser ablation of organic compounds has been investigated for almost 30 years now, either in the framework of pulse laser deposition for the assembling of new materials or in the context of chemical sensing. Various monitoring techniques such as atomic and molecular fluorescence, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and optical emission spectroscopy have been used for plasma diagnostics in an attempt to understand the spectral signature and potential origin of gas-phase ions and fragments from organic plasmas. Photochemical and photophysical processes occurring within these systems are generally much more complex than those suggested by observation of optical emission features. Together with laser ablation parameters, the structural and chemical-physical properties of molecules seem to be closely tied to the observed phenomena. The present manuscript, for the first time, discusses the role of molecular structure in the optical emission of organic plasmas. Factors altering the electronic distribution within the organic molecule have been found to have a direct impact on its ensuing optical emissions. The electron structure of an organic molecule, resulting from the presence, nature, and position of its atoms, governs the breakage of the molecule and, as a result, determines the extent of atomization and fragmentation that has proved to directly impact the emissions of CN radicals and C2 dimers. Particular properties of the molecule respond more positively depending on the laser irradiation wavelength, thereby redirecting the ablation process through photochemical or photothermal decomposition pathways. It is of paramount significance for chemical identification purposes how, despite the large energy stored and dissipated by the plasma and the considerable number of transient species formed, the emissions observed never lose sight of the original molecule.

  6. Determining the Velocity Fine Structure by a Laser Anemometer in VAD operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, Peter; Mikkelsen, Torben

    . Then it is necessary to “create” a mean wind by turning the laser beam. Since the instrument is not moved the beam will describe a cone which could be a VAD-scanning. In any case the measured velocity components will not be parallel and this implies that the measured structure function will contain a term which...... is proportional to the total variance. The theoretical expression for the line-filtered structure function is derived in two equivalent ways, one in physical space and one in wave-number space, of which the last can be reliably evaluated by numerical integration. Also a practical approximate equation, derived...

  7. Multifunctional Material Structures Based on Laser-Etched Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Emplit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-power electronics in the transportation and aerospace sectors need size and weight reduction. Multifunctional and multistructured materials are currently being developed to couple electromagnetic (EM and thermal properties, i.e., shielding against electromagnetic impulsions, and thermal management across the thermal interface material (TIM. In this work, we investigate laser-machined patterned carbon nanotube (CNT micro-brushes as an alternative to metallic structures for driving simultaneously EM and heat propagation. The thermal and electromagnetic response of the CNT array is expected to be sensitive to the micro-structured pattern etched in the CNT brush.

  8. Modeling and experimental verification of laser self-mixing interference phenomenon with the structure of two-external-cavity feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Liu, Yuwei; Gao, Bingkun; Jiang, Chunlei

    2018-03-01

    A semiconductor laser employed with two-external-cavity feedback structure for laser self-mixing interference (SMI) phenomenon is investigated and analyzed. The SMI model with two directions based on F-P cavity is deduced, and numerical simulation and experimental verification were conducted. Experimental results show that the SMI with the structure of two-external-cavity feedback under weak light feedback is similar to the sum of two SMIs.

  9. Theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures including the effects of self-phase modulation, dispersion and pulse collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, R.G.M.P.; Roijen, van R.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures using a semiconductor laser amplifier and absorber. The mode-locking system is described in terms of the different elements in the semiconductor laser structure. We derive mode-locking conditions and show how other

  10. Influence of crystal orientation on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures and lattice defects accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedao, Xxx; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Pigeon, Florent [Université de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université de Saint Etienne, Jean Monnet, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Maurice, Claire; Quey, Romain [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, CNRS, UMR5307, Laboratoire Georges Friedel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2014-04-28

    The influence of crystal orientation on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) has been investigated on a polycrystalline nickel sample. Electron Backscatter Diffraction characterization has been exploited to provide structural information within the laser spot on irradiated samples to determine the dependence of LIPSS formation and lattice defects (stacking faults, twins, dislocations) upon the crystal orientation. Significant differences are observed at low-to-medium number of laser pulses, outstandingly for (111)-oriented surface which favors lattice defects formation rather than LIPSS formation.

  11. In situ investigation of formation of self-assembled nanodomain structure in lithium niobate after pulse laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Yakunina, E. M.; Lobov, A. I.; Ievlev, A. V. [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University, Lenin Ave. 51, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-22

    The evolution of the self-assembled quasi-regular micro- and nanodomain structures after pulse infrared laser irradiation was studied by in situ optical observation. The average periods of the structures are much less than the sizes of the laser spots. The polarization reversal occurs through covering of the whole irradiated area by the nets of the spatially separated nanodomain chains and microdomain rays--''hatching effect.'' The main stages of the anisotropic nanodomain kinetics: nucleation, growth, and branching, have been singled out. The observed abnormal domain kinetics was attributed to the action of the pyroelectric field arising during cooling after laser heating.

  12. Tribological performance of sub-100-nm femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Höhm, S. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large areas covered with sub-100 nm LIPSS (HSFL) were manufactured by fs-laser irradiation on titanium surfaces. • Tribological performance of HSFL covered areas was qualified in reciprocal sliding tests in two different lubricating oils. • HSFL on titanium do not endure the tribological tests. • For a beneficial tribological performance, the tribological sample deformation must be smaller than the LIPSS modulation depth. - Abstract: Sub-100-nm laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on bulk titanium (Ti) surfaces by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation in air (30 fs pulse duration, 790 nm wavelength). The laser peak fluence, the spatial spot overlap, and the number of overscans were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry in order to obtain large surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm) covered homogeneously by the LIPSS. The laser-processed regions were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The friction coefficient of the nanostructured surfaces was tested during 1000 cycles under reciprocal sliding conditions (1 Hz, 1.0 N normal load) against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel, both in paraffin oil and in engine oil used as lubricants. Subsequently, the corresponding wear tracks were qualified by OM, SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tribological tests are discussed and compared to that obtained for near wavelength-sized fs-LIPSS, processed under somewhat different irradiation conditions. Some constraints for a beneficial effect of LIPSS on the tribological performance are provided.

  13. Structure and properties of optical-discharge plasma in CO2-laser beam near target surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danshchikov, Ye. V.; Dymshakov, V. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Ryazanov, A. V.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental study of optical-discharge plasma in a CO2-laser beam at a target surface was made for the purpose of exploring the not yet understood role of this plasma in the laser-target interaction process. Such a plasma was produced by means of a quasi-continuous CO2-laser with an unstable resonator, its power being maintained constant for 1 ms periods. Its radiation was focused on the surfaces of thick and seeding thin Al, Ti, and Ta targets inclined at an approximately 70 deg. angle to the beam, inside a hermetic chamber containing air, argon, or helium under atmospheric pressure. The radiation intensity distribution over the focal plane and the nearest caustic surface in the laser beam was measured along with the plasma parameters, the latter by the methods of spectral analysis and photoelectric recording. The instrumentation for this purpose included an MDR-3 monochromator with an entrance slit, a double electron-optical converter, a memory oscillograph, and an SI-10-30 ribbon lamp as radiation reference standard. The results yielded integral diametral intensity distributions of the emission lines Ti-II (457.2 nm), Ti-I (464 nm), Ar-II (462 nm), radial and axial temperature profiles of optical discharge in metal vapor in surrounding gas, and the radial temperature profile of irradiated metal surface at successive instants of time. The results reveal marked differences between the structures and the properties of optical-discharge plasma in metal vapor and in surrounding gas, optical discharge in the former being characterized by localization within the laser beam and optical discharge in the latter being characterized by a drift away from the target.

  14. Tribological performance of sub-100-nm femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, J.; Höhm, S.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large areas covered with sub-100 nm LIPSS (HSFL) were manufactured by fs-laser irradiation on titanium surfaces. • Tribological performance of HSFL covered areas was qualified in reciprocal sliding tests in two different lubricating oils. • HSFL on titanium do not endure the tribological tests. • For a beneficial tribological performance, the tribological sample deformation must be smaller than the LIPSS modulation depth. - Abstract: Sub-100-nm laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on bulk titanium (Ti) surfaces by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation in air (30 fs pulse duration, 790 nm wavelength). The laser peak fluence, the spatial spot overlap, and the number of overscans were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry in order to obtain large surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm) covered homogeneously by the LIPSS. The laser-processed regions were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The friction coefficient of the nanostructured surfaces was tested during 1000 cycles under reciprocal sliding conditions (1 Hz, 1.0 N normal load) against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel, both in paraffin oil and in engine oil used as lubricants. Subsequently, the corresponding wear tracks were qualified by OM, SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tribological tests are discussed and compared to that obtained for near wavelength-sized fs-LIPSS, processed under somewhat different irradiation conditions. Some constraints for a beneficial effect of LIPSS on the tribological performance are provided.

  15. Electronic and structural response of nanomaterials to ultrafast and ultraintense laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Zhibin; Xie, Rui-Hua; Li, Fu-Li; Allen, Roland E

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of materials with ultrafast and ultraintense laser pulses is a current frontier of science both experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we briefly discuss some recent theoretical studies by the present authors with our method of semiclassical electron-radiation-ion dynamics (SERID). In particular, Zhou et al. and Jiang et al. respectively, determined the optimal duration and optimal timing for a series of femtosecond scale laser pulses to excite a specific vibrational mode in a general chemical system. A set of such modes can be used as a "fingerprint" for characterizing a particular molecule or a complex in a solid. One can therefore envision many applications, ranging from fundamental studies to detection of chemical or biological agents. Allen et al. proved that dimers are preferentially emitted during photofragmentation of C60 under an ultrafast and ultraintense laser pulse. For interactions between laser pulses and semiconductors, e.g., GaAs, Si and InSb, besides experimentally accessible optical properties--epsilon(omega) and chi(2)-Allen et al. offered many other indicators to confirm the nonthermal nature of structural changes driven by electronic excitations and occurring during the first few hundred femtoseconds. Lin et al. found that, after the application of a femtosecond laser pulse, excited electrons in materials automatically equilibrate to a Fermi-Dirac distribution within roughly 100 fs, solely because of their coupling to the nuclear motion, even though the resulting electronic temperature is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the kinetic temperature defined by the nuclear motion.

  16. Polarimetric, Two-Color, Photon-Counting Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Laser altimeter measurements of forest stands with distinct structures and compositions have been acquired at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near-infrared) wavelengths and parallel and perpendicular polarization states using the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL). The micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach employed by SIMPL provides canopy structure measurements with high vertical and spatial resolution. Using a height distribution analysis method adapted from conventional, 1064 nm, full-waveform lidar remote sensing, the sensitivity of two parameters commonly used for above-ground biomass estimation are compared as a function of wavelength. The results for the height of median energy (HOME) and canopy cover are for the most part very similar, indicating biomass estimations using lidars operating at green and near-infrared wavelengths will yield comparable estimates. The expected detection of increasing depolarization with depth into the canopies due to volume multiple-scattering was not observed, possibly due to the small laser footprint and the small detector field of view used in the SIMPL instrument. The results of this work provide pathfinder information for NASA's ICESat-2 mission that will employ a 532 nm, micropulse, photon counting laser altimeter.

  17. Dynamics of laser ablative shock waves from one dimensional periodic structured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Prem Kiran; Chelikani, Leela; Pinnoju, Venkateshwarlu; Acrhem Team

    2015-06-01

    Spatio-temporal evolution of Laser ablative shock waves (LASWs) from one dimensional periodic structured surfaces (1D-PSS) of Aluminum is studied using time resolved defocused shadowgraphy technique. LASWs are generated by focusing 7 ns pulses from second harmonic of Nd:YAG (532 nm, 10 Hz) laser on to 1D-PSS with sinusoidal and triangular modulations of varying periodicity. An expanded He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) is used as probe beam for shadowgraphy. Evolution of ablative shock front (SF) with 1.5 ns temporal resolution is used to measure position of the SF, its nature, density and pressure behind the SF. The effect of surface modulation on the LASW and contact front dynamics was compared to those from a flat surface (FS) of Aluminum. SWs from FS and PSS obeyed Taylor's solution for spherical and planar nature, respectively. The velocity of SF from 1D PSS had a twofold increase compared to the FS. This was further enhanced for structures whose periodicity is of the order of excitation wavelength. Variation of SF properties with varying periodicity over a range of 3.3 μm to 0.55 μm has the potential to tailor shockwaves of required parameters. The work is supported by Defence Research and Developement Organization, India through Grants-in-Aid Program. The periodic surfaces were procured with financial support from BRFST project No. NFP-MAT-A12-04.

  18. Application Of Pulsed Laser Holography To Nondestructive Testing Of Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Hubert; Smigielski, Paul; Arnaud, Jean-Louis

    1983-03-01

    Subsequently to laboratory tests, experiments were conducted on an aircraft undergoing maintenance in order to assess the possible uses of holographic interferometry for non-destructive testing of large aircraft structures. A double ruby laser was used delivering two pulses with a duration of 20 ns each. The two pulses are separated by an arbitrary time interval At which is determined as a function of both the amplitude and frequency of the surface displacement. Shocks of the order of 100 mJ cause the structure under investigation to vibrate, the time interval At thereby ranging from 10 to 100 ps for a delay of a few ms after shock initiation. The method used is relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances. Although the laser delivers pulses of light of less than 100 mJ in energy, it is possible to visualize a field of 0.5 x1 m. Some results will be reported which have been obtained at the lower surface of an aerofoil, on a wheel well and on an air-brake. Finally a brief review will be made on the improvements envisaged on both the laser and the recording method in order to obtain an operational system for holographic non-destructive testing.

  19. Fabrication of large Ti–6Al–4V structures by direct laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Chunlei; Ravi, G.A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dance, Chris; Ranson, Andrew; Dilworth, Steve [Integrated Operations, Manufacturing & Materials Engineering Department, BAE Systems Ltd (United Kingdom); Attallah, Moataz M., E-mail: m.m.attallah@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • High laser power and a reasonably low powder feed rate are key to low porosity. • Scaling-up of samples requires smaller Z steps to achieve geometrical integrity. • HIPing effectively closed pores, changed microstructure and improved ductility. • Optimised processing conditions plus HIPing led to good quality Ti-64 structures. • HIPing helps recover shape of unclamped large structures from distortion. - Abstract: Ti–6Al–4V samples have been prepared by direct laser deposition (DLD) using varied processing conditions. Some of the as-fabricated samples were stress-relieved or hot isostatically pressed (HIPed). The microstructures of all the samples were characterised using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the tensile properties assessed. It was found that a high laser power together with a reasonably low powder feed rate was essential for achieving minimum porosity. The build height and geometrical integrity of samples were sensitive to the specified laser nozzle moving step along the build height direction (or Z step) with a too big Z step usually leading to a build height smaller than specified height (or under build) and a too small Z step to excessive building (or excess build). Particularly, scaling-up of samples requires a smaller Z step to obtain specified build height and geometry. The as-fabricated microstructure was characterised by columnar grains together with martensitic needle structure and a small fraction of β phase. This led generally to high tensile strengths but low elongations. The vertically machined samples showed even lower elongation than horizontally machined ones due to the presence of large lack-of-fusion pores at interlayer interfaces. HIPing effectively closed pores and fully transformed the martensites into lamellar α + β phases, which considerably improved ductility but caused slight reduction in strength. With optimisation of processing conditions

  20. Structure and composition of enamel and dentin after thermal treatment or infrared laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Luciano

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to identify the crystallographic structure, optical properties, chemical composition and electron paramagnetic signals that laser irradiation or oven heating produces on the tissue. The thermal treatment was conducted in oven with temperature range below 1000 deg C and the laser irradiation with holmium (Ho:YLF - 2,065 μm) and erbium (Er:YAG - 2,94 μm) laser. The tissue characterization was carried out with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet and visible transmission spectroscopy, light microscopy, infrared transmission/reflection spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance. The holmium irradiated enamel (600-800 J/cm 2 ) shows the presence of tetracalcium phosphate that coexists with the natural phase (hydroxyapatite). The irradiated dentin shows only the sharper diffraction peaks of the natural phase. The narrows peaks, observed after irradiation, could be assigned to the dentin crystal growth and impurities elimination. Tissue discoloration is observed after thermal treatment with temperatures above 100 deg C. Heated enamel become white-opaque and the origin is assigned to the water elimination, which promotes higher light scattering by the prismatic structure. On the other hand, heated dentin, with similar temperatures becomes brown. The dentin browning changes with the temperature and shown two peaks, at 375 deg C and 700 deg C. The peak at 375 deg C is assigned to the collagen structure degradation and at 700 deg C to the cyanate formation. The dentin discoloration produced with temperatures below 200 deg C is reversible after the tissue hydration. Both enamel and dentin discoloration are also observed in erbium irradiated tissues. Thermal treatments, heating in oven or laser irradiation, change mainly the organic matrix composition and water present in the tissues. The inorganic matrix is more stable and its radicals are changed, with more predominance, only at temperatures higher than 500 deg

  1. Zeeman structure of red lines of lanthanum observed by laser spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Ł. M.; Windholz, L.; Kwela, J.

    2017-11-01

    Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Spectroscopy and Optogalvanic (OG) Spectroscopy were used for the investigation of the Zeeman hyperfine (hf) structures of 27 spectral lines of La I in the wavelength range between 633.86 and 667.54 nm. As a source of free La atoms a hollow cathode discharge lamp was used. Spectra were recorded in the presence of a relatively weak magnetic field (about 800G) produced by a permanent magnet, for two linear polarization directions of the exciting laser beam. As a result of the measurements, we determined for the first time the Landé gJ- factors of 18 levels of La I. The Landé gJ- factors of 12 other levels were re-investigated and determined with higher accuracy.

  2. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Frank A; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan

    2016-06-15

    Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  3. Structural characterization of thin films of titanium nitride deposited by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro C, M.A.; Escobar A, L.; Camps C, E.; Mejia H, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of titanium nitride were deposited using the technique of laser ablation. It was studied the effect of the density of laser energy used for ablation the target as well as of the pressure of the work gas about the structure and the hardness of the deposited thin films. Depending on the pressure of the work gas films was obtained with preferential orientation in the directions (200) and (111). At a pressure of 1 x 10 -2 Torr only the direction (200) was observed. On the other hand to the pressure of 5 x 10 -3 Torr the deposited material this formed by a mixture of the orientation (200) and (111), being the direction (111) the predominant one. Thin films of Ti N were obtained with hardness of up to 24.0 GPa that makes to these attractive materials for mechanical applications. The hardness showed an approximately linear dependence with the energy density. (Author)

  4. Damage Detection on Thin-walled Structures Utilizing Laser Scanning and Standing Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Se Hyeok; Jeon, Jun Young; Kim, Du Hwan; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, To; Han, Soon Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes wavenumber filtering for damage detection using single-frequency standing wave excitation and laser scanning sensing. An embedded piezoelectric sensor generates ultrasonic standing waves, and the responses are measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and mirror tilting device. After scanning, newly developed damage detection techniques based on wavenumber filtering are applied to the full standing wave field. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques, several experiments were performed on composite plates with delamination and aluminum plates with corrosion damage. The results demonstrated that the developed techniques could be applied to various structures to localize the damage, with the potential to improve the damage detection capability at a high interrogation speed.

  5. Nano-structuring of solid surface by extreme ultraviolet Ar8+ laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Schmidt, Jiří; Frolov, Oleksandr; Prukner, Václav; Shukurov, A.; Holý, V.; Sobota, Jaroslav; Fořt, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2012), s. 57-63 ISSN 0263-0346. [International Conference on the Frontiers of Plasma Physics and Technology/5./. Singapore , 18.04.2011-22.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR KAN300100702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ablation by EUV radiation * application of Ar8+ laser * nano-patterning by EUV radiation * , nano-structuring by EUV radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UPT-D) Impact factor: 2.016, year: 2012

  6. THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE LASER CLAD COATINGS WITH Ni BASED MATRIX WITH WC PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Iždinská

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of the processing conditions on the microstructure and abrasive wear behavior of composite laser clad coatings with Ni based matrix reinforced with 50% WC particles is analyzed. Composite powder was applied in the form of coatings onto a mild steel substrate (Fe–0.17% C by different laser powers and cladding speeds. The microstructure of the coatings was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Tribological properties of coatings were evaluated by pin-on-disc wear test. It appeared that the hardness of the matrix of composite coatings decreases with increasing cladding speed. However, wear resistance of composite coatings with decreasing hardness of Ni based matrix increases. Significantly enhanced wear resistance of WC composite coatings in comparison with Ni based coatings is attributed to the hard phase structures in composite coatings.

  7. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS. In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  8. Cold spraying of aluminum bronze on profiled submillimeter cermet structures formed by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryashin, N. S.; Malikov, A. G.; Shikalov, V. S.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Kuchumov, B. M.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of the cold spraying of aluminum bronze coatings on substrates profiled with WC/Ni tracks obtained by laser cladding. Reinforcing cermet frames shaped as grids with varied mesh sizes were clad on stainless steel substrates using a CO2 laser machine "Siberia" (ITAM SB RAS, Russia). As a result, surfaces/substrates with heterogeneous shape, composition, and mechanical properties were obtained. Aluminum bronze coatings were deposited from 5lF-NS powder (Oerlikon Metco, Switzerland) on those substrates using cold spraying equipment (ITAM SB RAS). Data of profiling, microstructure diagnostics, EDS analysis, and mechanical tests of obtained composites is reported. Surface relief of the sprayed coatings dependence on substrate structure has been demonstrated.

  9. Generation of crystal-structure transverse patterns via a self-frequency-doubling laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Petrov, V

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) visible crystal-structure patterns analogous to the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) have been experimentally observed in the near- and far-fields of a self-frequency-doubling (SFD) microchip laser. Different with the fundamental modes, the localization of the SFD light is changed with the propagation. Calculation based on Hermite-Gaussian (HG) functions and second harmonic generation theory reproduces well the patterns both in the near- and far-field which correspond to the intensity distribution in coordinate and momentum spaces, respectively. Considering the analogy of wave functions of the transverse HG mode and 2D harmonic oscillator, we propose that the simple monolithic SFD lasers can be used for developing of new materials and devices and testing 2D quantum mechanical theories.

  10. Inner structure detection by optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxin; Zhang, Shulian; Tan, Yidong; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-05-20

    We describe a new optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers. In the case of feedback light frequency-shifted, light can be magnified by a fact of 10(6) in the Nd:YAG microchip lasers, which makes it possible to realize optical tomography with a greater depth than current optical tomography. The results of the measuring and imaging of kinds of samples are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility and potential of this approach in the inner structure detection. The system has a lateral resolution of ~1 μm, a vertical resolution of 15 μm and a longitudinal scanning range of over 10mm.

  11. Optical design of multi-multiple expander structure of laser gas analysis and measurement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiang; Wei, Biao

    2018-03-01

    The installation and debugging of optical circuit structure in the application of carbon monoxide distributed laser gas analysis and measurement, there are difficult key technical problems. Based on the three-component expansion theory, multi-multiple expander structure with expansion ratio of 4, 5, 6 and 7 is adopted in the absorption chamber to enhance the adaptability of the installation environment of the gas analysis and measurement device. According to the basic theory of aberration, the optimal design of multi-multiple beam expander structure is carried out. By using image quality evaluation method, the difference of image quality under different magnifications is analyzed. The results show that the optical quality of the optical system with the expanded beam structure is the best when the expansion ratio is 5-7.

  12. Characterization of 316L Steel Cellular Dodecahedron Structures Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Gokuldoss Prashanth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The compression behavior of different 316L steel cellular dodecahedron structures with different density values were studied. The 316L steel structures produced using the selective laser melting process has four different geometries: single unit cells with and without the addition of base plates beneath and on top, and sandwich structures with multiple unit cells with different unit cell sizes. The relation between the relative compressive strength and the relative density was compared using different Gibson-Ashby models and with other published reports. The different aspects of the deformation and the mechanical properties were evaluated and the deformation at distinct loading levels was recorded. Finite element method (FEM simulations were carried out with the defined structures and the mechanical testing results were compared. The calculated theory, simulation estimation, and the observed experimental results are in good agreement.

  13. Onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures on indium tin oxide thin films for clean ablation using a repetitively pulsed picosecond laser at low fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, N.; Dasgupta, P.; O’Connor, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is of key importance to obtain clean ablated features on indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films at low fluences. The evolution of subwavelength periodic nanostructures on a 175 nm thick ITO film, using 10 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1032 nm, operating at 400 kHz, is investigated. Initially nanoblisters are observed when a single pulse is applied below the damage threshold fluence (0.45 J cm‑2) the size and distribution of nanoblisters are found to depend on fluence. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations support the hypothesis that conductive nanoblisters can enhance the local intensity of the applied electromagnetic field. The LIPSS are observed to evolve from regions where the electric field enhancement has occurred; LIPSS has a perpendicular orientation relative to the laser polarization for a small number (5) pulses, the orientation of the periodic structures appears to rotate and evolve to become aligned in parallel with the laser polarization at approximately the same periodicity. These orientation effects are not observed at higher fluence—due to the absence of the nanoblister-like structures; this apparent rotation is interpreted to be due to stress-induced fragmentation of the LIPSS structure. The application of subsequent pulses leads to clean ablation. LIPSS are further modified into features of a shorter period when laser scanning is used. Results provide evidence that the formation of conductive nanoblisters leads to the enhancement of the applied electromagnetic field and thereby can be used to precisely control laser ablation on ITO thin films.

  14. Comparative study of excimer and erbium:YAG lasers for ablation of structural components of the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Miller, J. M.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency and thermal effect of a 135 ns pulsed-stretched XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and a free-running Erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) with 200 microsecond(s) pulse duration for ablation of knee joint structures (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon and bone). The radiant exposure used for tissue ablation ranged from 2 to 15 J/cm2 for the XeCl excimer and from 33 to 120 J/cm2 for Er:YAG. The excimer and Er:YAG lasers were operated at 4 and 5 Hz respectively. The ablative laser energy was delivered to tissue through fibers. Ablation rates of soft tissues (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon) varied from 8.5 to 203 micrometers /pulse for excimer and from 8.2 to 273 micrometers /pulse for Er:YAG lasers. Ablation rates of soft tissues are linearly dependent on the radiant exposure. Within the range of parameters tested all the tissues except the bone could be rapidly ablated by both lasers. Bone ablation was much less efficient, requiring 15 J/cm2 and 110 J/cm2 radiant exposure for excimer and Er:YAG lasers to ablate 9.5 and 8.2 micrometers tissue per pulse. However, excimer laser ablation produced less thermal damage in the tissues studied compared to Er:YAG at the same laser parameters. The authors conclude that both lasers are capable of efficient knee joint tissue ablation. XeCl excimer laser requires an order of magnitude less energy than Er:YAG laser for comparable tissue ablation.

  15. Structural and electronic characterization of 355 nm laser-crystallized silicon: Interplay of film thickness and laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semler, Matthew R.; Swenson, Orven F.; Hoey, Justin M.; Guruvenket, Srinivasan; Gette, Cody R.; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the laser crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films as a function of laser fluence and film thickness. Silicon films grown through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were subjected to a Q-switched, diode-pumped solid-state laser operating at 355 nm. The crystallinity, morphology, and optical and electronic properties of the films are characterized through transmission and reflectance spectroscopy, resistivity measurements, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and optical and scanning-electron microscopy. Our results reveal a unique surface morphology that strongly couples to the electronic characteristics of the films, with a minimum laser fluence at which the film properties are optimized. A simple scaling model is used to relate film morphology to conductivity in the laser-processed films

  16. Femtosecond laser-induced cross-periodic structures on a crystalline silicon surface under low pulse number irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xu; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Han, Weina; Liu, Yang; Wang, Andong; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-01-01

    A cross-patterned surface periodic structure in femtosecond laser processing of crystalline silicon was revealed under a relatively low shots (4 energy slightly higher than the ablation threshold. The experimental results indicated that the cross-pattern was composed of mutually orthogonal periodic structures (ripples). Ripples with a direction perpendicular to laser polarization (R⊥) spread in the whole laser-modified region, with the periodicity around 780 nm which was close to the central wavelength of the laser. Other ripples with a direction parallel to laser polarization (R‖) were found to be distributed between two of the adjacent ripples R⊥, with a periodicity about the sub-wavelength of the irradiated laser, 390 nm. The geometrical morphology of two mutually orthogonal ripples under static femtosecond laser irradiation could be continuously rotated as the polarization directions changed, but the periodicity remained almost unchanged. The underlying physical mechanism was revealed by numerical simulations based on the finite element method. It was found that the incubation effect with multiple shots, together with the redistributed electric field after initial ablation, plays a crucial role in the generation of the cross-patterned periodic surface structures.

  17. X-ray free electron laser and its application to 3-dimensional imaging of non-crystalline nano-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    The Laser in the X-ray region has been anticipated to be realized as a light source to probe the nano-world. Free electron lasers using high energy electron accelerators have been promising the candidates. The finding of the principle of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) resolved the technological difficulties accompanying the X-ray free electron laser, and the construction of large scale SASE facilities started in western countries. In Japan the construction of an SASE facility started in 2006 to be completed in 2010 at the site of the large synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8 positioned as a 'critical technology of national importance' by the Japanese government. The principle of the X-ray free electron laser is explained and the outline of the Japanese facility construction plan is presented. Also the application of the X-ray laser to the imaging of non-crystalline nano-structure is introduced. (K.Yoshida)

  18. Tribological behavior of Ti6Al4V cellular structures produced by Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeu, F; Sampaio, M; Carvalho, O; Pinto, E; Alves, N; Gomes, J R; Silva, F S; Miranda, G

    2017-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies enable the fabrication of innovative structures with complex geometries not easily manufactured by traditional processes. Regarding metallic cellular structures with tailored/customized mechanical and wear performance aiming to biomedical applications, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a remarkable solution for their production. Focusing on prosthesis and implants, in addition to a suitable Young's modulus it is important to assess the friction response and wear resistance of these cellular structures in a natural environment. In this sense, five cellular Ti6Al4V structures with different open-cell sizes (100-500µm) were designed and produced by SLM. These structures were tribologicaly tested against alumina using a reciprocating sliding ball-on-plate tribometer. Samples were submerged in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) fluid at 37°C, in order to mimic in some extent the human body environment. The results showed that friction and wear performance of Ti6Al4V cellular structures is influenced by the structure open-cell size. The higher wear resistance was obtained for structures with 100µm designed open-cell size due to the higher apparent area of contact to support tribological loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Qiao, Wen; Wan, Wenqiang; Liu, Yanhua; Ye, Yan; Wu, Shaolong; Chen, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    A continuously tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal cavity is demonstrated. The triangular-lattice resonator was initially fabricated through multiple interference exposure and was then replicated into a low refractive index polymer via UV-nanoimprinting. The blend of a blue-emitting conjugated polymer and a red-emitting one was used as the gain medium. Three periods in the scalene triangular-lattice structure yield stable tri-wavelength laser emission (625.5 nm, 617.4 nm and 614.3 nm) in six different directions. A uniformly aligned liquid crystal (LC) layer was incorporated into the cavity as the top cladding layer. Upon heating, the orientation of LC molecules and thus the effective refractive index of the lasing mode changes which continuously shifts the lasing wavelength. A maximum tuning range of 12.2 nm was observed for the lasing mode at 625.5 nm. This tunable tri-wavelength polymer laser is simple constructed and cost-effective. It may find application in the fields of biosensors and photonic integrated circuits. (paper)

  20. Target surface structure effects on x-ray generation from laser produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Tadashi; Nakano, Hidetoshi; Uesugi, Naoshi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We demonstrated two different methods to increase the x-ray conversion efficiency of laser-produced plasma by modifying the target surface structure. One way is making a rectangular groove on a target surface and confining a laser-produced plasma in it. By the plasma collision process, a time and wavelength (4-10 nm) integrated soft x-ray fluence enhancement of 35 times was obtained at a groove width of 20 {mu}m and a groove depth of 100 {mu}m on a Nd-doped glass target. The other way is making an array of nanoholes on an alumina target and increasing the laser interaction depth with it. The x-ray fluence enhancement increases as the ionization level of Al becomes higher and the x-ray wavelength becomes shorter. Over 50-fold enhancement was obtained at a soft x-ray wavelength around 6 nm, which corresponds to the emission from Al{sup 8+,9+} ions. (author)

  1. Target surface structure effects on x-ray generation from laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tadashi; Nakano, Hidetoshi; Uesugi, Naoshi

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrated two different methods to increase the x-ray conversion efficiency of laser-produced plasma by modifying the target surface structure. One way is making a rectangular groove on a target surface and confining a laser-produced plasma in it. By the plasma collision process, a time and wavelength (4-10 nm) integrated soft x-ray fluence enhancement of 35 times was obtained at a groove width of 20 μm and a groove depth of 100 μm on a Nd-doped glass target. The other way is making an array of nanoholes on an alumina target and increasing the laser interaction depth with it. The x-ray fluence enhancement increases as the ionization level of Al becomes higher and the x-ray wavelength becomes shorter. Over 50-fold enhancement was obtained at a soft x-ray wavelength around 6 nm, which corresponds to the emission from Al 8+,9+ ions. (author)

  2. Structural properties of H13 tool steel parts produced with use of selective laser melting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šafka, J; Ackermann, M; Voleský, L

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with establishing of building parameters for 1.2344 (H13) tool steel processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) technology with layer thickness of 50 µm. In the first part of the work, testing matrix of models in the form of a cube with chamfered edge were built under various building parameters such as laser scanning speed and laser power. Resulting models were subjected to set of tests including measurement of surface roughness, inspection of inner structure with aid of Light Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of micro-hardness. These tests helped us to evaluate an influence of changes in building strategy to the properties of the resulting model. In the second part of the work, mechanical properties of the H13 steel were examined. For this purpose, the set of samples in the form of “dog bone” were printed under three different alignments towards the building plate and tested on universal testing machine. Mechanical testing of the samples should then reveal if the different orientation and thus different layering of the material somehow influence its mechanical properties. For this type of material, the producer provides the parameters for layer thickness of 30 µm only. Thus, our 50 µm building strategy brings shortening of the building time which is valuable especially for large models. Results of mechanical tests show slight variation in mechanical properties for various alignment of the sample. (paper)

  3. Structural properties of H13 tool steel parts produced with use of selective laser melting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafka, J.; Ackermann, M.; Voleský, L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with establishing of building parameters for 1.2344 (H13) tool steel processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) technology with layer thickness of 50 µm. In the first part of the work, testing matrix of models in the form of a cube with chamfered edge were built under various building parameters such as laser scanning speed and laser power. Resulting models were subjected to set of tests including measurement of surface roughness, inspection of inner structure with aid of Light Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of micro-hardness. These tests helped us to evaluate an influence of changes in building strategy to the properties of the resulting model. In the second part of the work, mechanical properties of the H13 steel were examined. For this purpose, the set of samples in the form of “dog bone” were printed under three different alignments towards the building plate and tested on universal testing machine. Mechanical testing of the samples should then reveal if the different orientation and thus different layering of the material somehow influence its mechanical properties. For this type of material, the producer provides the parameters for layer thickness of 30 µm only. Thus, our 50 µm building strategy brings shortening of the building time which is valuable especially for large models. Results of mechanical tests show slight variation in mechanical properties for various alignment of the sample.

  4. Femtosecond laser-induced structural difference in fused silica with a non-reciprocal writing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Dai, Ye; Song, Juan; Ma, Hongliang; Yan, Xiaona; Ma, Guohong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report a non-reciprocal writing process for inducing asymmetric microstructure using a femtosecond laser with tilted pulse fronts in fused silica. The shape of the induced microstructure at the focus closely depends on the laser scan direction. An elongated end is observed as a kind of structural difference between the written lines with two reverse scans along + x and - x, which further leads to a birefringence intensity difference. We also find a bifurcation in the head region of the induced microstructure between the written lines along x and y. That process results from the focal intensity distortion caused by the pulse front tilt by comparing the simulated intensity distribution with the experimental results. The current results demonstrate that the pulse front tilt not only affects the free electron excitation at the focus but also further distorts the shape of the induced microstructure during a high-energy femtosecond laser irradiation. These results offer a route to fabricate optical elements by changing the spatiotemporal characteristics of ultrashort pulses.

  5. Frequency response function (FRF) based updating of a laser spot welded structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, M. S. Mohd; Rani, M. N. Abdul; Yunus, M. A.; Sani, M. S. M.; Wan Iskandar Mirza, W. I. I.; Mat Isa, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to present frequency response function (FRF) based updating as a method for matching the finite element (FE) model of a laser spot welded structure with a physical test structure. The FE model of the welded structure was developed using CQUAD4 and CWELD element connectors, and NASTRAN was used to calculate the natural frequencies, mode shapes and FRF. Minimization of the discrepancies between the finite element and experimental FRFs was carried out using the exceptional numerical capability of NASTRAN Sol 200. The experimental work was performed under free-free boundary conditions using LMS SCADAS. Avast improvement in the finite element FRF was achieved using the frequency response function (FRF) based updating with two different objective functions proposed.

  6. Diamond field emitter array cathodes and possibilities for employing additive manufacturing for dielectric laser accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andrews, Heather Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Herman, Matthew Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hubbard, Kevin Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-20

    These are slides for a presentation at Stanford University. The outline is as follows: Motivation: customers for compact accelerators, LANL's technologies for laser acceleration, DFEA cathodes, and additive manufacturing of micron-size structures. Among the stated conclusions are the following: preliminary study identified DFEA cathodes as promising sources for DLAs--high beam current and small emittance; additive manufacturing with Nanoscribe Professional GT can produce structures with the right scale features for a DLA operating at micron wavelengths (fabrication tolerances need to be studied, DLAs require new materials). Future plans include DLA experiment with a beam produced by the DFEA cathode with field emission, demonstration of photoemission from DFEAs, and new structures to print and test.

  7. Rapid prototyping of flexible intrafascicular electrode arrays by picosecond laser structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias; de la Oliva, Natalia; Del Valle, Jaume; Delgado-Martínez, Ignacio; Navarro, Xavier; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Interfacing the peripheral nervous system can be performed with a large variety of electrode arrays. However, stimulating and recording a nerve while having a reasonable amount of channels limits the number of available systems. Translational research towards human clinical trial requires device safety and biocompatibility but would benefit from design flexibility in the development process to individualize probes. We selected established medical grade implant materials like precious metals and Parylene C to develop a rapid prototyping process for novel intrafascicular electrode arrays using a picosecond laser structuring. A design for a rodent animal model was developed in conjunction with an intrafascicular implantation strategy. Electrode characterization and optimization was performed first in saline solution in vitro before performance and biocompatibility were validated in sciatic nerves of rats in chronic implantation. The novel fabrication process proved to be suitable for prototyping and building intrafascicular electrode arrays. Electrochemical properties of the electrode sites were enhanced and tested for long-term stability. Chronic implantation in the sciatic nerve of rats showed good biocompatibility, selectivity and stable stimulation thresholds. Established medical grade materials can be used for intrafascicular nerve electrode arrays when laser structuring defines structure size in the micro-scale. Design flexibility reduces re-design cycle time and material certificates are beneficial support for safety studies on the way to clinical trials.

  8. Rapid prototyping of flexible intrafascicular electrode arrays by picosecond laser structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias; de la Oliva, Natalia; del Valle, Jaume; Delgado-Martínez, Ignacio; Navarro, Xavier; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Interfacing the peripheral nervous system can be performed with a large variety of electrode arrays. However, stimulating and recording a nerve while having a reasonable amount of channels limits the number of available systems. Translational research towards human clinical trial requires device safety and biocompatibility but would benefit from design flexibility in the development process to individualize probes. Approach. We selected established medical grade implant materials like precious metals and Parylene C to develop a rapid prototyping process for novel intrafascicular electrode arrays using a picosecond laser structuring. A design for a rodent animal model was developed in conjunction with an intrafascicular implantation strategy. Electrode characterization and optimization was performed first in saline solution in vitro before performance and biocompatibility were validated in sciatic nerves of rats in chronic implantation. Main results. The novel fabrication process proved to be suitable for prototyping and building intrafascicular electrode arrays. Electrochemical properties of the electrode sites were enhanced and tested for long-term stability. Chronic implantation in the sciatic nerve of rats showed good biocompatibility, selectivity and stable stimulation thresholds. Significance. Established medical grade materials can be used for intrafascicular nerve electrode arrays when laser structuring defines structure size in the micro-scale. Design flexibility reduces re-design cycle time and material certificates are beneficial support for safety studies on the way to clinical trials.

  9. Laser-spectroscopy studies of the nuclear structure of neutron-rich radium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. M.; Wilkins, S. G.; Billowes, J.; Binnersley, C. L.; Bissell, M. L.; Chrysalidis, K.; Cocolios, T. E.; Goodacre, T. Day; de Groote, R. P.; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Gins, W.; Heinke, R.; Koszorús, Á.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Naubereit, P.; Neyens, G.; Ricketts, C. M.; Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Stroke, H. H.; Studer, D.; Vernon, A. R.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Yang, X. F.

    2018-02-01

    The neutron-rich radium isotopes, Ra-233222, were measured with Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The hyperfine structure of the 7 s2S10→7 s 7 p P31 transition was probed, allowing measurement of the magnetic moments, quadrupole moments, and changes in mean-square charge radii. These results are compared to existing literature values, and the new moments and change in mean-square charge radii of 231Ra are presented. Low-resolution laser spectroscopy of the very neutron-rich 233Ra has allowed the isotope shift and relative charge radius to be determined for the first time.

  10. Formation of periodic mesoscale structures arranged in a circular symmetry at the silicon surface exposed to radiation of a single femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashevskiy, S.A., E-mail: sa.romashevskiy@gmail.com [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya st. 13, Bd. 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Ashitkov, S.I.; Ovchinnikov, A.V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya st. 13, Bd. 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Kondratenko, P.S. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Bol' shaya Tul' skaya st. 53, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Agranat, M.B. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya st. 13, Bd. 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Single pulse irradiation of silicon gave rise to the periodic mesoscale structures. • The number of the periodic structures depends on the incident laser fluence. • The theory of periodically modulated absorption of laser energy is proposed. - Abstract: The periodic mesoscale structures arranged in a circular symmetry were found at the silicon surface exposed to radiation of the single femtosecond laser pulse with a Gaussian intensity profile in the ambient air conditions. These peculiar structures have the appearance of the protrusions of ∼10 nm height and of ∼600 nm width (at a FWHM) separately located inside the ablated region with a period of the incident laser wavelength. It was found that their position at the surface corresponds to the specified laser intensity slightly above the ablation threshold. The number of the formed periodic structures varies with the fluence of the incident laser pulse and in our experiments it was found to have changed from one to eleven. We suppose that formation of these mesoscale structures is caused by heating of a microscale volume to the strongly defined temperature. The theoretical model was proposed to explain the obtained data. It assumes that the interference of incident laser radiation with laser-induced surface electromagnetic waves results in generation of periodic distribution of electron temperature. Thus formation of the periodic structures at the specified laser intensity is attributed to periodically modulated absorption of laser energy at a focal laser spot.

  11. Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, E.; Kristensson, E.; Hottenbach, P.; Aldén, M.; Grünefeld, G.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its transient nature, high atomization process, and rapid generation of fine evaporating droplets, diesel sprays have been, and still remain, one of the most challenging sprays to be fully analyzed and understood by means of non-intrusive diagnostics. The main limitation of laser techniques for quantitative measurements of diesel sprays concerns the detection of the multiple light scattering resulting from the high optical density of such a scattering medium. A second limitation is the extinction of the incident laser radiation as it crosses the spray, as well as the attenuation of the signal which is to be detected. All these issues have strongly motivated, during the past decade, the use of X-ray instead of visible light for dense spray diagnostics. However, we demonstrate in this paper that based on an affordable Nd:YAG laser system, structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) can provide accurate quantitative description of a non-reacting diesel spray injected at 1,100 bar within a room temperature vessel pressurized at 18.6 bar. The technique is used at λ = 355 nm excitation wavelength with 1.0 mol% TMPD dye concentration, for simultaneous LIF/Mie imaging. Furthermore, a novel dual-SLIPI configuration is tested with Mie scattering detection only. The results confirm that a mapping of both the droplet Sauter mean diameter and extinction coefficient can be obtained by such complementary approaches. These new insights are provided in this article at late times after injection start. It is demonstrated that the application of SLIPI to diesel sprays provides valuable quantitative information which was not previously accessible.

  12. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  13. Observation of self-assembled periodic nano-structures induced by femtosecond laser in both ablation and deposition regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingzhen; Zhang, Haitao; Her, Tsing-Hua

    2008-02-01

    We observed the spontaneous formation of periodic nano-structures in both femtosecond laser ablation and deposition. The former involved 400-nm femtosecond pulses from a 250-KHz regenerated amplified mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser and periodic nanocracks and the nano-structure are in the form of periodic nanocracks in the substrate, the latter applied an 80-MHz mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator with pulse energy less than half nanojoule in a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition configuration and tungsten nanogratings grow heterogeneously on top of the substrates. These two observed periodic nanostructures have opposite orientations respecting to laser polarization: the periodic nanocracks are perpendicular to, whereas the deposited tungsten nanogratings are parallel to laser polarization direction. By translating the substrate respecting to the laser focus, both the periodic nanocrack and tungsten nanograting extend to the whole scanning range. The deposited tungsten nanogratings possess excellent uniformity on both the grating period and tooth length. Both the attributes can be tuned precisely by controlling the laser power and scanning speed. Furthermore, we discovered that the teeth of transverse tungsten nanogratings are self aligned along their axial direction during multiple scanning with appropriate offset between scans. We demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating large-area one-dimensional grating by exploiting such unique property. These distinct phenomena of nanocracks and tungsten nanogratings indicate different responsible mechanisms.

  14. Synthesis of suspended carbon nanotubes on silicon inverse-opal structures by laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J; Lu, Y F; Wang, H; Yi, K J; Lin, Y S; Zhang, R; Liou, S H

    2006-01-01

    Suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been synthesized on Si inverse-opal structures by laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition (LCVD). A CW CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm was used to directly irradiate the substrates during the LCVD process. At a laser power density of 14.3 MW m -2 , suspended SWNT networks were found predominantly rooted at the sharp edges in the Si inverse-opal structures. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the SWNT networks were composed of high-quality defect-free SWNTs with an average diameter of 1.3 nm. At a lower laser power density (6.4 MW m -2 ), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were grown on the entire surface of the substrates. The preference for the synthesis of SWNTs or MWNTs was attributed to the difference in the catalyst sizes as well as the growth temperature in the LCVD process

  15. Improving accuracy of overhanging structures for selective laser melting through reliability characterization of single track formation on thick powder beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Repeatability and reproducibility of parts produced by selective laser melting is a standing issue, and coupled with a lack of standardized quality control presents a major hindrance towards maturing of selective laser melting as an industrial scale process. Consequently, numerical process...... modelling has been adopted towards improving the predictability of the outputs from the selective laser melting process. Establishing the reliability of the process, however, is still a challenge, especially in components having overhanging structures.In this paper, a systematic approach towards...... establishing reliability of overhanging structure production by selective laser melting has been adopted. A calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model is used to simulate the single track formation on a thick powder bed. Single tracks are manufactured on a thick powder bed using same processing parameters...

  16. Mechanical properties of regular hexahedral lattice structure formed by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jianfeng; Yang, Yongqiang; Wang, Di

    2013-01-01

    The Ti–6Al–4V lattice structure is widely used in the aerospace field. This research first designs a regular hexahedral unit, processes the lattice structure composed of the Ti–6Al–4V units by selective laser melting technology, obtains the experimental fracture load and the compression deformation of them through compression tests, then conducts a simulation of the unit and the lattice structure through ANSYS to analyze the failure point. Later, according to the force condition of the point, the model of maximum load is built, through which the analytical formula of the fracture load of the unit and the lattice structure are obtained. The results of groups of experiments demonstrate that there exists an exponential relationship between the practical fracture load and the porosity of the lattice structure. There also exists a trigonometric function relationship between the compression deformation and the porosity of the lattice structure. The fracture analysis indicates that fracture of the units and lattice structure is brittle fracture due to cleavage fracture. (paper)

  17. Effect of the three-dimensional structure of laser emission on the dynamics of low-threshold optical breakdown plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V. N.; Arutiunian, R. V.; Bol'Shov, L. A.; Derkach, O. N.; Kanevskii, M. F.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of the transverse structure of pulsed CO2 laser emission on the dynamics of laser-induced detonation waves propagating from a metal surface and on plasma transparency recovery is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Particular attention is given to breakdown initiation near the surface. It is suggested that the inclusion of refraction in the plasma into a self-consistent numerical mode is essential for the adequate quantitative description of experimental data on the interaction of laser emission with low-threshold optical breakdown plasmas.

  18. Development of Strain-Induced Quantum Well Intermixing Technique on InGaP/InAlGaP Laser Structures and Demonstration of First Orange Laser Diode

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali

    2016-08-01

    Laser Diodes (LD) have numerous applications for industry, military, medicine and communications. The first visible LD was invented in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, emitted at 710 nm (red). In 1990s, Shuji Nakamura invented the blue and green Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and later LDs. The production of LDs emitting between 532- 632 nm has been severely lagging behind the rest of the visible spectrum. Yellow and orange LDs are still not accessible due to the lack of successfully grown material with high optical efficiency. AlGaInP is the quaternary compound semiconductor used to grow green to red LEDs and red LDs. At a material composition that is supposed to lase below 630 nm, the optical efficiency becomes low due to the oxygen-related defects associated with high Al content. The quantum well intermixing (QWI) is a post-growth process that is applied to laser structure to tune the wavelength of laser. Until now, there are limited reports on successful intermixing of InGaP/InAlGaP laser structures while maintaining the crystal quality. In this work, we introduced a novel intermixing process that utilizes the high strain induced by the dielectric film during annealing to initiate the intermixing. We deposited SiO2 capping by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) onto the InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure emitting at 635 nm, and then annealed the structure up to 950 Celsius for different periods of time, resulting in an astonishing 100 nm blueshift. This blueshift allowed us to produce an unprecedented shorter wavelength orange lasers emitting at 608 nm. For low degree of intermixing, we have noticed an increase in the intensity of the photoluminescence (PL) signal. The improvement in the PL signal was translated to a reduction in threshold current. We implemented the technique on an LED structure with Al-rich QWs emitting at 590 nm. Significant increase in the PL intensity (20 folds) was observed. By analyzing the improved structure, we observed reduction in oxygen

  19. Higher order structure analysis of nano-materials by spectral reflectance of laser-plasma soft x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Hirozumi; Takeichi, Akihiro; Noda, Shoji

    1995-01-01

    We have proposed a new experimental arrangement to measure spectral reflectance of nano-materials for analyzing higher order structure with laser-plasma soft x-rays. Structure modification of annealed Mo/Si multilayers and a nylon-6/clay hybrid with poor periodicity was investigated. The measurement of the spectral reflectance of soft x-rays from laser-produced plasma was found to be a useful method for the structure analysis of nano-materials, especially those of rather poor periodicity

  20. Simulation of the Optimized Structure of a Laterally Coupled Distributed Feedback (LC-DFB Semiconductor Laser Above Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Seifouri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the laterally coupled distributed feedback semiconductor laser is studied. In the simulations performed, variations of structural parameters such as the grating amplitude a, the ridge width W, the thickness of the active region d, and other structural properties are considered. It is concluded that for certain values ​​of structural parameters, the laser maintains the highest output power, the lowest distortion Bragg frequency δL and the smallest changes in the wavelength λ. Above threshold, output power more than 40mW and SMSR values greater than 50 dB were achieved.

  1. Direct writing of large-area micro/nano-structural arrays on single crystalline germanium substrates using femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    A direct writing technique for fabricating micro/nano-structural arrays without using a multi-scanning process, multi-beam interference, or any assisted microlens arrays is reported. Various sub-wavelength micro/nano-structural arrays have been directly written on single crystalline germanium substrate surfaces using femtosecond laser pulses. The evolution of the multiscale surface morphology from periodic micro/nano-structures to V-shaped microgrooves has been achieved, and the relationship between array characteristics and laser polarization directions has been discussed. The self-organization model agrees well with the experimental results in this study.

  2. Evaluation of Terrestrial Laser Scanner Accuracy in the Control of Hydrotechnical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Zbigniew; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    In many cases of monitoring or load testing of hydrotechnical structures, the measurement results obtained from dial gauges may be affected by random or systematic errors resulting from the instability of the reference beam. For example, the measurement of wall displacement or pile settlement may be increased (or decreased) by displacements of the reference beam due to ground movement. The application of surveying methods such as high-precision levelling, motorized tacheometry or even terrestrial laser scanning makes it possible to provide an independent reference measurement free from systematic errors. It is very important in the case of walls and piles embedded in the rivers, where the construction of reference structure is even more difficult than usually. Construction of an independent reference system is also complicated when horizontal testing of sheet piles or diaphragm walls are considered. In this case, any underestimation of the horizontal displacement of an anchored or strutted construction leads to an understated value of the strut's load. These measurements are even more important during modernization works and repairs of the hydrotechnical structures. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibilities of using modern measurement methods for monitoring of horizontal displacements of an excavation wall. The methods under scrutiny (motorized tacheometry and terrestrial laser scanning) have been compared to classical techniques and described in the context of their practical use on the example hydrotechnical structure. This structure was a temporary cofferdam made from sheet pile wall. The research continuously conducted at Wroclaw University of Science and Technology made it possible to collect and summarize measurement results and practical experience. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages of both analysed methods and presents a comparison of obtained measurement results of horizontal displacements. In conclusion, some

  3. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  4. Laser absorption and energy transfer in foams of various pore structures and chemical compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpouch, J.; Kuba, J.; Borisenko, N.G.; Demchenko, N.N.; Gus'kov, S.Y.; Khalenkov, A.M.; Merkul'ev, Y.A.; Rozanov, V.B.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Kondrashov, V.N.; Limpouch, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Renner, O.; Nazarov, W.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of sub-nanosecond intense laser pulses with foams containing fine and large pores has been studied experimentally. The foams included: fine-structured TMPTA (trimethylol propane tri-acrylate) foams, fine-structured TAC (cellulose tri-acetate) foams and rougher agar-agar foams. In all cases, an aluminum foil was placed at the rear side of the foam targets. Laser penetration and energy transport in the foam material are measured via streaked side-on X-ray slit images. Shock wave transition through the foam is detected via streaked optical self-emission from foil attached on the foam rear side. The shock transition time increases with the pore size, foam density, and also with the contents of high Z additions in plastic foams. Foil acceleration is observed via 3-frame interferometry. In the case of TAC foam with a 9.1 mg/cm 3 and small pores (D p = 1-3 μm) minor pre-heating of the foil at the target rear is observed at about 0.25 ns after emission from the front side and at the same time small signal appears on optical streak. Laser is absorbed in the surface layer and then thermal waves propagates into the foam with average speed of 3.4*10 7 cm/s. This wave reaches the foil rear side 1.1 ns after X-ray emission onset, earlier than the main optical emission which appears at 2.1 ns. Comparison of experimental results with numerical simulations and an analytical model is underway

  5. Effect of laser radiation on multi-wall carbon nanotubes: study of shell structure and immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoergy, Enikoe, E-mail: egyorgy@icmab.es; Perez del Pino, Angel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMAB-CSIC) (Spain); Roqueta, Jaume; Ballesteros, Belen [Centro de Investigaciones en Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIN2-CSIC) (Spain); Cabana, Laura; Tobias, Gerard [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMAB-CSIC) (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with diameters between 10 and 15 nm were transferred and immobilized onto SiO{sub 2} glass substrates by ultraviolet matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (UV-MAPLE). Toluene was chosen as solvent material for the preparation of the composite MAPLE targets. An UV KrF* ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau}{sub FWHM} {approx_equal} 25 ns, {nu} = 10 Hz) excimer laser source was used for the irradiation experiments. The effects of incident laser fluence on the structure of the laser transferred MWCNTs was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the laser processed MWCNTs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy in acoustic (dynamic) configuration. Network-like structures constituted by individual nanotubes and nanotube bundles were created onto solid substrates. Changes in the nanotubes' shell structure can be induced through the tuning of the laser fluence value incident onto the composite MAPLE targets.

  6. A holistic approach to determine tree structural complexity based on laser scanning data and fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Dominik

    2018-01-01

    The three-dimensional forest structure affects many ecosystem functions and services provided by forests. As forests are made of trees it seems reasonable to approach their structure by investigating individual tree structure. Based on three-dimensional point clouds from laser scanning, a newly developed holistic approach is presented that enables to calculate the box dimension as a measure of structural complexity of individual trees using fractal analysis. It was found that the box dimension of trees was significantly different among the tested species, among trees belonging to the same species but exposed to different growing conditions (at gap vs. forest interior) or to different kinds of competition (intraspecific vs. interspecific). Furthermore, it was shown that the box dimension is positively related to the trees' growth rate. The box dimension was identified as an easy to calculate measure that integrates the effect of several external drivers of tree structure, such as competition strength and type, while simultaneously providing information on structure-related properties, like tree growth.

  7. Non-Linear Structural Dynamics Characterization using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal \\ielocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second. third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass. gravity. mass centers of mode shapes. and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances. energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode. and amplitude- and phase- modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.

  8. Synthesis of three-dimensional calcium carbonate nanofibrous structure from eggshell using femtosecond laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishnan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural biomaterials from bone-like minerals derived from avian eggshells have been considered as promising bone substitutes owing to their biodegradability, abundance, and lower price in comparison with synthetic biomaterials. However, cell adhesion to bulk biomaterials is poor and surface modifications are required to improve biomaterial-cell interaction. Three-dimensional (3D nanostructures are preferred to act as growth support platforms for bone and stem cells. Although there have been several studies on generating nanoparticles from eggshells, no research has been reported on synthesizing 3D nanofibrous structures. Results In this study, we propose a novel technique to synthesize 3D calcium carbonate interwoven nanofibrous platforms from eggshells using high repetition femtosecond laser irradiation. The eggshell waste is value engineered to calcium carbonate nanofibrous layer in a single step under ambient conditions. Our striking results demonstrate that by controlling the laser pulse repetition, nanostructures with different nanofiber density can be achieved. This approach presents an important step towards synthesizing 3D interwoven nanofibrous platforms from natural biomaterials. Conclusion The synthesized 3D nanofibrous structures can promote biomaterial interfacial properties to improve cell-platform surface interaction and develop new functional biomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications.

  9. Influence of laser cladding regimes on structural features and mechanical properties of coatings on titanium substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyutina, Yulia N.; Lazurenko, Daria V.; Bataev, Ivan A.; Movtchan, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an influence of the tantalum content on the structure and properties of surface layers of the titanium alloy doped using a laser treatment technology was investigated. It was found that an increase of a quantity of filler powder per one millimeter of a track length contributed to a rise of the content of undissolved particles in coatings. The maximum thickness of a cladded layer was reached at the mass of powder per the length unit equaled to 5.5 g/cm. Coatings were characterized by the formation of a dendrite structure with attributes of segregation. The width of a quenched fusion zone grew with an increase in the rate of powder feed to the treated area. Significant strengthening of the titanium surface layer alloyed with tantalum was not observed; however, the presence of undissolved tantalum particles can decrease the hardness of titanium surface layers

  10. Influence of laser cladding regimes on structural features and mechanical properties of coatings on titanium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyutina, Yulia N.; Lazurenko, Daria V.; Bataev, Ivan A.; Movtchan, Igor A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper an influence of the tantalum content on the structure and properties of surface layers of the titanium alloy doped using a laser treatment technology was investigated. It was found that an increase of a quantity of filler powder per one millimeter of a track length contributed to a rise of the content of undissolved particles in coatings. The maximum thickness of a cladded layer was reached at the mass of powder per the length unit equaled to 5.5 g/cm. Coatings were characterized by the formation of a dendrite structure with attributes of segregation. The width of a quenched fusion zone grew with an increase in the rate of powder feed to the treated area. Significant strengthening of the titanium surface layer alloyed with tantalum was not observed; however, the presence of undissolved tantalum particles can decrease the hardness of titanium surface layers.

  11. Structural, morphological and electronic properties of pulsed laser grown Eu2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Prakash, Ram; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2018-05-01

    Herein, we report the growth, structural, morphological and electronic properties of Europium sesquioxide (Eu2O3) thin films on Si [1 0 0] substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited at ˜750 °C substrate temperature while the oxygen partial pressure (OPP) was varied (vacuum,˜1 mTorr, ˜10 mTorr and ˜300 mTorr). X-ray diffraction results confirm the single phase cubic structure of the film grown at ˜300 mTorr. The XRD results are also supported by the Raman's spectroscopy results. Eu-3d XPS core level spectra confirms the dominant contributions from the "3+" states of Eu in the film.

  12. Fabrication of locally micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings by fs-laser machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutz, Franz J.; Stephan, Valentin; Marchi, Gabriele; Koch, Alexander W.; Roths, Johannes; Huber, Heinz P.

    2018-06-01

    Here, we describe a method for producing locally micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings (LMFGB) by fs-laser machining. This technique enables the precise and reproducible ablation of cladding material to create circumferential grooves inside the claddings of optical fibers. From initial ablation experiments we acquired optimized process parameters. The fabricated grooves were located in the middle of uniform type I fiber Bragg gratings. LMFBGs with four different groove widths of 48, 85, 135 and 205 μ { {m}} were produced. The grooves exhibited constant depths of about 30 μ {m} and steep sidewall angles. With the combination of micro-structures and fiber Bragg gratings, fiber optic sensor elements with enhanced functionalities can be achieved.

  13. Influence of laser cladding regimes on structural features and mechanical properties of coatings on titanium substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyutina, Yulia N., E-mail: iuliiamaliutina@gmail.ru; Lazurenko, Daria V., E-mail: pavlyukova-87@mail.ru; Bataev, Ivan A., E-mail: ivanbataev@ngs.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation); Movtchan, Igor A., E-mail: igor.movtchan@enise.fr [National Engineering School in Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, 42000 France (France)

    2015-10-27

    In this paper an influence of the tantalum content on the structure and properties of surface layers of the titanium alloy doped using a laser treatment technology was investigated. It was found that an increase of a quantity of filler powder per one millimeter of a track length contributed to a rise of the content of undissolved particles in coatings. The maximum thickness of a cladded layer was reached at the mass of powder per the length unit equaled to 5.5 g/cm. Coatings were characterized by the formation of a dendrite structure with attributes of segregation. The width of a quenched fusion zone grew with an increase in the rate of powder feed to the treated area. Significant strengthening of the titanium surface layer alloyed with tantalum was not observed; however, the presence of undissolved tantalum particles can decrease the hardness of titanium surface layers.

  14. Digital laser printing of aluminum micro-structure on thermally sensitive substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenou, Michael; Sa’ar, Amir; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum metal is of particular interest for use in printed electronics due to its low cost, high conductivity and low migration rate in electrically driven organic-based devices. However, the high reactivity of Al particles at the nano-scale is a major obstacle in preparing stable inks from this metal. We describe digital printing of aluminum micro-structures by laser-induced forward transfer in a sub-nanosecond pulse regime. We manage to jet highly stable molten aluminum micro-droplets with very low divergence, less than 2 mrad, from 500 nm thin metal donor layers. We analyze the micro-structural properties of the print geometry and their dependence on droplet volume, print gap and spreading. High quality printing of aluminum micro-patterns on plastic and paper is demonstrated. (paper)

  15. Free-electron laser as a power source for a high-gradient accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    A two beam colliding linac accelerator is proposed in which one beam is intense (approx. = 1KA), of low energy (approx. = MeV), and long (approx. = 100 ns) and provides power at 1 cm wavelength through a free-electron-laser-mechanism to the second beam of a few electrons (approx. = 10 11 ), which gain energy at the rate of 250 MeV/m in a high-gradient accelerating structure and hence reach 375 GeV in 1.5 km. The intense beam is given energy by induction units and gains, and losses by radiation, 250 keV/m thus supplying 25 J/m to the accelerating structure. The luminosity, L, of two such linacs would be, at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, L = 4. x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  16. Measurement of buried undercut structures in microfluidic devices by laser fluorescent confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiguang; Liu Jing; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Fang Zhongping; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2009-01-01

    Measuring buried, undercut microstructures is a challenging task in metrology. These structures are usually characterized by measuring their cross sections after physically cutting the samples. This method is destructive and the obtained information is incomplete. The distortion due to cutting also affects the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we first apply the laser fluorescent confocal microscopy and intensity differentiation algorithm to obtain the complete three-dimensional profile of the buried, undercut structures in microfluidic devices, which are made by the soft lithography technique and bonded by the oxygen plasma method. The impact of material wettability and the refractive index (n) mismatch among the liquid, samples, cover layer, and objective on the measurement accuracy are experimentally investigated.

  17. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Calculation of the kinetics of heating and structural changes in the cartilaginous tissue under the action of laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol', E. N.; Kitai, M. S.

    1998-07-01

    A theoretical model is developed for the calculation of the temperature fields and determination of the size of a zone with structural changes in the cartilaginous tissue. The model is based on a simultaneous analysis of the heat and mass transfer processes and it takes into account the bulk absorption of laser radiation by the tissue, surface evaporation of water, and temperature dependences of the diffusion coefficients. It is assumed that under the influence of a phase transition between free and bound water, caused by heating of the cartilage to 70°C, the proteoglycans of the cartilage matrix become mobile and, as a result of such mass transfer, structural changes are induced in the cartilaginous tissue causing relaxation of stresses or denaturation. It is shown that the maximum temperature is then reached not on the irradiated surface but at some distance from it, and that the size of the zones of structural changes (denaturation depth) depends strongly on the energy density of the laser radiation and its wavelength, on the duration of the irradiation, and on the cartilage thickness. This model makes it possible to calculate the temperature fields and the depth of structural changes in laser-induced relaxation of stresses and changes in the shape of the cartilaginous tissue.

  18. Metamorphic distributed Bragg reflectors for the 1440–1600 nm spectral range: Epitaxy, formation, and regrowth of mesa structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A. Yu.; Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Novikov, I. I.; Babichev, A. V.; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Nevedomskiy, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that metamorphic In 0.3 Ga 0.7 As/In 0.3 Al 0.7 As distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with a reflection band at 1440–1600 nm and a reflectance of no less than 0.999 can be fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a GaAs substrate. It is demonstrated that mesa structures formed from metamorphic DBRs on a GaAs substrate can be regrown by MBE and microcavities can be locally formed in two separate epitaxial processes. The results obtained can find wide application in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a buried tunnel junction

  19. Silicon structuring by etching with liquid chlorine and fluorine precursors using femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, C.; Simion, S.; Zamfirescu, M.; Ulmeanu, M.; Enculescu, M.; Radoiu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the micrometer and submicrometer scale structuring of silicon by liquid chlorine and fluorine precursors with 200 fs laser pulses working at both fundamental (775 nm) and frequency doubled (387 nm) wavelengths. The silicon surface was irradiated at normal incidence by immersing the Si (111) substrates in a glass container filled with liquid chlorine (CCl 4 ) and fluorine (C 2 Cl 3 F 3 ) precursors. We report that silicon surfaces develop an array of spikes with single step irradiation processes at 775 nm and equally at 387 nm. When irradiating the Si surface with 400 pulses at 330 mJ/cm 2 laser fluence and a 775 nm wavelength, the average height of the formed Si spikes in the case of fluorine precursors is 4.2 μm, with a full width at half maximum of 890 nm. At the same irradiation wavelength chlorine precursors develop Si spikes 4 μm in height and with a full width at half maximum of 2.3 μm with irradiation of 700 pulses at 560 mJ/cm 2 laser fluence. Well ordered areas of submicrometer spikes with an average height of about 500 nm and a width of 300 nm have been created by irradiation at 387 nm by chlorine precursors, whereas the fluorine precursors fabricate spikes with an average height of 700 nm and a width of about 200 nm. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the surface show that the formation of the micrometer and sub-micrometer spikes involves a combination of capillary waves on the molten silicon surface and laser-induced etching of silicon, at both 775 nm and 387 nm wavelength irradiation. The energy-dispersive x-ray measurements indicate the presence of chlorine and fluorine precursors on the structured surface. The fluorine precursors create a more ordered area of Si spikes at both micrometer and sub-micrometer scales. The potential use of patterned Si substrates with gradient topography as model scaffolds for the systematic exploration of the role of 3D micro/nano morphology on cell

  20. On the role of melt flow into the surface structure and porosity development during selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Chunlei; Panwisawas, Chinnapat; Ward, Mark; Basoalto, Hector C.; Brooks, Jeffery W.; Attallah, Moataz M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the development of surface structure and porosity of Ti–6Al–4V samples fabricated by selective laser melting under different laser scanning speeds and powder layer thicknesses has been studied and correlated with the melt flow behaviour through both experimental and modelling approaches. The as-fabricated samples were investigated using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interaction between laser beam and powder particles was studied by both high speed imaging observation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation. It was found that at a high laser power and a fixed powder layer thickness (20 μm), the samples contain particularly low porosity when the laser scanning speeds are below 2700 mm/s. Further increase of scanning speed led to increase of porosity but not significantly. The porosity is even more sensitive to powder layer thickness with the use of thick powder layers (above 40 μm) leading to significant porosity. The increase of porosity with laser scanning speed and powder layer thickness is not inconsistent with the observed increase in surface roughness complicated by increasingly irregular-shaped laser scanned tracks and an increased number of discontinuity and cave-like pores on the top surfaces. The formation of pores and development of rough surfaces were found by both high speed imaging and modelling, to be strongly associated with unstable melt flow and splashing of molten material

  1. Chemical composition of dome-shaped structures grown on titanium by multi-pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergy, E.; Perez del Pino, A.; Serra, P.; Morenza, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The specific dome-shaped structures were grown by multi-pulse Nd:YAG (λ=1.064 μm, τ=∼300 ns, and ν=30 kHz) laser irradiation of titanium targets in air at atmospheric pressure. The laser intensity values were chosen below the single-laser-pulse melting threshold of titanium. The chemical composition of the structures was studied as a function of laser pulse number as well as laser intensity, both at the outer surface layer and in depth. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX) were used as diagnostic techniques. Morphological investigations were performed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained results revealed a lower oxygen concentration in the centre of the structures as compared to the borders and a lower concentration on the surface than in the depth. Moreover, it was found that the stoichiometry of the formed TiO 2-x oxides increases from the structures centre towards the border and from the surface towards the depth

  2. Numerical analysis of high-power broad-area laser diode with improved heat sinking structure using epitaxial liftoff technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghyun; Sung, Yunsu; Yang, Jung-Tack; Choi, Woo-Young

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of high-power broad-area laser diodes with the improved heat sinking structure are numerically analyzed by a technology computer-aided design based self-consistent electro-thermal-optical simulation. The high-power laser diodes consist of a separate confinement heterostructure of a compressively strained InGaAsP quantum well and GaInP optical cavity layers, and a 100-μm-wide rib and a 2000-μm long cavity. In order to overcome the performance deteriorations of high-power laser diodes caused by self-heating such as thermal rollover and thermal blooming, we propose the high-power broad-area laser diode with improved heat-sinking structure, which another effective heat-sinking path toward the substrate side is added by removing a bulk substrate. It is possible to obtain by removing a 400-μm-thick GaAs substrate with an AlAs sacrificial layer utilizing well-known epitaxial liftoff techniques. In this study, we present the performance improvement of the high-power laser diode with the heat-sinking structure by suppressing thermal effects. It is found that the lateral far-field angle as well as quantum well temperature is expected to be improved by the proposed heat-sinking structure which is required for high beam quality and optical output power, respectively.

  3. Fabrication of hydrophobic structures on coronary stent surface based on direct three-beam laser interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long-yue; Zhou, Wei-qi; Wang, Yuan-bo; Wang, Si-qi; Bai, Chong; Li, Shi-ming; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun-nan; Cui, Cheng-kun; Li, Yong-liang

    2016-05-01

    To solve the problems with coronary stent implantation, coronary artery stent surface was directly modified by three-beam laser interference lithography through imitating the water-repellent surface of lotus leaf, and uniform micro-nano structures with the controllable period were fabricated. The morphological properties and contact angle (CA) of the microstructure were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and CA system. The water repellency of stent was also evaluated by the contact and then separation between the water drop and the stent. The results show that the close-packed concave structure with the period of about 12 μm can be fabricated on the stent surface with special parameters (incident angle of 3°, laser energy density of 2.2 J·cm-2 and exposure time of 80 s) by using the three-beam laser at 1 064 nm, and the structure has good water repellency with CA of 120°.

  4. THE INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENCE OF LASER RADIATION ON THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE ELECTROLYTIC NICKEL COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zabludovsky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of laser radiation effect on the structure and mechanical properties of electrodeposited nickel composite coatings containing ultrafine diamonds. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel films was carried out with the addition of a standard solution of ultrafine diamonds (UFD on laser-electrolytic installation, built on the basis of the gas-discharge CO2 laser. Mechanical testing the durability of coatings were performed on a machine with reciprocating samples in conditions of dry friction against steel. The spectral microanalysis of the elemental composition of the film - substrate was performed on REMMA-102-02. Findings. Research of nickel coatings and modified ultrafine diamond electrodeposited under external stimulation laser demonstrated the dependence of the structure and mechanical properties of composite electrolytic coating (CEC, and the qualitative and quantitative distribution of nanodiamond coprecipitated from an electrodeposition method. Originality. The effect of laser light on the process of co-precipitation of the UFD, which increases the micro-hardness and wear resistance of electrolytic nickel coatings was determined. Practical value. The test method of laser-stimulated composite electrolytic nickel electrodeposition coating is an effective method of local increase in wear resistance of metal coatings, which provides durability save performance (functional properties of the surface.

  5. Resonant ionization by laser beams: application to ions sources and to study the nuclear structure of radioactive tellurium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifi, R.

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive ion beams that are produced through current isotope separators are well separated according to the A mass but not according to the Z parameter. The resonant ionization through laser beams applied to ion sources allows the production of radioactive ion beam in a very selective and efficient way by eliminating the isobaric contamination. The first chapter is dedicated to the resonant ionization by laser beams, we describe the principle, the experimental setting, the lasers used, the ionization schemes and the domain of application. The second chapter deals with the application of resonant ionization to laser ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams. We present experimental tests performed for getting copper ion beams. Resonant ionization through laser is also used in the spectroscopy experiments performed at the Isolde (isotope separation on-line device) installation in CERN where more than 20 elements are ionized very efficiently. The technique is based on a frequency scanning around the excitation transition of the atoms in order to probe the hyperfine structure. Laser spectroscopy allows the determination of the hyperfine structure as well as the isotopic shift of atoms. In the third chapter the method is applied to the spectroscopy of tellurium atoms. First, we define the 2 parameters on which the extraction is based: charge radius and nuclear moments, then we present several theoretical models that we have used to assess our experimental results. (A.C.)

  6. Ablation plume structure and dynamics in ambient gas observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kato, M.; Wakaida, I.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of an ablation plume in ambient gas has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. The second harmonic beam from an Nd:YAG laser (0.5–6 J/cm 2 ) was focused on a sintered oxide pellet or a metal chip of gadolinium. The produced plume was subsequently intersected with a sheet-shaped UV beam from a dye laser so that time-resolved fluorescence images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera at various delay times. The obtained cross-sectional images of the plume indicate that the ablated ground state atoms and ions of gadolinium accumulate in a hemispherical contact layer between the plume and the ambient gas, and a cavity containing a smaller density of ablated species is formed near the center of the plume. At earlier expansion stage, another luminous component also expands in the cavity so that it coalesces into the hemispherical layer. The splitting and coalescence for atomic plume occur later than those for ionic plume. Furthermore, the hemispherical layer of neutral atoms appears later than that of ions; however, the locations of the layers are nearly identical. This coincidence of the appearance locations of the layers strongly suggests that the neutral atoms in the hemispherical layer are produced as a consequence of three-body recombination of ions through collisions with gas atoms. The obtained knowledge regarding plume expansion dynamics and detailed plume structure is useful for optimizing the experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis. - Highlights: • Ablated ground-state species accumulated in a thin hemispherical boundary layer • Inside the layer, a cavity containing a small density of ablated species was formed. • The hemispherical layers of atoms and ions appeared at a nearly identical location. • The measured intensity peak variation was in good agreement with a model prediction. • We ascribed the dominant process for forming the layer to a three-body recombination

  7. Experimental validation of a newly designed 6 degrees of freedom scanning laser head: Application to three-dimensional beam structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maio, D.; Copertaro, E.

    2013-01-01

    A new scanning laser head is designed to use single Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) for performing measurements up to 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) at a target. The scanning head is supported by a rotating hollow shaft, which allows the laser beam to travel up to the scanning head from an opposite direction where an LDV is set up. The scanning head is made of a set of two mirrors, which deflects the laser beam with an angle so that the rotation of the scanning head produces a conical scan. When measurements are performed at the focal point of the conical scan then three translational vibration components can be measured, otherwise the very small circle scan, before and after the focal point, can measure up to 6 degrees of freedom, including three translations and three rotations. This paper presents the 6DOF scanning head and the measurements of 3D operational deflection shapes of a test structure

  8. Morphology and structural studies of WO_3 films deposited on SrTiO_3 by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalhori, Hossein; Porter, Stephen B.; Esmaeily, Amir Sajjad; Coey, Michael; Ranjbar, Mehdi; Salamati, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly oriented WO_3 stoichiometric films were determined using pulsed laser deposition method. • Effective parameters on thin films including temperature, oxygen partial pressure and laser energy fluency was studied. • A phase transition was observed in WO_3 films at 700 °C from monoclinic to tetragonal. - Abstract: WO_3 films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO_3 (001) substrates. The effects of substrate temperature, oxygen partial pressure and energy fluence of the laser beam on the physical properties of the films were studied. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns during and after growth were used to determine the surface structure and morphology. The chemical composition and crystalline phases were obtained by XPS and XRD respectively. AFM results showed that the roughness and skewness of the films depend on the substrate temperature during deposition. Optimal conditions were determined for the growth of the highly oriented films.

  9. Laser Scanning in Engineering Surveying: Methods of Measurement and Modeling of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenda Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the uses of laser scanning in the field of engineering surveying. It is currently one of the main trends of research which is developed at the Department of Engineering Surveying and Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. They mainly relate to the issues associated with tower and shell structures, infrastructure of rail routes, or development of digital elevation models for a wide range of applications. These issues often require the use of a variety of scanning techniques (stationary, mobile, but the differences also regard the planning of measurement stations and methods of merging point clouds. Significant differences appear during the analysis of point clouds, especially when modeling objects. Analysis of the selected parameters is already possible basing on ad hoc measurements carried out on a point cloud. However, only the construction of three-dimensional models provides complete information about the shape of structures, allows to perform the analysis in any place and reduces the amount of the stored data. Some structures can be modeled in the form of simple axes, sections, or solids, for others it becomes necessary to create sophisticated models of surfaces, depicting local deformations. The examples selected for the study allow to assess the scope of measurement and office work for a variety of uses related to the issue set forth in the title of this study. Additionally, the latest, forward-looking technology was presented - laser scanning performed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones. Currently, it is basically in the prototype phase, but it might be expected to make a significant progress in numerous applications in the field of engineering surveying.

  10. Intragranular cellular segregation network structure strengthening 316L stainless steel prepared by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Wikman, Stefan [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Cui, Daqing [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian, E-mail: shen@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). Almost fully dense 316L stainless steel (SS316L) components were prepared from gas-atomized powder and with optimized SLM processing parameters. Tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C and 250 °C and the results showed that SLM SS316L fulfill the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterization reveals the presence of hierarchical macro-, micro- and nano-structures in as-built samples that were very different from SS316L microstructures prepared by other established methods. The formation of a characteristic intragranular cellular segregation network microstructure appears to contribute to the increase of yield strength without losing ductility. Silicon oxide nano-inclusions were formed during the SLM process that generated a micro-hardness fluctuation in the building direction. The combined influence of a cellular microstructure and the nano-inclusions constraints the size of ductile dimples to nano-scale. The crack propagation is hindered by a pinning effect that improves the defect-tolerance of the SLM SS316L. This work proves that it was possible to manufacture SS316L with properties suitable for ITER First Wall panels. Further studies on irradiation properties of SLM SS316L and manufacturing of larger real-size components are needed. - Highlights: • The mechanical properties of SS316L made by selective laser melting fulfill RCC-MR. • SLM SS316L consists hierarchical structures of high heterogeneity. • Silicon rich oxide nano-inclusions are formed unexpectedly during SLM process. • Cellular structure and oxide nano-inclusions strengthen SLM SS316L.

  11. High-precision hyperfine structure measurement in slow atomic ion beams by collinear laser-rf double resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarjit Sen; Childs, W.J.; Goodman, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    A new collinear laser-ion beam apparatus for slow ions (1 to 1.5 keV) has been built for measuring the hyperfine structure of metastable levels of ions with laser-rf double resonance technique. Narrow linewidths of ∼60 kHz (FWHM) have been observed for the first time in such systems. As a first application the hyperfine structure of the 4f 7 ( 8 S 0 )5d 9 D/sub J/ 0 metastable levels of /sup 151,153/Eu + has been measured with high precision. 10 refs., 8 figs

  12. Interference of laser-induced resonances in the continuous structures of a helium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magunov, A I; Strakhova, S I

    2003-01-01

    Coherent effects in the interference of overlapping laser-induced resonances in helium atoms are considered. The simultaneous action of single-mode radiation of the 294-nm second harmonic of a cw dye laser and a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser on helium atoms provides the overlap of two resonances induced by transitions from the 1s2s 1 S and 1s4s 1 S helium levels. The shape of the overlapping laser-induced resonances in the rotating-wave approximation is described by analytic expressions, which depend on the laser radiation intensities and the ratio of laser frequencies. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  13. Tribological performance of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium and a high toughness bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large LIPSS covered areas were manufactured by fs-laser irradiation on steel (X30CrMoN15-1) and titanium (Ti). • LIPSS with spatial periods around 500 nm were formed homogeneously on both materials. • Tribological performance of LIPSS covered areas was qualified in reciprocal sliding tests in two different lubricating oils. • LIPSS on titanium significantly reduced the friction coefficient and wear when a fully formulated engine oil was used. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were processed on steel (X30CrMoN15-1) and titanium (Ti) surfaces by irradiation in air with linear polarized femtosecond laser pulses with a pulse duration of 30 fs at 790 nm wavelength. For the processing of large LIPSS covered surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm), the laser fluence and the spatial spot overlap were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry. The laser-processed surfaces were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spatial LIPSS periods between 450 and 600 nm were determined. The nanostructured surface regions were tribologically tested under reciprocal sliding conditions against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel. Paraffin oil and engine oil were used as lubricants for 1000 sliding cycles at 1 Hz with a normal load of 1.0 N. The corresponding wear tracks were analyzed by OM and SEM. In particular cases, the laser-generated nanostructures endured the tribological treatment. Simultaneously, a significant reduction of the friction coefficient and the wear was observed in the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) areas when compared to the non-irradiated surface. The experiments reveal the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications.

  14. Tribological performance of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium and a high toughness bearing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, J.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large LIPSS covered areas were manufactured by fs-laser irradiation on steel (X30CrMoN15-1) and titanium (Ti). • LIPSS with spatial periods around 500 nm were formed homogeneously on both materials. • Tribological performance of LIPSS covered areas was qualified in reciprocal sliding tests in two different lubricating oils. • LIPSS on titanium significantly reduced the friction coefficient and wear when a fully formulated engine oil was used. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were processed on steel (X30CrMoN15-1) and titanium (Ti) surfaces by irradiation in air with linear polarized femtosecond laser pulses with a pulse duration of 30 fs at 790 nm wavelength. For the processing of large LIPSS covered surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm), the laser fluence and the spatial spot overlap were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry. The laser-processed surfaces were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spatial LIPSS periods between 450 and 600 nm were determined. The nanostructured surface regions were tribologically tested under reciprocal sliding conditions against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel. Paraffin oil and engine oil were used as lubricants for 1000 sliding cycles at 1 Hz with a normal load of 1.0 N. The corresponding wear tracks were analyzed by OM and SEM. In particular cases, the laser-generated nanostructures endured the tribological treatment. Simultaneously, a significant reduction of the friction coefficient and the wear was observed in the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) areas when compared to the non-irradiated surface. The experiments reveal the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications

  15. Numerical Simulation on the Origin of Solidification Cracking in Laser Welded Thick-Walled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Bakir

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors affecting the use of lasers in the industry for welding thick structures is the process accompanying solidification cracks. These cracks mostly occurring along the welding direction in the welding center, and strongly affect the safety of the welded components. In the present study, to obtain a better understanding of the relation between the weld pool geometry, the stress distribution and the solidification cracking, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD model was combined with a thermo-mechanical model. The CFD model was employed to analyze the flow of the molten metal in the weld pool during the laser beam welding process. The weld pool geometry estimated from the CFD model was used as a heat source in the thermal model to calculate the temperature field and the stress development and distributions. The CFD results showed a bulging region in the middle depth of the weld and two narrowing areas separating the bulging region from the top and bottom surface. The thermo-mechanical simulations showed a concentration of tension stresses, transversally and vertically, directly after the solidification during cooling in the region of the solidification cracking.

  16. Analysis of fine structure of X-ray spectra from laser-irradiated gold dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guohong; Zhang Jiyan; Zhang Baohan; Zhou Yuqing; Li Jun

    2000-01-01

    The X-ray emission spectra from highly stripped plasma of gold has been observed by focusing a Nd-glass frequency tripled laser beam onto the surface of the gold dot at the XINGGUANG II laser facilities. The spectra of gold ions in the range of 0.0003 nm-0.0004 nm was recorded using the plate PET (2d = 0.8742 nm) crystal spectrometer. The code of average energy of relativistic sub-arrays was built on the basis of the code MCDF (Multi-Configuration-Dirac-Fock). Using the spin-orbit-split-arrays (SOSA) formalism, mean wavelengths and full widths at half height of isolated peaks of sub-arrays of lower charged gold ions, isoelectronic with Cu, Zn, Ga and Ge, was calculated. Twenty-six lines are interpreted, they pertain mainly to transitions of 3d-nf (n = 5,6,7) of gold ions from Ni-like to As-like. These results of experiment and calculation have important application in plasma diagnostics and examination of high Z elemental atomic structure calculation

  17. Application of scanning laser Doppler vibrometry for delamination detection in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Pawel; Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2017-12-01

    In this paper application of scanning laser Doppler vibrometry for delamination detection in composite structures was presented. Delamination detection was based on a guided wave propagation method. In this papers results from numerical and experimental research were presented. In the case of numerical research, the Spectral Element Method (SEM) was utilized, in which a mesh was composed of 3D spectral elements. SEM model included also a piezoelectric transducer. In the experimental research guided waves were excited using the piezoelectric transducer whereas the sensing process was conducted using scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). Analysis of guided wave propagation and its interaction with delamination was based on a full wavefield approach. Attention was focused on interactions of guided waves with delamination manifested by A0 mode reflection, A0 mode entrapment, and S0/A0 mode conversion. Delamination was simulated by a teflon insert located between plies of composite material. Results of interaction with symmetrically and nonsymmetrical placed delamination (in respect to the composite sample thickness) were presented. Moreover, the authors investigated different size of delaminations. Damage detection was based on a new signal processing algorithm proposed by the authors. In this approach the weighted RMS was utilized selectively. It means that the summation in RMS formula was performed only for a specially selected time instances. Results for simple composite panels, panel with honeycomb core, and real stiffened composite panel from the aircraft were presented.

  18. Automatic registration of Iphone images to LASER point clouds of the urban structures using shape features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sirmacek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusion of 3D airborne laser (LIDAR data and terrestrial optical imagery can be applied in 3D urban modeling and model up-dating. The most challenging aspect of the fusion procedure is registering the terrestrial optical images on the LIDAR point clouds. In this article, we propose an approach for registering these two different data from different sensor sources. As we use iPhone camera images which are taken in front of the interested urban structure by the application user and the high resolution LIDAR point clouds of the acquired by an airborne laser sensor. After finding the photo capturing position and orientation from the iPhone photograph metafile, we automatically select the area of interest in the point cloud and transform it into a range image which has only grayscale intensity levels according to the distance from the image acquisition position. We benefit from local features for registering the iPhone image to the generated range image. In this article, we have applied the registration process based on local feature extraction and graph matching. Finally, the registration result is used for facade texture mapping on the 3D building surface mesh which is generated from the LIDAR point cloud. Our experimental results indicate possible usage of the proposed algorithm framework for 3D urban map updating and enhancing purposes.

  19. Coherent scatter-controlled phase-change grating structures in silicon using femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Edfuf, Yasser; Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Puerto, Daniel; Florian, Camilo; Garcia-Leis, Adianez; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago; Solis, Javier; Siegel, Jan

    2017-07-04

    Periodic structures of alternating amorphous-crystalline fringes have been fabricated in silicon using repetitive femtosecond laser exposure (800 nm wavelength and 120 fs duration). The method is based on the interference of the incident laser light with far- and near-field scattered light, leading to local melting at the interference maxima, as demonstrated by femtosecond microscopy. Exploiting this strategy, lines of highly regular amorphous fringes can be written. The fringes have been characterized in detail using optical microscopy combined modelling, which enables a determination of the three-dimensional shape of individual fringes. 2D micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that the space between amorphous fringes remains crystalline. We demonstrate that the fringe period can be tuned over a range of 410 nm - 13 µm by changing the angle of incidence and inverting the beam scan direction. Fine control over the lateral dimensions, thickness, surface depression and optical contrast of the fringes is obtained via adjustment of pulse number, fluence and spot size. Large-area, highly homogeneous gratings composed of amorphous fringes with micrometer width and millimeter length can readily be fabricated. The here presented fabrication technique is expected to have applications in the fields of optics, nanoelectronics, and mechatronics and should be applicable to other materials.

  20. Optical and structure characterization of cinnamon nanoparticles synthesized by pulse laser ablation in liquid (PLAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel Salim, Ali; Bidin, Noriah; Bakhtiar, Hazri; Krishna Ghoshal, Sib; Azawi, Mohammed Al; Krishnan, Ganesan

    2018-05-01

    Organic nanoparticles development is under exploration due to its beneficial applications in nanobiomedical and research interests. PLAL technique of Q-switched 1064-Nd: YAG (10 ns pulse duration, repetition rate 1 Hz and laser energy 20-100 mJ) has inherent advantages and rapid growth of nanoparticles when compared to conventional methods because of the controlled fabricated nanoparticles, stability, and purity. Cinnamon sticks as a target are immersed in 5 ml ethanol medium and irradiated by a laser beam for the growth process. The morphology, optical characteristic, and bonding structure of cinnamon nanoparticles (CNPs) are determined and evaluated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Spherical, homogenous and high crystallinity CNPs was revealed within the particle size range of 2 - 28 nm. The absorption band was found in the ultraviolent region around 259 nm and 319 nm. The present of FTIR spectra confirmed that the nanoparticles were covered by plant secondary metabolites. The experimental findings revealed that the synthesize CNPs in ethanol has a potential for nanomedicine applications.

  1. Structural characterization of biomedical Co–Cr–Mo components produced by direct metal laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barucca, G.; Santecchia, E.; Majni, G.; Girardin, E.; Bassoli, E.; Denti, L.; Gatto, A.; Iuliano, L.; Moskalewicz, T.; Mengucci, P.

    2015-01-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technique to manufacture complex functional mechanical parts from a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Usually, the mechanical components produced by this procedure show higher residual porosity and poorer mechanical properties than those obtained by conventional manufacturing techniques. In this work, a Co–Cr–Mo alloy produced by DMLS with a composition suitable for biomedical applications was submitted to hardness measurements and structural characterization. The alloy showed a hardness value remarkably higher than those commonly obtained for the same cast or wrought alloys. In order to clarify the origin of this unexpected result, the sample microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). For the first time, a homogeneous microstructure comprised of an intricate network of thin ε (hcp)-lamellae distributed inside a γ (fcc) phase was observed. The ε-lamellae grown on the {111} γ planes limit the dislocation slip inside the γ (fcc) phase, causing the measured hardness increase. The results suggest possible innovative applications of the DMLS technique to the production of mechanical parts in the medical and dental fields. - Highlights: • Samples of a Co–Cr–Mo biomedical alloy were produced by direct metal laser sintering. • Hardness values unexpectedly high were attributed to a peculiar microstructure. • Fine lamellae of the ε-phase alternated to the γ-phase were observed for the first time. • A nucleation and growth model for the observed microstructure is proposed

  2. Structural characterization of biomedical Co–Cr–Mo components produced by direct metal laser sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barucca, G., E-mail: g.barucca@univpm.it [SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Santecchia, E.; Majni, G. [SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Girardin, E. [DISCO, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Bassoli, E.; Denti, L.; Gatto, A. [DIMeC, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905/B, Modena 41125 (Italy); Iuliano, L. [DISPEA, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Moskalewicz, T. [Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Mengucci, P. [SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technique to manufacture complex functional mechanical parts from a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Usually, the mechanical components produced by this procedure show higher residual porosity and poorer mechanical properties than those obtained by conventional manufacturing techniques. In this work, a Co–Cr–Mo alloy produced by DMLS with a composition suitable for biomedical applications was submitted to hardness measurements and structural characterization. The alloy showed a hardness value remarkably higher than those commonly obtained for the same cast or wrought alloys. In order to clarify the origin of this unexpected result, the sample microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). For the first time, a homogeneous microstructure comprised of an intricate network of thin ε (hcp)-lamellae distributed inside a γ (fcc) phase was observed. The ε-lamellae grown on the {111}{sub γ} planes limit the dislocation slip inside the γ (fcc) phase, causing the measured hardness increase. The results suggest possible innovative applications of the DMLS technique to the production of mechanical parts in the medical and dental fields. - Highlights: • Samples of a Co–Cr–Mo biomedical alloy were produced by direct metal laser sintering. • Hardness values unexpectedly high were attributed to a peculiar microstructure. • Fine lamellae of the ε-phase alternated to the γ-phase were observed for the first time. • A nucleation and growth model for the observed microstructure is proposed.

  3. Terrestrial laser scanning to quantify above-ground biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owers, Christopher J.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2018-05-01

    Above-ground biomass represents a small yet significant contributor to carbon storage in coastal wetlands. Despite this, above-ground biomass is often poorly quantified, particularly in areas where vegetation structure is complex. Traditional methods for providing accurate estimates involve harvesting vegetation to develop mangrove allometric equations and quantify saltmarsh biomass in quadrats. However broad scale application of these methods may not capture structural variability in vegetation resulting in a loss of detail and estimates with considerable uncertainty. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) collects high resolution three-dimensional point clouds capable of providing detailed structural morphology of vegetation. This study demonstrates that TLS is a suitable non-destructive method for estimating biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation. We compare volumetric models, 3-D surface reconstruction and rasterised volume, and point cloud elevation histogram modelling techniques to estimate biomass. Our results show that current volumetric modelling approaches for estimating TLS-derived biomass are comparable to traditional mangrove allometrics and saltmarsh harvesting. However, volumetric modelling approaches oversimplify vegetation structure by under-utilising the large amount of structural information provided by the point cloud. The point cloud elevation histogram model presented in this study, as an alternative to volumetric modelling, utilises all of the information within the point cloud, as opposed to sub-sampling based on specific criteria. This method is simple but highly effective for both mangrove (r2 = 0.95) and saltmarsh (r2 > 0.92) vegetation. Our results provide evidence that application of TLS in coastal wetlands is an effective non-destructive method to accurately quantify biomass for structurally complex vegetation.

  4. Structure stability index allocation theory and measurement of laser prototype facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junwei; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Zhou Hai; Feng Bin; Lin Donghui; Jing Feng; Zhou Yi; Wang Shilong

    2008-01-01

    Structure stability is an important design index of ICF driver. Based on laser prototype facility(TIL) design characteristic of multi-pass amplifier and frame structure, the optical matrix is used to analyze the single optical element influence on the beam drift and get the mathematic model. Considering all the optical elements influence on the beam drift, the mathematic model of the optical element stability index allocation is built, the parameter relation of the mathematic model is defined according to the structure characteristic of TIL, the stability index of each optical element is got as the support structure design index. Charge-coupled device(CCD) detect technology is used to measure the general beam stability of TIL. The root mean square beam drift in x and y direction are 2.78 μm, the difference between peak and valley values are 14.4 μm and 15.60 μm, respectively. The result indicates that the stability drift of the prototype facility can satisfy the design requirement, the way of the stability allocation is reasonable. (authors)

  5. In vivo assessment of the structure of skin microcirculation by reflectance confocal-laser-scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugata, Keiichi; Osanai, Osamu; Kawada, Hiromitsu

    2012-02-01

    One of the major roles of the skin microcirculation is to supply oxygen and nutrition to the surrounding tissue. Regardless of the close relationship between the microcirculation and the surrounding tissue, there are few non-invasive methods that can evaluate both the microcirculation and its surrounding tissue at the same site. We visualized microcapillary plexus structures in human skin using in vivo reflectance confocal-laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM), Vivascope 3000® (Lucid Inc., USA) and Image J software (National Institutes of Health, USA) for video image processing. CLSM is a non-invasive technique that can visualize the internal structure of the skin at the cellular level. In addition to internal morphological information such as the extracellular matrix, our method reveals capillary structures up to the depth of the subpapillary plexus at the same site without the need for additional optical systems. Video images at specific depths of the inner forearm skin were recorded. By creating frame-to-frame difference images from the video images using off-line video image processing, we obtained images that emphasize the brightness depending on changes of intensity coming from the movement of blood cells. Merging images from different depths of the skin elucidates the 3-dimensional fine line-structure of the microcirculation. Overall our results show the feasibility of a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging technique to characterize the skin microcirculation and the surrounding tissue.

  6. Femtosecond laser fabricated spike structures for selective control of cellular behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlie, Sabrina; Fadeeva, Elena; Koch, Jürgen; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris N

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate the potential of femtosecond laser generated micrometer sized spike structures as functional surfaces for selective cell controlling. The spike dimensions as well as the average spike to spike distance can be easily tuned by varying the process parameters. Moreover, negative replications in soft materials such as silicone elastomer can be produced. This allows tailoring of wetting properties of the spike structures and their negative replicas representing a reduced surface contact area. Furthermore, we investigated material effects on cellular behavior. By comparing human fibroblasts and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells we found that the influence of the material was cell specific. The cells not only changed their morphology, but also the cell growth was affected. Whereas, neuroblastoma cells proliferated at the same rate on the spike structures as on the control surfaces, the proliferation of fibroblasts was reduced by the spike structures. These effects can result from the cell specific adhesion patterns as shown in this work. These findings show a possibility to design defined surface microstructures, which could control cellular behavior in a cell specific manner.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Optimized Diamond Lattice Structure for Bone Scaffolds Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Z.; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Miao; Jafar, Salman

    2018-01-01

    Developments in selective laser melting (SLM) have enabled the fabrication of periodic cellular lattice structures characterized by suitable properties matching the bone tissue well and by fluid permeability from interconnected structures. These multifunctional performances are significantly affected by cell topology and constitutive properties of applied materials. In this respect, a diamond unit cell was designed in particular volume fractions corresponding to the host bone tissue and optimized with a smooth surface at nodes leading to fewer stress concentrations. There were 33 porous titanium samples with different volume fractions, from 1.28 to 18.6%, manufactured using SLM. All of them were performed under compressive load to determine the deformation and failure mechanisms, accompanied by an in-situ approach using digital image correlation (DIC) to reveal stress–strain evolution. The results showed that lattice structures manufactured by SLM exhibited comparable properties to those of trabecular bone, avoiding the effects of stress-shielding and increasing longevity of implants. The curvature of optimized surface can play a role in regulating the relationship between density and mechanical properties. Owing to the release of stress concentration from optimized surface, the failure mechanism of porous titanium has been changed from the pattern of bottom-up collapse by layer (or cell row) to that of the diagonal (45°) shear band, resulting in the significant enhancement of the structural strength. PMID:29510492

  8. Mechanical Properties of Optimized Diamond Lattice Structure for Bone Scaffolds Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, David Z; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Miao; Jafar, Salman

    2018-03-03

    Developments in selective laser melting (SLM) have enabled the fabrication of periodic cellular lattice structures characterized by suitable properties matching the bone tissue well and by fluid permeability from interconnected structures. These multifunctional performances are significantly affected by cell topology and constitutive properties of applied materials. In this respect, a diamond unit cell was designed in particular volume fractions corresponding to the host bone tissue and optimized with a smooth surface at nodes leading to fewer stress concentrations. There were 33 porous titanium samples with different volume fractions, from 1.28 to 18.6%, manufactured using SLM. All of them were performed under compressive load to determine the deformation and failure mechanisms, accompanied by an in-situ approach using digital image correlation (DIC) to reveal stress-strain evolution. The results showed that lattice structures manufactured by SLM exhibited comparable properties to those of trabecular bone, avoiding the effects of stress-shielding and increasing longevity of implants. The curvature of optimized surface can play a role in regulating the relationship between density and mechanical properties. Owing to the release of stress concentration from optimized surface, the failure mechanism of porous titanium has been changed from the pattern of bottom-up collapse by layer (or cell row) to that of the diagonal (45°) shear band, resulting in the significant enhancement of the structural strength.

  9. New perspectives on the ecology of tree structure and tree communities through terrestrial laser scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Jackson, Tobias; Patrick Bentley, Lisa; Lau, Alvaro; Shenkin, Alexander; Herold, Martin; Calders, Kim; Bartholomeus, Harm; Disney, Mathias I

    2018-04-06

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) opens up the possibility of describing the three-dimensional structures of trees in natural environments with unprecedented detail and accuracy. It is already being extensively applied to describe how ecosystem biomass and structure vary between sites, but can also facilitate major advances in developing and testing mechanistic theories of tree form and forest structure, thereby enabling us to understand why trees and forests have the biomass and three-dimensional structure they do. Here we focus on the ecological challenges and benefits of understanding tree form, and highlight some advances related to capturing and describing tree shape that are becoming possible with the advent of TLS. We present examples of ongoing work that applies, or could potentially apply, new TLS measurements to better understand the constraints on optimization of tree form. Theories of resource distribution networks, such as metabolic scaling theory, can be tested and further refined. TLS can also provide new approaches to the scaling of woody surface area and crown area, and thereby better quantify the metabolism of trees. Finally, we demonstrate how we can develop a more mechanistic understanding of the effects of avoidance of wind risk on tree form and maximum size. Over the next few years, TLS promises to deliver both major empirical and conceptual advances in the quantitative understanding of trees and tree-dominated ecosystems, leading to advances in understanding the ecology of why trees and ecosystems look and grow the way they do.

  10. Graph Structure-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using a Hybrid Method of 2D Laser Scan and Monocular Camera Image in Environments with Laser Scan Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekjun Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an essential issue for robot navigation, allowing the robot to perform tasks autonomously. However, in environments with laser scan ambiguity, such as long corridors, the conventional SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping algorithms exploiting a laser scanner may not estimate the robot pose robustly. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel localization approach based on a hybrid method incorporating a 2D laser scanner and a monocular camera in the framework of a graph structure-based SLAM. 3D coordinates of image feature points are acquired through the hybrid method, with the assumption that the wall is normal to the ground and vertically flat. However, this assumption can be relieved, because the subsequent feature matching process rejects the outliers on an inclined or non-flat wall. Through graph optimization with constraints generated by the hybrid method, the final robot pose is estimated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, real experiments were conducted in an indoor environment with a long corridor. The experimental results were compared with those of the conventional GMappingapproach. The results demonstrate that it is possible to localize the robot in environments with laser scan ambiguity in real time, and the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional approach.

  11. Structural damage detection using higher-order finite elements and a scanning laser vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Si

    In contrast to conventional non-destructive evaluation methods, dynamics-based damage detection methods are capable of rapid integrity evaluation of large structures and have received considerable attention from aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering communities in recent years. However, the identifiable damage size using dynamics-based methods is determined by the number of sensors used, level of measurement noise, accuracy of structural models, and signal processing techniques. In this thesis we study dynamics of structures with damage and then derive and experimentally verify new model-independent structural damage detection methods that can locate small damage to structures. To find sensitive damage detection parameters we develop a higher-order beam element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, bending moments, and shear forces at all nodes, and a higher-order rectangular plate element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, and bending and twisting moments at all nodes. These two elements are used to study the dynamics of beams and plates. Results show that high-order spatial derivatives of high-frequency modes are important sensitive parameters that can locate small structural damage. Unfortunately the most powerful and popular structural modeling technique, the finite element method, is not accurate in predicting high-frequency responses. Hence, a model-independent method using dynamic responses obtained from high density measurements is concluded to be the best approach. To increase measurement density and reduce noise a Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to provide non-contact, dense, and accurate measurements of structural vibration velocities. To avoid the use of structural models and to extract sensitive detection parameters from experimental data, a brand-new structural damage detection method named BED (Boundary-Effect Detection) is developed for pinpointing damage locations using Operational

  12. Investigation on cored-eutectic structure in Ni60/WC composite coatings fabricated by wide-band laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qunshuang, E-mail: maqunshuang@126.com; Li, Yajiang, E-mail: yajli@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, Juan, E-mail: jwang@sdu.edu.cn; Liu, Kun, E-mail: liu_kun@163.com

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Perfect composite coatings were fabricated using wide-band laser cladding. • Special cored-eutectic structure was synthesized in Ni60/WC composite coatings. • Cored-eutectic consists of hard carbide compounds and fine lamellar eutectic of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and γ-Ni(Fe). • Wear resistance of coating layer was significantly improved due to precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides. - Abstract: Ni60 composite coatings reinforced with WC particles were fabricated on the surface of Q550 steel using LDF4000-100 fiber laser device. The wide-band laser and circular beam laser used in laser cladding were obtained by optical lens. Microstructure, elemental distribution, phase constitution and wear properties of different composite coatings were investigated. The results showed that WC particles were partly dissolved under the effect of wide-band fiber laser irradiation. A special cored-eutectic structure was synthesized due to dissolution of WC particles. According to EDS and XRD results, the inside cores were confirmed as carbides of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} enriched in Cr, W and Fe. These complex carbides were primarily separated out in the molten metal when solidification started. Eutectic structure composed of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and γ-Ni(Fe) grew around carbides when cooling. Element content of Cr and W is lower at the bottom of cladding layer. In consequence, the eutectic structure formed in this region did not have inside carbides. The coatings made by circular laser beam were composed of dendritic matrix and interdendritic eutectic carbides, lacking of block carbides. Compared to coatings made by circular laser spot, the cored-eutectic structure formed in wide-band coatings had advantages of well-distribution and tight binding with matrix. The uniform power density and energy distribution and the weak liquid convection in molten pool lead to the unique microstructure evolution in composite coatings made by wide-band laser

  13. Structural, morphological and optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnSe/ZnSeO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Ali; Bashir, Shazia; Zehra, Khushboo; Salman Ahmed, Qazi

    2018-04-01

    The effect of varying laser pulses on structural, morphological and optical behavior of Pulsed Laser Deposited (PLD) ZnSe/ZnSeO3 thin films has been investigated. The films were grown by employing Excimer laser (100 mJ, 248 nm, 18 ns, 30 Hz) at various number of laser pulses i.e. 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 with elevated substrate temperature of 300 °C. One film was grown at Room Temperature (RT) by employing 3000 number of laser pulses. In order to investigate the structural analysis of deposited films, XRD analysis was performed. It was observed that the room temperature is not favorable for the growth of crystalline film. However, elevated substrate temperature to 300°C, two phases with preferred orientation of ZnSeO3 (2 1 2) and ZnSe (3 3 1) were identified. AFM and SEM analysis were performed to explore the surface morphology of grown films. Morphological analysis also confirmed the non-uniform film growth at room temperature. At elevated substrate temperature (300 °C), the growth of dendritic rods and cubical crystalline structures are observed for lower number of laser pulses i.e. 3000 and 4000 respectively. With increased number of pulses i.e. 5000 and 6000, the films surface morphology becomes smooth which is confirmed by measurement of surface RMS roughness. Number of grains, skewness, kurtosis and other parameters have been evaluated by statistical analysis. In order to investigate the thickness, and optical properties of deposited films, ellipsometery and UV–Vis spectroscopy techniques were employed. The estimated band gap energy is 2.67 eV for the film grown at RT, whereas band gap values varies from 2.80 eV to 3.01 eV for the films grown at 300 °C with increasing number of laser pulses.

  14. Terrestrial Laser Scanning-Based Bridge Structural Condition Assessment : Tech Transfer Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Problem Statement : While several state departments of transportation (DOTs) have used : terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in the project planning phase, limited : research has been conducted on employing laser scanners to detect : cracks for bridge c...

  15. Structures and the Hydrogen Bonding Abilities of Estrogens Studied by Supersonic Jet/laser Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Fumiya; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki

    2013-06-01

    Estrone, estradiol, estriol are known as endogenous estrogen which have the same steroidal frame with different substituent, leading to difference of physiological activity upon the formation of hydrogen bond with estrogen receptor. In the present study, structures of estrogens and their hydrated clusters in a supersonic jet have been studied by various laser spectroscopic techniques and density functional theory calculation to study how the difference of substituents affects their hydrogen bonding ability. Infrared spectra in the OH stretching region indicate a formation of intramolecular hydrogen-bond in estriol, which may lead to weaker physiological activity among the three estrogens. We also measured electronic and infrared spectra of 1:1 hydrated clusters of estrogen. The results show a switch of stable hydration site from the phenolic OH group to the five member ring by substituting one more OH group.

  16. Theoretical Investigation of Subwavelength Gratings and Vertical Cavity Lasers Employing Grating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza

    This thesis deals with theoretical investigations of a newly proposed grating structure, referred to as hybrid grating (HG) as well as vertical cavity lasers based on the grating reflectors. The HG consists of a near-subwavelength grating layer and an unpatterned high-refractive-index cap layer...... directions, which is analogous to electronic quantum wells in conduction or valence bands. Several interesting configurations of heterostructures have been investigated and their potential in fundamental physics study and applications are discussed. For numerical and theoretical studies, a three...... feasibility than the HCG-based ones. Furthermore, the concept of cavity dispersion in vertical cavities is introduced and its importance in the modal properties is numerically investigated. The dispersion curvature of a cavity mode is interpreted as the effective photon mass of the cavity mode. In a vertical...

  17. A New Approach for Structural Monitoring of Large Dams with a Three-Dimensional Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sánchez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer methods and data processing capabilities, 3D laser scanning has found a wide range of new application fields in recent years. Particularly, monitoring the static and dynamic behaviour of large dams has always been a topic of great importance, due to the impact these structures have on the whole landscape where they are built. The main goal of this paper is to show the relevance and novelty of the laserscanning methodology developed, which incorporates different statistical and modelling approaches not considered until now. As a result, the methods proposed in this paper have provided the measurement and monitoring of the large “Las Cogotas” dam (Avila, Spain.

  18. Compositional and structural properties of pulsed laser-deposited ZnS:Cr films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Yang, Xiaodong; Seim, Eivind; Vullum, Per Erik; Holmestad, Randi; Gibson, Ursula J.; Reenaas, Turid W.

    2016-02-01

    We present the properties of Cr-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cr) films deposited on Si(100) by pulsed laser deposition. The films are studied for solar cell applications, and to obtain a high absorption, a high Cr content (2.0-5.0 at.%) is used. It is determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that Cr is relatively uniformly distributed, and that local Cr increases correspond to Zn decreases. The results indicate that most Cr atoms substitute Zn sites. Consistently, electron energy loss and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the films contain mainly Cr2+ ions. Structural analysis showed that the films are polycrystalline and textured. The films with ~4 % Cr are mainly grown along the hexagonal [001] direction in wurtzite phase. The average lateral grain size decreases with increasing Cr content, and at a given Cr content, increases with increasing growth temperature.

  19. Chemical/structural characterization of carbon nanoparticles produced by laser pyrolysis and used for nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlanducci, S.; Valentini, F.; Piccirillo, S.; Terranova, M.L.; Botti, S.; Ciardi, R.; Rossi, M.; Palleschi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanoparticles produced by CO 2 laser pyrolysis have been investigated using morphological and structural probes such as high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electron diffraction, as well as chemical probes, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. The produced particles resulted to have a spherical shape and a diameter of about 50 nm with graphitic domains of the order of 80 A. They contain appreciable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which can be extracted with toluene, as well as fullerene units. The implications of these results for the use of carbon nanopowders in the carbon nanotube synthesis are also discussed

  20. Two-dimensional imaging detectors for structural biology with X-ray lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Peter

    2014-07-17

    Our ability to harness the advances in microelectronics over the past decade(s) for X-ray detection has resulted in significant improvements in the state of the art. Biology with X-ray free-electron lasers present daunting detector challenges: all of the photons arrive at the same time, and individual high peak power pulses must be read out shot-by-shot. Direct X-ray detection in silicon pixel detectors--monolithic or hybrid--are the standard for XFELs today. For structural biology, improvements are needed for today's 10-100 Hz XFELs, and further improvements are required for tomorrow's 10+ kHz XFELs. This article will discuss detector challenges, why they arise and ways to overcome them, along with the current state of the art. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced modeling of band nonparabolicity with application to a mid-IR quantum cascade laser structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, N; Radovanovic, J; Milanovic, V

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the influence of conduction-band nonparabolicity on bound electronic states in the active region of a quantum cascade laser (QCL). Our model assumes expansion of the conduction-band dispersion relation up to a fourth order in wavevector and use of a suitable second boundary condition at the interface of two III-V semiconductor layers. Numerical results, obtained by the transfer matrix method, are presented for two mid-infrared GaAs/Al 0.33 Ga 0.67 As QCL active regions, and they are in very good agreement with experimental data found in the literature. Comparison with a different nonparabolicity model is presented for the example of a GaAs/Al 0.38 Ga 0.62 As-based mid-IR QCL. Calculations have also been carried out for one THz QCL structure to illustrate the possible application of the model in the terahertz part of the spectrum. (paper)

  2. Production of three-dimensional structures of PHB using selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Tatiana F.; Costa, Marysilvia F.; Thire, Rossana M.S.M.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.; Maia, Izaque A.; Silva, Jorge V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a technology of layer-by-layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models directly from their computational design. The poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a microbial, biodegradable and semicrystalline polyester. The objective of this work was to produce PHB parts, evaluating the reuse of material in the production of the new parts. Images of SEM of part surface showed the formation of neck that indicates sintering between PHB particles during processing. Analysis of NMR and DSC of the reused polymer showed no changes in the chemical structure and thermal properties of PHB. The parts produced from virgin and reused PHB showed no significant difference in their thermal properties. This could suggest that the reuse of raw material did not influence the process reproducibility. (author)

  3. Structural influences on the laser damage resistance of optical oxide coatings for use at 1064 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, E; Lauth, H; Meyer, J; Weissbrodt, P [Zeiss Jena GmbH, Jena (Germany, F.R.); Wolf, R; Zscherpe, G [Ingenieurhochschule Mittweida (Germany, F.R.); Heyer, H [Sektion Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-11-01

    Optical coatings of titania (TiO{sub 2}) and tantala (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) prepared by reactive r.f. diode and d.c. plasmatron sputtering were investigated for the influence of structural properties on the 1064 nm laser damage resistance. Using various methods of characterizing the compositional, crystallographic, microstructural and optical properties, it was found that the damage thresholds are directly related to the content of oxygen in the films in excess of the stoichiometric values, whereas grain sizes and refractive indices show no systematic influences valid for both oxide materials. The highest oxygen-to-metal atomic ratios and thus the highest damage threshold were achieved by the use of r.f diode sputtering. X-ray photospectroscopy investigations of tantala coatings with different oxygen-to-tantalum atomic ratios up to 2.75 revealed for both constituents of the oxide only binding energies representative for tantalum pentoxide. (orig.).

  4. Laser process and corresponding structures for fabrication of solar cells with shunt prevention dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2017-11-28

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accommodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thicknesses.

  5. Process and structures for fabrication of solar cells with laser ablation steps to form contact holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-11-19

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accomodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thickness.

  6. Laser-optical investigation of the effect of diamond nanoparticles on the structure and functional properties of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevedentseva, Elena V; Su, F.Y.; Su, T.H.; Lin, Y.C.; Cheng, C.L.; Karmenyan, A V; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, Andrei E

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of such blood plasma proteins as albumin and g-globulin on diamond nanoparticles of size around 5 nm and around 100 nm is observed and studied using laser-optical methods. The adsorption of blood plasma proteins at physiological pH 7.4 is found weaker than that of enzyme protein lysozyme. The observed variations in the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of proteins may be due to structural transformations of the adsorbed protein. Using the lysozyme as a test protein we show that the protein adsorption leading to observable changes in the FTIR spectrum (the band of Amide I) also induces a significant decrease in the protein functional activity. It is also found that the influence of ∼5-nm diamond nanoparticles on the protein structure and functions is more significant than that of ∼100-nm nanodiamonds. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  7. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193 Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 10 4 to 4 x 10 5 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s 2 7s 2 S/sub 1/2/ and 6s 2 6s 2 P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194 Tl. A large isomer shift in 193 Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2 - isomer than in the 1/2 + ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2 - band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2 - strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  8. Laser-spectroscopic nuclear-structure studies on radioactive silver and indium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinger, U.

    1988-05-01

    Neutron-deficient silver and neutron-rich indium isotopes were studied by collinear laser spectroscopy. The neutron-deficient nuclei 101 , 103 , 104 , 105 , 105m , 106m Ag were produced as evaporation-residual nuclei in heavy-ion fusion reactions at the mass separator of the GSI in Darmstadt. The fourteen studied indium isotopes and isomers with even mass number in the range 112-126 In were produced by 600-MeV-proton induced fission of a uranium carbide target at the ISOLDE separator in Geneva. The mass-separated ion beam was subsequently deviated electrostatically, neutralized in a sodium vapor and superposed with a c w dye laser. A photon counting system detected the resonance fluorescence of the induced transitions. The hyperfine structure and the isotope shift of the 4d 9 5s 2 2 D 5/2 → 4d 10 6p 2 P 3/2 transition (λ=547.7 nm) in silver and the 5p 2 P 1/2,3/2 → 6s 2 s 1/2 transition (λ=410 respectively 451 nm) in indium were measured. While in indium for the analysis of the data earlier work could be referred to, in silver a detailed analysis of the isotope shift and hyperfine structure was performed by means of ab initio calculations and semi-empirical procedures. Thereby the configuration interactions were especially considered. The nuclear moments were discussed in the framework of existing nuclear models regarding nuclear-spectroscopic informations. (orig./HSI) [de

  9. Interaction of laser radiation with a low-density structured absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozanov, V. B.; Barishpol’tsev, D.V.; Vergunova, G.A.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ivanov, E.M.; Aristova, E.N.; Zmitrenko, N.V.; Limpouch, I.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 2 (2016), s. 256-276 ISSN 1063-7761 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser radiation interaction * laser with low-density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2016

  10. The Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties Aluminium Alloy ENAC-AlMg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakieła W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of a high power diode laser surface treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloy has been determined. The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of the surface layer of the aluminium alloy by simultaneously melting and feeding tungsten carbide particles into the molten pool. During the process was used high-power diode laser HPDL. In order to remelt the aluminium alloy surface the HPDL laser of 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 kW laser beam power has been used. The linear laser scan rate of the beam was set 0.5 cm/s. In order to protect the liquid metal during laser treatment was used argon. As a base material was used aluminium alloy ENAC-AlMg9. To improve the surface mechanical and wear properties of the applied aluminium alloy was used biphasic tungsten carbide WC/W2C. The size of alloying powder was in the range 110-210 µm. The ceramic powder was introduced in the remelting zone by a gravity feeder at a constant rate of 8 g/m.

  11. Alkali suppression within laser ion-source cavities and time structure of the laser ionized ion-bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Köster, U; Georg, U; Jonsson, O; Marzari, S; Fedosseev, V

    2003-01-01

    The chemical selectivity of the target and ion-source production system is an asset for Radioactive Ion-Beam (RIB) facilities equipped with mass separators. Ionization via laser induced multiple resonant steps Ionization has such selectivity. However, the selectivity of the ISOLDE Resonant Ionization Laser Ion-Source (RILIS), where ionization takes place within high temperature refractory metal cavities, suffers from unwanted surface ionization of low ionization potential alkalis. In order to reduce this type of isobaric contaminant, surface ionization within the target vessel was used. On-line measurements of the efficiency of this method is reported, suppression factors of alkalis up to an order of magnitude were measured as a function of their ionization potential. The time distribution of the ion bunches produced with the RILIS was measured for a variety of elements and high temperature cavity materials. While all ions are produced within a few nanoseconds, the ion bunch sometimes spreads over more than 1...

  12. Fabrication of Nb/Pb structures through ultrashort pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontad, Francisco; Lorusso, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.lorusso@le.infn.it; Perrone, Alessio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi,” Università del Salento and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Klini, Argyro; Fotakis, Costas [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), 100 N. Plastira St., GR 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Broitman, Esteban [Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, 581-83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-07-15

    This work reports the fabrication of Nb/Pb structures with an application as photocathode devices. The use of relatively low energy densities for the ablation of Nb with ultrashort pulses favors the reduction of droplets during the growth of the film. However, the use of laser fluences in this ablation regime results in a consequent reduction in the average deposition rate. On the other hand, despite the low deposition rate, the films present a superior adherence to the substrate and an excellent coverage of the irregular substrate surface, avoiding the appearance of voids or discontinuities on the film surface. Moreover, the low energy densities used for the ablation favor the growth of nanocrystalline films with a similar crystalline structure to the bulk material. Therefore, the use of low ablation energy densities with ultrashort pulses for the deposition of the Nb thin films allows the growth of very adherent and nanocrystalline films with adequate properties for the fabrication of Nb/Pb structures to be included in superconducting radiofrequency cavities.

  13. Constitutive and failure behaviour in selective laser melted stainless steel for microlattice structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peifeng

    2015-01-01

    The emerging selective laser melting (SLM) technology makes possible the manufacturing of metallic microlattice structures with better tailorability of properties. This work investigated the constitutive formulation of the parent material and the failure mechanism in the SLM stainless steel microlattice structure. The constitutive behaviour of SLM stainless steel was quantitatively formulated using the Johnson–Cook hardening model. A finite element model incorporating the constitutive formula was developed and experimentally validated to predict the localised stress evolution in an SLM stainless steel microlattice structure subjected to uniaxial compression. The predicted stresses were then linked to the fracture process in the SLM steel observed by scanning electron microscope. It was found that the tensile and compressive stress state is localised in the strut members of the microlattice, and determines the macroscopic cracking mode. The tensile opening and shear cracking dominate the tension and compression zones, respectively. However, the microscopic examination on the fracture surfaces reveals the formation of substantial slip bands in both the tension and compression zones, implying that the ductile fracture in the SLM stainless steel is transgranular

  14. Structural transformations in MoOx thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho-Lopez, M.A.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Escobar-Alarcon, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, laser-induced crystallization in MoO x thin films (1.8≤x≤2.1) is reported. This transformation involves a MoO x oxidation and subsequently a crystallization process from amorphous MoO 3 to crystalline αMoO 3 . For comparison purposes crystallization is induced thermally, in an oven, as well. The crystallization kinetics is monitored by Raman spectroscopy; a threshold in the energy density necessary to induce the phase transformation is determined in the case of photo-crystallization. This threshold depends on the type of substrate on which the film is deposited. For the thin films deposited on glass substrates, the structural transformation is from amorphous MoO x to the thermodynamically stable αMoO 3 crystalline phase. For the thin films deposited on Si(100) the structural transformation is from amorphous MoO x to a mixture of αMoO 3 and the thermodynamically unstable βMoO 3 crystalline phases. The structural transformations are also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light-transmission experiments. (orig.)

  15. Structural transformations in MoO{sub x} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Lopez, M.A.; Haro-Poniatowski, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Escobar-Alarcon, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2004-01-01

    In this work, laser-induced crystallization in MoO{sub x} thin films (1.8{<=}x{<=}2.1) is reported. This transformation involves a MoO{sub x} oxidation and subsequently a crystallization process from amorphous MoO{sub 3} to crystalline {alpha}MoO{sub 3}. For comparison purposes crystallization is induced thermally, in an oven, as well. The crystallization kinetics is monitored by Raman spectroscopy; a threshold in the energy density necessary to induce the phase transformation is determined in the case of photo-crystallization. This threshold depends on the type of substrate on which the film is deposited. For the thin films deposited on glass substrates, the structural transformation is from amorphous MoO{sub x} to the thermodynamically stable {alpha}MoO{sub 3} crystalline phase. For the thin films deposited on Si(100) the structural transformation is from amorphous MoO{sub x} to a mixture of {alpha}MoO{sub 3} and the thermodynamically unstable {beta}MoO{sub 3} crystalline phases. The structural transformations are also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light-transmission experiments. (orig.)

  16. Plate-impact loading of cellular structures formed by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R E; Cotton, M; Harris, E J; Maw, J R; Chapman, D J; Eakins, D E; McShane, G

    2014-01-01

    Porous materials are of great interest because of improved energy absorption over their solid counterparts. Their properties, however, have been difficult to optimize. Additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential technique to closely define the structure and properties of porous components, i.e. density, strut width and pore size; however, the behaviour of these materials at very high impact energies remains largely unexplored. We describe an initial study of the dynamic compression response of lattice materials fabricated through additive manufacturing. Lattices consisting of an array of intersecting stainless steel rods were fabricated into discs using selective laser melting. The resulting discs were impacted against solid stainless steel targets at velocities ranging from 300 to 700 m s −1 using a gas gun. Continuum CTH simulations were performed to identify key features in the measured wave profiles, while 3D simulations, in which the individual cells were modelled, revealed details of microscale deformation during collapse of the lattice structure. The validated computer models have been used to provide an understanding of the deformation processes in the cellular samples. The study supports the optimization of cellular structures for application as energy absorbers. (paper)

  17. Angular correlations of photons from solution diffraction at a free-electron laser encode molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, Derek; Watkins, Herschel; Qiao, Shenglan; Raines, Kevin S.; Lane, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    During X-ray exposure of a molecular solution, photons scattered from the same molecule are correlated. If molecular motion is insignificant during exposure, then differences in momentum transfer between correlated photons are direct measurements of the molecular structure. In conventional small- and wide-angle solution scattering, photon correlations are ignored. This report presents advances in a new biomolecular structural analysis technique, correlated X-ray scattering (CXS), which uses angular intensity correlations to recover hidden structural details from molecules in solution. Due to its intense rapid pulses, an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) is an excellent tool for CXS experiments. A protocol is outlined for analysis of a CXS data set comprising a total of half a million X-ray exposures of solutions of small gold nanoparticles recorded at the Spring-8 Ångström Compact XFEL facility (SACLA). From the scattered intensities and their correlations, two populations of nanoparticle domains within the solution are distinguished: small twinned, and large probably non-twinned domains. Finally, it is shown analytically how, in a solution measurement, twinning information is only accessible via intensity correlations, demonstrating how CXS reveals atomic-level information from a disordered solution of like molecules.

  18. Crystallographic Orientation Determination of Hexagonal Structure Crystals by Laser Ultrasonic Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W; Coulson, J; Marrow, P; Smith, R J; Clark, M; Sharples, S D; Lainé, S J

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) is a laser ultrasonic technique that shows qualitative contrast between grains of different orientation, illustrating the sensitivity of acoustic waves to the material structure. The technique has been improved significantly on determining the full orientation of multigrain cubic metals, by comparing the measured surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity to a pre-calculated model. In this paper we demonstrate the ability of this technique to determine the orientation of hexagonal structure crystals, such as magnesium and titanium based alloys. Because of the isotropy of the SAW velocity on the basal plane (0001) of hexagonal crystals, the slowness surface is shown as a circle. As the plane moves from (0001) towards (112-bar0) or towards (101-bar0), the slowness surface gradually turns into an oval. These acoustic properties increase the difficulty in orientation determination. The orientation results of a grade 1 commercially pure titanium by SRAS is presented, with comparison with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) results. Due to the nature of SAWs on hexagonal structure crystals, only the results of Euler angles 1 and 2 are discussed. The error between SRAS and EBSD is also investigated. (paper)

  19. Effect of adding support structures for overhanging part on fatigue strength in selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajima, Yuka; Takaichi, Atsushi; Nakamoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Takahiro; Kittikundecha, Nuttaphon; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Nomura, Naoyuki; Kawasaki, Akira; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hanawa, Takao; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2018-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology was recently introduced to fabricate dental prostheses. However, the fatigue strength of clasps in removable partial dentures prepared by SLM still requires improvement. In this study, we attempted to improve the fatigue strength of clasps by adding support structures for overhanging parts, which can generally be manufactured at an angle to be self-supporting. The results show that the fatigue strength of the supported specimens was more than twice that of unsupported specimens. Electron back-scattered diffraction analysis revealed that the supported specimens exhibited lower kernel average misorientation values than the unsupported specimens, which suggested that the support structure reduced the residual strain during the SLM process and helped to prevent micro-cracks led by thermal distortion. In addition, the supported specimens cooled more rapidly, thereby forming a finer grain size compared to that of the unsupported specimens, which contributed to improving the fatigue strength. The results of this study suggest that the fatigue strength of overhanging parts can be improved by intentionally adding support structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Terrestrial Laser Scanner Accuracy in the Control of Hydrotechnical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muszyński Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many cases of monitoring or load testing of hydrotechnical structures, the measurement results obtained from dial gauges may be affected by random or systematic errors resulting from the instability of the reference beam. For example, the measurement of wall displacement or pile settlement may be increased (or decreased by displacements of the reference beam due to ground movement. The application of surveying methods such as high-precision levelling, motorized tacheometry or even terrestrial laser scanning makes it possible to provide an independent reference measurement free from systematic errors. It is very important in the case of walls and piles embedded in the rivers, where the construction of reference structure is even more difficult than usually. Construction of an independent reference system is also complicated when horizontal testing of sheet piles or diaphragm walls are considered. In this case, any underestimation of the horizontal displacement of an anchored or strutted construction leads to an understated value of the strut’s load. These measurements are even more important during modernization works and repairs of the hydrotechnical structures.

  1. Femtosecond versus nanosecond laser machining: comparison of induced stresses and structural changes in silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.S.; El-Ashry, M.A.; Dosser, L.R.; Hix, K.E.; Maguire, J.F.; Irwin, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    Laser micromachining has proven to be a very successful tool for precision machining and microfabrication with applications in microelectronics, MEMS, medical device, aerospace, biomedical, and defense applications. Femtosecond (FS) laser micromachining is usually thought to be of minimal heat-affected zone (HAZ) local to the micromachined feature. The assumption of reduced HAZ is attributed to the absence of direct coupling of the laser energy into the thermal modes of the material during irradiation. However, a substantial HAZ is thought to exist when machining with lasers having pulse durations in the nanosecond (NS) regime. In this paper, we compare the results of micromachining a single crystal silicon wafer using a 150-femtosecond and a 30-nanosecond lasers. Induced stress and amorphization of the silicon single crystal were monitored using micro-Raman spectroscopy as a function of the fluence and pulse duration of the incident laser. The onset of average induced stress occurs at lower fluence when machining with the femtosecond pulse laser. Induced stresses were found to maximize at fluence of 44 J cm -2 and 8 J cm -2 for nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed lasers, respectively. In both laser pulse regimes, a maximum induced stress is observed at which point the induced stress begins to decrease as the fluence is increased. The maximum induced stress was comparable at 2.0 GPa and 1.5 GPa for the two lasers. For the nanosecond pulse laser, the induced amorphization reached a plateau of approximately 20% for fluence exceeding 22 J cm -2 . For the femtosecond pulse laser, however, induced amorphization was approximately 17% independent of the laser fluence within the experimental range. These two values can be considered nominally the same within experimental error. For femtosecond laser machining, some effect of the laser polarization on the amount of induced stress and amorphization was also observed

  2. Structural characterization of thin films of titanium nitride deposited by laser ablation; Caracterizacion estructural de peliculas delgadas de nitruro de titanio depositadas por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro C, M.A.; Escobar A, L.; Camps C, E.; Mejia H, J.A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Thin films of titanium nitride were deposited using the technique of laser ablation. It was studied the effect of the density of laser energy used for ablation the target as well as of the pressure of the work gas about the structure and the hardness of the deposited thin films. Depending on the pressure of the work gas films was obtained with preferential orientation in the directions (200) and (111). At a pressure of 1 x 10{sup -2} Torr only the direction (200) was observed. On the other hand to the pressure of 5 x 10{sup -3} Torr the deposited material this formed by a mixture of the orientation (200) and (111), being the direction (111) the predominant one. Thin films of Ti N were obtained with hardness of up to 24.0 GPa that makes to these attractive materials for mechanical applications. The hardness showed an approximately linear dependence with the energy density. (Author)

  3. Calculation of the kinetics of heating and structural changes in the cartilaginous tissue under the action of laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', E N; Kitai, M S

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed for the calculation of the temperature fields and determination of the size of a zone with structural changes in the cartilaginous tissue. The model is based on a simultaneous analysis of the heat and mass transfer processes and it takes into account the bulk absorption of laser radiation by the tissue, surface evaporation of water, and temperature dependences of the diffusion coefficients. It is assumed that under the influence of a phase transition between free and bound water, caused by heating of the cartilage to 70 0 C, the proteoglycans of the cartilage matrix become mobile and, as a result of such mass transfer, structural changes are induced in the cartilaginous tissue causing relaxation of stresses or denaturation. It is shown that the maximum temperature is then reached not on the irradiated surface but at some distance from it, and that the size of the zones of structural changes (denaturation depth) depends strongly on the energy density of the laser radiation and its wavelength, on the duration of the irradiation, and on the cartilage thickness. This model makes it possible to calculate the temperature fields and the depth of structural changes in laser-induced relaxation of stresses and changes in the shape of the cartilaginous tissue. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  4. Present status of rarefied gas dynamics approach to the structure of a laser-induced evaporating jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercignani, C.

    1980-01-01

    With reference to the relation between the state of the surface and the measurements downstream in the dynamic laser pulse technique, the problems arising in connection with the study of the structure of a jet evaporating into a vacuum are investigated. Particular attention is paid to the following aspects gas surface interaction, internal degrees of freedom, presence of more than one species, chemical reactions

  5. Collective CO2 laser scattering on moving discharge structures in the submillimeter range in a magnetohydrodynamic generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, J.C.M.; Schenkelaars, H.J.W.; vd Mortel, P.J.; Schram, D.C.; Veefkind, A.

    1986-01-01

    Collective scattering of CO/sub 2/ laser light on electrons is used to determine the radial scale length of the discharge structures occurring in a closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic generator. Heterodyne detection of scattered radiation is used to obtain a spatial resolution in the submillimeter

  6. Controlled assembly of high-order nanoarray metal structures on bulk copper surface by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wanwan; Yang, Jianjun

    2017-07-01

    We report a new one-step maskless method to fabricate high-order nanoarray metal structures comprising periodic grooves and particle chains on a single-crystal Cu surface using femtosecond laser pulses at the central wavelength of 400 nm. Remarkably, when a circularly polarized infrared femtosecond laser pulse (spectrally centered at 800 nm) pre-irradiates the sample surface, the geometric dimensions of the composite structure can be well controlled. With increasing the energy fluence of the infrared laser pulse, both the groove width and particle diameter are observed to reduce, while the measured spacing-to-diameter ratio of the nanoparticles tends to present an increasing tendency. A physical scenario is proposed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms: as the infrared femtosecond laser pulse pre-irradiates the target, the copper surface is triggered to display anomalous transient physical properties, on which the subsequently incident Gaussian blue laser pulse is spatially modulated into fringe-like energy depositions via the excitation of ultrafast surface plasmon. During the following relaxation processes, the periodically heated thin-layer regions can be transferred into the metastable liquid rivulets and then they break up into nanodroplet arrays owing to the modified Rayleigh-like instability. This investigation indicates a simple integrated approach for active designing and large-scale assembly of complexed functional nanostructures on bulk materials.

  7. Anisotropy of hardness and laser damage threshold of unidirectional organic NLO crystal in relation to the internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Arivanandhan, M.; Sankaranarayanan, K.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Growth rate of the unidirectional organic crystals were measured and the variation in the growth rate was explained based on the attachment energy model. · Anisotropic behaviors of hardness and laser damage threshold of the unidirectional materials were analyzed. · The obtained results were explained based on the crystal structure of the material. - Abstract: Unidirectional benzophenone crystals were grown along , and directions by uniaxially solution crystallization method at ambient temperature. The growth rate of the grown crystals was varied with orientation. The optical absorption coefficients of benzophenone were measured as a function of wavelength. The optical absorption study reveals that the benzophenone crystal has very low absorption in the wavelength range of interest. Moreover, the laser damage threshold and micro hardness for , and oriented unidirectional benzophenone crystals were measured using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm radiation and Vicker's micro hardness tester, respectively. The laser damage threshold is larger for the and oriented crystals compared to oriented crystal at 1064 nm wavelength. The result is consistent with the hardness variation observed for the three different crystallographic directions of benzophenone crystal. The relation between the laser damage profile and mechanical hardness anisotropy is discussed based on the crystal structure of benzophenone.

  8. Fabrication of periodical surface structures by picosecond laser irradiation of carbon thin films: transformation of amorphous carbon in nanographite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, C.; Dorcioman, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Bita, B. [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, Voluntari RO-077190 (Romania); Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Street, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Besleaga, C.; Zgura, I. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Himcinschi, C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg D-09596 (Germany); Popescu, A.C., E-mail: andrei.popescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ripples obtained on carbon films after irradiation with visible ps laser pulses. • Amorphous carbon was transformed in nanographite following irradiation. • Ripples had a complex morphology, being made of islands of smaller ripples. • Hydrophilic carbon films became hydrophobic after surface structuring. - Abstract: Thin films of carbon were synthesized by ns pulsed laser deposition in vacuum on silicon substrates, starting from graphite targets. Further on, the films were irradiated with a picosecond laser source emitting in visible at 532 nm. After tuning of laser parameters, we obtained a film surface covered by laser induced periodical surface structures (LIPSS). They were investigated by optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. It was observed that changing the irradiation angle influences the LIPSS covered area. At high magnification it was revealed that the LIPSS pattern was quite complex, being composed of other small LIPSS islands, interconnected by bridges of nanoparticles. Raman spectra for the non-irradiated carbon films were typical for a-C type of diamond-like carbon, while the LIPSS spectra were characteristic to nano-graphite. The pristine carbon film was hydrophilic, while the LIPSS covered film surface was hydrophobic.

  9. Comparison of laser chemical processing and lasermicrojet for structuring and cutting silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopman, Sybille; Fell, Andreas; Mayer, Kuno; Mesec, Matthias; Rodofili, Andreas; Kray, Daniel [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of a new cutting method for thin silicon solar wafers with liquid-jet-guided lasers (lasermicrojet {sup registered}, LMJ, and laser chemical processing, LCP). Several laser systems with different wavelengths were tested to find the optimum laser system and processing parameters in terms of efficient material removal and deep laser cutting. Water and potassium hydroxide were used as carrier liquids to enhance laser ablation. The ablation efficiency was defined as a target parameter and experimentally determined by performing single laser grooves. It is demonstrated that the ablation process of LMJ is mainly affected by silicon melting and then removing by the liquid-jet momentum for single laser grooves. Best result for deep laser grooves is achieved if evaporation dominates the ablation process. Better surface quality referred to laser-induced crystalline damage is presented for a cut wafer with LMJ in comparison to a standard multiwire slurry saw. This shows a great potential of wafering with liquid-jet-guided lasers although no optimal liquid media was used. (orig.)

  10. Femtosecond laser patterning, synthesis, defect formation, and structural modification of atomic layered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Eunpa; Hwang, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes recent research on laser-based processing of twodimensional (2D) atomic layered materials, including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Ultrafast lasers offer unique processing routes that take advantage of distinct interaction mechanisms with 2D materials to enable extremely localized energy deposition. Experiments have shown that ablative direct patterning of graphene by ultrafast lasers can achieve resolutions of tens of nanometers, as well as single-step pattern transfer. Ultrafast lasers also induce non-thermal excitation mechanisms that are useful for the thinning of TMDCs to tune the 2D material bandgap. Laser-assisted site-specific doping was recently demonstrated where ultrafast laser radiation under ambient air environment could be used for the direct writing of high-quality graphene patterns on insulating substrates. This article concludes with an outlook towards developing further advanced laser processing with scalability, in situ monitoring strategies and potential applications.

  11. Study of a low power dissipation, miniature laser-pumped rubidium frequency standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guo-Bin; Zhao Feng; Gu Si-Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a miniature low power consumption laser-pumped atom vapour cell clock scheme. Pumping 87Rb with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode pump and locking the laser frequency on a Doppler-broadened spectral line,it records a 5×10-11τ-1/2 (τ<500 s) frequency stability with a table-top system in a primary experiment.The study reveals that the evaluated scheme is at the level of 2.7 watts power consumption,90 cm3 volume and 10-12τ- 1/2 short-term frequency stability.

  12. Nano-Structuring of Solid Surface by EUV Ar8+ Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolacek, K.; Prukner, V.; Schmidt, J

    2013-01-01

    Requirement of increased resolution is at present most loudly pronounced in microelectronics, which, following Moore´s law (doubling every two years the transistorcount that can be placed inexpensively on integrated circuit), commands a continuous upgrade of micro-/nano-lithography. Such upgrade indirectly influences processing speed, memory capacity, number and size of pixels in sensors, etc. The submitted paper demonstrates our first attempt for “direct (i.e. ablation) patterning” of PMMA by pulse, high-current, capillary-discharge-pumped Ar 8+ ion laser (λ = 46,9 nm). For focusing a long-focal spherical mirror (R = 2100 mm) covered by 14 double-layer Sc-Si coating was used. The ablated focal spots demonstrate not only that the energy of our laser is sufficient for such experiments, but also that the design of focusing optics must be more sophisticated: severe aberrations have been revealed – an irregular spot shape and strong astigmatism with astigmatic difference as large as 16 mm. Moreover, on the bottom of ablated spots a laserinduced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) has appeared. Finally, a direct patterning of quadratic hole 7,5x7,5 µm, standing in contact with PMMA substrate, has shown a strongly developed 2D diffraction pattern (period in the centre ∼125 nm). In conclusion there will be shown the design of a new (grazing incidence) focusing optics, and a new “nano-patterning” tool – grazing incidence interferometer, which enable to ablate a regular, in advance defined pattern. It is believed that this is the first step to application of this technique not only to nanolithography,but also e.g. to study of electron dynamics in superlattices. (author)

  13. Electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method for modeling the formation of metal surface structures induced by femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouder, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Lamrous, O., E-mail: omarlamrous@mail.ummto.dz [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Mitiche, M.D. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Itina, T.E. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR CNRS 5516/Université Jean Monnet, 18 rue de Professeur Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Zemirli, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2013-09-01

    The particle in cell (PIC) method coupled to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to model the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) at the early stage of femtosecond laser irradiation of smooth metal surface. The theoretical results were analyzed and compared with experimental data taken from the literature. It was shown that the optical properties of the target are not homogeneous and the ejection of electrons is such that ripples in the electron density were obtained. The Coulomb explosion mechanism was proposed to explain the ripples formation under the considered conditions.

  14. Electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method for modeling the formation of metal surface structures induced by femtosecond laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouder, M.; Lamrous, O.; Mitiche, M.D.; Itina, T.E.; Zemirli, M.

    2013-01-01

    The particle in cell (PIC) method coupled to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to model the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) at the early stage of femtosecond laser irradiation of smooth metal surface. The theoretical results were analyzed and compared with experimental data taken from the literature. It was shown that the optical properties of the target are not homogeneous and the ejection of electrons is such that ripples in the electron density were obtained. The Coulomb explosion mechanism was proposed to explain the ripples formation under the considered conditions.

  15. Fatigue of Ti6Al4V Structural Health Monitoring Systems Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strantza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM is an additive manufacturing (AM process which is used for producing metallic components. Currently, the integrity of components produced by SLM is in need of improvement due to residual stresses and unknown fracture behavior. Titanium alloys produced by AM are capable candidates for applications in aerospace and industrial fields due to their fracture resistance, fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, structural health monitoring (SHM system technologies are promising and requested from the industry. SHM systems can monitor the integrity of a structure and during the last decades the research has primarily been influenced by bionic engineering. In that aspect a new philosophy for SHM has been developed: the so-called effective structural health monitoring (eSHM system. The current system uses the design freedom provided by AM. The working principle of the system is based on crack detection by means of a network of capillaries that are integrated in a structure. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the functionality of Ti6Al4V produced by the SLM process in the novel SHM system and to confirm that the eSHM system can successfully detect cracks in SLM components. In this study four-point bending fatigue tests on Ti6Al4V SLM specimens with an integrated SHM system were conducted. Fractographic analysis was performed after the final failure, while finite element simulations were used in order to determine the stress distribution in the capillary region and on the component. It was proven that the SHM system does not influence the crack initiation behavior during fatigue. The results highlight the effectiveness of the eSHM on SLM components, which can potentially be used by industrial and aerospace applications.

  16. Understanding the structure of Exmoor's peatland ecosystems using laser-scanning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, D. J.; Anderson, K.; Wetherelt, A.; Grand-Clement, E.; Le-Feuvre, N.; Smith, D.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Upland blanket peatlands in the UK are of high conservation value and in an intact state, provide important landscape services, such as carbon sequestration and flood attenuation. The drainage of many such wetlands for agricultural reclamation has resulted in changes to upland blanket mire topography, ecology, hydrological processes and carbon fluxes. There is a need for spatially explicit monitoring approaches at peatland sites in the UK as although there has been a national effort to restore drained peat uplands, baseline and post restoration monitoring of changes to ecosystem structure and function is largely absent. Climate change policy and the emerging carbon markets also necessitate the need for enhanced system understanding to inform carbon targets and understand the impacts of restoration. Exmoor is the focus of this research because many areas of upland peat have, in the past, been extensively drained through government "moorland reclamation" programs. A large restoration project funded by South West Water is currently underway in association with Exmoor National Park, The Environment Agency and Natural England. Exmoor also provides an analogue for other westerly peatlands in the British Isles in terms of its climate, ecology and drainage characteristics. Our approach employed airborne LiDAR data gathered by the Environment Agency Geomatics Group coupled with Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) surveys. LiDAR data were processed to produce digital surface models (DSM) of the peatland surface at a 0.5m resolution. These data were further interrogated to separate vegetation structures and geomorphic features such as man-made drainage channels which have damaged the peatland. Over small extents the LiDAR derived DSM surface was then compared to a TLS derived DSM to examine the ability of these models to describe fine scale vegetation and geomorphic structure, which could then be extrapolated to larger spatial extents. Exploration of the data has shown that

  17. Detecting Changes in Forest Structure over Time with Bi-Temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Melkas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes to stems caused by natural forces and timber harvesting constitute an essential input for many forestry-related applications and ecological studies, especially forestry inventories based on the use of permanent sample plots. Conventional field measurement is widely acknowledged as being time-consuming and labor-intensive. More automated and efficient alternatives or supportive methods are needed. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has been demonstrated to be a promising method in forestry field inventories. Nevertheless, the applicability of TLS in recording changes in the structure of forest plots has not been studied in detail. This paper presents a fully automated method for detecting changes in forest structure over time using bi-temporal TLS data. The developed method was tested on five densely populated forest plots including 137 trees and 50 harvested trees in point clouds. The present study demonstrated that 90 percent of tree stem changes could be automatically located from single-scan TLS data. These changes accounted for 92 percent of the changed basal area. The results indicate that the processing of TLS data collected at different times to detect tree stem changes can be fully automated.

  18. Accuracy assessment of modeling architectural structures and details using terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kedzierski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects when performing architectural documentation of cultural heritage structures is the accuracy of both the data and the products which are generated from these data: documentation in the form of 3D models or vector drawings. The paper describes an assessment of the accuracy of modelling data acquired using a terrestrial phase scanner in relation to the density of a point cloud representing the surface of different types of construction materials typical for cultural heritage structures. This analysis includes the impact of the scanning geometry: the incidence angle of the laser beam and the scanning distance. For the purposes of this research, a test field consisting of samples of different types of construction materials (brick, wood, plastic, plaster, a ceramic tile, sheet metal was built. The study involved conducting measurements at different angles and from a range of distances for chosen scanning densities. Data, acquired in the form of point clouds, were then filtered and modelled. An accuracy assessment of the 3D model was conducted by fitting it with the point cloud. The reflection intensity of each type of material was also analyzed, trying to determine which construction materials have the highest reflectance coefficients, and which have the lowest reflection coefficients, and in turn how this variable changes for different scanning parameters. Additionally measurements were taken of a fragment of a building in order to compare the results obtained in laboratory conditions, with those taken in field conditions.

  19. Femtosecond laser fabrication of highly hydrophobic stainless steel surface with hierarchical structures fabricated by combining ordered microstructures and LIPSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Calderon, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Dias-Ponte, A.; Morant-Miñana, M.C.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser treatment to achieve highly hydrophobic behavior on stainless steel. • Combination of micro-machined patterns with LIPSS into hierarchical structures. • Contact angles as high as 156° with only the femtosecond laser irradiation. - Abstract: In this work we have developed hierarchical structures that consist of micro-patterned surfaces covered by nanostructures with a femtosecond laser. The first part of this work is a study to determine the microscale modifications produced on a stainless steel alloy (AISI304) surface at high pulse energy, different velocities, and number of overscans in order to obtain microstructures with a selected depth of around 10 μm and line widths of 20 μm. The second part of the work is focused on finding the optimal irradiation parameters to obtain the nanostructure pattern. Nanostructures have been defined by means of Laser Induced Periodical Surface Structures (LIPSS) around 250 nm high and a period of 580 nm, which constitute the nanostructure pattern. Finally, dual scale gratings of 50 mm"2 were fabricated with different geometries and their effect on the measured contact angle. Combining the micro-pattern with the LIPSS nano-pattern, highly hydrophobic surfaces have been developed with measured static contact angles higher than 150° on a stainless steel alloy.

  20. Femtosecond laser fabrication of highly hydrophobic stainless steel surface with hierarchical structures fabricated by combining ordered microstructures and LIPSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Calderon, M., E-mail: mmcalderon@ceit.es [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Rodríguez, A.; Dias-Ponte, A.; Morant-Miñana, M.C.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S.M. [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser treatment to achieve highly hydrophobic behavior on stainless steel. • Combination of micro-machined patterns with LIPSS into hierarchical structures. • Contact angles as high as 156° with only the femtosecond laser irradiation. - Abstract: In this work we have developed hierarchical structures that consist of micro-patterned surfaces covered by nanostructures with a femtosecond laser. The first part of this work is a study to determine the microscale modifications produced on a stainless steel alloy (AISI304) surface at high pulse energy, different velocities, and number of overscans in order to obtain microstructures with a selected depth of around 10 μm and line widths of 20 μm. The second part of the work is focused on finding the optimal irradiation parameters to obtain the nanostructure pattern. Nanostructures have been defined by means of Laser Induced Periodical Surface Structures (LIPSS) around 250 nm high and a period of 580 nm, which constitute the nanostructure pattern. Finally, dual scale gratings of 50 mm{sup 2} were fabricated with different geometries and their effect on the measured contact angle. Combining the micro-pattern with the LIPSS nano-pattern, highly hydrophobic surfaces have been developed with measured static contact angles higher than 150° on a stainless steel alloy.