Improvements on Mean Free Wave Surface Modeling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董国海; 滕斌; 程亮
2002-01-01
Some new results of the modeling of mean free surface of waves or wave set-up are presented. The stream function wave theory is applied to incident short waves. The limiting wave steepness is adopted as the wave breaker index in the calculation of wave breaking dissipation. The model is based on Roelvink (1993), but the numerical techniques used in the solution are based on the Weighted-Average Flux (WAF) method (Watson et al., 1992), with Time-Operator-Splitting (TOS) used for the treatment of the source terms. This method allows a small number of computational points to be used, and is particularly efficient in modeling wave set-up. The short wave (or incident primary wave) energy equation issolved by use of a traditional Lax-Wendroff technique. The present model is found to be satisfactory compared with the measurements conducted by Stive (1983).
A Wave Modulation Model of Ripples over Long Surface Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CONG Peixiu; ZHENG Guizhen
2011-01-01
A study is presented on the modulation of ripples induced by a long surface wave (LW) and a new theoretical modulation model is proposed. In this model, the wind surface stress modulation is related to the modulation of tipple spectrum. The model results show that in the case of LW propagating in the wind direction with the wave age parameter of LW increasing, the area with enhanced shear stress shifts from the region near the LW crest on the upwind slope to the LW trough. With a smaller wave age parameter of LW, the tipple modulation has the maximum on the upwind slope in the vicinity of LW crest, while with a larger parameter the enhancement of ripple spectrum does not occur in that region. At low winds the amplitude of ripple modulation transfer function (MTF) is larger in the gravity wave range, while at moderate or high winds it changes little in the range from short gravity waves to capillary waves.
Wave groups in uni-directional surface-wave models
Groesen, van E.
1998-01-01
Uni-directional wave models are used to study wave groups that appear in wave tanks of hydrodynamic laboratories; characteristic for waves in such tanks is that the wave length is rather small, comparable to the depth of the layer. In second-order theory, the resulting Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) eq
An Efficient Hydrodynamic Model for Surface Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Kun; JIN Sheng; LU Gang
2009-01-01
In the present study,a semi-implicit finite difference model for non-bydrostatic,free-surface flows is analyzed and discussed.The governing equations are the three-dimensional free-surface Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations defined on a general,irregular domain of arbitrary scale.At outflow,a combination of a sponge layer technique and a radiation boundary condition is applied to minimize wave reflection.The equations are solved with the fractional step method where the hydrostatic pressure component is determined first,while the non-hydrostatic component of the pressure is computed from the pressure Poisson equation in which the coefficient matrix is positive definite and symmetric.The advectiou and horizontal viscosity terms are discretized by use of a semi-Lagrangian approach.The resulting model is computationally efficient and unrestricted to the CFL condition.The developed model is verified against analytical solutions and experimental data,with excellent agreement.
Statistical model on the surface elevation of waves with breaking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In the surface wind drift layer with constant momentum flux, two sets of the consistent surface eleva- tion expressions with breaking and occurrence conditions for breaking are deduced from the first in- tegrals of the energy and vortex variations and the kinetic and mathematic breaking criterions, then the expression of the surface elevation with wave breaking is established by using the Heaviside function. On the basis of the form of the sea surface elevation with wave breaking and the understanding of small slope sea waves, a triple composite function of real sea waves is presented including the func- tions for the breaking, weak-nonlinear and basic waves. The expression of the triple composite func- tion and the normal distribution of basic waves are the expected theoretical model for surface elevation statistics.
Surface-wave mode coupling : modelling and inverting waveforms including body-wave phases
Marquering, H.A.
1996-01-01
This thesis is concerned with a similar problem as addressed by Li & Tanimoto (1993) in the surfacewave mode approach. In this thesis it is shown that surface-wave mode coupling is required when body-wave phases in laterally heterogeneous media are modelled by surface-wave mode summation. An efficie
The Whitham Equation as a Model for Surface Water Waves
Moldabayev, Daulet; Dutykh, Denys
2014-01-01
The Whitham equation was proposed as an alternate model equation for the simplified description of uni-directional wave motion at the surface of an inviscid fluid. As the Whitham equation incorporates the full linear dispersion relation of the water wave problem, it is thought to provide a more faithful description of shorter waves of small amplitude than traditional long wave models such as the KdV equation. In this work, we identify a scaling regime in which the Whitham equation can be derived from the Hamiltonian theory of surface water waves. The Whitham equation is integrated numerically, and it is shown that the equation gives a close approximation of inviscid free surface dynamics as described by the Euler equations. The performance of the Whitham equation as a model for free surface dynamics is also compared to two standard free surface models: the KdV and the BBM equation. It is found that in a wide parameter range of amplitudes and wavelengths, the Whitham equation performs on par with or better tha...
Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.
1998-01-09
The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.
Boussinesq modeling of surface waves due to underwater landslides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Dutykh
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Consideration is given to the influence of an underwater landslide on waves at the surface of a shallow body of fluid. The equations of motion that govern the evolution of the barycenter of the landslide mass include various dissipative effects due to bottom friction, internal energy dissipation, and viscous drag. The surface waves are studied in the Boussinesq scaling, with time-dependent bathymetry. A numerical model for the Boussinesq equations is introduced that is able to handle time-dependent bottom topography, and the equations of motion for the landslide and surface waves are solved simultaneously. The numerical solver for the Boussinesq equations can also be restricted to implement a shallow-water solver, and the shallow-water and Boussinesq configurations are compared. A particular bathymetry is chosen to illustrate the general method, and it is found that the Boussinesq system predicts larger wave run-up than the shallow-water theory in the example treated in this paper. It is also found that the finite fluid domain has a significant impact on the behavior of the wave run-up.
A microwave emissivity model of sea surface under wave breaking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei En-Bo; Ge Yong
2005-01-01
With the effective medium approximation theory of composites, a remedial model is proposed for estimating the microwave emissivity of sea surface under wave breaking driven by strong wind on the basis of an empirical model given by Pandey and Kakar. In our model, the effects of the shapes of seawater droplets and the thickness of whitecap layer (i.e. a composite layer of air and sea water droplets) over the sea surface on the microwave emissivity are investigated by calculating the effective dielectric constant of whitecaps layer. The wind speed is included in our model, and the responses of water droplets shapes, such as sphere and ellipsoid, to the emissivity are also discussed at different microwave frequencies. The model is in good agreement with the experimental data of microwave emissivity of sea surface at microwave frequencies of 6.6, 10.7 and 37GHz.
Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor
Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.
2010-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented
Boussinesq modeling of surface waves due to underwater landslides
Dutykh, Denys
2013-01-01
Consideration is given to the influence of an underwater landslide on waves at the surface of a shallow body of fluid. The equations of motion which govern the evolution of the barycenter of the landslide mass include various dissipative effects due to bottom friction, internal energy dissipation, and viscous drag. The surface waves are studied in the Boussinesq scaling, with time-dependent bathymetry. A numerical model for the Boussinesq equations is introduced which is able to handle time-dependent bottom topography, and the equations of motion for the landslide and surface waves are solved simultaneously. The numerical solver for the Boussinesq equations can also be restricted to implement a shallow-water solver, and the shallow-water and Boussinesq configurations are compared. A particular bathymetry is chosen to illustrate the general method, and it is found that the Boussinesq system predicts larger wave run-up than the shallow-water theory in the example treated in this paper. It also found that the fi...
Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pasyanos, M E
2008-05-15
The behavior of surface waves at long periods is indicative of subcrustal velocity structure. Using recently published dispersion models, we invert surface wave group velocities for lithospheric structure, including lithospheric thickness, over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, encompassing Eurasia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Thicker lithosphere under Precambrian shields and platforms are clearly observed, not only under the large cratons (West Africa, Congo, Baltic, Russia, Siberia, India), but also under smaller blocks like the Tarim Basin and Yangtze craton. In contrast, it is found that remobilized Precambrian structures like the Saharan Shield and Sino-Korean Paraplatform do not have well-established lithospheric keels. The thinnest lithospheric thickness is found under oceanic and continental rifts, as well as along convergence zones. We compare our results to thermal models of continental lithosphere, lithospheric cooling models of oceanic lithosphere, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) estimates from S-wave receiver functions, and velocity variations of global tomography models. In addition to comparing results for the broad region, we examine in detail the regions of Central Africa, Siberia, and Tibet. While there are clear differences in the various estimates, overall the results are generally consistent. Inconsistencies between the estimates may be due to a variety of reasons including lateral and depth resolution differences and the comparison of what may be different lithospheric features.
Impact of surface waves in a Regional Climate Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rutgersson, Anna; Sætra, Oyvind; Semedo, Alvaro
2010-01-01
A coupled regional atmosphere-wave model system is developed with the purpose of investigating the impact of climate changes on the wave field, as well as feed-back effects of the wave field on the atmospheric parameters. This study focuses on the effects of introducing a two-way atmosphere-wave...... coupling on the atmosphere as well as on wave parameters. The model components are the regional climate model RCA, and the third generation wave model WAM. Two different methods are used for the coupling, using the roughness length and only including the effect of growing sea, and using the wave age...... and introducing the reduction of roughness due to decaying sea (swell). Introducing a two-way coupling results in an altered frequency distribution of wind speed and wave heights. When only including growing sea the impact of waves on the long term mean atmospheric parameters is limited, inducing a reduction...
Assessment of a geological model by surface wave analyses
Martorana, R.; Capizzi, P.; Avellone, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Siragusa, R.; Luzio, D.
2017-02-01
A set of horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) measurements, carried out in the Altavilla Milicia (Sicily) area, is analyzed to test a geological model of the area. Statistical techniques have been used in different stages of the data analysis, to optimize the reliability of the information extracted from geophysical measurements. In particular, cluster analysis algorithms have been implemented to select the time windows of the microseismic signal to be used for calculating the spectral ratio H/V and to identify sets of spectral ratio peaks likely caused by the same underground structures. Using results of reflection seismic lines, typical values of P-wave and S-wave velocity were estimated for each geological formation present in the area. These were used to narrow down the research space of parameters for the HVSR interpretation. MASW profiles have been carried out close to each HVSR measuring point, provided the parameters of the shallower layers for the HVSR models. MASW inversion has been constrained by extrapolating thicknesses from a known stratigraphic sequence. Preliminary 1D seismic models were obtained by adding deeper layers to models that resulted from MASW inversion. These justify the peaks of the HVSR curves due to layers deeper than MASW investigation depth. Furthermore, much deeper layers were included in the HVSR model, as suggested by geological setting and stratigraphic sequence. This choice was made considering that these latter layers do not generate other HVSR peaks and do not significantly affect the misfit. The starting models have been used to limit the starting research space for a more accurate interpretation, made considering the noise as a superposition of Rayleigh and Love waves. Results allowed to recognize four main seismic layers and to associate them to the main stratigraphic successions. The lateral correlation of seismic velocity models, joined with tectonic evidences
Incorporating Floating Surface Objects into a Fully Dispersive Surface Wave Model
2016-04-19
solutions and a VOF model for a 2D floating box and with laboratory measurements of wave generation by a ver- tically oscillating sphere. A steep...breaking waves or sud - en surface impacts. These simplifications also considerably reduce he computational requirements of the model. The Pressure...recently, erakhti et al. (2015) carried out extensive model validations of HWAVE against laboratory data. The focus of their study was to xamine the
Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fouques, Sebastien
2005-07-01
The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model
Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fouques, Sebastien
2005-07-01
The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model
Modeling and Control Of Surface Acoustic Wave Motors
Feenstra, P.J.
2005-01-01
This thesis introduces Rayleigh waves and describes the generation of Rayleigh waves. Furthermore, the principle of operation of a SAW motor is analyzed. The analysis is based on a contact model, which describes the behavior between slider and stator. Due to the contact model, the microscopic and
Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves
Kranenburg, W.M.
2013-01-01
In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels. Howeve
Modeling radar backscatter from breaking waves on the surface
Melief, H.W.; Greidanus, H.S.F.; Hoogeboom, P.; Genderen, P. van
2003-01-01
A model for describing radar sea clutter is proposed. It consists of two parts, an oceanographic and an electromagnetic one. The former contains swell, small capillary and gravity waves as well as breaking wave events. The latter combines ray tracing, Bragg scattering and the Method of Moments. It i
Surface-wave capillary plasmas in helium: modeling and experiment
Santos, M.; Alves, L. L.; Noel, C.; Belmonte, T.
2012-10-01
In this paper we use both simulations and experiments to study helium discharges (99.999% purity) sustained by surface-waves (2.45 GHz frequency), in capillary tubes (3 mm radius) at atmospheric pressure. Simulations use a self-consistent homogeneous and stationary collisional-radiative model that solves the rate balance equations for the different species present in the plasma (electrons, the He^+ and He2^+ ions, the He(nexcimers) and the gas thermal balance equation, coupled to the two-term electron Boltzmann equation (including direct and stepwise collisions as well as electron-electron collisions). Experiments use optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics to measure the electron density (Hβ Stark broadening), the gas temperature (ro-vibrational transitions of OH, present at trace concentrations), and the populations of different excited states. Model predictions at 1.7x10^13 cm-3 electron density (within the range estimated experimentally) are in good agreement with measurements (deviations < 10%) of (i) the excitation spectrum and the excitation temperatures (2795 ± 115 K, obtained from the Boltzmann-plot of the excited state populations, with energies lying between 22.7 and 24.2 eV), (ii) the power coupled to the plasma (˜ 180 ± 10 W), and (iii) the gas temperature (˜ 1700 ± 100 K). We discuss the extreme dependence of model results (particularly the gas temperature) on the power coupled to the plasma.
Langasite surface acoustic wave gas sensors: modeling and verification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng Zheng,; Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.
2013-03-01
We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.
Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors: Modeling and Verification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J
2013-01-01
We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.
Dynamical models for sand ripples beneath surface waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Chabanol, M.-L.; v. Hecke, M.
2001-01-01
We introduce order parameter models for describing the dynamics of sand ripple patterns under oscillatory flow. A crucial ingredient of these models is the mass transport between adjacent ripples, which we obtain from detailed numerical simulations for a range of ripple sizes. Using this mass...... transport function, our models predict the existence of a stable band of wave numbers limited by secondary instabilities. Small ripples coarsen in our models and this process leads to a sharply selected final wave number, in agreement with experimental observations....
An idealised experimental model of ocean surface wave transmission by an ice floe
Bennetts, Luke; Meylan, Michael; Cavaliere, Claudio; Babanin, Alexander; Toffoli, Alessandro
2015-01-01
An experimental model of transmission of ocean waves by an ice floe is presented. Thin plastic plates with different material properties and thicknesses are used to model the floe. Regular incident waves with different periods and steepnesses are used, ranging from gently-sloping to storm-like conditions. A wave gauge is used to measure the water surface elevation in the lee of the floe. The depth of wave overwash on the floe is measured by a gauge in the centre of the floe's upper surface. Results show transmitted waves are regular for gently-sloping incident waves but irregular for storm-like incident waves. The proportion of the incident wave transmitted is shown to decrease as incident wave steepness increases, and to be at its minimum for an incident wavelength equal to the floe length. Further, a trend is noted for transmission to decrease as the mean wave height in the overwash region increases.
Regional Body-Wave Corrections and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Rodgers, A J; Meyeda, K M; Sicherman, A
2003-07-18
Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves, body waves, and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, and coda that can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. It is now well established that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6- to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we developed a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure (Walter and Taylor, 2002). This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. It allows for the possibility of variable apparent stress scaling in earthquakes, an unresolved issue that is the subject of investigation under separate funding. The MDACZ procedure makes use of the extremely stable coda estimates of Mw for source magnitude and can also use independent Q tomography to help reduce trade-offs in fitting spectra. We can then apply the kriging operation to the MDAC2 residuals to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. These corrections allow the exploration of all possible ratios and
Tao, Xie; Shang-Zhuo, Zhao; William, Perrie; He, Fang; Wen-Jin, Yu; Yi-Jun, He
2016-06-01
To study the electromagnetic backscattering from a one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface, a fractal sea surface wave-current model is derived, based on the mechanism of wave-current interactions. The numerical results show the effect of the ocean current on the wave. Wave amplitude decreases, wavelength and kurtosis of wave height increase, spectrum intensity decreases and shifts towards lower frequencies when the current occurs parallel to the direction of the ocean wave. By comparison, wave amplitude increases, wavelength and kurtosis of wave height decrease, spectrum intensity increases and shifts towards higher frequencies if the current is in the opposite direction to the direction of ocean wave. The wave-current interaction effect of the ocean current is much stronger than that of the nonlinear wave-wave interaction. The kurtosis of the nonlinear fractal ocean surface is larger than that of linear fractal ocean surface. The effect of the current on skewness of the probability distribution function is negligible. Therefore, the ocean wave spectrum is notably changed by the surface current and the change should be detectable in the electromagnetic backscattering signal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41276187), the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953901), the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), Program for the Innovation Research and Entrepreneurship Team in Jiangsu Province, China, the Canadian Program on Energy Research and Development, and the Canadian World Class Tanker Safety Service.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Bing-chen; LI Hua-jun; LEE Dong-yong
2006-01-01
The effects of waves on Surface Drag Coefficient (SDC) and surface mixing length were analyzed and discussed by carrying out three-dimensional current modeling for the Bohai Sea in the present work. A three- dimensional coupled hydrodynamical-ecological model for regional and shelf seas (COHERENS) incorporating the influences of wave-current interactions was coupled with the third-generation wave model swan taking into account time-varying currents. The effects of waves on currents were included in the SDC, surface mixing length and bottom drag coefficient. Firstly, the formulations in Donelan were incorporated into the COHERENS to account for wave-dependent SDC. In order to compare simulation results for the wave-dependent SDC, the simulation for wind-dependent SDC was also carried out. Second, Wave-Induced Surface Mixing Length (described as WISML sometimes in this paper) was incorporated into the COHERENS. Four numerical experiments were conducted to discuss the effects of two kinds of wave processes. Generally, the values of time series of current velocity and water surface elevation given by the simulation with all of the three wave processes have a good agreement with observed data. The existence of WISML changes obviously current vertical profiles and the existence of the wave dependent SDC modifies the current field of both top and bottom layers with the wind-dependent SDC.
2015-09-30
1 A multiscale nested modeling framework to simulate the interaction of surface gravity waves with nonlinear internal gravity waves...Minnesota LONG-TERM GOALS Our long-term goal is to develop a multiscale nested modeling framework that simulates, with the finest resolution...frameworks such as the proposed HYCOM-LZSNFS-SUNTANS-LES nested model are crucial for understanding multiscale processes that are unresolved, and hence
Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan
2016-07-01
Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.
Near-surface attenuation estimation using wave-propagation modeling
El Yadari, N.; Ernst, F.; Mulder, W.
2008-01-01
The effect of the near surface on seismic land data can be so severe that static corrections are insufficient. Full-waveform inversion followed by redatuming may be an alternative, but inversion will work only if the starting model is sufficiently close to the true model. As a first step toward dete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Sheridan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An automated method producing a diagnostic of the severity of lee waves and their impacts on surface winds as represented in output from a high resolution linear numerical model (3D velocities over mountains (3DVOM covering several areas of the U.K. is discussed. Lee waves involving turbulent rotor activity or downslope windstorms represent a hazard to aviation and ground transport, and summary information of this kind is highly valuable as an efficient ‘heads-up’ for forecasters, for automated products or to feed into impact models. Automated diagnosis of lee wave surface effects presents a particular challenge due to the complexity of turbulent zones in the lee of irregular terrain. The method proposed quantifies modelled wind perturbations relative to those that would occur in the absence of lee waves for a given background wind, and diagnoses using it are found to be quite consistent between cases and for different ranges of U.K. hills. A recent upgrade of the operational U.K. limited area model, the U.K. Variable Resolution Model (UKV used for general forecasting at the Met Office means that it now resolves lee waves, and its performance is here demonstrated using comparisons with aircraft- and surface-based observations and the linear model. In the future, automated diagnostics may be adapted to use its output to routinely produce contiguous mesoscale maps of lee wave activity and surface impacts over the whole U.K.
Modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the human body
Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kirillov, V. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Tural'chuk, P. A.
2016-12-01
The results of modeling and an experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave range propagating along the surface of the human body have been presented. The parameters of wave propagation, such as the attenuation and phase velocity, have also been investigated. The calculation of the propagation of EM waves by the numerical method FDTD (finite difference time domain), as well as the use of the analytical model of the propagation of the EM wave along flat and curved surfaces has been fulfilled. An experimental study on a human body has been conducted. It has been shown that creeping waves are slow and exhibit a noticeable dispersion, while the surface waves are dispersionless and propagate at the speed of light in free space. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation, analytical calculation, and experimental investigations at a frequency of 2.55 GHz has been carried out.
Observations and Modelling of Winds and Waves During the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment
1994-03-01
l’Environnement Terrestre et Planitalre (CRPE), France; Dr. Will M. Drennan, National Water Research Institute, CCIW; Dr. Lynn "Nick" K. Shay, RSMAS; Dr...250 m), and the orbital velocities of the low-frequency surface wave components. A summary of the results from SWADE are described in Shay (1993). 18
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
Wahle, Kathrin; Staneva, Joanna; Koch, Wolfgang; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Ho-Hagemann, Ha T. M.; Stanev, Emil V.
2017-04-01
The coupling of models is a commonly used approach when addressing the complex interactions between different components of earth systems. We demonstrate that this approach can result in a reduction of errors in wave forecasting, especially in dynamically complicated coastal ocean areas, such as the southern part of the North Sea - the German Bight. Here, we study the effects of coupling of an atmospheric model (COSMO) and a wind wave model (WAM), which is enabled by implementing wave-induced drag in the atmospheric model. The numerical simulations use a regional North Sea coupled wave-atmosphere model as well as a nested-grid high-resolution German Bight wave model. Using one atmospheric and two wind wave models simultaneously allows for study of the individual and combined effects of two-way coupling and grid resolution. This approach proved to be particularly important under severe storm conditions as the German Bight is a very shallow and dynamically complex coastal area exposed to storm floods. The two-way coupling leads to a reduction of both surface wind speeds and simulated wave heights. In this study, the sensitivity of atmospheric parameters, such as wind speed and atmospheric pressure, to the wave-induced drag, in particular under storm conditions, and the impact of two-way coupling on the wave model performance, is quantified. Comparisons between data from in situ and satellite altimeter observations indicate that two-way coupling improves the simulation of wind and wave parameters of the model and justify its implementation for both operational and climate simulations.
The impact of sea surface currents in wave power potential modeling
Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros
2015-11-01
The impact of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of wave energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, wave, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main wave characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the wave energy and the wave parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the wave models. The obtained results prove that the impact of the sea surface currents is quite significant in wave energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.
A Model for the Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves over Viscous Muds
2007-07-05
grained, cohesive sedimentary 1993; Foda et al., 1993). With the exception of fluidization environments is well known. Extreme dissipation rates have...processes ( Foda et al., 1993; DeWit, 1995), these models focus on a single, well-defined mud phase. Although the models Corresponding author. Tel.: +1...However, surface-interface wave interactions ( Foda , 1989; Hill and Foda , our focus at the present is on a wave model which can be 1998; Jamali et al
The Application of a Numerical Model to Coastal Surface Water Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZOU Huazhi; LI Huajun; LIU Xiaodong; LIU Aixia
2005-01-01
Based on the Navier-Stokes Equations (NSE), numerical simulation with fine grids is conducted to simulate the coastal surface wave changes, including wave generation, propagation, transformation and interactions between waves and structures. This numerical model has been tested for the generation of the desired incident waves, including both regular and random waves. Some numerical results of this model are compared with available experimental data. In order to apply this model to actual cases, boundary conditions are considered in detail for different shoreline types (beach or breakwater, slope or vertical wall, etc. ). Finally, the utility of the model to a real coastal area is shown by applying it to a fishing port located in Shidao, Rongcheng, Shandong Province, P.R. China.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard
of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). This is an optical device consisting if one waveguide that is split into two waveguide arms which are assembled again later on. By applying the mechanical field from a SAW the light in the two arms can be modulated and interfere constructively and destructively......The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...... application is modulation of optical waves in waveguides. This presentation elaborates on how a SAW is generated by interdigital transducers using a 2D model of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material implemented in the high-level programming language Comsol Multiphysics. The SAW is send through a model...
Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Pushkarev
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.
Li, Ben Q; Liu, Changhong
2011-01-15
A hybridization model for the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanoshell is developed within the framework of long-wave approximation. Compared with the existing hybridization model derived from the hydrodynamic simulation of free electron gas, this approach is much simpler and gives identical results for a concentric nanoshell. Also, with this approach, the limitations associated with the original hybridization model are succinctly stated. Extension of this approach to hybridization modeling of more complicated structures such as multiplayered nanoshells is straightforward.
Attenuation of surface waves due to monsoon rains: A model study for the north Indian Ocean
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vethamony, P.; Kumar, B.P.; Sarma, Y.V.B.
The dynamic interaction of intense rain with waves based on momentum exchange is applied to a second generation wave model to predict wave attenuation during monsoon. The scheme takes into account the characteristics of rain and wave parameters...
Non-Gaussian statistical models of surface wave fields for remote sensing applications
Huang, N. E.
1984-01-01
Based on the complete Stokes wave model with the bias term and using a simple mapping approach and an iteration solution method, we established a formula for the joint probability density function of the surface slope elevation of a nonlinear random wave field. The formula requires three parameters to define the whole density function: the rms surface elevation and slope values and the significant slope. This model represents the dynamics of the wave in a more direct way than the Gram-Charlier approximation. Based on this new statistical model and laboratory experiments, formula and numerical values of EM bias and dynamics bias are derived. The results indicate that various biases should be considered seriously if accuracy of the altimeter measurement is required in centimeter range.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær;
2008-01-01
The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special......, the existence of these surface waves in specific material examples is analyzed, discussing the challenge posed by their experimental observation....
A global shear velocity model of the mantle from normal modes and surface waves
durand, S.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.; Lambotte, S.
2013-12-01
We present a new global shear wave velocity model of the mantle based on the inversion of all published normal mode splitting functions and the large surface wave dataset measured by Debayle & Ricard (2012). Normal mode splitting functions and surface wave phase velocity maps are sensitive to lateral heterogeneities of elastic parameters (Vs, Vp, xi, phi, eta) and density. We first only consider spheroidal modes and Rayleigh waves and restrict the inversion to Vs, Vp and the density. Although it is well known that Vs is the best resolved parameter, we also investigate whether our dataset allows to extract additional information on density and/or Vp. We check whether the determination of the shear wave velocity is affected by the a priori choice of the crustal model (CRUST2.0 or 3SMAC) or by neglecting/coupling poorly resolved parameters. We include the major discontinuities, at 400 and 670 km. Vertical smoothing is imposed through an a priori gaussian covariance matrix on the model and we discuss the effect of coupling/decoupling the inverted structure above and below the discontinuities. We finally discuss the large scale structure of our model and its geodynamical implications regarding the amount of mass exchange between the upper and lower mantle.
Statistical multi-model climate projections of surface ocean waves in Europe
Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Camus, Paula; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.
2015-12-01
In recent years, the impact of climate change on sea surface waves has received increasingly more attention by the climate community. Indeed, ocean waves reaching the coast play an important role in several processes concerning coastal communities, such as inundation and erosion. However, regional downscaling at the high spatial resolution necessary for coastal studies has received less attention. Here, we present a novel framework for regional wave climate projections and its application in the European region. Changes in the wave dynamics under different scenarios in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean are analyzed. The multi-model projection methodology is based on a statistical downscaling approach. The statistical relation between the predictor (atmospheric conditions) and the predictand (multivariate wave climate) is based on a weather type (WT) classification. This atmospheric classification is developed by applying the k-means clustering technique over historical offshore sea level pressure (SLP) fields. Each WT is linked to sea wave conditions from a wave hindcast. This link is developed by associating atmospheric conditions from reanalysis with multivariate local waves. This predictor-predictand relationship is applied to the daily SLP fields from global climate models (GCMs) in order to project future changes in regional wave conditions. The GCMs used in the multi-model projection are selected according to skill criteria. The application of this framework uses CMIP5-based wave climate projections in Europe. The low computational requirements of the statistical approach allow a large number of GCMs and climate change scenarios to be studied. Consistent with previous works on global wave climate projections, the estimated changes from the regional wave climate projections show a general decrease in wave heights and periods in the Atlantic Europe for the late twenty-first century. The regional projections, however, allow a more detailed
Surface wave modelling and simulation for wave tanks and coastal areas
Groesen, van, E.; Bunnik, T.; Andonowati
2011-01-01
For testing ships and offshore structures in hydrodynamic laboratories, the sea and ocean states should be represented as realistic as possible in the wave tanks in which the scaled experiments are executed. To support efficient testing, accurate software that determines and translates the required wave maker motion into the downstream waves is very helpful. This paper describes an efficient hybrid spatial-spectral code that can deal with simulations above flat and varying bottom. The accurac...
A finite element model of a MEMS-based surface acoustic wave hydrogen sensor.
El Gowini, Mohamed M; Moussa, Walied A
2010-01-01
Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication cost, ease of integration and high sensitivity. In this paper a finite element model of a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor is developed using ANSYS12© and tested for hydrogen detection. The sensor consists of a YZ-lithium niobate substrate with interdigital electrodes (IDT) patterned on the surface. A thin palladium (Pd) film is added on the surface of the sensor due to its high affinity for hydrogen. With increased hydrogen absorption the palladium hydride structure undergoes a phase change due to the formation of the β-phase, which deteriorates the crystal structure. Therefore with increasing hydrogen concentration the stiffness and the density are significantly reduced. The values of the modulus of elasticity and the density at different hydrogen concentrations in palladium are utilized in the finite element model to determine the corresponding SAW sensor response. Results indicate that with increasing the hydrogen concentration the wave velocity decreases and the attenuation of the wave is reduced.
A Finite Element Model of a MEMS-based Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walied A. Moussa
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication cost, ease of integration and high sensitivity. In this paper a finite element model of a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor is developed using ANSYS12© and tested for hydrogen detection. The sensor consists of a YZ-lithium niobate substrate with interdigital electrodes (IDT patterned on the surface. A thin palladium (Pd film is added on the surface of the sensor due to its high affinity for hydrogen. With increased hydrogen absorption the palladium hydride structure undergoes a phase change due to the formation of the β-phase, which deteriorates the crystal structure. Therefore with increasing hydrogen concentration the stiffness and the density are significantly reduced. The values of the modulus of elasticity and the density at different hydrogen concentrations in palladium are utilized in the finite element model to determine the corresponding SAW sensor response. Results indicate that with increasing the hydrogen concentration the wave velocity decreases and the attenuation of the wave is reduced.
Surface Wave Effects in the NEMO Ocean Model: Forced and Coupled Experiments
Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Janssen, Peter A E M
2015-01-01
The NEMO general circulation ocean model is extended to incorporate three physical processes related to ocean surface waves, namely the surface stress (modified by growth and dissipation of the oceanic wave field), the turbulent kinetic energy flux from breaking waves, and the Stokes-Coriolis force. Experiments are done with NEMO in ocean-only (forced) mode and coupled to the ECMWF atmospheric and wave models. Ocean-only integrations are forced with fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. All three effects are noticeable in the extra-tropics, but the sea-state dependent turbulent kinetic energy flux yields by far the largest difference. This is partly because the control run has too vigorous deep mixing due to an empirical mixing term in NEMO. We investigate the relation between this ad hoc mixing and Langmuir turbulence and find that it is much more effective than the Langmuir parameterization used in NEMO. The biases in sea surface temperature as well as subsurface temperature are reduced, and the total oce...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær
2008-01-01
The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special conditi...
Surface wave modelling and simulation for wave tanks and coastal areas
Groesen, van E. (Brenny); Bunnik, T.; Andonowati,
2011-01-01
For testing ships and offshore structures in hydrodynamic laboratories, the sea and ocean states should be represented as realistic as possible in the wave tanks in which the scaled experiments are executed. To support efficient testing, accurate software that determines and translates the required
Modelling surface ozone during the 2003 heat-wave in the UK
Vieno, M.; Dore, A. J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Doherty, R.; Heal, M. R.; Reis, S.; Hallsworth, S.; Tarrason, L.; Wind, P.; Fowler, D.; Simpson, D.; Sutton, M. A.
2010-08-01
The EMEP4UK modelling system is a high resolution (5×5 km2) application of the EMEP chemistry-transport model, designed for scientific and policy studies in the UK. We demonstrate the use and performance of the EMEP4UK system through the study of ground-level ozone (O3) during the extreme August 2003 heat-wave. Meteorology is generated by the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, nudged every six hours with reanalysis data. We focus on SE England, where hourly average O3 reached up to 140 ppb during the heat-wave. EMEP4UK accurately reproduces elevated O3 and much of its day-to-day variability during the heat-wave. Key O3 precursors, nitrogen dioxide and isoprene, are less well simulated, but show generally accurate diurnal cycles and concentrations to within a factor of ~2-3 of observations. The modelled surface O3 distribution has an intricate spatio-temporal structure, governed by a combination of meteorology, emissions and photochemistry. A series of sensitivity runs with the model are used to explore the factors that influenced O3 levels during the heat-wave. Various factors appear to be important on different days and at different sites. Ozone imported from outside the model domain, especially the south, is very important on several days during the heat-wave, contributing up to 85 ppb. The effect of dry deposition is also important on several days. Modelled isoprene concentrations are generally best simulated if isoprene emissions are changed from the base emissions: typically doubled, but elevated by up to a factor of five on one hot day. We found that accurate modelling of the exact positions of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compound plumes is crucial for the successful simulation of O3 at a particular time and location. Variations in temperature of ±5 K were found to have impacts on O3 of typically less than ±10 ppb.
Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Soret, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.
2012-04-01
Meteorological models, like WRF, usually describe the earth surface characteristics by tables that are function of land-use. The roughness length (z0) is an example of such approach. However, over sea z0 is modeled by the Charnock (1955) relation, linking the surface friction velocity u*2 with the roughness length z0 of turbulent air flow, z0 = α-u2* g The Charnock coefficient α may be considered a measure of roughness. For the sea surface, WRF considers a constant roughness α = 0.0185. However, there is evidence that sea surface roughness should depend on wave energy (Donelan, 1982). Spectral wave models like WAM, model the evolution and propagation of wave energy as a function of wind, and include a richer sea surface roughness description. Coupling WRF and WAM is thus a common way to improve the sea surface roughness description of WRF. WAM is a third generation wave model, solving the equation of advection of wave energy subject to input/output terms of: wind growth, energy dissipation and resonant non-linear wave-wave interactions. Third generation models work on the spectral domain. WAM considers the Charnock coefficient α a complex yet known function of the total wind input term, which depends on the wind velocity and on the Charnock coefficient again. This is solved iteratively (Janssen et al., 1990). Coupling of meteorological and wave models through a common Charnock coefficient is operationally done in medium-range met forecasting systems (e.g., at ECMWF) though the impact of coupling for smaller domains is not yet clearly assessed (Warner et al, 2010). It is unclear to which extent the additional effort of coupling improves the local wind and wave fields, in comparison to the effects of other factors, like e.g. a better bathymetry and relief resolution, or a better circulation information which might have its influence on local-scale meteorological processes (local wind jets, local convection, daily marine wind regimes, etc.). This work, within the
Importance of a 3D forward modeling tool for surface wave analysis methods
Pageot, Damien; Le Feuvre, Mathieu; Donatienne, Leparoux; Philippe, Côte; Yann, Capdeville
2016-04-01
Since a few years, seismic surface waves analysis methods (SWM) have been widely developed and tested in the context of subsurface characterization and have demonstrated their effectiveness for sounding and monitoring purposes, e.g., high-resolution tomography of the principal geological units of California or real time monitoring of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. Historically, these methods are mostly developed under the assumption of semi-infinite 1D layered medium without topography. The forward modeling is generally based on Thomson-Haskell matrix based modeling algorithm and the inversion is driven by Monte-Carlo sampling. Given their efficiency, SWM have been transfered to several scale of which civil engineering structures in order to, e.g., determine the so-called V s30 parameter or assess other critical constructional parameters in pavement engineering. However, at this scale, many structures may often exhibit 3D surface variations which drastically limit the efficiency of SWM application. Indeed, even in the case of an homogeneous structure, 3D geometry can bias the dispersion diagram of Rayleigh waves up to obtain discontinuous phase velocity curves which drastically impact the 1D mean velocity model obtained from dispersion inversion. Taking advantages of high-performance computing center accessibility and wave propagation modeling algorithm development, it is now possible to consider the use of a 3D elastic forward modeling algorithm instead of Thomson-Haskell method in the SWM inversion process. We use a parallelized 3D elastic modeling code based on the spectral element method which allows to obtain accurate synthetic data with very low numerical dispersion and a reasonable numerical cost. In this study, we choose dike embankments as an illustrative example. We first show that their longitudinal geometry may have a significant effect on dispersion diagrams of Rayleigh waves. Then, we demonstrate the necessity of 3D elastic modeling as a forward
Nanostructure-Enhanced Surface Acoustic Waves Biosensor and Its Computational Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guigen Zhang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW devices are considered to be very promising in providing a high-performance sensing platform with wireless and remote operational capabilities. In this review, the basic principles of SAW devices and Love-mode SAW-based biosensors are discussed first to illustrate the need for surface enhancement for the active area of a SAW sensor. Then some of the recent efforts made to incorporate nanostructures into SAW sensors are summarized. After that, a computational approach to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the operations of a Love-mode SAW biosensor with nanostructured active surface is discussed. Finally, a modeling example for a Love-mode SAW sensor with skyscraper nanopillars added to in its active surface along with some selected results is presented.
Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves
Zhang, Zhendong
2015-08-19
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.
Geyer, Anna
2016-01-01
Following a general principle introduced by Ehrnstr\\"{o}m et.al. we prove that for an equation modeling the free surface evolution of moderate amplitude waves in shallow water, all symmetric waves are traveling waves.
Geyer, Anna
2016-01-01
Following a general principle introduced by Ehrnstr\\"{o}m et.al. we prove that for an equation modeling the free surface evolution of moderate amplitude waves in shallow water, all symmetric waves are traveling waves.
Conversion from surface wave to surface wave on reflection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey
2010-01-01
We discuss the reflection and transmission of an incident surface wave to a pure surface wave state at another interface. This is allowed only for special media parameters: at least one of the media must be magnetic. We found such material characteristics that the obliquely incident surface wave...... can be transmitted without changing its direction (nevertheless the amplitude varies). For other media parameters, only normally incident surface waves can be converted to surface waves. We propose applications of the predicted conversion as a beam splitter and polarization filter for surface waves....
On the generation of internal wave modes by surface waves
Harlander, Uwe; Kirschner, Ian; Maas, Christian; Zaussinger, Florian
2016-04-01
Internal gravity waves play an important role in the ocean since they transport energy and momentum and the can lead to mixing when they break. Surface waves and internal gravity waves can interact. On the one hand, long internal waves imply a slow varying shear current that modifies the propagation of surface waves. Surface waves generated by the atmosphere can, on the other hand, excite internal waves by nonlinear interaction. Thereby a surface wave packet consisting of two close frequencies can resonate with a low frequency internal wave (Phillips, 1966). From a theoretical point of view, the latter has been studied intensively by using a 2-layer model, i.e. a surface layer with a strong density contrast and an internal layer with a comparable weak density contrast (Ball, 1964; Craig et al., 2010). In the present work we analyse the wave coupling for a continuously stratified fluid using a fully non-linear 2D numerical model (OpenFoam) and compare this with laboratory experiments (see Lewis et al. 1974). Surface wave modes are used as initial condition and the time development of the dominant surface and internal waves are studied by spectral and harmonic analysis. For the simple geometry of a box, the results are compared with analytical spectra of surface and gravity waves. Ball, F.K. 1964: Energy transfer between external and internal gravity waves. J. Fluid Mech. 19, 465. Craig, W., Guyenne, P., Sulem, C. 2010: Coupling between internal and surface waves. Natural Hazards 57, 617-642. Lewis, J.E., Lake, B.M., Ko, D.R.S 1974: On the interaction of internal waves and surfacr gravity waves, J. Fluid Mech. 63, 773-800. Phillips, O.M. 1966: The dynamics of the upper ocean, Cambridge University Press, 336pp.
A trade-off solution between model resolution and covariance in surface-wave inversion
Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Miller, R.D.; Zeng, C.
2010-01-01
Regularization is necessary for inversion of ill-posed geophysical problems. Appraisal of inverse models is essential for meaningful interpretation of these models. Because uncertainties are associated with regularization parameters, extra conditions are usually required to determine proper parameters for assessing inverse models. Commonly used techniques for assessment of a geophysical inverse model derived (generally iteratively) from a linear system are based on calculating the model resolution and the model covariance matrices. Because the model resolution and the model covariance matrices of the regularized solutions are controlled by the regularization parameter, direct assessment of inverse models using only the covariance matrix may provide incorrect results. To assess an inverted model, we use the concept of a trade-off between model resolution and covariance to find a proper regularization parameter with singular values calculated in the last iteration. We plot the singular values from large to small to form a singular value plot. A proper regularization parameter is normally the first singular value that approaches zero in the plot. With this regularization parameter, we obtain a trade-off solution between model resolution and model covariance in the vicinity of a regularized solution. The unit covariance matrix can then be used to calculate error bars of the inverse model at a resolution level determined by the regularization parameter. We demonstrate this approach with both synthetic and real surface-wave data. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.
Line nodes and surface Majorana flat bands in static and kicked p -wave superconducting Harper model
Wang, Huai-Qiang; Chen, M. N.; Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Gong, Jiangbin; Xing, D. Y.
2017-02-01
We investigate the effect of introducing nearest-neighbor p -wave superconducting pairing to both the static and kicked extended Harper model with two periodic phase parameters acting as artificial dimensions to simulate three-dimensional systems. It is found that in both the static model and the kicked model, by varying the p -wave pairing order parameter, the system can switch between a fully gapped phase and a gapless phase with point nodes or line nodes. The topological property of both the static and kicked model is revealed by calculating corresponding topological invariants defined in the one-dimensional lattice dimension. Under open boundary conditions along the physical dimension, Majorana flat bands at energy zero (quasienergy zero and π ) emerge in the static (kicked) model at the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone. For certain values of pairing order parameter, (Floquet) Su-Schrieffer-Heeger-like edge modes appear in the form of arcs connecting different (Floquet) Majorana flat bands. Finally, we find that in the kicked model, it is possible to generate two controllable Floquet Majorana modes, one at quasienergy zero and the other at quasienergy π , at the same parameter values.
Gosselin, Jeremy M.; Dosso, Stan E.; Cassidy, John F.; Quijano, Jorge E.; Molnar, Sheri; Dettmer, Jan
2017-10-01
This paper develops and applies a Bernstein-polynomial parametrization to efficiently represent general, gradient-based profiles in nonlinear geophysical inversion, with application to ambient-noise Rayleigh-wave dispersion data. Bernstein polynomials provide a stable parametrization in that small perturbations to the model parameters (basis-function coefficients) result in only small perturbations to the geophysical parameter profile. A fully nonlinear Bayesian inversion methodology is applied to estimate shear wave velocity (VS) profiles and uncertainties from surface wave dispersion data extracted from ambient seismic noise. The Bayesian information criterion is used to determine the appropriate polynomial order consistent with the resolving power of the data. Data error correlations are accounted for in the inversion using a parametric autoregressive model. The inversion solution is defined in terms of marginal posterior probability profiles for VS as a function of depth, estimated using Metropolis-Hastings sampling with parallel tempering. This methodology is applied to synthetic dispersion data as well as data processed from passive array recordings collected on the Fraser River Delta in British Columbia, Canada. Results from this work are in good agreement with previous studies, as well as with co-located invasive measurements. The approach considered here is better suited than `layered' modelling approaches in applications where smooth gradients in geophysical parameters are expected, such as soil/sediment profiles. Further, the Bernstein polynomial representation is more general than smooth models based on a fixed choice of gradient type (e.g. power-law gradient) because the form of the gradient is determined objectively by the data, rather than by a subjective parametrization choice.
Parisi, Laura
2016-02-10
The surface wave full ray theory (FRT) is an efficient tool to calculate synthetic waveforms of surface waves. It combines the concept of local modes with exact ray tracing as a function of frequency, providing a more complete description of surface wave propagation than the widely used great circle approximation (GCA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the FRT approach to model teleseismic long-period surface waveforms (T ∼ 45–150 s) in the context of current 3-D Earth models to empirically assess its validity domain and its scope for future studies in seismic tomography. To achieve this goal, we compute vertical and horizontal component fundamental mode synthetic Rayleigh waveforms using the FRT, which are compared with calculations using the highly accurate spectral element method. We use 13 global earth models including 3-D crustal and mantle structure, which are derived by successively varying the strength and lengthscale of heterogeneity in current tomographic models. For completeness, GCA waveforms are also compared with the spectral element method. We find that the FRT accurately predicts the phase and amplitude of long-period Rayleigh waves (T ∼ 45–150 s) for almost all the models considered, with errors in the modelling of the phase (amplitude) of Rayleigh waves being smaller than 5 per cent (10 per cent) in most cases. The largest errors in phase and amplitude are observed for T ∼ 45 s and for the three roughest earth models considered that exhibit shear wave anomalies of up to ∼20 per cent, which is much larger than in current global tomographic models. In addition, we find that overall the GCA does not predict Rayleigh wave amplitudes well, except for the longest wave periods (T ∼ 150 s) and the smoothest models considered. Although the GCA accurately predicts Rayleigh wave phase for current earth models such as S20RTS and S40RTS, FRT\\'s phase errors are smaller, notably for the shortest wave periods considered (T
Parisi, Laura; Ferreira, Ana M. G.
2016-04-01
The surface wave full ray theory (FRT) is an efficient tool to calculate synthetic waveforms of surface waves. It combines the concept of local modes with exact ray tracing as a function of frequency, providing a more complete description of surface wave propagation than the widely used great circle approximation (GCA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the FRT approach to model teleseismic long-period surface waveforms (T ˜ 45-150 s) in the context of current 3-D Earth models to empirically assess its validity domain and its scope for future studies in seismic tomography. To achieve this goal, we compute vertical and horizontal component fundamental mode synthetic Rayleigh waveforms using the FRT, which are compared with calculations using the highly accurate spectral element method. We use 13 global earth models including 3-D crustal and mantle structure, which are derived by successively varying the strength and lengthscale of heterogeneity in current tomographic models. For completeness, GCA waveforms are also compared with the spectral element method. We find that the FRT accurately predicts the phase and amplitude of long-period Rayleigh waves (T ˜ 45-150 s) for almost all the models considered, with errors in the modelling of the phase (amplitude) of Rayleigh waves being smaller than 5 per cent (10 per cent) in most cases. The largest errors in phase and amplitude are observed for T ˜ 45 s and for the three roughest earth models considered that exhibit shear wave anomalies of up to ˜20 per cent, which is much larger than in current global tomographic models. In addition, we find that overall the GCA does not predict Rayleigh wave amplitudes well, except for the longest wave periods (T ˜ 150 s) and the smoothest models considered. Although the GCA accurately predicts Rayleigh wave phase for current earth models such as S20RTS and S40RTS, FRT's phase errors are smaller, notably for the shortest wave periods considered (T ˜ 45 s and
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Liu, J.
2010-01-01
Love-wave propagation has been a topic of interest to crustal, earthquake, and engineering seismologists for many years because it is independent of Poisson's ratio and more sensitive to shear (S)-wave velocity changes and layer thickness changes than are Rayleigh waves. It is well known that Love-wave generation requires the existence of a low S-wave velocity layer in a multilayered earth model. In order to study numerically the propagation of Love waves in a layered earth model and dispersion characteristics for near-surface applications, we simulate high-frequency (>5 Hz) Love waves by the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method. The air-earth boundary (the shear stress above the free surface) is treated using the stress-imaging technique. We use a two-layer model to demonstrate the accuracy of the staggered-grid modeling scheme. We also simulate four-layer models including a low-velocity layer (LVL) or a high-velocity layer (HVL) to analyze dispersive energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that: (1) the staggered-grid FD code and stress-imaging technique are suitable for treating the free-surface boundary conditions for Love-wave modeling, (2) Love-wave inversion should be treated with extra care when a LVL exists because of a lack of LVL information in dispersions aggravating uncertainties in the inversion procedure, and (3) energy of high modes in a low-frequency range is very weak, so that it is difficult to estimate the cutoff frequency accurately, and "mode-crossing" occurs between the second higher and third higher modes when a HVL exists. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.
Modeling waves, currents and sandbars on natural beaches: The effect of surface rollers
Ribas, F.; de Swart, H.E.; Calvete, D.; Falqués, A.
2011-01-01
A morphodynamic model has been extended to gain more fundamental knowledge about the formation of nearshore sand bars. The model describes feedbacks between waves, rollers, depth-averaged currents and bed evolution, so that self-organized processes can develop. Offshore wave, wind and tide condition
Surface Wave Tomography with Spatially Varying Smoothing Based on Continuous Model Regionalization
Liu, Chuanming; Yao, Huajian
2017-03-01
Surface wave tomography based on continuous regionalization of model parameters is widely used to invert for 2-D phase or group velocity maps. An inevitable problem is that the distribution of ray paths is far from homogeneous due to the spatially uneven distribution of stations and seismic events, which often affects the spatial resolution of the tomographic model. We present an improved tomographic method with a spatially varying smoothing scheme that is based on the continuous regionalization approach. The smoothness of the inverted model is constrained by the Gaussian a priori model covariance function with spatially varying correlation lengths based on ray path density. In addition, a two-step inversion procedure is used to suppress the effects of data outliers on tomographic models. Both synthetic and real data are used to evaluate this newly developed tomographic algorithm. In the synthetic tests, when the contrived model has different scales of anomalies but with uneven ray path distribution, we compare the performance of our spatially varying smoothing method with the traditional inversion method, and show that the new method is capable of improving the recovery in regions of dense ray sampling. For real data applications, the resulting phase velocity maps of Rayleigh waves in SE Tibet produced using the spatially varying smoothing method show similar features to the results with the traditional method. However, the new results contain more detailed structures and appears to better resolve the amplitude of anomalies. From both synthetic and real data tests we demonstrate that our new approach is useful to achieve spatially varying resolution when used in regions with heterogeneous ray path distribution.
Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter
2016-08-01
Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on water temperature distribution and heat exchange at regional scale (the Baltic Sea). Four scenarios—including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination these forcings—were simulated to test the impact of different terms on simulated temperature distribution. The scenario simulations were compared to a control simulation, which included a constant wave-breaking coefficient, but otherwise was without any wave effects. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwelling's. Overall, when all three wave effects were accounted for, did the estimates of temperature improve compared to control simulation. During the summer, the wave-induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea, a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations in summer months. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data, e.g. the control simulation was too cold compared to measurements. The warming is related to sea-state dependent energy flux. This implies that a spatio-temporally varying wave-breaking coefficient is necessary, because it depends on actual sea state. Wave-induced cooling is mostly observed in near-coastal areas and is the result of intensified upwelling in the scenario, when Stokes-Coriolis forcing is accounted for. Accounting for sea-state dependent momentum flux results in modified heat exchange at the water-air boundary which consequently leads to warming of surface water compared to control simulation.
Surface-wave photonic quasicrystal
Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Youming; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
In developing strategies of manipulating surface electromagnetic waves, it has been recently recognized that a complete forbidden band gap can exist in a periodic surface-wave photonic crystal, which has subsequently produced various surface-wave photonic devices. However, it is not obvious whether such a concept can be extended to a non-periodic surface-wave system that lacks translational symmetry. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a surface-wave photonic quasicrystal that lacks periodicity can also exhibit a forbidden band gap for surface electromagnetic waves. The lower cutoff of this forbidden band gap is mainly determined by the maximum separation between nearest neighboring pillars. Point defects within this band gap show distinct properties compared to a periodic photonic crystal for the absence of translational symmetry. A line-defect waveguide, which is crafted out of this surface-wave photonic quasicrystal by shortening a random row of metallic rods, is also demonstrated to guide and bend sur...
De Dominicis, M.; Bruciaferri, D.; Gerin, R.; Pinardi, N.; Poulain, P. M.; Garreau, P.; Zodiatis, G.; Perivoliotis, L.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, R.; Manganiello, C.
2016-11-01
Validation of oil spill forecasting systems suffers from a lack of data due to the scarcity of oil slick in situ and satellite observations. Drifters (surface drifting buoys) are often considered as proxy for oil spill to overcome this problem. However, they can have different designs and consequently behave in a different way at sea, making it not straightforward to use them for oil spill model validation purposes and to account for surface currents, waves and wind when modelling them. Stemming from the need to validate the MEDESS4MS (Mediterranean Decision Support System for Marine Safety) multi-model oil spill prediction system, which allows access to several ocean, wave and meteorological operational model forecasts, an exercise at sea was carried out to collect a consistent dataset of oil slick satellite observations, in situ data and trajectories of different type of drifters. The exercise, called MEDESS4MS Serious Game 1 (SG1), took place in the Elba Island region (Western Mediterranean Sea) during May 2014. Satellite images covering the MEDESS4MS SG1 exercise area were acquired every day and, in the case an oil spill was observed from satellite, vessels of the Italian Coast Guard (ITCG) were sent in situ to confirm the presence of the pollution. During the exercise one oil slick was found in situ and drifters, with different water-following characteristics, were effectively deployed into the oil slick and then monitored in the following days. Although it was not possible to compare the oil slick and drifter trajectories due to a lack of satellite observations of the same oil slick in the following days, the oil slick observations in situ and drifters trajectories were used to evaluate the quality of MEDESS4MS multi-model currents, waves and winds by using the MEDSLIK-II oil spill model. The response of the drifters to surface ocean currents, different Stokes drift parameterizations and wind drag has been examined. We found that the surface ocean currents
Nonlinear surface waves over topography
Janssen, T.T.
2006-01-01
As ocean surface waves radiate into shallow coastal areas and onto beaches, their lengths shorten, wave heights increase, and the wave shape transforms from nearsinusoidal to the characteristic saw-tooth shapes at the onset of breaking; in the ensuing breaking process the wave energy is cascaded to
Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter
2016-04-01
The effects of wind waves on the Baltic Sea water temperature has been studied by coupling the hydrodynamical model NEMO with the wave model WAM. The wave forcing terms that have been taken into consideration are: Stokes-Coriolis force, seastate dependent energy flux and sea-state dependent momentum flux. The combined role of these processes as well as their individual contributions on simulated temperature is analysed. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwellinǵs. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data. The warming is primarily caused by sea-state dependent energy flux. Wave induced cooling is mostly observed in near coastal areas and is mainly due to Stokes-Coriolis forcing. The latter triggers effect of intensifying upwellings near the coasts, depending on the direction of the wind. The effect of sea-state dependent momentum flux is predominantly to warm the surface layer. During the summer the wave induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fabre, D; Mougel, J, E-mail: david.fabre@imft.fr [Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), University of Toulouse (France)
2014-12-01
The free surface flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom is known to support spectacular three-dimensional patterns, including deformation of the inner free surface into the shape of rotating polygons and sloshing behavior of the upper free surface (e.g. Iga et al 2014 Fluid Dyn. Res. 46 031409). Through a stability analysis of a simplified model of this flow, we show that such patterns can be explained as a resonance mechanism involving different families of waves. The approach extends a previous work (Tophøj et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 194502) which explained the rotating polygons as an interaction between gravity waves and centrifugal waves, under the assumption that the base flow can be modeled as a potential vortex. We show that this previous model is justified for strong rotation rates (Dry-Potential case), and that for weaker rotations it can be improved by introducing an inner vortex core in solid-body rotation, which either extends to the center of the plate (Wet case) or surrounds a dry central region (Dry-Composite case). The study of this improved model predicts two new kinds of instabilities. The first occurs at low rotations (Wet case) and results from an interaction between gravity waves and the Kelvin–Kirchhoff wave (namely, oscillation of the boundary of the vortex core). This instability is proposed to be at the origin of the sloshing phenomenon. The second new instability occurs, for moderate rotations, (Dry-Composite case) as an interaction between gravity waves and a ‘Kelvin-Centrifugal’ wave characterized by deformation of the inner surface and the vortex core boundary in opposite directions. This instability exists for all azimuthal wave numbers starting from m = 1, this case corresponding to a ‘monogon’ pattern. (paper)
The Effect of Surface Waves on the Performance Characteristics of a Model Tidal Turbine
Flack, K.; Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Taylor, K.
2011-12-01
A 0.5 m diameter 3-bladed horizontal axis model tidal turbine has been designed and tested at the United States Naval Academy Hydrodynamics Laboratory. The blades section for the turbine is based on the E387 foil and includes a 50% taper and 20 degree twist from root to tip. Tests were conducted in the 120 ft tow tank for a range of tow speeds of 0.5 - 1.5 m/s. The experimental rig consists of the following parts: a 90 degree gear box attached to the turbine shaft, a rotary encoder to measure RPM, a torque meter, and a differential electromagnetic brake to apply a load to the shaft. The turbine was placed 1 diameter below the free surface. Preliminary results show excellent agreement of the experimentally measured power coefficient as a function of tip-speed ratio with predicted results from blade-element-momentum theory. Additional experiments are being conducted which include the influence of surface waves on tidal turbine performance. A full uncertainty analysis of the experimental results will also be included. This is part of larger effort at the Naval Academy to develop a testing program for tidal turbine research in the large tow tank facilities.
A comparative study of two fast nonlinear free-surface water wave models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter
2012-01-01
This paper presents a comparison in terms of accuracy and efficiency between two fully nonlinear potential flow solvers for the solution of gravity wave propagation. One model is based on the high-order spectral (HOS) method, whereas the second model is the high-order finite difference model Ocea...
Generation of long subharmonic internal waves by surface waves
Tahvildari, Navid; Kaihatu, James M.; Saric, William S.
2016-10-01
A new set of Boussinesq equations is derived to study the nonlinear interactions between long waves in a two-layer fluid. The fluid layers are assumed to be homogeneous, inviscid, incompressible, and immiscible. Based on the Boussinesq equations, an analytical model is developed using a second-order perturbation theory and applied to examine the transient evolution of a resonant triad composed of a surface wave and two oblique subharmonic internal waves. Wave damping due to weak viscosity in both layers is considered. The Boussinesq equations and the analytical model are verified. In contrast to previous studies which focus on short internal waves, we examine long waves and investigate some previously unexplored characteristics of this class of triad interaction. In viscous fluids, surface wave amplitudes must be larger than a threshold to overcome viscous damping and trigger internal waves. The dependency of this critical amplitude as well as the growth and damping rates of internal waves on important parameters in a two-fluid system, namely the directional angle of the internal waves, depth, density, and viscosity ratio of the fluid layers, and surface wave amplitude and frequency is investigated.
Limited fetch revisited: comparison of wind input terms in surface waves modeling
Andrei, Pushkarev
2015-01-01
The results of numerical solution of the Hasselmann kinetic equation ($HE$) for wind driven sea spectra in the fetch limited geometry are presented. Five versions of the source functions, including recently introduced ZRP model, have been studied for the exact expression of Snl and high-frequency implicit dissipation due to wave-breaking. Four out of five experiments were done in the absence of spectral peak dissipation for various Sin terms. They demonstrated the dominance of quadruplet wave-wave interaction in the energy balance and the formation of self-similar regimes of unlimited wave energy growth along the fetch. Between them was ZRP model, which showed especially good agreement with the dozen of field observations performed in the seas and lakes since 1971. The fifth, WAM3 wind input term experiment, used additional spectral peak dissipation and reproduced the results of previous similar numerical simulation, but was in a good agreement with the field experiments only for moderate fetches, demonstrati...
Near Surface Shear Wave Velocity Model of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta
Shuler, S.; Craig, M. S.; Hayashi, K.; Galvin, J. L.; Deqiang, C.; Jones, M. G.
2015-12-01
Multichannel analysis of surface wave measurements (MASW) and microtremor array measurements (MAM) were performed at twelve sites across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to obtain high resolution shear wave velocity (VS) models. Deeper surveys were performed at four of the sites using the two station spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method. For the MASW and MAM surveys, a 48-channel seismic system with 4.5 Hz geophones was used with a 10-lb sledgehammer and a metal plate as a source. Surveys were conducted at various locations on the crest of levees, the toe of the levees, and off of the levees. For MASW surveys, we used a record length of 2.048 s, a sample interval of 1 ms, and 1 m geophone spacing. For MAM, ambient noise was recorded for 65.536 s with a sampling interval of 4 ms and 1 m geophone spacing. VS was determined to depths of ~ 20 m using the MASW method and ~ 40 m using the MAM method. Maximum separation between stations in the two-station SPAC surveys was typically 1600 m to 1800 m, providing coherent signal with wavelengths in excess of 5 km and depth penetration of as much as 2000 m. Measured values of VS30 in the study area ranged from 97 m/s to 257 m/s, corresponding to NEHRP site classifications D and E. Comparison of our measured velocity profiles with available geotechnical logs, including soil type, SPT, and CPT, reveals the existence of a small number of characteristic horizons within the upper 40m in the Delta: levee fill material, peat, transitional silty sand, and eolian sand at depth. Sites with a peat layer at the surface exhibited extremely low values of VS. Based on soil borings, the thickness of peat layers were approximately 0 m to 8 m. The VS for the peat layers ranged from 42 m/s to 150 m/s while the eolian sand layer exhibited VS ranging from of 220 m/s to 370 m/s. Soft near surface soils present in the region pose an increased earthquake hazard risk due to the potential for high ground accelerations.
Sparrow, Victor Ward
1990-01-01
This study has concerned the propagation of finite amplitude, i.e. weakly non-linear, acoustical blast waves from explosions over hard and porous media models of outdoor ground surfaces. The nonlinear acoustic propagation effects require a numerical solution in the time domain. To model a porous ground surface, which in the frequency domain exhibits a finite impedance, the linear phenomenological porous model of Morse and Ingard was used. The phenomenological equations are solved in the time domain for coupling with the time domain propagation solution in the air. The numerical solution is found through the method of finite differences. The second-order in time and fourth -order in space MacCormack method was used in the air, and the second-order in time and space MacCormack method was used in the porous medium modeling the ground. Two kinds of numerical absorbing boundary conditions were developed for the air propagation equations to truncate the physical domain for solution on a computer. Radiation conditions first were used on those sides of the domain where there were outgoing waves. Characteristic boundary conditions secondly are employed near the acoustic source. The numerical model agreed well with the Pestorius algorithm for the propagation of electric spark pulses in the free field, and with a result of Pfriem for normal plane reflection off a hard surface. In addition, curves of pressure amplification versus incident angle for waves obliquely incident on the hard and porous surfaces were produced which are similar to those in the literature. The model predicted that near grazing finite amplitude acoustic blast waves decay with distance over hard surfaces as r to the power -1.2. This result is consistent with the work of Reed. For propagation over the porous ground surface, the model predicted that this surface decreased the decay rate with distance for the larger blasts compared to the rate expected in the linear acoustics limit.
Duda, Timothy F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reeder, D Benjamin
2011-09-01
A study of 400 Hz sound focusing and ducting effects in a packet of curved nonlinear internal waves in shallow water is presented. Sound propagation roughly along the crests of the waves is simulated with a three-dimensional parabolic equation computational code, and the results are compared to measured propagation along fixed 3 and 6 km source/receiver paths. The measurements were made on the shelf of the South China Sea northeast of Tung-Sha Island. Construction of the time-varying three-dimensional sound-speed fields used in the modeling simulations was guided by environmental data collected concurrently with the acoustic data. Computed three-dimensional propagation results compare well with field observations. The simulations allow identification of time-dependent sound forward scattering and ducting processes within the curved internal gravity waves. Strong acoustic intensity enhancement was observed during passage of high-amplitude nonlinear waves over the source/receiver paths, and is replicated in the model. The waves were typical of the region (35 m vertical displacement). Two types of ducting are found in the model, which occur asynchronously. One type is three-dimensional modal trapping in deep ducts within the wave crests (shallow thermocline zones). The second type is surface ducting within the wave troughs (deep thermocline zones).
Jamin, Timothée; Ruiz-Chavarría, Gerardo; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric
2014-01-01
We report laboratory experiments on surface waves generated in a uniform fluid layer whose bottom undergoes a sudden upward motion. Simultaneous measurements of the free-surface deformation and the fluid velocity field are focused on the role of the bottom kinematics in wave generation. We observe that the fluid layer transfers bottom motion to the free surface as a temporal high-pass filter coupled with a spatial low-pass filter. Both filter effects are usually neglected in tsunami warning systems. Our results display good agreement with a prevailing linear theory without fitting parameter. Based on our experimental data, we provide a new theoretical approach for the rapid kinematics limit that is applicable even for non-flat bottoms: a key step since most approaches assume a uniform depth. This approach can be easily appended to tsunami simulations under arbitrary topography.
Transport of particles by surface waves: a modification of the classical bouncer model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ragulskis, M [Department of Mathematical Research in Systems, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu 50-222, 51638 Kaunas (Lithuania); Sanjuan, M A F [Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Group, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: minvydas.ragulskis@ktu.lt, E-mail: miguel.sanjuan@urjc.es
2008-08-15
We consider a ball under the influence of gravity on a platform. A propagating surface wave travels on the surface of the platform, while the platform remains motionless. This is a modification of the classical bouncing ball problem and describes the transport of particles by surface waves. Phase and velocity maps cannot be expressed in an explicit form owing to implicit formulations, and no formal analytical analysis is possible. Numerical analysis shows that the transition to chaos is produced via a period doubling route, which is a common property for classical bouncers. The bouncing process can be sensitive to the initial conditions, which can build the ground for control techniques that can dramatically increase the effectiveness of particle transport in practical applications.
Fast calculate the parameters of surface acoustic wave coupling-of-modes model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Jiansheng; HE Shitang
2007-01-01
Accurate solutions of acoustic waves in piezoelectric substrate and metal film as layered structure were obtained. Phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and static capacitance were calculated based upon the solutions. Chen and Haus' theory was used to analyze surface acoustic waves in shorten gratings with single finger every period and a reflection coefficient expression of one strip was presented. Parameters of aluminum on X112°Y LiTaO3 and gold on ST-quartz were calculated. The results agreed well with those from Ken-ya Hashimoto's theory. The reflection coefficient of gold on ST-quartz was measured to verify the theoretical result.
Golenitskii, K. Â. Yu.; Koshelev, K. Â. L.; Bogdanov, A. Â. A.
2016-10-01
In this work we develop a theory of surface electromagnetic waves localized at the interface of periodic metal-dielectric structures. We have shown that the anisotropy of plasma frequency in metal layers lifts the degeneracy of plasma oscillations and opens a series of photonic band gaps. This results in appearance of surface waves with singular density of states—we refer to them as Tamm-Langmuir waves. Such naming is natural since we have found that their properties are very similar to the properties of both bulk Langmuir and surface Tamm waves. Depending on the anisotropy parameters, Tamm-Langmuir waves can be either forward or backward waves. Singular density of states and high sensitivity of the dispersion to the anisotropy of the structure makes Tamm-Langmuir waves very promising for potential applications in nanophotonics and biosensing.
Golenitskii, K U; Bogdanov, A A
2016-01-01
In this work we develop a theory of surface electromagnetic waves localized at the interface of periodic metal-dielectric structures. We have shown that the anisotropy of plasma frequency in metal layers lifts the degeneracy of plasma oscillations and opens a series of photonic band gaps. This results in appearance of surface waves with singular density of states - we refer to them as Tamm-Langmuir waves. Such naming is natural since we have found that their properties are very similar to the properties of both bulk Langmuir and surface Tamm waves. Depending on the anisotropy parameters, Tamm-Langmuir waves can be either forward or backward waves. Singular density of states and high sensitivity of the dispersion to the anisotropy of the structure makes Tamm-Langmuir waves very promising for potential applications in nanophotonics and biosensing.
A massively parallel GPU-accelerated model for analysis of fully nonlinear free surface waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Madsen, Morten G.; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig
2011-01-01
-throughput co-processors to the CPU. We describe and demonstrate how this approach makes it possible to do fast desktop computations for large nonlinear wave problems in numerical wave tanks (NWTs) with close to 50/100 million total grid points in double/ single precision with 4 GB global device memory...... space dimensions and is useful for fast analysis and prediction purposes in coastal and offshore engineering. A dedicated numerical model based on the proposed algorithm is executed in parallel by utilizing affordable modern special purpose graphics processing unit (GPU). The model is based on a low...
Pogliotti, P.; Cremonese, E.; Dallamico, M.; Gruber, S.; Migliavacca, M.; Morra di Cella, U.
2009-12-01
Permafrost distribution in high-mountain areas is influenced by topography (micro-climate) and high variability of ground covers conditions. Its monitoring is very difficult due to logistical problems like accessibility, costs, weather conditions and reliability of instrumentation. For these reasons physically-based modeling of surface rock/ground temperatures (GST) is fundamental for the study of mountain permafrost dynamics. With this awareness a 1D version of GEOtop model (www.geotop.org) is tested in several high-mountain sites and its accuracy to reproduce GST and incoming short wave radiation (SWin) is evaluated using independent field measurements. In order to describe the influence of topography, both flat and near-vertical sites with different aspects are considered. Since the validation of SWin is difficult on steep rock faces (due to the lack of direct measures) and validation of GST is difficult on flat sites (due to the presence of snow) the two parameters are validated as independent experiments: SWin only on flat morphologies, GST only on the steep ones. The main purpose is to investigate the effect of: (i) distance between driving meteo station location and simulation point location, (ii) cloudiness, (iii) simulation point aspect, (iv) winter/summer period. The temporal duration of model runs is variable from 3 years for the SWin experiment to 8 years for the validation of GST. The model parameterization is constant and tuned for a common massive bedrock of crystalline rock like granite. Ground temperature profile is not initialized because rock temperature is measured at only 10cm depth. A set of 9 performance measures is used for comparing model predictions and observations (including: fractional mean bias (FB), coefficient of residual mass (CMR), mean absolute error (MAE), modelling efficiency (ME), coefficient of determination (R2)). Results are very encouraging. For both experiments the distance (Km) between location of the driving meteo
Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee
2016-01-01
We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich platf...
Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee;
2016-01-01
We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich platf...
Surface acoustic wave microfluidics.
Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun
2013-09-21
The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next.
Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves
Li, Jing
2017-08-17
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves
Li, Jing
2017-02-08
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田宝强; 俞建成; 张艾群
2015-01-01
Wave driven unmanned surface vehicle (WUSV) is a new concept ocean robot drived by wave energy and solar energy, and it is very suitable for the vast ocean observations with incomparable endurance. Its dynamic modeling is very important because it is the theoretical foundation for further study in the WUSV motion control and efficiency analysis. In this work, the multibody system of WUSV was described based on D-H approach. Then, the driving principle was analyzed and the dynamic model of WUSV in longitudinal profile is established by Lagrangian mechanics. Finally, the motion simulation of WUSV and comparative analysis are completed by setting different inputs of sea state. Simulation results show that the WUSV dynamic model can correctly reflect the WUSV longitudinal motion process, and the results are consistent with the wave theory.
Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion
Li, Jing
2016-09-06
We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.
Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Nguyen van yen, Romain; Kruse, Karsten
2007-03-01
In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the Min-proteins show pronounced pole-to-pole oscillations. They are functional for suppressing cell division at the cell ends, leaving the center as the only possible site for division. Analyzing different models of Min-protein dynamics in a bacterial geometry, we find waves on the cytoplasmic membrane. Interestingly, the surface wave solutions of different models belong to different symmetry classes. We suggest that experiments on Min-protein surface waves in vitro are helpful in distinguishing between different classes of models of Min-protein dynamics.
River dykes investigation using seismic surface waves
Bitri, Adnand; Jousset, Philippe; Samyn, Kévin; Naylor, Adam
2010-05-01
Natural underground caves such as karsts are quite common in the region "Centre", France. These subsurface perturbations can be found underneath the protection dykes around "the Loire" River and the damage caused can create routes for floods. Geophysical methods such as Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) can be used for locating voids or karsts systems, but its efficiency on surface with strong topography such as dykes is not certain. Three dimensional Rayleigh wave modelling was used to understand the role of topography in the propagation of surface waves and with the aim of determining the best way for MASW investigations of surfaces with strong topography such as river dykes. Numerical modelling shows that surface waves propagation is not strongly affected by topography for an array parallel to the dyke. For homogeneous models with topography, a diminution of surface waves amplitude is observed while higher propagation modes are amplified in the dispersion curves in the case of heterogeneous models with topography. For an array perpendicular to the dyke, numerical modeling shows that Rayleigh waves' velocity is lower. MASW investigations can then be applied if lateral variations of the topography are not too strong along the seismic line. Diffraction hyperbolas created by a full of water cavity were identified in numerical modelling with topography. According to these elements, a MASW survey has been performed on the dykes of "the Loire" river close to a collapsed cavity and potential karstic systems were discovered.
Moulin, Emmanuel; Grondel, Sébastien; Assaad, Jamal; Duquenne, Laurent
2008-12-01
The work described in this paper is intended to present a simple and efficient way of modeling a full Lamb wave emission and reception system. The emitter behavior and the Lamb wave generation are predicted using a two-dimensional (2D) hybrid finite element-normal mode expansion model. Then the receiver electrical response is obtained from a finite element computation with prescribed displacements. A numerical correction is applied to the 2D results in order to account for the in-plane radiation divergence caused by the finite length of the emitter. The advantage of this modular approach is that realistic configurations can be simulated without performing cumbersome modeling and time-consuming computations. It also provides insight into the physical interpretation of the results. A good agreement is obtained between predicted and measured signals. The range of application of the method is discussed.
Limited fetch revisited: Comparison of wind input terms, in surface wave modeling
Pushkarev, Andrei; Zakharov, Vladimir
2016-07-01
Results pertaining to numerical solutions of the Hasselmann kinetic equation (HE), for wind driven sea spectra, in the fetch limited geometry, are presented. Five versions of source functions, including the recently introduced ZRP model (Zakharov et al., 2012), have been studied, for the exact expression of Snl and high-frequency implicit dissipation, due to wave-breaking. Four of the five experiments were done in the absence of spectral peak dissipation for various Sin terms. They demonstrated the dominance of quadruplet wave-wave interaction, in the energy balance, and the formation of self-similar regimes, of unlimited wave energy growth, along the fetch. Between them was the ZRP model, which strongly agreed with dozens of field observations performed in the seas and lakes, since 1947. The fifth, the WAM3 wind input term experiment, used additional spectral peak dissipation and reproduced the results of a previous, similar, numerical simulation described in Komen et al. (1994), but only supported the field experiments for moderate fetches, demonstrating a total energy saturation at half of that of the Pierson-Moscowits limit. The alternative framework for HE numerical simulation is proposed, along with a set of tests, allowing one to select physically-justified source terms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, R. M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Opher, M. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Oran, R.; Van der Holst, B.; Sokolov, I. V.; Frazin, R.; Gombosi, T. I. [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vasquez, A., E-mail: Rebekah.e.frolov@nasa.gov [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and FCEN (UBA), CC 67, Suc 28, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2012-09-10
The heating and acceleration of the solar wind is an active area of research. Alfven waves, because of their ability to accelerate and heat the plasma, are a likely candidate in both processes. Many models have explored wave dissipation mechanisms which act either in closed or open magnetic field regions. In this work, we emphasize the boundary between these regions, drawing on observations which indicate unique heating is present there. We utilize a new solar corona component of the Space Weather Modeling Framework, in which Alfven wave energy transport is self-consistently coupled to the magnetohydrodynamic equations. In this solar wind model, the wave pressure gradient accelerates and wave dissipation heats the plasma. Kolmogorov-like wave dissipation as expressed by Hollweg along open magnetic field lines was presented in van der Holst et al. Here, we introduce an additional dissipation mechanism: surface Alfven wave (SAW) damping, which occurs in regions with transverse (with respect to the magnetic field) gradients in the local Alfven speed. For solar minimum conditions, we find that SAW dissipation is weak in the polar regions (where Hollweg dissipation is strong), and strong in subpolar latitudes and the boundaries of open and closed magnetic fields (where Hollweg dissipation is weak). We show that SAW damping reproduces regions of enhanced temperature at the boundaries of open and closed magnetic fields seen in tomographic reconstructions in the low corona. Also, we argue that Ulysses data in the heliosphere show enhanced temperatures at the boundaries of fast and slow solar wind, which is reproduced by SAW dissipation. Therefore, the model's temperature distribution shows best agreement with these observations when both dissipation mechanisms are considered. Lastly, we use observational constraints of shock formation in the low corona to assess the Alfven speed profile in the model. We find that, compared to a polytropic solar wind model, the wave
Multichannel analysis of surface waves
Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.
1999-01-01
The frequency-dependent properties of Rayleigh-type surface waves can be utilized for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface. Most surface-wave analysis relies on the accurate calculation of phase velocities for the horizontally traveling fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave acquired by stepping out a pair of receivers at intervals based on calculated ground roll wavelengths. Interference by coherent source-generated noise inhibits the reliability of shear-wave velocities determined through inversion of the whole wave field. Among these nonplanar, nonfundamental-mode Rayleigh waves (noise) are body waves, scattered and nonsource-generated surface waves, and higher-mode surface waves. The degree to which each of these types of noise contaminates the dispersion curve and, ultimately, the inverted shear-wave velocity profile is dependent on frequency as well as distance from the source. Multichannel recording permits effective identification and isolation of noise according to distinctive trace-to-trace coherency in arrival time and amplitude. An added advantage is the speed and redundancy of the measurement process. Decomposition of a multichannel record into a time variable-frequency format, similar to an uncorrelated Vibroseis record, permits analysis and display of each frequency component in a unique and continuous format. Coherent noise contamination can then be examined and its effects appraised in both frequency and offset space. Separation of frequency components permits real-time maximization of the S/N ratio during acquisition and subsequent processing steps. Linear separation of each ground roll frequency component allows calculation of phase velocities by simply measuring the linear slope of each frequency component. Breaks in coherent surface-wave arrivals, observable on the decomposed record, can be compensated for during acquisition and processing. Multichannel recording permits single-measurement surveying of a broad depth range, high levels of
A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows - and Water-Wave Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grooss, Jesper
2005-01-01
We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations....... The deferred correction method is applied on the fluid flow equations and show good results in periodic domains. We describe the design of a level set method for the free surface modeling. The level set utilize the high order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method fully and represent smooth surfaces very...... equations in time are discussed. We investigate theory of di erential algebraic equations, and connect the theory to current methods for solving the unsteady fluid flow equations. We explore the use of a semi-implicit spectral deferred correction method having potential to achieve high temporal order...
A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows - and Water-Wave Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grooss, Jesper
2005-01-01
We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations....... accurately. We present techniques for reinitialization, and outline the strengths and weaknesses of the level set method. Through a few numerical tests, the robustness and versatility of the proposed scheme is confirmed.......We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations....... The deferred correction method is applied on the fluid flow equations and show good results in periodic domains. We describe the design of a level set method for the free surface modeling. The level set utilize the high order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method fully and represent smooth surfaces very...
Interaction of Vortices with a progressive Surface Wave
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LinlinWANG; HuiyangMA
1996-01-01
Interaction of submerged vortices with a progressive surface wave is investigated by the finite-difference numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations.The progressive wave is the surface gravity water wave in a finite depth.The initial vortex model is Oseen vortex.The numerical computations show that a special pattern of the wave surface may be observed by the interaction from the submerged vortices.The influences of Froude number,the initial geometric configuration of vortices,and the amplitude,inital phase of surface wave on the wave pattern are discussed.
Field study and numerical modeling of wind and surface waves at the middle-sized water body
Baydakov, Georgy; Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Sergeev, Daniil; Papko, Vladislav; Kandaurov, Alexander; Vdovin, Maxim; Troitskaya, Yuliya
2015-04-01
This paper presents the results of field experiments on studying the wind and waves over inland waters, which were carried out at the Gorky Reservoir in 2011-2014. The sensors were positioned at the oceanographic Froude buoy including five two-component ultrasonic sensors WindSonic by Gill Instruments at different levels (0.1, 0.85, 1.3, 2.27, 5.26 meters above the mean water surface level), one water and three air temperature sensors, and three-channel wire wave gauge. From the measured profiles of wind speed, we calculated basic parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer: the friction velocity u*, the wind speed at the standard height of 10 m U10 and the drag coefficient CD. Parameters were obtained in the range of wind speeds of 1-10 m/s. For wind speeds stronger than 3 m/s CD values were lower than those obtained before (see eg. [1,2]) and those predicted by the bulk parameterization. In the range of wind speeds of 3-5 m/s CD values are even lower than the corresponding smooth flow. However, for weak winds (less than 2.5 m/s) CD values considerably higher than expected ones. The main peculiarity of our measurements is very low location of the lowest sensor: 0.1 m against 0.89 m in [1] and 0.5 m in [2]. Moreover, the lowest sensor was not fixed on the mast, but was located on the float and followed the water surface. Analysis shows that the obtained parameters of profile are almost independent on the number of approximated wind speed levels if they include the lowest sensor. But excluding the lowest sensor gave larger values of CD similar to [1] and [2]. These results demonstrate importance of wind speed measuring close to the water surface. The new parameterization of surface drag coefficient was proposed on the basis of the obtained data. The new surface drag parameterization was used in WAVEWATCH III model applied for modeling waves at the reservoir. 1-D spectra of the field experiment were compared with those obtained in the numerical experiments with
Viscoelastic love-type surface waves
Borcherdt, Roger D.
2008-01-01
The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.
Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation
Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.
2007-07-17
A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.
Simulation and Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave Devises
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard
2007-01-01
In this paper a method to model the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic waves are generated by interdigital transducers using a plane strain model of a piezoele......In this paper a method to model the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic waves are generated by interdigital transducers using a plane strain model...
Broadband transverse electric surface wave in silicene
Ukhtary, M. Shoufie; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Saito, Riichiro
2016-08-01
Transverse electric (TE) surface wave in silicine is theoretically investigated. The TE surface wave in silicene is found to exhibit better characteristics compared with that in graphene, in terms of a broader frequency range and more confinement to the surface which originate from the buckled structure of silicene. We found that even undoped silicene can support the TE surface wave. We expect the similar characteristics of the TE surface wave in other two-dimensional materials that have a slightly buckled honeycomb lattice.
Modeling contact angle hysteresis of a liquid droplet sitting on a cosine wave-like pattern surface.
Promraksa, Arwut; Chen, Li-Jen
2012-10-15
A liquid droplet sitting on a hydrophobic surface with a cosine wave-like square-array pattern in the Wenzel state is simulated by using the Surface Evolver to determine the contact angle. For a fixed drop volume, multiple metastable states are obtained at two different surface roughnesses. Unusual and non-circular shape of the three-phase contact line of a liquid droplet sitting on the model surface is observed due to corrugation and distortion of the contact line by structure of the roughness. The contact angle varies along the contact line for each metastable state. The maximum and minimum contact angles among the multiple metastable states at a fixed viewing angle correspond to the advancing and the receding contact angles, respectively. It is interesting to observe that the advancing/receding contact angles (and contact angle hysteresis) are a function of viewing angle. In addition, the receding (or advancing) contact angles at different viewing angles are determined at different metastable states. The contact angle of minimum energy among the multiple metastable states is defined as the most stable (equilibrium) contact angle. The Wenzel model is not able to describe the contact angle along the three-phase contact line. The contact angle hysteresis at different drop volumes is determined. The number of the metastable states increases with increasing drop volume. Drop volume effect on the contact angles is also discussed.
An Internal Wave as a Frequency Filter for Surface Gravity Waves on Water
Lossow, K
2010-01-01
We consider one-dimensional model of the interaction between surface and the internal gravity water waves. The internal wave is modeled by its basic form: a non-dispersive field with a horizontal current that is uniform over all depth, insignificantly affected by the surface waves, while ignoring surface tension and wind growth/decay effects. The depth is infinite. Approximation for the height of the surface wave on the flow by the "elementary quasi stationary" solutions was found. It was shown that the flow acts as a frequency filter for gravitational waves on water.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lan Chao-Hui; Lan Chao-Zhen; Hu Xi-Wei; Chen Zhao-Quan; Liu Ming-Hai
2009-01-01
A self-consistent and three-dimensional (3D) model of argon discharge in a large-scale rectangular surface-wave plasma (SWP) source is presented in this paper, which is based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approximation to Maxwell's equations self-consistently coupled with a fluid model for plasma evolution. The discharge characteristics at an input microwave power of 1200 W and a filling gas pressure of 50 Pa in the SWP source are analyzed. The simulation shows the time evolution of deposited power density at different stages, and the 3D distributions of electron density and temperature in the chamber at steady state. In addition, the results show that there is a peak of plasma density approximately at a vertical distance of 3 cm from the quartz window.
Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
Realistic shallow seismic wave propagation simulation is an important tool for studying induced seismicity (e.g., during geothermal energy development). However over a long time, there is a significant problem which constrains computational seismologists from performing a successful simulation conveniently: pre-processing. Conventional pre-processing has often turned out to be inefficient and unrobust because of the miscellaneous operations, considerable complexity and insufficiency of available tools. An integrated web-based platform for shallow seismic wave propagation simulation has been built. It is aiming at providing a user-friendly pre-processing solution, and cloud-based simulation abilities. The main features of the platform for the user include: revised digital elevation model (DEM) retrieving and processing mechanism; generation of multi-layered 3D shallow Earth model geometry (the computational domain) with user specified surface topography based on the DEM; visualization of the geometry before the simulation; a pipeline from geometry to fully customizable hexahedral element mesh generation; customization and running the simulation on our HPC; post-processing and retrieval of the results over cloud. Regarding the computational aspect, currently the widely accepted specfem3D is chosen as the computational package; packages using different types of elements can be integrated as well in the future. According to our trial simulation experiments, this web-based platform has produced accurate waveforms while significantly simplifying and enhancing the pre-processing and improving the simulation success rate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Enachescu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Model membrane approaches have attracted much attention in biomedical sciences to investigate and simulate biological processes. The application of model membrane systems for biosensor measurements is partly restricted by the fact that the integrity of membranes critically depends on the maintenance of an aqueous surrounding, while various biosensors require a preconditioning of dry sensors. This is for example true for the well-established surface acoustic wave (SAW biosensor SAM®5 blue. Here, a simple drying procedure of sensor-supported model membranes is introduced using the protective disaccharide trehalose. Highly reproducible model membranes were prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, transferred to SAW sensors and supplemented with a trehalose solution. Membrane rehydration after dry incorporation into the SAW device becomes immediately evident by phase changes. Reconstituted model membranes maintain their full functionality, as indicated by biotin/avidin binding experiments. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the morphological invariability of dried and rehydrated membranes. Approximating to more physiological recognition phenomena, the site-directed immobilization of the integrin VLA-4 into the reconstituted model membrane and subsequent VCAM-1 ligand binding with nanomolar affinity were illustrated. This simple drying procedure is a novel way to combine the model membrane generation by Langmuir-Blodgett technique with SAW biosensor measurements, which extends the applicability of SAM®5 blue in biomedical sciences.
Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda
Zeng, Y.
2006-01-01
One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Brian Juul
This report presents the preparations done prior to model tests planned for November 2005 focusing on experimental estimation of the surface loads on the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) due to extreme wave conditions. SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple...... the planned pilot plant site is also modeled. The tests will be carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank.......This report presents the preparations done prior to model tests planned for November 2005 focusing on experimental estimation of the surface loads on the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) due to extreme wave conditions. SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple...... reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs have been used. Model tests are planned using a model (length scale 1:60) of the SSG prototype at the planned location of a pilot plant at the west coast of the island Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The properties of the coastal area surrounding...
Databases of surface wave dispersion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Boschi
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Observations of seismic surface waves provide the most important constraint on the elastic properties of the Earths lithosphere and upper mantle. Two databases of fundamental mode surface wave dispersion were recently compiled and published by groups at Harvard (Ekström et al., 1997 and Utrecht/Oxford (Trampert and Woodhouse, 1995, 2001, and later employed in 3-d global tomographic studies. Although based on similar sets of seismic records, the two databases show some significant discrepancies. We derive phase velocity maps from both, and compare them to quantify the discrepancies and assess the relative quality of the data; in this endeavour, we take careful account of the effects of regularization and parametrization. At short periods, where Love waves are mostly sensitive to crustal structure and thickness, we refer our comparison to a map of the Earths crust derived from independent data. On the assumption that second-order effects like seismic anisotropy and scattering can be neglected, we find the measurements of Ekström et al. (1997 of better quality; those of Trampert and Woodhouse (2001 result in phase velocity maps of much higher spatial frequency and, accordingly, more difficult to explain and justify geophysically. The discrepancy is partly explained by the more conservative a priori selection of data implemented by Ekström et al. (1997. Nevertheless, it becomes more significant with decreasing period, which indicates that it could also be traced to the different measurement techniques employed by the authors.
Grate, J W; Patrash, S J; Kaganovet, S N; Abraham, M H; Wise, B M; Gallagher, N B
2001-11-01
In previous work, it was shown that, in principle, vapor descriptors could be derived from the responses of an array of polymer-coated acoustic wave devices. This new chemometric classification approach was based on polymer/vapor interactions following the well-established linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) and the surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers being mass sensitive. Mathematical derivations were included and were supported by simulations. In this work, an experimental data set of polymer-coated SAW vapor sensors is investigated. The data set includes 20 diverse polymers tested against 18 diverse organic vapors. It is shown that interfacial adsorption can influence the response behavior of sensors with nonpolar polymers in response to hydrogen-bonding vapors; however, in general, most sensor responses are related to vapor interactions with the polymers. It is also shown that polymer-coated SAW sensor responses can be empirically modeled with LSERs, deriving an LSER for each individual sensor based on its responses to the 18 vapors. Inverse least-squares methods are used to develop models that correlate and predict vapor descriptors from sensor array responses. Successful correlations can be developed by multiple linear regression (MLR), principal components regression (PCR), and partial least-squares (PLS) regression. MLR yields the best fits to the training data, however cross-validation shows that prediction of vapor descriptors for vapors not in the training set is significantly more successful using PCR or PLS. In addition, the optimal dimension of the PCR and PLS models supports the dimensionality of the LSER formulation and SAW response models.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul
The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...
Surface Acoustic Wave Frequency Comb
Savchenkov, A A; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L
2011-01-01
We report on realization of an efficient triply-resonant coupling between two long lived optical modes and a high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode of the same monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. The coupling results in an opto-mechanical oscillation and generation of a monochromatic SAW. A strong nonlinear interaction of this mechanical mode with other equidistant SAW modes leads to mechanical hyper-parametric oscillation and generation of a SAW pulse train and associated frequency comb in the resonator. We visualized the comb observing the modulation of the modulated light escaping the resonator.
Ratcliffe, Toby; O'Shea, Thomas T; Fu, Thomas; Russell, Lauren; Dommermuth, Douglas G
2014-01-01
A 1/8.25 scale-model of the U.S. Navy Research Vessel ATHENA was tested in regular head-sea waves to obtain data for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictive tools. The experiments were performed in the David Taylor Model Basin at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC). With the model towed fixed in head-seas, horizontal and vertical loads on the model were obtained at two Froude numbers, $F_r=0.25$ and $F_r=0.43$. The model was run at two conditions of head-sea wavelengths corresponding to $\\lambda=2L_o$ and $\\lambda=1/2L_o$ with $H/\\lambda=0.03$, where $L_o$ is the length of the model and $H=2 a$ is the wave height. The wave field perturbations induced by the head-sea waves were quantified from free-surface images generated by a laser light sheet. Predictions of the horizontal and vertical loads on the model in regular head sea waves were made with the Numerical Flow Analysis (NFA) code. Numerical predictions of the wave-field perturbations were compared with the experimental data and th...
Pollard, Thomas B
Recent advances in microbiology, computational capabilities, and microelectromechanical-system fabrication techniques permit modeling, design, and fabrication of low-cost, miniature, sensitive and selective liquid-phase sensors and lab-on-a-chip systems. Such devices are expected to replace expensive, time-consuming, and bulky laboratory-based testing equipment. Potential applications for devices include: fluid characterization for material science and industry; chemical analysis in medicine and pharmacology; study of biological processes; food analysis; chemical kinetics analysis; and environmental monitoring. When combined with liquid-phase packaging, sensors based on surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) technology are considered strong candidates. For this reason such devices are focused on in this work; emphasis placed on device modeling and packaging for liquid-phase operation. Regarding modeling, topics considered include mode excitation efficiency of transducers; mode sensitivity based on guiding structure materials/geometries; and use of new piezoelectric materials. On packaging, topics considered include package interfacing with SAW devices, and minimization of packaging effects on device performance. In this work novel numerical models are theoretically developed and implemented to study propagation and transduction characteristics of sensor designs using wave/constitutive equations, Green's functions, and boundary/finite element methods. Using developed simulation tools that consider finite-thickness of all device electrodes, transduction efficiency for SAW transducers with neighboring uniform or periodic guiding electrodes is reported for the first time. Results indicate finite electrode thickness strongly affects efficiency. Using dense electrodes, efficiency is shown to approach 92% and 100% for uniform and periodic electrode guiding, respectively; yielding improved sensor detection limits. A numerical sensitivity analysis is presented targeting viscosity
Parabolic Wave Equation for Surface Water Waves.
1986-11-01
extended to wave propagation problems in other fields of physical sciences, such as nonlinear optics ( Svelto , 1974), plasma physics (Karpman, 1975...34 Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 72, pp. 373-384. Svelto , 0., 1974, Progress in Optics, North-Holland Pub., Chapter 1, pp. 1-51. Tappert, F.D., 1977, "The
Impacts of tropical cyclone inflow angle on ocean surface waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Wei; HONG Xin
2011-01-01
The inflow angle of tropical cyclones (TC) is generally neglected in numerical studies of ocean surface waves induced by TC. In this study, the impacts of TC inflow angle on ocean surface waves were investigated using a high-resolution wave model. Six numerical experiments were conducted to examine, in detail, the effects of inflow angle on mean wave parameters and the spectrum of wave directions. A comparison of the waves simulated in these experiments shows that inflow angle significantly modifies TC-induced ocean surface waves. As the inflow angle increases, the asymmetric axis of the significant wave height (SWH) field shifts 30° clockwise, and the maximum SWH moves from the front-right to the rear-right quadrant. Inflow angle also affects other mean wave parameters, especially in the rear-left quadrant, such as the mean wave direction, the mean wavelength, and the peak direction. Inflow angle is a key factor in wave models for the reproduction of double-peak or multi-peak patterns in the spectrum of wave directions. Sensitivity experiments also show that the simulation with a 40° inflow angle is the closest to that of the NOAA statistical SLOSH inflow angle. This suggests that 40° can be used as the inflow angle in future TC-induced ocean surface wave simulations when SLOSH or observed inflow angles are not available.
Surface waves on metal-dielectric metamaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee;
2016-01-01
of surface waves and, therefore, can serve as a platform allowing many applications for surface photonics. Most of these surface waves are directional and their propagation direction is sensitive to permittivities of the media forming the interface. Hence, their propagation can be effectively controlled...... by changing a wavelength or material parameters. We discover that two new types of surface waves with complex dispersion exist for a uniaxial medium with both negative ordinary and extraordinary permittivities. Such new surface wave solutions originate from the anisotropic permittivities of the uniaxial media......, resulting in unique hyperbolic–like wavevector dependencies....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Graf
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The spectral wave model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore was applied to Lake Zurich, a narrow pre-Alpine lake in Switzerland. The aim of the study is to investigate whether the model system consisting of SWAN and the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-2 is a suitable tool for wave forecasts for the pre-Alpine Lake Zurich. SWAN is able to simulate short-crested wind-generated surface waves. The model was forced with a time varying wind field taken from COSMO-2 with hourly outputs. Model simulations were compared with measured wave data at one near-shore site during a frontal passage associated with strong on-shore winds. The overall course of the measured wave height is well captured in the SWAN simulation: the wave amplitude significantly increases during the frontal passage followed by a transient drop in amplitude. The wave pattern on Lake Zurich is quite complex. It strongly depends on the inherent variability of the wind field and on the external forcing due to the surrounding complex topography. The influence of the temporal wind resolution is further studied with two sensitivity experiments. The first one considers a low-pass filtered wind field, based on a 2-h running mean of COSMO-2 output, and the second experiment uses simple synthetic gusts, which are implemented into the SWAN model and take into account short-term fluctuations of wind speed at 1-sec resolution. The wave field significantly differs for the 1-h and 2-h simulations, but is only negligibly affected by the gusts.
Broadband wave manipulation in surface-wave photonic crystal
Gao, Zhen
2016-01-01
The ability to perfectly guide surface electromagnetic waves around ultra-sharp corners without back-scattering and radiation is in great demand for various photonic and plasmonic applications. This is fundamentally difficult to realize because of the dramatic momentum mismatch and wave nature of radiation at the sharp corners. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a simple photonic structure, a periodic square array of metallic cylinders standing on a metal surface, can behaves as a surface-wave photonic crystal with complete photonic band gap to overcome this bottleneck simply. A line-defect waveguide can support and guide surface waves around ultra-sharp corners without perceptible radiation and reflection, achieving almost perfect transmission efficiency in a broad frequency range. We also demonstrate an ideal T-shaped splitter to split input surface waves equally into two arms and a square radiation-suppressed plasmonic open resonator with high quality factors by simply inducing line-defects in this fu...
Dyakonov surface waves in lossy metamaterials
Sorni, A J; Zapata-Rodríguez, C J; Miret, J J
2015-01-01
We analyze the existence of localized waves in the vicinities of the interface between two dielectrics, provided one of them is uniaxial and lossy. We found two families of surface waves, one of them approaching the well-known Dyakonov surface waves (DSWs). In addition, a new family of wave fields exists which are tightly bound to the interface. Although its appearance is clearly associated with the dissipative character of the anisotropic material, the characteristic propagation length of such surface waves might surpasses the working wavelength by nearly two orders of magnitude.
Surface Shear, Persistent Wave Groups and Rogue Waves
Chafin, Clifford
2014-01-01
We investigate the interaction of waves with surface flows by considering the full set of conserved quantities, subtle but important surface elevations induced by wave packets and by directly considering the necessary forces to prevent packet spreading in the deep water limit. Narrow surface shear flows are shown to exert strong localizing and stabilizing forces on wavepackets to maintain their strength and amplify their intensity even in the linear regime. Necessary criticisms of some earlier notions of stress and angular momentum of waves are included and we argue that nonlinearity enters the system in a way that makes the formation of rogue waves nonperturbative. Quantitative bounds on the surface shear flow necessary to stabilize packets of any wave amplitude are given.
Xiao, Xia; Qi, Haiyang; Tao, Ye; Kikkawa, Takamaro
2016-12-01
The cohesive zone model being increasingly used in discrete fracture processes simulation is adopted to study the interfacial adhesion property of low dielectric constant film deposited on the silicon substrate in this work. The two parameters, maximum normal traction and normal interface characteristic length in cohesive zone model, are taken into account to calculate the theoretical surface acoustic wave dispersion curves. Broadband surface acoustic wave signals with effective frequency up to 200 MHz are generated by short pulse ultraviolet laser source and detected by a piezoelectric transducer. The interfacial adhesion properties of dense and porous films determined accurately by matching the experimental dispersion curves with the calculated theoretical dispersion curves are 10.7 PPa/m and 2.8 PPa/m, respectively. The results show that the adhesion quality of dense low dielectric constant film is better than that of the porous. The study exhibits that the adhesion properties determined by improved laser-generated surface acoustic wave technique have the same trends with the test results of the nanoscratch technique, which indicates that the surface acoustic wave technique with cohesive zone model is a promising and nondestructive method for determining interfacial adhesion properties between low dielectric constant film and substrate.
Modeling Water Waves with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
2013-09-30
flows, such as undertow, longshore currents, and rip currents. APPROACH The approach is based on improving various aspects of the SPH code ...Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics ( SPH ) is a meshless numerical method that is being developed for the study of nearshore waves and other Navy needs. The...Lagrangian nature of SPH allows the modeling of wave breaking, surf zones, ship waves, and wave-structure interaction, where the free surface becomes
Eberhart-Phillips, Donna; Fry, Bill
2017-08-01
We have developed a joint inversion of surface wave group velocity (U) and local earthquake travel-time (LET) data and applied it to the North Island, New Zealand, to improve the existing New Zealand wide 3-D seismic velocity model. This approach takes full advantage of the differing sensitivities of surface and body waves. The data are complementary, particularly at shallow depths where LET tomography suffers from vertical smearing and surface wave tomography is susceptible to horizontal smearing. The employed U observations are 2-D models at discrete periods which were developed for Rayleigh wave dispersion curves measured from the 1744 interstation Green's Functions obtained by stacked cross-correlations of broadband ambient noise data. In the volume surrounding each U observation, we distribute numerous points for relating the U observation to the gridded 3-D tomography model, analogous to points along a raypath. The partial derivatives at the points are computed using the U sensitivity kernels for Vp and Vs, with Vs related to Vp and Vp/Vs perturbations. Thus, the U observations are included along with the travel-time observations in a joint inversion to best fit the data and the existing tomography model. The resulting model favors the U where there is little travel-time resolution. The combined inversion used 2949 U observations at 6-16 s period and LET from 1509 earthquakes that extend to 370 km depth, and improved the model fit by reducing the U residual data variance by 62% and the LET by 9%. The resulting model generally has better constrained depth of shallow anomalies, with decreased velocity in the upper 2 km in the western North Island, and slight focusing of crustal high velocity features at 8 km depth. Significantly, the increased resolution in the shallowest 5 km of the model improves the utility of the 3-D model for use in seismic hazard assessment, wave propagation studies, and studies comparing seismic velocities to geological mapping.
Freely decaying weak turbulence for sea surface gravity waves.
Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Resio, D; Pushkarev, A; Zakharov, V E; Brandini, C
2002-09-30
We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of [k](-2.5). We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results.
Mud-Wave Interaction: A Viscoelastic Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
This study is devoted to the interaction between water surface waves and a thin layer of viscoelastic mud on the bottom. On the assumption that the mud layer is comparable in thickness with the wave boundary layer and is much smaller than the wavelength, a two-layer Stokes boundary layer model is adopted to determine the mud motions under the waves. Analytical expressions are derived for the near-bottom water and mud velocity fields, surface wave-damping rate, and interface wave amplitude and phase lag. Examined in particular is how these kinematic quantities may depend on the viscous and elastic properties of the mud.
Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces
Bass, F G; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a
Unidirectional propagation of designer surface acoustic waves
Lu, Jiuyang; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou
2014-01-01
We propose an efficient design route to generate unidirectional propagation of the designer surface acoustic waves. The whole system consists of a periodically corrugated rigid plate combining with a pair of asymmetric narrow slits. The directionality of the structure-induced surface waves stems from the destructive interference between the evanescent waves emitted from the double slits. The theoretical prediction is validated well by simulations and experiments. Promising applications can be anticipated, such as in designing compact acoustic circuits.
Shen, Chao; Xu, Yixian; Pan, Yudi; Wang, Ao; Gao, Lingli
2016-12-01
High-velocity-layer (HVL) and low-velocity-layer (LVL) models are two kinds of the most common irregular layered models in near-surface geophysical applications. When calculating dispersion curves of some extreme irregular models, current algorithms (e.g., Knopoff transfer matrix algorithm) should be modified. We computed the correct dispersion curves and analyzed their sensitivities due to several synthetic HVL and LVL models. The results show that phase-velocity dispersion curves of both Rayleigh and Love waves are sensitive to variations in S-wave velocity of an LVL, but insensitive to that of an HVL. In addition, they are both insensitive to those of layers beneath the HVL or LVL. With an increase in velocity contrast between the irregular layer and its neighboring layers, the sensitivity effects (high sensitivity for the LVL and low sensitivity for the HVL) will amplify. These characteristics may significantly influence the inversion stability, leading to an inverted result with a low level of confidence. To invert surface-wave phase velocities for a more accurate S-wave model with an HVL or LVL, priori knowledge may be required and an inversion algorithm should be treated with extra caution.
Determination of ocean surface wave shape from forward scattered sound.
Walstead, Sean P; Deane, Grant B
2016-08-01
Forward scattered sound from the ocean surface is inverted for wave shape during three periods: low wind, mix of wind and swell, and stormy. Derived wave profiles are spatially limited to a Fresnel region at or near the nominal surface specular reflection point. In some cases, the surface wave profiles exhibit unrealistic temporal and spatial properties. To remedy this, the spatial gradient of inverted waves is constrained to a maximum slope of 0.88. Under this global constraint, only surface waves during low wind conditions result in a modeled surface multipath that accurately matches data. The power spectral density of the inverted surface wave field saturates around a frequency of 8 Hz while upward looking SONAR saturates at 1 Hz. Each shows a high frequency spectral slope of -4 that is in agreement with various empirical ocean wave spectra. The improved high frequency resolution provided by the scattering inversion indicates that it is possible to remotely gain information about high frequency components of ocean waves. The inability of the inversion algorithm to determine physically realistic surface waves in periods of high wind indicates that bubbles and out of plane scattering become important in those operating scenarios.
Piezoelectric Film Waveguides for Surface Acoustic Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.F. Zhovnir
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of piezoelectric film waveguide structures for surface acoustic waves (SAW. Piezoelectric ZnO film is supposed to be placed on a fused quartz substrate. The analytical ratios and numerical results allow to determine the design parameters of the waveguide structures to provide a single-mode SAW propagation mode. The results of amplitude and phase experimental studies of the SAW in the waveguide structures that were carried out on the laser optical sensing set up confirm the theoretical calculations.
Zhang, Xiaoming
2016-11-01
The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to demonstrate an effective method for estimating viscoelasticity based on measurements of the Rayleigh surface wave speed. It is important to identify the surface wave mode for measuring surface wave speed. A concept of start frequency of surface waves is proposed. The surface wave speeds above the start frequency should be used to estimate the viscoelasticity of tissue. The motivation was to develop a noninvasive surface wave elastography (SWE) technique for assessing skin disease by measuring skin viscoelastic properties. Using an optical based SWE system, the author generated a local harmonic vibration on the surface of phantom using an electromechanical shaker and measured the resulting surface waves on the phantom using an optical vibrometer system. The surface wave speed was measured using a phase gradient method. It was shown that different standing wave modes were generated below the start frequency because of wave reflection. However, the pure symmetric surface waves were generated from the excitation above the start frequency. Using the wave speed dispersion above the start frequency, the viscoelasticity of the phantom can be correctly estimated.
Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.
Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.
1972-01-01
A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.
Modulation of cavity-polaritons by surface acoustic waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lima, M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Hey, R.;
2006-01-01
We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations.......We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations....
Superdirected Beam of the Surface Spin Wave
Annenkov, Alexander Yu; Lock, Edwin H
2016-01-01
Visualized diffraction patterns of the surface spin wave excited by arbitrarily oriented linear transducer in tangentially magnetized ferrite film are investigated experimentally in the plane of ferrite film for the case where the transducer length D is much larger than the wavelength L. Superdirected (nonexpanding) beam of the surface spin wave with noncollinear wave vector k and group velocity vector V was observed experimentally: the angular width of this beam was about zero, the smearing of the beam energy along the film plane was minimal and the length of the beam trajectory was maximal (50 mm). Thus it was shown that such phenomenon as superdirected propagation of the wave exists in the nature.
磨料水射流表面波模型%A model of surface waves of abrasive water-jet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡俊伟; 陈义强; 王军
2001-01-01
In this paper,we describe the character of abrasive water-jetcutting and develop a model of surface wave.In this model establishes the relation between the surface wave Ry and the kerf depth h according to the influence to the surface wave by the changing of the kerf width,which can increase the precision of the model.The model can provide the convenience for the analysis to the cut characteristics.%对磨料水射流切割过程的特征进行了描述，并对射流切割形成的表面波纹建立了模型，该模型建立了表面波纹度Ry与射流切割深度h间的关系，同时，模型建立过程中还考虑到了切割宽度变化对表面波纹的影响，从而进一步增强了模型的准确性，该模型为进行切口质量分析提供了条件。
Wave-current interaction near the Gulf Stream during the surface wave dynamics experiment
Wang, David W.; Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chih Y.; Meindl, Eric A.
1994-01-01
This paper presents a case study on the wave-current interaction near the local curvature of a Gulf Stream meander. The wave data were obtained from in situ measurements by a pitch-roll discus buoy during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) conducted off Wallops Island, Virginia, from October 1990 to March 1991. Owing to the advection of the Gulf Stream by the semidiurnal tide, the discus buoy was alternately located outside and inside the Gulf Stream. The directional wave measurements from the buoy show the changes in wave direction, wave energy, and directional spreading when waves encountered the current in the Gulf Stream meanders. A wave refraction model, using the ray-tracing method with an estimated Gulf Stream velocity field and meandering condition, was used to simulate wave refraction patterns and to estimate wave parameters at relative locations corresponding to buoy measurements. The numerical simulation shows that a focusing zone of wave rays was formed near the boundary and behind the crest of a simulated Gulf Stream meander. The focusing of wave rays causes changes in wave direction, increases in wave energy, and decreases in wave directional spreading, which are in good agreement with the results from the buoy measurements.
Nonlinear surface waves in photonic hypercrystals
Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar
2017-08-01
Photonic crystals and hyperbolic metamaterials are merged to give the concept of photonic hypercrystals. It combines the properties of its two constituents to give rise to novel phenomena. Here the propagation of Transverse Magnetic waves at the interface between a nonlinear dielectric material and a photonic hypercrystal is studied and the corresponding dispersion relation is derived using the uniaxial parallel approximation. Both dielectric and metallic photonic hypercrystals are studied and it is found that nonlinearity limits the infinite divergence of wave vectors of the surface waves. These states exist in the frequency region where the linear surface waves do not exist. It is also shown that the nonlinearity can be used to engineer the group velocity of the resulting surface wave.
Rigorous 2D Model for Study of Pulsed and Monochromatic Waves Propagation Near the Earth’s Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seil S. Sautbekov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A model problem considered in the paper allows solving rather complex 2D problems of the electromagnetic wave propagation with a required accuracy using conventional personal computers. The problems are of great importance for the theory and practical applications. The association of FDTD schemes with exact absorbing conditions makes up the basis for constructing models of the kind. This approach reduces the original open initial boundary value problems to the equivalent closed problems which can be solved numerically using the standard grid methods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In a homogeneous plate, Rayleigh waves will have a symmetric and anti-symmetric mode regarding to the mid-plane with different phase velocities. If plate properties vary along the thickness, or the plate is of functionally graded material (FGM), the symmetry of modes and frequency behavior will be modified, thus producing dif-ferent features for engineering applications such as amplifying or reducing the velocity and deformation. This kind of effect can also be easily realized by utilizing a layered structure with desired material properties that can produce these effects in terms of velocity and displacements, since Rayleigh waves in a solid with gen-eral material property grading schemes are difficult to analyze with known methods. Solutions from layered structures with exponential and polynomial property grad-ing schemes are obtained from the layered model and comparisons with known analytical results are made to validate the method and examine possible applica-tions of such structures in engineering.
Ruts and waves in the road surface.
Tromp, J.P.M.
1989-01-01
The characteristics of a road and a road surface should not unexpectedly change, if the traffic process is to be kept safe and under control. Knowledge on accidents, in which ruts and waves played a part does not seem to exist. Knowledge on driver behaviour due to the occurrence of waves or ruts is
Kashchenko, Serguey
2015-01-01
This monograph examines in detail models of neural systems described by delay-differential equations. Each element of the medium (neuron) is an oscillator that generates, in standalone mode, short impulses also known as spikes. The book discusses models of synaptic interaction between neurons, which lead to complex oscillatory modes in the system. In addition, it presents a solution to the problem of choosing the parameters of interaction in order to obtain attractors with predetermined structure. These attractors are represented as images encoded in the form of autowaves (wave memory). The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but it will also be beneficial for graduate students.
Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces.
Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V
2017-09-12
A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks to their unique properties of surface sensitivity and field localization. These features have resulted in applications in nano-guiding, sensing, light-trapping and imaging based on the near-field techniques, contributing to the establishment of the nanophotonics as a field of research. Up to present, a wide variety of surface waves has been investigated in numerous material and structure settings. This paper reviews the recent progress and development in the physics of SWs localized at metamaterial interfaces, as well as bulk media in order to provide broader perspectives on optical surface waves in general. For each type of the surface waves, we discuss material and structural platforms. We mainly focus on experimental realizations in the visible and near-infrared wavelength ranges. We also address existing and potential application of SWs in chemical and biological sensing, and experimental excitation and characterization methods. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Rayleigh surface wave modeling by finite difference method in biphasic media%双相介质瑞雷面波有限差分正演模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张伟; 甘伏平; 刘伟; 郑智杰
2014-01-01
为了研究双相介质瑞雷面波的形成机制及传播规律，促进瑞雷面波资料处理方法的发展。文章根据弹性波动方程，采用交错网格有限差分算法，对二维各向同性弹性介质做解析解与数值解的对比，在此基础上，将PML吸收边界条件，改进的镜像法应用于双相介质波动方程中，并作了稳定性分析，对双相介质水平层状、起伏分界面等典型模型瑞雷面波及体波在内的全波场进行研究。结果表明：基于弹性介质解析解与数值解的对比，在误差接受范围内，研究双相介质是可行的；把稍作改进的镜像法应用于双相介质中，能够有效地处理瑞雷面波自由边界问题；通过详细分析双相介质瑞雷面波及体波在内的全波场的信息，对以双相介质为基础的地震波勘探有一定的指导作用。%In order to study the mechanism and propagation of Rayleigh surface wave in biphasic media and promote the development of data⁃processing method of Rayleigh surface wave, the authors applied finite difference method with staggered grids to simulate the 2D i⁃sotropic elastic media based on the elastic wave equation, and made a comparison between the analytical and numerical solutions. On such a basis, the PML absorbing boundary condition and improved image method can be applied to the two⁃phase medium wave equa⁃tion to simulate the typical media model including horizontal layer and undulating interface, analyze the full wave information including the Rayleigh surface wave and body wave, and make a stability analysis. The results show that, on the basis of the comparison between the numerical solution and the analytical solution of the elastic media within the acceptable range of the error, the study of biphasic me⁃dium is feasible. The slight improvement of the image method can be applied to biphasic media to deal with free boundary condition problem of the Rayleigh surface wave
Energy budget of surface waves in the global ocean
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TENG Yong; YANG Yongzeng; QIAO Fangli; LU Jing; YIN Xunqiang
2009-01-01
Mechanical energy input from atmosphere and losses from wave-breaking dissipation of sea surface waves are estimated by a direct scheme. This scheme is based on the integration in the wavenumber space of the wind input and breaking dissipation source functions of the MASNUM wave model.The global amount of wind energy input, averaged in 2005, is about 57 TW, and the wave-breaking dissipation summed in deep-water is about 33 TW, over a half of the wind energy input. The residual may be dissipated by beach processes. Global distributions of the energy input and breaking dissipation concentrate in the westerlies of the Southern Hemisphere.
Horizon effects with surface waves on moving water
Rousseaux, Germain; Mathis, Christian; Coullet, Pierre; Philbin, Thomas G; Leonhardt, Ulf
2010-01-01
Surface waves on a stationary flow of water are considered, in a linear model that includes the surface tension of the fluid. The resulting gravity-capillary waves experience a rich array of horizon effects when propagating against the flow. In some cases three horizons (points where the group velocity of the wave reverses) exist for waves with a single laboratory frequency. Some of these effects are familiar in fluid mechanics under the name of wave blocking, but other aspects, in particular waves with negative co-moving frequency and the Hawking effect, were overlooked until surface waves were investigated as examples of analogue gravity [R. Schuetzhold and W. G. Unruh W G, Phys. Rev. D 66 (2002) 044019]. A comprehensive presentation of the various horizon effects for gravity-capillary waves is given, with emphasis on the deep water/long wavelength case kh>>1 where many analytical results can be derived. A similarity of the state space of the waves to that of a thermodynamic system is pointed out.
Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters
Wiberg, P.L.; Sherwood, C.R.
2008-01-01
Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the 'effective' forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics
Structure of the airflow above surface waves
Buckley, Marc; Veron, Fabrice
2016-04-01
Weather, climate and upper ocean patterns are controlled by the exchanges of momentum, heat, mass, and energy across the ocean surface. These fluxes are, in turn, influenced by the small-scale physics at the wavy air-sea interface. We present laboratory measurements of the fine-scale airflow structure above waves, achieved in over 15 different wind-wave conditions, with wave ages Cp/u* ranging from 1.4 to 66.7 (where Cp is the peak phase speed of the waves, and u* the air friction velocity). The experiments were performed in the large (42-m long) wind-wave-current tank at University of Delaware's Air-Sea Interaction laboratory (USA). A combined Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Induced Fluorescence system was specifically developed for this study, and provided two-dimensional airflow velocity measurement as low as 100 um above the air-water interface. Starting at very low wind speeds (U10~2m/s), we directly observe coherent turbulent structures within the buffer and logarithmic layers of the airflow above the air-water interface, whereby low horizontal velocity air is ejected away from the surface, and higher velocity fluid is swept downward. Wave phase coherent quadrant analysis shows that such turbulent momentum flux events are wave-phase dependent. Airflow separation events are directly observed over young wind waves (Cp/u*wind waves (Cp/u*=3.7). Over slightly older wind waves (Cp/u* = 6.5), the measured wave-induced airflow perturbations are qualitatively consistent with linear critical layer theory.
Bidirectional surface wave splitter at visible frequencies.
Gan, Qiaoqiang; Bartoli, Filbert J
2010-12-15
We experimentally demonstrate a metal-film bidirectional surface wave splitter for guiding light at two visible wavelengths in opposite directions. Two nanoscale gratings were patterned on opposite sides of a subwavelength slit. The metallic surface grating structures were tailored geometrically to have different plasmonic bandgaps, enabling each grating to guide light of one wavelength and prohibit propagation at the other wavelength. The locations of the bandgaps were experimentally confirmed by interferometric measurements. Based on these design principles, a green-red bidirectional surface wave splitter is demonstrated, and the observed optical properties are shown to agree with theoretical predictions.
Automated detection and association of surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. D. Woodgold
1994-06-01
Full Text Available An algorithm for the automatic detection and association of surface waves has been developed and tested over an 18 month interval on broad band data from the Yellowknife array (YKA. The detection algorithm uses a conventional STA/LTA scheme on data that have been narrow band filtered at 20 s periods and a test is then applied to identify dispersion. An average of 9 surface waves are detected daily using this technique. Beamforming is applied to determine the arrival azimuth; at a nonarray station this could be provided by poIarization analysis. The detected surface waves are associated daily with the events located by the short period array at Yellowknife, and later with the events listed in the USGS NEIC Monthly Summaries. Association requires matching both arrival time and azimuth of the Rayleigh waves. Regional calibration of group velocity and azimuth is required. . Large variations in both group velocity and azimuth corrections were found, as an example, signals from events in Fiji Tonga arrive with apparent group velocities of 2.9 3.5 krn/s and azimuths from 5 to + 40 degrees clockwise from true (great circle azimuth, whereas signals from Kuriles Kamchatka have velocities of 2.4 2.9 km/s and azimuths off by 35 to 0 degrees. After applying the regional corrections, surface waves are considered associated if the arrival time matches to within 0.25 km/s in apparent group velocity and the azimuth is within 30 degrees of the median expected. Over the 18 month period studied, 32% of the automatically detected surface waves were associated with events located by the Yellowknife short period array, and 34% (1591 with NEIC events; there is about 70% overlap between the two sets of events. Had the automatic detections been reported to the USGS, YKA would have ranked second (after LZH in terms of numbers of associated surface waves for the study period of April 1991 to September 1992.
Surface acoustic wave mode conversion resonator
Martin, S. J.; Gunshor, R. L.; Melloch, M. R.; Datta, S.; Pierret, R. F.
1983-08-01
The fact that a ZnO-on-Si structure supports two distinct surface waves, referred to as the Rayleigh and the Sezawa modes, if the ZnO layer is sufficiently thick is recalled. A description is given of a unique surface wave resonator that operates by efficiently converting between the two modes at the resonant frequency. Since input and output coupling is effected through different modes, the mode conversion resonator promises enhanced out-of-band signal rejection. A Rayleigh wave traversing the resonant cavity in one direction is reflected as a Sezawa wave. It is pointed out that the off-resonance rejection of the mode conversion resonator could be enhanced by designing the transducers to minimize the level of cross coupling between transducers and propagating modes.
Photonic crystal surface waves for optical biosensors.
Konopsky, Valery N; Alieva, Elena V
2007-06-15
We present a new optical biosensor technique based on registration of dual optical s-polarized modes on a photonic crystal surface. The simultaneous registration of two optical surface waves with different evanescent depths from the same surface spot permits the segregation of the volume and the surface contributions from an analyte, while the absence of metal damping permits an increase in the propagation length of the optical surface waves and the sensitivity of the biosensor. Our technique was tested with the binding of biotin molecules to a streptavidin monolayer that has been detected with signal/noise ratio of approximately 15 at 1-s signal accumulation time. The detection limit is approximately 20 fg of the analyte on the probed spot of the surface.
Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocity by inversion of Rayleigh waves
Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.
1999-01-01
The shear-wave (S-wave) velocity of near-surface materials (soil, rocks, pavement) and its effect on seismic-wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many groundwater, engineering, and environmental studies. Rayleigh-wave phase velocity of a layered-earth model is a function of frequency and four groups of earth properties: P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and thickness of layers. Analysis of the Jacobian matrix provides a measure of dispersion-curve sensitivity to earth properties. S-wave velocities are the dominant influence on a dispersion curve in a high-frequency range (>5 Hz) followed by layer thickness. An iterative solution technique to the weighted equation proved very effective in the high-frequency range when using the Levenberg-Marquardt and singular-value decomposition techniques. Convergence of the weighted solution is guaranteed through selection of the damping factor using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Synthetic examples demonstrated calculation efficiency and stability of inverse procedures. We verify our method using borehole S-wave velocity measurements.Iterative solutions to the weighted equation by the Levenberg-Marquardt and singular-value decomposition techniques are derived to estimate near-surface shear-wave velocity. Synthetic and real examples demonstrate the calculation efficiency and stability of the inverse procedure. The inverse results of the real example are verified by borehole S-wave velocity measurements.
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.
Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz
2011-01-01
In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit.
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Vibration Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy Filipiak
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit.
Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces
Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias
2015-01-01
Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and comp...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Surface waves comprise an important aspect of the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean, so a dynamically consistent framework for modelling atmosphere-ocean interaction must take account of surface waves, either implicitly or explicitly. In order to calculate the effect of wind forcing on waves and currents, and vice versa, it is necessary to employ a consistent formulation of the energy and momentum balance within the airflow, wave field, and water column. It is very advantageous to apply surface-following coordinate systems, whereby the steep gradients in mean flow properties near the air-water interface in the cross-interface direction may be resolved over distances which are much smaller than the height of the waves themselves. We may account for the waves explicitly by employing a numerical spectral wave model, and applying a suitable theory of wave-mean flow interaction. If the mean flow is small compared with the wave phase speed, perturbation expansions of the hydrodynamic equations in a Lagrangian or generalized Lagrangian mean framework are useful: for stronger flows, such as for wind blowing over waves, the presence of critical levels where the mean flow velocity is equal to the wave phase speed necessitates the application of more general types of surface-following coordinate system. The interaction of the flow of air and water and associated differences in temperature and the concentration of various substances (such as gas species) gives rise to a complex boundary-layer structure at a wide range of vertical scales, from the sub-millimetre scales of gaseous diffusion, to several tens of metres for the turbulent Ekman layer. The balance of momentum, heat, and mass is also affected significantly by breaking waves, which act to increase the effective area of the surface for mass transfer, and increase turbulent diffusive fluxes via the conversion of wave energy to turbulent kinetic energy.
Surface tension effects in breaking wave noise.
Deane, Grant B
2012-08-01
The role of surface active materials in the sea surface microlayer on the production of underwater noise by breaking waves is considered. Wave noise is assumed to be generated by bubbles formed within actively breaking whitecaps, driven into breathing mode oscillation at the moment of their formation by non-equilibrium, surface tension forces. Two significant effects associated with surface tension are identified-a reduction in low frequency noise (bubbles by fluid turbulence within the whitecap and a reduction in overall noise level due to a decrease in the excitation amplitude of bubbles associated with reduced surface tension. The impact of the latter effect on the accuracy of Weather Observations Through Ambient Noise estimates of wind speed is assessed and generally found to be less than ±1 m s(-1) for wind speeds less than 10 m s(-1) and typical values of surfactant film pressure within sea slicks.
The Dynamics of Flat Surface Internal Geophysical Waves with Currents
Compelli, Alan; Ivanov, Rossen I.
2016-08-01
A two-dimensional water wave system is examined consisting of two discrete incompressible fluid domains separated by a free common interface. In a geophysical context this is a model of an internal wave, formed at a pycnocline or thermocline in the ocean. The system is considered as being bounded at the bottom and top by a flatbed and wave-free surface respectively. A current profile with depth-dependent currents in each domain is considered. The Hamiltonian of the system is determined and expressed in terms of canonical wave-related variables. Limiting behaviour is examined and compared to that of other known models. The linearised equations as well as long-wave approximations are presented.
The Dynamics of Flat Surface Internal Geophysical Waves with Currents
Compelli, Alan
2016-01-01
A two-dimensional water wave system is examined consisting of two discrete incompressible fluid domains separated by a free common interface. In a geophysical context this is a model of an internal wave, formed at a pycnocline or thermocline in the ocean. The system is considered as being bounded at the bottom and top by a flatbed and wave-free surface respectively. A current profile with depth-dependent currents in each domain is considered. The Hamiltonian of the system is determined and expressed in terms of canonical wave-related variables. Limiting behaviour is examined and compared to that of other known models. The linearised equations as well as long-wave approximations are presented.
Olugboji, T. M.; Lekic, V.; McDonough, W.
2017-07-01
We present a new approach for evaluating existing crustal models using ambient noise data sets and its associated uncertainties. We use a transdimensional hierarchical Bayesian inversion approach to invert ambient noise surface wave phase dispersion maps for Love and Rayleigh waves using measurements obtained from Ekström (2014). Spatiospectral analysis shows that our results are comparable to a linear least squares inverse approach (except at higher harmonic degrees), but the procedure has additional advantages: (1) it yields an autoadaptive parameterization that follows Earth structure without making restricting assumptions on model resolution (regularization or damping) and data errors; (2) it can recover non-Gaussian phase velocity probability distributions while quantifying the sources of uncertainties in the data measurements and modeling procedure; and (3) it enables statistical assessments of different crustal models (e.g., CRUST1.0, LITHO1.0, and NACr14) using variable resolution residual and standard deviation maps estimated from the ensemble. These assessments show that in the stable old crust of the Archean, the misfits are statistically negligible, requiring no significant update to crustal models from the ambient noise data set. In other regions of the U.S., significant updates to regionalization and crustal structure are expected especially in the shallow sedimentary basins and the tectonically active regions, where the differences between model predictions and data are statistically significant.
CMS-Wave Model: Part 5. Full-plane Wave Transformation and Grid Nesting
2012-04-01
are available in previous reports and CHETNs (Lin et al. 2006; Demirbilek et al. 2007). CMS -Wave is part of the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ...the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (USACE) Surface-water Modeling System (SMS). The CMS -Wave FP option is available in SMS Version 11.1 and higher...ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-81 April 2012 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. CMS -Wave Model: Part 5. Full-plane Wave Transformation
Surface water waves interaction in a circular vessel with oscillating walls.
Denissenko, Petr; Hsieh, Din-Yu
1998-11-01
Surface water waves appeared in a circular elastic vessel (modelled after the Chinese antique "Dragon Wash") are studied experimentally. Interaction of different wave modes are investigated. For small amplitude of wall oscillations, only the axisymmetric capillary wave mode, which is hardly visible to naked eyes, exists. When the amplitude is increased, half-frequency circumferential wave appears. Further increase of amplitude leads to chaotic behavior of surface waves. For large amplitudes, water drops jumping from edge regions are observed. Then, excitation of different modes of low frequency axisymmetric gravity waves may be obtained. Conditions for appearance of these gravity waves are investigated. Optical methods were applied for water surface diagnostics.
Investigation of surface magnetostatic wave propagation in ferrite superconductor structure
Semenov, A A; Melkov, A A; Bobyl', A V; Suris, R A; Gal'perin, Y M; Iokhansen, T K
2001-01-01
Electrodynamic model describing dispersion properties of surface magnetostatic wave in ferrite/superconductor structure was suggested. On the basis of the model a new method of ascertaining superhigh frequency surface resistance R sub s of superconducting films in magnetic fields was developed. The calculated values agree with the results obtained by the Tauber method, making up R sub s =0.20-1.96 m Ohm. A regulated incursion of wave phase amounting to about 1.5 pi with the change in penetration depth 2.0-0.8 mu m for YBCO film was attained for YIG/YBCO structures
Chiral Surface Waves for Enhanced Circular Dichroism
Pellegrini, Giovanni; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo
2016-01-01
We present a novel chiral sensing platform that combines a one-dimensional photonic crystal design with a birefringent surface defect. The platform sustains simultaneous transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface modes, which are exploited to generate chiral surface waves. The present design provides homogeneous and superchiral fields of both handednesses over arbitrarily large areas in a wide spectral range, resulting in the enhancement of the circular dichroism signal by two orders of magnitude, thus paving the road toward the successful combination of surface-enhanced spectroscopies and electromagnetic superchirality.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roshchupkin, Dmitry, E-mail: rochtch@iptm.ru; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Ortega, Luc [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei [Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula [Nazarbayev University Research and Innovation System, 53 Kabanbay Batyr St., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan)
2015-09-14
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.
Chiral surface waves for enhanced circular dichroism
Pellegrini, Giovanni; Finazzi, Marco; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo
2017-06-01
We present a novel chiral sensing platform that combines a one-dimensional photonic crystal design with a birefringent surface defect. The platform sustains simultaneous transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface modes, which are exploited to generate chiral surface waves. The present design provides homogeneous and superchiral fields of both handednesses over arbitrarily large areas in a wide spectral range, resulting in the enhancement of the circular dichroism signal by more than two orders of magnitude, thus paving the road toward the successful combination of surface-enhanced spectroscopies and electromagnetic superchirality.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Irzhak, Dmitry; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-09-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.
Gas sensing with surface acoustic wave devices
Martin, S. J.; Schweizer, K. S.; Ricco, A. J.; Zipperian, T. E.
1985-03-01
The use of a ZnO-on-Si surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator as a gas sensor is discussed. In particular, the sensitivity of the device to organic vapors is examined. The planar nature of the SAW device, in which the acoustic energy is confined to within roughly one acoustic wavelength of the surface, makes the device extremely sensitive to surface perturbations. This characteristic has been exploited in the construction of SAW gas sensors in which the surface wave propagation characteristics are altered by species adsorbed from the ambient gas. The porous nature of the sputtered ZnO film, in conjunction with the microbalance capability of the SAW device, gives the sensor the ability to distinguish molecules on the basis of both size and mass.
Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming
Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.
2011-05-17
An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.
Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christensen, J., E-mail: jochri@fotonik.dtu.dk; Willatzen, M. [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Liang, Z. [College of Electronic Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen (China)
2014-12-15
Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simulations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples such as resonant transmissions and waveguiding to show a few examples of many where spoof elastic surface waves are useful.
Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Christensen
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simulations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples such as resonant transmissions and waveguiding to show a few examples of many where spoof elastic surface waves are useful.
Nemeth, A.A.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Damme, van R.M.J.
2003-01-01
Sand waves form a prominent regular pattern in the offshore seabeds of sandy shallow seas. A two dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of these sand waves has been developed. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water su
Surface waves on metal-dielectric metamaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee;
2016-01-01
In this paper we analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at an interface between an isotropic medium and an effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectric layers with deep subwavelength thicknesses. This configuration can host various types of...
Some Applications of Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
The paper describes the evaluation of thin amorphous magnetic film by using of surface acoustic waves on piezo electric substrate. The obtained experimental data show strong dependence of material parameters on the annealing temperature. The mixed ferromagnetic/SAW devices for electronic applications will be also discussed.
Determining surface wave arrival angle anomalies
Larson, Erik W. F.; Ekström, Göran
2002-06-01
A new method for measuring arrival angles of teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves is developed. The new method utilizes estimates of surface wave dispersion to create a phase-matched filter to isolate the Love or Rayleigh wave in three-component recordings. The polarization of the filtered wave group is determined in the time domain by application of a variation of the complex polarization method of Vidale [1986]. Orientation, linearity, and ellipticity of particle motion are estimated in several frequency bands to determine the frequency-dependent polarization. The method employs an iterative scheme, by which a predicted Love wave, based on the estimated dispersion and polarization, is subtracted from the three-component data prior to the estimation of Rayleigh wave polarization, and vice versa. The method is applied to an extensive set of Global Seismographic Network data covering the years 1989-1998. Between 4244 and 15,075 measurements are collected for fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves at nine different periods (37 to 150 s). Measurement uncertainties are estimated using the statistics of observations for pairwise similar paths and are generally of the order of 15-50% of the total signal, depending on the period and the wave type. Large and azimuthally invariant angle anomalies are documented for several stations and are consistent with misorientation of the horizontal seismometers. Two schemes are employed to determine the misorientations: (1) an azimuthally weighted average at each station, and (2) a joint inversion for seismometer misorientation and globally heterogeneous phase velocities. The determined corrections are robust and correlate well with those reported in earlier studies. Azimuthally varying arrival angle anomalies are shown to agree qualitatively with predictions of wave refraction calculated for recent phase velocity maps, which explain up to 30% of the variance in the new measurements.
Baroclinic stationary waves in aquaplanet models
Lucarini, V.; Zappa, G.
2012-04-01
An aquaplanet model is used to study the nature of the highly persistent low frequency waves that have been observed in models forced by zonally symmetric boundary conditions. Using the Hayashi spectral analysis of the extratropical waves, we find that a quasi-stationary (QS) wave five belongs to a wave packet obeying a well defined dispersion relation with eastward group velocity. The components of the dispersion relation with k>5 baroclinically convert eddy available potential energy into eddy kinetic energy, while those with kinverse energy cascade, which had been previously proposed as a main forcing for this type of waves, only acts as a positive feedback on its predominantly baroclinic energetics. The QS wave is reinforced by a phase lock to an analogous pattern in the tropical convection, which provides further amplification to the wave. We also find that the Pedlosky bounds on the phase speed of unstable waves provide guidance in explaining the latitudinal structure of the energy conversion, which is shown to be more enhanced where the zonal westerly surface wind is weaker. The wave energy is then trapped in the wave guide created by the upper tropospheric jet stream. In agreement with Green's theory, as the equator to pole SST difference is reduced the stationary marginally stable component shifts toward higher wavenumbers, while the wave five becomes neutral and westward propagating. Some properties of the aquaplanet QS waves are found in interesting agreement with a low frequency wave observed by Salby (1982) in the southern hemisphere DJF, so that this perspective on low frequency variability might be, apart from its value in terms of basic geophysical fluid dynamics, of specific interest for studying the Earth's atmosphere.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
Previous to this project a scale model 1:50 of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon was built by the Danish Maritime Institute and tested in a wave tank at Aalborg University (AAU). The test programs investigated the movements of the floating structure, mooring forces and forces in the reflectors. The first test was followed by test establishing the efficiency in different sea states. The scale model has also been extensively tested in the EU Joule Craft project JOR-CT98-7027 (Low-Pressure Turbine and Control Equipment for Wave Energy Converters /Wave Dragon) at University College Cork, Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre, Ireland. The results of the previous model tests have formed the basis for a redesign of the WEC. In this project a reconstruction of the scale 1:50 model and sequential tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters will be performed. AAU will make the modifications to the model based on the revised Loewenmark design and perform the tests in their wave tank. Grid connection requirements have been established. A hydro turbine with no movable parts besides the rotor has been developed and a scale model 1:3.5 tested, with a high efficiency over the whole head range. The turbine itself has possibilities for being used in river systems with low head and variable flow, an area of interest for many countries around the world. Finally, a regulation strategy for the turbines has been developed, which is essential for the future deployment of Wave Dragon.The video includes the following: 1. Title, 2. Introduction of the Wave Dragon, 3. Model test series H, Hs = 3 m, Rc = 3 m, 4. Model test series H, Hs = 5 m, Rc = 4 m, 5. Model test series I, Hs = 7 m, Rc = 1.25 m, 6. Model test series I, Hs = 7 m, Rc = 4 m, 7. Rolling title. On this VCD additional versions of the video can be found in the directory 'addvideo' for playing the video on PC's. These versions are: Model testing of Wave Dragon, DVD version
Numerical modeling of water waves
Lin, Pengzhi
2008-01-01
Modelling large-scale wave fields and their interaction with coastal and offshore structures has become much more feasible over the last two decades with increases in computer speeds. Wave modelling can be viewed as an extension of wave theory, a mature and widely published field, applied to practical engineering through the use of computer tools. Information about the various wave models which have been developed is often widely scattered in the literature, and consequently this is one of the first books devoted to wave models and their applications. At the core of the book is an introduction to various types of wave models. For each model, the theoretical assumptions, the application range, and the advantages and limitations are elaborated. The combined use of different wave models from large-scale to local-scale is highlighted with a detailed discussion of the application and matching of boundary conditions. At the same time the book provides a grounding in hydrodynamics, wave theory, and numerical methods...
Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface
Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.
2016-06-01
This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.
Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves
Palermo, Antonio; Krödel, Sebastian; Marzani, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara
2016-12-01
Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by burying sub-wavelength resonant structures under the soil surface. Each resonant structure consists of a cylindrical mass suspended by elastomeric springs within a concrete case and can be tuned to the resonance frequency of interest. The design allows controlling seismic waves with wavelengths from 10-to-100 m with meter-sized resonant structures. We develop an analytical model based on effective medium theory able to capture the mode conversion mechanism. The model is used to guide the design of metabarriers for varying soil conditions and validated using finite-element simulations. We investigate the shielding performance of a metabarrier in a scaled experimental model and demonstrate that surface ground motion can be reduced up to 50% in frequency regions below 10 Hz, relevant for the protection of buildings and civil infrastructures.
Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves.
Palermo, Antonio; Krödel, Sebastian; Marzani, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara
2016-12-20
Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by burying sub-wavelength resonant structures under the soil surface. Each resonant structure consists of a cylindrical mass suspended by elastomeric springs within a concrete case and can be tuned to the resonance frequency of interest. The design allows controlling seismic waves with wavelengths from 10-to-100 m with meter-sized resonant structures. We develop an analytical model based on effective medium theory able to capture the mode conversion mechanism. The model is used to guide the design of metabarriers for varying soil conditions and validated using finite-element simulations. We investigate the shielding performance of a metabarrier in a scaled experimental model and demonstrate that surface ground motion can be reduced up to 50% in frequency regions below 10 Hz, relevant for the protection of buildings and civil infrastructures.
Spetzler, J.
2001-01-01
Small-scale heterogeneity alters the arrival time of waves in a way that cannot be explained by ray theory. It is because ray theory is a high-frequency approximation that does not take the finite-frequency of wavefields into account. A theory based on the first Rytov approximation is develope
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves
AlTheyab, Abdullah
2016-02-01
We present a migration method that does not require a velocity model to migrate backscattered surface waves to their projected locations on the surface. This migration method, denoted as natural migration, uses recorded Green\\'s functions along the surface instead of simulated Green\\'s functions. The key assumptions are that the scattering bodies are within the depth interrogated by the surface waves, and the Green\\'s functions are recorded with dense receiver sampling along the free surface. This natural migration takes into account all orders of multiples, mode conversions and non-linear effects of surface waves in the data. The natural imaging formulae are derived for both active source and ambient-noise data, and computer simulations show that natural migration can effectively image near-surface heterogeneities with typical ambient-noise sources and geophone distributions.
Spatial characteristics of ocean surface waves
Gemmrich, Johannes; Thomson, Jim; Rogers, W. Erick; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Lehner, Susanne
2016-08-01
The spatial variability of open ocean wave fields on scales of O (10km) is assessed from four different data sources: TerraSAR-X SAR imagery, four drifting SWIFT buoys, a moored waverider buoy, and WAVEWATCH III Ⓡ model runs. Two examples from the open north-east Pacific, comprising of a pure wind sea and a mixed sea with swell, are given. Wave parameters attained from observations have a natural variability, which decreases with increasing record length or acquisition area. The retrieval of dominant wave scales from point observations and model output are inherently different to dominant scales retrieved from spatial observations. This can lead to significant differences in the dominant steepness associated with a given wave field. These uncertainties have to be taken into account when models are assessed against observations or when new wave retrieval algorithms from spatial or temporal data are tested. However, there is evidence of abrupt changes in wave field characteristics that are larger than the expected methodological uncertainties.
Magnetoacoustic surface gravity waves at a spherical interface
Ballai, I.; Forgács-Dajka, E.; Douglas, M.
2011-03-01
Aims: The plasma structured by magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere is a perfect medium for the propagation of guided magnetic and magnetoacoustic waves. Geometrical restriction of wave propagation is known to confer a dispersive character for waves. In addition, waves propagating along discontinuities in the medium are known to remain localized. As an extension to theories of guided waves in magnetic slabs and cylinders under solar and stellar conditions, we aim to study the propagation of magnetoacoustic-gravity waves at a spherical interface in the low solar corona (considered here as a density discontinuity), modelling global waves recently observed in the corona in EUV wavelengths. Methods: Using conservation laws at the interface we derive the dispersion relation in spherical geometry with a radially expanding magnetic field in the presence of gravitational stratification. The obtained dispersion relation describing fast magnetoacoustic-gravity surface waves is derived using an approximative method taking into account that propagation takes place near the solar surface. Results: Theoretical results obtained in the present study are applied to investigate the propagation of EIT waves in the low corona. The frequency of waves is shown to increase with decreasing density contrast at the interface. We also show that, for a given azimuthal wavenumber, the magnetic field has a very small effect on the value of the frequency of waves. When plotted against the location of the interface (in the radial direction) the frequency varies inversely proportional to the distance, while for a fixed density ratio and location of the interface the frequency is obtained to be defined in a very narrow region.
Linear and Nonlinear Surface Waves in Electrohydrodynamics
Hunt, Matthew; Vanden-broeck, Jean-Marc; Papageorgiou, Demetrios
2015-01-01
The problem of interest in this article are waves on a layer of finite depth governed by the Euler equations in the presence of gravity, surface tension, and vertical electric fields. Perturbation theory is used to identify canonical scalings and to derive a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation withan additional non-local term arising in interfacial electrohydrodynamics.When the Bond number is equal to 1/3, dispersion disappears and shock waves could potentially form. In the additional limit of vanishing electric fields, a new evolution equation is obtained which contains third and fifth-order dispersion as well as a non-local electric field term.
Variational modelling of nonlinear water waves
Kalogirou, Anna; Bokhove, Onno
2015-11-01
Mathematical modelling of water waves is demonstrated by investigating variational methods. A potential flow water wave model is derived using variational techniques and extented to include explicit time-dependence, leading to non-autonomous dynamics. As a first example, we consider the problem of a soliton splash in a long wave channel with a contraction at its end, resulting after a sluice gate is removed at a finite time. The removal of the sluice gate is included in the variational principle through a time-dependent gravitational potential. A second example involving non-autonomous dynamics concerns the motion of a free surface in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. Explicit time-dependence now enters the model through a linear damping term due to the effect of wall friction and a term representing the motion of an artificially driven wave pump. In both cases, the model is solved numerically using a Galerkin FEM and the numerical results are compared to wave structures observed in experiments. The water wave model is also adapted to accommodate nonlinear ship dynamics. The novelty is this case is the coupling between the water wave dynamics, the ship dynamics and water line dynamics on the ship. For simplicity, we consider a simple ship structure consisting of V-shaped cross-sections.
Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces
Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias
2015-07-01
Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.
Artificial ocean upwelling utilizing the energy of surface waves
Soloviev, Alexander
2016-04-01
Artificial upwelling can bring cold water from below the thermocline to the sea surface. Vershinsky, Pshenichnyy, and Soloviev (1987) developed a prototype device, utilizing the energy of surface waves to create an upward flow of water in the tube. This is a wave-inertia pump consisting of a vertical tube, a valve, and a buoy to keep the device afloat. An outlet valve at the top of the unit synchronizes the operation of the device with surface waves and prevents back-splashing. A single device with a 100 m long and 1.2 m diameter tube is able to produce up to 1 m3s-1 flow of deep water to the surface. With a 10 oC temperature difference over 100 m depth, the negative heat supply rate to the sea surface is 42 MW, which is equivalent to a 42 Wm-2 heat flux, if distributed over 1 km2 area. Such flux is comparable to the average net air-sea flux. A system of artificial upwelling devices can cool down the sea surface, modify climate on a regional scale and possibly help mitigate hurricanes. The cold water brought from a deeper layer, however, has a larger density than the surface water and therefore has a tendency to sink back down. In this work, the efficiency of wave-inertia pumps and climatic consequences are estimated for different environmental conditions using a computational fluid dynamics model.
NUMERICAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF WAVING BED ON THE SURFACE WAVE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Zheng-ren; CHENG You-liang; WANG Song-ling
2006-01-01
The effect of the waving bed on the surface wave was investigated. The wave equation was reduced from the potential flow theory with the perturbation technique, and then was solved by using the pseudo-spectral method. The waterfall of the surface wave was simulated with the Matlab. It is shown that for the waving bed, an additional harmonic wave appears on the surface together with the solitary wave existing for the non-waving bed, and two kinds of waves do not interfere with each other. With the development of time, the waveform for the waving bed is kept invariable, and just the amplitude is reduced gradually. Wave-breaking phenomenon for the non-waving bed does not appear, so the waving bed seems useful to prevent the breaking of the wave.
Wave Generation in Physical Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter
The present book describes the most important aspects of wave generation techniques in physical models. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave generation software AwaSys 6, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald and Michael...
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of surface waves
Liu, Zhaolun
2016-09-06
We demonstrate that near-surface heterogeneities can be imaged by natural migration of backscattered surface waves in common shot gathers. No velocity model is required because the data are migrated onto surface points with the virtual Green\\'s functions computed from the shot gathers. Migrating shot gathers recorded by 2D and 3D land surveys validates the effectiveness of detecting nearsurface heterogeneities by natural migration. The implication is that more accurate hazard maps can be created by migrating surface waves in land surveys.
Blackfolds, Plane Waves and Minimal Surfaces
Armas, Jay
2015-01-01
Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid...
2012-09-01
Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria , Australia DAVID W. WANG Oceanography...C12), 9704-9706. way, ASME, 155-163. Young, I. R., 1999: Wind Generated Ocean Waves. Elsevier, 288 pp. Violante-Carvalho, N., F. J. Ocampo -Torres
Watching surface waves in phononic crystals.
Wright, Oliver B; Matsuda, Osamu
2015-08-28
In this paper, we review results obtained by ultrafast imaging of gigahertz surface acoustic waves in surface phononic crystals with one- and two-dimensional periodicities. By use of quasi-point-source optical excitation, we show how, from a series of images that form a movie of the travelling waves, the dispersion relation of the acoustic modes, their corresponding mode patterns and the position and widths of phonon stop bands can be obtained by temporal and spatio-temporal Fourier analysis. We further demonstrate how one can follow the temporal evolution of phononic eigenstates in k-space using data from phononic-crystal waveguides as an example. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Attenuation of Rayleigh Surface Waves in a Porous Material
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DEBBOUB Salima; BOUMA(I)ZA Youcef; BOUDOUR Amar; TAHRAOUI Tarek
2012-01-01
Using acoustic microscopy at higher frequency,we show the velocity evolutions of surface acoustic waves,in particular Rayleigh waves that depend on porosity for a mesoporous silicon layer.The velocities are obtained from different V(z) curves,which are determined experimentally at a frequency of 600MHz.The analysis of V(z) data yields attenuation that is directly dependent on porosity.On the other hand,αN attenuation has been modeled and allows us to investigate its influence on the velocity VR of the propagation for Rayleigh waves.%Using acoustic microscopy at higher frequency, we show the velocity evolutions of surface acoustic waves, in particular Rayleigh waves that depend on porosity for a mesoporous silicon layer. The velocities are obtained from different V(z) curves, which are determined experimentally at a frequency of 600 MHz. The analysis of V(z) data yields attenuation that is directly dependent on porosity. On the other hand, αN attenuation has been modeled and allows us to investigate its influence on the velocity VR of the propagation for Rayleigh waves.
Wireless Multiplexed Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Project
Youngquist, Robert C.
2014-01-01
Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Sensor is a new technology for obtaining multiple, real-time measurements under extreme environmental conditions. This project plans to develop a wireless multiplexed sensor system that uses SAW sensors, with no batteries or semiconductors, that are passive and rugged, can operate down to cryogenic temperatures and up to hundreds of degrees C, and can be used to sense a wide variety of parameters over reasonable distances (meters).
Impact of density information on Rayleigh surface wave inversion results
Ivanov, Julian; Tsoflias, Georgios; Miller, Richard D.; Peterie, Shelby; Morton, Sarah; Xia, Jianghai
2016-12-01
We assessed the impact of density on the estimation of inverted shear-wave velocity (Vs) using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method. We considered the forward modeling theory, evaluated model sensitivity, and tested the effect of density information on the inversion of seismic data acquired in the Arctic. Theoretical review, numerical modeling and inversion of modeled and real data indicated that the density ratios between layers, not the actual density values, impact the determination of surface-wave phase velocities. Application on real data compared surface-wave inversion results using: a) constant density, the most common approach in practice, b) indirect density estimates derived from refraction compressional-wave velocity observations, and c) from direct density measurements in a borehole. The use of indirect density estimates reduced the final shear-wave velocity (Vs) results typically by 6-7% and the use of densities from a borehole reduced the final Vs estimates by 10-11% compared to those from assumed constant density. In addition to the improved absolute Vs accuracy, the resulting overall Vs changes were unevenly distributed laterally when viewed on a 2-D section leading to an overall Vs model structure that was more representative of the subsurface environment. It was observed that the use of constant density instead of increasing density with depth not only can lead to Vs overestimation but it can also create inaccurate model structures, such as a low-velocity layer. Thus, optimal Vs estimations can be best achieved using field estimates of subsurface density ratios.
Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2005-01-01
The paper presents results for the expected second order short-crested wave conditional of a given wave crest at a specific point in time and space. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean shallow water wave theory. Numerical results showing the importance of the spectral density......, the water depth and the directional spreading on the conditional mean wave profile are presented. Application of conditional waves to model and explain abnormal waves, e.g. the well-known New Year Wave measured at the Draupner platform January 1st 1995, is discussed. Whereas the wave profile can be modelled...... quite well by the second order conditional wave including directional spreading and finite water depth the probability to encounter such a wave is still, however, extremely rare. The use of the second order conditional wave as initial condition to a fully non-linear three-dimensional analysis...
Spin density wave order, topological order, and Fermi surface reconstruction
Sachdev, Subir; Chatterjee, Shubhayu; Schattner, Yoni
2016-01-01
In the conventional theory of density wave ordering in metals, the onset of spin density wave (SDW) order co-incides with the reconstruction of the Fermi surfaces into small 'pockets'. We present models which display this transition, while also displaying an alternative route between these phases via an intermediate phase with topological order, no broken symmetry, and pocket Fermi surfaces. The models involve coupling emergent gauge fields to a fractionalized SDW order, but retain the canonical electron operator in the underlying Hamiltonian. We establish an intimate connection between the suppression of certain defects in the SDW order, and the presence of Fermi surface sizes distinct from the Luttinger value in Fermi liquids. We discuss the relevance of such models to the physics of the hole-doped cuprates near optimal doping.
Broadband surface-wave transformation cloak
Xu, Su; Xu, Hongyi; Gao, Hanhong; Jiang, Yuyu; Yu, Faxin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Sun, Handong; Zhang, Baile
2015-01-01
Guiding surface electromagnetic waves around disorder without disturbing the wave amplitude or phase is in great demand for modern photonic and plasmonic devices, but is fundamentally difficult to realize because light momentum must be conserved in a scattering event. A partial realization has been achieved by exploiting topological electromagnetic surface states, but this approach is limited to narrow-band light transmission and subject to phase disturbances in the presence of disorder. Recent advances in transformation optics apply principles of general relativity to curve the space for light, allowing one to match the momentum and phase of light around any disorder as if that disorder were not there. This feature has been exploited in the development of invisibility cloaks. An ideal invisibility cloak, however, would require the phase velocity of light being guided around the cloaked object to exceed the vacuum speed of light—a feat potentially achievable only over an extremely narrow band. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally show that the bottlenecks encountered in previous studies can be overcome. We introduce a class of cloaks capable of remarkable broadband surface electromagnetic waves guidance around ultrasharp corners and bumps with no perceptible changes in amplitude and phase. These cloaks consist of specifically designed nonmagnetic metamaterials and achieve nearly ideal transmission efficiency over a broadband frequency range from 0+ to 6 GHz. This work provides strong support for the application of transformation optics to plasmonic circuits and could pave the way toward high-performance, large-scale integrated photonic circuits. PMID:26056299
Parallel Algorithm in Surface Wave Waveform Inversion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
In Surface wave waveform inversion, we want to reconstruct 3Dshear wav e velocity structure, which calculation beyond the capability of the powerful pr esent day personal computer or even workstation. So we designed a high parallele d algorithm and carried out the inversion on Parallel computer based on the part itioned waveform inversion (PWI). It partitions the large scale optimization pro blem into a number of independent small scale problems and reduces the computati onal effort by several orders of magnitude. We adopted surface waveform inversio n with a equal block(2°×2°) discretization.
Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider
Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.
2017-04-01
A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information
Surface waves on currents with arbitrary vertical shear
Smeltzer, Benjamin K.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.
2017-04-01
We study dispersion properties of linear surface gravity waves propagating in an arbitrary direction atop a current profile of depth-varying magnitude using a piecewise linear approximation and develop a robust numerical framework for practical calculation. The method has been much used in the past for the case of waves propagating along the same axis as the background current, and we herein extend and apply it to problems with an arbitrary angle between the wave propagation and current directions. Being valid for all wavelengths without loss of accuracy, the scheme is particularly well suited to solve problems involving a broad range of wave vectors, such as ship waves and Cauchy-Poisson initial value problems. We examine the group and phase velocities over different wavelength regimes and current profiles, highlighting characteristics due to the depth-variable vorticity. We show an example application to ship waves on an arbitrary current profile and demonstrate qualitative differences in the wake patterns between concave down and concave up profiles when compared to a constant shear profile with equal depth-averaged vorticity. We also discuss the nature of additional solutions to the dispersion relation when using the piecewise-linear model. These are vorticity waves, drifting vortical structures which are artifacts of the piecewise model. They are absent for a smooth profile and are spurious in the present context.
Near Shore Wave Modeling and applications to wave energy estimation
Zodiatis, G.; Galanis, G.; Hayes, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Kallos, G.; Georgiou, G.
2012-04-01
The estimation of the wave energy potential at the European coastline is receiving increased attention the last years as a result of the adaptation of novel policies in the energy market, the concernsfor global warming and the nuclear energy security problems. Within this framework, numerical wave modeling systems keep a primary role in the accurate description of wave climate and microclimate that is a prerequisite for any wave energy assessment study. In the present work two of the most popular wave models are used for the estimation of the wave parameters at the coastline of Cyprus: The latest parallel version of the wave model WAM (ECMWF version), which employs new parameterization of shallow water effects, and the SWAN model, classically used for near shore wave simulations. The results obtained from the wave models near shores are studied by an energy estimation point of view: The wave parameters that mainly affect the energy temporal and spatial distribution, that is the significant wave height and the mean wave period, are statistically analyzed,focusing onpossible different aspects captured by the two models. Moreover, the wave spectrum distribution prevailing in different areas are discussed contributing, in this way, to the wave energy assessmentin the area. This work is a part of two European projects focusing on the estimation of the wave energy distribution around Europe: The MARINA platform (http://www.marina-platform.info/ index.aspx) and the Ewave (http://www.oceanography.ucy.ac.cy/ewave/) projects.
Development of Surface Acoustic Wave Electronic Nose
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.K. Jha
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes an effective method to design and develop surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array-based electronic nose systems for specific target applications. The paper suggests that before undertaking full hardware development empirically through hit and trial for sensor selection, it is prudent to develop accurate sensor array simulator for generating synthetic data and optimising sensor array design and pattern recognition system. The latter aspects are most time-consuming and cost-intensive parts in the development of an electronic nose system. This is because most of the electronic sensor platforms, circuit components, and electromechanical parts are available commercially-off-the-shelve (COTS, whereas knowledge about specific polymers and data analysis software are often guarded due to commercial or strategic interests. In this study, an 11-element SAW sensor array is modelled to detect and identify trinitrotoluene (TNT and dinitrotoluene (DNT explosive vapours in the presence of toluene, benzene, di-methyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP and humidity as interferents. Additive noise sources and outliers were included in the model for data generation. The pattern recognition system consists of: (i a preprocessor based on logarithmic data scaling, dimensional autoscaling, and singular value decomposition-based denoising, (ii principal component analysis (PCA-based feature extractor, and (iii an artificial neural network (ANN classifier. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated by presenting detailed PCA analysis and classification results under varied conditions of noise and outlier, and by analysing comparative performance of four classifiers (neural network, k-nearest neighbour, naïve Bayes, and support vector machine.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(4, pp.364-376, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.493
Illusions and Cloaks for Surface Waves
McManus, T. M.; Valiente-Kroon, J. A.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Hao, Y.
2014-08-01
Ever since the inception of Transformation Optics (TO), new and exciting ideas have been proposed in the field of electromagnetics and the theory has been modified to work in such fields as acoustics and thermodynamics. The most well-known application of this theory is to cloaking, but another equally intriguing application of TO is the idea of an illusion device. Here, we propose a general method to transform electromagnetic waves between two arbitrary surfaces. This allows a flat surface to reproduce the scattering behaviour of a curved surface and vice versa, thereby giving rise to perfect optical illusion and cloaking devices, respectively. The performance of the proposed devices is simulated using thin effective media with engineered material properties. The scattering of the curved surface is shown to be reproduced by its flat analogue (for illusions) and vice versa for cloaks.
Megaquakes, prograde surface waves and urban evolution
Lomnitz, C.; Castaños, H.
2013-05-01
Cities grow according to evolutionary principles. They move away from soft-ground conditions and avoid vulnerable types of structures. A megaquake generates prograde surface waves that produce unexpected damage in modern buildings. The examples (Figs. 1 and 2) were taken from the 1985 Mexico City and the 2010 Concepción, Chile megaquakes. About 400 structures built under supervision according to modern building codes were destroyed in the Mexican earthquake. All were sited on soft ground. A Rayleigh wave will cause surface particles to move as ellipses in a vertical plane. Building codes assume that this motion will be retrograde as on a homogeneous elastic halfspace, but soft soils are intermediate materials between a solid and a liquid. When Poisson's ratio tends to ν→0.5 the particle motion turns prograde as it would on a homogeneous fluid halfspace. Building codes assume that the tilt of the ground is not in phase with the acceleration but we show that structures on soft ground tilt into the direction of the horizontal ground acceleration. The combined effect of gravity and acceleration may destabilize a structure when it is in resonance with its eigenfrequency. Castaños, H. and C. Lomnitz, 2013. Charles Darwin and the 1835 Chile earthquake. Seismol. Res. Lett., 84, 19-23. Lomnitz, C., 1990. Mexico 1985: the case for gravity waves. Geophys. J. Int., 102, 569-572. Malischewsky, P.G. et al., 2008. The domain of existence of prograde Rayleigh-wave particle motion. Wave Motion 45, 556-564.; Figure 1 1985 Mexico megaquake--overturned 15-story apartment building in Mexico City ; Figure 2 2010 Chile megaquake Overturned 15-story R-C apartment building in Concepción
Electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma near the critical surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timofeev, Aleksandr V [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)
2004-06-30
Electromagnetic waves in a plasma in a magnetic field give rise to enhanced refraction, produce a change in polarization, and cause electromagnetic energy to flow from one wave mode to another when propagating near the critical surface (CS), the one where the electron Langmuir frequency is equal to the wave frequency. A simple unified model of all phenomena taking place near the CS is proposed. These phenomena are due to electromagnetic waves linearly interacting with electron Langmuir oscillations which are localized at the CS in a cold plasma. This interaction manifests itself most strikingly in electron Langmuir oscillation energy escaping directly into a vacuum in the form of electromagnetic radiation. (reviews of topical problems)
Discrete particle modelling of granular roll waves
Tsang, Jonathan; Dalziel, Stuart; Vriend, Nathalie
2016-11-01
A granular current flowing down an inclined chute or plane can undergo an instability that leads to the formation of surface waves, known as roll waves. Examples of roll waves are found in avalanches and debris flows in landslides, and in many industrial processes. Although related to the Kapitza instability of viscous fluid films, granular roll waves are not yet as well understood. Laboratory experiments typically measure the surface height and velocity of a current as functions of position and time, but they do not give insight into the processes below the surface: in particular, the possible formation of a boundary layer at the free surface as well as the base. To overcome this, we are running discrete particle model (DPM) simulations. Simulations are validated against our laboratory experiments, but they also allow us to examine a much larger range of parameters, such as material properties, chute geometry and particle size dispersity, than that which is possible in the lab. We shall present results from simulations in which we vary particle size and dispersity, and examine the implications on roll wave formation and propagation. Future work will include simulations in which the shape of the chute is varied, both cross-sectionally and in the downstream direction. EPSRC studentship (Tsang) and Royal Society Research Fellowship (Vriend).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Ruiz-Arias
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Broadband short-wave (SW surface direct and diffuse irradiances are not typically within the set of output variables produced by numerical weather prediction (NWP models. However, they are being more and more demanded in solar energy applications. A detailed representation of the aerosol optical properties is important to achieve an accurate assessment of these direct and diffuse irradiances. Nonetheless, NWP models typically oversimplify its representation or even neglect its effect. In this work, a flexible method to account for the SW aerosol optical properties in the computation of broadband SW surface direct and diffuse irradiances is presented. It only requires aerosol optical depth at 0.55 μm and the type of predominant aerosol. The rest of parameters needed to consider spectral aerosol extinction, namely, Angström exponent, aerosol single-scattering albedo and aerosol asymmetry factor, are parameterized. The parameterization has been tested in the RRTMG SW scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF NWP model. However, it can be adapted to any other SW radiative transfer band model. It has been verified against a control experiment along five radiometric stations in the contiguous US. The control experiment consisted of a clear-sky evaluation of the RRTMG solar radiation estimates obtained in WRF when RRTMG is driven with ground-observed aerosol optical properties. Overall, the verification has shown very satisfactory results for both broadband SW surface direct and diffuse irradiances. It has proven effective to significantly reduce the prediction error and constraint the seasonal bias in clear-sky conditions to within the typical observational error in well-maintained radiometers.
The stress-induced surface wave velocity variations in concrete
Spalvier, Agustin; Bittner, James; Evani, Sai Kalyan; Popovics, John S.
2017-02-01
This investigation studies the behavior of surface wave velocity in concrete specimens subjected to low levels of compressive and tensile stress in beams from applied flexural loads. Beam specimen is loaded in a 4-point-load bending configuration, generating uniaxial compression and tension stress fields at the top and bottom surfaces of the beam, respectively. Surface waves are generated through contactless air-coupled transducers and received through contact accelerometers. Results show a clear distinction in responses from compression and tension zones, where velocity increases in the former and decreases in the latter, with increasing load levels. These trends agree with existing acoustoelastic literature. Surface wave velocity tends to decrease more under tension than it tends to increase under compression, for equal load levels. It is observed that even at low stress levels, surface wave velocity is affected by acoustoelastic effects, coupled with plastic effects (stress-induced damage). The acoustoelastic effect is isolated by means of considering the Kaiser effect and by experimentally mitigating the viscoelastic effects of concrete. Results of this ongoing investigation contribute to the overall knowledge of the acoustoelastic behavior of concrete. Applications of this knowledge may include structural health monitoring of members under flexural loads, improved high order modelling of materials, and validation of results seen in dynamic acoustoelasticity testing.
Surface waves on a quantum plasma half-space
Lázár, M; Smolyakov, A
2007-01-01
Surface modes are coupled electromagnetic/electrostatic excitations of free electrons near the vacuum-plasma interface and can be excited on a sufficiently dense plasma half-space. They propagate along the surface plane and decay in either sides of the boundary. In such dense plasma models, which are of interest in electronic signal transmission or in some astrophysical applications, the dynamics of the electrons is certainly affected by the quantum effects. Thus, the dispersion relation for the surface wave on a quantum electron plasma half-space is derived by employing the quantum hydrodynamical (QHD) and Maxwell-Poison equations. The QHD include quantum forces involving the Fermi electron temperature and the quantum Bohm potential. It is found that, at room temperature, the quantum effects are mainly relevant for the electrostatic surface plasma waves in a dense gold metallic plasma.
Surface waves in the magnetized, collisional dusty plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pandey, B. P. [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Vladimirov, S. V. [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Metamaterials Laboratory, National Research University of Information Technology, Mechanics, and Optics, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Ishihara, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)
2013-10-15
The properties of the low frequency surface waves in inhomogeneous, magnetized collisional complex dusty plasma are investigated in this work. The inhomogeneity is modelled by the two distinct regions of the dusty medium with different dust densities. The external magnetic field is assumed to be oriented along the interface dividing the two medium. It is shown that the collisional momentum exchange that is responsible for the relative drift between the plasma particles affects the propagation of the surface waves in the complex plasma via the Hall drift of the magnetic fluctuations. The propagation properties of the sausage and kink waves depend not only on the grain charge and size distribution but also on the ambient plasma thermal conditions.
Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves
Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.
2016-09-01
Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging.
Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves.
Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H; Wright, Oliver B
2016-09-19
Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3-50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging.
Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves
Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.
2016-01-01
Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging. PMID:27640998
Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal
Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices.
Steady periodic gravity waves with surface tension
Walsh, Samuel
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider two-dimensional, stratified, steady water waves propagating over an impermeable flat bed and with a free surface. The motion is assumed to be driven by capillarity (that is, surface tension) on the surface and a gravitational force acting on the body of the fluid. We prove the existence of global continua of classical solutions that are periodic and traveling. This is accomplished by first constructing a 1-parameter family of laminar flow solutions, $\\mathcal{T}$, then applying bifurcation theory methods to obtain local curves of small amplitude solutions branching from $\\mathcal{T}$ at an eigenvalue of the linearized problem. Each solution curve is then continued globally by means of a degree theoretic theorem in the spirit of Rabinowitz. Finally, we complement the degree theoretic picture by proving an alternate global bifurcation theorem via the analytic continuation method of Dancer.
Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves
Jakeman, E
2006-01-01
Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xiuming; ZHANG Hailan
2004-01-01
Based on existing direct and imaging methods of a staggered finite-difference scheme, an improved algorithm for staggered finite-difference is proposed to implement rugged topographic free boundary conditions. This method assumes that the free surface can be implemented with horizontal and vertical free surface segments and their corners; the free surface passes through the grid points of shear stress components, instead of the normal stress components. Imaging is carried out for stress components in both horizontal and vertical directions, thus increasing the accuracy. To update particle- velocities, imaging and updating are first performed in the horizontal direction, and then in the vertical direction. The numerical results for elastic flat horizontal free surface with the imaging method and those for flat free surfaces of various slope angles with the proposed method are compared, and are shown to be in good agreement. The advantage of the proposed method is that only the stresses are dealt with in implementing the free surface into the staggered algorithm, which improves computation efficiency.
Fishwick, S.; Crosby, A. G.
2009-12-01
The oceans should be one of the most straightforward regions within which to investigate the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, because their thermal structure appears to be so simple. However, this assertion assumes our present understanding of the oceanic lithosphere is correct, which is derived principally from observations of heat flow and subsidence beneath the ocean floor. These observations show large positive deviations from half-space cooling models after 60-80 Ma, which indicate that conductive cooling does not continue forever as the plate moves away from the ridge. Instead, data from the oldest ocean floor are better fit by a thermal plate model with a thickness of 90-100 km, which is gently modulated by convection within the upper mantle. The physical interpretation of the fixed temperature basal boundary condition is that heat is supplied to the base of the plate by small-scale convection in the thermal boundary layer underlying the rigid lid. We compare the expected shear velocities given the plate cooling model with the velocities observed from surface wave tomography. Tomographic data sets for both Africa and South America have been combined to place constraints on the velocity structure beneath the Atlantic Ocean. The velocities observed in the tomography are faster than expected at lithospheric depths, and an age-velocity relationship continues to around 125km - a depth at which the plate model predicts uniform temperatures. Some aspect of these discrepancies could be due to the vertical parameterisation and smearing within the surface wave tomography. To test this possibility, we compare the dispersion characteristics for the theoretical model with the surface wave dispersion data, and also observe a similar mismatch. A more likely source of error is the conversion between velocity and temperature, particularly given our limited knowledge of the attenuation structure of the region. These results have important implications for our understanding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ting, M. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))
1991-05-15
The atmospheric stationary wave response to a midlatitude sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is examined with an idealized general circulation model (GCM) as well as steady linear model, in a similar way as Ting and Held, for a tropical SST anomaly. The control climate of the GCM is zonally symmetric; this symmetric climate is then perturbed by a monopole SST anomaly centered at 40[degrees]N. Two experiments, with SST anomalies of opposite sign, have been conducted. The stationary response is roughly linear in the sign of the SST anomaly, despite the fact that precipitation shows strong nonlinearity. The linear model, which is in exact linearization of the GCM equations in use, when forced by anomalous heating and transients, reproduces the GCM's stationary response excellently. The low-level transient eddy heat fluxes act to damp the lower level temperature signal. When this damping effect is mimicked by a horizontal thermal diffusion in the linear model, the response to the diabatic heating alone gives a reasonably good simulation of the GCm's anomaly; the effect of the anomalous transient momentum fluxes is relatively small. A crude latent heat parameterization scheme, using an evaporation anomaly that is proportional to the mean air-sea surface moisture difference and including the effects of mean moisture advection, is developed. When the perturbation mixing ratio is approximated by assuming fixed relative humidity and by linearizing the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the linear model's response, utilizing this latent heat parameterization scheme, gives a useful fit to the GCM's anomalous flow. 22 refs., 94 figs.
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up: Regular Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up: Regular Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Yu, Han
2016-04-26
We demonstrate that diffraction stack migration can be used to discover the distribution of near-surface faults. The methodology is based on the assumption that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. We first isolate the back-scattered surface waves by muting or FK filtering, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. We have also proposed a natural migration method that utilizes the intrinsic traveltime property of the direct and the back-scattered waves at faults. For the synthetic data sets and the land data collected in Aqaba, where surface wave velocity has unexpected perturbations, we migrate the back-scattered surface waves with both predicted velocity profiles and natural Green\\'s function without velocity information. Because the latter approach avoids the need for an accurate velocity model in event summation, both the prestack and stacked migration images show competitive quality. Results with both synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. We believe applying this method to global or passive seismic data can open new opportunities in unveiling tectonic features.
Yu, Han; Huang, Yunsong; Guo, Bowen
2016-07-01
We demonstrate that diffraction stack migration can be used to discover the distribution of near-surface faults. The methodology is based on the assumption that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. We first isolate the back-scattered surface waves by muting or FK filtering, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. We have also proposed a natural migration method that utilizes the intrinsic traveltime property of the direct and the back-scattered waves at faults. For the synthetic data sets and the land data collected in Aqaba, where surface wave velocity has unexpected perturbations, we migrate the back-scattered surface waves with both predicted velocity profiles and natural Green's function without velocity information. Because the latter approach avoids the need for an accurate velocity model in event summation, both the prestack and stacked migration images show competitive quality. Results with both synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. We believe applying this method to global or passive seismic data can open new opportunities in unveiling tectonic features.
Turbulence-particle interactions under surface gravity waves
Paskyabi, Mostafa Bakhoday
2016-11-01
The dispersion and transport of single inertial particles through an oscillatory turbulent aquatic environment are examined numerically by a Lagrangian particle tracking model using a series of idealised test cases. The turbulent mixing is incorporated into the Lagrangian model by the means of a stochastic scheme in which the inhomogeneous turbulent quantities are governed by a one-dimensional k- ɛ turbulence closure scheme. This vertical mixing model is further modified to include the effects of surface gravity waves including Coriolis-Stokes forcing, wave breaking, and Langmuir circulations. To simplify the complex interactions between the deterministic and the stochastic phases of flow, we assume a time-invariant turbulent flow field and exclude the hydrodynamic biases due to the effects of ambient mean current. The numerical results show that the inertial particles acquire perturbed oscillations traced out as time-varying sinking/rising orbits in the vicinity of the sea surface under linear and cnoidal waves and acquire a non-looping single arc superimposed with the high-frequency fluctuations beneath the nonlinear solitary waves. Furthermore, we briefly summarise some recipes through the course of this paper on the implementation of the stochastic particle tracking models to realistically describe the drift and suspension of inertial particles throughout the water column.
Surface Acoustic Wave Atomizer and Electrostatic Deposition
Yamagata, Yutaka
A new methodology for fabricating thin film or micro patters of organic/bio material using surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer and electrostatic deposition is proposed and characteristics of atomization techniques are discussed in terms of drop size and atomization speed. Various types of SAW atomizer are compared with electrospray and conventional ultrasonic atomizers. It has been proved that SAW atomizers generate drops as small as electrospray and have very fast atomization speed. This technique is applied to fabrication of micro patterns of proteins. According to the result of immunoassay, the specific activity of immunoglobulin was preserved after deposition process.
Absorption of surface acoustic waves by graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. H. Zhang
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We present a theoretical study on interactions of electrons in graphene with surface acoustic waves (SAWs. We find that owing to momentum and energy conservation laws, the electronic transition accompanied by the SAW absorption cannot be achieved via inter-band transition channels in graphene. For graphene, strong absorption of SAWs can be observed in a wide frequency range up to terahertz at room temperature. The intensity of SAW absorption by graphene depends strongly on temperature and can be adjusted by changing the carrier density. This study is relevant to the exploration of the acoustic properties of graphene and to the application of graphene as frequency-tunable SAW devices.
Experimental and numerical studies of terahertz surface waves on a thin metamaterial film
Reinhard, Benjamin; Beigang, Rene; Rahm, Marco
2009-01-01
We present experimental and numerical studies of localized terahertz surface waves on a subwavelength-thick metamaterial film consisting of in-plane split-ring resonators. A simple and intuitive model is derived that describes the propagation of surface waves as guided modes in a waveguide filled with a Lorentz-like medium. The effective medium model allows to deduce the dispersion relation of the surface waves in excellent agreement with the numerical data obtained from 3-D full-wave calculations. Both the accuracy of the analytical model and the numerical calculations are confirmed by spectroscopic terahertz time domain measurements.
Surface waves in ﬁbre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P R Sengupta; Sisir Nath
2001-08-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate surface waves in anisotropic ﬁbre-reinforced solid elastic media. First, the theory of general surface waves has been derived and applied to study the particular cases of surface waves – Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley types. The wave velocity equations are found to be in agreement with the corresponding classical result when the anisotropic elastic parameters tends to zero. It is important to note that the Rayleigh type of wave velocity in the ﬁbre-reinforced elastic medium increases to a considerable amount in comparison with the Rayleigh wave velocity in isotropic materials.
Faraday pilot-wave dynamics: modelling and computation
Milewski, Paul A.; Galeano-Rios, Carlos A.; Nachbin, André; Bush, John W. M.
2015-01-01
A millimetric droplet bouncing on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath can self-propel by virtue of a resonant interaction with its own wave field. This system represents the first known example of a pilot-wave system of the form envisaged by Louis de Broglie in his double-solution pilot-wave theory. We here develop a fluid model of pilot-wave hydrodynamics by coupling recent models of the droplet’s bouncing dynamics with a more realistic model of weakly viscous quasi-potential wave generati...
Resonant surface acoustic wave chemical detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brocato, Robert W.; Brocato, Terisse; Stotts, Larry G.
2017-08-08
Apparatus for chemical detection includes a pair of interdigitated transducers (IDTs) formed on a piezoelectric substrate. The apparatus includes a layer of adsorptive material deposited on a surface of the piezoelectric substrate between the IDTs, where each IDT is conformed, and is dimensioned in relation to an operating frequency and an acoustic velocity of the piezoelectric substrate, so as to function as a single-phase uni-directional transducer (SPUDT) at the operating frequency. Additionally, the apparatus includes the pair of IDTs is spaced apart along a propagation axis and mutually aligned relative to said propagation axis so as to define an acoustic cavity that is resonant to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the operating frequency, where a distance between each IDT of the pair of IDTs ranges from 100 wavelength of the operating frequency to 400 wavelength of the operating frequency.
Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Johan; Liang, Z.; Willatzen, Morten
2014-01-01
Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne...... sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simu- lations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples...
Tango waves in a bidomain model of fertilization calcium waves
Li, Yue-Xian
2003-12-01
Fertilization of an egg cell is marked by one or several Ca 2+ waves that travel across the intra-cellular space, called fertilization Ca 2+ waves. Patterns of Ca 2+ waves observed in mature or immature oocytes include traveling fronts and pulses as well as concentric and spiral waves. These patterns have been studied in other excitable media in physical, chemical, and biological systems. Here, we report the discovery of a new wave phenomenon in the numerical study of a bidomain model of fertilization Ca 2+ waves. This wave is a front that propagates in a back-and-forth manner that resembles the movement of tango dancers, thus is called a tango wave. When the medium is excitable, a forward-moving tango wave can generate traveling pulses that propagate down the space without reversal. The study shows that the occurrence of tango waves is related to spatial inhomogeneity in the local dynamics. This is tested and confirmed by simulating similar waves in a medium with stationary spatial inhomogeneity. Similar waves are also obtained in a FitzHugh-Nagumo system with a linear spatial ramp. In both the bidomain model of Ca 2+ waves and the FitzHugh-Nagumo system, the front is stable when the slope of a linear ramp is large. As the slope decreases beyond a critical value, front oscillations occur. The study shows that tango waves facilitate the dispersion of localized Ca 2+. Key features of the bidomain model underlying the occurrence of tango waves are revealed. These features are commonly found in egg cells of a variety of species. Thus, we predict that tango waves can occur in real egg cells provided that a slowly varying inhomogeneity does occur following the sperm entry. The observation of tango wave-like waves in nemertean worm and ascidian eggs seems to support such a prediction.
Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; vanÂ derÂ Hilst, Robert D.
2016-05-01
We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.
Zhang, Rong-Hua
2016-10-01
Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are two air-sea coupling phenomena that are prominent in the tropical Pacific, occurring at vastly different space-time scales. It has been challenging to adequately represent both of these processes within a large-scale coupled climate model, which has led to a poor understanding of the interactions between TIW-induced feedback and ENSO. In this study, a novel modeling system was developed that allows representation of TIW-scale air-sea coupling and its interaction with ENSO. Satellite data were first used to derive an empirical model for TIW-induced sea surface wind stress perturbations (τTIW). The model was then embedded in a basin-wide hybrid-coupled model (HCM) of the tropical Pacific. Because τTIW were internally determined from TIW-scale sea surface temperatures (SSTTIW) simulated in the ocean model, the wind-SST coupling at TIW scales was interactively represented within the large-scale coupled model. Because the τTIW-SSTTIW coupling part of the model can be turned on or off in the HCM simulations, the related TIW wind feedback effects can be isolated and examined in a straightforward way. Then, the TIW-scale wind feedback effects on the large-scale mean ocean state and interannual variability in the tropical Pacific were investigated based on this embedded system. The interactively represented TIW-scale wind forcing exerted an asymmetric influence on SSTs in the HCM, characterized by a mean-state cooling and by a positive feedback on interannual variability, acting to enhance ENSO amplitude. Roughly speaking, the feedback tends to increase interannual SST variability by approximately 9%. Additionally, there is a tendency for TIW wind to have an effect on the phase transition during ENSO evolution, with slightly shortened interannual oscillation periods. Additional sensitivity experiments were performed to elucidate the details of TIW wind effects on SST evolution during ENSO
Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography
Li, Jing
2017-08-17
Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.
Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn
2011-01-01
On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....
Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn;
2011-01-01
On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....
Coupling atmospheric and ocean wave models for storm simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Jianting
This thesis studies the wind-wave interactions through the coupling between the atmospheric model and ocean surface wave models. Special attention is put on storm simulations in the North Sea for wind energy applications in the coastal zones. The two aspects, namely storm conditions and coastal...... areas, are challenging for the wind-wave coupling system because: in storm cases, the wave field is constantly modified by the fast varying wind field; in coastal zones, the wave field is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and currents. Both conditions have complex, unsteady sea state varying...... with time and space that challenge the current coupled modeling system. The conventional approach of estimating the momentum exchange is through parameterizing the aerodynamic roughness length (z0) with wave parameters such as wave age, steepness, significant wave height, etc. However, it is found in storm...
Surface wave dynamics in orbital shaken cylindrical containers
Reclari, M.; Dreyer, M.; Tissot, S.; Obreschkow, D.; Wurm, F. M.; Farhat, M.
2014-05-01
Be it to aerate a glass of wine before tasting, to accelerate a chemical reaction, or to cultivate cells in suspension, the "swirling" (or orbital shaking) of a container ensures good mixing and gas exchange in an efficient and simple way. Despite being used in a large range of applications this intuitive motion is far from being understood and presents a richness of patterns and behaviors which has not yet been reported. The present research charts the evolution of the waves with the operating parameters identifying a large variety of patterns, ranging from single and multiple crested waves to breaking waves. Free surface and velocity fields measurements are compared to a potential sloshing model, highlighting the existence of various flow regimes. Our research assesses the importance of the modal response of the shaken liquids, laying the foundations for a rigorous mixing optimization of the orbital agitation in its applications.
Surface wave dynamics in orbital shaken cylindrical containers
Reclari, Martino; Tissot, Stéphanie; Obreschkow, Danail; Wurm, Florian Maria; Farhat, Mohamed
2014-01-01
Be it to aerate a glass of wine before tasting, to accelerate a chemical reaction or to cultivate cells in suspension, the "swirling" (or orbital shaking) of a container ensures good mixing and gas exchange in an efficient and simple way. Despite being used in a large range of applications this intuitive motion is far from being understood and presents a richness of patterns and behaviors which has not yet been reported. The present research charts the evolution of the waves with the operating parameters identifying a large variety of patterns, ranging from single and multiple crested waves to breaking waves. Free surface and velocity fields measurements are compared to a potential sloshing model, highlighting the existence of various flow regimes. Our research assesses the importance of the modal response of the shaken liquids, laying the foundations for a rigorous mixing optimization of the orbital agitation in its applications. Copyright (2014) American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded ...
Rogue waves in a wave tank: experiments and modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Lechuga
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In past decades theoretical studies have been carried out with the double aim of improving the knowledge of rogue wave main characteristics and of attempting to predict its sudden appearance. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum (Akhmediev et al., 2011a as input on the wave maker. To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg–Landau equation.
Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves
2016-01-01
Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by bu...
On elliptic cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation for surface waves
Khusnutdinova, K R; Matveev, V B; Smirnov, A O
2012-01-01
The `elliptic cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation' is derived for surface gravity waves with nearly-elliptic front, generalising the cylindrical KP equation for nearly-concentric waves. We discuss transformations between the derived equation and two existing versions of the KP equation, for nearly-plane and nearly-concentric waves. The transformations are used to construct important classes of exact solutions of the derived equation and corresponding approximate solutions for surface waves.
Surface wave inversion for a p-wave velocity profile: Estimation of the squared slowness gradient
Ponomarenko, A.V.; Kashtan, B.M.; Troyan, V.N.; Mulder, W.A.
2013-01-01
Surface waves can be used to obtain a near-surface shear wave profile. The inverse problem is usually solved for the locally 1-D problem of a set of homogeneous horizontal elastic layers. The output is a set of shear velocity values for each layer in the profile. P-wave velocity profile can be estim
Wave Numerical Model for Shallow Water
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐福敏; 严以新; 张长宽; 宋志尧; 茅丽华
2000-01-01
The history of forecasting wind waves by wave energy conservation equation is briefly described. Several currently used wave numerical models for shallow water based on different wave theories are discussed. Wave energy conservation models for the simulation of shallow water waves are introduced,with emphasis placed on the SWAN model, which takes use of the most advanced wave research achievements and has been applied to several theoretical and field conditions. The characteristics and applicability of the model, the finite difference numerical scheme of the action balance equation and its source terms computing methods are described in detail. The model has been verified with the propagation refraction numerical experiments for waves propagating in following and opposing currents; finally, the model is applied to the Haian Gulf area to simulate the wave height and wave period field there, and the results are compared with observed data.
Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor
Joshi, Shrinivas G.
1991-03-01
The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.
Modeling Pancake Formation with a Coupled Wave-Ice Model
Veeramony, J.; Orzech, M.; Shi, F.; Bateman, S. P.; Calantoni, J.
2016-12-01
Recent results from the ONR-sponsored Arctic Sea State DRI cruise (Thomson et al., 2016, EOS, in press) suggest that small-scale pancake ice formation is an important process in the initial recovery and refreezing of the Arctic pack ice each autumn. Ocean surface waves and ambient temperature play significant roles in shaping and/or limiting the pancake growth patterns, which may either facilitate or delay the recovery of the ice pack. Here we apply a phase-resolving, coupled wave-ice system, consisting of a CFD wave model (NHWAVE) and a discrete-element ice model (LIGGGHTS), to investigate the formation processes of pancake ice under different conditions. A series of simulations is run, each beginning with a layer of disconnected ice particles floating on the ocean surface. Wave conditions and ice bonding properties are varied to examine the effects of mild versus stormy conditions, wind waves versus swell, and warmer versus colder temperatures. Model runs are limited to domains of O(1 sq km). Initial tests have shown some success in replicating qualitative results from the Sea State cruise, including the formation of irregularly shaped pancakes from the "frazil" ice layer, changes in formation processes caused by varying ambient temperature (represented through variations in ice bonding strength), occasional rafting of one pancake on top of another, and increased wave attenuation as pancakes grow larger.
Surface Waves in Almost Incompressible Elastic Materials
Virta, Kristoffer
2013-01-01
A recent study shows that the classical theory concerning accuracy and points per wavelength is not valid for surface waves in almost incompressible elastic materials. The grid size must instead be proportional to $(\\frac{\\mu}{\\lambda})^{(1/p)}$ to achieve a certain accuracy. Here $p$ is the order of accuracy the scheme and $\\mu$ and $\\lambda$ are the Lame parameters. This accuracy requirement becomes very restrictive close to the incompressible limit where $\\frac{\\mu}{\\lambda} \\ll 1$, especially for low order methods. We present results concerning how to choose the number of grid points for 4th, 6th and 8th order summation-by-parts finite difference schemes. The result is applied to Lambs problem in an almost incompressible material.
The radiation of surface wave energy: Implications for volcanic tremor
Haney, M. M.; Denolle, M.; Lyons, J. J.; Nakahara, H.
2015-12-01
The seismic energy radiated by active volcanism is one common measurement of eruption size. For example, the magnitudes of individual earthquakes in volcano-tectonic (VT) swarms can be summed and expressed in terms of cumulative magnitude, energy, or moment release. However, discrepancies exist in current practice when treating the radiated energy of volcano seismicity dominated by surface waves. This has implications for volcanic tremor, since eruption tremor typically originates at shallow depth and is made up of surface waves. In the absence of a method to compute surface wave energy, estimates of eruption energy partitioning between acoustic and seismic waves typically assume seismic energy is composed of body waves. Furthermore, without the proper treatment of surface wave energy, it is unclear how much volcanic tremor contributes to the overall seismic energy budget during volcanic unrest. To address this issue, we derive, from first principles, the expression of surface wave radiated energy. In contrast with body waves, the surface wave energy equation is naturally expressed in the frequency domain instead of the time domain. We validate our result by reproducing an analytical solution for the radiated power of a vertical force source acting on a free surface. We further show that the surface wave energy equation leads to an explicit relationship between energy and the imaginary part of the surface wave Green's tensor at the source location, a fundamental property recognized within the field of seismic interferometry. With the new surface wave energy equation, we make clear connections to reduced displacement and propose an improved formula for the calculation of surface wave reduced displacement involving integration over the frequency band of tremor. As an alternative to reduced displacement, we show that reduced particle velocity squared is also a valid physical measure of tremor size, one based on seismic energy rate instead of seismic moment rate. These
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SEA SURFACE DIRECTIONAL WAVE SPECTRA UNDER TYPHOON WIND FORCING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Numercial simulation of sea surface directional wave spectra under typhoon wind forcing in the South China Sea (SCS) was carreid out using the WAVEWATCH-III wave model. The simulation was run for 210 h until the Typhoon Damrey (2005) approached Vietnam. The simulated data were compared with buoy observations, which were obtained in the northwest sea area of Hainan Island. The results show that the significant wave height, wave direction, wave length and frequency spetra agree well with buoy observations. The spatial characteristics of the signifciant wave height, mean wave period, mean wave length, wave age and directional spectra depend on the relative position from the typhoon center. Also, the misalignment between local wind and wave directions were investigated.
Xiao, Xia; Qi, Haiyang; Sui, Xiaole; Kikkawa, Takamaro
2017-03-01
The cohesive zone model (CZM) is introduced in the surface acoustic wave (SAW) technique to characterize the interfacial adhesion property of the low-k thin film deposited on the Silicon substrate. The ratio of the two parameters in the CZM, the maximum normal traction and normal interface characteristic length, is derived to evaluate the interfacial adhesion properties quantitatively. In this study, the adhesion criterion to judge the adhesion property is newly proposed by the CZM-SAW technique. The criterion determination processes of two kinds of film, dense and porous Black Diamond with different film thicknesses, are presented in this paper. The interfacial adhesion properties of the dense and porous Black Diamond films with different thicknesses are evaluated by the CZM-SAW technique quantitatively and nondestructively. The quantitative adhesion properties are obtained by fitting the experimental dispersion curves with maximum frequency up to 220 MHz with the theoretical ones. Results of the nondestructive CZM-SAW technique and the destructive nanoscratch exhibit the same trend in adhesion properties, which means that the CZM-SAW technique is a promising method for determining the interfacial adhesion. Meanwhile, the adhesion properties of the detected samples are judged by the determined criterion. The test results show that different test film materials with different film thicknesses ranging from 300 nm to 1000 nm are in different adhered conditions. This paper exhibits the advantage of the CZM-SAW technique which can be a universal method to characterize the film adhesion.
Nonlinear surface waves in soft, weakly compressible elastic media.
Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A; Ilinskii, Yurii A; Hamilton, Mark F
2007-04-01
Nonlinear surface waves in soft, weakly compressible elastic media are investigated theoretically, with a focus on propagation in tissue-like media. The model is obtained as a limiting case of the theory developed by Zabolotskaya [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 2569-2575 (1992)] for nonlinear surface waves in arbitrary isotropic elastic media, and it is consistent with the results obtained by Fu and Devenish [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 49, 65-80 (1996)] for incompressible isotropic elastic media. In particular, the quadratic nonlinearity is found to be independent of the third-order elastic constants of the medium, and it is inversely proportional to the shear modulus. The Gol'dberg number characterizing the degree of waveform distortion due to quadratic nonlinearity is proportional to the square root of the shear modulus and inversely proportional to the shear viscosity. Simulations are presented for propagation in tissue-like media.
Surface wave and linear operating mode of a plasma antenna
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogachev, N. N., E-mail: bgniknik@yandex.ru; Bogdankevich, I. L.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Rukhadze, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-10-15
The relation between the propagation conditions of a surface electromagnetic wave along a finiteradius plasma cylinder and the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna is investigated. The solution to the dispersion relation for a surface wave propagating along a finite-radius plasma cylinder is analyzed for weakly and strongly collisional plasmas. Computer simulations of an asymmetrical plasma dipole antenna are performed using the KARAT code, wherein the dielectric properties of plasma are described in terms of the Drude model. The plasma parameters corresponding to the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna are determined. It is demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasma antenna in this mode are close to those of an analogous metal antenna.
Rogue waves in a water tank: Experiments and modeling
Lechuga, Antonio
2013-04-01
Recently many rogue waves have been reported as the main cause of ship incidents on the sea. One of the main characteristics of rogue waves is its elusiveness: they present unexpectedly and disappear in the same wave. Some authors (Zakharov and al.2010) are attempting to find the probability of their appearances apart from studyingthe mechanism of the formation. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum(Akhmediev et al. 2011) as input on the wave maker. The produced waves were clearly rogue waves with a rate (maximum wave height/ Significant wave height) of 2.33 and a kurtosis of 4.77 (Janssen 2003, Onorato 2006). These results were already presented (Lechuga 2012). Similar waves (in pattern aspect, but without being extreme waves) were described as crossing waves in a water tank(Shemer and Lichter1988). To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This apparently amazing result is easily explained: We know that the Ginzburg-Landau model is related to some regular structures on the surface of a liquid and also in plasmas, electric and magnetic fields and other media. Another important characteristic of the model is that their solutions are invariants with respectto the translation group. The main aim of this presentation is to extract conclusions of the model and the comparison with the measured waves in the water tank.The nonlinear structure of waves and their regularity make suitable the use of the Ginzburg-Landau model to the envelope of generated waves in the tank,so giving us a powerful tool to cope with the results of our experiment.
Numerical study of surface water waves generated by mass movement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghozlani, Belgacem; Hafsia, Zouhaier; Maalel, Khlifa, E-mail: ghozlanib@yahoo.fr [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Tunis, Laboratoire de Modelisation en ' Hydraulique et Environnement, BP 37, Le Belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)
2013-10-01
In this paper waves generated by two-dimensional mass movement are simulated using a numerical model based on the full hydrodynamic coupling between rigid-body motion and ambient fluid flow. This approach has the capability to represent the dynamics of the moving rigid body, which avoids the need to prescribe the body velocity based on the data measurements. This model is implemented in the CFX code and uses the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations solver coupled to the recently developed immersed solid technique. The latter technique allows us to follow implicitly the motion of the solid block based on the rigid body solver. The volume-of-fluid method is used to track the free surface locations. The accuracy of the present model is firstly examined against the simple physical case of a freely falling rigid body into water reproducing Scott Russell's solitary waves. More complex and realistic simulations of aerial and submarine mass-movement, simulated by a rigid wedge sliding into water along a 45 Degree-Sign slope, are then performed. Simulated results of the aerial mass movement show the complex flow patterns in terms of the velocity fields and free surface profiles. Results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the physical processes associated with the generation of water wave by two-dimensional submarine mass-movement are explored. The effects of the initial submergence and specific gravity on the slide mass kinematics and maximum wave amplitude are investigated. The terminal velocity and initial acceleration of the slide mass are well predicted when compared to experimental results. It is found that the initial submergence did not have a significant effect on the initial acceleration of the slide block centre of mass. However, it depends nonlinearly on the specific gravity. The maximum wave amplitude and the time at which it occurred are also presented as a function of the initial submergence and specific gravity
Waveform synthesis of surface waves in a laterally heterogeneous earth by the Gaussian beam method
Yomogida, K.; Aki, K.
1985-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with an application of the Gaussian beam method to surface waves in the laterally heterogeneous earth. The employed method has been developed for ray tracing and synthesizing seismograms of surface waves in cases involving the laterally heterogeneous earth. The procedure is based on formulations derived by Yomogida (1985). Vertical structure of the wave field is represented by the eigenfunctions of normal mode theory, while lateral variation is expressed by the parabolic equation as in two-dimensional acoustic waves or elastic body waves. It is demonstrated that a large-amplitude change can result from a slight perturbation in the phase velocity model.
Wave Climate and Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones of Arctic Seas, Observations and Modelling
2015-09-30
PROJECTS Section). With the group of Rogers, observation/modeling study of an energetic wave event in the Arctic marginal zone was conducted ...floe. (right) Surface elevation in the lee of a 5 mm thick polypropylene floe (thick black curves) and incident wave (grey), normalised with respect...Toffoli, A., Marusic, I., Klewicki, J., Hutchins, N., Suslov, S., Walker, D., Chung, D., “A Thermally Stratified Sea-Ice-Wave Interaction Facility”, ARC
Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peixin Shi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.
Dispersion analysis of passive surface-wave noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations
Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Willis, Mark; Snieder, Roel; Haines, Seth S.; Behura, Jyoti; Batzle, Mike; Davidson, Michael
2014-01-01
Surface-wave dispersion analysis is useful for estimating near-surface shear-wave velocity models, designing receiver arrays, and suppressing surface waves. Here, we analyze whether passive seismic noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations can be used to extract surface-wave dispersion characteristics. Applying seismic interferometry to noise measurements, we extract surface waves by cross-correlating several minutes of passive records; this approach is distinct from previous studies that used hours or days of passive records for cross-correlation. For comparison, we also perform dispersion analysis for an active-source array that has some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive character of the fundamental-mode surface-waves. For the higher mode surface waves, however, active and passive data resolve the dispersive properties at different frequency ranges. To demonstrate an application of dispersion analysis, we invert the observed surface-wave dispersion characteristics to determine the near-surface, one-dimensional shear-wave velocity.
Rivet, Diane; Campillo, Michel; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco; Shapiro, Nikolaï M.; Singh, Shri Krishna
2015-11-01
Dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves is performed to assess the velocity of complex structures such as sedimentary basins. At short periods several modes of the Rayleigh waves are often exited. To perform a reliable inversion of the velocity structure an identification of these modes is thus required. We propose a novel method to identify the modes of surface waves. We use the spectral ratio of the ground velocity for the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V) measured on seismic coda. We then compare the observed values with the theoretical H/V ratio for velocity models deduced from surface wave dispersion when assuming a particular mode. We first invert the Rayleigh wave measurements retrieved from ambient noise cross-correlation with the assumptions that (1) the fundamental mode and (2) the first overtone are excited. Then we use these different velocity models to predict theoretical spectral ratios of the ground velocity for the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V). These H/V ratios are computed under the hypothesis of equipartition of a diffuse field in a layered medium. Finally we discriminate between fundamental and higher modes by comparing the theoretical H/V ratio with the H/V ratio measured on seismic coda. In an application, we reconstruct Rayleigh waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at seven broad-band stations in the Valley of Mexico. For paths within the soft quaternary sediments basin, the maximum energy is observed at velocities higher than expected for the fundamental mode. We identify that the dominant mode is the first higher mode, which suggests the importance of higher modes as the main vectors of energy in such complex structures.
A hydrodynamic model of nearshore waves and wave-induced currents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Khaled Seif
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In This study develops a quasi-three dimensional numerical model of wave driven coastal currents with accounting the effects of the wave-current interaction and the surface rollers. In the wave model, the current effects on wave breaking and energy dissipation are taken into account as well as the wave diffraction effect. The surface roller associated with wave breaking was modeled based on a modification of the equations by Dally and Brown (1995 and Larson and Kraus (2002. Furthermore, the quasi-three dimensional model, which based on Navier-Stokes equations, was modified in association with the surface roller effect, and solved using frictional step method. The model was validated by data sets obtained during experiments on the Large Scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF basin and the Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS. Then, a model test against detached breakwater was carried out to investigate the performance of the model around coastal structures. Finally, the model was applied to Akasaki port to verify the hydrodynamics around coastal structures. Good agreements between computations and measurements were obtained with regard to the cross-shore variation in waves and currents in nearshore and surf zone.
Joint Geophysical Imaging of the Utah Area Using Seismic Body Waves, Surface Waves and Gravity Data
Zhang, H.; Maceira, M.; Toksoz, M. N.; Burlacu, R.; Yang, Y.
2009-12-01
We present a joint geophysical imaging method that makes use of seismic body wave arrival times, surface wave dispersion measurements, and gravity data to determine three-dimensional (3D) Vp and Vs models. An empirical relationship mapping densities to Vp and Vs for earth materials is used to link them together. The joint inversion method takes advantage of strengths of individual data sets and is able to better constrain the velocity models from shallower to greater depths. Combining three different data sets to jointly invert for the velocity structure is equivalent to a multiple-objective optimization problem. Because it is unlikely that the different “objectives” (data types) would be optimized by the same parameter choices, some trade-off between the objectives is needed. The optimum weighting scheme for different data types is based on relative uncertainties of individual observations and their sensitivities to model parameters. We will apply this joint inversion method to determine 3D Vp and Vs models of the Utah area. The seismic body wave arrival times are assembled from waveform data recorded by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional network for the past 7 years. The surface wave dispersion measurements are obtained from the ambient noise tomography study by the University of Colorado group using EarthScope/USArray stations. The gravity data for the Utah area is extracted from the North American Gravity Database managed by the University of Texas at El Paso. The preliminary study using the seismic body wave arrival times indicates strong low velocity anomalies in middle crust beneath some known geothermal sites in Utah. The joint inversion is expected to produce a reasonably well-constrained velocity structure of the Utah area, which is helpful for characterizing and exploring existing and potential geothermal reservoirs.
Excitation of high-frequency surface waves with long duration in the Valley of Mexico
Iida, Masahiro
1999-04-01
During the 1985 Michoacan earthquake (Ms = 8.1), large-amplitude seismograms with extremely long duration were recorded in the lake bed zone of Mexico City. We interpret high-frequency seismic wave fields in the three geotechnical zones (the hill, the transition, and the lake bed zones) in the Valley of Mexico on the basis of a systematic analysis for borehole strong motion recordings. We make identification of wave types for real seismograms. First, amplitude ratios between surface and underground seismograms indicate that predominant periods of the surface seismograms are largely controlled by the wave field incident into surficial layers in the Valley of Mexico. We interpret recorded surface waves as fundamental-mode Love waves excited in the Mexican Volcanic Belt by calculating theoretical amplification for different-scale structures. Second, according to a cross-correlation analysis, the hill and transition seismograms are mostly surface waves. In the lake bed zone, while early portions are noisy body waves, late portions are mostly surface waves. Third, using two kinds of surface arrays with different station intervals, we investigate high-frequency surface-wave propagation in the lake bed zone. The wave propagation is very complicated, depending upon the time section and the frequency band. Finally, on the basis of a statistical time series model with an information criterion, we separate S- and surface-wave portions from lake bed seismograms. Surface waves are dominant and are recognized even in the early time section. Thus high-frequency surface waves with long duration in the Valley of Mexico are excited by the Mexican Volcanic Belt.
Cluster observations of surface waves on the dawn flank magnetopause
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. J. Owen
2004-03-01
Full Text Available On 14 June 2001 the four Cluster spacecraft recorded multiple encounters of the dawn-side flank magnetopause. The characteristics of the observed electron populations varied between a cold, dense magnetosheath population and warmer, more rarified boundary layer population on a quasi-periodic basis. The demarcation between these two populations can be readily identified by gradients in the scalar temperature of the electrons. An analysis of the differences in the observed timings of the boundary at each spacecraft indicates that these magnetopause crossings are consistent with a surface wave moving across the flank magnetopause. When compared to the orientation of the magnetopause expected from models, we find that the leading edges of these waves are approximately 45° steeper than the trailing edges, consistent with the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH driving mechanism. A stability analysis of this interval suggests that the magnetopause is marginally stable to this mechanism during this event. Periods in which the analysis predicts that the magnetopause is unstable correspond to observations of greater wave steepening. Analysis of the pulses suggests that the waves have an average wavelength of approximately 3.4 R_{E} and move at an average speed of ~65km s^{-1} in an anti-sunward and northward direction, despite the spacecraft location somewhat south of the GSE Z=0 plane. This wave propagation direction lies close to perpendicular to the average magnetic field direction in the external magnetosheath, suggesting that these waves may preferentially propagate in the direction that requires no bending of these external field lines
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; MHD waves and unstabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions
Spoof surface plasmon Fabry-Perot open resonators in a surface-wave photonic crystal
Gao, Zhen; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
We report on the proposal and experimental realization of a spoof surface plasmon Fabry-Perot (FP) open resonator in a surface-wave photonic crystal. This surface-wave FP open resonator is formed by introducing a finite line defect in a surface-wave photonic crystal. The resonance frequencies of the surface-wave FP open resonator lie exactly within the forbidden band gap of the surface-wave photonic crystal and the FP open resonator uses this complete forbidden band gap to concentrate surface waves within a subwavelength cavity. Due to the complete forbidden band gap of the surface-wave photonic crystal, a new FP plasmonic resonance mode that exhibits monopolar features which is missing in traditional FP resonators and plasmonic resonators is demonstrated. Near-field response spectra and mode profiles are presented in the microwave regime to characterize properties of the proposed FP open resonator for spoof surface plasmons.
Sensitivity of surface acoustic wave devices
Filipiak, Jerzy; Zubko, Konrad
2001-08-01
The SAW devices are widely used as filters, delay lines, resonators and gas sensors. It is possible to use it as mechanical force. The paper describes sensitivity of acceleration sensor based on SAW using the Rayleigh wave propagation. Since characteristic of acceleration SAW sensors are largely determined by piezoelectric materials, it is very important to select substrate with required characteristics. Researches and numerical modeling based on simply sensor model include piezoelectric beam with unilateral free end. An aggregated mass is connected to the one. The dimension and aggregated mass are various. In this case a buckling stress and sensitivity are changed. Sensitivity in main and perpendicular axis are compare for three sensor based on SiO2, LiNbO3, Li2B4O7. Influences of phase velocity, electro-mechanical coupling constant and density on sensitivity are investigated. Some mechanical parameters of the substrates in dynamic work mode are researched using sensor model and Rayleigh model of vibrations without vibration damping. The model is useful because it simply determines dependencies between sensor parameters and substrate parameters. Differences between measured and evaluated quantities are less than 5 percent. Researches based on sensor modes, which fulfilled mechanical specifications similarly to aircraft navigation.
Temperature-mediated transition from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves to surface-plasmon-polariton waves
Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2017-08-01
The effect of changing the temperature on the propagation of electromagnetic surface waves (ESWs), guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic temperature-sensitive material (namely, InSb) and a temperature-insensitive structurally chiral material (SCM) was numerically investigated in the terahertz frequency regime. As the temperature rises, InSb transforms from a dissipative dielectric material to a dissipative plasmonic material. Correspondingly, the ESWs transmute from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves into surface-plasmon-polariton waves. The effects of the temperature change are clearly observed in the phase speeds, propagation distances, angular existence domains, multiplicity, and spatial profiles of energy flow of the ESWs. Remarkably large propagation distances can be achieved; in such instances the energy of an ESW is confined almost entirely within the SCM. For certain propagation directions, simultaneous excitation of two ESWs with (i) the same phase speeds but different propagation distances or (ii) the same propagation distances but different phase speeds are also indicated by our results.
Reliable Damping of Free Surface Waves in Numerical Simulations
Peric, Robinson
2015-01-01
This paper generalizes existing approaches for free-surface wave damping via momentum sinks for flow simulations based on the Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown in 2D flow simulations that, to obtain reliable wave damping, the coefficients in the damping functions must be adjusted to the wave parameters. A scaling law for selecting these damping coefficients is presented, which enables similarity of the damping in model- and full-scale. The influence of the thickness of the damping layer, the wave steepness, the mesh fineness and the choice of the damping coefficients are examined. An efficient approach for estimating the optimal damping setup is presented. Results of 3D ship resistance computations show that the scaling laws apply to such simulations as well, so the damping coefficients should be adjusted for every simulation to ensure convergence of the solution in both model and full scale. Finally, practical recommendations for the setup of reliable damping in flow simulations with regular and irregular...
Effects of winds, tides and storm surges on ocean surface waves in the Sea of Japan
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Wei; TIAN Jiwei; LI Peiliang; HOU Yijun
2007-01-01
Ocean surface waves are strongly forced by high wind conditions associated with winter storms in the Sea of Japan. They are also modulated by tides and storm surges. The effects of the variability in surface wind forcing, tides and storm surges on the waves are investigated using a wave model, a high-resolution atmospheric mesoscale model and a hydrodynamic ocean circulation model. Five month-long wave model simulations are inducted to examine the sensitivity of ocean waves to various wind forcing fields, tides and storm surges during January 1997. Compared with observed mean wave parameters, results indicate that the high frequency variability in the surface wind filed has very great effect on wave simulation. Tides and storm surges have a significant impact on the waves in nearshores of the Tsushima-kaihyō, but not for other regions in the Sea of Japan. High spatial and temporal resolution and good quality surface wind products will be crucial for the prediction of surface waves in the JES and other marginal seas, especially near the coastal regions.
Overview of Wave to Wire Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Ferri, Francesco
A “Wave to Wire” (W2W) model is a numerical tool that can calculate the power output from a specified Wave Energy Converter (WEC), under specified ocean wave conditions. The tool can be used to assess and optimize the performance of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) design and provide knowledge of th...
Accurate source location from P waves scattered by surface topography
Wang, N.; Shen, Y.
2015-12-01
Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (> 100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P-coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example. The grid search method is combined with the 3D strain Green's tensor database type method to improve the search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solution. The strain Green's tensor is calculated by the 3D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are then obtained based on the least-square misfit between the 'observed' and predicted P and P-coda waves. A 95% confidence interval of the solution is also provided as a posterior error estimation. We find that the scattered waves are mainly due to topography in comparison with random velocity heterogeneity characterized by the von Kάrmάn-type power spectral density function. When only P wave data is used, the 'best' solution is offset from the real source location mostly in the vertical direction. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces its uncertainty. The solution remains robust with a range of random noises in data, un-modeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors that we tested.
Surface spin-electron acoustic waves in magnetically ordered metals
Andreev, Pavel A
2015-01-01
Degenerate plasmas with motionless ions show existence of three surface waves: the Langmuir wave, the electromagnetic wave, and the zeroth sound. Applying the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics to half-space plasma we demonstrate the existence of the surface spin-electron acoustic wave (SSEAW). We study dispersion of the SSEAW. We show that there is hybridization between the surface Langmuir wave and the SSEAW at rather small spin polarization. In the hybridization area the dispersion branches are located close to each other. In this area there is a strong interaction between these waves leading to the energy exchange. Consequently, generating the Langmuir waves with the frequencies close to hybridization area we can generate the SSEAWs. Thus, we report a method of creation of the SEAWs.
Observation of resonant interactions among surface gravity waves
Bonnefoy, F; Michel, G; Semin, B; Humbert, T; Aumaître, S; Berhanu, M; Falcon, E
2016-01-01
We experimentally study resonant interactions of oblique surface gravity waves in a large basin. Our results strongly extend previous experimental results performed mainly for perpendicular or collinear wave trains. We generate two oblique waves crossing at an acute angle, while we control their frequency ratio, steepnesses and directions. These mother waves mutually interact and give birth to a resonant wave whose properties (growth rate, resonant response curve and phase locking) are fully characterized. All our experimental results are found in good quantitative agreement with four-wave interaction theory with no fitting parameter. Off-resonance experiments are also reported and the relevant theoretical analysis is conducted and validated.
On the modeling of wave-enhanced turbulence nearshore
Moghimi, Saeed; Thomson, Jim; Özkan-Haller, Tuba; Umlauf, Lars; Zippel, Seth
2016-07-01
A high resolution k-ω two-equation turbulence closure model, including surface wave forcing was employed to fully resolve turbulence dissipation rate profiles close to the ocean surface. Model results were compared with observations from Surface Wave Instrument Floats with Tracking (SWIFTs) in the nearshore region at New River Inlet, North Carolina USA, in June 2012. A sensitivity analysis for different physical parameters and wave and turbulence formulations was performed. The flux of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) prescribed by wave dissipation from a numerical wave model was compared with the conventional prescription using the wind friction velocity. A surface roughness length of 0.6 times the significant wave height was proposed, and the flux of TKE was applied at a distance below the mean sea surface that is half of this roughness length. The wave enhanced layer had a total depth that is almost three times the significant wave height. In this layer the non-dimensionalized Terray scaling with power of - 1.8 (instead of - 2) was applicable.
Opportunities and pitfalls in surface-wave interpretation
Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-21
Many explorationists think of surface waves as the most damaging noise in land seismic data. Thus, much effort is spent in designing geophone arrays and filtering methods that attenuate these noisy events. It is now becoming apparent that surface waves can be a valuable ally in characterizing the near-surface geology. This review aims to find out how the interpreter can exploit some of the many opportunities available in surface waves recorded in land seismic data. For example, the dispersion curves associated with surface waves can be inverted to give the S-wave velocity tomogram, the common-offset gathers can reveal the presence of near-surface faults or velocity anomalies, and back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect the location of near-surface faults. However, the main limitation of surface waves is that they are typically sensitive to S-wave velocity variations no deeper than approximately half to one-third the dominant wavelength. For many exploration surveys, this limits the depth of investigation to be no deeper than approximately 0.5-1.0 km.
Wave climatology of Lake Erie based on an unstructured-grid wave model
Niu, Qianru; Xia, Meng
2016-10-01
Hindcast of wave dynamics in Lake Erie during 2002 to 2012 was conducted using a state-of-art finite-volume coastal ocean surface wave model (FVCOM-SWAVE). After model calibration, the surface gravity wave dynamics were examined from the aspects of wave climate and seasonality, inter-basin wave interactions, as well as its potential susceptibility to regional climate change. Compared to the Central and Eastern Basins, the Western Basin has relatively gentle wave climate. The Western Basin and the nearshore areas are most susceptible to the wave-induced bottom orbital oscillations on the seasonal mean scale, and the offshore Central Basin is sensitive to them as well during episodic events. Profound seasonality was found in both mean and extreme wave dynamics during ice-free cycles. Mean significant wave height (SWH) is highest during fall with more occurrences of extreme events (SWH > 3.1 m) and is lowest during summer, which is controlled by wind speed and direction collectively. Besides, swells generated in the Central and Eastern Basins could interact with each other under various wind directions, whereas wave generated in the Central Basin could hardly propagate into the Western Basin. In addition, the regression analysis of surrounding meteorological stations indicates increasing SWH in the Western Basin and decreasing SWH in the Eastern Basin.
Surface-Wave Tomography of Yucca Flat, Nevada
Toney, L. D.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Preston, L. A.; Hoots, C. R.
2016-12-01
In 2015, Sandia National Laboratories conducted an active-source seismic survey of Yucca Flat, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. The Yucca Flat basin hosted over 900 nuclear tests between 1951 and 1992. Data from this survey will help characterize seismic propagation effects of the area, informing models for the next phase of the Source Physics Experiments. The survey source was a 13,000-kg weight-drop at 91 locations along a 19-km N-S transect and 56 locations along an 11-km E-W transect. Over 350 three-component 2-Hz geophones were variably spaced at 10, 20, and 100 m along each line. We employed roll-along survey geometry to ensure 10-m receiver spacing within 2 km of the source. Phase velocity surface-wave analysis via the refraction-microtremor (ReMi) method was previously performed on this data in order to obtain an S-wave velocity model of the subsurface. However, the results of this approach were significantly impacted in areas where ray paths were proximate to underground nuclear tests, resulting in a spatially incomplete model. We have processed the same data utilizing group velocities and the multiple filter technique (MFT), with the hope that the propagation of wave groups is less impacted by the disrupted media surrounding former tests. We created a set of 30 Gaussian band-pass filters with scaled relative passbands and central frequencies ranging from 1 to 50 Hz. We picked fundamental Rayleigh wave arrivals from the filtered data; these picks were then inverted for 2D S-wave velocity along the transects. The new S-wave velocity model will be integrated with previous P-wave tomographic results to yield a more complete model of the subsurface structure of Yucca Flat. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Numerical study of surface water waves generated by mass movement
Ghozlani, Belgacem; Hafsia, Zouhaier; Maalel, Khlifa
2013-10-01
In this paper waves generated by two-dimensional mass movement are simulated using a numerical model based on the full hydrodynamic coupling between rigid-body motion and ambient fluid flow. This approach has the capability to represent the dynamics of the moving rigid body, which avoids the need to prescribe the body velocity based on the data measurements. This model is implemented in the CFX code and uses the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations solver coupled to the recently developed immersed solid technique. The latter technique allows us to follow implicitly the motion of the solid block based on the rigid body solver. The volume-of-fluid method is used to track the free surface locations. The accuracy of the present model is firstly examined against the simple physical case of a freely falling rigid body into water reproducing Scott Russell's solitary waves. More complex and realistic simulations of aerial and submarine mass-movement, simulated by a rigid wedge sliding into water along a 45° slope, are then performed. Simulated results of the aerial mass movement show the complex flow patterns in terms of the velocity fields and free surface profiles. Results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the physical processes associated with the generation of water wave by two-dimensional submarine mass-movement are explored. The effects of the initial submergence and specific gravity on the slide mass kinematics and maximum wave amplitude are investigated. The terminal velocity and initial acceleration of the slide mass are well predicted when compared to experimental results. It is found that the initial submergence did not have a significant effect on the initial acceleration of the slide block centre of mass. However, it depends nonlinearly\\vadjust{\
Wind waves in tropical cyclones: satellite altimeter observations and modeling
Golubkin, Pavel; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Chapron, Bertrand
2016-04-01
Results of investigation of wind-wave generation by tropical cyclones using satellite altimeter data are presented. Tropical cyclones are generally relatively small rapidly moving low pressure systems that are capable of generating severe wave conditions. Translation of a tropical cyclone leads to a prolonged period of time surface waves in the right sector remain under high wind forcing conditions. This effect has been termed extended fetch, trapped fetch or group velocity quasi-resonance. A tropical cyclone wave field is thus likely more asymmetrical than the corresponding wind field: wind waves in the tropical cyclone right sector are more developed with larger heights than waves in the left one. A dataset of satellite altimeter intersections of the Western Pacific tropical cyclones was created for 2010-2013. Data from four missions were considered, i.e., Jason-1, Jason-2, CryoSat-2, SARAL/AltiKa. Measurements in the rear-left and front-right sectors of tropical cyclones were examined for the presence of significant wave asymmetry. An analytical model is then derived to efficiently describe the wave energy distribution in a moving tropical cyclone. The model essentially builds on a generalization of the self-similar wave growth model and the assumption of a strongly dominant single spectral mode in a given quadrant of the storm. The model provides a criterion to anticipate wave enhancement with the generation of trapped abnormal waves. If forced during a sufficient timescale interval, also defined from this generalized self-similar wave growth model, waves can be trapped and large amplification of the wave energy will occur in the front-right storm quadrant. Remarkably, the group velocity and corresponding wavelength of outrunning wave systems will become wind speed independent and solely relate to the translating velocity. The resulting significant wave height also only weakly depends on wind speed, and more strongly on the translation velocity. Satellite
Surface characters of internal waves generated by Rankine ovoid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhaoting Xu; Xu Chen; Izolda V. Sturova
2006-01-01
A linear theory on the internal waves generated in the stratified fluid with a pycnocline is presented in this paper. The internal wave fields such as the velocity fields in the stratified fluid and velocity gradient fields at the free surface are also investigated by means of the theoretical and numerical method. From the numerical results, it is shown that the internal wave generated by horizontally moving Rankine ovoid is a sort of trapped wave which propagates in a wave guide, and its waveform is a kind of Mach front-type internal wave in the pycnocline. Influence of the internal wave on the flow fields at the free surface is represented by the velocity gradient fields resulted from the internal waves generated by motion of the Rankine ovoid. At the same time, it is also shown that under the hypothesis of inviscid fluid, the synchronism between the surface velocity gradient fields at the free surface and the internal wave fields in the fluid is retained. This theory opens a possibility to study further the modulated spectrum of the Bragg waves at the free surface.
Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels
2000-01-01
-small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....
Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels
2000-01-01
-small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....
Kasimov, Aslan R.
2013-03-08
We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.
Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications
Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren
2016-02-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).
Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration
Gomez, Eliot F.; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T.
2017-03-01
Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals—as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work—we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.
Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Baile, E-mail: blzhang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)
2016-01-25
We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.
Dispersive internal long wave models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camassa, R.; Choi, W.; Holm, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levermore, C.D.; Lvov, Y. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work is a joint analytical and numerical study of internal dispersive water wave propagation in a stratified two-layer fluid, a problem that has important geophysical fluid dynamics applications. Two-layer models can capture the main density-dependent effects because they can support, unlike homogeneous fluid models, the observed large amplitude internal wave motion at the interface between layers. The authors have derived new model equations using multiscale asymptotics in combination with the method they have developed for vertically averaging velocity and vorticity fields across fluid layers within the original Euler equations. The authors have found new exact conservation laws for layer-mean vorticity that have exact counterparts in the models. With this approach, they have derived a class of equations that retain the full nonlinearity of the original Euler equations while preserving the simplicity of known weakly nonlinear models, thus providing the theoretical foundation for experimental results so far unexplained.
Anomalous wave as a result of the collision of two wave groups on sea surface
Ruban, V P
2016-01-01
The numerical simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of the sea surface has shown that the collision of two groups of relatively low waves with close but noncollinear wave vectors (two or three waves in each group with a steepness of about 0.2) can result in the appearance of an individual anomalous wave whose height is noticeably larger than that in the linear theory. Since such collisions quite often occur on the ocean surface, this scenario of the formation of rogue waves is apparently most typical under natural conditions.
Numerical Simulation of Long-period Surface Wave in Sediments
Li, Yiqiong; Yu, Yanxiang
2016-04-01
Studies have shown that the western Taiwan coastal plain is influenced by long-period ground motion from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake, and engineering structures with natural vibration long-period are damaged by strong surface wave in the western coastal plain. The thick sediments in the western coastal plain are the main cause of the propagation of strong long-period ground motion. The thick sediments similar to in the western coastal plain also exist in northern China. It is necessary to research the effects of thick sediments to long-period ground motion in northern China. The numerical simulation of ground motion based on theoretical seismology is one of important means to study the ground motion. We will carry out the numerical simulation of long-period ground motion in northern China by using the existing tomographic imaging results of northern China to build underground medium model, and adopting finite fault source model for wave input. In the process of simulation, our previous developed structure-preserving algorithm, symplectic discrete singular convolution differentiator (SDSCD), is used to deal with seismic wave field propagation. Our purpose is to reveal the formation and propagation of long-period surface wave in thick sediments and grasp the amplification effect of long-period ground motion due to the thick sediments. It will lay the foundation on providing the reference for the value of the long-period spectrum during determining the ground motion parameters in seismic design. This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41204046, 42574051).
Response Mechanism for Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors Based on Surface-Adsorption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiansheng Liu
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A theoretical model is established to describe the response mechanism of surface acoustic wave (SAW gas sensors based on physical adsorption on the detector surface. Wohljent’s method is utilized to describe the relationship of sensor output (frequency shift of SAW oscillator and the mass loaded on the detector surface. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET formula and its improved form are introduced to depict the adsorption behavior of gas on the detector surface. By combining the two methods, we obtain a theoretical model for the response mechanism of SAW gas sensors. By using a commercial SAW gas chromatography (GC analyzer, an experiment is performed to measure the frequency shifts caused by different concentration of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP. The parameters in the model are given by fitting the experimental results and the theoretical curve agrees well with the experimental data.
Splitting the surface wave in metal/dielectric nanostructures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhu Song; Wu Jian
2011-01-01
We investigate a modified surface wave splitter with a double-layer structure, which consists of symmetrical metallic grating and an asymmetrical dielectric, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation method.The metal/dielectric interface structure at this two-side aperture can support bound waves of different wavelengths,thus guiding waves in opposite directions. The covered dielectric films play an important role in the enhancement and confinement of the diffraction wave by the waveguide modes. The simulation result shows that the optical intensities of the guided surface wave at wavelengths of 760-nm and 1000-nm are about 100 times and 4～5 times those of the weaker side, respectively, which means that the surface wave is split by the proposed device.
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanyuan Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.
Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves
Yu, Han
2014-08-05
We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps are to isolate the back-scattered surface waves, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. A deconvolution filter derived from the data can be used to collapse a dispersive arrival into a non-dispersive event. Results with synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. Applying this method to USArray data or passively recorded exploration data might open new opportunities in mapping tectonic features over the extent of the array.
Chemical-reaction model for Mexican wave
Nagatani, Takashi
2003-05-01
We present a chemical-reaction model to describe the Mexican wave ( La Ola) in football stadia. The spectator's action is described in terms of chemical reactions. The model is governed by three reaction rates k 1, k 2, and k3. We study the nonlinear waves on one- and two-dimensional lattices. The Mexican wave is formulated as a clockwise forwardly propagating wave. Waves are growing or disappear, depending on the values of reaction rates. In the specific case of k1= k2= k3=1, the nonlinear-wave equation produces a propagating pulse like soliton.
Wave chaotic experiments and models for complicated wave scattering systems
Yeh, Jen-Hao
Wave scattering in a complicated environment is a common challenge in many engineering fields because the complexity makes exact solutions impractical to find, and the sensitivity to detail in the short-wavelength limit makes a numerical solution relevant only to a specific realization. On the other hand, wave chaos offers a statistical approach to understand the properties of complicated wave systems through the use of random matrix theory (RMT). A bridge between the theory and practical applications is the random coupling model (RCM) which connects the universal features predicted by RMT and the specific details of a real wave scattering system. The RCM gives a complete model for many wave properties and is beneficial for many physical and engineering fields that involve complicated wave scattering systems. One major contribution of this dissertation is that I have utilized three microwave systems to thoroughly test the RCM in complicated wave systems with varied loss, including a cryogenic system with a superconducting microwave cavity for testing the extremely-low-loss case. I have also experimentally tested an extension of the RCM that includes short-orbit corrections. Another novel result is development of a complete model based on the RCM for the fading phenomenon extensively studied in the wireless communication fields. This fading model encompasses the traditional fading models as its high-loss limit case and further predicts the fading statistics in the low-loss limit. This model provides the first physical explanation for the fitting parameters used in fading models. I have also applied the RCM to additional experimental wave properties of a complicated wave system, such as the impedance matrix, the scattering matrix, the variance ratio, and the thermopower. These predictions are significant for nuclear scattering, atomic physics, quantum transport in condensed matter systems, electromagnetics, acoustics, geophysics, etc.
Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Bingnan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2009-01-01
Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based
Modeling water waves beyond perturbations
Clamond, Didier
2015-01-01
In this chapter, we illustrate the advantage of variational principles for modeling water waves from an elementary practical viewpoint. The method is based on a `relaxed' variational principle, i.e., on a Lagrangian involving as many variables as possible, and imposing some suitable subordinate constraints. This approach allows the construction of approximations without necessarily relying on a small parameter. This is illustrated via simple examples, namely the Serre equations in shallow water, a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in deep water and how to unify these equations in arbitrary depth. The chapter ends with a discussion and caution on how this approach should be used in practice.
Near surface shear wave velocity in Bucharest, Romania
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. von Steht
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Bucharest, the capital of Romania with nearly 2 1/2 million inhabitants, is endangered by the strong earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone. To obtain information on the near surface shear-wave velocity Vs structure and to improve the available microzonations we conducted seismic refraction measurements in two parks of the city. There the shallow Vs structure is determined along five profiles, and the compressional-wave velocity (Vp structure is obtained along one profile. Although the amount of data collected is limited, they offer a reasonable idea about the seismic velocity distribution in these two locations. This knowledge is useful for a city like Bucharest where seismic velocity information so far is sparse and poorly documented. Using sledge-hammer blows on a steel plate and a 24-channel recording unit, we observe clear shear-wave arrivals in a very noisy environment up to a distance of 300 m from the source. The Vp model along profile 1 can be correlated with the known near surface sedimentary layers. Vp increases from 320 m/s near the surface to 1280 m/s above 55–65 m depth. The Vs models along all five profiles are characterized by low Vs (<350 m/s in the upper 60 m depth and a maximum Vs of about 1000 m/s below this depth. In the upper 30 m the average Vs^{30} varies from 210 m/s to 290 m/s. The Vp-Vs relations lead to a high Poisson's ratio of 0.45–0.49 in the upper ~60 m depth, which is an indication for water-saturated clayey sediments. Such ground conditions may severely influence the ground motion during strong Vrancea earthquakes.
Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport
2004-05-13
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.
Modelling wave-boundary layer interaction for wind power applications
Jenkins, A. D.; Barstad, I.; Gupta, A.; Adakudlu, M.
2012-04-01
Marine wind power production facilities are subjected to direct and indirect effects of ocean waves. Direct effects include forces due to wave orbital motions and slamming of the water surface under breaking wave conditions, corrosion and icing due to sea spray, and the effects of wave-generated air bubbles. Indirect effects include include the influence of waves on the aerodynamic sea-surface roughness, air turbulence, the wind velocity profile, and air velocity oscillations, wave-induced currents and sediment transport. Field observations within the boundary layers from floating measurement may have to be corrected to account for biases induced as a result of wave-induced platform motions. To estimate the effect of waves on the atmospheric boundary layer we employ the WRF non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmosphere model, using the default YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and the WAM spectral wave model, running simultaneously and coupled using the open-source coupler MCEL which can interpolate between different model grids and timesteps. The model is driven by the WRF wind velocity at 10 m above the surface. The WRF model receives from WAM updated air-sea stress fields computed from the wind input source term, and computes new fields for the Charnock parameter and marine surface aerodynamic roughness. Results from a North Atlantic and Nordic Seas simulation indicate that the two-way coupling scheme alters the 10 metre wind predicted by WRF by up to 10 per cent in comparison with a simulation using a constant Charnock parameter. The changes are greatest in developing situations with passages of fronts, moving depressions and squalls. This may be directly due to roughness length changes, or may be due to changes in the timing of front/depression/squall passages. Ongoing work includes investigating the effect of grid refinement/nesting, employing different PBL schemes, and allowing the wave field to change the direction of the total air-sea stress.
Observation of Zenneck-Like Waves over a Metasurface Designed for Launching HF Radar Surface Wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florent Jangal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century a controversy has been continuously revived about the existence of the Zenneck Wave. This wave is a theoretical solution of Maxwell’s equations and might be propagated along the interface between the air and a dielectric medium. The expected weak attenuation at large distance explains the constant interest for this wave. Notably in the High Frequency band such a wave had been thought as a key point to reduce the high attenuation observed in High Frequency Surface Wave Radar. Despite many works on that topic and various experiments attempted during one century, there is still an alternation of statements between its existence and its nonexistence. We report here an experiment done during the optimisation of the transmitting antennas for Surface Wave Radars. Using an infrared method, we visualize a wave having the structure described by Zenneck above a metasurface located on a dielectric slab.
Verification of A Numerical Harbour Wave Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A numerical model for wave propagation in a harbour is verified by use of physical models. The extended time-dependent mild slope equation is employed as the governing equation, and the model is solved by use of ADI method containing the relaxation factor. Firstly, the reflection coefficient of waves in front of rubble-mound breakwaters under oblique incident waves is determined through physical model tests, and it is regarded as the basis for simulating partial reflection boundaries of the numerical model. Then model tests on refraction, diffraction and reflection of waves in a harbour are performed to measure wave height distribution. Comparative results between physical and numerical model tests show that the present numerical model can satisfactorily simulate the propagation of regular and irregular waves in a harbour with complex topography and boundary conditions.
Zhen, Ya-Xin
2017-02-01
In this paper, the transverse wave propagation in fluid-conveying viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes is investigated based on nonlocal elasticity theory with consideration of surface effect. The governing equation is formulated utilizing nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Kelvin-Voigt model. Explicit wave dispersion relation is developed and wave phase velocities and frequencies are obtained. The effect of the fluid flow velocity, structural damping, surface effect, small scale effects and tube diameter on the wave propagation properties are discussed with different wave numbers. The wave frequency increases with the increase of fluid flow velocity, but decreases with the increases of tube diameter and wave number. The effect of surface elasticity and residual surface tension is more significant for small wave number and tube diameter. For larger values of wave number and nonlocal parameters, the real part of frequency ratio raises.
An experimental study of wave coupling in gravity surface wave turbulence
Aubourg, Quentin; Sommeria, Joel; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas
2016-11-01
Weak turbulence is a theoretical framework aimed at describing wave turbulence (in the weakly nonlinear limit) i.e. a statistical state involving a large number of nonlinearly coupled waves. For gravity waves at the surface of water, it provides a phenomenology that may describe the formation of the spectrum of the ocean surface. Analytical predictions of the spectra are made based on the fact that energy transfer occurs through 4-wave coupling. By using an advanced stereoscopic imaging technique, we measure in time the deformation of the water surface. We obtain a state of wave turbulence by using two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wavetank. We then use high order correlator (bi- and tri-coherence) in order to get evidence of the active wave coupling present in our system as used successfully for gravity-capillary wave turbulence. At odds with the weak turbulence theory we observe 3-wave interaction involving 2 quasi linear wave and a bound wave whose frequency lies on the first harmonics of the linear dispersion relation. We do not observe 4-wave coupling within the accuracy of our measurement. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 647018-WATU).
Experimental Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter
The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the overtopping type. Oncoming waves are focused by two wing reflectors towards the ramp of the device, surge-up and overtop into a reservoir placed at a higher level than the surface of the sea. The energy production takes...... place as the water is led back to the sea through a set of low-head hydro-turbines. After many years of development, Wave Dragon (WD) is now facing the phase of pre-commercial demonstration. In this phase it is very important to be able to use the available data to predict the performances of the device...... at different scales and locations. A flexible and comprehensive modelling tool is therefore highly required. Wave Dragon produces power through different steps of energy conversion: 1. Primary energy conversion: overtopping – The energy content of the wave (partly in the kinetic and partly in the potential...
UNSTEADY WAVES DUE TO AN IMPULSIVE OSEENLET BENEATH THE CAPILLARY SURFACE OF A VISCOUS FLUID
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Dong-qiang; CHEN Xiao-bo
2008-01-01
The two-dimensional free-surface waves due to a point force steadily moving beneath the capillary surface of an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth were analytically investigated. The unsteady Oseen equations were taken as the governing equations for the viscous flows. The kinematic and dynamic conditions including the combined effects of surface tension and viscosity were linearized for small-amplitude waves on the free-surface. The point force is modeled as an impulsive Oseenlet. The complex dispersion relation for the capillary-gravity waves shows that the wave patterns are characterized by the Weber number and the Reynolds number. The asymptotic expansions for the wave profiles were explicitly derived by means of Lighthill's theorem for the Fourier transform of a function with a finite number of singularities. Furthermore, it is found that the unsteady wave system consists of four families, that is, the steady-state gravity wave, the steady-state capillary wave, the transient gravity wave, and the transient capillary wave. The effect of viscosity on the capillary-gravity was analytically expressed.
Quantum electrostatic surface waves in a hybrid plasma waveguide: Effect of nano-sized slab
Shahmansouri, M.; Mahmodi Moghadam, M.
2017-10-01
The propagation properties of surface plasmon (SP) waves are studied in a hybrid plasma waveguide (consisting of plasma-gap-dielectric layers) with quantum effects including the Fermi-pressure, the Bohm potential and the exchange-correlation interaction. By using a quantum hydrodynamic model and Maxwell's equations, the dispersion relation of SP waves is derived, which describes the quantum corrected features of the dispersion properties of such surface waves. Previous results in this context are recovered. It is found that the exchange-correlation interactions and the presence of the second dielectric layer drastically modify the behaviors of the surface plasmon waves. The implications of our finding are discussed in some particular cases of interest. Our finding is applicable for understanding the surface wave behaviors in nano-scale systems.
On the joint distribution of surface slopes for the fourth order nonlinear random sea waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张书文; 孙孚; 管长龙
1999-01-01
Based upon the nonlinear model of Longuet-Higgins the joint distribution of wave surface slopes is theoretically investigated. It is shown that in the fourth order approximation, the distribution is given by truncated Gram-Charlier series. The types of wave-wave coupling interactions are related to the order of approximation to nonlinearity of sea surface, which eventually defines the truncated term of the Gram-Charlier series. For each order approximation, the coefficients in the series are modified comparatively to the corresponding ones for the previous order approximation. If the nonlinear effect of the kurtosis is considered, the wave surface must be as accurate at least as to the third order approximation, and with regard to skewness, the wave surface must be as accurate at least as to the fourth order approximation.
Surface Wave Cloak from Graded Refractive Index Nanocomposites
La Spada, L.; McManus, T. M.; Dyke, A.; Haq, S.; Zhang, L.; Cheng, Q.; Hao, Y.
2016-07-01
Recently, a great deal of interest has been re-emerged on the possibility to manipulate surface waves, in particular, towards the THz and optical regime. Both concepts of Transformation Optics (TO) and metamaterials have been regarded as one of key enablers for such applications in applied electromagnetics. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a dielectric surface wave cloak from engineered gradient index materials to illustrate the possibility of using nanocomposites to control surface wave propagation through advanced additive manufacturing. The device is designed analytically and validated through numerical simulations and measurements, showing good agreement and performance as an effective surface wave cloak. The underlying design approach has much wider applications, which span from microwave to optics for the control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and radiation of nanoantennas.
Surface waves in a vertically excited circular cylindrical container
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian Yong-Jun; E Xue-Quan; Zhang Jie; Meng Jun-Min
2004-01-01
The nonlinear free surface amplitude equation, which has been derived from the inviscid fluid by solving the potential equation of water waves with a singular perturbation theory in a vertically oscillating rigid circular cylinder,is investigated successively in the fourth-order Runge-Kutta approach with an equivalent time-step. Computational results include the evolution of the amplitude with time, the characteristics of phase plane determined by the real and imaginary parts of the amplitude, the single-mode selection rules of the surface waves in different forced frequencies,contours of free surface displacement and corresponding three-dimensional evolution of surface waves, etc. In addition,the comparison of the surface wave modes is made between theoretical calculations and experimental measurements,and the results are reasonable although there are some differences in the forced frequency.
Surface Waves in the paritally ionized solar plasma slab
Pandey, B P
2013-01-01
The properties of surface waves in the partially ionized, incompressible magnetized plasma slab are investigated in the present work. The waves are affected by the non ideal MHD effects which causes the finite drift of the magnetic field in the medium. When the finite drift of the magnetic field is ignored, the characteristics of the wave propagation in the partially ionized plasma fluid is similar to the ideal MHD except now the propagation properties depend on the fractional ionization of the medium. In the presence of Hall diffusion, the propagation of the sausage and kink surface waves depends on the level of fractional ionization of the medium. When both the Hall and Pedersen diffusion are present in the medium, the waves undergoes damping. For typical solar parameters, waves may damp over few minutes.
Experimental study of three-wave interactions among capillary-gravity surface waves
Haudin, Florence; Deike, Luc; Jamin, Timothée; Falcon, Eric; Berhanu, Michael
2016-01-01
In propagating wave systems, three or four-wave resonant interactions constitute a classical non-linear mechanism exchanging energy between the different scales. Here we investigate three-wave interactions for gravity-capillary surface waves in a closed laboratory tank. We generate two crossing wave-trains and we study their interaction. Using two optical methods, a local one (Laser Doppler Vibrometry) and a spatio-temporal one (Diffusive Light Photography), a third wave of smaller amplitude is detected, verifying the three-wave resonance conditions in frequency and in wavenumber. Furthermore, by focusing on the stationary regime and by taking into account viscous dissipation, we directly estimate the growth rate of the resonant mode. The latter is then compared to the predictions of the weakly non-linear triadic resonance interaction theory. The obtained results confirm qualitatively and extend previous experimental results obtained only for collinear wave-trains. Finally, we discuss the relevance of three-w...
Modelling of Performance of Caisson Type Breakwaters under Extreme Waves
Güney Doǧan, Gözde; Özyurt Tarakcıoǧlu, Gülizar; Baykal, Cüneyt
2016-04-01
Many coastal structures are designed without considering loads of tsunami-like waves or long waves although they are constructed in areas prone to encounter these waves. Performance of caisson type breakwaters under extreme swells is tested in Middle East Technical University (METU) Coastal and Ocean Engineering Laboratory. This paper presents the comparison of pressure measurements taken along the surface of caisson type breakwaters and obtained from numerical modelling of them using IH2VOF as well as damage behavior of the breakwater under the same extreme swells tested in a wave flume at METU. Experiments are conducted in the 1.5 m wide wave flume, which is divided into two parallel sections (0.74 m wide each). A piston type of wave maker is used to generate the long wave conditions located at one end of the wave basin. Water depth is determined as 0.4m and kept constant during the experiments. A caisson type breakwater is constructed to one side of the divided flume. The model scale, based on the Froude similitude law, is chosen as 1:50. 7 different wave conditions are applied in the tests as the wave period ranging from 14.6 s to 34.7 s, wave heights from 3.5 m to 7.5 m and steepness from 0.002 to 0.015 in prototype scale. The design wave parameters for the breakwater were 5m wave height and 9.5s wave period in prototype. To determine the damage of the breakwater which were designed according to this wave but tested under swell waves, video and photo analysis as well as breakwater profile measurements before and after each test are performed. Further investigations are carried out about the acting wave forces on the concrete blocks of the caisson structures via pressure measurements on the surfaces of these structures where the structures are fixed to the channel bottom minimizing. Finally, these pressure measurements will be compared with the results obtained from the numerical study using IH2VOF which is one of the RANS models that can be applied to simulate
Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves
Li, Jing
2016-08-25
Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common-shot gather should abruptly change near the surface projection of the fault. We present ray-map imaging method that migrates transmitted surface waves to the fault plane, and therefore it roughly estimates the orientation, depth, and location of the near-surface fault. The main benefits of this method are that it is computationally inexpensive and robust in the presence of noise.
Reflection and transmission of regular waves at a surface-pitching slotted barrier
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The interactions between regular surface waves and a surface-pitching slotted barrier are investigated both analytically and experimentally.A quasi-linear theory is developed using the eigenfunction expansion method.The energy dissipation within the barriers is modeled by a quadratic friction factor, and an equivalent linear dissipation coefficient, which is depth-varying, wave-height dependent, is introduced to linearize the matching condition at the surface-pitching barrier.By comparing the theoretical results with laboratory experiments, it is shown that the present method can satisfactorily predict the variation of the reflection and transmission coefficients with wave height.
Enhanced Sensitive Love Wave Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Designed for Immunoassay Formats
Mihaela Puiu; Ana-Maria Gurban; Lucian Rotariu; Simona Brajnicov; Cristian Viespe; Camelia Bala
2015-01-01
We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW) immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporat...
Do tidal or swing waves roughen planetary surfaces?
Kochemasov, Gennady G.
2010-05-01
Surfaces of the terrestrial planets and their moons are far from being smooth. They are warped by several wavelengths and show a remarkable regularity: their roughness increases with the solar distance. Thus, if for Mercury the surface relief range does not exceed several km, for Mars it is already about 30 km. Earth's range is 20 km, Venus' one 14 km. Recently it was shown that this row of ranges reflects ratios of the tectonic granules radii of terrestrial planets [1, 2]. These radii related to unity of reduced planetary globes (in a geometrical model all planets are represented by even circles [2]) are as follows: Mercury πR/16, Venus πR/6, Earth πR/4, Mars πR/2. It means that in the great planetary circles (equators) there are 32, 12, 8, and 4 tectonic granules (now they all are mapped by remote methods) and their numbers are inversely proportional to the orbital frequencies of the planets: higher frequency - smaller granule, and, vice versa, lower frequency - larger granule. In this planetary law is a firm confirmation of the main conceptual point of the wave planetology: "Orbits make structures" [3]. But how this happens? A basic reason lies in the keplerian elliptical orbits implying periodical changes of planetary bodies accelerations. Periodical slowing down and speeding up produce inertia-gravity waves warping any celestial body. In rotating bodies this wave warping is divided in four directions: two orthogonal and two diagonal. An interference of these directions produces tectonic blocks of three kinds: uplifting, subsiding, and neutral. Sizes and amplitudes of the blocks (granules) depend on the warping wavelengths and increase with the solar distance. Thus, a relief-forming potential and the actual relief range observed on the planets increase in this direction [1, 2, 4]. But the tidal forces diminish in this direction. That is why they cannot be a reason for the relief-forming potential. Having in mind a swinging action of planetary orbits on
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
伍细如
2015-01-01
proton emits energy wave, electron could sits any position away from nucleus, but be the most stable just when it sits at the trough of energy wave, and this position accords with Bohr radius and Schr?dinger equation.
Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Z. Hu
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.
Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves
Hu, Z. Z.; Causon, D. M.; Mingham, C. G.; Qian, L.
2011-02-01
In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT) to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC) device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water). The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.
Interpretation of nonlinearity in wind generated ocean surface waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.
This study attempts to resolve a mix-up between a physical process and its mathematical interpretation in the context of wind waves on ocean surface. Wind generated wave systems, are conventionally interpreted as a result of interaction of a number...
Palladium nanoparticle-based surface acoustic wave hydrogen sensor.
Sil, Devika; Hines, Jacqueline; Udeoyo, Uduak; Borguet, Eric
2015-03-18
Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles (5-20 nm) are used as the sensing layer on surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices for detecting H2. The interaction with hydrogen modifies the conductivity of the Pd nanoparticle film, producing measurable changes in acoustic wave propagation, which allows for the detection of this explosive gas. The nanoparticle-based SAW sensor responds rapidly and reversibly at room temperature.
Stokesian swimming of a sphere by radial helical surface wave
Felderhof, B U
2016-01-01
The swimming of a sphere by means of radial helical surface waves is studied on the basis of the Stokes equations. Explicit expressions are derived for the matrices characterizing the mean translational and rotational swimming velocities and the mean rate of dissipation to second order in the wave amplitude.
Scattering of mid-IR-range surface electromagnetic waves by optically smooth metal surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonch-Bruevich, A.M.; Libenson, M.N.; Makin, V.S.; Pudkov, S.D.; Trubaev, V.V.
1985-09-01
The paper reports the experimental observation of the intense scattering of surface electromagnetic waves with a wavelength of 10.6 microns excited on an optically smooth metal surface with a residual roughness having a mean square height of less than 25 A. A method for determining the attenuation of surface electromagnetic waves is proposed, and a test of the method is reported which involves the measurement of the relative intensity of the local scattering of the waves along their path. 9 references.
A proper methodology aimed at surface wave tomography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Badal
1997-06-01
Full Text Available When applying a methodology for obtaining the 3D shear-wave velocity structure of a medium from surface wave dispersion data, the problem must be considered with caution since one inverts path-averaged velocities and the use of any inversion method entails some drawbacks such as lack of uniqueness, unwarranted stability and constraints affecting the data. In order to avoid the application of consecutive inversions and to overcome these drawbacks, we propose alternative mapping methods, for example spatial prediction methods, or else the use of an algorithm that, from a mathematical viewpoint, can be understood through the application of the orthogonal projection theorem onto convex sets (POCS. Among the first ones, we try inverse weighted distance interpolation. The POCS algorithm we have used discretises a second order differential equation for the velocity field with boundary conditions. All these imaging techniques aimed at volumetric modelling and the visualisation of data are discussed, and finally we show some results based on ray path velocities obtained previously by inversion of phase and group velocities of Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian peninsula.
Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
A simple model of the wave load on slender members of offshore structures is described. The wave elevation of the sea state is modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...... velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first-passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results...
Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
1985-01-01
A simple model of the wave load on stender members of offshore structures is described . The wave elevation of the sea stateis modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...... velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)
2014-07-01
This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.
Ocean surface waves in an ice-free Arctic Ocean
Li, Jian-Guo
2016-08-01
The retreat of the Arctic ice edge implies that global ocean surface wave models have to be extended at high latitudes or even to cover the North Pole in the future. The obstacles for conventional latitude-longitude grid wave models to cover the whole Arctic are the polar problems associated with their Eulerian advection schemes, including the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction on diminishing grid length towards the Pole, the singularity at the Pole and the invalid scalar assumption for vector components defined relative to the local east direction. A spherical multiple-cell (SMC) grid is designed to solve these problems. It relaxes the CFL restriction by merging the longitudinal cells towards the Poles. A round polar cell is used to remove the singularity of the differential equation at the Pole. A fixed reference direction is introduced to define vector components within a limited Arctic part in mitigation of the scalar assumption errors at high latitudes. The SMC grid has been implemented in the WAVEWATCH III model and validated with altimeter and buoy observations, except for the Arctic part, which could not be fully tested due to a lack of observations as the polar region is still covered by sea ice. Here, an idealised ice-free Arctic case is used to test the Arctic part and it is compared with a reference case with real ice coverage. The comparison indicates that swell wave energy will increase near the ice-free Arctic coastlines due to increased fetch. An expanded Arctic part is used for comparisons of the Arctic part with available satellite measurements. It also provides a direct model comparison between the two reference systems in their overlapping zone.
Scaling observations of surface waves in the Beaufort Sea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madison Smith
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract The rapidly changing Arctic sea ice cover affects surface wave growth across all scales. Here, in situ measurements of waves, observed from freely-drifting buoys during the 2014 open water season, are interpreted using open water distances determined from satellite ice products and wind forcing time series measured in situ with the buoys. A significant portion of the wave observations were found to be limited by open water distance (fetch when the wind duration was sufficient for the conditions to be considered stationary. The scaling of wave energy and frequency with open water distance demonstrated the indirect effects of ice cover on regional wave evolution. Waves in partial ice cover could be similarly categorized as distance-limited by applying the same open water scaling to determine an ‘effective fetch’. The process of local wave generation in ice appeared to be a strong function of the ice concentration, wherein the ice cover severely reduces the effective fetch. The wave field in the Beaufort Sea is thus a function of the sea ice both locally, where wave growth primarily occurs in the open water between floes, and regionally, where the ice edge may provide a more classic fetch limitation. Observations of waves in recent years may be indicative of an emerging trend in the Arctic Ocean, where we will observe increasing wave energy with decreasing sea ice extent.
Analysis of the Scattering Characteristics of Sea Surface with the Influence from Internal Wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Yi-wen
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The internal wave travels beneath the sea surface and modulate the roughness of the sea surface through the wave-current interaction. This makes some dark and bright bands can be observed in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. In this paper, we first establish the profile of the internal wave based on the KdV equations; then, the action balance equation and the wave-current interaction source function are used to modify the sea spectrum; finally, the two-scale theory based facet model is combined with the modified sea spectrum to calculate the scattering characteristics of the sea. We have simulated the scattering coefficient distribution of the sea with an internal wave traveling through. The influence on the scattering coefficients and the Doppler spectra under different internal wave parameters and sea state parameters are analyzed.
Simulation of Surface Wave with Large Eddy Simulation in σ-Coordinate System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王玲玲
2004-01-01
A three-dimensional numerical model in the σ-coordinate system is developed to study the problem of waves. Turbulence effects are modeled by a subgrid-scale (SGS) model with the concept of large eddy simulation (LES). The σ-coordinate transformation is introduced to map the irregular physical domain of the wavy free surface and uneven bottom onto the regular computational domain of the shape of rectangular prism. The operator splitting method, which splits the solution procedure into the advection, diffusion, and propagation steps, is used to solve the modified Navier-Stokes Equation.The model is used to simulate the propagation of solitary wave and wave passing over a submerged breakwater. Numerical results are compared with available analytical solutions and experimental data in terms of velocity profiles, free surface displacement, and energy conservation. Good agreement is obtained. The method is proved to be of high accuracy and efficiency in simulating surface wave propagation and wave-structure interaction. It is suitable for the large and irregular physical domain, and requiring the non-uniform grid system. The present work provides a foundation for further studies of random waves, wave-structure interaction, wave-discharge interaction,etc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Ono, Kouichi [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)
2003-05-01
The electromagnetic fields and plasma parameters have been studied in an azimuthally symmetric surface wave-excited plasma (SWP) source, by using a two-dimensional numerical analysis based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approximation to Maxwell's equations self-consistently coupled with a fluid model for plasma evolution. The FDTD/fluid hybrid simulation was performed for different gas pressures in Ar and different microwave powers at 2.45 GHz, showing that the surface waves (SWs) occur along the plasma-dielectric interfaces to sustain overdense plasmas. The numerical results indicated that the electromagnetic SWs consist of two different waves, Wave-1 and Wave-2, having relatively shorter and longer wavelengths. The Wave-1 was seen to fade away with increasing pressure and increasing power, while the Wave-2 remained relatively unchanged over the range of pressure and power investigated. The numerical results revealed that the Wave-1 propagates as backward SWs whose phase velocity and group velocity point in the opposite directions. In contrast, the Wave-2 appeared to form standing waves, being ascribed to a superposition of forward SWs whose phase and group velocities point in the same direction. The fadeaway of the Wave-1 or backward SWs at increased pressures and increased powers was seen with the damping rate increasing in the axial direction, being related to the increased plasma electron densities. A comparison with the conventional FDTD simulation indicated that such fine structure of the electromagnetic fields of SWs is not observed in the FDTD simulation with spatially uniform and time-independent plasma distributions; thus, the FDTD/fluid hybrid model should be employed in simulating the electromagnetic fields and plasma parameters in SWPs with high accuracy.
Wave Generated by the NACA4412 Hydrofoil near Free Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan Ghassemi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The generation of wave due to moving hydrofoil in steady streams close to a free surface is presented. The potential-based boundary element method is employed to the NACA4412 hydrofoil with linearized dynamic and kinematic boundary conditions on the free surface. The perturbation velocity potential is calculated using the Green formulation and Kutta condition. The numerical results of waves generated by the hydrofoil are presented and discussed at various Froude numbers and immersion depths.
Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control
Zhang, Xueqian
2015-10-09
Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Wenyuan (Oakdale, MN); Huizinga, John S. (Dellwood, MN)
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Estimation of Sea Surface Wave Spectra Using Acoustic Tomography.
1987-09-01
Holister Dis speciael Dean of Graduate Studiesj ESTIMATION OF SEA SURFACE WAVE SPECTRA USING ACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY by James Henry Miller B.S. Electrical...James Henry Miller 1987 The author hereby prants to MIT permission to reproduce and distribute copies of this thesis in whole or in part. Signature of...ESTIMATION OF SEA SURFACE WAVE SPECTRA USING ACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY by James Henry Miller Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
Visualization of Surface Acoustic Waves in Thin Liquid Films
Rambach, R. W.; Taiber, J.; Scheck, C. M. L.; Meyer, C.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Franke, T.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with anWe demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with an interdigitated transducer (IDT), can be visualized using a thin liquid film dispensed onto a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. The practical advantages of this visualization method are its rapid and simple implementation, with many potential applications including in characterising acoustic pumping within microfl...
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Wave turbulence in a two-layer fluid: coupling between free surface and interface waves
Issenmann, Bruno; Falcon, Eric
2016-01-01
We experimentally study gravity-capillary wave turbulence on the interface between two immiscible fluids of close density with free upper surface. We locally measure the wave height at the interface between both fluids by means of a highly sensitive laser Doppler vibrometer. We show that the inertial range of the capillary wave turbulence regime is significantly extended when the upper fluid depth is increased: The crossover frequency between the gravity and capillary wave turbulence regimes is found to decrease whereas the dissipative cut-off frequency of the spectrum is found to increase. We explain most of these observations by the progressive decoupling between waves propagating at the interface and the ones at the free surface, using the full dispersion relation of gravity-capillary waves in a two-layer fluid of finite depths.s.
Beam interactions with surface waves and higher-order modes in oversized backward wave oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogura, Kazuo; Kojima, Akihiko; Kawabe, Fumiaki; Yambe, Kiyoyuki [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Amin, Ruhul [Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur (Bangladesh)
2014-10-15
Beam interactions with surface waves and higher-order modes in an oversized backward wave oscillator (BWO) are studied. In addition to the well-known Cherenkov interaction, the slow cyclotron interaction occurs due to transverse perturbations of the electron beam. The Cherenkov interaction dominates the slow cyclotron interaction. Growth rates of both the interactions for the higher order modes are small compared with those for the surface-wave modes in an oversized BWO. The coaxial slow-wave structure exhibits a reduced number of higher-order modes, which consequently reduces the mode competition problem and improves beam interactions with higher order modes. For higher values of beam currents, the slow cyclotron wave grows at a faster rate than the Cherenkov waves.
A study of body-to-surface wave conversion associated with deep earthquakes
Shen, Z.; Ni, S.
2015-12-01
Understanding converted surface waves is helpful because they could improve the accuracy of earthquake location if the exacted scattered point is known as well as serve to image shallow structures with dispersion features. Previous studies have reported a few observations of body-to-surface-wave conversion associated with deep earthquakes. For example, Wagner and Langston used coda intensity analysis and f-k analysis to confirm a P-to-Rg wave and performed forward modeling with T-matrix method demonstrating that a 1km relief was responsible for the observed body-to-surface wave scattering. Moreover, Furumura et al. observed unusual Rayleigh waves converted from S wave observed at Australia with deep earthquakes occurred along Kermadec-Tonga trench and a 2D Pseudospetral method is adopted to illustrate that the Rayleigh waves could be explained by ridge structures. Both T-matrix and pseudospetral algorithms are based on numerical methods. However, we lack a theory to study the mechanism of those surface waves quantitatively. For instance, the relationship between the topography with the dominate frequency of converted surface waves could be resolved thoroughly with a theoretical approach. From this perspective, we carried out a theoretical method to calculate the converted Rayleigh wave with surface topography. During the calculation, a homogeneous half space medium is assumed and the path of the converted phase is divided into two segments. Firstly, we will introduce our theoretical method in detail and a comparison of our results and SEM results will be presented to verify our methods. Secondly, the topography effect and the transfer efficiency of P and S wave will be examined quantitatively with different source mechanisms. Then, we will report an observation of unusual large amplitude surface waves transferred from body waves at local stations. Our preliminary result shows that those anomalous waves are identified as Rayleigh wave and are probably generated by
Rogue wave variational modelling through the interaction of two solitary waves
Gidel, Floriane; Bokhove, Onno
2016-04-01
The extreme and unexpected characteristics of Rogue waves have made them legendary for centuries. It is only on the 1st of January 1995 that these mariners' tales started to raise scientist's curiosity, when such a wave was recorded in the North Sea; a sudden wall of water hit the Draupner offshore platform, more than twice higher than the other waves, providing evidence of the existence of rogue or freak waves. Since then, studies have shown that these surface gravity waves of high amplitude (at least twice the height of the other sea waves [Dyste et al., 2008]) appear in non-linear dispersive water motion [Drazin and Johnson, 1989], at any depth, and have caused a lot of damage in recent years [Nikolkina and Didenkulova, 2011 ]. So far, most of the studies have tried to determine their probability of occurrence, but no conclusion has been achieved yet, which means that we are currently unenable to predict or avoid these monster waves. An accurate mathematical and numerical water-wave model would enable simulation and observation of this external forcing on boats and offshore structures and hence reduce their threat. In this work, we aim to model rogue waves through a soliton splash generated by the interaction of two solitons coming from different channels at a specific angle. Kodama indeed showed that one way to produce extreme waves is through the intersection of two solitary waves, or one solitary wave and its oblique reflection on a vertical wall [Yeh, Li and Kodama, 2010 ]. While he modelled Mach reflection from Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) theory, we aim to model rogue waves from the three-dimensional potential flow equations and/or their asymptotic equivalent described by Benney and Luke [Benney and Luke, 1964]. These theories have the advantage to allow wave propagation in several directions, which is not the case with KP equations. The initial solitary waves are generated by removing a sluice gate in each channel. The equations are derived through a
The Surface Wave Scattering-Microwave Scanner (SWS-MS)
Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Chamtouri, Maha; Merchiers, Olivier; Tortel, Hervé; Litman, Amélie; Bailly, Jean-Sébastien; Lacroix, Bernard; Francoeur, Mathieu; Vaillon, Rodolphe
2016-01-01
The Surface Wave Scattering-Microwave Scanner (SWS-MS) is a device that allows the measurement of the electromagnetic fields scattered by objects totally or partially submerged in surface waves. No probe is used to illuminate the sample, nor to guide or scatter the local evanescent waves. Surface waves are generated by total internal reflection and the amplitude and phase of the fields scattered by the samples are measured directly, both in the far-field and the near-field regions. The device's principles and their practical implementation are described in details. The surface wave generator is assessed by measuring the spatial distribution of the electric field above the surface. Drift correction and the calibration method for far-field measurements are explained. Comparison of both far-field and near-field measurements against simulation data shows that the device provides accurate results. This work suggests that the SWS-MS can be used for producing experimental reference data, for supporting a better understanding of surface wave scattering, for assisting in the design of near-field optical or infrared systems thanks to the scale invariance rule in electrodynamics, and for performing nondestructive control of defects in materials.
What are the frequencies of standing magnetopause surface waves?
Archer, Martin
2014-01-01
We estimate, for the first time, the distribution of standing magnetopause surface wave (also called Kruskal-Schwartzschild mode) frequencies using realistic models of the magnetosphere and magnetosheath utilising an entire solar cycle's worth of solar wind data. Under non-storm times or northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the most likely fundamental frequency is calculated to be 0.64$\\pm$0.06 mHz, consistent with that previously inferred from observed oscillation periods of the boundary. However, the distributions exhibit significant spread (of order $\\pm$0.3 mHz), much larger than suggested by proponents of discrete, stable "magic" frequencies of magnetospheric oscillation. The frequency is found to be most dependent on the solar wind speed, southward component of the IMF and the Dst index, with the latter two being due to the erosion of the magnetosphere by reconnection and the former an effect of the expression for the surface wave phase speed. Finally, the occurrence of Kruskal-Schwartzschild ...
Polarization controlled directional propagation of Bloch surface wave.
Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Suarez, Miguel; Salut, Roland; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Grosjean, Thierry
2017-03-06
Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are recently developing alternative to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Due to dramatically enhanced propagation distance and strong field confinement these surface states can be successfully used in on-chip all-optical integrated devices of increased complexity. In this work we propose a highly miniaturized grating based BSW coupler which is gathering launching and directional switching functionalities in a single element. This device allows to control with polarization the propagation direction of Bloch surface waves at subwavelength scale, thus impacting a large panel of domains such as optical circuitry, function design, quantum optics, etc.
Acoustomicrofluidic application of quasi-shear surface waves.
Darinskii, A N; Weihnacht, M; Schmidt, H
2017-02-20
The paper analyzes the possibility of using predominantly boundary polarized surface acoustic waves for actuating fluidic effects in microchannels fabricated inside containers made of PDMS. The aim is to remove a shortcoming peculiar to conventionally utilized predominantly vertically polarized waves. Such waves strongly attenuate while they propagate under container side walls because of the leakage into them. Due to a specific feature of PDMS - extremely small shear elastic modulus - losses of boundary polarized modes should be far smaller. The amplitude of vertical mechanical displacements can be increased right inside the channel owing to the scattering of acoustic fields. As an example, the predominantly vertically polarized surface wave on 128YX LiNbO3 is compared with the quasi-shear leaky wave on 64YX LiNbO3. Our computations predict that, given the electric power supplied to the launching transducer, the quasi-shear wave will drive the fluid more efficiently than the surface wave on 128YX LiNbO3 when the container wall thickness is larger than 25-30 wavelengths, if there are no additional scatterers inside the channel. In the presence of a scatterer, such as a thin gold strip, the quasi-shear wave can be more efficient when the wall thickness exceeds 10-15 wavelengths.
Steep waves in free-surface flow past narrow topography
Wade, Stephen L.; Binder, Benjamin J.; Mattner, Trent W.; Denier, James P.
2017-06-01
In this work, we compute steep forced solitary wave solutions for the problem of free-surface flow over a localised topographic disturbance in an otherwise flat horizontal channel bottom. A single forced solitary wave and a double-crested forced solitary wave solution are shown to exist, both of which approach the Stokes limiting configuration of an included angle of 12 0° and a stagnation point at the wave crests. The solution space for the topographically forced problem is compared to that found in Wade et al. ["On the free-surface flow of very steep forced solitary waves," J. Fluid Mech. 739, 1-21 (2014)], who considered forcing due to a localised distribution of pressure applied to the free surface. The main feature that differentiates the two types of forcing is an additional solution that exists in the pressure-forced problem, a steep wave with a cusp at a single wave crest. Our numerical results suggest that this cusped-wave solution does not exist in the topographically forced problem.
Surface plasma waves over bismuth–vacuum interface
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashim P Jain; J Parashar
2003-09-01
A surface plasma wave (SPW) over bismuth–vacuum interface has a signature of mass anisotropy of free electrons. For SPW propagation along the trigonal axis there is no birefringence. The frequency cutoff of SPW cutoff=$_{p}/\\sqrt{2(_{L}+)}$ lies in the far infrared region and can be accessed using free electron laser. The damping rate of waves at low temperatures is low. The surface plasma wave may be excited by an electron beam of current ∼ 100 mA propagating parallel to the interface in its close proximity.
Some aspects of dispersive horizons: lessons from surface waves
Chaline, J; Maïssa, P; Rousseaux, G
2012-01-01
Hydrodynamic surface waves propagating on a moving background flow experience an effective curved space-time. We discuss experiments with gravity waves and capillary-gravity waves in which we study hydrodynamic black/white-hole horizons and the possibility of penetrating across them. Such possibility of penetration is due to the interaction with an additional "blue" horizon, which results from the inclusion of surface tension in the low-frequency gravity-wave theory. This interaction leads to a dispersive cusp beyond which both horizons completely disappear. We speculate the appearance of high-frequency "superluminal" corrections to be a universal characteristic of analogue gravity systems, and discuss their relevance for the trans-Planckian problem. We also discuss the role of Airy interference in hybridising the incoming waves with the flowing background (the effective spacetime) and blurring the position of the black/white-hole horizon.
High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor
Branch, Darren W
2013-05-07
A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.
Surface Wave Amplitude Anomalies in the Western United States
Eddy, C.; Ekstrom, G.
2011-12-01
We determine maps of local surface wave amplitude factors across the Western United States for Rayleigh and Love waves at discrete periods between 25 and 125s. Measurements of raw amplitude anomalies are made from data recorded at 1161 USArray stations for minor arc arrivals of earthquakes with Mw>5.5 occurring between 2006 and 2010. We take the difference between high-quality amplitude anomaly measurements for events recorded on station pairs less than 2 degrees apart. The mean of these differences for each station pair is taken as the datum. Surface wave amplitudes are controlled by four separate mechanisms: focusing due to elastic structure, attenuation due to anelastic structure, source effects, and receiver effects. By taking the mean of the differences of amplitude anomalies for neighboring stations, we reduce the effects of focusing, attenuation, and the seismic source, thus isolating amplitude anomalies due to near-receiver amplitude effects. We determine local amplitude factors for each USArray station by standard linear inversion of the differential data set. The individual station amplitude factors explain the majority of the variance of the data. For example, derived station amplitude factors for 50s Rayleigh waves explain 92% of the variance of the data. We explore correlations between derived station amplitude factors and local amplitude factors predicted by crust and upper mantle models. Maps of local amplitude factors show spatial correlation with topography and geologic structures in the Western United States, particularly for maps derived from Rayleigh wave amplitude anomalies. A NW-SE trending high in amplitude factors in Eastern California is evident in the 50s map, corresponding to the location of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. High amplitude factors are observed in Colorado and New Mexico in the 50s-125s maps in the location of the highest peaks of the Rocky Mountains. High amplitude factors are also seen in Southern Idaho and Eastern Wyoming in
Shallow Water Propagation and Surface Reverberation Modeling
2014-07-29
term goals were to 1. exploit measurements of breaking wave noise and photographic images of whitecaps to infer bubble cloud populations at the sea ...surface reverberation in wind-driven seas , an additional objective has been to study the role of sub-surface bubbles on the attenuation and scattering of...acoustic signals, including determining methods for quantifying bubble populations with video footage of the sea surface and developing models of
Terahertz-wave generation by surface-emitted four-wave mixing in optical fiber
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ping Zhou; Dianyuan Fan
2011-01-01
We propose a novel terahertz-wave source through the four-wave mixing effect in a conventional singlemode optical fiber pumped by a dual-wavelength laser whose difference frequency lies in the terahertz range.Surface-emitted geometry is employed to decrease absorption loss.A detailed derivation of the terahertz-wave power expression is presented using the coupled-wave theory.This is a promising way for realizing a reasonable narrow-band terahert-wave source.%@@ We propose a novel terahertz-wave source through the four-wave mixing effect in a conventional singlemode optical fiber pumped by a dual-wavelength laser whose difference frequency lies in the terahertz range.Surface-emitted geometry is employed to decrease absorption loss.A detailed derivation of the terahertz-wave power expression is presented using the coupled-wave theory.This is a promising way for realizing a reasonable narrow-band terahertz-wave source.
Simulation of the surface wind field and wind waves over the Oman Sea
Hamzeloo, Sima; Hadi Moeini, Mohammad; Jandaghi Alaee, Majid
2016-04-01
Surface wind field is one of the most important factors in the generation of the marine hydrodynamic phenomena such as wind waves that highly affected by the surface winds. Therefore, accessibility to the correct wind field is of great importance for accurate prediction and simulation of the hydrodynamic variables. Nowadays numerical mesoscale weather prediction models are widely applied as powerful tools to simulate wind and other atmospheric variables with predefined temporal and spatial resolution in desired areas. Despite appropriate results of the numerical models in many regions, there are still some complications in the simulation of the surface wind field in areas with complex orography since the surface wind field is highly affected by the local topography, land-sea discontinuity, temperature gradient etc. Nowadays, with the development of high-speed processors the third generation spectral models are generally used for simulation of wind waves. Wind data are the main input parameters of the numerical spectral wave model. Therefore, the quality of the input wind data can be assessed by comparison of the wave model outputs with measured values. The main goal of the current study is to simulate surface wind field over the Oman Sea using WRF modeling system. To verify the model results, the simulated wind speeds were compared with synoptic and buoy measurements and satellite observations. Wind-wave parameters simulated by the spectral model were also compared with wave measurements to verify simulated surface wind field as the input of the wave model. The Comparison simulated wind speed and directions in coastal synoptic stations and QuikSCAT satellite shows sufficient results for both offshore and coastal areas.
Travelling waves in hybrid chemotaxis models
Franz, Benjamin; Painter, Kevin J; Erban, Radek
2013-01-01
Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant) which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybr...
Yang, Si-Tong; Wei, Jiu-Chuan; Cheng, Jiu-Long; Shi, Long-Qing; Wen, Zhi-Jie
2016-12-01
Currently, numerical simulations of seismic channel waves for the advance detection of geological structures in coal mine roadways focus mainly on modeling twodimensional wave fields and therefore cannot accurately simulate three-dimensional (3-D) full-wave fields or seismic records in a full-space observation system. In this study, we use the first-order velocity-stress staggered-grid finite difference algorithm to simulate 3-D full-wave fields with P-wave sources in front of coal mine roadways. We determine the three components of velocity V x, V y, and V z for the same node in 3-D staggered-grid finite difference models by calculating the average value of V y, and V z of the nodes around the same node. We ascertain the wave patterns and their propagation characteristics in both symmetrical and asymmetric coal mine roadway models. Our simulation results indicate that the Rayleigh channel wave is stronger than the Love channel wave in front of the roadway face. The reflected Rayleigh waves from the roadway face are concentrated in the coal seam, release less energy to the roof and floor, and propagate for a longer distance. There are surface waves and refraction head waves around the roadway. In the seismic records, the Rayleigh wave energy is stronger than that of the Love channel wave along coal walls of the roadway, and the interference of the head waves and surface waves with the Rayleigh channel wave is weaker than with the Love channel wave. It is thus difficult to identify the Love channel wave in the seismic records. Increasing the depth of the receivers in the coal walls can effectively weaken the interference of surface waves with the Rayleigh channel wave, but cannot weaken the interference of surface waves with the Love channel wave. Our research results also suggest that the Love channel wave, which is often used to detect geological structures in coal mine stopes, is not suitable for detecting geological structures in front of coal mine roadways
Omnidirectional surface wave cloak using an isotropic homogeneous dielectric coating
Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Quevedo-Teruel, O.; Sambles, J. R.; Hibbins, A. P.
2016-08-01
The field of transformation optics owes a lot of its fame to the concept of cloaking. While some experimental progress has been made towards free-space cloaking in three dimensions, the material properties required are inherently extremely difficult to achieve. The approximations that then have to be made to allow fabrication produce unsatisfactory device performance. In contrast, when surface wave systems are the focus, it has been shown that a route distinct from those used to design free-space cloaks can be taken. This results in very simple solutions that take advantage of the ability to incorporate surface curvature. Here, we provide a demonstration in the microwave regime of cloaking a bump in a surface. The distortion of the shape of the surface wave fronts due to the curvature is corrected with a suitable refractive index profile. The surface wave cloak is fabricated from a metallic backed homogeneous dielectric waveguide of varying thickness, and exhibits omnidirectional operation.
Model-based internal wave processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.
1995-06-09
A model-based approach is proposed to solve the oceanic internal wave signal processing problem that is based on state-space representations of the normal-mode vertical velocity and plane wave horizontal velocity propagation models. It is shown that these representations can be utilized to spatially propagate the modal (dept) vertical velocity functions given the basic parameters (wave numbers, Brunt-Vaisala frequency profile etc.) developed from the solution of the associated boundary value problem as well as the horizontal velocity components. Based on this framework, investigations are made of model-based solutions to the signal enhancement problem for internal waves.
Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor
Hill, D.P.
2010-01-01
Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.
Experimental study of breaking and energy dissipation in surface waves
Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Le Gal, Patrice; Le Bars, Michael
2014-11-01
We present an experimental study of the evolution of monochromatic waves produced by a parabolic wave maker. Because of the parabolic shape of the wave front, the waves exhibit spatial focusing and their amplitude dramatically increases over distances of a few wavelengths. Unlike linear waves, the amplitude of the free surface deformation cannot exceed a certain threshold and when this happens the waves break. In order to give a criterion for the appearance of breaking, we calculate the steepness defined as ɛ = H/ λ (where H is the wave height and λ their wavelength) for waves of frequencies in the range 4-10 Hz. We found that wave breaking develops when ɛ attains approximately a value of 0.10. We also evaluate the lost of energy carried by the waves during their breaking by a detailed and accurate measurement of their amplitude using an optical Fourier transform profilometry. G. Ruiz Chavarria acknowledges DGAPA-UNAM by support under Project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).
Popovics, John; Abraham, Odile
2010-01-01
This chapter describes non-destructive test methods based on surface guided mechanical waves for application to concrete. After a summary of the history of development of the methods, surface wave propagation in homogenous and layered media is reviewed, where analytical and numerical modelling efforts are described. Then specific time domain and frequency domain surface wave methods are introduced, including the SASW and MASW methods. The needed equipment are described and finally successful ...
Research into surface wave phenomena in sedimentary basins
Wojcik, G. L.; Isenberg, J.; Ma, F.; Richardson, E.
1981-12-01
This study is a continuation of an engineering seismology research effort prompted by the sensitivity of guidance sets in Minuteman Wing V to distant earthquakes. An earlier report considers the probable cause of anomalous patterns of seismic alarms triggered by two North American earthquakes. This report extends the previous study by examining the propagation of surface waves from the 1975 Pocatello Valley, Idaho earthquake sequence across Wyoming to Wing V. In addition, the more general question of surface wave phenomena in sedimentary basins is addressed, particularly the effect of laterally inhomogeneous (dipping) basin-bedrock interfaces. Findings indicate that fundamental and first overtone surface waves are significantly modified by the travel path. In contrast, higher modes are relatively unchanged by the travel path, and affect Wing V in much the same way as body waves considered in the previous study.
Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Hunter, J.A.; Harris, J.B.; Ivanov, J.
2002-01-01
Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver spacing on the inverted S-wave velocity were studied at a test site in Lawrence, Kansas. On the average, the difference between MASW calculated Vs and borehole measured Vs in eight wells along the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada was less than 15%. One of the eight wells was a blind test well with the calculated overall difference between MASW and borehole measurements less than 9%. No systematic differences were observed in derived Vs values from any of the eight test sites. Surface wave analysis performed on surface data from Wyoming provided S-wave velocities in near-surface materials. Velocity profiles from MASW were confirmed by measurements based on suspension log analysis. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hydrological land surface modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois
to imperfect model forecasts. It remains a crucial challenge to account for system uncertainty, so as to provide model outputs accompanied by a quantified confidence interval. Properly characterizing and reducing uncertainty opens-up the opportunity for risk-based decision-making and more effective emergency...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...
Development of an ensemble prediction system for ocean surface waves in a coastal area
Behrens, Arno
2015-04-01
An ensemble prediction system for ocean surface waves has been developed and applied on a local scale to the German Bight and the western Baltic Sea. U10-wind fields generated by the COSMO-DE-EPS upstream forecast chain of the German Met Service (DWD: Deutscher Wetterdienst) have been used as the driving force for the third-generation spectral wave model WAM. The atmospheric chain includes four different global models that provide boundary values for four regional COSMO-EU realisations. Each of those drive five COSMO-DE members, respectively, with different sets of physical parameterisations, so that finally 20 members are available to run 20 corresponding wave ensemble members of the coastal wave model CWAM (Coastal WAve Model) for the German Bight and the western Baltic Sea. It is the first time that in an ensemble prediction system for ocean waves, an atmospheric model of such a fine spatial resolution of 2.8 km has been combined with a wave model running on a model grid with a mesh size of 900 m only. Test runs with the wave ensemble prediction system have been executed for two entire months (April 2013 and June 2014) and for an 8-day storm case (Xaver) in December 2013 in order to check whether such a system could be a reasonable step to improve the future operational wave forecasts of the DWD. The results computed by the different wave model members agree fairly well with available buoy data. The differences between the results for the integrated wave parameters of the individual members are small only, but more pronounced in extreme storm situations. Finally, the statistical analysis of the comparisons with measurements show without exception slightly improved values for the ensemble mean of the wave ensemble members compared with the usual deterministic routine control run.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙孚; 丁平兴
1994-01-01
Based upon the nonlinear model of random sea waves,a commonly applicable statisticaldistribution of wave surface elevation exact to the third order is derived through the direct calculations ofeach order moment.The distribution arrived reduces,in the sense of being exact to H6,to the Gram-Charlierseries due to Longuet-Higgins for deep water,provided that only the two simplest kinds of wave-wave inter-actions are taken into account The reason why the agreement of Gram-Charlier series with experimental databecomes worse and worse as the terms of series are increased is explicited for the first time.
Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave structure
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashim P Jain; Jetendra Parashar
2005-08-01
A microwave propagating along vacuum–dielectric–plasma interface excites surface plasma wave (SPW). A periodic slow-wave structure placed over dielectric slows down the SPW. The phase velocity of slow SPW is sensitive to height, periodicity, number of periods, thickness and the separation between dielectric and slow-wave structure. These slow SPW can couple the microwave energy to the plasma and can sustain the discharge. The efficiency of the power coupling is few per cent and is sensitive to separation between dielectric and slow-wave structure.
Horizon effects for surface waves in wave channels and circular jumps
Jannes, Gil; Chaline, Jennifer; Maïssa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian; Rousseaux, Germain
2011-01-01
Surface waves in classical fluids experience a rich array of black/white hole horizon effects. The dispersion relation depends on the characteristics of the fluid (in our case, water and silicon oil) as well as on the fluid depth and the wavelength regime. In some cases, it can be tuned to obtain a relativistic regime plus high-frequency dispersive effects. We discuss two types of ongoing analogue white-hole experiments: deep water waves propagating against a counter-current in a wave channel and shallow waves on a circular hydraulic jump.
Investigation into Mass Loading Sensitivity of Sezawa Wave Mode-Based Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors
N. Ramakrishnan; Parthiban, R.; Sawal Hamid Md Ali; Md. Shabiul Islam; Ajay Achath Mohanan
2013-01-01
In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW) device is investigated through finite element method (FEM) simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film...
Propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri Boroujeni, S.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-12-15
The propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum plasma in the presence of the external magnetic field and collisional effects is investigated by using quantum magnetohydrodynamics model. A general analytical expression for the dispersion relation of surface waves is obtained by considering the boundary conditions. It is shown that, in some special cases, the obtained dispersion relation reduces to the results reported in previous works. It is also indicated that the quantum, external magnetic field and collisional effects can facilitate the propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded plasma. In addition, it is found that the growth rate of the surface wave instability is enhanced by increasing the collision frequency and plasmonic parameter.
A surface wave elastography technique for measuring tissue viscoelastic properties.
Zhang, Xiaoming
2017-04-01
A surface wave elastography method is proposed to study the viscoelastic properties of skin by measuring the surface wave speed and attenuation on the skin. Experiments were carried out on porcine skin tissues. The surface wave speed is measured by the change of phase with distance. The wave attenuation is measured by the decay of wave amplitude with distance. The change of viscoelastic properties with temperature was studied at room and body temperatures. The wave speed was 1.83m/s at 22°C but reduced to 1.52m/s at 33°C. The viscoelastic ratio was almost constant from 22°C to 33°C. Fresh and decayed tissues were studied. The wave speed of the decayed tissue increased from 1.83m/s of fresh state to 2.73m/s. The viscoelastic ratio was 0.412/mm at the decayed state compared to 0.215/mm at the fresh state. More tissue samples are needed to study these viscoelastic parameters according to specific applications.
Temperature Compensation of Surface Acoustic Waves on Berlinite
Searle, David Michael Marshall
The surface acoustic wave properties of Berlinite (a-AlPO4) have been investigated theoretically and experimentally, for a variety of crystallographic orientations, to evaluate its possible use as a substrate material for temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices. A computer program has been developed to calculate the surface wave properties of a material from its elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric and lattice constants and their temperature derivatives. The program calculates the temperature coefficient of delay, the velocity of the surface wave, the direction of power flow and a measure of the electro-mechanical coupling. These calculations have been performed for a large number of orientations using a modified form of the data given by Chang and Barsch for Berlinite and predict several new temperature compensated directions. Experimental measurements have been made of the frequency-temperature response of a surface acoustic wave oscillator on an 80° X axis boule cut which show it to be temperature compensated in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. This orientation shows a cubic frequency-temperature dependence instead of the expected parabolic response. Measurements of the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient k gave a value lower than predicted. Similar measurements on a Y cut plate gave a value which is approximately twice that of ST cut quartz, but again lower than predicted. The surface wave velocity on both these cuts was measured to be slightly higher than predicted by the computer program. Experimental measurements of the lattice parameters a and c are also presented for a range of temperatures from 25°C to just above the alpha-beta transition at 584°C. These results are compared with the values obtained by Chang and Barsch. The results of this work indicate that Berlinite should become a useful substrate material for the construction of temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices.
Opdriftsbaserede modeller for Wave Star
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten
Formålet med dette skrift er at få en forhåndsvurdering af mulige effektforøgelser for Wave Star ved anvendelse af aktiv akkumulatordrift. Disse vurderinger baseres på simuleringsmodeller for driften af Wave Star i uregelmæssige bølger. Modellen er udarbejdet i programmeringssproget Delphi og er en...
Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. Every
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW and interfacial (IW waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.
Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Every, A. G., E-mail: arthur.every@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits 2050 (South Africa); Maznev, A. A., E-mail: alexei.maznev@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2014-12-15
This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and interfacial (IW) waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.
Characters of surface deformation and surface wave in thermal capillary convection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DUAN; Li; KANG; Qi; HU; Wenrei
2006-01-01
In the field of fluid mechanics, free surface phenomena is one of the most important physical processes. In the present research work, the surface deformation and surface wave caused by temperature difference of sidewalls in a rectangular cavity have been investigated. The horizontal cross-section of the container is 52 mm×42 mm, and there is a silicon oil layer of height 3.5 mm in the experimental cavity. Temperature difference between the two side walls of the cavity is increased gradually, and the flow on the liquid layer will develop from stable convection to un-stable convection. An optical diagnostic system consisting of a modified Michelson interferometer and image processor has been developed for study of the surface deformation and surface wave of thermal capillary convection. The Fourier transformation method is used to interferometer fringe analysis. The quantitative results of surface deformation and surface wave have been calculated from a serial of the interference fringe patterns. The characters of surface deformation and surface wave have been obtained. They are related with temperature gradient and surface tension. Surface deformation is fluctuant with time, which shows the character of surface wave. The cycle period of the wave is 4.8 s, and the amplitudes are from 0 to 0.55 μm. The phase of the wave near the cool side of the cavity is opposite and correlative to that near the hot side. The present experiment proves that the surface wave of thermal capillary convection exists on liquid free surface, and it is wrapped in surface deformation.
Computational Modeling of Wave Propagation in a Geophysical Domain
2008-10-01
form and finite element solution, the forcing function is described as ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛= t T htf π2cos)( for 22 TtT ≤≤− . For the finite element... htf π2cos 22 TtT ≤≤− , 2D Model R = 200 m NDOF = 23,000 R Short Duration Loading Surface Wave Problem – Vertical Velocity Analysis FEA Rayleigh P wave R
Generation of 1D interference patterns of Bloch surface waves
Kadomina, E. A.; Bezus, E. A.; Doskolovich, L. L.
2016-09-01
Interference patterns of Bloch surface waves with a period that is significantly less than the wavelength of incident radiation are formed using dielectric diffraction gratings located on the surface of photonic crystal. The simulation based on electromagnetic diffraction theory is used to demonstrate the possibility of high-quality interference patterns due to resonant enhancement of higher evanescent diffraction orders related to the excitation of the Bloch surface waves. The contrast of the interference patterns is close to unity, and the period is less than the period of the diffraction structure by an order of magnitude.
Fully Coupled Electromechanical Elastodynamic Model for Guided Wave Propagation Analysis
Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi
2013-01-01
Physics-based computational models play a key role in the study of wave propagation for structural health monitoring (SHM) and the development of improved damage detection methodologies. Due to the complex nature of guided waves, accurate and efficient computation tools are necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for dispersion, coupling, and interaction with damage. In this paper, a fully coupled electromechanical elastodynamic model for wave propagation in a heterogeneous, anisotropic material system is developed. The final framework provides the full three dimensional displacement and electrical potential fields for arbitrary plate and transducer geometries and excitation waveform and frequency. The model is validated theoretically and proven computationally efficient. Studies are performed with surface bonded piezoelectric sensors to gain insight into the physics of experimental techniques used for SHM. Collocated actuation of the fundamental Lamb wave modes is modeled over a range of frequenc...
Accurate source location from waves scattered by surface topography
Wang, Nian; Shen, Yang; Flinders, Ashton; Zhang, Wei
2016-06-01
Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (>100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example to provide realistic topography. A grid search algorithm is combined with the 3-D strain Green's tensor database to improve search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solutions. The strain Green's tensor is calculated using a 3-D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are obtained based on the least squares misfit between the "observed" and predicted P and P coda waves. The 95% confidence interval of the solution is provided as an a posteriori error estimation. For shallow events tested in the study, scattering is mainly due to topography in comparison with stochastic lateral velocity heterogeneity. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces solution uncertainty. The solution remains robust with wide ranges of random noises in data, unmodeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors. The method can be extended to locate pairs of sources in close proximity by differential waveforms using source-receiver reciprocity, further reducing errors caused by unmodeled velocity structures.
Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves
Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.
Simulation of surface acoustic wave motor with spherical slider.
Morita, T; Kurosawa, M K; Higuchi, T
1999-01-01
The operation of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor using spherical-shaped sliders was demonstrated by Kurosawa et al. (1994). It was necessary to modify the previous simulation models for usual ultrasonic motors because of this slider shape and the high frequency vibration. A conventional ultrasonic motor has a flat contact surface slider and a hundredth driving frequency; so, the tangential motion caused by the elasticity of the slider and stator with regard to the spherical slider of the SAW motor requires further investigation. In this paper, a dynamic simulation model for the SAW motor is proposed. From the simulation result, the mechanism of the SAW motor was clarified (i.e., levitation and contact conditions were repeated during the operation). The transient response of the motor speed was simulated. The relationships between frictional factor and time constant and vibration velocity of the stator and the slider speed were understood. The detailed research regarding the elastic deformation caused by preload would be helpful to construct an exact simulation model for the next work.
Coupling model for waves propagating over a porous seabed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.C. Liao
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The wave–seabed interaction issue is of great importance for the design of foundation around marine infrastructures. Most previous investigations for such a problem have been limited to uncoupled or one-way coupled methods connecting two separated wave and seabed sub models with the continuity of pressures at the seabed surface. In this study, a strongly coupled model was proposed to realize both wave and seabed processes in a same program and to calculate the wave fields and seabed response simultaneously. The information between wave fields and seabed fields were strongly shared and thus results in a more profound investigation of the mechanism of the wave–seabed interaction. In this letter, the wave and seabed models were validated with previous experimental tests. Then, a set of application of present model were discussed in prediction of the wave-induced seabed response. Numerical results show the wave-induced liquefaction area of coupled model is smaller than that of uncoupled model.
Kulesh, M.; Holschneider, M.; Shardakov, I.
2005-12-01
The problem of the surface elastic wave propagation in the half-space within the framework of the Cosserat continuum has been considered. Medium deformation in this model is described not only by the displacement vector, but also by kinematically independent rotation vector. This model can be used for the description of the media with microstructure, for example concrete, sand, sandy-gravel mixture etc. At the same time the applications of these models almost do not exist in praxis, since there are no reliable data about the material properties in nonsymmetrical elasticity theory and in fact there are no experiments which can demonstrate the effects of couple-stress behavior in solid under deformation. The main result of presented work consist in fact, that within the framework of the Cosserat continuum in half-space besides elliptical Rayleigh wave can be in existence the surface shear wave with only transversal component. Geometrically such wave is equal to Love wave, but in classical elasticity theory existence of the Love wave as surface elastic wave is defined by presence of a layer on a half-space, and while a layer thickness vanishing the Love wave proceeds to a plane wave. Thus, in Cosserat medium the new wave mode is found out, and there is no analogue of it in classical elasticity theory. As a second result of presented work the method of the displacement seismogram inversion has been proposed. This method is based on continues wavelet transform and allows to restore the wave number, phase and group velocities. These results can be effectively used in possible experiments which are aimed at the detection of couple-stress effects in medium and further at the identification of material constants of nonsymmetrical elasticity theory. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research under project 03-01-00561 and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the framework of the priority program SPP 1114, Mathematical methods for time
Wave breaking on turbulent energy budget in the ocean surface mixed layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Qun; GUAN Changlong; SONG Jinbao
2008-01-01
As an important physical process at the air-sea interface.wave movement and breaking have a significant effect on the ocean surface mixed layer (OSML).When breaking waves occur at the ocean surface,turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is input downwards,and a sublayer is formed near the surface and turbulence vertical mixing is intensively enhanced.A one-dimensional ocean model including the Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 turbulence closure equations was employed in our research on variations in turbulent energy budget wimin OSML.The influence of wave breaking could be introduced into the model by modifying an existing surface boundary condition of the TKE equation and specifying its input.The vertical diffusion and dissipation of TKE were effectively enhanced in the sublayer when wave breaking was considered.Turbulent energy dissipated in the sublayer was about 92.0% of the total depth-integrated dissipated TKE,which is twice higher than that of non-wave breaking.The shear production of TKE decreased bv 3.5% because the mean flow fields tended to be uniform due to wave-enhanced turbulent mixing.As a result.a new local equilibrium between diffusion and dissipation of TKE was reached in the wave-enhanced layer.Below the sublayer,the local equilibrium between shear production and dissipation of TKE agreed with the conclusion drawn from the classical law-of-the-wall (Craig and Banner,1994).
Localized Electromagnetic Waves: Interactions with Surfaces and Nanostructures
Anderson, Nicholas R.
The interaction of electromagnetic waves with nanostructures is an important area of research for signal processing devices, magnetic data storage, biosensors and a variety of other applications. In this work, we present analytic and numerical calculations for oscillating electric and magnetic fields coupling with excitations in magnetic materials as well as metallic and dielectric materials, near their resonance frequencies. One of the problems with the miniaturization of signal processing components is that there is a cutoff frequency associated with the transverse electric (TE) mode in waveguides. However, it is usually the TE mode which is used to achieve nonreciprocity for devices such as isolators. As a first step to circumvent this problem we looked at the absorption of electromagnetic waves in an antiferromagnet and a ferrite when the incident wave is at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetization direction. We calculated reflectivity and attenuated total reflectivity and found absorption and nonreciprocity, asymmetric behavior for waves traveling in opposite directions, for a broad range of propagation angles. Subsequently we also performed calculations for a transverse magnetic mode in a waveguide. The wave was allowed to propagate at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetization direction of the ferrite in the waveguide. We again found nonreciprocity for a wide range of angles. Our results show that this system could be used as an on-chip isolator with isolation values over 75 dB/cm in the 50 GHz range. We explored another signal processing device operating in the GHz range: a nonlinear phase shifter. Using Fe as the magnetic material allows the phase shifter to operate over a wide frequency and power range. We found a differential phase shift of greater than 50° over 3 cm for this device. The theoretical results compared well with experimental measurements. Finally, we study surface plasmon polaritons propagating along a metallic
Propagation of elastic waves in a plate with rough surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI Shuwu; ZHANG Hailan
2003-01-01
The characteristics of Lamb wave propagating in a solid plate with rough surfacesare studied on the basis of small perturbation approximation. The Rayleigh-Lamb frequencyequation expressed with SA matrix is presented. The Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation fora rough surface plate is different from that for a smooth surface plate, resulting in a smallperturbation Ak on Lamb wave vector k. The imaginary part of Ak gives the attenuationcaused by wave scattering. An experiment is designed to test our theoretical predications.By using wedge-shape pipes, different Lamb wave modes are excited. The signals at differentpositions are received and analyzed to get the dispersion curves and attenuations of differentmodes. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predications.
On the cascade mechanism of short surface wave modulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Charnotskii
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Modulation of short surface ripples by long surface or internal waves by a cascade mechanism is considered. At the first stage, the orbital velocity of the long wave (LW adiabatically modulates an intermediate length nonlinear gravity wave (GW, which generates a bound (parasitic capillary wave (CW near its crest in a wide spatial frequency band. Due to strong dependence of the CW amplitude on that of the GW, the resulting ripple modulation by LW can be strong. Adiabatic modulation at the first stage is calculated for an arbitrarily strong LW current. The CWs are calculated based on the Lonquet-Higgins theory, in the framework of a steady periodic solution, which proves to be sufficient for the cases considered. Theoretical results are compared with data from laboratory experiments. A discussion of related sea clutter data is given in the conclusion.
Laser Generation of Surface Waves on Cylinder with a Slow Coating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Shi-Gong; HU Wen-Xiang
2008-01-01
@@ An analytical model of acoustic field excited by a pulsed-laser line source on a coated cylinder is presented.Surface wave dispersive behaviours for a cylinder with a slow coating are analysed and compared with that of a bare cylinder.Based on this analysis, the laser-generated transient response of the perturbed Rayleigh wave and the higher modes of steel cylinder with a zinc coating are calculated from the model using residue theory and FFT technique.The theoretical result from the superposed waveform of the perturbed Rayleigh wave and higher modes agree well with the waveform obtained in experiment.The results show that the model and numerical method provide a useful technique for quantitatively characterizing coating parameters of coated cylinder by the laser generated surface waves.
Hydrological land surface modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois
Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...... hydrological and tested by assimilating synthetic hydraulic head observations in a catchment in Denmark. Assimilation led to a substantial reduction of model prediction error, and better model forecasts. Also, a new assimilation scheme is developed to downscale and bias-correct coarse satellite derived soil...
Ground Signatures of EMIC Waves obtained From a 3D Global Wave Model
Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.; Zong, Q.; Zhang, L.
2016-12-01
EMIC waves generated in the inner magnetosphere are important drivers of radiation belt particle loss. Van Allen Probes and ground observations of EMIC waves suggest that localized magnetospheric sources inject waves that are guided along geomagnetic field lines and then reflected and refracted in the low altitude magnetosphere [Kim, E.-H., and J. R. Johnson (2016), Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 13-21, doi:10.1002/2015GL066978] before entering the ionosphere. The waves then spread horizontally within the F-region waveguide and propagate to the ground. To understand the observed properties of EMIC waves, a global 3D model of ULF waves in Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and neutral atmosphere has been developed. The simulation domain extends from Earth's surface to a spherical boundary a few tens of thousands of km in radius. The model uses spherical coordinates and incorporates an overset Yin-Yang grid that eliminates the singularity at the polar axis and improves uniformity of the grid in the polar areas [Kageyama, A., and T. Sato (2004), Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q09005, doi:10.1029/2004GC000734]. The geomagnetic field in the model is general, but is dipole in this study. The plasma is described as a set of electron and multiple species ion conducting fluids. Realistic 3D density profiles of various ion species as well as thermospheric parameters are provided by the Canadian Ionosphere Atmosphere Model (C-IAM) [Martynenko O.V. et al. (2014), J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 120, 51-61, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2014.08.014]. The global ULF wave model is applied to study propagation of EMIC waves excited in the equatorial plane near L=7. Wave propagation along field lines, reflection and refraction in the zone of critical frequencies, and further propagation through the ionosphere to the ground are discussed.
Numerical Modelling of Solitary Wave Experiments on Rubble Mound Breakwaters
Guler, H. G.; Arikawa, T.; Baykal, C.; Yalciner, A. C.
2016-12-01
Performance of a rubble mound breakwater protecting Haydarpasa Port, Turkey, has been tested under tsunami attack by physical model tests conducted at Port and Airport Research Institute (Guler et al, 2015). It is aimed to understand dynamic force of the tsunami by conducting solitary wave tests (Arikawa, 2015). In this study, the main objective is to perform numerical modelling of solitary wave tests in order to verify accuracy of the CFD model IHFOAM, developed in OpenFOAM environment (Higuera et al, 2013), by comparing results of the numerical computations with the experimental results. IHFOAM is the numerical modelling tool which is based on VARANS equations with a k-ω SST turbulence model including realistic wave generation, and active wave absorption. Experiments are performed using a Froude scale of 1/30, measuring surface elevation and flow velocity at several locations in the wave channel, and wave pressure around the crown wall of the breakwater. Solitary wave tests with wave heights of H=7.5 cm and H=10 cm are selected which represent the results of the experiments. The first test (H=7.5 cm) is the case that resulted in no damage whereas the second case (H=10 cm) resulted in total damage due to the sliding of the crown wall. After comparison of the preliminary results of numerical simulations with experimental data for both cases, it is observed that solitary wave experiments could be accurately modeled using IHFOAM focusing water surface elevations, flow velocities, and wave pressures on the crown wall of the breakwater (Figure, result of sim. at t=29.6 sec). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors acknowledge developers of IHFOAM, further extend their acknowledgements for the partial supports from the research projects MarDiM, ASTARTE, RAPSODI, and TUBITAK 213M534. REFERENCESArikawa (2015) "Consideration of Characteristics of Pressure on Seawall by Solitary Waves Based on Hydraulic Experiments", Jour. of Japan. Soc. of Civ. Eng. Ser. B2 (Coast. Eng.), Vol 71, p I
Gravitational waves from surface inhomogeneities of neutron stars
Konar, Sushan; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Sarkar, Prakash
2016-11-01
Surface asymmetries of accreting neutron stars are investigated for their mass quadrupole moment content. Though the amplitude of the gravitational waves from such asymmetries seems to be beyond the limit of detectability of the present generation of detectors, it appears that rapidly rotating neutron stars with strong magnetic fields residing in high-mass x-ray binaries would be worth considering for a targeted search for continuous gravitational waves with the next generation of instruments.
Directional wave measurements and modelling
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; Bhat, S.S.; SanilKumar, V.
Some of the results obtained from analysis of the monsoon directional wave data measured over 4 years in shallow waters off the west coast of India are presented. The directional spectrum computed from the time series data seems to indicate...
High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer
Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.
2010-01-01
Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.
Numerical modelling in wave energy conversion systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Marjani, A. [Labo. de Turbomachines, Ecole Mohammadia d' Ingenieurs (EMI), Universite Mohammed V Agdal, Av Ibn Sina, B.P. 765 Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Castro Ruiz, F.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Parra Santos, M.T. [Depto. de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2008-08-15
This paper deals with a numerical modelling devoted to predict the flow characteristics in the components of an oscillating water column (OWC) system used for the wave energy capture. In the present paper, the flow behaviour is modelled by using the FLUENT code. Two numerical flow models have been elaborated and tested independently in the geometries of an air chamber and a turbine, which is chosen of a radial impulse type. The flow is assumed to be three-dimensional (3D), viscous, turbulent and unsteady. The FLUENT code is used with a solver of the coupled conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy, with an implicit time scheme and with the adoption of the dynamic mesh and the sliding mesh techniques in areas of moving surfaces. Turbulence is modelled with the k-{epsilon} model. The obtained results indicate that the developed models are well suitable to analyse the air flows both in the air chamber and in the turbine. The performances associated with the energy transfer processes have been well predicted. For the turbine, the numerical results of pressure and torque were compared to the experimental ones. Good agreements between these results have been observed. (author)
Surface waves propagation on a turbulent flow forced electromagnetically
Gutiérrez, Pablo
2015-01-01
We study the propagation of monochromatic surface waves on a turbulent flow. The flow is generated in a layer of liquid metal by an electromagnetic forcing. This forcing creates a quasi two-dimensional (2D) turbulence with strong vertical vorticity. The turbulent flow contains much more energy than the surface waves. In order to focus on the surface wave, the deformations induced by the turbulent flow are removed. This is done by performing a coherent phase averaging. For wavelengths smaller than the forcing lengthscale, we observe a significant increase of the wavelength of the propagating wave that has not been reported before. We suggest that it can be explained by the random deflection of the wave induced by the velocity gradient of the turbulent flow. Under this assumption, the wavelength shift is an estimate of the fluctuations of deflection angle. The local measurements of the wave frequency far from the wavemaker do not reveal such systematic behavior, although a small shift is measured. Finally we qu...
Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)
2016-04-18
Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.
Efficient Focusing Models for Generation of Freak Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Xi-zeng; SUN Zhao-chen; LIANG Shu-xiu
2009-01-01
Four focusing models for generation of freak waves are presented. An extreme wave focusing model is presented on the basis of the enhanced High-Order Spectral (HOS) method and the importance of the nonlinear wave-wave interaction is evaluated by comparison of the calculated results with experimental and theoretical data. Based on the modification of the Longuet-Higgins model, four wave models for generation of freak waves (a. Extreme wave model + random wave model; b. Extreme wave model + regular wave model; c. Phase interval modulation wave focusing model; d. Number modulation wave focusing model with the same phase) are proposed. By use of different energy distribution techniques in the four models, freak wave events are obtained with different H_(max)/H_s in finite space and time.
Shear wave velocity structure in North America from large-scale waveform inversions of surface waves
Alsina, D.; Woodward, R. L.; Snieder, R. K.
1996-07-01
A two-step nonlinear and linear inversion is carried out to map the lateral heterogeneity beneath North America using surface wave data. The lateral resolution for most areas of the model is of the order of several hundred kilometers. The most obvious feature in the tomographic images is the rapid transition between low velocities in the tectonically active region west of the Rocky Mountains and high velocities in the stable central and eastern shield of North America. The model also reveals smaller-scale heterogeneous velocity structures. A high-velocity anomaly is imaged beneath the state of Washington that could be explained as the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Cascades. A large low-velocity structure extends along the coast from the Mendocino to the Rivera triple junction and to the continental interior across the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Its shape changes notably with depth. This anomaly largely coincides with the part of the margin where no lithosphere is consumed since the subduction has been replaced by a transform fault. Evidence for a discontinuous subduction of the Cocos plate along the Middle American Trench is found. In central Mexico a transition is visible from low velocities across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) to high velocities beneath the Yucatan Peninsula. Two elongated low-velocity anomalies beneath the Yellowstone Plateau and the eastern Snake River Plain volcanic system and beneath central Mexico and the TMVB seem to be associated with magmatism and partial melting. Another low-velocity feature is seen at depths of approximately 200 km beneath Florida and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The inversion technique used is based on a linear surface wave scattering theory, which gives tomographic images of the relative phase velocity perturbations in four period bands ranging from 40 to 150 s. In order to find a smooth reference model a nonlinear inversion based on ray theory is first performed. After
Shear wave velocity structure in North America from large-scale waveform inversions of surface waves
Alsina, D.; Woodward, R.L.; Snieder, R.K.
1996-01-01
A two-step nonlinear and linear inversion is carried out to map the lateral heterogeneity beneath North America using surface wave data. The lateral resolution for most areas of the model is of the order of several hundred kilometers. The most obvious feature in the tomographic images is the rapid transition between low velocities in the technically active region west of the Rocky Mountains and high velocities in the stable central and eastern shield of North America. The model also reveals smaller-scale heterogeneous velocity structures. A high-velocity anomaly is imaged beneath the state of Washington that could be explained as the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Cascades. A large low-velocity structure extends along the coast from the Mendocino to the Rivera triple junction and to the continental interior across the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Its shape changes notably with depth. This anomaly largely coincides with the part of the margin where no lithosphere is consumed since the subduction has been replaced by a transform fault. Evidence for a discontinuous subduction of the Cocos plate along the Middle American Trench is found. In central Mexico a transition is visible from low velocities across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) to high velocities beneath the Yucatan Peninsula. Two elongated low-velocity anomalies beneath the Yellowstone Plateau and the eastern Snake River Plain volcanic system and beneath central Mexico and the TMVB seem to be associated with magmatism and partial melting. Another low-velocity feature is seen at depths of approximately 200 km beneath Florida and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The inversion technique used is based on a linear surface wave scattering theory, which gives tomographic images of the relative phase velocity perturbations in four period bands ranging from 40 to 150 s. In order to find a smooth reference model a nonlinear inversion based on ray theory is first performed. After
Retrieving capillary-gravity wave spectrum from polarimetric microwave radiation of ocean surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
A new simple two-scale model on the polarimetric microwave emission of ocean surface is derived at first, which can be ex-pressed as an integral of weighting functions (M0 and M2) and ocean surface curvature spectrum coefficients (C0 and C2). This provides a simple way to investigate the effect of curvature spectrum on ocean emission. It is found that ocean waves with wavelengths both comparable to and much greater than the electromagnetic wavelength can contribute to the harmonics of ocean surface microwave emission, depending on the magnitude of the ocean surface spectrum in these length scales. Bright-ness temperature predictions differ significantly due to present diverse spectrum models, and thus a study on wave spectrum obtained inversely from brightness temperature measurements is necessary. From the ocean surface radiation data measured by polarimetric microwave radiometer, we derived an ocean wave spectrum with a wider wave number range, using the proposed two-scale model and constrained linear least-squares method. The derived ocean wave spectrum is useful for comparing with present diverse models.
Extended models of nonlinear waves in liquid with gas bubbles
Kudryashov, Nikolay A
2016-01-01
In this work we generalize the models for nonlinear waves in a gas--liquid mixture taking into account an interphase heat transfer, a surface tension and a weak liquid compressibility simultaneously at the derivation of the equations for nonlinear waves. We also take into consideration high order terms with respect to the small parameter. Two new nonlinear differential equations are derived for long weakly nonlinear waves in a liquid with gas bubbles by the reductive perturbation method considering both high order terms with respect to the small parameter and the above mentioned physical properties. One of these equations is the perturbation of the Burgers equation and corresponds to main influence of dissipation on nonlinear waves propagation. The other equation is the perturbation of the Burgers--Korteweg--de Vries equation and corresponds to main influence of dispersion on nonlinear waves propagation.
Enhanced Sensitive Love Wave Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Designed for Immunoassay Formats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihaela Puiu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporated in portable devices, suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT applications.
Enhanced sensitive love wave surface acoustic wave sensor designed for immunoassay formats.
Puiu, Mihaela; Gurban, Ana-Maria; Rotariu, Lucian; Brajnicov, Simona; Viespe, Cristian; Bala, Camelia
2015-05-05
We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW) immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporated in portable devices, suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications.
Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: Fabrication and Testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Malone, Vanessa
2012-02-01
We report on the development of harsh-environment surface acoustic wave sensors for wired and wireless operation. Surface acoustic wave devices with an interdigitated transducer emitter and multiple reflectors were fabricated on langasite substrates. Both wired and wireless temperature sensing was demonstrated using radar-mode (pulse) detection. Temperature resolution of better than ±0.5°C was achieved between 200°C and 600°C. Oxygen sensing was achieved by depositing a layer of ZnO on the propagation path. Although the ZnO layer caused additional attenuation of the surface wave, oxygen sensing was accomplished at temperatures up to 700°C. The results indicate that langasite SAW devices are a potential solution for harsh-environment gas and temperature sensing.
Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert
2012-01-01
loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface......The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...
Probing inflation models with gravitational waves
Domcke, Valerie
2016-01-01
A direct detection of primordial gravitational waves is the ultimate probe for any inflation model. While current CMB bounds predict the generic scale-invariant gravitational wave spectrum from slow-roll inflation to be below the reach of upcoming gravitational wave interferometers, this prospect may dramatically change if the inflaton is a pseudoscalar. In this case, a coupling to any abelian gauge field leads to a tachyonic instability for the latter and hence to a new source of gravitational waves, directly related to the dynamics of inflation. In this contribution we discuss how this setup enables the upcoming gravitational wave interferometers advanced LIGO/VIRGO and eLISA to probe the microphysics of inflation, distinguishing between different universality classes of single-field slow-roll inflation models. We find that the prime candidate for an early detection is a Starobinsky-like model.
Modeling Tsunamis and Hydroacoustic Waves from Megathrust Earthquakes
Lotto, G. C.; Belair, G. M.; Kozdon, J. E.; Dunham, E. M.
2013-12-01
The immense damage caused by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake demonstrated the importance of understanding tsunami excitation by megathrust ruptures. Of particular interest are any faster-propagating seismic or hydroacoustic signals that could be used to rapidly predict tsunami wave heights. To study the full seismic, acoustic, and tsunami wavefields, we have developed a provably stable and accurate finite-difference method that couples an elastic solid to a compressible fluid subject to gravitational restoring forces. We introduce a new treatment of the dynamic (free surface) boundary condition on the moving sea surface in the presence of gravity that is valid for small-amplitude perturbations about an ocean initially in hydrostatic balance. This permits us to model surface gravity waves in the linearized limit, including dispersion from nonhydrostatic motions at short wavelengths. This is done using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators and weak enforcement of boundary conditions. Shallow coseismic slip during megathrust events causes seafloor uplift that excites both tsunamis and long-period (~10 s) hydroacoustic waves; the latter ocean sound waves travel at several km/s and reach the coast many minutes sooner than tsunami waves. These hydroacoustic waves might be used as part of local tsunami early warning systems. Our previous dynamic rupture simulations of the Tohoku event, which neglected surface gravity waves, revealed correlations between pressure perturbations recorded at the seafloor (associated with ~10 s hydroacoustic waves in the ocean) and near-trench seafloor uplift caused by shallow slip. Now that we can model tsunamis within the same code, we plan to quantify the correlation between these pressure perturbations and tsunami height. We are also investigating properties of these hydroacoustic modes, which involve significant motions of the solid Earth as well as the ocean. Phase and group velocity curves for a uniform ocean
Rayleigh surface waves, phonon mode conversion, and thermal transport in nanostructures
Maurer, Leon; Knezevic, Irena
We study the effects of phonon mode conversion and Rayleigh (surface) waves on thermal transport in nanostructures. We present a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in the elastic-solid approximation: a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of the elastic or scalar wave equations combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique is similar to an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, captures phonon wave behavior, and scales well to nanostructures that are too large to simulate with many other techniques. By imposing fixed or free boundary conditions, we can selectively turn off mode conversion and Rayleigh waves to study their effects. In the example case of graphenelike nanoribbons with rough edges, we find that mode conversion among bulk modes has little effect on thermal transport, but that conversion between bulk and Rayleigh waves can significantly reduce thermal conductivity. With increasing surface disorder, Rayleigh waves readily become trapped by the disorder and draw energy away from the propagating bulk modes, which lowers thermal conductivity. We discuss the implications on the accuracy of popular phonon-surface scattering models that stem from scalar wave equations and cannot capture mode conversion to Rayleigh waves.
Multichannel analysis of surface wave method with the autojuggie
Tian, G.; Steeples, D.W.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Spikes, K.T.; Ralston, M.D.
2003-01-01
The shear (S)-wave velocity of near-surface materials and its effect on seismic-wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many engineering, environmental, and groundwater studies. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method provides a robust, efficient, and accurate tool to observe near-surface S-wave velocity. A recently developed device used to place large numbers of closely spaced geophones simultaneously and automatically (the 'autojuggie') is shown here to be applicable to the collection of MASW data. In order to demonstrate the use of the autojuggie in the MASW method, we compared high-frequency surface-wave data acquired from conventionally planted geophones (control line) to data collected in parallel with the automatically planted geophones attached to steel bars (test line). The results demonstrate that the autojuggie can be applied in the MASW method. Implementation of the autojuggie in very shallow MASW surveys could drastically reduce the time required and costs incurred in such surveys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
THE DIABATIC WAVES IN BAROTROPIC MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The equations of barotropic model are used to discuss the effects of diabatic factors such as heating of convective condensation, evaporation-wind feedback and CISK on the Rossby wave and the Kelvin wave. In low latitudes we have obtained the angular frequency and analyzed the period and stability of waves. The result shows the existence of the diabatic factors not only enlarges the period of adiabatic waves but also changes the stability of waves. Thus we think that the so-called intraseasonal oscillation and some other low-frequency oscillations are a kind of diabatic waves which are important factors producing the long-term weather changes and short-term climatic evolution.
Characteristics of surface waves in anisotropic left-handed materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Yong-Yuan; Shi Hong-Yan; Zhang Yong-Qiang; Hou Chun-Feng; Sun Xiu-Dong
2007-01-01
We report the coexistence of TE and TM surface modes in certain same frequency domain at the interface between one isotropic regular medium and another biaxially anistotropic left-handed medium. The conditions for the existence of TE and TM polarized surface waves in biaxially anisotropic left-handed materials are identified, respectively.The Poynting vector and the energy density associated with surface modes are calculated. Depending on the system parameters, either TE or TM surface modes can have the time averaged Poynting vector directed to or opposite to the mode phase velocity. It is seen that the characteristics of surface waves in biaxially anisotropic left-handed media are significantly different from that in isotropic left-handed media.
Impacts of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf
Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu
2017-05-01
A numerical study is conducted to investigate the impact of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS). The "business-as-usual" climate scenario known as Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 is considered in this study. Changes in the ocean surface gravity waves over the study region for the period 1979-2100 are examined based on 3 hourly ocean waves simulated by the third-generation ocean wave model known as WAVEWATCHIII. The wave model is driven by surface winds and ice conditions produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4). The whole study period is divided into the present (1979-2008), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) periods to quantify possible future changes of ocean waves over the ECS. In comparison with the present ocean wave conditions, the time-mean significant wave heights ( H s ) are expected to increase over most of the ECS in the near future and decrease over this region in the far future period. The time-means of the annual 5% largest H s are projected to increase over the ECS in both near and far future periods due mainly to the changes in surface winds. The future changes in the time-means of the annual 5% largest H s and 10-m wind speeds are projected to be twice as strong as the changes in annual means. An analysis of inverse wave ages suggests that the occurrence of wind seas is projected to increase over the southern Labrador and central Newfoundland Shelves in the near future period, and occurrence of swells is projected to increase over other areas of the ECS in both the near and far future periods.
Impacts of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf
Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu
2017-03-01
A numerical study is conducted to investigate the impact of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS). The "business-as-usual" climate scenario known as Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 is considered in this study. Changes in the ocean surface gravity waves over the study region for the period 1979-2100 are examined based on 3 hourly ocean waves simulated by the third-generation ocean wave model known as WAVEWATCHIII. The wave model is driven by surface winds and ice conditions produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4). The whole study period is divided into the present (1979-2008), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) periods to quantify possible future changes of ocean waves over the ECS. In comparison with the present ocean wave conditions, the time-mean significant wave heights (H s ) are expected to increase over most of the ECS in the near future and decrease over this region in the far future period. The time-means of the annual 5% largest H s are projected to increase over the ECS in both near and far future periods due mainly to the changes in surface winds. The future changes in the time-means of the annual 5% largest H s and 10-m wind speeds are projected to be twice as strong as the changes in annual means. An analysis of inverse wave ages suggests that the occurrence of wind seas is projected to increase over the southern Labrador and central Newfoundland Shelves in the near future period, and occurrence of swells is projected to increase over other areas of the ECS in both the near and far future periods.
Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves
Guo, Bowen
2015-08-19
Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2015-01-01
Wave models used for site assessments are subjected to model uncertainties, which need to be quantified when using wave model results for probabilistic reliability assessments. This paper focuses on determination of wave model uncertainties. Four different wave models are considered, and validation...... uncertainties can be implemented in probabilistic reliability assessments....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Averbukh, Elena [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Minin St. 24, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kurkina, Oksana, E-mail: okurkina@hse.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Minin St. 24, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 25/12 Bol' shaya Pecherskaya St., 603155 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kurkin, Andrey [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Minin St. 24, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Soomere, Tarmo, E-mail: soomere@cs.ioc.ee [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn (Estonia)
2014-01-03
By employing a simple model for small-scale linear edge waves propagating along a homogeneous sloping beach, we demonstrate that certain combinations of linear wave components may lead to durable changes in the thickness of the surfactant film, equivalently, in the concentration of various substances (debris, litter) floating on the water surface. Such changes are caused by high-amplitude transient elevations that resemble rogue waves and occur during dispersive focusing of wave fields with a continuous spectrum. This process can be treated as an intrinsic mechanism of production of patches in the surface layer of an otherwise homogeneous coastal environment impacted by linear edge waves.
Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Dietler
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.
Photonic crystal biosensor based on optical surface waves.
Konopsky, Valery N; Karakouz, Tanya; Alieva, Elena V; Vicario, Chiara; Sekatskii, Sergey K; Dietler, Giovanni
2013-02-19
A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.
Development of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Microgyroscope Utilizing Progressive Wave
Oh, Haekwan; Yang, Sangsik; Lee, Keekeun
2010-06-01
An 80 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based gyroscope utilizing a progressive wave was developed on a 128° YX LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate. The sensor developed consists of two SAW oscillators in which one is used as the sensing element and has metallic dots in the cavity between input and output interdigital transducers (IDTs). The other is used as the reference element. Coupling of modes (COM) modeling was conducted to determine the optimal device parameters prior to fabrication. On the basis of the simulation results, the device was fabricated and then measured on a rate table. When the device was subjected to an angular rotation, oscillation frequency differences between the two oscillators were observed because of the Coriolis force acting on the metallic dots. Depending on the angular velocity, the difference in oscillation frequency was modulated. The obtained sensitivity was approximately 52.35 Hz deg-1 s-1 at an angular rate range of 0-1000 deg/s. Device performances at different mass weights, mass positions, and temperatures were characterized. Good thermal stability was also observed during the evaluation process.
Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sverjensky, Dimitri A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences
2016-11-29
Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO_{2} and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.
Unidirectional propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves at a magnetic film surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, Kin L.; Bao, Mingqiang, E-mail: mingqiangbao@gmail.com, E-mail: caross@mit.edu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wang, Kang L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bi, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chatelon, Jean Pierre [Univerisité de Saint-Etienne, Université de Lyon, LT2C, 25 rue du Docteur Rémy Annino, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Ross, C. A., E-mail: mingqiangbao@gmail.com, E-mail: caross@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2014-12-08
An analytical expression for the amplitudes of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) propagating in opposite directions at a magnetic film surface is presented. This shows that for a given magnetic field H, it is forbidden for an independent MSSW to propagate along the direction of −H{sup →}×n{sup →}, where n{sup →} is the surface normal. This unidirectional propagation property is confirmed by experiments with both permalloy and yttrium iron garnet films of different film thicknesses, and has implications in the design of spin-wave devices such as isolators and spin-wave diodes.
Baroclinic stationary waves in aquaplanet models
Zappa, Giuseppe; Navarra, Antonio; 10.1175/2011JAS3573.1
2011-01-01
An aquaplanet model is used to study the nature of the highly persistent low frequency waves that have been observed in models forced by zonally symmetric boundary conditions. Using the Hayashi spectral analysis of the extratropical waves, we find that a quasi-stationary (QS) wave five belongs to a wave packet obeying a well defined dispersion relation with eastward group velocity. The components of the dispersion relation with k>5 baroclinically convert eddy available potential energy into eddy kinetic energy, while those with k<5 are baroclinically neutral. In agreement with the Green's model of baroclinic instability, the wave five is weakly unstable, and the inverse energy cascade, which had been previously proposed as a main forcing for this type of waves, only acts as a positive feedback on its predominantly baroclinic energetics. The QS wave is reinforced by a phase lock to an analogous pattern in the tropical convection, which provides further amplification to the wave. We also find that the Pedlos...
Travelling Waves in Hybrid Chemotaxis Models
Franz, Benjamin
2013-12-18
Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Numerical simulations and observations of surface wave fields under an extreme tropical cyclone
Fan, Y.; Ginis, I.; Hara, T.; Wright, C.W.; Walsh, E.J.
2009-01-01
The performance of the wave model WAVEWATCH III under a very strong, category 5, tropical cyclone wind forcing is investigated with different drag coefficient parameterizations and ocean current inputs. The model results are compared with field observations of the surface wave spectra from an airborne scanning radar altimeter, National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) time series, and satellite altimeter measurements in Hurricane Ivan (2004). The results suggest that the model with the original drag coefficient parameterization tends to overestimate the significant wave height and the dominant wavelength and produces a wave spectrum with narrower directional spreading. When an improved drag parameterization is introduced and the wave-current interaction is included, the model yields an improved forecast of significant wave height, but underestimates the dominant wavelength. When the hurricane moves over a preexisting mesoscale ocean feature, such as the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico or a warm-and cold-core ring, the current associated with the feature can accelerate or decelerate the wave propagation and significantly modulate the wave spectrum. ?? 2009 American Meteorological Society.
Experimental evidence of wave chaos from a double slit experiment with water surface waves.
Tang, Yunfei; Shen, Yifeng; Yang, Jiong; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Li, Baowen
2008-10-01
In this paper, we report experimental evidence of wave chaos using the double slit water surface wave experiment. We demonstrate that classical dynamics of a domain manifests itself in the interference patterns after the diffraction behind the double slit. For a domain whose classical dynamics is integrable clear interference fringes can be observed behind the double slits; for a domain whose classical dynamics is chaotic, however, interference fringes can totally disappear. Our experimental results clearly demonstrate that the centuries-old double slit experiment can render an excellent tool to observe the manifestations of wave chaos.
Krylov, V. V.
1995-09-01
A general phenomenological approach is given for the description of mechanical surface properties of solids and their influence on surface acoustic wave propogation. Surface properties under consideration may be changes of the stress distribution in subsurface atomic layers, the presence of adsorbed gas molecules, surface degradation as a result of impacts from an aggressive environment, damage due to mechanical manufacturing or polishing, deposition of thin films or liquid layers, surface corrugations, etc. If the characteristic thickness of the affected layers is much less than the wavelengths of the propagating surface waves, then the effects of all these irregularities can be described by means of non-classical boundary conditions incorporating the integral surface parameters such as surface tension, surface moduli of elasticity and surface mass density. The effect of surface properties on the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves is analysed in comparison with the results of traditional approaches, in particular with Auld's energy perturbation method. One of the important implications of the above-mentioned boudnary conditions is that they are adequate for the description of the effect of rarely distributed adsorbed atoms or molecules. This allows, in particular, to obtain a rigorous theoretical description of chemical sensors using surface acoustic waves and to derive analytical expressions for their sensitivity.
Second-harmonic plasma response in diffusion-controlled surface-wave-sustained discharges
Stoev, L.
2008-05-01
The formation of nonlinear plasma response at the second harmonic frequency in diffusion controlled surface-wave-sustained discharges is studied theoretically. The study is aimed at estimating theoretically the ratio of the squared amplitudes of the wave field of fundamental frequency and of the resulting - from the nonlinear effects - electric field at the second harmonic frequency. The model presented is intended for further use in discharge diagnostics.
Polarization controlled directional excitation of Bloch surface waves (Conference Presentation)
Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Grosjean, Thierry
2016-09-01
Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are electromagnetic surface waves which can be excited at the interface between periodic dielectric multilayer and a surrounding medium. In comparison with surface plasmon polaritons these surface states perform high quality factor due to low loss characteristics of dielectric materials and can be exited both by TE and TM polarized light. A platform consisting of periodic stacks of alternative SiO2 and Si3N4 layers is designed and fabricated to work at the wavelength of 1.55 µm. The platform has an application in sensing and in integrated optics domain. A standard way of BSW excitation is coupling via Kretschmann configuration, but in this work we investigate a grating coupling of BSWs. Grating parameters are analytically and numerically optimized by RCWA and FDTD methods in order to obtain the best coupling conditions. The light is launched orthogonally to the surface of the photonic crystal and the grating. Due to a special grating configuration we demonstrate directionality of the BSW propagation depending on polarization of the incident light. The structure was experimentally realized on the surface of the photonic crystal by FIB milling. Experimental results are in a good agreement with a theory. The investigated configuration can be successfully used as a BSW launcher in on-chip all-optical integrated systems and work as a surface wave switch or modulator.
Hydraulic Model Tests on Modified Wave Dragon
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Tue; Lynggaard, Jakob
A floating model of the Wave Dragon (WD) was built in autumn 1998 by the Danish Maritime Institute in scale 1:50, see Sørensen and Friis-Madsen (1999) for reference. This model was subjected to a series of model tests and subsequent modifications at Aalborg University and in the following...... are found in Hald and Lynggaard (2001). Model tests and reconstruction are carried out during the phase 3 project: ”Wave Dragon. Reconstruction of an existing model in scale 1:50 and sequentiel tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters” sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency...
Observations of surface waves interacting with ice using stereo imaging
Campbell, Alexander J.; Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.
2014-06-01
A powerful Automated Trinocular Stereo Imaging System (ATSIS) is used to remotely measure waves interacting with three distinct ice types: brash, frazil, and pancake. ATSIS is improved with a phase-only correlation matching algorithm and parallel computation to provide high spatial and temporal resolution 3-D profiles of the water/ice surface, from which the wavelength, frequency, and energy flux are calculated. Alongshore spatial frequency distributions show that pancake and frazil ices differentially attenuate at a greater rate for higher-frequency waves, causing a decrease in mean frequency. In contrast, wave propagation through brash ice causes a rapid increase in the dominant wave frequency, which may be caused by nonlinear energy transfer to higher frequencies due to collisions between the brash ice particles. Consistent to the results in frequency, the wavelengths in pancake and frazil ices increase but decrease in brash ice. The total wave energy fluxes decrease exponentially in both pancake and frazil ice, whereas the overall energy flux remain constant in the brash ice due to thin layer thickness. The spatial energy flux distributions also reveal that wave reflection occurs at the boundary of each ice layer, with reflection coefficient decaying exponentially away from the ice interface. Reflection is the strongest at the pancake/ice-free and frazil/brash interfaces and the weakest at the brash/ice-free interface. These high resolution observations measured by ATSIS demonstrate the spatially variable nature of waves propagating through ice.
Variational Boussinesq model for simulation of coastal waves and tsunamis
Adytia, D.; Adytia, Didit; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Tan, Soon Keat; Huang, Zhenhua
2009-01-01
In this paper we describe the basic ideas of a so-called Variational Boussinesq Model which is based on the Hamiltonian structure of gravity surface waves. By using a rather simple approach to prescribe the profile of vertical fluid potential in the expression for the kinetic energy, we obtain a set
Variational Boussinesq model for simulations of coastal waves and tsunamis
Adytia, Didit; Groesen, van E.; Tan, Soon Keat; Huang, Zhenhua
2009-01-01
In this paper we describe the basic ideas of a so-called Variational Boussinesq Model which is based on the Hamiltonian structure of gravity surface waves. By using a rather simple approach to prescribe the profile of vertical fluid potential in the expression for the kinetic energy, we obtain a set
Observability of surface currents in p-wave superconductors
Bakurskiy, S. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu; Golubov, A. A.
2017-04-01
A general approach is formulated to describe spontaneous surface current distribution in a chiral p-wave superconductor. We use the quasiclassical Eilenberger formalism in the Ricatti parametrization to describe various types of the superconductor surface, including arbitrary roughness and metallic behavior of the surface layer. We calculate angle resolved distributions of the spontaneous surface currents and formulate the conditions of their observability. We argue that local measurements of these currents by muon spin rotation technique may provide an information on the underlying pairing symmetry in the bulk superconductor.
On the modelling of equatorial waves
Constantin, A.
2012-03-01
The present theory of geophysical waves that either raise or lower the equatorial thermocline, based on the reduced-gravity shallow-water equations on the β-plane, ignores vertical variations of the flow. In particular, the vertical structure of the Equatorial Undercurrent is absent. As a remedy we propose a simple approach by modeling this geophysical process as a wave-current interaction in the f-plane approximation, the underlying current being of positive constant vorticity. The explicit dispersion relation allows us to conclude that, despite its simplicity, the proposed model captures to a reasonable extent essential features of equatorial waves.
Ham, Suyun; Song, Homin; Oelze, Michael L; Popovics, John S
2017-03-01
We describe an approach that utilizes ultrasonic surface wave backscatter measurements to characterize the volume content of relatively small distributed defects (microcrack networks) in concrete. A simplified weak scattering model is used to demonstrate that the scattered wave field projected in the direction of the surface wave propagation is relatively insensitive to scatterers that are smaller than the propagating wavelength, while the scattered field projected in the opposite direction is more sensitive to sub-wavelength scatterers. Distributed microcracks in the concrete serve as the small scatterers that interact with a propagating surface wave. Data from a finite element simulation were used to demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach, and also to optimize a testing configuration to collect data. Simulations were validated through experimental measurements of ultrasonic backscattered surface waves from test samples of concrete constructed with different concentrations of fiber filler (0.0, 0.3 and 0.6%) to mimic increasing microcrack volume density and then samples with actual cracking induced by controlled thermal cycles. A surface wave was induced in the concrete samples by a 50kHz ultrasonic source operating 10mm above the surface at an angle of incidence of 9°. Silicon-based miniature MEMS acoustic sensors located a few millimeters above the concrete surface both behind and in front of the sender were used to detect leaky ultrasonic surface waves emanating from concrete. A normalized backscattered energy parameter was calculated from the signals. Statistically significant differences in the normalized backscattered energy were observed between concrete samples with varying levels of simulated and actual cracking damage volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On-surface radiation condition for multiple scattering of waves
Acosta, Sebastian
2013-01-01
The formulation of the on-surface radiation condition (OSRC) is extended to handle wave scattering problems in the presence of multiple obstacles. The new multiple-OSRC simultaneously accounts for the outgoing behavior of the wave fields, as well as, the multiple wave reflections between the obstacles. Like boundary integral equations (BIE), this method leads to a reduction in dimensionality (from volume to surface) of the discretization region. However, as opposed to BIE, the proposed technique leads to boundary integrals with smooth kernels. In addition, under appropriate conditions, this approach leads to approximate explicit (up to numerical integration) formulas for the solution, avoiding the need to invert any operator or matrix. As a result, the computational effort is significantly reduced. This approach may serve as a fast method to explore parameter-spaces or as an inexpensive pre-conditioner for Krylov iterative solutions of BIE.
Individually Identifiable Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors, Tags and Systems
Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor); Solie, Leland P. (Inventor); Tucker, Dana Y. G. (Inventor); Hines, Andrew T. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
A surface-launched acoustic wave sensor tag system for remotely sensing and/or providing identification information using sets of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor tag devices is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include coding and other diversity techniques to produce groups of sensors that interact minimally, reducing or alleviating code collision problems typical of prior art coded SAW sensors and tags, and specific device embodiments of said coded SAW sensor tags and systems. These sensor/tag devices operate in a system which consists of one or more uniquely identifiable sensor/tag devices and a wireless interrogator. The sensor device incorporates an antenna for receiving incident RF energy and re-radiating the tag identification information and the sensor measured parameter(s). Since there is no power source in or connected to the sensor, it is a passive sensor. The device is wirelessly interrogated by the interrogator.
SAW devices based on novel surface wave excitations
Therrien, Joel; Dai, Lian
2015-03-01
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices have applications in radio frequency and microwave filtering as well as highly sensitive sensors. Current SAW design employs the use of an array of electrode pairs, referred to as Inter-Digitated Transducers (IDTs) for creating and receiving surface waves on piezoelectric substrates. The pitch of the electrode pairs along with the properties of the substrate determine the operating frequency. The number of electrode pairs determine the bandwidth of the emitted waves. We will present a novel configuration that eliminates the need for the IDTs and replaces with with a single circular electrode located inside a larger ground ring. This configuration induces drumhead modes. We will show that the resonant frequencies follow the zeros of Bessel functions of the first kind. Applications in RF filtering and mass sensing will be presented.
Multiple-frequency surface acoustic wave devices as sensors
Ricco, Antonio J.; Martin, Stephen J.
We have designed, fabricated, and tested a multiple-frequency acoustic wave (MUFAW) device on ST-cut quartz with nominal surface acoustic wave (SAW) center frequencies of 16, 40, 100, and 250 MHz. The four frequencies are obtained by patterning four sets of input and output interdigital transducers of differing periodicities on a single substrate. Such a device allows the frequency dependence of AW sensor perturbations to be examined, aiding in the elucidation of the operative interaction mechanism(s). Initial measurements of the SAW response to the vacuum deposition of a thin nickel film show the expected frequency dependence of mass sensitivity in addition to the expected frequency independence of the magnitude of the acoustoelectric effect. By measuring changes in both wave velocity and attenuation at multiple frequencies, extrinsic perturbations such as temperature and pressure changes are readily differentiated from one another and from changes in surface mass.
Drops subjected to surface acoustic waves: flow dynamics
Brunet, Philippe; Baudoin, Michael; Bou Matar, Olivier; Dynamique Des Systèmes Hors Equilibre Team; Aiman-Films Team
2012-11-01
Ultrasonic acoustic waves of frequency beyond the MHz are known to induce streaming flow in fluids that can be suitable to perform elementary operations in microfluidics systems. One of the currently appealing geometry is that of a sessile drop subjected to surface acoustic waves (SAW). Such Rayleigh waves produce non-trival actuation in the drop leading to internal flow, drop displacement, free-surface oscillations and atomization. We recently carried out experiments and numerical simulations that allowed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms that couple acoustic propagation and fluid actuation. We varied the frequency and amplitude of actuation, as well as the properties of the fluid, and we measured the effects of these parameters on the dynamics of the flow. We compared these results to finite-elements numerical simulations.
Modeling of the eddy viscosity by breaking waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Breaking wave induced nearsurface turbulence has important consequences for many physical and biochemical processes including water column and nutrients mixing, heat and gases exchange across air-sea interface. The energy loss from wave breaking and the bubble plume penetration depth are estimated. As a consequence, the vertical distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), the TKE dissipation rate and the eddy viscosity induced by wave breaking are also provided. It is indicated that model results are found to be consistent with the observational evidence that most TKE generated by wave breaking is lost within a depth of a few meters near the sea surface. High turbulence level with intensities of eddy viscosity induced by breaking is nearly four orders larger than υwl(=κu *wz), the value predicted for the wall layer scaling close to the surface, where u *w is the friction velocity in water, κ with 0.4 is the von Kármán constant, and z is the water depth, and the strength of the eddy viscosity depends both on wind speed and sea state, and decays rapidly through the depth. This leads to the conclusion that the breaking wave induced vertical mixing is mainly limited to the near surface layer, well above the classical values expected from the similarity theory. Deeper down, however, the effects of wave breaking on the vertical mixing become less important.
Observation of sagittal X-ray diffraction by surface acoustic waves in Bragg geometry.
Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Evgenii, Emelin; Petsiuk, Andrei; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Erko, Alexei
2017-04-01
X-ray Bragg diffraction in sagittal geometry on a Y-cut langasite crystal (La3Ga5SiO14) modulated by Λ = 3 µm Rayleigh surface acoustic waves was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Owing to the crystal lattice modulation by the surface acoustic wave diffraction, satellites appear. Their intensity and angular separation depend on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Experimental results are compared with the corresponding theoretical model that exploits the kinematical diffraction theory. This experiment shows that the propagation of the surface acoustic waves creates a dynamical diffraction grating on the crystal surface, and this can be used for space-time modulation of an X-ray beam.
Numerical Study of Submerged Vertical Plane Jets Under Progressive Water Surface Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI Hui-chao; WANG Ling-ling
2005-01-01
When wastewater is discharged into a coastal area through an outfall system, it will always be subjected to the action of waves. It is important to study and quantify the mixing of the discharge with the ambient water so that accurate environmental impact assessment can be made for such discharge conditions. The present work aims to study the phenomenon of a plane jet discharged into water environment with regular waves. A 3D numerical model based on the full Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) in the σ-coordinate is developed to study the present problem. Turbulence effects are modeled by a subgrid-scale (SGS) model using the concept of large eddy simulation (LES). The operator splitting method is used to solve the modified NSE. The model has been applied to the simulation of three different cases of submerged plane jets with surface waves: jet with strong waves, jet with weak waves and jet without waves. Numerical results show that the waves enhance the mixing of the jet with the ambient fluid, and cause a periodic deflection of the jet. The size of the re-circulation is about 1.5～2.4 depth of water. The velocity profile of the jet is self-similar in the zone of established flow for both the pure jet and jet in wave circumstances. The spreading characteristic constant α is 0.100 and 0.105 for pure momentum jets with Re numbers 1025 and 2050. The value of α increases from 0.130 to 0.147 for a jet in weak and strong wave circumstances, showing that waves have an obvious effect on the mixing and dilution properties of jets. Numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data for the cases of pure jets and jets with waves.
Tuning Acoustic Wave Properties by Mechanical Resonators on a Surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim
Vibrations generated by high aspects ratio electrodes are studied by the finite element method. It is found that the modes are combined of a surface wave and vibration in the electrodes. For increasing aspect ratio most of the mechanical energy is confined to the electrodes which act as mechanical...
Monolithic ZnO SAW (Surface Acoustic Waves) structures
Gunshor, R. L.; Pierret, R. F.
1983-07-01
ZnO-on-silicon surface acoustic wave devices have been fabricated and tested. Electronic erasure of a stored correlator reference was demonstrated, the effect of laser annealing on propagation loss was examined, preliminary ageing studies were performed, and a conceptually new mode conversion resonator configuration was reported.
Dispersive surface waves along partially saturated porous media
Chao, G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Van Dongen, M.E.H.
2006-01-01
Numerical results for the velocity and attenuation of surface wave modes in fully permeable liquid/partially saturated porous solid plane interfaces are reported in a broadband of frequencies (100 Hz–1 MHz). A modified Biot theory of poromechanics is implemented which takes into account the interact
Quantitative photography of intermittency in surface wave turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wright, W.; Budakian, R.; Putterman, S.J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1997-12-31
At high amplitudes of excitation surface waves on water distribute their energy according to a Kolmogorov type of turbulent power spectrum. We have used diffusing light photography to measure the power spectrum and to quantify the presence of large structures in the turbulent state.
On the dependence of sea surface roughness on wind waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnson, H.K.; Højstrup, J.; Vested, H.J.;
1998-01-01
The influence of wind waves on the momentum transfer (wind stress) between the atmosphere and sea surface was studied using new measured data from the RASEX experiment and other datasets compiled by Donelan et al. Results of the data analysis indicate that errors in wind friction velocity u...
Guided wave propagation along the surface of a one-dimensional solid-fluid phononic crystal
Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent
2013-09-01
We consider an arbitrary periodic corrugated surface of a semi-infinite elastic solid that is immersed in a fluid, forming a one-dimensional phononic crystal. We study the existence and the polarization of guided waves that propagate along the interface. A coupled elastic-acoustic variational model is devised to obtain the dispersion of guided waves, which is implemented with a finite element method. It is found that the deeply corrugated interface supports a family of interface waves whose phase velocity decreases as the corrugation depth increases. Among these interface waves, some display an evanescent decay in the fluid that is reminiscent of the Scholte-Stoneley wave, while others propagate in the solid without causing significant pressure variation in the fluid, or cause localized pressure variations only inside the corrugation openings. The obtained results open the way for the study of conversions between bulk and surface waves in solid-fluid phononic crystals, and their use for wave confinement at the surface.
Study on Solitary Waves of a General Boussinesq Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, we employ the bifurcation method of dynamical systems to study the solitary waves and periodic waves of a generalized Boussinesq equations. All possible phase portraits in the parameter plane for the travelling wave systems are obtained. The possible solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and cusp waves for the general Boussinesq type fluid model are also investigated.
-Advanced Models for Tsunami and Rogue Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. W. Pravica
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A wavelet , that satisfies the q-advanced differential equation for , is used to model N-wave oscillations observed in tsunamis. Although q-advanced ODEs may seem nonphysical, we present an application that model tsunamis, in particular the Japanese tsunami of March 11, 2011, by utilizing a one-dimensional wave equation that is forced by . The profile is similar to tsunami models in present use. The function is a wavelet that satisfies a q-advanced harmonic oscillator equation. It is also shown that another wavelet, , matches a rogue-wave profile. This is explained in terms of a resonance wherein two small amplitude forcing waves eventually lead to a large amplitude rogue. Since wavelets are used in the detection of tsunamis and rogues, the signal-analysis performance of and is examined on actual data.
Decay of viscous surface waves without surface tension
Guo, Yan
2010-01-01
Consider a viscous fluid of finite depth below the air. In the absence of the surface tension effect at the air-fluid interface, the long time behavior of a free surface with small amplitude has been an intriguing question since the work of Beale \\cite{beale_1}. In this monograph, we develop a new mathematical framework to resolve this question. If the free interface is horizontally infinite, we establish that it decays to a flat surface at an algebraic rate. On the other hand, if the free interface is periodic, we establish that it decays at an almost exponential rate, i.e. at an arbitrarily fast algebraic rate determined by the smallness of the data. Our framework contains several novel techniques, which include: (1) a local well-posed theory of the Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of a moving boundary; (2) a two-tier energy method that couples the boundedness of high-order energy to the decay of low-order energy, the latter of which is necessary to balance out the growth of the highest derivatives o...
Investigation into Mass Loading Sensitivity of Sezawa Wave Mode-Based Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Ramakrishnan
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW device is investigated through finite element method (FEM simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film made of an arbitrary material is coated over the ZnO surface and the resonance frequency shift caused by mass loading of the film is estimated. It was observed that Sezawa wave mode shows significant sensitivity to change in mass loading and has higher sensitivity (eight times higher than Rayleigh wave mode for the same device configuration. Further, the mass loading sensitivity was observed to be greater for a low ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio. Accordingly, highly sensitive SAW sensors can be developed by coating a sensing medium over a layered SAW device and operating at Sezawa mode resonance frequency. The sensitivity can be increased by tuning the ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio.
Investigation into mass loading sensitivity of sezawa wave mode-based surface acoustic wave sensors.
Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Islam, Md Shabiul; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Parthiban, R; Ramakrishnan, N
2013-02-06
In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW) device is investigated through finite element method (FEM) simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film made of an arbitrary material is coated over the ZnO surface and the resonance frequency shift caused by mass loading of the film is estimated. It was observed that Sezawa wave mode shows significant sensitivity to change in mass loading and has higher sensitivity (eight times higher) than Rayleigh wave mode for the same device configuration. Further, the mass loading sensitivity was observed to be greater for a low ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio. Accordingly, highly sensitive SAW sensors can be developed by coating a sensing medium over a layered SAW device and operating at Sezawa mode resonance frequency. The sensitivity can be increased by tuning the ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio.
Curvilinear parabolic approximation for surface wave transformation with wave current interaction
Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.
2005-04-01
The direct coordinate transformation method, which only transforms independent variables and retains Cartesian dependent variables, may not be an appropriate method for the purpose of simplifying the curvilinear parabolic approximation of the vector form of the wave-current equation given by Kirby [Higher-order approximations in the parabolic equation method for water waves, J. Geophys. Res. 91 (1986) 933-952]. In this paper, the covariant-contravariant tensor method is used for the curvilinear parabolic approximation. We use the covariant components of the wave number vector and contravariant components of the current velocity vector so that the derivation of the curvilinear equation closely follows the higher-order approximation in rectangular Cartesian coordinates in Kirby [Higher-order approximations in the parabolic equation method for water waves, J. Geophys. Res. 91 (1986) 933-952]. The resulting curvilinear equation can be easily implemented using the existing model structure and numerical schemes adopted in the Cartesian parabolic wave model [J.T. Kirby, R.A. Dalrymple, F. Shi, Combined Refraction/Diffraction Model REF/DIF 1, Version 2.6. Documentation and User's Manual, Research Report, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, 2004]. Several examples of wave simulations in curvilinear coordinate systems, including a case with wave-current interaction, are shown with comparisons to theoretical solutions or measurement data.
Reflection of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid with generalized thermodiffusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Baljeet Singh
2005-04-01
The governing equations for generalized thermodiffusion in an elastic solid are solved. There exists three kinds of dilatational waves and a Shear Vertical (SV) wave in a two-dimensional model of the solid. The reflection phenomena of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid with thermodiffusion is considered. The boundary conditions are solved to obtain a system of four non-homogeneous equations for reflection coefficients. These reflection coefficients are found to depend upon the angle of incidence of P and SV waves, thermodiffusion parameters and other material constants. The numerical values of modulus of the reflection coefficients are presented graphically for different values of thermodiffusion parameters. The dimensional velocities of various plane waves are also computed for different material constants.
On the propagation of elasto-thermodiffusive surface waves in heat-conducting materials
Sharma, J. N.; Sharma, Y. D.; Sharma, P. K.
2008-09-01
The present paper deals with the study of the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves in homogeneous isotropic, thermodiffusive elastic half-space. After developing the formal solution of the model, the secular equations for stress free, thermally insulated or isothermal, and isoconcentrated boundary conditions of the half-space have been obtained. The secular equations have been solved by using irreducible Cardano's method with the help of DeMoivre's theorem in order to obtain phase velocity and attenuation coefficient of waves under consideration. The motion of the surface particles during the Rayleigh surface wave propagation is also discussed and found to be elliptical in general. The inclinations of wave normal with the major axis of the elliptical path of a typical particle have also been computed. Finally, the numerically simulated results regarding phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, specific loss and thermo-mechanical coupling factors of thermoelastic diffusive waves have been obtained and presented graphically. Some very interesting and useful characteristics of surface acoustic waves have been obtained, which may help in improving the fabrication quality of optical and electronic devices in addition to construction and design of materials such as semiconductors and composite structures. Therefore, this work finds applications in the geophysics and electronics industry.
Terahertz Wave Propagation in a Nanotube Conveying Fluid Taking into Account Surface Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Fang
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In nanoscale structure sizes, the surface-to-bulk energy ratio is high and the surface effects must be taken into account. Surface effect plays a key role in accurately predicting the vibration behavior of nanostructures. In this paper, the wave behaviors of a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT conveying fluid are studied. The nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory is used and the surface effect is taken into account. It is found that the fluid can flow at a very high flow velocity and the wave propagates in the terahertz frequency range. The surface effects can significantly enhance the propagating frequency. This finding is different from the classical model where the surface effect is neglected.
Simple equations guide high-frequency surface-wave investigation techniques
Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Chen, C.; Kaufmann, R.D.; Luo, Y.
2006-01-01
We discuss five useful equations related to high-frequency surface-wave techniques and their implications in practice. These equations are theoretical results from published literature regarding source selection, data-acquisition parameters, resolution of a dispersion curve image in the frequency-velocity domain, and the cut-off frequency of high modes. The first equation suggests Rayleigh waves appear in the shortest offset when a source is located on the ground surface, which supports our observations that surface impact sources are the best source for surface-wave techniques. The second and third equations, based on the layered earth model, reveal a relationship between the optimal nearest offset in Rayleigh-wave data acquisition and seismic setting - the observed maximum and minimum phase velocities, and the maximum wavelength. Comparison among data acquired with different offsets at one test site confirms the better data were acquired with the suggested optimal nearest offset. The fourth equation illustrates that resolution of a dispersion curve image at a given frequency is directly proportional to the product of a length of a geophone array and the frequency. We used real-world data to verify the fourth equation. The last equation shows that the cut-off frequency of high modes of Love waves for a two-layer model is determined by shear-wave velocities and the thickness of the top layer. We applied this equation to Rayleigh waves and multi-layer models with the average velocity and obtained encouraging results. This equation not only endows with a criterion to distinguish high modes from numerical artifacts but also provides a straightforward means to resolve the depth to the half space of a layered earth model. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Photon management assisted by surface waves on photonic crystals
Angelini, Angelo
2017-01-01
This book illustrates original pathways to manipulate light at the nanoscale by means of surface electromagnetic waves (here, Bloch surface waves, BSWs) on planar dielectric multilayers, also known as one-dimensional photonic crystals. This approach is particularly valuable as it represents an effective alternative to the widely exploited surface plasmon paradigm. After a brief overview on the fundamentals of BSWs, several significant applications of BSW-sustaining structures are described. Particular consideration is given to the propagation, guiding, and diffraction of BSW-coupled radiation. Further, the interaction of organic emitters with BSWs on planar and corrugated multilayers is investigated, including fluorescence beaming in free space. To provide greater insight into sensing applications, an illustrative example of fluorescent microarray-based detection is presented. The book is intended for scientists and researchers working on photon management opportunities in fields such as biosensing, optical c...
Wavefront modulation of water surface wave by a metasurface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙海涛; 程营; 王敬时; 刘晓峻
2015-01-01
We design a planar metasurface to modulate the wavefront of a water surface wave (WSW) on a deep sub-wavelength scale. The metasurface is composed of an array of coiling-up-space units with specially designed parameters, and can take on the work of steering the wavefront when it is pierced into water. Like their acoustic counterparts, the modulation of WSW is ascribed to the gradient phase shift of the coiling-up-space units, which can be perfectly tuned by changing the coiling plate length and channel number inside the units. According to the generalized Snell’s law, negative refraction and‘driven’ surface mode of WSW are also demonstrated at certain incidences. Specially, the transmitted WSW could be efficiently guided out by linking a symmetrically-corrugated channel in‘driven’ surface mode. This work may have potential applications in water wave energy extraction and coastal protection.
Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.
Precessional magnetization switching by a surface acoustic wave
Thevenard, L.; Camara, I. S.; Majrab, S.; Bernard, M.; Rovillain, P.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.
2016-04-01
Precessional switching allows subnanosecond and deterministic reversal of magnetic data bits. It relies on triggering a large-angle, highly nonlinear precession of magnetic moments around a bias field. Here we demonstrate that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating on a magnetostrictive semiconducting material produces an efficient torque that induces precessional switching. This is evidenced by Kerr microscopy and acoustic behavior analysis in a (Ga,Mn)(As,P) thin film. Using SAWs should therefore allow remote and wave control of individual magnetic bits at potentially GHz frequencies.
Evaluation of multilayered pavement structures from measurements of surface waves
Ryden, N.; Lowe, M.J.S.; Cawley, P.; Park, C.B.
2006-01-01
A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorand Catalin STOENESCU
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishing of the flood wave is important in the case of sinuous courses of water or with urban settlements very close to the minor river bed. In the case of Poiana Uzului dam, 2 scenarios were simulated with the help of Ph.D. Eng. Dan Stematiu, plausible scenarios but with very little chances of actually producing. The results were presented as animations with flooded surfaces at certain time steps successively.
Damping of an ion acoustic surface wave due to surface currents
Lee, H J
1999-01-01
The well-known linear dispersion relation for an ion acoustic surface wave has been obtained by including the linear surface current density J sub z parallel to the interface and by neglecting the linear surface current density J sub x perpendicular to the interface. The neglect of J sub x is questionable although it leads to the popular boundary condition that the tangential electric field is continuous. In this work, linear dispersion relation for an ion acoustic surface wave is worked out by including both components of the linear current density J . When that is done, the ion acoustic wave turns out to be heavily damped. If the electron mass is taken to be zero (electrons are Bolzmann-distributed), the perpendicular component of the surface current density vanishes, and we have the well-known ion acoustic surface wave eigenmode. We conclude that an ion acoustic surface wave propagates as an eigenmode only when its phase velocity is much smaller than the electron thermal velocity.
Mesoscale Wind Predictions for Wave Model Evaluation
2016-06-07
N0001400WX20041(B) http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil LONG TERM GOALS The long-term goal is to demonstrate the significance and importance of high...ocean waves by an appropriate wave model. OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this project are to: 1. Build the infrastructure to generate the...temperature for all COAMPS grids at the resolution of each of these grids. These analyses are important for the proper 2 specification of the lower
Practical use of variational principles for modeling water waves
Clamond, Didier
2010-01-01
This paper describes a method for deriving approximate equations for water waves. The method is based on a `relaxed' variational principle, i.e., on a Lagrangian involving as many variables as possible. This formulation is particularly suitable for the construction of approximate water wave models, since it allows more freedom while preserving the variational structure. The advantages of this relaxed formulation are illustrated with various examples in shallow and deep waters, as well as arbitrary depths. Using subordinate constraints (e.g., irrotationality and free surface impermeability) in various combinations, several model equations are derived, some being well-known, other being new. The models obtained are studied analytically and exact travelling wave solutions are constructed when possible.
Lee, Sangdae; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Ki-Bok
2013-11-01
Biosensors are used in a variety of fields for early diagnosis of diseases, measurement of toxic contaminants, quick detection of pathogens, and separation of specific proteins or DNA. In this study, we fabricated and evaluated the capability of a high sensitivity Love wave surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor. The experimental setup was composed of the fabricated 155-MHz Love wave SAW biosensor, a signal measurement system, a liquid flow system, and a temperature-control system. Subsequently, we measured the lower limit of detection (LOD) of the 155-MHz Love wave SAW biosensor, and calculated the association and dissociation constants between protein G and anti-mouse IgG using kinetic analysis. We compared these results with those obtained using a commercial surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. We found that the LOD of the SAW biosensor for anti-mouse IgG and mouse IgG was 0.5 and 1 microg/ml, respectively, and the resultant equilibrium association and dissociation constants were similar to the corresponding values obtaining using the commercial SPR biosensor. Thus, we conclude that the fabricated 155-MHz Love wave SAW biosensor exhibited the high sensitivity of the commercial SPR biosensor and was able to analyze the binding properties of the ligand and receptor by kinetic analysis similarly to the commercial SPR biosensor.
Aijaz, S.; Ghantous, M.; Babanin, A. V.; Ginis, I.; Thomas, B.; Wake, G.
2017-05-01
The effects of turbulence generated by nonbreaking waves have been investigated by testing and evaluating a new nonbreaking wave parameterization in a coupled hurricane-ocean-wave model. The MPI version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) with hurricane forcing is coupled with the WAVEWATCH-III (WW3) surface wave model. Hurricane Ivan is chosen as the test case due to its extreme intensity and availability of field data during its passage. The model results are validated against field observations of wave heights and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the National Data Buoy Centre (NDBC) during Hurricane Ivan and against limited in situ current and bottom temperature data. A series of numerical experiments is set up to examine the influence of the nonbreaking wave parameterization on the mixing of upper ocean. The SST response from the modeling experiments indicates that the nonbreaking wave-induced mixing leads to significant cooling of the SST and deepening of the mixed layer. It was found that the nondimensional constant b1 in the nonbreaking wave parameterization has different impacts on the weak and the strong sides of the storm track. A constant value of b1 leads to improved predictions on the strong side of the storm while a steepness-dependent b1 provides a better agreement with in situ observations on the weak side. A separate simulation of the intense tropical cyclone Olwyn in north-west Australia revealed the same trend for b1 on the strong side of the tropical cyclone.
Oil slicks on water surface: Breakup, coalescence, and droplet formation under breaking waves.
Nissanka, Indrajith D; Yapa, Poojitha D
2017-01-15
The ability to calculate the oil droplet size distribution (DSD) and its dynamic behavior in the water column is important in oil spill modeling. Breaking waves disperse oil from a surface slick into the water column as droplets of varying sizes. Oil droplets undergo further breakup and coalescence in the water column due to the turbulence. Available models simulate oil DSD based on empirical/equilibrium equations. However, the oil DSD evolution due to subsequent droplet breakup and coalescence in the water column can be best represented by a dynamic population model. This paper develops a phenomenological model to calculate the oil DSD in wave breaking conditions and ocean turbulence and is based on droplet breakup and coalescence. Its results are compared with data from laboratory experiments that include different oil types, different weathering times, and different breaking wave heights. The model comparisons showed a good agreement with experimental data.
Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fangqian Xu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The optimization of an surface acoustic wave (SAW-based rate sensor incorporating metallic dot arrays was performed by using the approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media. The optimal sensor chip designs, including the material choice of piezoelectric crystals and metallic dots, dot thickness, and sensor operation frequency were determined theoretically. The theoretical predictions were confirmed experimentally by using the developed SAW sensor composed of differential delay line-oscillators and a metallic dot array deposited along the acoustic wave propagation path of the SAW delay lines. A significant improvement in sensor sensitivity was achieved in the case of 128° YX LiNbO3, and a thicker Au dot array, and low operation frequency were used to structure the sensor.
Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud.
Berné, Olivier; Marcelino, Núria; Cernicharo, José
2010-08-19
Massive stars influence their parental molecular cloud, and it has long been suspected that the development of hydrodynamical instabilities can compress or fragment the cloud. Identifying such instabilities has proved difficult. It has been suggested that elongated structures (such as the 'pillars of creation') and other shapes arise because of instabilities, but alternative explanations are available. One key signature of an instability is a wave-like structure in the gas, which has hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of 'waves' at the surface of the Orion molecular cloud near where massive stars are forming. The waves seem to be a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that arises during the expansion of the nebula as gas heated and ionized by massive stars is blown over pre-existing molecular gas.
Biological decontamination of surfaces using guided ionization waves
Jarrige, Julien; Zaepffel, Clement
2016-09-01
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets have received an increasing attention these last ten years in various domains, including biomedical applications and decontamination. Among these technologies, guided ionization waves (also called ``plasma bullets'') are very promising because of their ability to produce a highly non-equilibrium plasma. Reactive species can be generated in the open air over a long distance during the propagation of the wave (typically: several cm), while the background gas remains at ambient temperature. A non-thermal plasma system has been developed and tested for the biological decontamination of surfaces. It consists of a dielectric barrier discharge in a helium flow driven by high voltage pulses. The propagation of the ionization wave and the spatial distribution of the species have been characterized by high speed imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. The influence of the discharge parameters on the plasma properties is investigated. Results of decontamination on several bacteria are shown, and the decontamination efficiency is compared with the plasma properties.
Identification of Swell in Nearshore Surface Wave Energy Spectra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul A. Work
2010-06-01
Full Text Available An approach for routine identification of swell and sea in nominally fully developed, omnidirectional, surface water wave energy spectra measured in arbitrary water depth is developed, applied, and discussed. The methodology is an extension of earlier work with deepwater spectra and involves identifying the frequency at which wave steepness is maximized and relating this to the swell separation frequency. The TMA parameterized spectrum is employed to establish a relationship between the two frequencies so that the methodology can be used when wind data are unavailable. The methodology is developed for finite water depth and tested using a dataset that includes both acoustic Doppler current profiler and wave buoy data, recorded simultaneously at the same location. For cases where the sea and swell are clearly, visually distinguishable in the omnidirectional spectra, the new method accurately distinguishes between the two, but it can also be used to identify sea and swell in unimodal spectra.
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2017-02-01
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
Wave Modeling of the Solar Wind.
Ofman, Leon
The acceleration and heating of the solar wind have been studied for decades using satellite observations and models. However, the exact mechanism that leads to solar wind heating and acceleration is poorly understood. In order to improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms that are involved in these processes a combination of modeling and observational analysis is required. Recent models constrained by satellite observations show that wave heating in the low-frequency (MHD), and high-frequency (ion-cyclotron) range may provide the necessary momentum and heat input to coronal plasma and produce the solar wind. This review is focused on the results of several recent solar modeling studies that include waves explicitly in the MHD and the kinetic regime. The current status of the understanding of the solar wind acceleration and heating by waves is reviewed.
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Surface-Wave Plasma Source
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LAN Chaohui; CHEN Zhaoquan; LIU Minghai; JIANG Zhonghe; HU Xiwei
2009-01-01
A three-dimensional model of a surface-wave plasma(SWP)source is built numerically using the finite-difference time-domain(FDTD)method to investigate the structure of the surface wave propagation along the plasma-dielectric interface and the distributions of electromagnetic fields in the whole system.A good-performance excitation source technique for the waveguide which is pivotal to the simulation is presented.The technique can avoid the dc distortions of magnetic fields caused by the forcing electric wall.An example of simulation is given to confirm the existence of the surface waves.The simulation also shows that the code developed is a useful tool in the computer-aided design of the antenna of the SWP source.
Surface acoustic waves enhance neutrophil killing of bacteria.
Loike, John D; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold
2013-01-01
Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm(2), significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria.