WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface trenches designed

  1. Universal trench design method for a high-voltage SOI trench LDMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xiarong; Zhang Bo; Luo Xiaorong; Li Zhaoji

    2012-01-01

    The design method for a high-voltage SOl trench LDMOS for various trench permittivities,widths and depths is introduced.A universal method for efficient design is presented for the first time,taking the trade-off between breakdown voltage (BV) and specific on-resistance (Rs,on) into account.The high-k (relative permittivity)dielectric is suitable to fill a shallow and wide trench while the low-k dielectric is suitable to fill a deep and narrow trench.An SOI LDMOS with a vacuum trench in the drift region is also discussed.Simulation results show that the high FOM BV2/Rs,on can be achieved with a trench filled with the low-k dielectric due to its shortened cell-pitch.

  2. A dual model approach to ground water recovery trench design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.L.; Crouch, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The design of trenches for contaminated ground water recovery must consider several variables. This paper presents a dual-model approach for effectively recovering contaminated ground water migrating toward a trench by advection. The approach involves an analytical model to determine the vertical influence of the trench and a numerical flow model to determine the capture zone within the trench and the surrounding aquifer. The analytical model is utilized by varying trench dimensions and head values to design a trench which meets the remediation criteria. The numerical flow model is utilized to select the type of backfill and location of sumps within the trench. The dual-model approach can be used to design a recovery trench which effectively captures advective migration of contaminants in the vertical and horizontal planes

  3. Trench angle: a key design factor for a deep trench superjunction MOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyemin; Lee, Jaegil; Lee, Kwangwon; Choi, Youngchul

    2015-01-01

    Why is the development of a deep trench superjunction (SJ) MOSFET above 600 V and under 8.0 mohm · cm 2 difficult? A deep trench SJ MOSFET is expected to have a low turn-on resistance because the post thermal process after the epitaxial process, which is normally used in a multi-step epitaxy structure, is unnecessary. When designing a deep trench SJ MOSFET, the trench angle is the most important factor because this determines the breakdown voltage (BV) and BV variations. In this paper, we investigated how the trench angle affects the BV and BV window as a condition of the possible thermal process. By employing a physical concept, ΔCharge, we explained why the maximum BV is decreased and the BV window is increased as the trench angle decreases. Also, we systematically scrutinized the transition of the vertical electric field by varying the trench angle. Furthermore, in a real case, the principle of the trench angle which contributes to the deviation of the charge imbalance and specific resistance of SJ is described. Finally, we discuss the challenge of SJ MOSFET development in the industry. (paper)

  4. Innovative designs for low-level nuclear waste disposal trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowatzki, E.A.; Armstrong, G.; McCray, J.

    1985-01-01

    Shallow land burial of low-level nuclear wastes presents many problems that are within the scope of civil engineering analysis and design. These include groundwater seepage, surface water runoff and collection, and the subsidence of trench backfills. Unfortunately, at the time the first disposal sites were being developed, major emphasis was placed on the health-physics aspects of the problem with the result that many of the civil engineering aspects were overlooked and severe problems relating to site integrity exist today. This paper presents the results of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsored research project conducted at the University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, to assess trench cap design from the viewpoint of stability, water infiltration, and economy. Full-scale trenches were constructed that incorporated four different designs. These designs range from a relatively simple cap consisting of engineered backfill with a sloping, compacted soil crown to a more complex cap-crown system that incorporates compacted backfill and a steel reinforced soil-cement cap with an overlaying ''wick'' drain. The results of structural and hydrological monitoring over a period of approximately 15 months are presented. Recommendations are made regarding standard design criteria for future sites based on the results of this research

  5. The design and performance of a low-cost, soil cement cap for LLNW disposal trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowatzki, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past three years, the University of Arizona has conducted research for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to assess various trench cap designs from the viewpoint of structural stability, water infiltration, and economy. As part of that project, four experimental trenches were built and monitored at each of two semi-arid sites in the vicinity of Tucson, Arizona. In this paper, the design and construction of one of those trenches are described in detail. That trench included a cap-crown system that incorporates compacted soil backfill and a steel-reinforced, soil-cement cap with an overlying 'wick' drain. The results of structural monitoring over a period of approximately 2 years are presented and compared to those of a more conventionally designed trench. The results are evaluated with respect to surface subsidence and movements of the cap-crown components as they affect moisture infiltration. Recommendations are made regarding standard design criteria for LLNW disposal trenches based on the results of this research

  6. A decision tool for selecting trench cap designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A computer based prototype decision support system (PDSS) is being developed to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites. The selection of the {open_quote}best{close_quote} design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of: selecting and parameterizing decision variables using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. Trench cap designs are evaluated based on federal regulations, hydrologic performance, cover stability and cost. Four trench cap designs, which were monitored for a four year period at Hill Air Force Base in Utah, are used to demonstrate the application of the PDSS and evaluate the results of the decision model. The results of the PDSS, using both data and simulations, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cap designs and which cap is the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria.

  7. Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects

  8. Effect of surface roughness of trench sidewalls on electrical properties in 4H-SiC trench MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Yuki; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Onishi, Toru; Yamamoto, Kensaku; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Ito, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    The effects of the surface roughness of trench sidewalls on electrical properties have been investigated in 4H-SiC trench MOSFETs. The surface roughness of trench sidewalls was well controlled and evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The effective channel mobility at each measurement temperature was analyzed on the basis of the mobility model including optical phonon scattering. The results revealed that surface roughness scattering had a small contribution to channel mobility, and at the arithmetic average roughness in the range of 0.4-1.4 nm, there was no correlation between the experimental surface roughness and the surface roughness scattering mobility. On the other hand, the characteristics of the gate leakage current and constant current stress time-dependent dielectric breakdown tests demonstrated that surface morphology had great impact on the long-term reliability of gate oxides.

  9. Trench design and construction techniques for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, P.G.

    1983-02-01

    This document provides information on trench design and construction techniques which can be used in the disposal of LLW by shallow land burial. It covers practices currently in use not only in the LLW disposal field, but also methods and materials being used in areas of hazardous and municipal waste disposal which are compatible with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 61. The complexity of a disposal site and its potential problems dictate the use of site-specific characteristics when designing a LLW disposal trench. This report presents the LLW disposal trench as consisting of various elements or unit processes. The term unit processes is used as it more fully relays the impact of the designer's choice of methods and materials. When choosing a material to fulfill the function of a certain trench element, the designer is also stipulating a portion of his operational procedure which must be compatible with the disposal operation as a whole. Information is provided on the properties, selection, and installation of various materials such as bentonite, soil-cement, polymeric materials, asphaltic materials, and geotechnical fabrics. This is not intended to outline step-by-step procedures. Basically, three time frames are addressed with respect to construction techniques; preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Within each of these time frames there are certain construction techniques which can be employed by the designer to enhance the overall ease of construction and ultimate success of the disposal facility. Among the techniques presented are precontouring the disposal area, alignment of the trench axis, sloping the trench bottom, incremental excavation, and surface water (runoff) management

  10. Groundwater suppression and surface water diversion structures applied to closed shallow land burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Stansfield, R.G.; Melroy, L.A.; Huff, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Shallow depth to groundwater, surface drainage, and subsurface flow during storm events are major environmental concerns of low-level radioactive waste management operations in humid regions. At two waste disposal sites within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), groups of closed trenches have experienced these problems and have been shown to collect and hold water with seasonal fluctuations ranging from 1 to 2 m. In an attempt to correct these water-related problems, the older of the two sites [Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA 4)] was equipped in September 1975 with asphalt lined drainage-ways designed to prevent infiltration of storm drainage from a 13.8-ha upslope catchment. At the second site (49-Trench area of SWSA 6), the entire 0.44-ha trench area was capped with a bentonite clay cover in 1976. These attempts have not corrected the water problems. In September 1983, engineered drainage projects were initiated at both the disposal sites. The SWSA 4 project was designed to divert surface runoff and shallow subsurface flow which originates upslope of the site away from the disposal area. The second project, a passive French drain constructed in SWSA 6, was aimed strictly at suppressing the site water table, thus preventing its intersection with the bottoms of disposal trenches. Postconstruction monitoring for performance evaluation has shown that the water table in the 49-Trench area has been suppressed to a depth > 4.9 m below the ground surface over 50% of the site as compared to a depth of only 2.1 m for certain parts of the same area observed during seasonally wet months prior to drain construction. The SWSA 4 project evaluation indicates that 56% of the Winter-Spring 1984 runoff was diverted around SWSA 4 via the drainage system

  11. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  12. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  13. Evaluation of a prototype decision support system for selecting trench cap designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    A computer-based prototype decision support system (PDSS) to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites is evaluated. The selection of the open-quotes bestclose quotes design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of. selecting and parameterizing decision variables, using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The simulation models incorporated in the PDSS are the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model which is used to simulate the trench cap water balance and the Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems (CREAMS) erosion component that is used to simulate trench cap erosion. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. The PDSS is evaluated using the Hill Air Force Base landfill cover demonstration project. The water balance and surface erosion of four alternative landfill cover designs were monitored for a 4-yr period. Two of the cover designs were used to calibrate and test the simulation models. The results of the PDSS, using both data from all four designs and long-term simulations from two of the designs, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cover designs and which cover is the open-quotes bestclose quotes alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Effectiveness of a ground-surface polymer membrane covering as a method for limiting infiltration into burial trenches at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) was operated as a shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive wastes for a period of 14 years (1963-1977). In 1977, radionuclides were found to be migrating from a closed disposal trench into an adjacent newly constructed trench. This discovery prompted closure of the site. Over time, deterioration of the shale and clay cover on the trenches had resulted from subsidence due to the collapse of buried metallic containers and the decomposition of various organic wastes within the trenches. This subsidence increased infiltration of water into the trenches as surface water was retained over the waste in potholes and small ponds. Although infiltration rates to the waste increased, seepage rates of leachate out of the bottom and sides of the trenches were very slow due to the low permeability of surrounding native shale soils (average hydraulic conductivity 4 x 10 -3 ft/day). In 1981, a program was implemented to correct deficiencies and stabilize the site. This paper describes the effectiveness of one design method where a low permeable (hydraulic conductivity -9 ft/sec) polyvinylchloride membrane cover (PVC) 0.015 to 0.020 inches thick was placed over the burial trenches. The covers were installed over trenches beginning in the fall of 1981. Each trench is equipped with several sumps for the collection and removal of leachate. Water-level data were collected on sumps from five trenches during the study period May 1978 to October 1984, which spanned a period prior to and after installation of the PVC cover. 3 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  15. Resisting and pinning of a nanodrop by trenches on a hysteresis-free surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Chung; Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2016-10-01

    The encounter of a nanodrop with a trench on a hysteresis-free surface is explored by many-body dissipative particle dynamics to show the effect of surface roughness on droplet wetting. A free nanodrop exhibits Brownian motion and the diffusivity decays exponentially with the liquid-solid contact area. In contrast, as the nanodrop sits on a trench, its random motion is constrained. Work must be done to overcome the energy barriers for the transition between free and trapped states. The potential energy landscape is thus constructed based on the force-displacement plot. It is shown that the trench acts as a hydrophobic blemish for capture but like a hydrophilic blemish for escape. A drop always breaks up after detachment from a hydrophilic trench. Therefore, the drop tends to bypass a small trench when it meets one. The macroscopic experiments are performed by fabricating liquid-infused surfaces with extremely low contact angle hysteresis. The experimental observations agree qualitatively with simulation outcomes.

  16. Deep-Sea Trench Microbiology Down to 10.9 Kilometers Below the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea trenches, extending to more than 10.9 km below the sea surface, are among the most remote and infrequently sampled habitats. As a result a global perspective of microbial diversity and adaptation is lacking in these extreme settings. I will present the results of studies of deep-sea trench microbes collected in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT), Tonga Trench, New Britain Trench and Mariana Trench. The samples collected include sediment, seawater and animals in baited traps. The analyses to be described include microbial community activity and viability measurements as a function of hydrostatic pressure, microbial culturing at high pressure under various physiological conditions, phylogenetics and metagenome and single-cell genome characterizations. Most of the results to date stem from samples recovered from the PRT. The deep-sea PRT Trench microbes have more in common at the species level with other deep-sea microbial communities previously characterized in the Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea than with the microbial populations above them in shallow waters. They also harbor larger genomes with more genes assigned to signal transduction, transcription, replication, recombination and repair and inorganic ion transport. The overrepresented transporters in the PRT metagenome include di- and tri-carboxylate transporters that correspond to the prevailing catabolic processes such as butanoate, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. A surprisingly high abundance of sulfatases for the degradation of sulfated polysaccharides were also present in the PRT. But, perhaps the most dramatic adaptational feature of the PRT microbes is heavy metal resistance, as reflected in the high numbers of metal efflux systems present. Single-cell genomics approaches have proven particularly useful for placing PRT metagenomic data into context.

  17. Design improvements on shallow-land burial trenches for disposing of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, E.S.; Salsman, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The lack of success of closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites has prompted the federal government to increase regulation of these facilities. In order to meet these increased requirements, several waste trench improvements are necessary. These improvements to the trench include sandy-clay caps, compacted sandy-clay bottoms, in-place geophysical instruments and vadose zone sampling equipment, and concrete sidewalls. These design improvements presented in this paper should increase the containment of the radionuclides by decreasing the waste contact with infiltrating groundwater. The design improves on the monitoring and sampling methods for detecting radionuclides transported through the leachate or gas effluent streams. 13 references, 4 figures

  18. Design of homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers based on analytical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2016-01-01

    We present a design method of homogeneous trench-assisted multicore fibers (TA-MCFs) based on an analytical model utilizing an analytical expression for the mode coupling coefficient between two adjacent cores. The analytical model can also be used for crosstalk (XT) properties analysis, such as ...

  19. Designing 4H-SiC P-shielding trench gate MOSFET to optimize on-off electrical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoung, Sinsu; Hong, Young-sung; Lee, Myung-hwan; Nam, Tae-jin

    2018-02-01

    In order to enhance specific on-resistance (Ron,sp), the trench gate structure was also introduced into 4H-SiC MOSFET as Si MOSFET. But the 4H-SiC trench gate has worse off-state characteristics than the Si trench gate due to the incomplete gate oxidation process (Šimonka et al., 2017). In order to overcome this problem, P-shielding trench gate MOSFET (TMOS) was proposed and researched in previous studies. But P-shielding has to be designed with minimum design rule in order to protect gate oxide effectively. P-shielding TMOS also has the drawback of on-state characteristics degradation corresponding to off state improvement for minimum design rule. Therefore optimized design is needed to satisfy both on and off characteristics. In this paper, the design parameters were analyzed and optimized so that the 4H-SiC P-shielding TMOS satisfies both on and off characteristics. Design limitations were proposed such that P-shielding is able to defend the gate oxide. The P-shielding layer should have the proper junction depth and concentration to defend the electric field to gate oxide during the off-state. However, overmuch P-shielding junction depth disturbs the on-state current flow, a problem which can be solved by increasing the trench depth. As trench depth increases, however, the breakdown voltage decreases. Therefore, trench depth should be designed with due consideration for on-off characteristics. For this, design conditions and modeling were proposed which allow P-shielding to operate without degradation of on-state characteristics. Based on this proposed model, the 1200 V 4H-SiC P-shielding trench gate MOSFET was designed and optimized.

  20. Phoenix Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair This image is a stereo, panoramic view of various trenches dug by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The images that make up this panorama were taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager at about 4 p.m., local solar time at the landing site, on the 131st, Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). In figure 1, the trenches are labeled in orange and other features are labeled in blue. Figures 2 and 3 are the left- and right-eye members of a stereo pair. For scale, the 'Pet Donkey' trench just to the right of center is approximately 38 centimeters (15 inches) long and 31 to 34 centimeters (12 to 13 inches) wide. In addition, the rock in front of it, 'Headless,' is about 11.5 by 8.5 centimeters (4.5 by 3.3 inches), and about 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5

  2. Paleoseismic Trenching on 1939 Erzincan and 1942 Niksar-Erbaa Earthquake Surface Ruptures, the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, H. S.; Karabacak, V.; Zabci, C.; Sancar, T.; Altunel, E.; Gursoy, H.; Tatar, O.

    2009-04-01

    Two devastating earthquakes occurred between Erzincan (39.75N, 39.49E) and Erbaa, Tokat (40.70N, 36.58E) just three years one after another in 1939 and 1942. While 1939 Erzincan earthquake (M=7.8) ruptured nearly 360 km, 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake (M=7.1) has a length of 50 km surface rupture. Totally, more than 35000 citizens lost their lives after these events. Although Turkey has one of the richest historical earthquake records, there is no clear evidence of the spatial distribution of paleoevents within these two earthquake segments of the North Anatolian Fault. 17 August 1668 Anatolian earthquake is one of the known previous earthquakes that may have occurred on the same segments with a probable rupture length of more than 400 km. It is still under debate in different catalogues, if it was ruptured in multiple events or a single one. We achieved paleoseismic trench studies to have a better understanding on the recurrence of large earthquakes on these two faults in the framework of T.C. DPT. Project no. 2006K120220. We excavated a total of 8 trenches in 7 different sites. While three of them are along the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar Earthquake rupture, others are located on the 1939 Erzincan one. Alanici and Direkli trenches were excavated on the 1942 rupture. Direkli trench site is located at the west of Niksar, Tokat (40.62N, 36.85E) on the fluvial terrace deposits of the Kelkit River. Only one paleoevent could be determined from the structural relationships of the trench wall stratigraphy. By radiocarbon dating of charcoal sample from above the event horizon indicates that this earthquake should have occurred before 480-412 BC. The second trench, Alanici, on the same segment was located between Erbaa and Niksar (40.65N, 36.78E) at the western boundary of a sag-pond. While signs of two (possible three) earthquakes were identified on the trench wall, the prior event to 1942 Earthquake is dated to be before 5th century AD. We interpreted this to have possibility of

  3. Fully engineered shallow trench design concepts for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, J.

    1984-09-01

    In this report, the results of the reviews of design concepts, waste arisings and release mechanisms are described. The basic principles of radiological protection and the proposed strategy for land disposal in the UK are outlined. The essential features of engineered trenches are described with some discussion of the likely material choices and their influence on nuclide release. The radiological protection criteria adopted in this study is that the overall risk of serious health effects arising from any release of radioactivity from a shallow engineered trench should always be less than 10 -6 per annum, which corresponds to a received dose of 0.1 mSv/yr. This approach to radiological protection takes account of the two components of risk of health detriment to future generations; namely the probability that a release of radionuclides will occur and the probability that the subsequent radiation doses will give rise to deleterious effects. A compilation is presented of the waste streams and expected volumes and activities that may be designated for LAND 2 disposal and an initial estimate of the associated nuclide inventory is given. (author)

  4. Residual thermal desorption studies of Ga adatoms on trenched Si(5 5 12) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Kumar, Mahesh; Shivaprasad, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present here the thermal stability studies of the room temperature adsorbed Ga/Si(5 5 12) interfaces in the monolayer coverage regime, using AES and LEED as in-situ UHV characterization probes. Ga grows in Stranski–Krastanov growth mode at RT on the 2 × 1 reconstructed Si(5 5 12) surface where islands form on top of 2 ML of flat pseudomorphic Ga, yielding a (1 × 1) LEED pattern for coverages of 1.2 ML and above. When this RT adsorbed Ga/Si(5 5 12) interface is annealed at different temperatures, initially the strained Ga adlayers relax by agglomerating into 3D islands on top of a single Ga monolayer with an activation energy of 0.19 eV in the temperature range of 200–300 °C. The remnant Ga monolayer with a sharp (1 × 1) LEED pattern desorbs at temperature >400 °C, yielding the (1 1 2)–6 × 1 and 2 × (3 3 7) sub-monolayer superstructural. Finally at 720 °C Ga completely desorbs from the surface and leaves the clean 2 × 1 reconstructed Si(5 5 12) surface. The studies demonstrate the richness of the atomically trenched high index Si(5 5 12) surface, in obtaining several anisotropic features that can be used as templates to grow self-assembled nanostructures.

  5. Residual thermal desorption studies of Ga adatoms on trenched Si(5 5 12) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); ISOM, Universidad Politecnia de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Kumar, Mahesh [Physics and Energy Harvesting Group, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Shivaprasad, S.M., E-mail: smsprasad@jncasr.ac.in [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2013-10-01

    We present here the thermal stability studies of the room temperature adsorbed Ga/Si(5 5 12) interfaces in the monolayer coverage regime, using AES and LEED as in-situ UHV characterization probes. Ga grows in Stranski–Krastanov growth mode at RT on the 2 × 1 reconstructed Si(5 5 12) surface where islands form on top of 2 ML of flat pseudomorphic Ga, yielding a (1 × 1) LEED pattern for coverages of 1.2 ML and above. When this RT adsorbed Ga/Si(5 5 12) interface is annealed at different temperatures, initially the strained Ga adlayers relax by agglomerating into 3D islands on top of a single Ga monolayer with an activation energy of 0.19 eV in the temperature range of 200–300 °C. The remnant Ga monolayer with a sharp (1 × 1) LEED pattern desorbs at temperature >400 °C, yielding the (1 1 2)–6 × 1 and 2 × (3 3 7) sub-monolayer superstructural. Finally at 720 °C Ga completely desorbs from the surface and leaves the clean 2 × 1 reconstructed Si(5 5 12) surface. The studies demonstrate the richness of the atomically trenched high index Si(5 5 12) surface, in obtaining several anisotropic features that can be used as templates to grow self-assembled nanostructures.

  6. Trench mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gingivae). The term trench mouth comes from World War I, when this infection was common among soldiers " ... mouth include: Emotional stress Poor oral hygiene Poor nutrition Smoking Throat, tooth, or mouth infections Trench mouth ...

  7. Subsurface moisture regimes and tracer movement under two types of trench-cap designs for shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.A.; Cokal, E.J.

    1986-03-01

    The Los Alamos work has focused on proper design of shallow land burial (SLB) sites in arid and semiarid regions and on applying corrective measures to existing sites. One of the most important design features affecting the probability of movement of radionuclides in SLB sites is the type of trench cap placed over the waste. The cap influences such interdependent parameters as erosion, water infiltration and percolation, and biointrusion. To obtain experimental data for arid and semiarid sites, two different designs of trench caps, one with topsoil underlain with a cobble/gravel biobarrier and one with topsoil underlain with crushed tuff, were compared with respect to (1) seasonal changes in volumetric soil water content, and (2) downward migration of tracers emplaced directly below each type of trench cap. The causes for the large differences in concentrations found in this experiment need to be investigated further. Problems in environmental modeling and monitoring of arid and semiarid SLB sites because of heterogeneities in the soil profiles and their implications for SLB waste management need to be better understood. More work in trench-cap design and its influence on the many pathways available for mobilization is needed

  8. Effects of vegetation and soil-surface cover treatments on the hydrologic behavior of low-level waste trench caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, E.A.; Barnes, F.J.; Antonio, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field study at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different low-level radioactive waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on a decommissioned waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot is measured after each precipitation event. Soil moisture is measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Continued monitoring of the study site will provide data that will be used to analyze complex interactions between independent variables such rainfall amount and intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and soil and vegetation factors, as they influence water balance, and soil erosion. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The special trench design near the through silicon vias (TSVs) to reduce the keep-out zone for application in three-dimensional integral circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, M-H

    2013-01-01

    Trench structure is designed and used to release process induced stress, resulting from the different material thermal expansion coefficients, in three-dimensional integral circuits (3DICs). The stress in the designed trench structure is measured by atomic force microscope Raman technique experimentally, and simulated by the full process simulation model. With the help of this simulation model, the optimized trench structure near the copper-filled TSV is designed and reported. The experimental data demonstrate that the tensile stress near the TSV can be reduced from 600 MPa to 150 MPa and the corresponding keep-out zone (KOZ) can also be decreased ∼4 times with the designed trench structure having a depth of 10 µm and spacing distance of 8 µm to the TSV. This work provides one potential solution to release process induced stress for real application of 3DICs. (paper)

  10. Magnetron target designs to improve wafer edge trench filling in ionized metal physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junqing; Yoon, Jae-Hong; Shin, Keesam; Park, Bong-Gyu; Yang Lin

    2006-01-01

    Severe asymmetry of the metal deposits on the trench sidewalls occurs near the wafer edge during low pressure ionized metal physical vapor deposition of Cu seed layer for microprocessor interconnects. To investigate this process and mitigate the asymmetry, an analytical view factor model based on the analogy between metal sputtering and diffuse thermal radiation was constructed. The model was validated based on the agreement between the model predictions and the reported experimental values for the asymmetric metal deposition at trench sidewalls near the wafer edge for a 200 mm wafer. This model could predict the thickness of the metal deposits across the wafer, the symmetry of the deposits on the trench sidewalls at any wafer location, and the angular distributions of the metal fluxes arriving at any wafer location. The model predictions for the 300 mm wafer indicate that as the target-to-wafer distance is shortened, the deposit thickness increases and the asymmetry decreases, however the overall uniformity decreases. Up to reasonable limits, increasing the target size and the sputtering intensity for the outer target portion significantly improves the uniformity across the wafer and the symmetry on the trench sidewalls near the wafer edge

  11. Mantle Serpentinization near the Central Mariana Trench Constrained by Ocean Bottom Surface Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, C.; Wiens, D. A.; Lizarralde, D.; Eimer, M. O.; Shen, W.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle seismic structure across the Mariana trench by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities from ambient noise and longer period phase velocities from Helmholtz tomography of teleseismic waveforms. We use data from a temporary deployment in 2012-2013, consisting of 7 island-based stations and 20 broadband ocean bottom seismographs, as well as data from the USGS Northern Mariana Islands Seismograph Network. To avoid any potential bias from the starting model, we use a Bayesian Monte-Carlo algorithm to invert for the azimuthally-averaged SV-wave velocity at each node. This method also allows us to apply prior constraints on crustal thickness and other parameters in a systematic way, and to derive formal estimates of velocity uncertainty. The results show the development of a low velocity zone within the incoming plate beginning about 80 km seaward of the trench axis, consistent with the onset of bending faults from bathymetry and earthquake locations. The maximum depth of the velocity anomaly increases towards the trench, and extends to about 30 km below the seafloor. The low velocities persist after the plate is subducted, as a 20-30 km thick low velocity layer with a somewhat smaller velocity reduction is imaged along the top of the slab beneath the forearc. An extremely low velocity zone is observed beneath the serpentine seamounts in the outer forearc, consistent with 40% serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge. Azimuthal anisotropy results show trench parallel fast axis within the incoming plate at uppermost mantle depth (2%-4% anisotropy). All these observations suggest the velocity reduction in the incoming plate prior to subduction results from both serpentinized normal faults and water-filled cracks. Water is expelled from the cracks early in subduction, causing a modest increase in the velocity of the subducting mantle, and moves upward and causes serpentinization of the outer forearc

  12. Learning from the Trenches of Embodiment Design : The Designing, Prototyping, and Fabricating a Large Interactive Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, J.C.; Saakes, D.; Luxen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The advent of ubiquitous computing requires us to reconsider all aspects of industrial design engineering – to invent, package and optimize such products, services and experiences to society. This project was devised to bridge these in a compelling and magical prototype, called the

  13. Field evaluation of two shallow land burial trench cap designs for long-term stabilization and closure of waste repositories at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.; Drennon, B.; Hakonson, T.

    1989-02-01

    The results from several field experiments on methods to control soil erosion, biointrusion, and water infiltration were used to design and test a burial site cover which improves the ability of the disposal site to isolate the wastes. The performance of the improved cover design in managing water and biota at the disposal site was compared with a more conventional design widely used in the industry. The conventional trench cover design consists of 15 cm of sandy loam topsoil over 75 cm of sandy silt backfill, whereas the improved trench cover design consists of 75 cm of topsoil over a minimum of 25 cm of gravel and 90 cm of river cobble. Each plot was lined with an impermeable liner to allow for mass balance calculation of water dynamics and contains hydrologic tracer ions (iodide and bromide) to demonstrate movement of water through the various zones of the trench cap. Cesium was emplaced beneath the trench cap to indicate root penetration through the trench cap, observed by sampling plant samples collected on the plots and assaying them for cesium. The field data are summarized and discussed in terms of its usefulness for waste management decisions. 67 refs., 44 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhöfer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    consumption rates and sediment characteristics from the trench axis of two contrasting trench systems in the Pacific Ocean; the Izu-Bonin Trench underlying mesotrophic waters and the Tonga Trench underlying oligotrophic waters. In situ oxygen consumption at the Izu-Bonin Trench axis site (9200 m; 746 +/- 103...... mu mol m(-2) d(-1); n=27) was 3-times higher than at the Tonga Trench axis site (10800 m; 225 +/- 50 pmol m(-2) d(-1); n=7) presumably reflecting the higher surface water productivity in the Northern Pacific. Comparing benthic O-2 consumption rates measured in the central hadal Tonga Trench...... to that of nearby (60 km distance) abyssal settings (6250 m; 92 +/- 44 mu mol m(-2) d(-1); n=16) revealed a 2.5 higher activity at the trench bottom. Onboard investigations on recovered sediment furthermore revealed that the prokaryotic abundance and concentrations of phytopigments followed this overall trend (i...

  15. Characterization of deep nanoscale surface trenches with AFM using thin carbon nanotube probes in amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of deep surface trenches with atomic force microscopy (AFM) presents significant challenges due to the sharp step edges that disturb the instrument and prevent it from faithfully reproducing the sample topography. Previous authors have developed AFM methodologies to successfully characterize semiconductor surface trenches with dimensions on the order of tens of nanometers. However, the study of imaging fidelity for features with dimensions smaller than 10 nm has not yet received sufficient attention. Such a study is necessary because small features in some cases lead to apparently high-quality images that are distorted due to tip and sample mechanical deformation. This paper presents multi-scale simulations, illustrating common artifacts affecting images of nanoscale trenches taken with fine carbon nanotube probes within amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation AFM (AM-AFM and FFM-AFM, respectively). It also describes a methodology combining FFM-AFM with a step-in/step-out algorithm analogous to that developed by other groups for larger trenches, which can eliminate the observed artifacts. Finally, an overview of the AFM simulation methods is provided. These methods, based on atomistic and continuum simulation, have been previously used to study a variety of samples including silicon surfaces, carbon nanotubes and biomolecules

  16. Surface radiological investigations of Trench 6 and low-level waste Line Leak Site 7.4b at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of Trench 6 and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) Line Leak Site 7.4b was conducted in July and August 1989 and January 1990 by the Measurement Applications and Development Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purposes of this survey were (1) to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination and (2) to recommend interim corrective action to limit human exposures to radioactivity and minimize the potential for contaminant dispersion. Highest surface gamma levels encountered during the survey (39 mR/h) were found just south of the asphalt covering LLW Line Leak Site 7.4b. Elevated surface gamma levels (measuring 28 to 560 μR/h) extended from this area to a width of 100 ft, westward 250 ft, and beyond the survey boundary. Beta-gamma levels up to 17 mrad/h measured on contact with the trunks of trees growing in the area southwest of Trench 6 suggest that three roots are reaching contamination deep within the ground. Since no gamma activity is associated with the trees or their leaves, the elevated beta levels are probably due to the uptake of residual 90 Sr originating from the documented seepage at the Trench 6/Leak Site 7.4b area. Beta activity present in the leaf litter and surface soil indicate that decaying leaves are depositing measurable contaminants on the ground surface. Recommendations for corrective actions are included. 7 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect

  18. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Yelena [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Haifa (Israel); TowerJazz Ltd. Migdal Haemek (Israel); Shauly, Eitan [TowerJazz Ltd. Migdal Haemek (Israel); Paz, Yaron, E-mail: paz@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    2015-12-07

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  19. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  20. Evaluation of Surface and Subsurface Processes in Permeable Pavement Infiltration Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrologic performance of permeable pavement systems can be affected by clogging of the pavement surface and/or clogging at the interface where the subsurface storage layer meets the underlying soil. As infiltration and exfiltration are the primary functional mechanisms for ...

  1. Preliminary results of trench mapping at the site of prospective surface facilities for the potential Yucca Mountain repository, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesling, J.R.; Swan, F.H.; Thomas, A.P.; Angell, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Mapping and trenching studies are yielding data needed to evaluate the surface faulting potential within Midway Valley, a half graben bounded by west-dipping normal faults on the northeast margin of Yucca Mountain. These studies document the presence of two north-trending zones of fractures within Quaternary deposits along the west-central part of the Midway Valley half-graben block. The westernmost zone of fractures, located along the eastern base of Exile Hill, overlies a complex zone of bedrock faulting and may be related to an apparent down-on-the-east step in the contact between bedrock and colluvium. Fractures striking ∼N15E extend upwards from this apparent bedrock step through early (?) to middle (?) Pleistocene colluvium. The fractures do not extend into the overlying late Pleistocene colluvium. No vertical or lateral separation of the probably middle to late Pleistocene colluvium across fractures can be detected with a resolution of 5 cm or less in most cases. The Quaternary deposits are much thicker along the eastern zone of fractures and bedrock was not exposed. The presence of continuous thin layers within the alluvial strata demonstrate the absence of any detectable vertical or lateral separation of the middle (?) Pleistocene deposits across the fractures within the eastern zone with a high degree of confidence. The results of the authors studies indicate that faults within the west-central part of the Midway Valley structural block have had little or no displacement since at least the mid Quaternary. Therefore, potential for surface fault rupture in this area is extremely low

  2. Trench reactor: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.; Rohach, A.F.; Razzaque, M.M.; Sankoorikal, J.T.; Schmidt, R.S.; Lofshult, J.; Ramin, T.; Sokmen, N.; Lin, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Recent fast, sodium-cooled reactor designs reflect new conditions. In nuclear energy these conditions are (a) emphasis on maintainability and operability, (b) design for more transparent safety, and (c) a surplus of uranium and enrichment availability that eases concerns about light water reactor fueling costs. In utility practice the demand is for less capital exposure, short construction time, smaller new unit sizes, and low capital cost. The PRISM, SAFR, and integral fast reactor (IFR) concepts are responses to these conditions. Fast reactors will not soon be deployed commercially, so more radical designs can be considered. The trench reactor is the product of such thinking. Its concepts are intended as contributions to the literature, which may be picked up by one of the existing programs or used in a new experimental project. The trench reactor is a thin-slab, pool-type reactor operated at very low power density and- for sodium-modest temperature. The thin slab is repeated in the sodium tank and the reactor core. The low power density permits a longer than conventional core height and a large-diameter fuel pin. Control is by borated steel slabs that can be lowered between the core and lateral sodium reflector. Shutdown is by semaphore slabs that can be swung into place just outside the control slabs. The paper presents major characteristics of the trench reactor that have been changed since the last report

  3. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Employing Earned Value Management in Government Research and Design - Lessons Learned from the Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tom

    2009-01-01

    To effectively manage a project, the project manager must have a plan, understand the current conditions, and be able to take action to correct the course when challenges arise. Research and design projects face technical, schedule, and budget challenges that make it difficult to utilize project management tools developed for projects based on previously demonstrated technologies. Projects developing new technologies by their inherent nature are trying something new and thus have little to no data to support estimates for schedule and cost, let alone the technical outcome. Projects with a vision for the outcome but little confidence in the exact tasks to accomplish in order to achieve the vision incur cost and schedule penalties when conceptual solutions require unexpected iterations or even a reinvention of the plan. This presentation will share the project management methodology and tools developed through trial and error for a NASA research and design project combining industry, academia, and NASA inhouse work in which Earned Value Management principles were employed but adapted for the reality of the government financial system and the reality of challenging technology development. The priorities of the presented methodology are flexibility, accountability, and simplicity to give the manager tools to help deliver to the customer while not using up valuable time and resources on extensive planning and analysis. This presentation will share the methodology, tools, and work through failed and successful examples from the three years of process evolution.

  5. Rock magnetic and geochemical analyses of surface sediment characteristics in deep ocean environments: A case study across the Ryukyu Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, N.; Kawamura, K.; Ishikawa, N.

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic minerals in marine sediments are often dissolved or formed with burial depth, thereby masking the primary natural remanent magnetization and paleoclimate signals. In order to clarify the present sedimentary environment and the progressive changes with burial depth in the magnetic properties, we studied seven cores collected from the Ryukyu Trench, southwest Japan. Magnetic properties, organic geochemistry, and interstitial water chemistry of seven cores are described. Bottom water conditions at the landward slope, trench floor, and seaward slope are relatively suboxic, anoxic, and oxic, respectively. The grain size of the sediments become gradually finer with the distance from Okinawa Island and finer with increasing water depth. The magnetic carriers in the sediments are predominantly magnetite and maghemized magnetite, with minor amounts of hematite. In the topmost sediments from the landward slope, magnetic minerals are diluted by terrigenous materials and microfossils. The downcore variations in magnetic properties and geochemical data provided evidence for the dissolution of fine-grained magnetite with burial depth under an anoxic condition.

  6. Long-term safety assessment of trench-type surface repository at Chernobyl, Ukraine - computer model and comparison with results from simplified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, B.; Krone, J.; Shybetskyi, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (RWDF) Buryakovka was constructed in 1986 as part of the intervention measures after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP). Today, the surface repository for solid low and intermediate level waste (LILW) is still being operated but its maximum capacity is nearly reached. Long-existing plans for increasing the capacity of the facility shall be implemented in the framework of the European Commission INSC Programme (Instrument for Nuclear Safety Co-operation). Within the first phase of this project, DBE Technology GmbH prepared a safety analysis report of the facility in its current state (SAR) and a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) for a future extended facility based on the planned enlargement. In addition to a detailed mathematical model, also simplified models have been developed to verify results of the former one and enhance confidence in the results. Comparison of the results show that - depending on the boundary conditions - simplifications like modeling the multi trench repository as one generic trench might have very limited influence on the overall results compared to the general uncertainties associated with respective long-term calculations. In addition to their value in regard to verification of more complex models which is important to increase confidence in the overall results, such simplified models can also offer the possibility to carry out time consuming calculations like probabilistic calculations or detailed sensitivity analysis in an economic manner. (authors)

  7. Initial SVE Well Testing for the A-Area Miscellaneous Rubble Pile (ARP) Trenches Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIHA, BRIAN

    2004-01-01

    The A-Area Miscellaneous Rubble Pile (ARP) is a 5.9 acre unit located at the southern end of A/M Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Disposal activities at ARP began in the early 1950s. The exact dates of operation and material disposed in the unit remain unknown. Within the ARP exists a smaller, approximately 2 acre, sub unit identified as the Trenches Area. The Trenches Area is dominated by a T-shaped trench (approximately 50 feet wide) containing 8 to 12 feet of ash material. This T-shaped trench will be referred to as the ARP Trench. Vegetation has been removed from the Trenches Area and a lower permeability earthen cover now covers the ARP Trench. The ARP active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) remediation system consists of seven extraction wells and twelve monitoring wells that were pushed into the vadose zone of the ARP Trench. The remediation system was designed based on the pre-design study conducted in 2002. The purpose of the initial soil vapor extraction (SVE) well testing was to verify the integrity and functionality of the nineteen wells installed in the ARP Trench. The well integrity was evaluated based on the flow rate, vacuum, and indication that soil gas and not surface air was pulled from the well. Soil gas was defined as gas with levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) above ambient concentrations (400-700 ppmv). Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were measured at each well to determine the initial distribution of the contamination. In addition, the subsurface vacuum distribution was measured around each extraction well as a relative measure of the influence of each well

  8. Groundwater suppression and diversion structures applied to closed shallow land burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Melroy, L.A.; Huff, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Shallow depth to groundwater, surface drainage, and subsurface flow during storm events are major environmental concerns of low-level radioactive waste management operations in humid regions. At two waste disposal sites within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), groups of closed trenches have experienced these problems and have been shown to collect and hold intratrench water with seasonal fluctuations ranging from 1 to 2 m. In an attempt to correct these water-related problems, Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) was equipped in September 1975 with asphalt-lined drainage ways designed to prevent reinfiltration of storm drainage from the 13.8 ha upslope catchment. At 49-Trench Area of SWSA-6 the entire 0.44 ha trench area was capped with a bentonite clay cover in 1976. These early attempts at hydrologic isolation have not corrected the water problems. In September 1983, two similarly designed engineered drainage projects were initiated at the disposal sites. The SWSA-4 project was designed to divert surface runoff around the trench area and drain a portion of the shallow subsurface flow which originates upslope of the site. The second project, a passive French drain constructed in SWSA-6, was aimed strictly at suppressing the site water table thus preventing its intersection with the bottoms of disposal trenches. Post-construction monitoring for performance evaluation has shown that the water table in the 49-trench area has been suppressed to a depth >4.9 m below the ground surface over 50% of the site with a maximum drawdown of 4 m at the drains deepest point. The SWSA-4 project evaluation is just being completed and data show that 56 +/- 15% of the Winter-Spring 1984 runoff was diverted around SWSA 4. As a result, a 44% reduction in 90 Sr flux was calculated from observed discharges and a previously established relation between flow rate and 90 Sr concentration

  9. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  10. Statistical analyses of in-situ and soil-sample measurements for radionuclides in surface soil near the 116-K-2 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Klover, W.J.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation detection surveys are used at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, to determine areas that need posting as radiation zones or to measure dose rates in the field. The relationship between measurements made by Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors mounted on the mobile Road Monitor vehicle and those made by hand-held GM P-11 probes and Micro-R meters are of particular interest because the Road Monitor can survey land areas in much less time than hand-held detectors. Statistical regression methods are used here to develop simple equations to predict GM P-11 probe gross gamma count-per-minute (cpm) and Micro-R-Meter μR/h measurements on the basis of NaI gross gamma count-per-second (cps) measurements obtained using the Road Monitor. These equations were estimated using data collected near the 116-K-2 Trench in the 100-K area on the Hanford Reservation. Equations are also obtained for estimating upper and lower limits within which the GM P-11 or Micro-R-Meter measurement corresponding to a given NaI Road Monitor measurement at a new location is expected to fall with high probability. An equation and limits for predicting GM P-11 measurements on the basis of Micro-R- Meter measurements is also estimated. Also, we estimate an equation that may be useful for approximating the 90 Sr measurement of a surface soil sample on the basis of a spectroscopy measurement for 137 Cs on that sample. 3 refs., 16 figs., 44 tabs

  11. Burial trench dynamic compaction demonstration at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    This task has the objective of determining the degree of consolidation which can be achieved by dynamic compaction of a closed burial trench within a cohesive soil formation. A seven-year-old burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was selected for this demonstration. This 251 m 3 trench contained about 80 Ci of mixed radionuclides, mostly 90 Sr, in 25 m 3 of waste consisting of contaminated equipment, dry solids, and demolition debris. Prior to compaction, a total trench void space of 79 m 3 was measured by pumping the trench full of water with corrections for seepage. Additional pre-compaction characterization included trench cap bulk density (1.68 kg/L), trench cap permeability (3 x 10 -7 m/s), and subsurface waste/backfill hydraulic conductivity (>0.01 m/s). Compaction was achieved by repeatedly dropping a 4-ton steel-reinforced concrete cylinder from heights of 4 to 8 m using the whipline of a 70-ton crane. The average trench ground surface was depressed 0.79 m, with some sections over 2 m, yielding a surveyed volumetric depression which totaled to 64% of the measured trench void space. Trench cap (0 to 60 cm) bulk density and permeability were not affected by compaction indicating that the consolidation was largely subsurface. Neither surface nor airborne radioactive contamination were observed during repeated monitoring during the demonstration. Dynamic compaction was shown to be an excellent and inexpensive (i.e., about $20/m 2 ) method to collapse trench void space, thereby hastening subsidence and stabilizing the land surface. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  12. 'Dodo-Goldilocks' Trench Dug by Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 19th day of the mission, or Sol 19 (June 13, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows one trench informally called 'Dodo-Goldilocks' after two digs (dug on Sol 18, or June 12, 2008) by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench is 22 centimeters (8.7 inches) wide and 35 centimeters (13.8 inches) long. At its deepest point, the trench is 7 to 8 centimeters (2.7 to 3 inches) deep. White material, possibly ice, is located only at the upper portion of the trench, indicating that it is not continuous throughout the excavated site. According to scientists, the trench might be exposing a ledge, or only a portion of a slab, of the white material. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. 'Dodo-Goldilocks' Trench Elevation Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color-coded elevation map shows the 'Dodo-Goldilocks' trench dug by the Robotic Arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The trench, originally two separate trenches nicknamed 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks' (right), became one after further digging on the 18th Martian day, or Sol 18, of the mission (June 12, 2008). The trench is 7 to 8 centimeters (2.7 to 3 inches) at its deepest (blue). Because the terrain itself is inclined at a 14-degree angle, the highest areas (pink) are about 20 centimeters (7.8 inches) above the lowest areas. The trench is 22 centimeters (8.7 inches) wide and 35 centimeters (13.8 inches) long. Its deepest portion is closest to the lander. This picture was taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 19 (June 13, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Interactive Design of Developable Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2016-01-15

    We present a new approach to geometric modeling with developable surfaces and the design of curved-creased origami. We represent developables as splines and express the nonlinear conditions relating to developability and curved folds as quadratic equations. This allows us to utilize a constraint solver, which may be described as energy-guided projection onto the constraint manifold, and which is fast enough for interactive modeling. Further, a combined primal-dual surface representation enables us to robustly and quickly solve approximation problems.

  15. Interactive Design of Developable Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng; Bo, Pengbo; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach to geometric modeling with developable surfaces and the design of curved-creased origami. We represent developables as splines and express the nonlinear conditions relating to developability and curved folds as quadratic equations. This allows us to utilize a constraint solver, which may be described as energy-guided projection onto the constraint manifold, and which is fast enough for interactive modeling. Further, a combined primal-dual surface representation enables us to robustly and quickly solve approximation problems.

  16. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Trenching as an exploratory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatheway, A.W.; Leighton, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The critical nature of siting nuclear power plants has led to increased emphasis on exploratory trenching. Trenching is the most definitive of all subsurface exploratory methods; it permits inspection of a continuous geologic section by both geologists and regulatory authorities and makes possible the preparation of a graphic log that delineates both obvious and subtle geologic features. About one of every two nuclear plant licensing efforts utilizes exploratory trenching. Many geologic hazards, such as ''capable'' faults, can be detected from trench exposures; they may otherwise remain undetected. Trenches must be judiciously located, survey-controlled, excavated safely and adequately shored, logged in detail, and properly diagnosed. Useful techniques of trench logging include thorough cleaning of the trench walls, teamwork between geologist and recorder, logging against a carefully surveyed baseline and vertical reference grid, and panoramic photography.Soils, including paleosols, and glacial and glaciofluvial deposits present some of the most difficult media to log. Trench logs must be thoroughly interpreted and correlated so that they document the geologic conditions governing suitability of the site. Age-determination techniques utilized in exploratory trenching include petrographic analyses, quartz inclusion studies, clay mineralogic analyses, and radiometric methods

  18. Slurry walls and slurry trenches - construction quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, R.J.; Good, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Slurry (panel) walls and slurry trenches have become conventional methods for construction of deep underground structures, interceptor trenches and hydraulic (cutoff) barriers. More recently polymers mixed with water are used to stabilize the excavation instead of bentonite slurry. Slurry walls are typically excavated in short panel segments, 2 to 7 m (7 to 23 ft) long, and backfilled with structural materials; whereas slurry trenches are fairly continuous excavations with concurrent backfilling of blended soils, or cement-bentonite mixtures. Slurry trench techniques have also been used to construct interceptor trenches. Currently no national standards exist for the design and/or construction of slurry walls/trenches. Government agencies, private consultants, contractors and trade groups have published specifications for construction of slurry walls/trenches. These specifications vary in complexity and quality of standards. Some place excessive emphasis on the preparation and control of bentonite or polymer slurry used for excavation, with insufficient emphasis placed on quality control of bottom cleaning, tremie concrete, backfill placement or requirements for the finished product. This has led to numerous quality problems, particularly with regard to identification of key depths, bottom sediments and proper backfill placement. This paper will discuss the inspection of slurry wall/trench construction process, identifying those areas which require special scrutiny. New approaches to inspection of slurry stabilized excavations are discussed

  19. Report of exploratory trenching for the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresen, M.D.; Weiss, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    Three exploratory trenches, totaling about 1,300 ft in length were excavated and logged across the site of a proposed Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF), to assess whether or not active Greenville fault zone, located about 4100 ft to the northeast, pass through or within 200 ft of the site. The layout of the trenches (12-16 ft deep) was designed to provide continuous coverage across the DWTF site and an area within 200 ft northeast and southwest of the site. Deposits exposed in the trench walls are primarily of clay, and are typical of weakly cemented silty sand to sandy silt with the alluvial deposits in the area. Several stream channels were encountered that appear to have an approximated east-west orintation. The channel deposits consist of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sand and gravel. A well-developed surface soil is laterally continuous across all three trenches. The soil reportedly formed during late Pleistocene time (about 35,000 to 40,000 yr before present) based on soil stratigraphic analyses. A moderately to well-developed buried soil is laterally continuous in all three trenches, except locally where it has been removed by channelling. This buried soil apparently formed about 100,000 yr before present. At least one older, discontinuous soil is present below the 100,000-yr-old soil in some locations. The age of the older soil is unknown. At several locations, two discontinuous buried soils were observed between the surface soil and the 100,000-yr-old soil. Various overlapping stratigraphic units could be traced across the trenches providing a continuous datum of at least 100,000 yr to assess the presence or absence of faulting. The continuity of stratigraphic units in all the trenches demonstrated that no active faults pass through or within 200 ft of the proposed DWTF site

  20. First Dodo Trench with White Layer Visible in Dig Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These color images were taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Stereo Surface Imager on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images of the trench shows a white layer that has been uncovered by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop and is now visible in the wall of the trench. This trench was the first one dug by the RA to understand the Martian soil and plan the digging strategy. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. An oxide filled extended trench gate super junction MOSFET structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai-Lin, Wang; Jun, Sun

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an oxide filled extended trench gate super junction (SJ) MOSFET structure to meet the need of higher frequency power switches application. Compared with the conventional trench gate SJ MOSFET, new structure has the smaller input and output capacitances, and the remarkable improvements in the breakdown voltage, on-resistance and switching speed. Furthermore, the SJ in the new structure can be realized by the existing trench etching and shallow angle implantation, which offers more freedom to SJ MOSFET device design and fabrication. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Trenching as a exploratory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatheway, A.W.; Leighton, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The critical nature of siting nuclear power plants has led to increased emphasis on exploratory methods; it permits inspection of a continuous geologic section by both geologists and regulatory authorities and makes possible the preparation of a graphic log that delineates both obvious and subtle geologic features. About one of every two nuclear plant licensing efforts utilizes exploratory trenching. Many geologic hazards, such as ''capable'' faults, can be detected from trench exposures; they may otherwise remain undetected. Trenches must be judiciously located, survey-controlled, excavated safetly and adequately shored, logged in detail, and properly diagnosed. Useful techniques of trench logging include thorough cleaning of the trench walls, teamwork between geologist and recorder, logging against a carefully surveyed baseline and vertical reference grid, and panoramic photography. Soils, including paleosols, and glacial and glaciofluvial deposits present some of the most difficult media to log. Trench logs must be thoroughly interpreted and correlated so that they document the geologic conditions governing suitability of the site. Age-determination techniques utilized in exploratory trenching include petrographic analyses, quartz inclusion studies, clay mineralogic analyses, and radiometric methods

  3. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    followed by numerical and experimental verification. The approach comprises verifying all design and fabrication steps required to produce a desired appearance. We expect that the procedure in the future will yield structurally colored surfaces with appealing prescribed visual appearances.......We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design...

  4. The Micro Trench Gas Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.

    1991-07-01

    A novel design is presented for a gas avalanche chamber with micro-strip gas readout. While existing gaseous microstrip detectors (Micro-strip Gas Counters, Knife edge chambers) have a minimum anode pitch of the order of 100 μm, the pitch of the discussed Micro Trench Gas Counter goes down to 30-50 μm. This leads to a better position resolution and two track separation, and a higher radiation resistivity. Its efficiency and signal speed are expected to be the same as the Microstrip Gas Counter. The energy resolution of the device is expected to be equal to or better than 10 percent for the 55 Fe peak. Since the anode strip dimensions are larger than those in a MSGC, the device may be not as sensitive to discharges and mechanical damage. In this report production of the device is briefly described, and predictions on its operation are made based on electric field calculations and experience with the Microstrip Gas Counter. The authors restrict themselves to the application in High Energy Physics. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs

  5. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in approximately true color. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS USING STYLISTIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumer requirements for the way what everyday use products look like, forces manufacturers to put more emphasis on product design. Constructors, apart from the functional aspects of the parts created, are forced to pay attention to the aesthetic aspects. Software for designing A-class surfaces is very helpful in this case. Extensive quality analysis modules facilitate the work and allow getting models with specific visual features. The authors present a design process of the product using stylistic surfaces based on the front panel of the moped casing. In addition, methods of analysis of the design surface and product technology are presented.

  7. Process optimization of a deep trench isolation structure for high voltage SOI devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Kuiying; Qian Qinsong; Zhu Jing; Sun Weifeng

    2010-01-01

    The process reasons for weak point formation of the deep trench on SOI wafers have been analyzed in detail. An optimized trench process is also proposed. It is found that there are two main reasons: one is over-etching laterally of the silicon on the surface of the buried oxide caused by a fringe effect; and the other is the slow growth rate of the isolation oxide in the concave silicon corner of the trench bottom. In order to improve the isolation performance of the deep trench, two feasible ways for optimizing the trench process are proposed. The improved process thickens the isolation oxide and rounds sharp silicon corners at their weak points, increasing the applied voltage by 15-20 V at the same leakage current. The proposed new trench isolation process has been verified in the foundry's 0.5-μm HV SOI technology. (semiconductor devices)

  8. High Density Faraday Cup Array or Other Open Trench Structures and Method of Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Kristin Hedgepath (Inventor); Bower, Christopher A. (Inventor); Stoner, Brian R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A detector array and method for making the detector array. The detector array includes a substrate including a plurality of trenches formed therein, and a plurality of collectors electrically isolated from each other, formed on the walls of the trenches, and configured to collect charged particles incident on respective ones of the collectors and to output from the collectors signals indicative of charged particle collection. In the detector array, adjacent ones of the plurality of trenches are disposed in a staggered configuration relative to one another. The method forms in a substrate a plurality of trenches across a surface of the substrate such that adjacent ones of the trenches are in a staggered sequence relative to one another, forms in the plurality of trenches a plurality of collectors, and connects a plurality of electrodes respectively to the collectors.

  9. Robust topology design of periodic grating surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Modern nanoscale manufacturing techniques allow for a high degree of flexibility in designing surface microstructures and nanostructures. Injection molding of nanosized features allows for mass production of plastic components with a tailored nanostructure producing specific optical effects depen...

  10. Decision support system for surface irrigation design

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, José M.; Pereira, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The SADREG decision support system was developed to help decision makers in the process of design and selection of farm surface irrigation systems to respond to requirements of modernization of surface irrigation—furrow, basin, and border irrigation. It includes a database, simulation models, user-friendly interfaces, and multicriteria analysis models. SADREG is comprised of two components: design and selection. The first component applies database information, and through several si...

  11. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhofer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, M.

    2016-01-01

    Hadal trenches are considered to act as depo-centers for organic material at the trench axis and host unique and elevated biomasses of living organisms as compared to adjacent abyssal plains. To explore the diagenetic activity in hadal trench environments we quantified in situ benthic O-2 consump...

  12. Hybrid surface design for robust superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Susmita; Alt, Marie T; Garimella, Suresh V

    2012-06-26

    Surfaces may be rendered superhydrophobic by engineering the surface morphology to control the extent of the liquid-air interface and by the use of low-surface-energy coatings. The droplet state on a superhydrophobic surface under static and dynamic conditions may be explained in terms of the relative magnitudes of the wetting and antiwetting pressures acting at the liquid-air interface on the substrate. In this paper, we discuss the design and fabrication of hollow hybrid superhydrophobic surfaces which incorporate both communicating and noncommunicating air gaps. The surface design is analytically shown to exhibit higher capillary (or nonwetting) pressure compared to solid pillars with only communicating air gaps. Six hybrid surfaces are fabricated with different surface parameters selected such that the Cassie state of a droplet is energetically favorable. The robustness of the surfaces is tested under dynamic impingement conditions, and droplet dynamics are explained using pressure-based transitions between Cassie and Wenzel states. During droplet impingement, the effective water hammer pressure acting due to the sudden change in the velocity of the droplet is determined experimentally and is found to be at least 2 orders of magnitude less than values reported in the literature. The experiments show that the water hammer pressure depends on the surface morphology and capillary pressure of the surface. We propose that the observed reduction in shock pressure may be attributed to the presence of air gaps in the substrate. This feature allows liquid deformation and hence avoids the sudden stoppage of the droplet motion as opposed to droplet behavior on smooth surfaces.

  13. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.; Duranceau, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  14. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  15. The medical response to trench nephritis in World War One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenstaedt, R L

    2006-08-01

    Around the 90-year anniversary of the Battle of the Somme, it is important to remember the international effort that went into responding to the new diseases, which appeared during the First World War, such as trench nephritis. This condition arose among soldiers in spring 1915, characterized by breathlessness, swelling of the face or legs, headache, sore throat, and the presence of albumin and renal casts in urine. It was speedily investigated by the military-medical authorities. There was debate over whether it was new condition or streptococcal nephritis, and the experts agreed that it was a new condition. The major etiologies proposed were infection, exposure, and diet (including poisons). Research pointed to the origin of the disease as being infective rather than toxic, but no definite cause was discovered. A number of labels were given to the disease, including war nephritis. However, trench nephritis was the one used most widely. Trench nephritis was a serious problem for the Allies, leading to 35 000 casualties in the British and 2000 in the American forces. There were also hundreds of deaths. The condition was treated in line with pre-war regimens designed for acute nephritis. No significant preventative methods were implemented for trench nephritis, as there was no consensus regarding causation. The medical response to trench nephritis was largely ineffective, with medical commentators recognizing that there had been a lack of medical progress.

  16. DESIGNING OF DEVELOPED SURFACES OF COMPLEX PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Tyshchenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on ensuring the rational choice of parameters of the mating surfaces of parts when designing process equipment based on the methods of artificial intelligence. Methodology. The paper considers the geometric model of a ruled developed surface, the conditions of existence of such a surface and provides a generalized algorithm for surface plotting regardless of the type of the working element or the machine-building product. One of the most common technical surfaces are the ruled ones, among which a special position is occupied by developed surfaces (thanks to their differential-parametric properties: surface tangent plane is n contact along the rectilinear generator and does not change its position in space when changing the point of contact; surfaces can be produced by bending sheet metal. These provisions enable a product manufacturer to save significant material and energy means, therefore, the development of geometric models of such surfaces is an important task. Findings. We analyzed the geometrical model of the developed surface which is incident to two guides. Experimental studies have shown the applicationprospectivity of semi-digger moldboards on moldboard plows, particularly on the double-deck ones. Taking into account the operating speed of the plow 2.8 m/s, the plant residues plowing percentage for plow with semi-digger moldboards is 98.9%, and with the digger ones – 96.1%. Originality. According to results: 1 the approaches to solving the problem of recognition of wear conditions of the tested interface, depicted by its conceptual model, were elaborated; 2 the corresponding algorithms of the computational procedures were built; 3 the mathematical model that determines the effect of the parameters of the contacting surfaces on their performance properties – linear wear rate during the normal wear and tear was developed; 4 for this model the theoretical prerequisite of use for the random mating study were

  17. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  18. Note: long range and accurate measurement of deep trench microstructures by a specialized scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Wule; Jin, Chao; Fang, F Z

    2012-05-01

    A compact but practical scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high aspect ratio and high depth capability has been specially developed. Long range scanning mechanism with tilt-adjustment stage is adopted for the purpose of adjusting the probe-sample relative angle to compensate the non-parallel effects. A periodical trench microstructure with a pitch of 10 μm has been successfully imaged with a long scanning range up to 2.0 mm. More innovatively, a deep trench with depth and step height of 23.0 μm has also been successfully measured, and slope angle of the sidewall can approximately achieve 67°. The probe can continuously climb the high step and exploring the trench bottom without tip crashing. The new STM could perform long range measurement for the deep trench and high step surfaces without image distortion. It enables accurate measurement and quality control of periodical trench microstructures.

  19. Investigation on proper materials of a liner system for trench type disposal facilities of radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Arikawa, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-08-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency will settle on near surface disposal facilities with and without engineered barriers for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. Both of them are so called 'concrete pit type' and 'trench type', respectively. The technical standard of constructing and operating a disposal facility based on 'Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors' have been regulated partly by referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. This means that the concrete pit type and the trench type disposal facility resemble an isolated type for specified industrial wastes and a non leachate controlled type final disposal site for stable industrial wastes, respectively. On the other, We plan to design a disposal facility with a liner system corresponding to a leachate controlled type final disposal site on a crucial assumption that radioactive wastes other than stable industrial wastes to be disposed into the trench type disposal facility is generated. By current nuclear related regulations in Japan, There are no technical standard of constructing the disposal facility with the liner system referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. We investigate the function of the liner system in order to design a proper liner system for the trench type disposal facility. In this report, We investigated liner materials currently in use by actual leachate controlled type final disposal sites in Japan. Thereby important items such as tensile strength, durability from a view point of selecting proper liner materials were studied. The items were classified into three categories according to importance. We ranked proper liner materials for the trench type disposal facility by evaluating the important items per material. As a result, high density polyethylene(HDPE) of high elasticity type polymetric sheet was selected

  20. Optimal design for MRI surface coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, M.; Vaquero, J.J.; Santos, A.; Pozo, F. del; Ruiz-Cabello, J.

    1997-01-01

    To demonstrate the possibility of designing and constructing specific surface coils or antennae for MRI viewing of each particular tissue producing better results than those provided by a general purpose surface coil. The study was performed by the Bioengineering and Telemedicine Group of Madrid Polytechnical University and was carried out at the Pluridisciplinary Institute of the Universidad Complutense in Madrid, using a BMT-47/40 BIOSPEC resonance unit from Bruker. Surface coils were custom-designed and constructed for each region to be studied, and optimized to make the specimen excitation field as homogeneous as possible, in addition to reducing the brightness artifact. First, images were obtained of a round, water phantom measuring 50 mm in diameter, after which images of laboratory rats and rabbits were obtained. The images thus acquired were compared with the results obtained with the coil provided by the manufacturer of the equipment, and were found to be of better quality, allowing the viewing of deeper tissue for the specimen as well as reducing the brightness artifact. The construction of surface coils for viewing specific tissues or anatomical regions improves image quality. The next step in this ongoing project will be the application of these concepts to units designed for use in humans. (Author) 14 refs

  1. Frost seen on Snow White Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this shadow-enhanced false color image of the 'Snow White' trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's digging area. The image was taken on Sol 144, or the 144th day of the mission, Oct. 20, 2008. Temperatures measured on Sol 151, the last day weather data were received, showed overnight lows of minus128 Fahrenheit (minus 89 Celsius) and day time highs in the minus 50 F (minus 46 C) range. The last communication from the spacecraft came on Nov. 2, 2008. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Surface design methodology – challenge the steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, M; Rosen, B-G; Eriksson, L; Anderberg, C

    2014-01-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or ''feeling'' for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA

  3. Surface design methodology - challenge the steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M.; Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Anderberg, C.

    2014-03-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or "feeling" for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA.

  4. Backfilling of trenches exposed to waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper treats the numerical prediction of initial and long-term morphology of small pipeline trenches. For this purpose a refined flow and sediment transport description is applied such that the entire mathematical problem is formulated and solved on a curvilinear grid using a k - ε turbulence......-closure. The backfilling process of trenches exposed to either waves or a steady current is of importance in relation to the implementation of pipelines in the marine environment. With respect to the sedimentation of trenches, the non-dimensional Trench-Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC = a/L, where a is the excursion length...

  5. Surface mechanics design by cavitation peening

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi Soyama

    2015-01-01

    Although impacts at cavitation bubble collapses cause severe damage in hydraulic machineries, the cavitation impacts can be utilised for surface mechanics design such as introduction of compressive residual stress and/or improvement of fatigue strength. The peening method using the cavitation impacts was called as cavitation peening. In order to reveal the peening intensity of hydrodynamic cavitation and laser cavitation, the arc height of Almen strip and duralumin plate were measured. In the...

  6. STUDY OF ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF NEW P-TYPE TRENCHED UMOSFET

    OpenAIRE

    Akansha Ephraim*, Neelesh Agrawal, Anil Kumar, A.K. Jaiswal

    2017-01-01

    In this paper p-type trenched UMOSFET was designed without super junction and constructed like any other conventional MOSFET. Characteristic curve was studied between drain current verses drain voltage and drain current verses gate voltage. The trench was designed under TCAD simulation tool Silvaco software using etching process. The specific channel length of the p-type UMOSFET has been concentrated as 0.9 microns. The device structures are designed using Silvaco Athena and characteristics w...

  7. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  8. Selection of a design for response surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Shruti Sunil; Thiagarajan, Padma

    2017-11-01

    Box-Behnken, Central-Composite, D and I-optimal designs were compared using statistical tools. Experimental trials for all designs were generated. Random uniform responses were simulated for all models. R-square, Akaike and Bayesian Information Criterion for the fitted models were noted. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test were performed on these parameters. These models were evaluated based on the number of experimental trials generated in addition to the results of the statistical analyses. D-optimal design generated 12 trials in its model, which was lesser in comparison to both Central Composite and Box-Behnken designs. The R-square values of the fitted models were found to possess a statistically significant difference (P<0.0001). D-optimal design not only had the highest mean R-square value (0.7231), but also possessed the lowest means for both Akaike and Bayesian Information Criterion. The D-optimal design was recommended for generation of response surfaces, based on the assessment of the above parameters.

  9. 300 Area Process Trenches Supplemental Information to the Hanford Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Carlson

    1997-01-01

    The 300 Area Process Trenches are surface impoundments which were used to receive routine discharges of nonregulated process cooling water from operations in the 300 Area and dangerous waste from several research and development laboratories and the 300 Area Fuels Fabrication process. Discharges to the trenches ceased in 1994, and they were physically isolated in 1995. Remediation of the trenches is scheduled to begin during July 1997. Currently, there are no waste management activities required at the 300 Area Process Trenches and the unit does not present any significant hazards to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the 300 Area Process Trenches, however, during remediation, exposure, spill, fire, and industrial hazards will exist. This contingency plan addresses the emergency organization, equipment and evacuation routes pertinent to the process trenches during remediation

  10. Some interactive factors affecting trench-cover integrity on low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Lane, L.J.; Steger, J.G.; DePoorter, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes important mechanisms by which radionuclide can be transported from low-level waste disposal sites into biological pathways, discuss interactions of abiotic and biotic processes, and recommends environmental characteristics that should be measured to design sites that minimize this transport. Past experience at shallow land burial sites for low-level radioactive wastes suggest that occurrences of waste exposure and radionuclide transport are often related to inadequate trench cover designs. Meeting performance standards at low-level waste sites can only be achieved by recognizing that physical, chemical, and biological processes operating on and in a trench cover profile are highly interactive. Failure to do so can lead to improper design criteria and subsequent remedial action procedures that can adversely affect site stability. Based upon field experiments and computer modeling, recommendations are made on site characteristics that require measurement in order to design systems that reduce surface runoff and erosion, manage soil moisture and biota in the cover profile to maximize evapotranspiration and minimize percolation, and place bounds on the intrusion potential of plants and animals into the waste material. Major unresolved problems include developing probabilistic approaches that include climatic variability, improved knowledge of soil-water-plant-erosion relationships, development of practical vegetation establishment and maintenance procedures, prediction and quantification of site potential and plant succession, and understanding the interaction of processes occurring on and in the cover profile with deeper subsurface processes

  11. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  12. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, Stewart M.; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. ► Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. ► We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. ► Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. ► The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m 2 /person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country’s total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1–3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48

  13. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  14. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  15. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Draper, B.L.; Flores, R.S.

    1998-02-01

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. Results show that trench hardening can be more difficult than simply replacing the trench isolation oxide with a hardened field oxide

  16. Design and performances of trench-assisted G.657.A&B fiber optimized towards more space savings and miniaturization of components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, David; Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; De Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Sillard, Pierre; Bergonzo, Aurélien

    2009-02-01

    After many years of expectations, Fiber To The Home (FTTH) has finally become a reality with a wide number of projects already running worldwide and growing. Optical fiber is inevitably taking more and more importance in our environment, but for many good reasons, the space we are truly willing or able to allocate to it remains limited. These installation constrainsts have turned into additional requirements that need to be addressed for both active and passive components. If exceptional bending performances obtained without degrading backward compatibilities is a pre-requisite to deployment success,1 other parameters also need to be carefully taken into account when designing the ideal candidate for use in confined environments. Among them, one can cite the bend loss homogeneity over length and bending directions, the resistance to high optical power under bending and the tolerance to modal noise. In this paper, we present the design and performances of a bend insensitive fiber optimized towards more space savings and miniaturization of components. In addition to exceptional bending performances - lower than 0.1 dB/turn over a 5 mm bending radius -, its design guarantees impressive homogeneity levels and enhanced safety margins for high power applications while being still resistant to modal noise. Successfull cleave- and splice-ability results are finally presented, making this fiber ideally suited for use in components, pigtails and patchcords.

  17. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Roshni, E-mail: rbiswas@usc.edu; Povinelli, Michelle L. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest.

  18. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Roshni; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest

  19. Chemical Characteristics of Seawater and Sediment in the Yap Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H.; Sun, C.; Yang, G.

    2017-12-01

    In June 2016, seawater samples at sediment-seawater interface and sediment samples were collected by the he Jiaolong, China's manned submersible, at four sampling sites located in the Yap Trench. Seawater samples from different depths of the trench were also collected by CTD. Chemical parameters, including pH, alkanility, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved and total organic carbon, methane, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, nutrients, carbohydrates, and amino acids were analyzed in the seawater samples. Concentrations of total organic carbon, six constant elements and nine trace elements were determined in the sediment samples. All the vertical profiles of the chemical parameters in the seawater have unique characteristics. Our resluts also showed that the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) was between 4500 m and 5000 m in the trench. The hadal sediment at 6500 m depth under the CCD line was siliceous ooze favored for the burial of orgaic carbon, attributed to accumulation of surface sediment by gravity flow. The abyssal sediment at the 4500 m depth was calcareous ooze. Various microfossils, such as discoasters and diatoms, were identified in different sediment layers of the sediment samples.Based on the ratios of Fe/Al and Ti/Al, and the correlation between different elements, the sediment in the Yap Trench were derived from biogenic, terrestrial, volcanic and autogenic sources. The ratios of Ni/Co and V/Cr showed that the deposition environment of the trench should be oxidative, arributed to inflow of the Antractic bottom oxygen-rich seawater.The high concentraiont of Ca in the sediment from the station 371-Yap-S02 below 4 cm depth indicated that there was no large-scale volcanic eruption in the research area and the volcanic materials in the sediment might orginated from the Mariana Volcanic Arc, and the Carolyn Ridge has been slowly sinking on the east side of the trench due to plate subduction. This study is the first systematic study of

  20. Flux based modeling and simulation of dry etching for fabrication of silicon deep trench structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik Rizwan [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu road, Wuhan, China 43007 (China); Shi Tielin; Tang Zirong; Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: zirong@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: rizwanmalik@smail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu road Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process is a key growth for fabrication of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) devices. Due to complexity of this process, including interaction of the process steps, full analytical modeling is complex. Plasma process holds deficiency of understanding because it is very easy to measure the results empirically. However, as device parameters shrink, this issue is more critical. In this paper, our process was modeled qualitatively based on 'High Density Plasma Etch Model'. Deep trench solutions of etch rate based on continuity equation were successfully generated first time through mathematical analysis. It was also proved that the product of fluorine and gas phase concentration in SF{sub 6} remains identical during both deposition and etching stages. The etching process was treated as a combination of isotropic, directional and angle-dependent component parts. It exploited a synergistic balance of chemical as well as physical etching for promoting silicon trenches and high aspect ratio structures. Simulations were performed for comprehensive analysis of fluxes coming towards the surface during chemical reaction of gas. It is observed that near the surface, the distribution of the arrival flux follows a cosine distribution. Our model is feasible to analyze various parameters like gas delivery, reactor volume and temperature that help to assert large scale effects and to optimize equipment design.

  1. The surface physics work station: final design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, R.; Kleiman, G.G.; Castro, S.G.C. de; Douglas, R.A.; Nascente, P.A.P.

    1996-01-01

    Thanks to funding from FAPESP we will be installing in the beginning of 1997 a work station for electron spectroscopy designed for the study of clean solid surfaces and the modification of these surfaces by deposition in situ of ultra thin metallic films. The main analytical tool will be a high resolution hemispherical analyzer made by VSW-Omicrom (EA 125 HR) which is capable of better than 5 meV resolution and high transmission due to its five channeltron multi detection system. The system will also have a Rear View LEED Optics for single crystal studies. The system will be housed in a 16'' cylindrical chamber with mu metal magnetic shielding having two levels for analysis. The upper level will contain instruments for technique which do not require photons such as LEED and sample cleaning. The lower level will have the electron analyzer, conventional X-ray source (Al/Mg), electron gun for Auger, e-beam evaporators for thin film deposition and ports for the future addition of different detectors. We will have a manipulator with 5 degrees of freedom (thre translation and two rotational) and sample heating and LN cooling. Finally we will have a fast entry/preparation chamber. The pumping system will have a combination of turbomolecular and ion pumps for the main chamber and a turbo for the fast entr/prep chamber. The system will be used initially for the study of surface alloys by XPS and Photoelectron Diffraction but as soon as it is properly characterized it will be open for collaborations with other groups interested in using its capabilities. (author)

  2. Electrochemical trench etching of silicon triggered via mechanical nanocontacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassilloud, R.; Michler, J. [EMPA, Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Schmuki, P. [Department of Materials Science, LKO, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-12-01

    We report a method to produce microstructures on silicon wafers using a microscratching technique followed by a subsequent electrochemical trench etching in hydrofluoric-based electrolyte. Micro-scratches are used to trigger macropore formation. We show that mask-less dissolved trenches with aspect ratios up to 1:7 are formed at the scratched regions on (0 0 1)Si surface. The micro-scratches orientate the macropores formation by aligning them in the scratching direction. We propose that dislocations formed during scratching are firstly dissolved leading to the formation of V-shape grooves. The V-shape geometries obtained by this way are used to initiate the macropores nucleation; i.e. due to the geometry, an avalanche current occurs at the grooves base and thus induces local dissolutions of the substrate. High rate local dissolutions are achieved by back-side illumination of the Si wafer. (author)

  3. Color Image of Snow White Trenches and Scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 31st Martian day of the mission, or Sol 31 (June 26, 2008), after the May 25, 2008 landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left), 'Snow White 2' (right), and within the Snow White 2 trench, the smaller scraping area called 'Snow White 3.' The Snow White 3 scraped area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep. The dug and scraped areas are within the diggiing site called 'Wonderland.' The Snow White trenches and scraping prove that scientists can take surface soil samples, subsurface soil samples, and icy samples all from one unit. Scientists want to test samples to determine if some ice in the soil may have been liquid in the past during warmer climate cycles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver

  4. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  5. 300 Area Process Trenches Verification Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this verification package is to document achievement of the remedial action objectives for the 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT) located within the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU). The 300 APT became active in 1975 as a replacement for the North and South Process Pond system that is also part of the 300-FF-1 OU. The trenches received 300 Area process effluent from the uranium fuel fabrication facilities. Waste from the 300 Area laboratories that was determined to be below discharge limits based on monitoring performed at the 307 retention basin was also released to the trenches. Effluent flowed through the headworks sluice gates, down a concrete apron, and into the trenches. From the beginning of operations in 1975 until 1993, a continuous, composite sampler was located at the headwork structure to analyze process effluent at the point of discharge to the environment

  6. Design integration of liquid surface divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.; Cowgill, D.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Nelson, B.E.; Fogarty, P.J.; Rognlien, T.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Hassanein, A.; Smolentsev, S.S.; Kotschenreuther, M.

    2004-01-01

    The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium, sodium and beryllium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied

  7. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  8. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Hyder, L. K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  9. The East Garrington Trench and Gate system: it works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, M.; Rimbey, S.; Bentley, L.; Thomas, D.; Hoyne, B.

    1997-01-01

    A 'trench and gate' system (a modification of the 'funnel and gate' system) has been installed at the Amoco-operated East Garrington gas plant in Alberta to provide long-term remediation for treating contaminated groundwater plumes hosted by low hydraulic conductivity sediments. Modification to the funnel and gate design includes an up gradient high hydraulic conductivity trench and a down gradient infiltration gallery which was found to be effective in biodegrading BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) compounds. A comprehensive monitoring program was set up to characterize the groundwater flow system. Several indigenous hydrocarbon degrading organisms have been identified. It was shown that locally, under aerobic conditions, phosphorus was the limiting nutrient. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  10. Surface mechanics design by cavitation peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Soyama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although impacts at cavitation bubble collapses cause severe damage in hydraulic machineries, the cavitation impacts can be utilised for surface mechanics design such as introduction of compressive residual stress and/or improvement of fatigue strength. The peening method using the cavitation impacts was called as cavitation peening. In order to reveal the peening intensity of hydrodynamic cavitation and laser cavitation, the arc height of Almen strip and duralumin plate were measured. In the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, cavitation was generated by injecting a high speed water jet into water with a pressurised chamber and an open chamber, and the cavitating jet in air was also examined. The laser cavitation was produced by a pulse laser, and a high speed observation using a high speed video camera was carried out to clarify laser abrasion and laser cavitation with detecting noise by a hydrophone. It was concluded that the peening intensity by using the cavitating jet in water with the pressurized chamber was most aggressive, and the impact induced by the laser cavitation was larger than that of the laser abrasion at the present condition.

  11. Lateral-delivered organic matter boosts hadal bacterial abundance in the Mariana Trench: A hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Liu, H.; Lu, F.; Zou, L.; Tian, J.

    2017-12-01

    Hadal trenches are part of the least investigated biosphere on Earth due to the great challenge of sampling. Limited studies on microbiology by far have suggested that the hadalsphere hosts a heterotrophic microbial community that is likely fed by organic matter from surface-sinking biomass or re-suspended and laterally transported sediments. The uniqueness of trench environment and its potential role in global carbon sequestration entitle a detailed study on microbial-driven carbon cycle of the trench system. In this study, we conducted a vertical sampling of the microbial community and measured the environmental factors from the epipelagic zone down to the hadal zone at the Mariana Trench. 16S rRNA gene composition showed high stratification at the first 1000 meters below surface (mbs) but a nearly uniformed microbial community composition was observed at the abyssopelagic and the hadalpelagic water columns. The deep-sea bacteria were generally chemoheterotrophs and the majority of them were similar to those present at the ocean surface, suggesting influence of epipelagic primary production on deep sea bacterial communication at the trench location. Several deep-sea-enriched but surface-depleted bacteria could be characterized by potential degraders of polysaccharides and n-alkanes. Therefore, recalcitrant hydrocarbons or carbohydrates are likely important carbon sources supporting the deep-sea biosphere. In spite of consistent community composition, a remarkable increase in biomass of small-sized microbial aggregates was detected at 8727 mbs. Enhanced CDOM proportions in the trench imply intensified microbial activity in hadal water compared to the above water column, which agree with the notion of possible extra carbon input from lateral transportation of slope material. These observations extend our understanding in carbon cycle driven by metabolically diverse microorganisms at the trench and may shed light on the complexity of hadal biogeochemistry.

  12. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Design of self-supporting surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vouga, Etienne; Hö binger, Mathias; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    us to close connections between diverse topics in discrete differential geometry, such as a finite-element discretization of the Airy stress potential, perfect graph Laplacians, and computing admissible loads via curvatures of polyhedral surfaces

  14. Design of Softgauge for Surface Profile Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, M Q; Liu, X J; Jiang, X Q

    2006-01-01

    A concept of softgauge has been proposed by ISO in the context of surface texture measurement, in which reference software and reference data are included. In this paper, an effective scheme to build reference software for 2D surface profile measurement is proposed. The advantage of the scheme lies in its effective combination of high numerical calculating capability of MATLAB with perfect interface programming capability of VC. Preliminary reference software is developed, and typical algorithms are tested

  15. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    region that has a maximum subsidence of 3.5 cm over an area 0.75 m wide and 8.1 m long and is associated with a number of small fractures in the pavement that are predominately north-south-trending and parallel to the trench. We determined that there was no significant motion of the levee flank during the last week of the seepage test. We also determined biomorphic parameters for the landside tree, such as the 3D positioning on the levee, tree height, levee parallel/perpendicular cross sectional area, and canopy centroid. These biomorphic parameters were requested to support a University of California Berkeley team studying seepage and stability on the levee. A gridded, 2-cm bare-earth digital elevation model of the levee crown and the landside levee flank from the final terrestrial lidar (T-Lidar) survey provided detailed topographic data for future assessment. Because the T-Lidar was not integrated into the project design, other than an initial courtesy dataset to help characterize the levee surface, our ability to contribute to the overall science goals of the seepage test was limited. Therefore, our analysis focused on developing data collection and processing methodology necessary to align ultra high-resolution T-Lidar data (with an average spot spacing 2–3 millimeters on the levee crown) from several instrument setup locations to detect, measure, and characterize dynamic centimeter-scale deformation and surface changes during the seepage test.

  16. Influence of geometrical and electrical parameters of masking layers on the electrochemical etching of silicon for single trench formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G; Ventura, L; Jerisian, R

    2005-01-01

    Deep single trenches can be produced at the edge of apertures of protective films masking the surface of silicon samples. This macropore formation, from polarized HF based solutions, is electrically activated depending on the mask geometrical and physical parameters whatever the silicon type or the electrolyte composition. The mask thickness increase is known to induce deeper trenches. In this paper, we show that we can predict and localize this phenomenon by simulating two dimensional hole current distributions below the mask. We demonstrate also the influence of the material permittivity on trench depth. These 2D simulation results are correlated with experimental results

  17. Detection and delineation of waste trenches by geophysical methods at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selfridge, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Detection and delineation of waste trenches at hazardous waste sites are needed before actual implementation of site corrective measures. In a field study conducted in Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA4) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), surface geophysical techniques were used to assist in the delineation of waste trenches. A magnetometer/gradiometer survey was used to detect ferrous metals buried at the site. An electromagnetic ground conductivity survey was used to measure the electrical conductivity of the subsurface and aided in supporting the magnetometer/gradiometer results. Results from the two techniques were complimentary and easily integrated into a final interpretation. The reliability, efficiency, and worker safety benefits of these techniques offer a nondestructive surface technique for locating buried waste trenches

  18. Trench sampling report Salmon Site Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report describes trench excavation and sample-collection activities conducted by IT Corporation (IT) as part of the ongoing Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE, 1992). During construction, operation, and closure of the site wastes of unknown composition were buried in pits on site. Surface-geophysical field investigations were conducted intermittently between November 1992 and October 1993 to identify potential waste-burial sites and buried metallic materials. The geophysical investigations included vertical magnetic gradient, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic in-phase component, and ground-penetrating radar surveys. A number of anomalies identified by the magnetic gradiometer survey in the Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc., (REECo) pits area indicated buried metallic objects. All of the anomalies were field checked to determine if any were caused by surface features or debris. After field checking, 17 anomalies were still unexplained; trenching was planned to attempt to identify their sources. Between December 8, 1993, and December 17, 1993, 15 trenches were excavated and soil samples were collected at the anomalies. Samples were collected, placed in 250- and 500-milliliter (m{ell}) amber glass containers, and shipped on ice to IT Analytical Services (ITAS) in St. Louis, Missouri, using standard IT chain-of-custody procedures. The samples were analyzed for various chemical and radiological parameters. Data validation has not been conducted on any of the samples. During excavation and sampling, soil samples were also collected by IT for the MSDEQ and the Mississippi Department of Radiological Health, in accordance with their instructions, and delivered into their custody.

  19. Trench sampling report Salmon Site Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report describes trench excavation and sample-collection activities conducted by IT Corporation (IT) as part of the ongoing Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE, 1992). During construction, operation, and closure of the site wastes of unknown composition were buried in pits on site. Surface-geophysical field investigations were conducted intermittently between November 1992 and October 1993 to identify potential waste-burial sites and buried metallic materials. The geophysical investigations included vertical magnetic gradient, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic in-phase component, and ground-penetrating radar surveys. A number of anomalies identified by the magnetic gradiometer survey in the Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc., (REECo) pits area indicated buried metallic objects. All of the anomalies were field checked to determine if any were caused by surface features or debris. After field checking, 17 anomalies were still unexplained; trenching was planned to attempt to identify their sources. Between December 8, 1993, and December 17, 1993, 15 trenches were excavated and soil samples were collected at the anomalies. Samples were collected, placed in 250- and 500-milliliter (m ell) amber glass containers, and shipped on ice to IT Analytical Services (ITAS) in St. Louis, Missouri, using standard IT chain-of-custody procedures. The samples were analyzed for various chemical and radiological parameters. Data validation has not been conducted on any of the samples. During excavation and sampling, soil samples were also collected by IT for the MSDEQ and the Mississippi Department of Radiological Health, in accordance with their instructions, and delivered into their custody

  20. Increasing emitter efficiency in 3.3-kV enhanced trench IGBTs for higher short-circuit capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a 3.3-kV Enhanced Trench IGBT has been designed with a high emitter efficiency, for improving its short-circuit robustness. The carrier distribution profile has been shaped in a way that it is possible to increase the electric field at the surface of the IGBT, and thereby, counteract...... the Kirk Effect onset. This design approach is beneficial for mitigating high-frequency oscillations, typically observed in IGBTs under short-circuit conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed design rule is validated by means of mixed-mode device simulations. Then, two IGBTs have been fabricated...... with different emitter efficiencies and tested under short circuit, validating that the high-frequency oscillations can be mitigated, with higher emitter efficiency IGBT designs....

  1. Recent sediment dynamics in hadal trenches: Evidence for the influence of higher-frequency (tidal, near-inertial) fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Falahat, Saeed; Stehlikova, Jirina; Oguri, Kazumasa; Glud, Ronnie N.; Middelboe, Mathias; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Ando, Kojiro; Fujio, Shinzou; Yanagimoto, Daigo

    2014-08-01

    In addition to high hydrostatic pressure, scarcity of food is viewed as a factor that limits the abundance and activity of heterotrophic organisms at great ocean depths, including hadal trenches. Supply of nutritious food largely relies on the flux of organic-rich particulate matter from the surface ocean. It has been speculated that the shape of hadal trenches helps to ‘funnel' particulate matter into the deeper parts of the trench, leading to sediment ‘focussing' and improved benthic food supply. Here we investigate for five Northwest Pacific trenches the efficiency of sediment focussing by evaluating ratios of measured (sediment-derived) and expected (water-column-derived) sedimentary inventories of the naturally occurring and radioactive particulate-matter tracer 210Pbxs. The sites comprise a broad range of surface-ocean productivity and physical-oceanographic regimes. Across the five trench-axis settings the inventory ratio varies between 0.5 and 4.1, with four trench-axis settings having ratios>1 (sediment focussing) and one trench-axis setting a ratiowinnowing). Although the fluid- and sediment-dynamical forcing behind sediment focussing remains unclear, this study finds evidence for another mechanism that is superimposed on, and counteracts, the focussing mechanism. This superimposed mechanism is related to higher-frequency (tidal, near-inertial) fluid dynamics. In particular, there is evidence for a strong and negative relation between the intensity of propagating internal tides and the extent of sediment focussing in the trench-axis. The relation can be approximated by a power function and the most intense drop in sediment focussing already occurs at moderate internal-tide intensities. This suggests that propagating internal tides may have a subtle but significant influence on particulate-matter dynamics and food supply in hadal trenches in particular, but possibly also in the deep seas in general. A mechanism for the influence of internal tides on

  2. 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 300 Area Process Trenches, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. For the purposes of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Westinghouse Hanford Company is identified as ''co-operator.'' The 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan (Revision 0) consists of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Form 3 and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application, Form 3 submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and six appendices. The 300 Area Process Trenches received dangerous waste discharges from research and development laboratories in the 300 Area and from fuels fabrication processes. This waste consisted of state-only toxic (WT02), corrosive (D002), chromium (D007), spent halogenated solvents (F001, F002, and F003), and spent nonhalogented solvent (F005). Accurate records are unavailable concerning the amount of dangerous waste discharged to the trenches. The estimated annual quantity of waste (item IV.B) reflects the total quantity of both regulated and nonregulated waste water that was discharged to the unit

  3. Geology of the Integrated Disposal Facility Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Fecht, Karl R.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the geology of the integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Trench. The stratigraphy consists of some of the youngest sediments of the Missoula floods (younger than 770 ka). The lithology is dominated sands with minor silts and gravels that are largely unconsolidated. The stratigraphy can be subdivided into five geologic units that can be mapped throughout the trench. Four of the units were deposited by the Missoula floods and the youngest consists of windblown sand and silt. The sediment has little moisture and is consistent with that observed in the characterization boreholes. The sedimentary layers are flat lying and there are no faults or folds present. Two clastic dikes were encountered, one along the west wall and one that can be traced from the north to the southwall. The north-south clastic dike nearly bifurcates the trench but the west wall clastic dike can not be traced very far east into the trench. The classic dikes consist mainly of sand with clay-lined walls. The sediment in the dikes is compacted to partly cemented and are more resistant than the layered sediments

  4. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S L; Leach, I H; Charnley, R M

    1993-12-01

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. Histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis.

  5. Optical description and design method with annularly stitched aspheric surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, De-Wen; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Xu, Chen; Hu, Yuan; Wang, Yong-Tian

    2015-12-01

    The relentless pressure for designs with new optical functions, small volume, and light weight has greatly increased the importance of aspheric surfaces. In this paper, we propose an annularly stitched aspheric surface (ASAS) description method to increase the freedom and flexibility of imaging system design. The rotationally symmetric ASAS consists of a circular central zone and one or more annular zones. Two neighboring zones are constrained to have the same derivatives on their joint curve, and this means the ASAS is C1 continuous. This finding is proved and verified by the mathematical deduction of the surface formulas. Two optimization strategies and two design methods with the C1 continuous constraints are also discussed. This surface can greatly facilitate the design and even achieve some previously impossible designs without increasing the fabrication difficulty. Two different systems with the proposed ASAS are optimized and the results are presented. The design results verified the practicability of the ASAS.

  6. Trench capacitor and method for producing the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a trench capacitor, and a trench capacitor fabricated thereby, are disclosed. The method involves the use of a vacuum impregnation process for a sol-gel film, to facilitate effective deposition of high- permittivity materials within a trench in a semiconductor substrate, to

  7. Design of a surface alloy catalyst for steam reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Chorkendorff, Ib; Clausen, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed studies of elementary chemical processes on well-characterized single crystal surfaces have contributed substantially to the understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. insight into the structure of surface alloys combined with an understanding of the relation between the surface compositi...... and reactivity is shown to lead directly to new ideas for catalyst design, The feasibility of such an approach is illustrated by the synthesis, characterization, and tests of a high-surface area gold-nickel catalyst for steam reforming....

  8. Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....

  9. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  10. Seepage through a hazardous-waste trench cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Water movement through a waste-trench cover under natural conditions at a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 to June 1984, using tensiometers, a moisture probe, and meteorological instruments. Four methods were used to estimate seepage: the Darcy, zero-flux plane, surface-based water-budget, and groundwater-based water-budget methods. Annual seepage estimates ranged from 48 to 216 mm (5-23% of total precipitation), with most seepage occurring in spring. The Darcy method, although limited in accuracy by uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity, was capable of discretizing seepage in space and time and indicated that seepage varied by almost an order of magnitude across the width of the trench. Lowest seepage rates occurred near the center of the cover, where seepage was gradual. Highest rates occurred along the edge of the cover, where seepage was highly episodic, with 84% of the total there being traced to wetting fronts from 28 individual storms. Limitations of the zero-flux-plane method were severe enough for the method to be judged inappropriate for use in this study.Water movement through a waste-trench cover under natural conditions at a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 to June 1984, using tensiometers, a moisture probe, and meteorological instruments. Four methods were used to estimate seepage: the Darcy, zero-flux plane, surface-based water-budget, and groundwater-based water-budget methods. Annual seepage estimates ranged from 48 to 216mm (5-23% of total precipitation), with most seepage occurring in spring. The Darcy method, although limited in accuracy by uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity, was capable of discretizing seepage in space and time and indicated that seepage varied by almost an order of magnitude across the width of the trench. Lowest seepage rates occurred near the center of the cover, where seepage was gradual. Highest

  11. Design of self-supporting surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vouga, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    Self-supporting masonry is one of the most ancient and elegant techniques for building curved shapes. Because of the very geometric nature of their failure, analyzing and modeling such strutures is more a geometry processing problem than one of classical continuum mechanics. This paper uses the thrust network method of analysis and presents an iterative nonlinear optimization algorithm for efficiently approximating freeform shapes by self-supporting ones. The rich geometry of thrust networks leads us to close connections between diverse topics in discrete differential geometry, such as a finite-element discretization of the Airy stress potential, perfect graph Laplacians, and computing admissible loads via curvatures of polyhedral surfaces. This geometric viewpoint allows us, in particular, to remesh self-supporting shapes by self-supporting quad meshes with planar faces, and leads to another application of the theory: steel/glass constructions with low moments in nodes. © 2012 ACM 0730-0301/2012/08-ART87.

  12. Complementary structure for designer localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported on metallic structures corrugated by very long and curved grooves have been recently proposed and demonstrated on an extremely thin metallic spiral structure (MSS) in the microwave regime. However, the mode profile for the magnetic LSPs was demonstrated by measuring only the electric field, not the magnetic field. Here, based on Babinet's principle, we propose a Babinet-inverted, or complementary MSS whose electric/magnetic mode profiles match the magnetic/electric mode profiles of MSS. This complementarity of mode profiles allows mapping the magnetic field distribution of magnetic LSP mode profile on MSS by measuring the electric field distribution of the corresponding mode on complementary MSS. Experiment at microwave frequencies also demonstrate the use of complementary MSS in sensing refractive-index change in the environment.

  13. Release mechanisms from shallow engineered trenches used as repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, J.; Wood, E.

    1987-05-01

    This report has been written for the Department of the Environment as part of their radioactive waste management research programme. The aim has been to identify release mechanisms of radioactivity from fully engineered trenches of the LAND 2 type and, to identify the data needed for their assessment. No direct experimental work has been involved. The report starts with a brief background to UK strategy and outlines a basic disposal system. It gives reviews of existing experience of low level radioactive waste disposal from LAND 1 trenches and of UK experience of toxic waste disposal to provide a practical basis for the next section which covers the implications of identified release mechanisms on the design requirements for an engineered trench. From these design requirements and their interaction with potential site conditions (both saturated and unsaturated zone sites are considered) an assessment of radionuclide release mechanism is made. (author)

  14. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S pipe trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornish, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. Isolation from REDOX and removal of the product transfer lines from the pipe trench is the second step in the decontamination and decommissioning of the entire 233-S Facility. The work scope is to isolate all piping from REDOX and then to remove all the piping/equipment from the pipe trench. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure No. 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the pipe trench and the process fluid piping is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the pipe trench and cutting of piping commences. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-009 Revision 1, 233-S Pipe Trench Decon and Pipe Removal

  15. ASPHERICAL SURFACES APPROXIMATION IN AUTOMATED DESIGN OF OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Ivanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problems of higher order aspherical surfaces approximation using different equation types. The objects of research are two types of equations for higher order aspherical surfaces description used in different software for optical systems design (SАRО, OPAL, ZEMAX, CODE-V, etc. and dependent on z-coordinate or on a radial coordinate on the surface. Conversion from one type of equations to another is considered in view of application in different software for optical systems design. Methods. The subject matter of the method lies in usage of mean square method approximation for recalculation of high-order aspherical surface. Iterative algorithm for recalculation is presented giving the possibility to recalculate coefficients for different types of equations with required accuracy. Recommendations are given for choosing recalculation parameters such as the number of result equation coefficients, the number of points for recalculation and point allocation on a surface. Main Results. Example of recalculation for aspherical surface and accuracy estimation, including result aberration comparison between initial surface and recalculated surface are presented. The example has shown that required accuracy of surface representation was obtained. Practical Relevance. This technique is usable for recalculation of higher order aspherical surfaces in various types of software for optical systems design and also for research of optimal higher order aspherical surfaces description.

  16. Elimination of trench defects and V-pits from InGaN/GaN structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita; Grzanka, Ewa; Czernecki, Robert; Schiavon, Dario; Leszczyński, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy was studied as a function of the growth temperature of the GaN quantum barriers (QBs). We observed the formation of basal stacking faults (BSFs) in GaN QBs grown at low temperature. The presence of BSFs terminated by stacking mismatch boundaries (SMBs) leads to the opening of the structure at the surface into a V-shaped trench loop. This trench may form above an SMB, thereby terminating the BSF, or above a junction between the SMB and a subsequent BSF. Fewer BSFs and thus fewer trench defects were observed in GaN QBs grown at temperatures higher than 830 °C. Further increase in the growth temperature of the GaN QBs led to the suppression of the threading dislocation opening into V-pits

  17. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  18. Modeling the flow of water in and around shallow burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Water flow through a generic low-level waste burial trench has been modeled for a vertical cross-section perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of an elongated trenched, using the finite element code, FEMWATER, in two-dimensional vertical mode. The grid consists of 513 nodes and 468 variable-size quadrilateral elements, and the simulation domain is about 56 m (H) /times/ 34 m (V). The traench, which is situated in the unsaturated zone, measures approximately 28 m wide and 10 m deep in cross-section, and is composed of three types of soil - a high-conductivity gravel cap on top, a low-conductivity clay layer beneath it, and backfill soil in the waste burial region. The rest of the domain is made up of undisturbed soil. Different cases have been simulated by varying boundary conditions, geometry and hydraulic properties. These results are used in radionuclide transport calculations to determine the ''source term'' (4). In addition, numerical experiments provide valuable information in trench design, such as, the geometry of the moisture barrier. Results from these experiments indicates that a moderate extension (8 m) of the clay layer beyond the sides of the trench can significantly reduce the net water flow (by 42%). They also show that sparsely distributed waste package have minimal effect on the net flow through the trench. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Design of structurally colored surfaces based on scalar diffraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of controlling the color and appearance of surfaces simply by modifying the height profile of the surface on a nanoscale level. The applications for such methods are numerous: new design possibilities for high-end products, color engraving on any highly...... reflective surface, paint-free text and coloration, UV-resistant coloring, etc. In this initial study, the main focus is on finding a systematic way to obtain these results. For now the simulation and optimization is based on a simple scalar diffraction theory model. From the results, several design issues...

  20. Integrating Surface Modeling into the Engineering Design Graphics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Nathan W.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested there is a knowledge base that surrounds the use of 3D modeling within the engineering design process and correspondingly within engineering design graphics education. While solid modeling receives a great deal of attention and discussion relative to curriculum efforts, and rightly so, surface modeling is an equally viable 3D…

  1. Design methodology to enhance high impedance surfaces performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grelier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A methodology is introduced for designing wideband, compact and ultra-thin high impedance surfaces (HIS. A parametric study is carried out to examine the effect of the periodicity on the electromagnetic properties of an HIS. This approach allows designers to reach the best trade-off for HIS performances.

  2. Fire hazard analysis of the radioactive mixed waste trenchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) is intended to assess comprehensively the risk from fire associated with the disposal of low level radioactive mixed waste in trenches within the lined landfills, provided by Project W-025, designated Trench 31 and 34 of the Burial Ground 218-W-5. Elements within the FHA make recommendations for minimizing risk to workers, the public, and the environment from fire during the course of the operation's activity. Transient flammables and combustibles present that support the operation's activity are considered and included in the analysis. The graded FHA contains the following elements: description of construction, protection of essential safety class equipment, fire protection features, description of fire hazards, life safety considerations, critical process equipment, high value property, damage potential--maximum credible fire loss (MCFL) and maximum possible fire loss (MPFL), fire department/brigade response, recovery potential, potential for a toxic, biological and/or radiation incident due to a fire, emergency planning, security considerations related to fire protection, natural hazards (earthquake, flood, wind) impact on fire safety, and exposure fire potential, including the potential for fire spread between fire areas. Recommendations for limiting risk are made in the text of this report and printed in bold type. All recommendations are repeated in a list in Section 18.0

  3. High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikovic, Daniel; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Wang, Shurui; Xu, Dan-Xia; Lapointe, Jean; Janz, Siegfried; Halir, Robert; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, J Gonzalo; Molina-Fernández, Iñigo; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Vivien, Laurent; Dado, Milan

    2015-09-15

    We present the first experimental demonstration of a new fiber-chip grating coupler concept that exploits the blazing effect by interleaving the standard full (220 nm) and shallow etch (70 nm) trenches in a 220 nm thick silicon layer. The high directionality is obtained by controlling the separation between the deep and shallow trenches to achieve constructive interference in the upward direction and destructive interference toward the silicon substrate. Utilizing this concept, the grating directionality can be maximized independent of the bottom oxide thickness. The coupler also includes a subwavelength-engineered index-matching region, designed to reduce the reflectivity at the interface between the injection waveguide and the grating. We report a measured fiber-chip coupling efficiency of -1.3  dB, the highest coupling efficiency achieved to date for a surface grating coupler in a 220 nm silicon-on-insulator platform fabricated in a conventional dual-etch process without high-index overlays or bottom mirrors.

  4. Designing Pulse Laser Surface Modification of H13 Steel Using Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqida, S. N.; Brabazon, D.; Naher, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design of experiment (DOE) for laser surface modification process of AISI H13 tool steel in achieving the maximum hardness and minimum surface roughness at a range of modified layer depth. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, overlap percentage and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The response surface method with Box-Behnken design approach in Design Expert 7 software was used to design the H13 laser surface modification process. Metallographic study and image analysis were done to measure the modified layer depth. The modified surface roughness was measured using two-dimensional surface profilometer. The correlation of the three laser processing parameters and the modified surface properties was specified by plotting three-dimensional graph. The hardness properties were tested at 981 mN force. From metallographic study, the laser modified surface depth was between 37 μm and 150 μm. The average surface roughness recorded from the 2D profilometry was at a minimum value of 1.8 μm. The maximum hardness achieved was between 728 and 905 HV0.1. These findings are significant to modern development of hard coatings for wear resistant applications.

  5. Conceptual designs of near surface disposal facility for radioactive waste arising from the facilities using radioisotopes and research facilities for nuclear energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro; Okoshi, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Abe, Masayoshi

    2001-03-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste is generating from the utilization of radioisotopes in the field of science, technology, etc. and the utilization and development of nuclear energy. In order to promote the utilization of radionuclides and the research activities, it is necessary to treat and dispose of radioactive waste safely and economically. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), which are the major waste generators in Japan in these fields, are promoting the technical investigations for treatment and disposal of the radioactive waste co-operately. Conceptual design of disposal facility is necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of waste disposal business and to determine the some conditions such as the area size of the disposal facility. Three institutes share the works to design disposal facility. Based on our research activities and experiences of waste disposal, JAERI implemented the designing of near surface disposal facilities, namely, simple earthen trench and concrete vaults. The designing was performed based on the following three assumed site conditions to cover the future site conditions: (1) Case 1 - Inland area with low groundwater level, (2) Case 2 - Inland area with high groundwater level, (3) Case 3 - Coastal area. The estimation of construction costs and the safety analysis were also performed based on the designing of facilities. The safety assessment results show that the safety for concrete vault type repository is ensured by adding low permeability soil layer, i.e. mixture of soil and bentonite, surrounding the vaults not depending on the site conditions. The safety assessment results for simple earthen trench also show that their safety is ensured not depending on the site conditions, if they are constructed above groundwater levels. The construction costs largely depend on the depth for excavation to build the repositories. (author)

  6. GaAs on Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping: Analysis and reduction of defects propagating along the trench direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzali, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.orzali@sematech.org; Vert, Alexey; O' Brien, Brendan; Papa Rao, Satyavolu S. [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd Suite 2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Herman, Joshua L.; Vivekanand, Saikumar [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Hill, Richard J. W. [Now at Micron Technologies, 8000 S Federal Way, Boise, Idaho 83716 (United States); Karim, Zia [AIXTRON, Inc., 1139 Karlstad Dr., Sunnyvale, California 94089 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The Aspect Ratio Trapping technique has been extensively evaluated for improving the quality of III-V heteroepitaxial films grown on Si, due to the potential for terminating defects at the sidewalls of SiO{sub 2} patterned trenches that enclose the growth region. However, defects propagating along the trench direction cannot be effectively confined with this technique. We studied the effect of the trench bottom geometry on the density of defects of GaAs fins, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on 300 mm Si (001) wafers inside narrow (<90 nm wide) trenches. Plan view and cross sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy, together with High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, were used to evaluate the crystal quality of GaAs. The prevalent defects that reach the top surface of GaAs fins are (111) twin planes propagating along the trench direction. The lowest density of twin planes, ∼8 × 10{sup 8 }cm{sup −2}, was achieved on “V” shaped bottom trenches, where GaAs nucleation occurs only on (111) Si planes, minimizing the interfacial energy and preventing the formation of antiphase boundaries.

  7. A Numerically and Experimentally Investigated Structure of the Turbulent Flow Past a Trench with a Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Afanasiev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the convective heat exchange intensification due to two-dimensional depressions formed on the initially flat surface. This problem is of interest for engineering applications because many different convective surfaces have cavities and depressions of constructive or random occurrence. During flow around a depression the boundary layer separation and its reattachment result in occurring specific phenomena, which have a significant impact on drag and heat exchange.The work involved an experimental study of hydrodynamic and heat characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer formed when there was an external airflow of the flat surface with a single transversal separation trench.The experimental part used an open subsonic low-turbulence wind tunnel operating in suction mode. A numerical simulation involves hydrodynamics and heat exchange parameters analysis via solution of the system of differential equations, which describe momentum and heat transport processes using ANSYS Fluent solver.The experimental data of this study are compared with numerical simulation results obtained by solving the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS with a two-parametrical Menter k-ω (MSST turbulence model.The comparison shows that simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data, heat exchange surface profiling by a transversal trench system with or without flow separation does not lead to increasing surface drag and, moreover, at the certain ratios of geometrical parameters (cylindrical trenches with h/S£ 0.5 it can decrease the surface drag. Surface conjugations in these depressions should be smooth without any sharp curves and transitions, which can lead to forming stagnation regions.The reason for raising heat exchange is a spatial non-uniformity of the generated turbulence field. During flow analysis there were two sources of turbulence generation found out, namely a wall (heat exchange surface and a mixing

  8. Control of water infiltration through SLB trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for control of water infiltration into waste burial trenches is described. Initial results show the procedure to be very promising. In essence, the technique combines engineered or positive control of run-off, along with a vegetative cover, and is named bioengineering management. To investigate control of infiltration, lysimeters are being used to make complete water balance measurements. The studies are underway at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site. Where the original Maxey Flats site closure procedure is followed, it is necessary to pump large amounts of water out of the lysimeters to prevent the water table from rising closer than 2 meters from the surface. Using the fescue grass bioengineering management procedure, no pumping is required. Encouraged by the initial findings in the rather small-scale lysimeters, a large scale demonstration of the bioengineering management technique has been initiated in Beltsville, Maryland. 6 references, 14 figures

  9. Surface laser marking optimization using an experimental design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brihmat-Hamadi, F.; Amara, E. H.; Lavisse, L.; Jouvard, J. M.; Cicala, E.; Kellou, H.

    2017-04-01

    Laser surface marking is performed on a titanium substrate using a pulsed frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser ( λ= 532 nm, τ pulse=5 ns) to process the substrate surface under normal atmospheric conditions. The aim of the work is to investigate, following experimental and statistical approaches, the correlation between the process parameters and the response variables (output), using a Design of Experiment method (DOE): Taguchi methodology and a response surface methodology (RSM). A design is first created using MINTAB program, and then the laser marking process is performed according to the planned design. The response variables; surface roughness and surface reflectance were measured for each sample, and incorporated into the design matrix. The results are then analyzed and the RSM model is developed and verified for predicting the process output for the given set of process parameters values. The analysis shows that the laser beam scanning speed is the most influential operating factor followed by the laser pumping intensity during marking, while the other factors show complex influences on the objective functions.

  10. Remedial action planning for Trench 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primrose, A.; Sproles, W.; Burmeister, M.; Wagner, R.; Law, J.; Greengard, T.; Castaneda, N.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerated action to remove the depleted uranium chips and associated soils and wastes from Trench 1 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) will begin in June 1998. To ensure that the remedial action is conducted safely, a rigorous and disciplined planning process was followed that incorporates the principles of Integrated Safety Management and Enhanced Work Planning. Critical to the success of the planning was early involvement of project staff (salaried and hourly) and associated technical support groups and disciplines. Feedback was and will continue to be solicited, and lessons learned incorporated to ensure the safe remediation of this site

  11. Design of a solar concentrator considering arbitrary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Martín.; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Verduzco-Grajeda, Lidia Elizabeth; Martínez-Enríquez, Arturo I.; García-Díaz, Reyes; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2017-10-01

    We study the propagation of light in order to efficiently redirect the reflected light on photocatalytic samples placed inside a commercial solar simulator, and we have designed a small-scale prototype of Cycloidal Collectors (CCs), resembling a compound parabolic collector. The prototype consists of either cycloidal trough or cycloidal collector having symmetry of rotation, which has been designed considering an exact ray tracing assuming a bundle of rays propagating parallel to the optical axis and impinging on a curate cycloidal surface, obtaining its caustic surface produced by reflection.

  12. Inverse design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Johansen, Villads Egede; Friis, Kasper Storgaard

    2014-01-01

    We propose an inverse design methodology for systematic design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects. The methodology is based on a 2D topology optimization formulation based on frequency-domain finite element simulations for E and/or H polarized waves. The goal of the optimization...... is to maximize color intensity in prescribed direction(s) for a prescribed color (RGB) vector. Results indicate that nanostructured surfaces with any desirable color vector can be generated; that complex structures can generate more intense colors than simple layerings; that angle independent colorings can...

  13. Process hazards review of the 904-A trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The 904-A trench is an enclosed underground concrete containment for high level and low level radioactive waste lines between the main Laboratory Building 773-A and waste storage and shipping Building 776-A. The waste generated in laboratories and other facilities in 773-A flows by gravity into the high level and low level drain lines, which proceed from 773-A through the 904-A trench. The trench ends at 776-2A, where the underground was handling tanks for both high level and low level liquids are located. The trench serves to contain any leaks originating in the drain lines. The trench is sloped downward toward the Building 776-2A pipe gallery. Any liquid collected from the sump can be pumped automatically to a waste tank sampled. The review of the 904-A trench system included a study of the trench and piping itself, as well as a study of the high level and low level drain lines from the laboratories to the trench. The present review emphasized on examination of the hazards involved in chemical reactions in the drain lines, misuse of the drains, and criticality. The following items were examined: Process Hazards Review of the Liquid Waste Collection System, Nuclear Criticality Review of the High Level Drain System, Improvements in the 904-A Trench System, Operating Procedures, and Unusual Incidents

  14. Sikorsky interactive graphics surface design/manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R.

    1975-01-01

    An interactive graphics system conceived to be used in the design, analysis, and manufacturing of aircraft components with free form surfaces was described. In addition to the basic surface definition and viewing capabilities inherent in such a system, numerous other features are present: surface editing, automated smoothing of control curves, variable milling patch boundary definitions, surface intersection definition and viewing, automatic creation of true offset surfaces, digitizer and drafting machine interfaces, and cutter path optimization. Documented costs and time savings of better than six to one are being realized with this system. The system was written in FORTRAN and GSP for use on IBM 2250 CRT's in conjunction with an IBM 370/158 computer.

  15. A systematic study of BNL's 3D-Trench Electrode detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalbano, A.; Bassignana, D.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lynn, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Tsybychev, D.

    2014-01-01

    New types of silicon pixel detectors have been proposed because of the need for more radiation hard semiconductor devices for the high luminosity tracking detector upgrades at the Large Hadron Collider. A novel type of 3D Si pixel detectors is proposed, with each cell of the 3D-Trench Electrode pixel detector featuring a concentric trench electrode surrounding the central collecting column electrode. The pixel sensor is an array of those individual cells. Systematic 3D simulations using Silvacos TCAD programs have been carried out to study the characteristics of this novel 3D pixel design and to compare to the traditional 3D column electrode pixel design. The 3D simulations show a much lower depletion voltage and a more uniform electric field in the new 3D-Trench Electrode pixel detectors as compared to the traditional 3D column Electrode detectors. The first prototype 3D-Trench Electrode pixel detectors have been manufactured at the Centro Nacional De Microelectronica. Preliminary electrical measurements are discussed and charge collection efficiency measurements are presented

  16. Repository Surface Design Engineering Files Report Rev 00 ICN 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Repository Surface Design Engineering Files Report Supplement [herein known as the Engineering Files (EF)] is to provide the surface design data needed by the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) contractor to prepare the EIS and evaluate options and alternatives. This document is based on the Repository Surface Design Engineering Files Report, Revision 03 (CRWMS M and O 1999f) (EF Rev 03). Where facility and system designs have been changed for the Site Recommendation (SR) effort they are described in this report. EIS information provided in this report includes the following: (1) Description of program phases; there are no changes that impact this report. (2) A description of the major design requirements and assumptions that drive the surface facilities reference design is provided herein (Section 2.2), including the surface design resulting from recommendations regarding Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II, as discussed in the License Application Design Section Report (CRWMS M and O 1999d), and changes to the waste stream. See Section 2, Table 2-2, for the SR waste stream. (3) The major design requirements and assumptions that drive the surface facilities reference design are by reference to EF Rev 03; there are no changes that impact this report. (4) Description of the reference design concept and existing site conditions is by reference to EF Rev 03 (including Table 4-1, which is not included in this supplement); there are no changes that impact this report. (5) Description of alternative design cases is by reference to EF Rev 03; there are no changes that impact this report. (6) Description of optional inventory modules is by reference to EF Rev 03; there are no changes that impact this report. (7) Tabular summary level engineering values (i.e., staffing, wastes, emissions, resources, and land use) for the reference design and the alternative design cases that address construction, emplacement operations, caretaker operations, and

  17. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  18. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.

  19. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  20. Scattering and extinction from high-aspect-ratio trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2015-01-01

    We construct a semi-analytical model describing the scattering, extinction and absorption properties of a high aspect-ratio trench in a metallic film. We find that these trenches act as highly efficient scatterers of free waves. In the perfect conductor limit, which for many metals is approached...

  1. Vertically distinct microbial communities in the Mariana and Kermadec trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Sierra; Osuntokun, Oladayo; Xia, Qing; Nelson, Alex; Blanton, Jessica; Allen, Eric E.; Church, Matthew J.; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2018-01-01

    Hadal trenches, oceanic locations deeper than 6,000 m, are thought to have distinct microbial communities compared to those at shallower depths due to high hydrostatic pressures, topographical funneling of organic matter, and biogeographical isolation. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that hadal trenches contain unique microbial biodiversity through analyses of the communities present in the bottom waters of the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Estimates of microbial protein production indicate active populations under in situ hydrostatic pressures and increasing adaptation to pressure with depth. Depth, trench of collection, and size fraction are important drivers of microbial community structure. Many putative hadal bathytypes, such as members related to the Marinimicrobia, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirilliceae, and Aquibacter, are similar to members identified in other trenches. Most of the differences between the two trench microbiomes consists of taxa belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria whose distributions extend throughout the water column. Growth and survival estimates of representative isolates of these taxa under deep-sea conditions suggest that some members may descend from shallower depths and exist as a potentially inactive fraction of the hadal zone. We conclude that the distinct pelagic communities residing in these two trenches, and perhaps by extension other trenches, reflect both cosmopolitan hadal bathytypes and ubiquitous genera found throughout the water column. PMID:29621268

  2. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Trial coring in LLRW trenches at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donders, R.E.; Killey, R.W.D.; Franklin, K.J.; Strobel, G.S.

    1996-11-01

    As part of a program to better characterize the low-hazard radioactive waste managed by AECL at Chalk River Laboratories, coring techniques in waste trenches are being assessed. Trial coring has demonstrated that sampling in waste regions is possible, and that boreholes can be placed through the waste trenches. Such coring provides a valuable information-gathering technique. Information available from trench coring includes: trench cover depth, waste region depth, waste compaction level, and detailed stratigraphic data; soil moisture content and facility drainage performance; borehole gamma logs that indicate radiation levels in the region of the borehole; biochemical conditions in the waste regions, vadose zone, and groundwater; site specific information relevant to contaminant migration modelling or remedial actions; information on contaminant releases and inventories. Boreholes through the trenches can also provide a means for early detection of potential contaminant releases. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Engineering design constraints of the lunar surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Living and working on the lunar surface will be difficult. Design of habitats, machines, tools, and operational scenarios in order to allow maximum flexibility in human activity will require paying attention to certain constraints imposed by conditions at the surface and the characteristics of lunar material. Primary design drivers for habitat, crew health and safety, and crew equipment are: ionizing radiation, the meteoroid flux, and the thermal environment. Secondary constraints for engineering derive from: the physical and chemical properties of lunar surface materials, rock distributions and regolith thicknesses, topography, electromagnetic properties, and seismicity. Protection from ionizing radiation is essential for crew health and safety. The total dose acquired by a crew member will be the sum of the dose acquired during EVA time (when shielding will be least) plus the dose acquired during time spent in the habitat (when shielding will be maximum). Minimizing the dose acquired in the habitat extends the time allowable for EVA's before a dose limit is reached. Habitat shielding is enabling, and higher precision in predicting secondary fluxes produced in shielding material would be desirable. Means for minimizing dose during a solar flare event while on extended EVA will be essential. Early warning of the onset of flare activity (at least a half-hour is feasible) will dictate the time available to take mitigating steps. Warning capability affects design of rovers (or rover tools) and site layout. Uncertainty in solar flare timing is a design constraint that points to the need for quickly accessible or constructible safe havens.

  5. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Li, E-mail: dengl@bupt.edu.cn; Hong, Weijun, E-mail: hongwj@bupt.edu.cn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Network System Architecture and Convergence, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China); Wu, Yongle, E-mail: wuyongle138@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  6. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Li; Hong, Weijun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang; Wu, Yongle

    2016-01-01

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  7. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  8. New method to design stellarator coils without the winding surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2018-01-01

    Finding an easy-to-build coils set has been a critical issue for stellarator design for decades. Conventional approaches assume a toroidal ‘winding’ surface, but a poorly chosen winding surface can unnecessarily constrain the coil optimization algorithm, This article presents a new method to design coils for stellarators. Each discrete coil is represented as an arbitrary, closed, one-dimensional curve embedded in three-dimensional space. A target function to be minimized that includes both physical requirements and engineering constraints is constructed. The derivatives of the target function with respect to the parameters describing the coil geometries and currents are calculated analytically. A numerical code, named flexible optimized coils using space curves (FOCUS), has been developed. Applications to a simple stellarator configuration, W7-X and LHD vacuum fields are presented.

  9. Novel freeform optical surface design with spiral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Pablo; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Vilaplana, Juan

    2011-10-01

    Manufacturing technologies as injection molding or embossing specify their production limits for minimum radii of the vertices or draft angle for demolding, for instance. These restrictions may limit the system optical efficiency or affect the generation of undesired artifacts on the illumination pattern when dealing with optical design. A novel manufacturing concept is presented here, in which the optical surfaces are not obtained from the usual revolution symmetry with respect to a central axis (z axis), but they are calculated as free-form surfaces describing a spiral trajectory around z axis. The main advantage of this new concept lies in the manufacturing process: a molded piece can be easily separated from its mold just by applying a combination of rotational movement around axis z and linear movement along axis z, even for negative draft angles. The general designing procedure will be described in detail.

  10. Design of Matched Absorbing Layers for Surface Plasmon-Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de la Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a procedure for designing metal-metal boundaries for the strong attenuation of surface plasmon-polaritons without the introduction of reflections or scattering effects. Solutions associated with different sets of matching materials are found. To illustrate the results and the consequences of adopting different solutions, we present calculations based on an integral equation formulation for the scattering problem and the use of a nonlocal impedance boundary condition.

  11. High‐resolution trench photomosaics from image‐based modeling: Workflow and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitman, Nadine G.; Bennett, Scott E. K.; Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard; Duross, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Photomosaics are commonly used to construct maps of paleoseismic trench exposures, but the conventional process of manually using image‐editing software is time consuming and produces undesirable artifacts and distortions. Herein, we document and evaluate the application of image‐based modeling (IBM) for creating photomosaics and 3D models of paleoseismic trench exposures, illustrated with a case‐study trench across the Wasatch fault in Alpine, Utah. Our results include a structure‐from‐motion workflow for the semiautomated creation of seamless, high‐resolution photomosaics designed for rapid implementation in a field setting. Compared with conventional manual methods, the IBM photomosaic method provides a more accurate, continuous, and detailed record of paleoseismic trench exposures in approximately half the processing time and 15%–20% of the user input time. Our error analysis quantifies the effect of the number and spatial distribution of control points on model accuracy. For this case study, an ∼87  m2 exposure of a benched trench photographed at viewing distances of 1.5–7 m yields a model with <2  cm root mean square error (rmse) with as few as six control points. Rmse decreases as more control points are implemented, but the gains in accuracy are minimal beyond 12 control points. Spreading control points throughout the target area helps to minimize error. We propose that 3D digital models and corresponding photomosaics should be standard practice in paleoseismic exposure archiving. The error analysis serves as a guide for future investigations that seek balance between speed and accuracy during photomosaic and 3D model construction.

  12. Fire hazard analysis for the Westinghouse Hanford Company managed low-level mixed waste Trench 31 and 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis is to assess comprehensively the risks from fire within the new lined landfills, provided by W-025 and designated Trench 31 and 34 of Burial Ground 218-W-5; they are located in the 200 West area of the Hanford Site, and are designed to receive low-level mixed waste

  13. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Gaurav [Ohio University; Mark, David [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Kolas, Dave [Raytheon BBN Technologies; Varanka, Dalia [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Romero, Boleslo E [University of California, Santa Barbara; Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Usery, Lynn [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Liebermann, Joshua [Tumbling Walls, LLC; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  14. Tile-based rigidization surface parametric design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner Munoz, Laura; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-03-01

    Inflatable technologies have proven useful in consumer goods as well as in more recent applications including civil structures, aerospace, medical, and robotics. However, inflatable technologies are typically lacking in their ability to provide rigid structural support. Particle jamming improves upon this by providing structures which are normally flexible and moldable but become rigid when air is removed. Because these are based on an airtight bladder filled with loose particles, they always occupy the full volume of its rigid state, even when not rigidized. More recent developments in layer jamming have created thin, compact rigidizing surfaces replacing the loose volume of particles with thinly layered surface materials. Work in this area has been applied to several specific applications with positive results but have not generally provided the broader understanding of the rigidization performance as a function of design parameters required for directly adapting layer rigidization technology to other applications. This paper presents a parametric design study of a new layer jamming vacuum rigidization architecture: tile-based vacuum rigidization. This form of rigidization is based on layers of tiles contained within a thin vacuum bladder which can be bent, rolled, or otherwise compactly stowed, but when deployed flat, can be vacuumed and form a large, flat, rigid plate capable of supporting large forces both localized and distributed over the surface. The general architecture and operation detailing rigidization and compliance mechanisms is introduced. To quantitatively characterize the rigidization behavior, prototypes rigidization surfaces are fabricated and an experimental technique is developed based on a 3-point bending test. Performance evaluation metrics are developed to describe the stiffness, load-bearing capacity, and internal slippage of tested prototypes. A set of experimental parametric studies are performed to better understand the impact of

  15. STRENGTHENING OF TRENCH COVER PLATES FOR SWITCHGEAR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.S. RUBEN

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to strengthen the existing trench cover plates of the Electrical Switchgear Building (BLDG 5010) of the Exploratory Studies Facility. A remodeling effort will change the portion of the facility that has the trenches for electrical cables to a craft/shop area. The users of the building will be using a forklift in this area (Clark CGP 30 forklift with a capacity of 3 tons). The trench covers require strengthening to support the wheel loads from the forklift. The output of this calculation will be sketches revising the floor plate details of DWG YMP-025-1-7007-ST103,2. (Details 4 and 5)

  16. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  17. Computational design of protein interactions: designing proteins that neutralize influenza by inhibiting its hemagglutinin surface protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Sarel

    2012-02-01

    Molecular recognition underlies all life processes. Design of interactions not seen in nature is a test of our understanding of molecular recognition and could unlock the vast potential of subtle control over molecular interaction networks, allowing the design of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for basic and applied research. We developed the first general method for designing protein interactions. The method starts by computing a region of high affinity interactions between dismembered amino acid residues and the target surface and then identifying proteins that can harbor these residues. Designs are tested experimentally for binding the target surface and successful ones are affinity matured using yeast cell surface display. Applied to the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin we designed two unrelated proteins that, following affinity maturation, bound hemagglutinin at subnanomolar dissociation constants. Co-crystal structures of hemagglutinin bound to the two designed binders were within 1Angstrom RMSd of their models, validating the accuracy of the design strategy. One of the designed proteins inhibits the conformational changes that underlie hemagglutinin's cell-invasion functions and blocks virus infectivity in cell culture, suggesting that such proteins may in future serve as diagnostics and antivirals against a wide range of pathogenic influenza strains. We have used this method to obtain experimentally validated binders of several other target proteins, demonstrating the generality of the approach. We discuss the combination of modeling and high-throughput characterization of design variants which has been key to the success of this approach, as well as how we have used the data obtained in this project to enhance our understanding of molecular recognition. References: Science 332:816 JMB, in press Protein Sci 20:753

  18. 300 Area Process Trenches Postclosure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badden, J.W.

    1998-05-01

    The 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT) certified closure under a modified closure option and in compliance with Condition II.K.3 oft he Hartford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit (Penit) (Ecology 1994). Modified closure has been determined to be the appropriate closure option for this unit due to groundwater that remains contaminated from past operations at the 300 APT. Corrective actions required for dangerous waste constituents remaining in groundwater will occur pursuant to the 300 APT Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Final Status Facility Ground Water Monitoring Plan, the Hanford Site Wide Dangerous Waste Permit, and in conjunction with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial actions at the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) pursuant to the Record of Decision (ROD) (EPA 1996). This postclosure plan identifies the modified closure actions required at the unit under postclosure care. It contains a description of the unit, past closure actions, and postclosure care requirements subject to compliance under the Permit (condition II.K.3)

  19. Neglecting safety precautions may lead to trenching fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, J Harold; Furches, Lisa K; Radcliffe, Mike; Schriver, William R; Wagner, John P

    2004-06-01

    Trench collapses ranked as the seventh leading cause of the possible twenty-nine causes of OSHA-inspected fatal construction events during the period 1991-2001. This study aims to examine why these fatalities occurred. Forty-four case files from OSHA inspections of fatal trench collapses were reviewed. Improper protection of the excavation site where work was taking place was the leading fatality cause. Several organizational or physical conditions were present at many fatal sites; the most frequent was that no training had been provided for trenching. Presence of a competent, diligent person at the site would have prohibited most fatalities. The top cited violation was lack of protection, that is, benching, shoring, sloping, trench boxes, etc. (29 CFR 1926.652 (a) (1)). Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action

  1. Hydrologic behaviour of stormwater infiltration trenches in a central urban area during 2 3/4 years of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnaars, E.; Larsen, A.V.; Jacobsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    overflow. Analyses of falling water tables after rain indicated slight clogging, but this effect is less important than the general lack of knowledge about soil permeability for normal design situations. The results indicate that the stormwater infiltration in central urban areas with compressed soils...... an initial soil survey. Although the two trenches are placed close to each other they function rather differently, corresponding to effective soil permeabilities of 2.10(-6) m/s in one trench and a factor 10 smaller in the other. During 23/4 years of measuring 89 events were recorded, of which 7 caused...

  2. Design of pellet surface grooves for fission gas plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, T.J.; Jones, L.R.; Macici, N.; Miller, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the Canada deuterium uranium pressurized heavy water reactor, short (50-cm) Zircaloy-4 clad bundles are fueled on-power. Although internal void volume within the fuel rods is adequate for the present once-through natural uranium cycle, the authors have investigated methods for increasing the internal gas storage volume needed in high-power, high-burnup, experimental ceramic fuels. This present work sought to prove the methodology for design of gas storage volume within the fuel pellets - specifically the use of grooves pressed or machined into the relatively cool pellet/cladding interface. Preanalysis and design of pellet groove shape and volume was accomplished using the TRUMP heat transfer code. Postirradiation examination (PIE) was used to check the initial design and heat transfer assumptions. Fission gas release was found to be higher for the grooved pellet rods than for the comparison rods with hollow or unmodified pellets. This had been expected from the initial TRUMP thermal analyses. The ELESIM fuel modeling code was used to check in-reactor performance, but some modifications were necessary to accommodate the loss of heat transfer surface to the grooves. It was concluded that for plenum design purposes, circumferential pellet grooves could be adequately modeled by the codes TRUMP and ELESIM

  3. Computational design of surfaces, nanostructures and optoelectronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Kamal

    Properties of engineering materials are generally influenced by defects such as point defects (vacancies, interstitials, substitutional defects), line defects (dislocations), planar defects (grain boundaries, free surfaces/nanostructures, interfaces, stacking faults) and volume defects (voids). Classical physics based molecular dynamics and quantum physics based density functional theory can be useful in designing materials with controlled defect properties. In this thesis, empirical potential based molecular dynamics was used to study the surface modification of polymers due to energetic polyatomic ion, thermodynamics and mechanics of metal-ceramic interfaces and nanostructures, while density functional theory was used to screen substituents in optoelectronic materials. Firstly, polyatomic ion-beams were deposited on polymer surfaces and the resulting chemical modifications of the surface were examined. In particular, S, SC and SH were deposited on amorphous polystyrene (PS), and C2H, CH3, and C3H5 were deposited on amorphous poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using molecular dynamics simulations with classical reactive empirical many-body (REBO) potentials. The objective of this work was to elucidate the mechanisms by which the polymer surface modification took place. The results of the work could be used in tailoring the incident energy and/or constituents of ion beam for obtaining a particular chemistry inside the polymer surface. Secondly, a new Al-O-N empirical potential was developed within the charge optimized many body (COMB) formalism. This potential was then used to examine the thermodynamic stability of interfaces and mechanical properties of nanostructures composed of aluminum, its oxide and its nitride. The potentials were tested for these materials based on surface energies, defect energies, bulk phase stability, the mechanical properties of the most stable bulk phase, its phonon properties as well as with a genetic algorithm based evolution theory of

  4. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization

  5. Parametric design of a part with free-form surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Yeoung-il; KIM Li-ra; JUN Cha-soo

    2006-01-01

    3D solid models for parts with regular-form surfaces (PRFSs) are effectively generated using traditional parametric design techniques. A new model is obtained by changing some parameters defining the model. The parts with free-form surfaces(PFFSs), however, cannot be defined by several parameters. Usually they are defined by some geometric elements like profile curves. The traditional parametric design approaches have not easily dealt with the PFFSs. A method for generating a solid model and an engineering drawing for PFFSs is proposed in this paper: First, the new profiles are generated from input point data. Second,the profile information is extracted from the existing model. Last, the old profiles are replaced with the new profiles. This method can preserve the associative information of the existing model and automatically generate the drawing including views, dimensions, and annotations. The proposed method has been implemented using a commercial CAD/CAM system, Unigraphics, and API functions written in C-language, and were applied to the blades of a turbine generator. Some illustrative examples are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. The GaN trench gate MOSFET with floating islands: High breakdown voltage and improved BFOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lingyan; Müller, Stephan; Cheng, Xinhong; Zhang, Dongliang; Zheng, Li; Xu, Dawei; Yu, Yuehui; Meissner, Elke; Erlbacher, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    A novel GaN trench gate (TG) MOSFET with P-type floating islands (FLI) in drift region, which can suppress the electric field peak at bottom of gate trench during the blocking state and prevent premature breakdown in gate oxide, is proposed and investigated by TCAD simulations. The influence of thickness, position, doping concentration and length of the FLI on breakdown voltage (BV) and specific on-resistance (Ron_sp) is studied, providing useful guidelines for design of this new type of device. Using optimized parameters for the FLI, GaN FLI TG-MOSFET obtains a BV as high as 2464 V with a Ron_sp of 3.0 mΩ cm2. Compared to the conventional GaN TG-MOSFET with the same structure parameters, the Baliga figure of merit (BFOM) is enhanced by 150%, getting closer to theoretical limit for GaN devices.

  7. A Generic Safety Assessment Model for a Trench Type LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Choi, Hee-Joo

    2015-01-01

    This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal circumstances, disruptive events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. Despite the conceptual design of a trench type LILW repository system, all parameter values associated with the repository system were assumed for the time being, and the generic model developed through this study should be helpful because the evaluation of such releases is very important. A simple and effective model for a safety assessment of a conceptual trench repository system, in which an LILW that arises from a nuclear power plant and other sources, has been developed. The computer program based on this model has also been developed as a GoldSim template using the commercial GoldSim development tool

  8. A Generic Safety Assessment Model for a Trench Type LILW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Choi, Hee-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal circumstances, disruptive events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. Despite the conceptual design of a trench type LILW repository system, all parameter values associated with the repository system were assumed for the time being, and the generic model developed through this study should be helpful because the evaluation of such releases is very important. A simple and effective model for a safety assessment of a conceptual trench repository system, in which an LILW that arises from a nuclear power plant and other sources, has been developed. The computer program based on this model has also been developed as a GoldSim template using the commercial GoldSim development tool.

  9. A radiochemical study of sedimentation onto the Japan Trench floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Kitaoka, H.; Tsunogai, S.

    1983-01-01

    Box cores were taken from the Japan Trench (water depth, 8260 m) and two neighboring shallower stations (water depth, 2970 and 4310 m) and analyzed for uranium isotopes, thorium isotopes, 210 Pb, CaCO 3 , Fe, Mn, Al, and Cu. The 230 Th: 232 Th activity ratios in the top layer (0 to 1 cm) were 12 to 15 at the three stations, indicating no appreciable addition of 230 Th during descent through the water column below 4 km depth. There are no significant differences in the concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, and 230 Th on a carbonate-free basis at the three stations. The 230 Th: 232 Th activity ratios of the Japan Trench sediments in the upper 30 cm are nearly constant with depth, indicating rapid sedimentation or active vertical mixing of the sediments. The mixing depth of the Japan Trench sediments is estimated to be 7 cm from the vertical distribution of excess 210 Pb. The maximum concentration of 210 Pb in the Japan Trench sediment is at 2- to 3-cm depth. The results suggest that sediment deposited on the shallower slope of the trench slides down and accumulates on the trench floor. (author)

  10. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal in Engineered Trenches 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-12

    Revision 0 of this UDQE addressed the proposal to place Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) in the footprint designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12) and operate using ST#12 disposal limits. Similarly, Revision 1 evaluates whether ET#4 can be located in and operated to Slit Trench #13 (ST#13) disposal limits. Both evaluations conclude that the proposed operations result in an acceptably small risk of exceeding a SOF of 1.0 and approve these actions from a performance assessment (PA) perspective. Because ET#3 will be placed in the location previously designated for ST#12, Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore, new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  11. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Gladney, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers

  12. Eco-trench: a novel trench solution based on reusing excavated material and a finishing layer of expansive concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, A.; Pujadas, R.; Fernández, C.; Cavalaro, S.H.P.; Aguado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Installing utility pipelines generates a significant amount of trench arisings, which are usually transported to landfills instead of being reused as backfill material. This practice generates CO2 emissions and wastes raw materials. This paper presents a more sustainable solution, an eco-trench, which is based on re-using trench arisings as backfill and adding a top layer of expansive concrete to improve the eco-trench’s structural performance. The technical feasibility of the eco-trench was evaluated through a finite element model, which identified the degree of expansion in concrete required to avoid failure or subside the stresses caused by traffic. The potential expansion of concrete was measured under confined conditions in the laboratory by means of a novel test developed for this purpose. The results showed that adding calcium oxide generates the required internal stress. The results were then confirmed in a pilot experience. [es

  13. Eco-trench: a novel trench solution based on reusing excavated material and a finishing layer of expansive concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blanco

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Installing utility pipelines generates a significant amount of trench arisings, which are usually transported to landfills instead of being reused as backfill material. This practice generates CO2 emissions and wastes raw materials. This paper presents a more sustainable solution, an eco-trench, which is based on re-using trench arisings as backfill and adding a top layer of expansive concrete to improve the eco-trench’s structural performance. The technical feasibility of the eco-trench was evaluated through a finite element model, which identified the degree of expansion in concrete required to avoid failure or subside the stresses caused by traffic. The potential expansion of concrete was measured under confined conditions in the laboratory by means of a novel test developed for this purpose. The results showed that adding calcium oxide generates the required internal stress. The results were then confirmed in a pilot experience.

  14. Trench Safety–Using a Qualitative Approach to Understand Barriers and Develop Strategies to Improve Trenching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLYNN, MICHAEL A.; SAMPSON, JULIE M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to ensure workplace safety and health, injuries and fatalities related to trenching and excavation remain alarmingly high in the construction industry. Because properly installed trenching protective systems can potentially reduce the significant number of trenching fatalities, there is clearly a need to identify the barriers to the use of these systems and to develop strategies to ensure these systems are utilized consistently. The current study reports on the results of focus groups with construction workers and safety management personnel to better understand these barriers and to identify solutions. The results suggest several factors, from poor planning to pressures from experienced workers and supervisors, which present barriers to safe trenching practices. Based on the results, it is recommended that safety trainings incorporate unique messages for new workers, experienced workers and management in an effort to motivate each group to work safely as well as provide them with solutions to overcome the identified barriers. PMID:26550006

  15. Conceptual design of the Brazilian near surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Rogerio P.; Freire, Carolina Braccini, E-mail: mourao@cdtn.br, E-mail: cbf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/UFMG-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    CNEN is presently in the planning phase of the implementation of a repository for low and intermediate level wastes. One of the present activities of this project is to define a concept for the disposal of radioactive wastes to be received. The conceptual design of the repository takes into account the quantities and characteristics of the waste, the disposal arrangement, the waste acceptance criteria, the site characteristics, the period of the facility operation and institutional control, the engineering barriers to be used, as well as the facility's operational aspects. The facility will be a near-surface repository, an internationally accepted concept and adopted for example in France (L'Aube repository) and Spain (El Cabril). An acceptable site for such a repository must have characteristics that minimize the risk of human exposure to the radiation and environmental contamination. For this, the chosen site must meet specific technical and socioeconomic requirements, such as favorable physiographic, meteorological, geotechnical and tectonic characteristics, low demographic density, absence of agricultural activities and mineral deposits and proximity to the paved road grid. In this work the technical and socioeconomic requirements necessary and sufficient for site selection are presented. Also discussed is the method for the establishment of the main features that the different facility's buildings must have. Since a specific site has not yet been selected, a simulated area with straight and parallel sides, no gradient, served by access road and having a surface sufficient to hold the disposal structures and support facilities, as well as the legal exclusion zones. The buildings were designed and positioned in order to meet the needs in terms of flow of waste, personnel, supplies and materials necessary to perform the activities within the enterprise. The methodology for compilation of information related to buildings is presented. This

  16. Conceptual design of the Brazilian near surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio P.; Freire, Carolina Braccini

    2013-01-01

    CNEN is presently in the planning phase of the implementation of a repository for low and intermediate level wastes. One of the present activities of this project is to define a concept for the disposal of radioactive wastes to be received. The conceptual design of the repository takes into account the quantities and characteristics of the waste, the disposal arrangement, the waste acceptance criteria, the site characteristics, the period of the facility operation and institutional control, the engineering barriers to be used, as well as the facility's operational aspects. The facility will be a near-surface repository, an internationally accepted concept and adopted for example in France (L'Aube repository) and Spain (El Cabril). An acceptable site for such a repository must have characteristics that minimize the risk of human exposure to the radiation and environmental contamination. For this, the chosen site must meet specific technical and socioeconomic requirements, such as favorable physiographic, meteorological, geotechnical and tectonic characteristics, low demographic density, absence of agricultural activities and mineral deposits and proximity to the paved road grid. In this work the technical and socioeconomic requirements necessary and sufficient for site selection are presented. Also discussed is the method for the establishment of the main features that the different facility's buildings must have. Since a specific site has not yet been selected, a simulated area with straight and parallel sides, no gradient, served by access road and having a surface sufficient to hold the disposal structures and support facilities, as well as the legal exclusion zones. The buildings were designed and positioned in order to meet the needs in terms of flow of waste, personnel, supplies and materials necessary to perform the activities within the enterprise. The methodology for compilation of information related to buildings is presented. This information will be

  17. DISTRIBUTED EXTERNAL SURFACE HARDENING OF CAR DESIGN BY WINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper involves coverage of features and results of the research conducted by the authors to determine the feasibility and establishment of pre-stressed-strained state of freight cars by winding in order to improve their strength characteristics. It is also necessary to present the theoretical justification for the effectiveness of the application of this method for car designs and an appropriate example for the tank-car. Methodology. The conducted study is based on an analysis of known works on the subject, mathematical justification and computer modeling. At the calculations of rolling stock components contemporary conventional techniques were used. Findings. Authors found that the winding method for pre-stressed-strained state is effective and appropriate for use in the construction of railway rolling stock and, in particular freight cars. Freight car designs with the pre-stressed-strained state are characterized by a number of strength advantages, among which there is an improvement of the work on the perception of operational loads and resource conservation. Originality. For the first time it is proposed the improvement of bearing capacity of freight car constructions through the creation of its component in the directed stress-strained state. It is also for the first time proposed the use of distributed external surface hardening by the method of winding to create a pre-stress-strained state of structural components of freight cars. The methods for winding designs of freight cars and their implementation were considered. Practical value. The studies developed a number of technical solutions for improving the design of freight cars and tank-container, which has been patented. Corresponding solutions for the tank-car are partially presented. Practical implementation of such solutions will significantly improve the technical, economic and operational performances of car designs.

  18. Evaluation of proposed shallow-land burial sites using the PRESTO-II [Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations] methodology and code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Uslu, I.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed to evaluate possible doses and risks (health effects) from shallow-land burial sites. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transport from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport and deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. The proposed waste disposal area in Koteyli, Balikesir, Turkey, has been evaluated using the PRESTO-II methodology. The results have been compared to those obtained for the Barnwell, South Carolina, site. Dose estimates for both sites are below regulatory limits, for the release and exposure scenarios considered. The doses for the sites are comparable, with slightly higher estimates obtained for the Turkish site. 7 refs., 1 tab

  19. Studies of quaternary deposits in investigation trench OL-TK19 on the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhta, P.

    2013-07-01

    The Quaternary deposits in investigation trench OL-TK19 were studied by the Geological Survey of Finland in October 2012. Samples for grain size determinations were taken from 3 vertical profiles, placed about 20-25 m apart along the trench. Two till units was sampled separately. The profiles extended from the soil surface down to bedrock. The samples were first dried in the laboratory after which they were sieved. In addition, the grain size distribution of the < 63 μm fraction was analyzed with the Sedigraph 5100 instrument. Sedimentological observations of the sampling profiles were documented in field by drawing them on a field observation form and the profiles were photographed using a digital camera. In addition, the excavated section was photographed along its whole length. The till cover in OL-TK19 consists of two parts. The surface layer of the till is oxidized, brownish grey sandy till, whereas the lower layer is unoxidized, grey silty till. Dark grey silty till as in the bottom of investigation trenches OL-TK13 and OL-TK14 was not found in this trench. The till layers in OL-TK19 was deposited in the last flow phase of the Weichselian continental ice. Bedrock striations indicate that the ice moved in a NW-SE direction. The till beds smooth bedrock topography. The tills showed no signs of disturbance related to bedrock movements. (orig.)

  20. Technology development for the design of shallow land burial facilities at semiarid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.; Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments are described: effectiveness of a moisture barrier and the physical basis for capillary barriers; trench cap designs for long term stabilization including biointrusion barrier testing; and joint DOE/NRC tracer migration experiment. In the first, a barrier concept known as the wick effect is being field tested to control the movement of water on top of and around shallow land burial trenches. The barrier is composed of bentonite and tuff. In the second, the performance is measured of a conventional and an improved trench cover design on surface water dynamics, in limiting biological intrusion, and under both natural and enhanced precipitation regimes. The third experiment evaluates leaching and transport of solutes in sandy silt backfill used in shallow land burial at Los Alamos and compares results with laboratory-derived parameter estimates. 6 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  1. Nanoparticle array based optical frequency selective surfaces: theory and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Chiya; van der Weide, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate a synthesis procedure for designing a bandstop optical frequency selective surface (FSS) composed of nanoparticle (NP) elements. The proposed FSS uses two-dimensional (2-D) periodic arrays of NPs with subwavelength unit-cell dimensions. We derive equivalent circuit for a nanoparticle array (NPA) using the closed-form solution for a 2-D NPA excited by a plane wave in the limit of the dipole approximation, which includes contribution from both individual and collective plasmon modes. Using the extracted equivalent circuit, we demonstrate synthesis of an optical FSS using cascaded NPA layers as coupled resonators, which we validate with both circuit model and full-wave simulation for a third-order Butterworth bandstop prototype.

  2. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 5, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has reviewed the project documentation and data for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Underground Utilities removal Phase 3; Trench 5 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The Brookhaven Survey Group (BSG) has completed removal and performed Final Status Survey (FSS) of the concrete duct from Trench 5 from Building 801 to the Stack. Sample results have been submitted as required to demonstrate that the cleanup goal of (le)15 mrem/yr above background to a resident in 50 years has been met. Four rounds of sampling, from pre-excavation to FSS, were performed as specified in the Field Sampling Plan (FSP) (BNL 2010a). It is the policy of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to perform independent verifications of decontamination and decommissioning activities conducted at DOE facilities. ORISE has been designated as the organization responsible for this task for the HFBR Underground Utilities. ORISE, together with DOE, determined that a Type A verification of Trench 5 was appropriate based on recent verification results from Trenches 2, 3, and 4, and the minimal potential for residual radioactivity in the area. The removal of underground utilities is being performed in three stages to decommission the HFBR facility and support structures. Phase 3 of this project included the removal of at least 200 feet of 36-inch to 42-inch pipe from the west side to the south side of Building 801, and the 14-inch diameter Acid Waste Line that spanned from 801 to the Stack within Trench 5. Based on the pre-excavation sample results of the soil overburden the potential for contamination of the soil surrounding the pipe is minimal (BNL 2010a). ORISE reviewed the BNL FSP and identified comments for consideration (ORISE 2010). BNL prepared a revised FSP that resolved each ORISE comment adequately (BNL 2010a). ORISE referred to the revised HFBR Underground Utilities FSP FSS data to conduct the Type A verification

  3. Evaluation of 1985--1986 corrective actions at ORNL liquid waste disposal trench 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1991-04-01

    Several corrective actions were taken in 1985--1986 at the site of ORNL radioactive liquid waste seepage trench 7 in an effort to reduce the discharge of radionuclides, mostly 60 Co, from a groundwater seep on the eastern side of the site. First, the size of the asphalt cap over the trench was doubled, and cap runoff was diverted away from the site to the west. Second, the buried waste transfer line to the trench was excavated and plugged and its pipe trench was damned with clay backfill. These actions were designed to reduce groundwater recharge in the area that might be the source of water to the seep. Third, a series of grout injections was carried out at 5-ft intervals along a perimeter line on the eastern and northern edges of the site. A total of 65,500 gal of lime-fly-ash grout was injected at 303 locations at depths up to 40 ft in an effort to seal relict contaminated strata with probable hydrologic connection to the seep. However, the grout formulation specified in the contract would not set to a detectable compressive strength nor would the grout samples exhibit a reduction in hydraulic conductivity during over a year of observation. Thus, the material specification for the grout was inappropriate for the desired effect of in situ hydrologic isolation. Core sampling at the site revealed that the grout flowed into the soil formation along discrete thin layers. Only three grout layers, with a maximum thickness of 0.25 in., were found in over 90 ft of core from three locations along the grout injection line. Thus, this grouting action would have little potential to influence containment of radionuclides that leach from contaminated strata. 11 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Catalyst design for enhanced sustainability through fundamental surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personick, Michelle L; Montemore, Matthew M; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Madix, Robert J; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M

    2016-02-28

    Decreasing energy consumption in the production of platform chemicals is necessary to improve the sustainability of the chemical industry, which is the largest consumer of delivered energy. The majority of industrial chemical transformations rely on catalysts, and therefore designing new materials that catalyse the production of important chemicals via more selective and energy-efficient processes is a promising pathway to reducing energy use by the chemical industry. Efficiently designing new catalysts benefits from an integrated approach involving fundamental experimental studies and theoretical modelling in addition to evaluation of materials under working catalytic conditions. In this review, we outline this approach in the context of a particular catalyst-nanoporous gold (npAu)-which is an unsupported, dilute AgAu alloy catalyst that is highly active for the selective oxidative transformation of alcohols. Fundamental surface science studies on Au single crystals and AgAu thin-film alloys in combination with theoretical modelling were used to identify the principles which define the reactivity of npAu and subsequently enabled prediction of new reactive pathways on this material. Specifically, weak van der Waals interactions are key to the selectivity of Au materials, including npAu. We also briefly describe other systems in which this integrated approach was applied. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts.

  6. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts

  7. Libraries as Trenches: Resistance, Militancy and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Civallero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how libraries and librarians resist and mobilize by sharpening the mind and strengthening solidarity, withstanding adverse conditions and providing shelter, and allowing for new community paths to be traveled despite the neoliberal insistence that there is no alternative. Militancy and commitment on the part of librarians are both discussed in terms of reading, literacy, identity, learning, training, and a form of leisure linked to culture.Everyday engagement in community-level activities and problem-solving by libraries goes hand-in-hand with supporting values such as justice, equality, solidarity, pluralism, freedom, equity, and respect. Trenches are used as a metaphor for libraries because the resistance work and struggle of librarians create spaces where certain fires are kept burning to inspire people sitting around them, and where resistance, planning, building, and counteracting are all possible. Cet essai prend en compte comment les bibliothèques et les bibliothécaires résistent et se mobilisent en façonnant l’esprit, en renforçant la solidarité, en résistant à des conditions défavorables et en fournissant des abris, et en permettant de prendre de nouveaux sentiers communautaires malgré l’insistance néolibérale qu’il n’y pas de solution de rechange. Le militantisme et l’engagement de la part des bibliothécaires sont tous deux examinés en fonction de la lecture, la littératie, l’identité, l’apprentissage, la formation et une forme de loisir liée à la culture. L’engagement quotidien dans les activités de la communauté et la résolution de problème des bibliothèques vont main dans la main avec le soutien des valeurs tels la justice, l’égalité, la solidarité, le pluralisme, la liberté, l’équité et le respect. La métaphore de la tranchée peut être employée pour les bibliothèques, car leur travail de résistance et les défis qu’ont les bibliothécaires à créer des

  8. Expedited response action proposal for 316-5 process trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    A summary of the evaluation of remedial alternatives for the 300 Area Process Trench sediment removal at Hanford is presented. Based on the preliminary technology screening, screening factors, and selection criteria the preferred alternative for the 300 Area Process Trench is to remove and interim stabilize the sediments within the fenced area of the process trenches. This alternative involves proven technologies that are applied easily at this mixed waste site. This alternative removes and isolates contaminated sediments from the active portion of the trenches allowing continued used of the trenches until an inspection and treatment facility is constructed. The alternative does not incorporate any materials or actions that preclude consideration of a technology for final remediation of the operable unit. The estimated initial and annual costs would enable this alternative to be implemented under the guidelines for an EPA- funded ERA ($2 million). Implementation of the alternative can be accomplished with trained personnel using familiar procedures to provide a safe operation that accomplishes the objective for removing a potential source of contamination, thereby reducing potential environmental threat to groundwater. 18 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Selective epitaxial growth properties and strain characterization of Si1- x Ge x in SiO2 trench arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sangmo; Jang, Hyunchul; Ko, Dae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the formation of a Si1- x Ge x fin structure in SiO2 trench arrays via an ultra-high-vacuum chemical-vapor deposition (UHV-CVD) selective epitaxial growth (SEG) process. Defect generation and microstructures of Si1- x Ge x fin structures with different Ge concentrations ( x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.45) were examined. In addition, the strain evolution of a Si1- x Ge x fin structure was analyzed by using reciprocal space mapping (RSM). An (111) facet was formed from the Si1- x Ge x epi-layer and SiO2 trench wall interface to minimize the interface and the surface energy. The Si1- x Ge x fin structures were fully relaxed along the direction perpendicular to the trenches regardless of the Ge concentration. On the other hand, the fin structures were fully or partially strained along the direction parallel to the trenches depending on the Ge concentration: fully strained Si0.8Ge0.2 and Si0.7Ge0.3, and a Si0.55Ge0.45 strain-relaxed buffer. We further confirmed that the strain on the Si1- x Ge x fin structures remained stable after oxide removal and H2/N2 post-annealing.

  10. New GaN Schottky barrier diode employing a trench on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Min-Woo; Lee, Seung-Chul; Choi, Young-Hwan; Kim, Soo-Seong; Yun, Chong-Man; Han, Min-Koo

    2006-10-01

    A new GaN Schottky barrier diode employing a trench structure, which is proposed and fabricated, successfully decreases a forward voltage drop without sacrificing any other electric characteristics. The trench is located in the middle of Schottky contact during a mesa etch. The Schottky metal of Pt/Mo/Ti/Au is e-gun evaporated on the 300 nm-deep trench as well as the surface of the proposed GaN Schottky barrier diode. The trench forms the vertical Au Schottky contact and lateral Pt Schottky contact due to the evaporation sequence of Schottky metal. The forward voltage drops of the proposed diode and conventional one are 0.73 V and 1.25 V respectively because the metal work function (5.15 eV) of the vertical Au Schottky contact is considerably less than that of the lateral Pt Schottky contact (5.65 eV). The proposed diode exhibits the low on-resistance of 1.58 mΩ cm 2 while the conventional one exhibits 8.20 mΩ cm 2 due to the decrease of a forward voltage drop.

  11. Optimal color design of psychological counseling room by design of experiments and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjuan; Ji, Jianlin; Chen, Hua; Ye, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Color is one of the most powerful aspects of a psychological counseling environment. Little scientific research has been conducted on color design and much of the existing literature is based on observational studies. Using design of experiments and response surface methodology, this paper proposes an optimal color design approach for transforming patients' perception into color elements. Six indices, pleasant-unpleasant, interesting-uninteresting, exciting-boring, relaxing-distressing, safe-fearful, and active-inactive, were used to assess patients' impression. A total of 75 patients participated, including 42 for Experiment 1 and 33 for Experiment 2. 27 representative color samples were designed in Experiment 1, and the color sample (L = 75, a = 0, b = -60) was the most preferred one. In Experiment 2, this color sample was set as the 'central point', and three color attributes were optimized to maximize the patients' satisfaction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can get the optimal solution for color design of a counseling room.

  12. Design surface covers: an approach to long-term waste site stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; McShane, M.C.

    1983-02-01

    The wide range of existing environmental conditions, potential contaminants and available cover materials at waste disposal sites necessitates site-specific designing of surface covers for effective long-term erosion resistance. This paper presents a systematic approach to designing surface covers for hazardous waste repositories that can be tailored to conditions at any site. The approach consists of three phases: (1) an assessment, during which the degree of required surface protection (erosion potential) is determined; (2) a preliminary design that integrates surface cover design with the need to minimize transport of contaminants; and (3) a final design, where the cost and effectiveness of the surface cover are determined. 1 figure

  13. Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics: a model forcurved wood design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics are a natural model for surfaces made from wood strips. We outline how to construct all solutions, and produce non-trivial examples, such as a wood-strip Klein bottle......Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics are a natural model for surfaces made from wood strips. We outline how to construct all solutions, and produce non-trivial examples, such as a wood-strip Klein bottle...

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities

  15. Catalysis by Design Using Surface Organometallic Nitrogen-Containing Fragments

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the chemistry of well-defined silica-supported group 4 and group 5 complexes that contain one or more multiply-bonded nitrogen atoms. Such species have been recognized as crucial intermediates in many catalytic reactions (e.g. hydroaminoalkylation, olefin hydrogenation, imine metathesis…). The first chapter provided a bibliographic overview of the preparation and the reactivity of group 4 and 5 complexes towards hydroaminoalkylation and imine metathesis catalysis. The second chapter deals with the isolation and the characterization of a series of well-defined group 4 ƞ2-imine complexes surfaces species. 2D solid-state NMR (1H–13C HETCOR, Multiple Quantum) experiments have revealed consistently a unique structural rearrangement, viz azametallacycle occurring on the immobilized metal-amido ligands. Hydrogenolysis of the sole Zr-C bond in such species gives selectively a silica-supported zirconium monohydride that can perform the catalytic hydrogenation of olefins. The third chapter examines the mechanistic studies of the intermolecular hydroaminoalkylation using SOMC to identify the key metallacyclic surface intermediates (silica-supported three-membred and five-membered). The catalyst was regenerated by protonolysis and afforded pure amine. Catalytic testing of a selection of amine compounds with variable electronic properties was carried out. The fourth chapter deals with the generation and the characterization of well-defined silica-supported zirconium-imido complexes. The resulting species effectively catalyzes imine/imine cross-metathesis and thus considered as the first heterogeneous catalysts active for imine metathesis reaction. The fifth chapter studies the reaction of SBA15.1100 ºC with dry aniline and derivatives leading to opening strained siloxane bridges into acid-base paired functionalities (formation of N-phenylsilanamine-silanol pairs). This approach was successfully applied to the design of a series of

  16. The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massabuau, F. C.-P., E-mail: fm350@cam.ac.uk; Oehler, F.; Pamenter, S. K.; Thrush, E. J.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Oliver, R. A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 22 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Davies, M. J.; Dawson, P. [Photon Science Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kovács, A.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt- Straße, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Williams, T.; Etheridge, J. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton Campus, VIC 3800 (Australia); Hopkins, M. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    The impact of trench defects in blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been investigated. Two mechanisms responsible for the structural degradation of the multiple quantum well (MQW) active region were identified. It was found that during the growth of the p-type GaN capping layer, loss of part of the active region enclosed within a trench defect occurred, affecting the top-most QWs in the MQW stack. Indium platelets and voids were also found to form preferentially at the bottom of the MQW stack. The presence of high densities of trench defects in the LEDs was found to relate to a significant reduction in photoluminescence and electroluminescence emission efficiency, for a range of excitation power densities and drive currents. This reduction in emission efficiency was attributed to an increase in the density of non-radiative recombination centres within the MQW stack, believed to be associated with the stacking mismatch boundaries which form part of the sub-surface structure of the trench defects. Investigation of the surface of green-emitting QW structures found a two decade increase in the density of trench defects, compared to its blue-emitting counterpart, suggesting that the efficiency of green-emitting LEDs may be strongly affected by the presence of these defects. Our results are therefore consistent with a model that the “green gap” problem might relate to localized strain relaxation occurring through defects.

  17. The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massabuau, F. C.-P.; Oehler, F.; Pamenter, S. K.; Thrush, E. J.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Oliver, R. A.; Davies, M. J.; Dawson, P.; Kovács, A.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Williams, T.; Etheridge, J.; Hopkins, M. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of trench defects in blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been investigated. Two mechanisms responsible for the structural degradation of the multiple quantum well (MQW) active region were identified. It was found that during the growth of the p-type GaN capping layer, loss of part of the active region enclosed within a trench defect occurred, affecting the top-most QWs in the MQW stack. Indium platelets and voids were also found to form preferentially at the bottom of the MQW stack. The presence of high densities of trench defects in the LEDs was found to relate to a significant reduction in photoluminescence and electroluminescence emission efficiency, for a range of excitation power densities and drive currents. This reduction in emission efficiency was attributed to an increase in the density of non-radiative recombination centres within the MQW stack, believed to be associated with the stacking mismatch boundaries which form part of the sub-surface structure of the trench defects. Investigation of the surface of green-emitting QW structures found a two decade increase in the density of trench defects, compared to its blue-emitting counterpart, suggesting that the efficiency of green-emitting LEDs may be strongly affected by the presence of these defects. Our results are therefore consistent with a model that the “green gap” problem might relate to localized strain relaxation occurring through defects.

  18. Heterogeneous distribution of pelagic sediments incoming the Japan Trench possibly controlling slip propagation on shallow plate boundary fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Fukuchi, R.; Kurano, H.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Arai, K.; Usami, K.; Ashi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Catastrophic tsunami of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake was triggered by large coseismic slip reached to the Japan Trench axis (e.g. Fujiwara et al., 2011, Science; Kodaira et al., 2012, Nature Geoscience). Results of the IODP Expedition 343 (JFAST) suggest that small friction of smectite-rich pelagic clay caused slip propagation on shallow plate boundary fault (Ujiie et al., 2013, Science; Kameda et al., 2015, Geology; Moore et al., 2015, Geosphere). On the other hand, JAMSTEC high-resolution seismic profiles show that incoming sediments have large heterogeneities in thicknesses, and two areas of extremely thin sediments on the Pacific Plate (thickness less than 100 m) were found at around 39°N (Nakamura et al., AGU 2017, this session). To reconcile whether the smectite-rich pelagic clay even exists in these areas, we sampled surface sediments during the R/V Shinsei Maru KS-15-3 cruise. Seven piston cores were retrieved from seaward trench slope, horst, graben, and graben edge. Core lithologies are mainly diatomaceous ooze/clay including tephra layers, not resemble to pelagic clays discovered in JFAST. Ages of tephra layers were estimated by correlating mineral assemblages and refractive indices of volcanic glasses to Japanese widespread tephras. Averaged sedimentation rates of seaward trench slope, horst, graben, and graben edge are estimated to be 25-30, 6.5-20, 45, 0.9 cm/kyr, respectively. These sedimentation rates imply that sediments on seaward trench slope and horst have been deposited in the last 160-500 kyr, suggesting that entire pelagic sediments, including smectite-rich pelagic clay, have been removed by some reasons in the last 0.5 million years. Possible reason for such modification of sediment is near-trench igneous activity known as petit-spot volcanism (Hirano et al., 2006, Science). The lack of smectite-rich pelagic clay near 39°N of the Japan Trench is consistent with results of tsunami inversions proposing shallow large coseismic slip propagated

  19. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 942.761 Section 942.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  20. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 903.761 Section 903.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining...

  1. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 910.761 Section 910.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  2. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 937.761 Section 937.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  3. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 921.761 Section 921.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  4. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 912.761 Section 912.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  5. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 947.761 Section 947.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  6. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 939.761 Section 939.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  7. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 941.761 Section 941.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  8. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 922.761 Section 922.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  9. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 905.761 Section 905.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  10. Systematic approach to designing surface covers for uranium-mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; McShane, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The wide range of environmental conditions present at uranium mill tailings sites precludes the use of a single type of surface cover. Surface covers must be designed on a site-specific basis. To facilitate site specific designs the UMTRA program is developing guidelines for designing surface covers. This paper presents a systematic approach to designing surface covers for tailings that can be applied under any site condition. The approach consists of three phases: (1) An assessment during which the degree of surface protection is determined. (2) A preliminary design that facilitates interaction with those designing other containment system elements. (3) A final design where the cost and effectiveness of the surface cover are determined. The types of information required to apply this approach are discussed

  11. Advocacy for Kids: A View from the Residential Trenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jon R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the concept of advocacy in the trenches, wherein residential care staff intercede with and for dysfunctional families, dysfunctional children, and the bureaucracy. This advocacy emphasizes individualized treatment and case-by-case networking, focusing not on broad causes but on what is in the best interest of each child. (ET)

  12. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: cask-in-trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This report provides a description of the Cask-in-Trench Storage Concept which meets a specified set of requirements; an estimate of the costs of construction, operation and decommissioning of the concept; the costs required to expand the facility throughput and storage capability; and the life cycle costs of the facility. 22 figures, 34 tables

  13. Convective mixing by internal waves in the Puerto Rico Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Gostiaux, L.

    2016-01-01

    A2.4 km long deep-sea mooringwas deployed for 14 months in the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepestpart of the Atlantic Ocean. Below its top buoyancy package, the mooring line held a 200 m long stringof high-resolution temperature sensors and a current meter. Over the instrumented range between6,004 and

  14. 300 Area Process Trenches Modified Closure/Postclosure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the contents of each chapter of this plan for the closure of the 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT) treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit. It also provides background information for this unit and discusses how its closure will be integrated with the remedial action for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 300- FF-1 Operable Unit. The 300 APT is located within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This area contained reactor fuel fabrication facilities and research and development laboratories. The 300 APT was constructed and began operations in 1975 as the 316-5 Process Trenches. Effluent was discharged to the trenches by way of the 300 Area process sewer system, which has been the sole source of effluent for the 300 APT. The 316-5 Process Trenches gained Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) interim status as the 300 APT TSD unit on November 11, 1985. The unit has been administratively closed to discharges of dangerous waste since 1985

  15. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernest E. Carter, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    EarthSaw(trademark) is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file

  16. A Generic Water Balance Model for a Trench Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.

  17. A Generic Water Balance Model for a Trench Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.

  18. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest E. Carter, P.E.

    2002-09-20

    EarthSaw{trademark} is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file.

  19. Field and laboratory investigations on pavement backfilling material for micro-trenching in cold regions

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Hashemian; Mohammad Rezaei; Alireza Bayat

    2017-01-01

    Micro-trenching is an innovative utility installation method that involves creating a narrow trench to place cable or conduit in the road pavement. Compared to other installation methods, micro-trenching provides minimal disturbance to the community and surrounding environment. Despite the advantages of micro-trenching, it is not widely accepted by municipalities because of its potential to damage the existing pavement. Quality of backfilling is an important factor in long-term sustainability...

  20. Macromolecular surface design: photopatterning of functional stable nitrile oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ozcan; Glassner, Mathias; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Welle, Alexander; Trouillet, Vanessa; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-05-04

    The efficient trapping of photogenerated thioaldehydes with functional shelf-stable nitrile oxides in a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is a novel and versatile photochemical strategy for polymer end-group functionalization and surface modification under mild and equimolar conditions. The modular ligation in solution was followed in detail by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze the functionalized surfaces, whereas time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) confirmed the spatial control of the surface functionalization using a micropatterned shadow mask. Polymer brushes were grown from the surface in a spatially confined regime by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) as confirmed by TOF-SIMS, XPS as well as ellipsometry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cold atoms near surfaces: designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Hagen, Christoph vom; Lezec, Henri J; Schmiedmayer, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow pattern in the chip wires. By modifying the wire shape using focused ion beam nano-machining we can design specialized current flow patterns and therefore micro-design the magnetic trapping potentials. We give designs for a barrier, a quantum dot, and a double well or double barrier and show preliminary experiments with ultra cold atoms in these designed potentials

  2. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK18 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    measured fracture being 7.90 m. Fracture fillings include hematite, chlorite, biotite and muscovite. A few fracture surfaces also contain calcite, clay, pyrite, quartz, and illite. The thickness of the fillings varies between 0.1 - 60 mm and the average thickness is 1.7 mm. The trench contains two big faults, one with a distinct fault core of quartz, calcite and chlorite, and having a NW-SE strike and a moderate dip towards the NE. The other one is parallel to the D{sub 4} ductile deformation domain, having a NE-SW strike and a moderate dip to the SW, showing totally altered and sheared rock. A Q-classification for the investigation trench has been made for every mapping section and the quality varies from good to exceptionally good. The average Q-quality of the rocks is exceptionally good, indicating that no major brittle deformation zone intersects the trench. (orig.)

  3. Imaging Freeform Optical Systems Designed with NURBS Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    reflective, anastigmat 1 Introduction The imaging freeform optical systems described here are designed using non-uniform rational basis-spline (NURBS...code, but to succeed in designing NURBS freeform optical systems an optimization code is required. The motivation for developing the optical design

  4. Ultra-low specific on-resistance SOI double-gate trench-type MOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Tianfei; Luo Xiaorong; Ge Rui; Chen Xi; Wang Yuangang; Yao Guoliang; Jiang Yongheng; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-low specific on-resistance (R on,sp ) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) double-gate trench-type MOSFET (DG trench MOSFET) is proposed. The MOSFET features double gates and an oxide trench: the oxide trench is in the drift region, one trench gate is inset in the oxide trench and one trench gate is extended into the buried oxide. Firstly, the double gates reduce R on,sp by forming dual conduction channels. Secondly, the oxide trench not only folds the drift region, but also modulates the electric field, thereby reducing device pitch and increasing the breakdown voltage (BV). ABV of 93 V and a R on,sp of 51.8 mΩ·mm 2 is obtained for a DG trench MOSFET with a 3 μm half-cell pitch. Compared with a single-gate SOI MOSFET (SG MOSFET) and a single-gate SOI MOSFET with an oxide trench (SG trench MOSFET), the R on,sp of the DG trench MOSFET decreases by 63.3% and 33.8% at the same BV, respectively. (semiconductor devices)

  5. Response of Microbial Community Function to Fluctuating Geochemical Conditions within a Legacy Radioactive Waste Trench Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Campos, Xabier; Kinsela, Andrew S; Bligh, Mark W; Harrison, Jennifer J; Payne, Timothy E; Waite, T David

    2017-09-01

    During the 1960s, small quantities of radioactive materials were codisposed with chemical waste at the Little Forest Legacy Site (Sydney, Australia) in 3-meter-deep, unlined trenches. Chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess the impact of changing water levels upon the microbial ecology and contaminant mobility. Collectively, results demonstrated that oxygen-laden rainwater rapidly altered the redox balance in the trench water, strongly impacting microbial functioning as well as the radiochemistry. Two contaminants of concern, plutonium and americium, were shown to transition from solid-iron-associated species immediately after the initial rainwater pulse to progressively more soluble moieties as reducing conditions were enhanced. Functional metagenomics revealed the potentially important role that the taxonomically diverse microbial community played in this transition. In particular, aerobes dominated in the first day, followed by an increase of facultative anaerobes/denitrifiers at day 4. Toward the mid-end of the sampling period, the functional and taxonomic profiles depicted an anaerobic community distinguished by a higher representation of dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis pathways. Our results have important implications to similar near-surface environmental systems in which redox cycling occurs. IMPORTANCE The role of chemical and microbiological factors in mediating the biogeochemistry of groundwaters from trenches used to dispose of radioactive materials during the 1960s is examined in this study. Specifically, chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess how changing water levels influence microbial ecology and

  6. Filling high aspect ratio trenches by superconformal chemical vapor deposition: Predictive modeling and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjiao B.; Abelson, John R.

    2014-11-01

    Complete filling of a deep recessed structure with a second material is a challenge in many areas of nanotechnology fabrication. A newly discovered superconformal coating method, applicable in chemical vapor deposition systems that utilize a precursor in combination with a co-reactant, can solve this problem. However, filling is a dynamic process in which the trench progressively narrows and the aspect ratio (AR) increases. This reduces species diffusion within the trench and may drive the component partial pressures out of the regime for superconformal coating. We therefore derive two theoretical models that can predict the possibility for filling. First, we recast the diffusion-reaction equation for the case of a sidewall with variable taper angle. This affords a definition of effective AR, which is larger than the nominal AR due to the reduced species transport. We then derive the coating profile, both for superconformal and for conformal coating. The critical (most difficult) step in the filling process occurs when the sidewalls merge at the bottom of the trench to form the V shape. Experimentally, for the Mg(DMADB)2/H2O system and a starting AR = 9, this model predicts that complete filling will not be possible, whereas experimentally we do obtain complete filling. We then hypothesize that glancing-angle, long-range transport of species may be responsible for the better than predicted filling. To account for the variable range of species transport, we construct a ballistic transport model. This incorporates the incident flux from outside the structure, cosine law re-emission from surfaces, and line-of-sight transport between internal surfaces. We cast the transport probability between all positions within the trench into a matrix that represents the redistribution of flux after one cycle of collisions. Matrix manipulation then affords a computationally efficient means to determine the steady-state flux distribution and growth rate for a given taper angle. The

  7. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Miura, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  8. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan)

    2007-12-07

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  9. Technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    Good design is an important step towards ensuring operational as well as long term safety of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal. The IAEA has produced this report with the objective of outlining the most important technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities and to provide some examples of the design process in different countries. This guidance has been developed in light of experience gained from the design of existing near surface disposal facilities in a range of Member States. In particular the report provide information on design objective, design requirements, and design phases. The report focuses on: near surface disposal facilities accepting solidified LILW; disposal facilities on or just below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick; and disposal facilities several tens of metres below the ground surface (including rock cavern type facilities)

  10. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, MN.W.

    2006-02-22

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50 acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity, and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy. It is

  11. Studies of quaternary deposits in investigation trench OL-TK17 on the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhta, P.

    2010-06-01

    The Quaternary deposits in investigation trench OL-TK17 were studied by the Geological Survey of Finland in summer 2009. Samples for grain size determinations were taken from 13 vertical profiles, placed about 25 m apart along the trench, where bedrock didn't reach surface. Profiles 5 and 6 were done by the side of the trench because of that. Each till bed was sampled separately. The profiles extended from the soil surface down to bedrock. The samples were first dried in the laboratory after which they were sieved. In addition, the grain size distribution of the < 63 μm fraction was analyzed with the Sedigraph 5100 instrument. Sedimentological observations of the sampling profiles were documented in field by drawing them on a field observation form and the profiles were photographed using a digital camera. In addition, the excavated section was photographed along its whole length. The till cover in OL-TK17 consists of two parts. The surface layer of the upper till is oxidized, brown till, whereas the lower layer is unoxidized, grey till. The lower till has been preserved in bedrock depressions. The lower till is compact, dark grey silty till with more than 19 % of clay-size material (under 0.002 mm). The upper till in OL-TK17 was deposited in the last flow phase of the Weichselian continental ice. Bedrock striations indicate that the ice moved in a WNW-ESE direction. The till beds level out the bedrock topography. Weathered, broken bedrock was found in two places at the bottom of the trench near sampling profiles 08, 09 and 10. No signs of postglacial faults were detected either in the tills or in the exposed bedrock. The tills showed no signs of disturbance related to bedrock movements, only icepressed cracks were found in the lower silty compact till over broken bedrock. (orig.)

  12. A trench study to assess transfer of pesticides in subsurface lateral flow for a soil with contrasting texture on a sloping vineyard in Beaujolais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, X; Liger, L; Guillemain, C; Gouy, V

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface lateral flow in both texture-contrast soils and catchments with shallow bedrock is suspected to be a non-point source of contamination of watercourses by pesticides used in agriculture. As a case study, the north of the Beaujolais region (eastern France) provides a favorable environment for such contamination due to its agro-pedo-climatic conditions. Environments seen in the Beaujolais region include intense viticulture, permeable and shallow soils, steep hillslopes, and storms that occur during the periods of pesticide application. Watercourse contamination by pesticides has been widely observed in this region, and offsite pesticide transport by subsurface lateral flow is suspected to be involved in diffuse and chronic presence of pesticides in surface water. In order to confirm and quantify the potential role of such processes in pesticide transfer, an automated trench system has been designed. The trench was set up on a steep farmed hillslope in a texture-contrast soil. It was equipped with a tipping bucket flow meter and an automatic sampler to monitor pesticide concentrations in lateral flow at fine resolution, by means of a flow-dependent sampling strategy. Four pesticides currently used in vine growing were studied to provide a range of mobility properties: one insecticide (chlorpyrifos-methyl) and three fungicides (spiroxamine, tebuconazole, and dimethomorph). With this system, it was possible to study pesticide concentration dynamics in the subsurface lateral flow, generated by substantial rainfall events following pesticide applications. The experimental design ascertained to be a suitable method in which to monitor subsurface lateral flow and related transfer of pesticides.

  13. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A restoration technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability and decreased potential for leachate migration following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. After grouting, soil-penetration tests disclosed that stability had been improved greatly. For example, refusal (defined as > 100 blows to penetrate 1 ft) was encountered in 17 of the 22 tests conducted within the trench area. Mean refusal depths for the two trenches were 3.5 and 2.6 m. Stability of the trench was significantly better than pregrout conditions, and at depths > 2.4 m, the stability was very near that observed in the native soil formation outside the trench. Tests within the trench showed lower stability within this range probably because of the presence of intermediate-sized soil voids (formed during backfilling) that were too small to be penetrated and filled by the conventional cement grout formulation. Hydraulic conductivity within the trench remained very high (>0.1 cm/s) and significantly greater than outside the trench. Postgrout air pressurization tests also revealed a large degree of intervoid linkage within and between the two trenches. To effectively reduce hydraulic conductivity and to develop stability within the upper level of the trench, injection of a clay/microfine cement grout into the upper level of the grouted trench is planned

  14. Electrical Resistivity Correlation to Vadose Zone Sediment and Pore-Water Composition for the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Rucker, Dale F.; Lanigan, David C.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This technical report documents the results of geochemical and soil resistivity characterization of sediment obtained from four boreholes drilled in the BC Cribs and Trench area. Vadose zone sediment samples were obtained at a frequency of about every 2.5 ft from approximately 5 ft bgs to borehole total depth. In total, 505 grab samples and 39 six-inch long cores were obtained for characterization. The pore-water chemical composition data, laboratory-scale soil resistivity and other ancillary physical and hydrologic measurements and analyses described in this report are designed to provide a crucial link between direct measurements on sediments and the surface-based electrical-resistivity information obtained via field surveys. A second goal of the sediment characterization was to measure the total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants of concern as a function of depth and distance from the footprints of inactive disposal facilities. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving base-line risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. The ERC 'ground truthing' exercise for the individual boreholes showed mixed results. In general, the high concentrations of dissolved salts in the pore waters of sediments from C5923, C5924 and C4191 produced a low resistivity 'target' in the processed resistivity field surveys, and variability could be seen in the resistivity data that could relate to the variability in pore- water concentrations but the correlations (regression R2 were mediocre ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 at best; where perfect correlation is 1.0). The field-based geophysical data also seemed to suffer from a sort of vertigo, where looking down from the ground surface, the target (e.g., maximum pore-water salt concentration) depth was difficult to resolve. The best correlations between the field electrical resistivity

  15. Electrical Resistivity Correlation to Vadose Zone Sediment and Pore-Water Composition for the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Rucker, Dale F.; Lanigan, David C.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    This technical report documents the results of geochemical and soil resistivity characterization of sediment obtained from four boreholes drilled in the BC Cribs and Trench area. Vadose zone sediment samples were obtained at a frequency of about every 2.5 ft from approximately 5 ft bgs to borehole total depth. In total, 505 grab samples and 39 six-inch long cores were obtained for characterization. The pore-water chemical composition data, laboratory-scale soil resistivity and other ancillary physical and hydrologic measurements and analyses described in this report are designed to provide a crucial link between direct measurements on sediments and the surface-based electrical-resistivity information obtained via field surveys. A second goal of the sediment characterization was to measure the total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants of concern as a function of depth and distance from the footprints of inactive disposal facilities. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving base-line risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. The ERC “ground truthing” exercise for the individual boreholes showed mixed results. In general, the high concentrations of dissolved salts in the pore waters of sediments from C5923, C5924 and C4191 produced a low resistivity “target” in the processed resistivity field surveys, and variability could be seen in the resistivity data that could relate to the variability in pore- water concentrations but the correlations (regression R2 were mediocre ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 at best; where perfect correlation is 1.0). The field-based geophysical data also seemed to suffer from a sort of vertigo, where looking down from the ground surface, the target (e.g., maximum pore-water salt concentration) depth was difficult to resolve. The best correlations between the field electrical

  16. Real options valuation in the design of Future surface combatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    design, different from the preceding FREMM multi-mission frigates, and features an unusual ‘ inverted bow’ intended to improve seakeeping in high sea...method of ship design is becoming cost-prohibitive when looking at the lifetime life-cycle cost for upgrades, overhauls, and drives inflexibility

  17. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A restoration technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability and decreased potential for leachate migration following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Variably-saturated groundwater modeling for optimizing managed aquifer recharge using trench infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Benoit, Jerome; Healy, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Spreading-basin methods have resulted in more than 130 million cubic meters of recharge to the unconfined Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah in the past decade, but infiltration rates have slowed in recent years because of reduced hydraulic gradients and clogging. Trench infiltration is a promising alternative technique for increasing recharge and minimizing evaporation. This paper uses a variably saturated flow model to further investigate the relative importance of the following variables on rates of trench infiltration to unconfined aquifers: saturated hydraulic conductivity, trench spacing and dimensions, initial water-table depth, alternate wet/dry periods, and number of parallel trenches. Modeling results showed (1) increased infiltration with higher hydraulic conductivity, deeper initial water tables, and larger spacing between parallel trenches, (2) deeper or wider trenches do not substantially increase infiltration, (3) alternating wet/dry periods result in less overall infiltration than keeping the trenches continuously full, and (4) larger numbers of parallel trenches within a fixed area increases infiltration but with a diminishing effect as trench spacing becomes tighter. An empirical equation for estimating expected trench infiltration rates as a function of hydraulic conductivity and initial water-table depth was derived and can be used for evaluating feasibility of trench infiltration in other hydrogeologic settings

  19. Floral motive in design of the modern surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramskaia N. V.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available modern surfaces don't need a decor, but new requirements are imposed to them in exchange, such as technological effectiveness, textures, visual expressiveness. Today the image of flower motive changes according to the requirements of time and evolves from graphic pattern to pattern element.

  20. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithvi Raj Jelia

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... as silicon wafer [1, 10, 11]. Yoon et al [12] used a modified ... The explanation for the increase in the contact angle or hydrophobicity on the ... water droplets on super-hydrophobic surfaces that exhibit large contact angles are ...

  1. DESIGN AND CALCULATION OF AERODROMECOAING WITH HEATED SURFACE LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Piskunov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The developed constructions with heated by surface layers for aerodromes and auto roads when developed composition of electroconductive concrete reinforced with chemical electrical conductive fibres being used was researched. The experimentally obtained characteristics of ended conductive concrete reinforced with fibers were presented. Calculation by developed heated construction of shell was made.

  2. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 1, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpenau, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has reviewed the project documentation and data for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Underground Utilities removal Phase 3; Trench 1 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The Brookhaven Survey Group (BSG) has completed removal and performed Final Status Survey (FSS) of the 42-inch duct and 14-inch line in Trench 1 from Building 801 to the Stack. Sample results have been submitted as required to demonstrate that the cleanup goal of (le)15 mrem/yr above background to a resident in 50 years has been met. Four rounds of sampling, from pre-excavation to FSS, were performed as specified in the Field Sampling Plan (FSP) (BNL 2010a). It is the policy of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to perform independent verifications of decontamination and decommissioning activities conducted at DOE facilities. ORISE has been designated as the organization responsible for this task for the HFBR Underground Utilities. ORISE, together with DOE, determined that a Type A verification of Trench 1 was appropriate based on recent verification results from Trenches 2, 3, 4, and 5, and the minimal potential for residual radioactivity in the area. The removal of underground utilities has been performed in three stages to decommission the HFBR facility and support structures. Phase 3 of this project included the removal of at least 200 feet of 36-inch to 42-inch duct from the west side to the south side of Building 801, and the 14-inch diameter Acid Waste Line that spanned from 801 to the Stack within Trench 1. Based on the pre-excavation sample results of the soil overburden, the potential for contamination of the soil surrounding the pipe is minimal (BNL 2010a). ORISE reviewed the gamma spectroscopy results for 14 FSS soil samples, four core samples, and one duplicate sample collected from Trench 1. Sample results for the radionuclides of concern were below the established cleanup goals. However, in sample PH-3

  3. Geophysical investigation of the 116-H-1 liquid waste disposal trench, 100-HR-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, K.A.; Mitchell, T.H.

    1996-04-01

    A geophysical investigation and data integration were conducted for the 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, which is located in the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench is also known as the 107-H Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, the 107-H Rupture Effluent Trench, and the 107-H Trench (Deford and Einan 1995). The trench was primarily used to hold effluent from the 107-H Retention Basin that had become radioactive from contact with ruptured fuel elements. The effluent may include debris from the ruptured fuel elements (Koop 1964). The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench was also used to hold water and sludge from the 107-H Retention Basin during the basin's deactivation in 1965

  4. Catalysis by Design Using Surface Organometallic Nitrogen-Containing Fragments

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel

    2016-01-01

    leading to opening strained siloxane bridges into acid-base paired functionalities (formation of N-phenylsilanamine-silanol pairs). This approach was successfully applied to the design of a series of aniline derivatives bifunctional SBA15. The efficiency

  5. Project clean city: joint trenching for urban facilities; Projeto cidade limpa: vala tecnica para instalacoes urbanas - sistema infavias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aloisio Pereira da [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to propose a join trench for urban facilities, using concepts related to planning and urban cadastre, sustainability of resource use, and mainly focus on safety during construction, operation and maintenance. The model proposes the replacement of individual construction of facilities of natural gas, potable water, telephone, data transmission and electricity (low and medium voltage) by a system that encompasses all of these facilities in a trench, the deployment may also occur in the same period or if necessary, or at different times, creating flexibility in the system. The security of facilities due to the operational interface between the concessionaires and clients will be ensured by the protected by reinforced concrete structure, designed using the concept of 'fail-safing', derived from the Toyota Production System. The joint trench model was designed from the perspective of sustainability and technological innovation for your future use of the new design of power supply, through the concept of 'Smart Grid' with the use of bidirectional power system transmission and distribution, in decentralized model for generating electricity through cogeneration systems with natural gas. (author)

  6. Project clean city: joint trenching for urban facilities; Projeto cidade limpa: vala tecnica para instalacoes urbanas - sistema infavias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aloisio Pereira da [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to propose a join trench for urban facilities, using concepts related to planning and urban cadastre, sustainability of resource use, and mainly focus on safety during construction, operation and maintenance. The model proposes the replacement of individual construction of facilities of natural gas, potable water, telephone, data transmission and electricity (low and medium voltage) by a system that encompasses all of these facilities in a trench, the deployment may also occur in the same period or if necessary, or at different times, creating flexibility in the system. The security of facilities due to the operational interface between the concessionaires and clients will be ensured by the protected by reinforced concrete structure, designed using the concept of 'fail-safing', derived from the Toyota Production System. The joint trench model was designed from the perspective of sustainability and technological innovation for your future use of the new design of power supply, through the concept of 'Smart Grid' with the use of bidirectional power system transmission and distribution, in decentralized model for generating electricity through cogeneration systems with natural gas. (author)

  7. Trench Advance By the Subduction of Buoyant Features - Application to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, S. D. B.; Fourel, L.; Morra, G.

    2014-12-01

    Most subduction trenches retreat, not only today but throughout the Cenozoic. However, a few trenches clearly advance during part of the evolution, including Izu-Bonin Marianas (IBM) and Kermadec. Trench retreat is well understood as a basic consequence of slab pull, but it is debated what causes trench advance. The IBM trench underwent a complex evolution: right after its initiation, it rotated clockwise, leading to very fast retreat in the north and slow retreat in the south. But since 10-15 Ma, IBM trench motions have switched to advance at the southern end, and since 5 Ma also the northern end is advancing. Based on 2-D subduction models, it has been proposed proposed that the change in age of the subducting plate at the IBM trench (from 40-70 m.y. at the initiation of the trench 45 m.y. ago to 100-140 m.y. lithosphere subducting at the trench today) and its effect on plate strength could explain the transition from trench retreat to trench advance, and that the age gradient (younger in the north and older in the south) could explain the rotation of the trench. However, with new 3-D coupled fluid-solid subduction model where we can include such lateral age gradients, we find that this does not yield the observed behaviour. Instead, we propose an alternative mechanism, involving the subduction of the buoyant Caroline Island Ridge at the southern edge of the Mariana trench and show that it can explain both trench motion history and the current morphology of the IBM slab as imaged by seismic tomography.

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 107-D5 Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpuz, F.M.; Fancher, J.D.; Blumenkranz, D.B.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents the results of remedial action objectives performed at the 107-D5 Sludge Trench, located at the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The 107-D5 Sludge Trench is also identified in the Hanford Waste Information Data System as Waste Site 100-D-4 (site code). The selected remedial action was (1) excavation of the site to the extent required to meet specified soil cleanup levels, (2) disposal of contaminated excavation materials at the Environmental Restoration and Disposal Facility at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site, and (3) backfilling the site with clean soil to adjacent grade elevations

  9. Interim safety basis compliance matrix for Trenches 31 and 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The tables provided in this document identify the specific requirements and basis for the administrative controls established in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Burial Ground (SWBG) Interim Safety Basis (ISB) for operation of the Project W-025, Mixed Waste Lined Landfill (Trenches 31 and 34). The tables document the necessary controls and implementing procedures to ensure compliance with the requirements of the ISB. These requirements provide a basis for future Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQ) screening of applicable procedure changes, proposed physical modifications, tests, experiments, and occurrences. Table 1 provides the SWBG interim Operational Safety Requirements administrative controls matrix. The specific assumptions and commitments used in the safety analysis documents applicable to disposal of mixed wastes in Trenches 31 and 34 are provided in Table 2. Table 3 is provided to document the potential engineered and administrative mitigating features identified in the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) for disposal of mixed waste

  10. Optically Designed Anodised Aluminium Surfaces: Microstructural and Electrochemical Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy

    is not possible as the anodic pore sizes are an order of magnitude smaller than the traditional white pigments. The approaches presented in this thesis focus on different techniques like modification of the aluminium microstructure, engineering of the aluminium surface, and application on non...... the microstructure in order to impart light scattering ability to the anodised layer. Coatings based on Al-Zr and Al-Ti binary system were studied for their anodising behaviour with and without heat treatment. The structure evolution of the Al-Zr sputtered coatings and the effect of Si during heat treatment...... Emission Spectroscopy, and Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. Optical characterization was performed using integrating sphere measurements. Combining the results and understanding obtained from anodising of magnetron sputtered coatings, Al-TiO2 surface composites and their electrochemical behaviour...

  11. Designing porous metallic glass compact enclosed with surface iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Young; Park, Hae Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongho [Graphene Research Institute (GRI) & HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Man, E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Buem, E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Porous metallic glass compact was developed using electro-discharge sintering process. • Uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. • Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. - Abstract: Porous metallic glass compact (PMGC) using electro-discharge sintering (EDS) process of gas atomized Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} metallic glass powder was developed. The formation of uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. This finding suggests that PMGC can be applied in the new area such as catalyst via hydrothermal technique and offer a promising guideline for using the metallic glasses as a potential functional application.

  12. PRESENTATION OF AN ARCHITECTURAL OBJECT DESIGNED BY WARPED SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELJKOVIĆ Milica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of good functional solutions and aesthetic appearance of an object, modeling in architecture is the subject of this study. Application of more modern materials in architecture allows us to perform various geometric surfaces in the production of facade and roof structures. With such complex objects, it is necessary to create detailed three-dimensional models, using some of the modern software package for modeling. This paper provides an example of creating a 3D model of a modern building in whose exterior we can recognize nondevelopmental (becoming warped line-generated surfaces, primarily cylindroids and conoids. The entire process of modeling and presenting an object using augmented reality was carried out using the modern software package for visualization in architecture.

  13. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 933.761 Section 933.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with...

  14. Marine surface condenser design using vertical tubes which are enhanced.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Clifford Gerald, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis document was issues under the authority of another institution, not NPS. At the time it was written, a copy was added to the NPS Library Collection for reasons not now known. It has been included in the digital archive for its historical value to NPS. Not believed to be a CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) title. A methodology is developed for calculating the heat transfer coefficient on the surface of a vertical fluted c...

  15. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen M; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed. (paper)

  16. Electrokinetic migration studies on removal of chromium and uranyl ions from 904-A trench soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Meaker, T.F.; O'Steen, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a laboratory-scale study, in which electrokinetic migration technology was used to remove chromium and uranium, as well as other ions, from soil taken from a bore hole adjacent to the 904-A trench at the Savannah River Technology Center. Imposition of an electric current on humid (not saturated) soil successfully caused cations to migrate through the pore water of the soil to the cathode, where they were captured in an ISOLOCKTm polymer matrix and in a cation exchange resin incorporated in the polymer. Chemicals circulated through the anode/polymer and cathode/polymer were able to control pH excursions in the electrokinetic-cells by reacting with the H + and OH - generated at the anode and cathode, respectively. The study indicates that ions adsorbed on the surface of the soil as well as those in the pores of soil particles can be caused to migrate through the soil to an appropriate electrode. After 10 days of operation at 20--25 V and 2 mA, approximately 65% of the chromium was removed from two 3.5 kg soil samples. A 57% removal of uranium was achieved. The study shows that electrokinetic migration, using the ISOLOCK trademark polymer will be effective as an in situ treatment method for the removal of metal ion contaminants in soil adjacent to the 904-A trench

  17. Atomic force microscopy deep trench and sidewall imaging with an optical fiber probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Hui, E-mail: xiehui@hit.edu.cn; Hussain, Danish; Yang, Feng [The State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems, Harbin Institute of Technology, 2 Yikuang, 150080 Harbin (China); Sun, Lining [The State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems, Harbin Institute of Technology, 2 Yikuang, 150080 Harbin (China); Robotics and Microsystems Center, Soochow University, 215021 Suzhou (China)

    2014-12-15

    We report a method to measure critical dimensions of micro- and nanostructures using the atomic force microscope (AFM) with an optical fiber probe (OFP). This method is capable of scanning narrow and deep trenches due to the long and thin OFP tip, as well as imaging of steep sidewalls with unique profiling possibilities by laterally tilting the OFP without any modifications of the optical lever. A switch control scheme is developed to measure the sidewall angle by flexibly transferring feedback control between the Z- and Y-axis, for a serial scan of the horizontal surface (raster scan on XY-plane) and sidewall (raster scan on the YZ-plane), respectively. In experiments, a deep trench with tapered walls (243.5 μm deep) and a microhole (about 14.9 μm deep) have been imaged with the orthogonally aligned OFP, as well as a silicon sidewall (fabricated by deep reactive ion etching) has been characterized with the tilted OFP. Moreover, the sidewall angle of TGZ3 (AFM calibration grating) was accurately measured using the switchable scan method.

  18. Review of corrective measures to stabilize subsidence in shallow-land burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Staub, W.P.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, D.W.; Pin, F.G.; Witten, A.J.

    1983-05-01

    Shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes is frequently followed by subsidence: the slumping, cave-in, or depression of the trench's surface. This report describes and evaluates the measures proposed for correcting subsidence, including roller compaction, grouting, explosives, surcharging, falling mass, pile driving, in situ incineration, and accelerated decomposition. Subsidence, which has occurred at all the major waste disposal sites, has two major causes: filling of packing voids (spaces between waste containers) and filling of interior voids (spaces within containers). Four additional mechanisms also contribute to subsidence: collapse of trench walls, chemical and biological degradation, soil consolidation, and shrink and swell phenomena. Corrective measures for subsidence are evaluated on three criteria: effectiveness, applicability, and cost. The evaluation indicates that one method, falling mass, is considered to be effective, widely applicable, and relatively low in cost, suggesting that this would be the most generally useful technique and would yield the greatest payoff from further development and field trials. There are many uncertainties associated with the cost and effectiveness of corrective measures which can best be resolved by experimental field demonstrations. Site-specific analyses for each disposal area are recommended, to determine which techniques are appropriate and to evaluate the overall desirability of applying corrective measures

  19. Characterization of shallow trench isolation CMP process and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Helen; Zhang, ChunLei; Liu, JinBing; Liu, ZhengFang; Chen, Kuang Han; Gbondo-Tugbawa, Tamba; Ding, Hua; Li, Flora; Lee, Brian; Gower-Hall, Aaron; Chiu, Yang-Chih

    2016-03-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been a critical enabling technology in shallow trench isolation (STI), which is used in current integrated circuit fabrication process to accomplish device isolation. Excessive dishing and erosion in STI CMP processes, however, create device yield concerns. This paper proposes characterization and modeling techniques to address a variety of concerns in STI CMP. In the past, majority of CMP publications have been addressed on interconnect layers in backend- of-line (BEOL) process. However, the number of CMP steps in front-end-of-line (FEOL) has been increasing in more advanced process techniques like 3D-FinFET and replacement metal gate, as a results incoming topography induced by FEOL CMP steps can no longer be ignored as the topography accumulates and stacks up across multiple CMP steps and eventually propagating to BEOL layers. In this paper, we first discuss how to characterize and model STI CMP process. Once STI CMP model is developed, it can be used for screening design and detect possible manufacturing weak spots. We also work with process engineering team to establish hotspot criteria in terms of oxide dishing and nitride loss. As process technologies move from planar transistor to 3D transistor like FinFet and multi-gate, it is important to accurately predict topography in FEOL CMP processes. These incoming topographies when stacked up can have huge impact in BEOL copper processes, where copper pooling becomes catastrophic yield loss. A calibration methodology to characterize STI CMP step is developed as shown in Figure 1; moreover, this STI CMP model is validated from silicon data collected from product chips not used in calibration stage. Additionally, wafer experimental setup and metrology plan are instrumental to an accurate model with high predictive power. After a model is generated, spec limits and threshold to establish hotspots criteria can be defined. Such definition requires working closely with foundry

  20. Hydrogeologic Characterization Data from the Area 5 Shallow Soil Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Four shallow soil trenches excavated in the vicinity of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site were sampled in 1994 to characterize important physical and hydrologic parameters which can affect the movement of water in the upper few meters of undisturbed alluvium. This report describes the field collection of geologic samples and the results of laboratory analyses made on these samples. This report provides only qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations

  1. Numerical investigation of a double-junction a:SiGe thin-film solar cell including the multi-trench region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacha, K.; Djeffal, F.; Ferhati, H.; Arar, D.; Meguellati, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach based on the multi-trench technique to improve the electrical performances, which are the fill factor and the electrical efficiency. The key idea behind this approach is to introduce a new multi-trench region in the intrinsic layer, in order to modulate the total resistance of the solar cell. Based on 2-D numerical investigation and optimization of amorphous SiGe double-junction (a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H) thin film solar cells, in the present paper numerical models of electrical and optical parameters are developed to explain the impact of the multi-trench technique on the improvement of the double-junction solar cell electrical behavior for high performance photovoltaic applications. In this context, electrical characteristics of the proposed design are analyzed and compared with conventional amorphous silicon double-junction thin-film solar cells. (paper)

  2. Design Multi-Sides System Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Rafiudin; Sutresman, Onny; Mappaita, Abdullah; Amiruddin; Wiranata, Ardi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to design and test USV multislide forms. This system is excellent for maneuvering on the x-y-z coordinates. The disadvantage of a single side USV is that it is very difficult to maneuver to achieve very dynamic targets. While for multi sides system easily maneuvered though x-y-z coordinates. In addition to security defense purposes, multi-side system is also good for maritime intelligence, surveillance. In this case, electric deducted fan with Multi-Side system so that the vehicle can still operate even in reverse condition. Multipleside USV experiments have done with good results. In a USV study designed to use two propulsions.

  3. Microstructural analysis in the depth direction of a heteroepitaxial AlN thick film grown on a trench-patterned template by nanobeam X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, K.; Takeuchi, S.; Tohei, T.; Miyake, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Sumitani, K.; Imai, Y.; Kimura, S.; Sakai, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work quantitatively assessed the three-dimensional distribution of crystal lattice distortions in an epitaxial AlN thick film grown on a trench-patterned template, using nanobeam X-ray diffraction. Position-dependent ω-2θ-φ mapping clearly demonstrated local tilting, spacing and twisting of lattice planes as well as fluctuations in these phenomena on a sub-micrometer scale comparable to the pitch of the trench-and-terrace patterning. Analysis of the crystal lattice distortion in the depth direction was performed using a newly developed method in which the X-ray nanobeam diffracted from the sample surface to specific depths can be selectively detected by employing a Pt wire profiler. This technique generated depth-resolved ω-2θ-φ maps confirming that fluctuations in lattice plane tilting and spacing greatly depend on the dislocation distribution and the history of the AlN epitaxial growth on the trench-patterned structure. It was also found that both fluctuations were reduced on approaching the AlN surface and, in particular, were sharply reduced at specific depths in the terrace regions. These sharp reductions are attributed to the formation of sacrificial zones with degraded crystal quality around the trenches and possibly lead to raising the crystal quality near the surface of the AlN film.

  4. Control of paleoshorelines by trench forebulge uplift, Loyalty Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Unlike most tropical Pacific islands, which lie along island arcs or hotspot chains, the Loyalty Islands between New Caledonia and Vanuatu owe their existence and morphology to the uplift of pre-existing atolls on the flexural forebulge of the New Hebrides Trench. The configuration and topography of each island is a function of distance from the crest of the uplifted forebulge. Both Maré and Lifou are fully emergent paleoatolls upon which ancient barrier reefs form highstanding annular ridges that enclose interior plateaus representing paleolagoon floors, whereas the partially emergent Ouvea paleoatoll rim flanks a drowned remnant lagoon. Emergent paleoshoreline features exposed by island uplift include paleoreef flats constructed as ancient fringing reefs built to past low tide levels and emergent tidal notches incised at past high tide levels. Present paleoshoreline elevations record uplift rates of the islands since last-interglacial and mid-Holocene highstands in global and regional sea levels, respectively, and paleoreef stratigraphy reflects net Quaternary island emergence. The empirical uplift rates vary in harmony with theoretical uplift rates inferred from the different positions of the islands in transit across the trench forebulge at the trench subduction rate. The Loyalty Islands provide a case study of island environments controlled primarily by neotectonics.

  5. High aspect ratio titanium nitride trench structures as plasmonic biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Repän, Taavi; Takayama, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    High aspect ratio titanium nitride (TiN) grating structures are fabricated by the combination of deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. TiN is deposited at 500 ◦C on a silicon trench template. Silicon between vertical TiN layers is selectively etched...... to fabricate the high aspect ratio TiN trenches with the pitch of 400 nm and height of around 2.7 µm. Dielectric functions of TiN films with different thicknesses of 18 - 105 nm and post-annealing temperatures of 700 - 900 ◦C are characterized by an ellipsometer. We found that the highest annealing temperature...... of 900 ◦C gives the most pronounced plasmonic behavior with the highest plasma frequency, ωp = 2.53 eV (λp = 490 nm). Such high aspect ratio trench structures function as a plasmonic grating sensor that supports the Rayleigh-Woods anomalies (RWAs), enabling the measurement of changes in the refractive...

  6. Computer-aided design of curved surfaces with automatic model generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, S. M.; Jerard, R. B.; White, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The design and visualization of three-dimensional objects with curved surfaces have always been difficult. The paper given below describes a computer system which facilitates both the design and visualization of such surfaces. The system enhances the design of these surfaces by virtue of various interactive techniques coupled with the application of B-Spline theory. Visualization is facilitated by including a specially built model-making machine which produces three-dimensional foam models. Thus, the system permits the designer to produce an inexpensive model of the object which is suitable for evaluation and presentation.

  7. RFID Label Tag Design for Metallic Surface Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hwan Eom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a metal mount RFID tag that works reliably on metallic surfaces. The method proposes the use of commercial label type RFID tags with 2.5 mm thick Styrofoam103.7 with a relative permittivity of 1.03 attached on the back of the tag. In order to verify the performance of the proposed method, we performed experiments on an electric transformer supply chain system. The experimental results showed that the proposed tags can communicate with readers from a distance of 2 m. The recognition rates are comparable to those of commercial metallic mountable tags.

  8. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward......, the limits of the range in reaction rate, which can be Studied are estimated. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...... limit for the lateral resolution of the measurement, and that a flow rate of the order of 240 (ml/min)(n) is sufficient to achieve this resolution. The sensitivity is reasonable also with high flow rates, due to the presence of a pocket of stagnant gas under the tip of the capillary. Furthermore...

  9. Design Methodology And Performance Studies Of A Flexible Electrotextile Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayacan Ozan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘The smart textiles’ concept has to develop products based not only on design, fashion and comfort but also in terms of functions. The novel electro-textiles in the market open up new trends in smart and interactive gadgets. ‘Easy to care and durability’ properties are among the most important features of these products. On the other hand, wearable electronic knitwear has been gaining the attention of both researchers and industrial sectors. Combining knitting technology with electronics may become a dominant trend in the future because of the wide application possibilities. This research is concerned primarily with the design methodology of knitted fabrics containing electrically conductive textiles and especially in-use performance studies. The structural characteristics of the fabrics have been evaluated to enhance the performance properties.

  10. Surface quality finish in laser cutting using Taguchi design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, V.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-19 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : cutting speed * factorial design * laser pulse width * orthogonal array * pulse repetition rate (PRR) or pulse frequency Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=257818

  11. SPECIAL ANALYSIS FOR SLIT TRENCH DISPOSAL OF THE REACTOR PROCESS HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.; Collard, L.; Aleman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Butcher, T.

    2012-06-18

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), in response to a request from Solid Waste Management (SWM), conducted a Special Analysis (SA) to evaluate the performance of nineteen heat exchangers that are to be disposed in the E-Area low level waste facility Slit Trench 9 (ST 9). Although these nineteen heat exchangers were never decontaminated, the majority of the radionuclides in the heat exchanger inventory list were determined to be acceptable for burial because they are less than the 'generic' waste form inventory limits given in the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). However, as generic waste, the H-3 and C-14 inventories resulted in unacceptable sum-of-fractions (SOFs). Initial scoping analyses performed by SRNL indicated that if alterations were made to certain external nozzles to mitigate various potential leak paths, acceptable SOFs could be achieved through the use of a 'Special' waste form. This SA provides the technical basis for this new 'Special' waste form and provides the inventory limits for H-3 and C-14 for these nineteen heat exchangers such that the nineteen heat exchangers can be disposed in ST 9. This 'Special' waste form is limited to these nineteen heat exchangers in ST 9 and applies for H-3 and C-14, which are designated as H-3X and C-14X, respectively. The SA follows the same methodology used in the 2008 PA and the 2008 SA except for the modeling enhancements noted below. Infiltration rates above the heat exchangers are identical to those used in the 2008 PA; however, flow through the heat exchangers is unique. Because it is unknown exactly how sealed heat exchanger openings will perform and how surface and embedded contaminants will be released, multiple base cases or scenarios were established to investigate a set of performances. Each scenario consists of flow options (based on the performance of sealed openings) and a near-field release of contaminants (based on corrosion and

  12. Lightweight hull surface self-design vertical parameterization method based on NURBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yanru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] At present, conventional design is limited to parent ship design space, and cannot drive ship hull design using as few parameters as possible. In order to solve the above problems, [Methods] by combining the draught function with NURBS, a ship hull surface self-design method based on vertical parameterization is proposed. In this method, the waterline is designated as the basic design unit; the bottom flat end line, designed waterline, stem and stern contours, side flat end line and maximum section line are designated as the characteristic constraints of the ship hull; and the draught function values corresponding to the characteristic parameters are designated as the design objectives. In this way, a waterline approximation model is built, and an evolutionary algorithm can be used to solve the approximation model. Finally, the ship hull surface is generated on the basis of the waterline using the NURBS skinning technique.[Results] The design examples of the characteristic curves of the full-scale ship hull surface indicate the practicable and advanced nature of this method.[Conclusions] The hull surface can be designed with as little data as possible using this method, making it much more suitable for the self-design of new ship forms.

  13. INTRAVAL Phase 2: Modeling testing at the Las Cruces Trench Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, R.G.; Rockhold, M.; Xiang, J.; Scanlon, B.; Wittmeyer, G.

    1994-01-01

    Several field experiments have been performed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University at the Las Cruces Trench Site to provide data tc test deterministic and stochastic models for water flow and solute transport. These experiments were performed in collaboration with INTRAVAL, an international effort toward validation of geosphere models for the transport of radionuclides. During Phase I of INTRAVAL, qualitative comparisons between experimental data and model predictions were made using contour plots of water contents and solute concentrations. Detailed quantitative comparisons were not made. To provide data for more rigorous model testing, a third Las Cruces Trench experiment was designed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Modelers from the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analysis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New Mexico State University, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the University of Texas provided predictions of water flow and tritium transport to New Mexico State University for analysis. The corresponding models assumed soil characterizations ranging from uniform to deterministically heterogeneous to stochastic. This report presents detailed quantitative comparisons to field data

  14. Performance monitoring of an improved disposal trench in a humid environment in a fractured geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.; Razor, J.

    1988-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of an improved disposal trench at the Maxey Flats Waste Disposal Site is being conducted in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a burial trench suitable for use at a site in a humid environment and underlain by complex and fractured geologic media. This demonstration is one of several proposed final site stabilization alternatives which will have to be evaluated prior to final site closure. Due to requirements in the Central Midwest Compact Commission, no waste generated as a result of the site closure may be disposed in the Commission's disposal site. Hence, the waste will be disposed on-site. The demonstration trench was constructed and filled with waste during the fall of 1985 with final trench capping being completed in July 1986. Since that time the trench has been evaluated utilizing trench settlement monument elevations, leachate production measurements, leachate radionuclide analysis, chemical tracer analysis and trench water balance. Measurements performed to date indicated that the trench lower infiltration barrier has a permeability of about 1E-7 cm/sec. Water balance measurements indicated that less than one percent of the total rainfall crossed the trench capillary barrier. No settlement of the trench cap has been observed. No liquid has appeared in the leachate collection and monitoring sumps

  15. Habitat heterogeneity of hadal trenches: Considerations and implications for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather A.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2018-02-01

    The hadal zone largely comprises a series of subduction trenches that do not form part of the continental shelf-slope rise to abyssal plain continuum. Instead they form geographically isolated clusters of deep-sea (6000-11,000 m water depth) environments. There is a growing realization in hadal science that ecological patterns and processes are not driven solely by responses to hydrostatic pressure, with comparable levels of habitat heterogeneity as observed in other marine biozones. Furthermore, this heterogeneity can be expressed at multiple scales from inter-trench levels (degrees of geographical isolation, and biochemical province), to intra-trench levels (variation between trench flanks and axis), topographical features within the trench interior (sedimentary basins, ridges, escarpments, 'deeps', seamounts) to the substrate of the trench floor (seabed-sediment composition, mass movement deposits, bedrock outcrop). Using best available bathymetry data combined with the largest lander-derived imaging dataset that spans the full depth range of three hadal trenches (including adjacent slopes); the Mariana, Kermadec and New Hebrides trenches, the topographic variability, fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and distribution of seabed sediments of these three trenches have been assessed for the first time. As well as serving as the first descriptive study of habitat heterogeneity at hadal depths, this study also provides guidance for future hadal sampling campaigns taking into account geographic isolation, total trench particulate organic matter flux, maximum water depth and area.

  16. Graphene Based Terahertz Absorber Designed With Effective Surface Conductivity Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim

    Young field of terahertz (THz) science and technology demands new materials and devices, such as filters, modulators, polarization converters and absorbers. Graphene, a recently discovered single-atom-thick material, provides exciting properties for functional terahertz applications. Graphene...... conductivity and how to use it in optical design. We demonstrate a tunable THz perfect absorber, which consists of continuous graphene various structured graphene metamaterials above a metal mirror. Changing the Fermi level from 0 eV to 0.5 eV allows for drastic changes in absorbance from less than 0.1 to 1...

  17. Using dual response surfaces to reduce variability in launch vehicle design: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeniay, Ozgur; Unal, Resit; Lepsch, Roger A.

    2006-01-01

    Space transportation system conceptual design is a multidisciplinary process containing considerable element of risk. Uncertainties from one engineering discipline may propagate to another through linking parameters and the final system output may have an accumulation of risk. This may lead to significant deviations from expected performance. An estimate of variability or design risk therefore becomes essential for a robust design. This study utilizes the dual response surface approach to quantify variability in critical performance characteristics during conceptual design phase of a launch vehicle. Using design of experiments methods and disciplinary design analysis codes, dual response surfaces are constructed for the mean and standard deviation to quantify variability in vehicle weight and sizing analysis. Next, an optimum solution is sought to minimize variability subject to a constraint on mean weight. In this application, the dual response surface approach lead to quantifying and minimizing variability without much increase in design effort

  18. Effect of design factors on surface temperature and wear in disk brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, J. J.; Kennedy, F. E.; Ling, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The temperatures, friction, wear and contact conditions that occur in high energy disk brakes are studied. Surface and near surface temperatures were monitored at various locations in a caliper disk brake during drag type testing, with friction coefficient and wear rates also being determined. The recorded transient temperature distributions in the friction pads and infrared photographs of the rotor disk surface both showed that contact at the friction surface was not uniform, with contact areas constantly shifting due to nonuniform thermal expansion and wear. The effect of external cooling and of design modifications on friction, wear and temperatures was also investigated. It was found that significant decreases in surface temperature and in wear rate can be achieved without a reduction in friction either by slotting the contacting face of the brake pad or by modifying the design of the pad support to improve pad compliance. Both design changes result in more uniform contact conditions on the friction surface.

  19. Design and simulation of the surface shape control system for membrane mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengsheng; Tang, Minxue

    2009-11-01

    The surface shape control is one of the key technologies for the manufacture of membrane mirror. This paper presents a design of membrane mirror's surface shape control system on the basis of fuzzy logic control. The system contains such function modules as surface shape design, surface shape control, surface shape analysis, and etc. The system functions are realized by using hybrid programming technology of Visual C# and MATLAB. The finite element method is adopted to simulate the surface shape control of membrane mirror. The finite element analysis model is established through ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). ANSYS software kernel is called by the system in background running mode when doing the simulation. The controller is designed by means of controlling the sag of the mirror's central crosssection. The surface shape of the membrane mirror and its optical aberration are obtained by applying Zernike polynomial fitting. The analysis of surface shape control and the simulation of disturbance response are performed for a membrane mirror with 300mm aperture and F/2.7. The result of the simulation shows that by using the designed control system, the RMS wavefront error of the mirror can reach to 142λ (λ=632.8nm), which is consistent to the surface accuracy of the membrane mirror obtained by the large deformation theory of membrane under the same condition.

  20. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    1991-12-31

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5 refs.

  1. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    1991-01-01

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5 refs

  2. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  3. Nematode communities in sediments of the Kermadec Trench, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Daniel; Rowden, Ashley A.

    2018-04-01

    Hadal trenches are characterized by environmental conditions not found in any other deep-sea environment, such as steep topography and periodic disturbance by turbidity flows, which are likely responsible for the distinct nature of benthic communities of hadal trenches relative to those of the abyssal plain. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans in the deep-sea benthos, but it is not yet clear if different trenches host distinct nematode communities, and no data are yet available on the communities of most trenches, including the Kermadec Trench in the Southwest Pacific. Quantitative core samples from the seafloor of the Kermadec Trench were recently obtained from four sites at 6000-9000 m depth which allowed for analyses of meiofauna, and nematodes in particular, for the first time. Nematode community and trophic structure was also compared with other trenches using published data. There was a bathymetric gradient in meiofauna abundance, biomass, and community structure within the Kermadec Trench, but patterns for species richness were ambiguous depending on which metric was used. There was a change in community structure from shallow to deep sites, as well as a consistent change in community structure from the upper sediment layers to the deeper sediment layers across the four sites. These patterns are most likely explained by variation in food availability within the trench, and related to trench topography. Together, deposit and microbial feeders represented 48-92% of total nematode abundance in the samples, which suggests that fine organic detritus and bacteria are major food sources. The relatively high abundance of epigrowth feeders at the 6000 and 9000 m sites (38% and 31%, respectively) indicates that relatively freshly settled microalgal cells represent another important food source at these sites. We found a significant difference in species community structure between the Kermadec and Tonga trenches, which was due to both the presence/absence of

  4. Evaluation of dynamic compaction of low level waste burial trenches containing B-25 boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site, owned by the US Department of Energy, is preparing to close an additional 13.8 ha of burial grounds under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. In preparation for this closure, the dynamic compaction facility was designed and constructed to address unresolved design issues. Among these issues is the evaluation of the ability for dynamic compaction to consolidate buried low level waste containers. A model burial trench containing simulated clean wastes was dynamically compacted, after which the materials were excavated and compaction quantified. The test determined that under existing success criteria, the bottom tier of stacked B-25 boxes were not being consolidated. A quasi-structural layer was formed midway through the stacked boxes, which absorbed the compactive energy. Resulting from these observations and the data collected, a new success criterion is recommended which depends on the relative displacement per drop. The test successfully demonstrated that dynamic compaction will consolidate buried metal boxes

  5. Hydrophobic durability characteristics of butterfly wing surface after freezing cycles towards the design of nature inspired anti-icing surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingkun Chen

    Full Text Available The hydrophobicity and anti-icing performance of the surfaces of some artificial hydrophobic coatings degraded after several icing and de-icing cycles. In this paper, the frost formation on the surfaces of butterfly wings from ten different species was observed, and the contact angles were measured after 0 to 6 frosting/defrosting cycles. The results show that no obvious changes in contact angle for the butterfly wing specimens were not obvious during the frosting/defrosting process. Further, the conclusion was inferred that the topography of the butterfly wing surface forms a special space structure which has a larger space inside that can accommodate more frozen droplets; this behavior prevents destruction of the structure. The findings of this study may provide a basis and new concepts for the design of novel industrially important surfaces to inhibit frost/ice growth, such as durable anti-icing coatings, which may decrease or prevent the socio-economic loss.

  6. Hydrophobic durability characteristics of butterfly wing surface after freezing cycles towards the design of nature inspired anti-icing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingkun; Cong, Qian; Qi, Yingchun; Jin, Jingfu; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2018-01-01

    The hydrophobicity and anti-icing performance of the surfaces of some artificial hydrophobic coatings degraded after several icing and de-icing cycles. In this paper, the frost formation on the surfaces of butterfly wings from ten different species was observed, and the contact angles were measured after 0 to 6 frosting/defrosting cycles. The results show that no obvious changes in contact angle for the butterfly wing specimens were not obvious during the frosting/defrosting process. Further, the conclusion was inferred that the topography of the butterfly wing surface forms a special space structure which has a larger space inside that can accommodate more frozen droplets; this behavior prevents destruction of the structure. The findings of this study may provide a basis and new concepts for the design of novel industrially important surfaces to inhibit frost/ice growth, such as durable anti-icing coatings, which may decrease or prevent the socio-economic loss.

  7. ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area 6 trench photos and geologic descriptions, July 1984-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Marshall, D.S.; Stansfield, R.G.; Dreier, R.B.

    1986-03-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated a photographic and descriptive geologic study of low-level waste trenches opened in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA-6). From July 1984 through September 1985, trenches were excavated, geologically described, and photographed before being filled and closed. Only three trenches (Nos. 438, 448, and 465) were excavated and closed before photography could be scheduled. It is recommended that the systematic trench characterization procedure outlined in this report be continued under the direction of ORNL's Operations Division with support from both Environmental Sciences and the Engineering divisions. Publication of such a compilation of trench photos on a yearly basis will serve not only as a part of Department of Energy trench documentation requirements but also as a component of a SWSA-6 geologic data base being developed for current research and development activities. 2 refs., 38 figs

  8. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...... is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using...... to quantify the impact of parameter variability for each scenario. Statistical analysis of the continuous long term model simulations was used to quantify the hydrological performance of infiltration trenches. Results show that infiltration trenches are affected by groundwater when there is an unsaturated...

  9. Durability test of geomembrane liners presumed to avail near surface disposal facilities for low-level waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Kanno, Naohiro; Kashima, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center will construct near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. The disposal facilities consist of “concrete pit type” for low-level radioactive wastes and “trench type” for very low level radioactive wastes. As for the trench type disposal facility, two kinds of facility designs are on projects – one for a normal trench type disposal facility without any of engineered barriers and the other for a trench type disposal facility with geomembrane liners that could prevent from causing environmental effects of non radioactive toxic materials contained in the waste packages. The disposal facility should be designed taking basic properties of durability on geomembrane liners into account, for it is exposed to natural environment on a long-term basis. This study examined mechanical strength and permeability properties to assess the durability on the basis of an indoor accelerated exposure experiment targeting the liner materials presumed to avail the conceptual design so far. Its results will be used for the basic and detailed design henceforth by confirming the empirical degradation characteristic with the progress of the exposure time. (author)

  10. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Wong, Tony; Binning, Philip John

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two differ...

  11. Inversion kinematics at deep-seated gravity slope deformations revealed by trenching techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquaré Mariotto, Federico; Tibaldi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We compare data from three deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) where palaeoseismological techniques were applied in artificial trenches. At all trenches, located in metamorphic rocks of the Italian Alps, there is evidence of extensional deformation given by normal movements along slip planes dipping downhill or uphill, and/or fissures, as expected in gravitational failure. However, we document and illustrate – with the aid of trenching – evidenc...

  12. Scaling Rule for Very Shallow Trench IGBT toward CMOS Process Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Omura, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Deep trench gate is used for latest IGBT to improve device performance. By large difference from deep submicron CMOS structure, there is no process compatibility among CMOS device and trench gate IGBT. We propose IGBT scaling rule for shrinking IGBT cell structure both horizontally and vertically. The scaling rule is theoretically delivered by structure based equations. Device performance improvement was also predicted by TCAD simulations even with very shallow trench gate. The rule enables t...

  13. Mining for osteogenic surface topographies: In silico design to in vivo osseo-integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Frits F B; Papenburg, Bernke; Vasilevich, Aliaksei; Hulsman, Marc; Zhao, Yiping; Levers, Marloes; Fekete, Natalie; de Boer, Meint; Yuan, Huipin; Singh, Shantanu; Beijer, Nick; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Logan, David J; Reinders, Marcel; Carpenter, Anne E; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; de Boer, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Stem cells respond to the physicochemical parameters of the substrate on which they grow. Quantitative material activity relationships - the relationships between substrate parameters and the phenotypes they induce - have so far poorly predicted the success of bioactive implant surfaces. In this report, we screened a library of randomly selected designed surface topographies for those inducing osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Cell shape features, surface design parameters, and osteogenic marker expression were strongly correlated in vitro. Furthermore, the surfaces with the highest osteogenic potential in vitro also demonstrated their osteogenic effect in vivo: these indeed strongly enhanced bone bonding in a rabbit femur model. Our work shows that by giving stem cells specific physicochemical parameters through designed surface topographies, differentiation of these cells can be dictated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative study of two shovel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, A; Asfour, S S; Waly, S M; Koshy, J G

    1993-10-01

    In the present study a modified shovel design with two perpendicular shafts is presented. This modified, two-shaft shovel was compared with a regular shovel. The modified shovel was evaluated and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using surface electromyography recorded from the lumbar paraspinal muscles. The new shovel design was also tested in a field study using ratings of perceived exertion. The results indicate that there was a significant reduction in EMG values of the lumbar paraspinal muscles and a consistent reduction in perceived exertion ratings while the modified shovel was being used for removing dirt in digging trenches up to 90 cm in depth.

  15. Accelerated cleanup of the 316-5 process trenches at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henckel, G.C.; Johnson, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    In October, 1990, the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology signed an Agreement in Principle to accelerate remedial actions on the Hanford Site. Removal of contaminated sediments from the 300 Area (316-5) Process Trenches was one of the three initial candidate locations identified for the accelerated remediation. The trenches have received small quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes in large volumes of process water (up to 11,360,000 L/day). The trenches are approximately 300 m west of the Columbia River and 7 m above the water table. The trenches are an active interim permitted disposal facility that may remain active for the next few years. In order to reduce the potential for migration of contaminants from the trench sediments into the groundwater, an expedited response action to remove approximately 2,500 m 2 of soil from the active portion of the trenches is being performed. Field activities were initiated in July 1991 with site preparation. The first trench to be excavated was completed by August 15, 1991. Approximately 2 weeks were needed to begin removal activities in the second trench. The second trench should be completed by October 1, 1991, with the subsequent construction of an interim cover over the consolidated materials completed by December 1991

  16. Field and laboratory investigations on pavement backfilling material for micro-trenching in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hashemian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro-trenching is an innovative utility installation method that involves creating a narrow trench to place cable or conduit in the road pavement. Compared to other installation methods, micro-trenching provides minimal disturbance to the community and surrounding environment. Despite the advantages of micro-trenching, it is not widely accepted by municipalities because of its potential to damage the existing pavement. Quality of backfilling is an important factor in long-term sustainability of the micro-trench, particularly in cold regions. This paper investigates the performance of two typical micro-trench backfilling methods in cold climates by studying a pilot project in a parking lot in Edmonton, Alberta, followed by a laboratory evaluation of the material used. For this purpose, the installations were monitored through ground-penetrating radar, optical time-domain reflectometer, and visual observations for three years. The monitoring results revealed that conduit had significant vertical movement inside the trench; several premature failures were also observed in the backfilling material. Laboratory investigation showed that the backfilling material did not meet the criteria for use in cold climates, and micro-trench performance could be enhanced using alternative materials. Keywords: Micro-trench, Pavement backfilling material, Fiber optic installation, Ground-penetrating radar

  17. Accelerated cleanup of the 316-5 Process Trenches at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henckel, G.C.; Johnson, W.L.

    1991-09-01

    In October, 1990, the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology signed an Agreement in Principle to accelerate remedial actions on the Hanford Site. Removal of contaminated sediments from the 300 Area (316-5) Process Trenches was on of the three initial candidate locations identified for the accelerated remediation. The trenches have received small quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes in large volumes of process water (up to 11,360,000 L/day). The trenches are approximately 300 m west of the Columbia River and 7 m above the water table. The trenches are an active interim permitted disposal facility that may remain active for the next few years. In order to reduce the potential for migration of contaminants from the trench sediments into the groundwater, an expedited response action to remove approximately 2,500 m 2 of soil from the active portion of the trenches is being performed. Field activities were initiated in July 1991 with site preparation. The first trench to be excavated was completed by August 15, 1991. Approximately 2 weeks were needed to begin removal activities in the second trench. The second trench should be completed by October 1, 1991, with the subsequent construction of an interim cover over the consolidated materials completed by December 1991

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Design Parameters for Hydronic Embedded Thermally Active Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos-Meson, Victor; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; E. Poulsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the principal design parameters affecting the thermal performance of embedded hydronic Thermally Active Surfaces (TAS), combining the Response Surface Method (RSM) with the Finite Elements Method (FEM). The study ranks the combined effects of the parameters on the heat flux i...

  19. Design of a surface-scanning coil detector for direct bacteria detection on food surfaces using a magnetoelastic biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yating; Wikle, Howard C.; Wang, Zhenyu; Horikawa, Shin; Best, Steve; Cheng, Zhongyang; Dyer, Dave F.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2013-09-01

    The real-time, in-situ bacteria detection on food surfaces was achieved by using a magnetoelastic biosensor combined with a surface-scanning coil detector. This paper focuses on the coil design for signal optimization. The coil was used to excite the sensor's vibration and detect its resonant frequency signal. The vibrating sensor creates a magnetic flux change around the coil, which then produces a mutual inductance. In order to enhance the signal amplitude, a theory of the sensor's mutual inductance with the measurement coil is proposed. Both theoretical calculations and experimental data showed that the working length of the coil has a significant effect on the signal amplitude. For a 1 mm-long sensor, a coil with a working length of 1.3 mm showed the best signal amplitude. The real-time detection of Salmonella bacteria on a fresh food surface was demonstrated using this new technology.

  20. Paleoseismology of the Nephi Segment of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Juab County, Utah - Preliminary Results From Two Large Exploratory Trenches at Willow Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Crone, Anthony J.; Personius, Stephen F.; Mahan, Shannon; Dart, Richard L.; Lidke, David J.; Olig, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, we identified a small parcel of U.S. Forest Service land at the mouth of Willow Creek (about 5 km west of Mona, Utah) that was suitable for trenching. At the Willow Creek site, which is near the middle of the southern strand of the Nephi segment, the WFZ has vertically displaced alluvial-fan deposits >6-7 m, forming large, steep, multiple-event scarps. In May 2005, we dug two 4- to 5-m-deep backhoe trenches at the Willow Creek site, identified three colluvial wedges in each trench, and collected samples of charcoal and A-horizon organic material for AMS (acceleration mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating, and sampled fine-grained eolian and colluvial sediment for luminescence dating. The trenches yielded a stratigraphic assemblage composed of moderately coarse-grained fluvial and debris-flow deposits and discrete colluvial wedges associated with three faulting events (P1, P2, and P3). About one-half of the net vertical displacement is accommodated by monoclinal tilting of fan deposits on the hanging-wall block, possibly related to massive ductile landslide deposits that are present beneath the Willow Creek fan. The timing of the three surface-faulting events is bracketed by radiocarbon dates and results in a much different fault chronology and higher slip rates than previously considered for this segment of the Wasatch fault zone.

  1. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/−26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence

  2. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/-26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence. This work was presented in part at the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME), 28-30 September 2008, Aachen, Germany.

  3. The Incident in Trench A - Follow-up and Lessons

    CERN Multimedia

    Olga Beltramello; Peter Jenni

    An incident happened on 12th October during the dismounting of the HF truck platform in Trench A in the ATLAS cavern. Nobody was injured or in direct danger to be hurt, thanks in particular to the vigilance of the lifting operation crew. However, there is ample matter to reflect upon, and to recall safety measures applicable at any time in the cavern. What happened? During the lifting operation of a lateral platform from the orange HF Truck, used for example for the calorimeter assembly, one of the ~7 m long pillars fell on the access stairs into the ATLAS detector (sector 13). The standard operation to dismount the platform consisted in first unbolting the platform from its support pillars and removing it. Then, after securing a given pillar with the crane, this pillar is unbolted from the floor and removed. By mistake, this pillar was not bolted onto the floor, and fell when the platform was removed. Nobody was present in the trench during the lifting operation and the fall of the pillar. The contractor in...

  4. Response Surface Design Model to Predict Surface Roughness when Machining Hastelloy C-2000 using Uncoated Carbide Insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, N H; Rahman, M M; Kadirgama, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents to develop of the response surface design model to predict the surface roughness for end-milling operation of Hastelloy C-2000 using uncoated carbide insert. Mathematical model is developed to study the effect of three input cutting parameters includes the feed rate, axial depth of cut and cutting speed. Design of experiments (DOE) was implemented with the aid of the statistical software package. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been performed to verify the fit and adequacy of the developed mathematical model. The result shows that the feed rate gave the more effect on the both prediction values of Ra compared to the cutting speed and axial depth of cut. SEM and EDX analyses were performed in different cutting conditions. It can be concluded that the feed rate and cutting force give the higher impact to influence the machining characteristics of surface roughness. Thus, the optimizing the cutting conditions are essential in order to improve the surface roughness in machining of Hastlelloy C-2000.

  5. Effects of free-surface on design charts for open channels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Normal depth is an important parameter for the design of channels and canals. For rectangular, trapezoidal, and circular channel sections it is possible to express normal depth by a trial-and-error procedure or analytically. However, the effects of free-surface on the design charts for determination of the ...

  6. Design and rapid prototyping of DLC coated fractal surfaces for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Lantada, A; Mosquera, A; Endrino, J L; Lafont, P

    2010-01-01

    Several medical devices (both implantable and for in vitro diagnosis) benefit greatly from having microtextured surfaces that help to improve and promote phenomena such as osteointegracion and cell / tissue growth on the surface of a device. Normally, the use of abrasives or chemical attacks are employed for obtaining such surface microtextures, however, it is sometimes difficult to precisely control the final surface characteristics (porosity, roughness, among others) and consequently the related biological aspects. In this work, we propose an alternative process based on the use of fractal surface models for designing special surfaces, which helps controlling the desired contact properties (from the design stage) in multiple applications within biomedical engineering, especially regarding tissue engineering tasks. Manufacturing can be directly accomplished by means of rapid prototyping technologies. This method supposes a focus change from a conventional 'top-down' to a more versatile 'bottom-up' approach. Finally, in order to improve the possible biological response, the surfaces of the designed devices were coated with hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films, known to be highly biocompatible materials. The films were deposited at room temperature using the vacuum filter cathodic arc technique. Our first prototypes have helped verify the viability of the approach and to validate the design, manufacturing and coating processes.

  7. Design and rapid prototyping of DLC coated fractal surfaces for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Lantada, A; Mosquera, A; Endrino, J L; Lafont, P, E-mail: adiaz@etsii.upm.es

    2010-11-01

    Several medical devices (both implantable and for in vitro diagnosis) benefit greatly from having microtextured surfaces that help to improve and promote phenomena such as osteointegracion and cell / tissue growth on the surface of a device. Normally, the use of abrasives or chemical attacks are employed for obtaining such surface microtextures, however, it is sometimes difficult to precisely control the final surface characteristics (porosity, roughness, among others) and consequently the related biological aspects. In this work, we propose an alternative process based on the use of fractal surface models for designing special surfaces, which helps controlling the desired contact properties (from the design stage) in multiple applications within biomedical engineering, especially regarding tissue engineering tasks. Manufacturing can be directly accomplished by means of rapid prototyping technologies. This method supposes a focus change from a conventional 'top-down' to a more versatile 'bottom-up' approach. Finally, in order to improve the possible biological response, the surfaces of the designed devices were coated with hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films, known to be highly biocompatible materials. The films were deposited at room temperature using the vacuum filter cathodic arc technique. Our first prototypes have helped verify the viability of the approach and to validate the design, manufacturing and coating processes.

  8. Design and Fabrication of a Hybrid Superhydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surface That Exhibits Stable Dropwise Condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bikash; Mac Giolla Eain, Marc; Xu, QianFeng; Egan, Vanessa M; Punch, Jeff; Lyons, Alan M

    2015-10-28

    Condensation of water vapor is an essential process in power generation, water collection, and thermal management. Dropwise condensation, where condensed droplets are removed from the surface before coalescing into a film, has been shown to increase the heat transfer efficiency and water collection ability of many surfaces. Numerous efforts have been made to create surfaces which can promote dropwise condensation, including superhydrophobic surfaces on which water droplets are highly mobile. However, the challenge with using such surfaces in condensing environments is that hydrophobic coatings can degrade and/or water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces transition from the mobile Cassie to the wetted Wenzel state over time and condensation shifts to a less-effective filmwise mechanism. To meet the need for a heat-transfer surface that can maintain stable dropwise condensation, we designed and fabricated a hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface. An array of hydrophilic needles, thermally connected to a heat sink, was forced through a robust superhydrophobic polymer film. Condensation occurs preferentially on the needle surface due to differences in wettability and temperature. As the droplet grows, the liquid drop on the needle remains in the Cassie state and does not wet the underlying superhydrophobic surface. The water collection rate on this surface was studied using different surface tilt angles, needle array pitch values, and needle heights. Water condensation rates on the hybrid surface were shown to be 4 times greater than for a planar copper surface and twice as large for silanized silicon or superhydrophobic surfaces without hydrophilic features. A convection-conduction heat transfer model was developed; predicted water condensation rates were in good agreement with experimental observations. This type of hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface with a larger array of needles is low-cost, robust, and scalable and so could be used for heat

  9. Surface characteristics analysis of dry EDMed AISI D2 steel using modified tool design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pragadish, N.; Kumar, M. Pradeep [Anna University, Chennai (China)

    2015-04-15

    A modified tool design is proposed which helps in drilling holes without any central core, and also enables the effective removal of the debris particles. Experiments were conducted on AISI D2 Steel using copper electrode as tool in both conventional EDM and dry EDM processes and the performance of both processes is compared. Experiments were designed using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Discharge current (I), gap voltage (V), pulse on time (T{sub ON}), gas pressure (P) and tool rotational speed (N) were chosen as the various input parameters, and their effect on the material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface morphology, microstructure and elemental composition of the machined surface is analyzed. The experimental results show better surface characteristics in the surface machined under dry EDM process.

  10. Surface characteristics analysis of dry EDMed AISI D2 steel using modified tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pragadish, N.; Kumar, M. Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A modified tool design is proposed which helps in drilling holes without any central core, and also enables the effective removal of the debris particles. Experiments were conducted on AISI D2 Steel using copper electrode as tool in both conventional EDM and dry EDM processes and the performance of both processes is compared. Experiments were designed using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Discharge current (I), gap voltage (V), pulse on time (T ON ), gas pressure (P) and tool rotational speed (N) were chosen as the various input parameters, and their effect on the material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface morphology, microstructure and elemental composition of the machined surface is analyzed. The experimental results show better surface characteristics in the surface machined under dry EDM process.

  11. Design of tunable surface mode waveguide based on photonic crystal composite structure using organic liquid*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Lan; Liu Wei; Li Ping; Yang Xi; Cao Xu

    2017-01-01

    With the method of replacing the surface layer of photonic crystal with tubes, a novel photonic crystal composite structure used as a tunable surface mode waveguide is designed. The tubes support tunable surface states. The tunable propagation capabilities of the structure are investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain. Simulation results show that the beam transmission distributions of the composite structure are sensitive to the frequency range of incident light and the surface morphology which can be modified by filling the tubes with different organic liquids. By adjusting the filler in tubes, the T-shaped, Y-shaped, and L-shaped propagations can be realized. The property can be applied to the tunable surface mode waveguide. Compared with a traditional single function photonic crystal waveguide, our designed structure not only has a small size, but also is a tunable device. (paper)

  12. Experimental study of lithium free-surface flow for IFMIF target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, H.; Fujisato, A.; Yamaoka, N.; Inoue, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Iida, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ida, M.; Matushita, I.; Muroga, T.; Horiike, H.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium free-surface flow experiments to verify the design of IFMIF target have been carried out at Osaka University. The present report summarizes experimental results of surface phenomena, and cavitation characteristics of the loop, so as to try to apply these results to design parameters. Waves on the lithium flow surface is similar to that on water, and can be predicted by a linear stability theory. The wave amplitude is measured by an electro-contact probe. Surface roughness on a target nozzle, caused for example by attached chemical compounds and/or wastages by erosion and corrosion, can lead to a significant loss of target flow stability as well as surface wakes. The need of a polishing manipulator or exchange of the nozzle may be anticipated. Cavitation characteristic of the loop was measured by an accelerometer. From the results, a friction factor could be estimated fort he lithium flow

  13. Topographic design and application of hierarchical polymer surfaces replicated by microinjection compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Sheng; Huang, Han-Xiong; Wang, Bin

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the fast growing demand for biomimetic surfaces featuring unique wettability and functionality in various fields highlights the necessity of developing a reliable technique for mass production. In this work, hierarchical topography designs of templates were applied to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces via microinjection compression molding, comprehensively considering the feasibility of mechanical demolding and the superhydrophobicity and mechanical robustness of the molded polypropylene parts. Mimicking the wettability of a lotus leaf or rose petal, superhydrophobic surfaces were replicated. An unstable wetting state formed on the surface exhibiting the petal effect. On such a surface, the increased water pressure could cause water penetration into the micro gaps between the hierarchical asperities featuring low-roughness sidewalls and bottom surface; the resultant water membrane led to drastically increased water adhesion of the surface. Moreover, the low-adhesion superhydrophobicity of the molded surface was changed into superhydrophilicity, by means of introducing carbonyl groups via ultraviolet/ozone treatment and the subsequent water membrane preserved in microstructures via the pre-wetting process. Patterning the superhydrophilic micro channel on the superhydrophobic surface developed the surface microfluidic devices for micro-liter fluid pumping and mixing processes driven by surface tension.

  14. Characterization of sediment in a leaching trench RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Kossik, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Hazardous materials potentially were disposed of into a pair of leaching trenches from 1975 until Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations were imposed in 1985. These leaching trenches now are used for disposal of nonhazardous process water. The typical effluent (approximately 3 million gal/d) consisted of water with trace quantities of laboratory, maintenance, and fuel fabrication process chemicals. The largest constituent in the waste stream was uranium in low concentrations. This paper describes the project used to analyze and characterize the sediments in and below the leaching trenches. Two phases of sediment sampling were performed. The first phase consisted of taking samples between the bottom of the trenches and groundwater to locate contamination in the deep sediments under the trenches. To accomplish this sampling, a series of wells were drilled, and samples were obtained for every five feet in depth. The second phase consisted of samples taken at three depths in a series of positions along each trench. Sampling was completed to determine contamination levels in the shallow sediments and loose material washed into the trenches from the process sewer system. The project results were that no measurable contamination was found in the deep sediments. Measurable contamination from metals, such as chromium and nickel, was found in the shallow sediments. The primary contaminant in the shallow sediments was uranium. The concentration of contaminants decreased rapidly to near-background levels at shallow depths below the bottoms of the trenches

  15. Hadal disturbance in the Japan Trench induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguri, K.; Kawamura, K.; Sakaguchi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations and sediment core samplings were performed at two hadal sites in the Japan Trench on July, 2011, four months after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Video recordings documented dense nepheloid layers extending similar to 30-50 m above the sea bed. At the trench axis, benthic...

  16. Chasing the Ghost of Melesina Trench: A film by Qina Liu in collaboration with Katharine Kittredge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kittredge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Filmmaker Qina Liu has created a short documentary about Katharine Kittredge's decade-long quest to learn about the life and work of Anglo-Irish diarist and poet Melesina Trench. The story tells of remarkable coincidences, documents lost and found, and the emergence of Trench's descendants in the project's final chapter.

  17. Influence of lateral slab edge distance on plate velocity, trench velocity, and subduction partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Stegman, D. R.; Farrington, R. J.; Moresi, L.

    2011-01-01

    Subduction of oceanic lithosphere occurs through both trenchward subducting plate motion and trench retreat. We investigate how subducting plate velocity, trench velocity and the partitioning of these two velocity components vary for individual subduction zone segments as a function of proximity to

  18. Conditions of rib design for polycarbonate resin with high glossy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seong Won [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Much attention has been being given to the importance of product surfaces in the field of plastic parts, as industrial design has become one of the key elements of product success. These plastic parts incorporate rib-like geometries on the non-appearance surfaces of plastic in order to increase the stiffness of rigidity of the section, but they often cause appearance problems of the product's surface overall by making a sink mark on that surface. The thickness, height and draft-angle of the rib are generally known as major parameters influencing the sink mark on the appearance surface. Therefore, designers of plastic parts must determine the variables of reinforcing ribs. The goal of this study is to find the optimum design variables in the mixing conditions of the thickness, the height and the draft angle of reinforcing ribs so that designers of plastic parts can easily determine the conditions of the reinforcing ribs as the part's section thickness varies within an objective limit in polycarbonate plastic resin and a high glossy surface that are widely applied in the creation of plastic products. We investigated the actual depths of sink marks on the surface of a specimen that was manufactured with an injection mold specifically for this study. Response surface methodology with the Box-Behnken design was used to analyze the regression curve of real depths with combinations of the thickness, height and draft angle of the ribs. The result shows that the most influential factor to increase the shrinkage is the thickness of ribs and that the optimum value of the rib thickness is a range from multiple of 0.25 to 0.34 of the section thickness. Also, the rib height and rib draft angle are not major factors that can change the sink amount.

  19. Conditions of rib design for polycarbonate resin with high glossy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seong Won

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been being given to the importance of product surfaces in the field of plastic parts, as industrial design has become one of the key elements of product success. These plastic parts incorporate rib-like geometries on the non-appearance surfaces of plastic in order to increase the stiffness of rigidity of the section, but they often cause appearance problems of the product's surface overall by making a sink mark on that surface. The thickness, height and draft-angle of the rib are generally known as major parameters influencing the sink mark on the appearance surface. Therefore, designers of plastic parts must determine the variables of reinforcing ribs. The goal of this study is to find the optimum design variables in the mixing conditions of the thickness, the height and the draft angle of reinforcing ribs so that designers of plastic parts can easily determine the conditions of the reinforcing ribs as the part's section thickness varies within an objective limit in polycarbonate plastic resin and a high glossy surface that are widely applied in the creation of plastic products. We investigated the actual depths of sink marks on the surface of a specimen that was manufactured with an injection mold specifically for this study. Response surface methodology with the Box-Behnken design was used to analyze the regression curve of real depths with combinations of the thickness, height and draft angle of the ribs. The result shows that the most influential factor to increase the shrinkage is the thickness of ribs and that the optimum value of the rib thickness is a range from multiple of 0.25 to 0.34 of the section thickness. Also, the rib height and rib draft angle are not major factors that can change the sink amount.

  20. Near Space Hypersonic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dynamic Surface Backstepping Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong YU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared with traditional aircraft, the near space hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle control system design must deal with the extra prominent dynamics characters, which are differ from the traditional aircrafts control system design. A new robust adaptive control design method is proposed for one hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (HSUAV uncertain MIMO nonaffine block control system by using multilayer neural networks, feedback linearization technology, and dynamic surface backstepping. Multilayer neural networks are used to compensate the influence from the uncertain, which designs the robust terms to solve the problem from approach error. Adaptive backstepping is adopted designed to ensure control law, the dynamic surface control strategy to eliminate “the explosion of terms” by introducing a series of first order filters to obtain the differentiation of the virtual control inputs. Finally, nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF numerical simulation results for a HSUAV model are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-06-13

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations.

  2. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations

  3. Geophysical investigation of trench 4, Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 west area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesler, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the results of a geophysical investigation conducted to characterize Trench 4, located in Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 West Area. Trench 4 is where transuranic (TRU) waste is stored. The primary objective of these geophysical investigations was to determine the outer edges of the trench/modules and select locations for plate-bearing tests. The test locations are to be 5 to 8 ft. beyond the edges of the trench. Secondary objectives include differentiating between the different types of waste containers within a given trench, determining the amount of soil cover over the waste containers, and to locate the module boundaries. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the methods selected for this investigation

  4. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 x 10 -3 to 1.85 x 10 -5 cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents

  5. Design of Rotary Atomizer Using Characteristics of Thin Film Flow on Solid Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Boo Seong; Kim, Bo Hung [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A disc-type rotary atomizer affords advantages such as superior paint transfer efficiency, uniformity of paint pattern and particle size, and less consumption of compressed air compared to a spray-gun-type atomizer. Furthermore, it can be applied to all types of painting materials, and it is suitable for large-scale processes such as car painting. The painting quality, which is closely related to the atomizer performance, is determined by the uniformity and droplet size in accordance with the design of the bell disc surface. This study establishes the basics of how to design a surface by modeling the operating bell disc's RPM, diameter, surface angle, and film thickness considering dye characteristics such as the viscosity, density, and surface affinity.

  6. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 300 Area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1995-05-23

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring program for the Hanford Site 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT). The 300 APT are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulated unit. The 300 APT are included in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit No. WA890008967, and are subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring. This document describes a compliance monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the 300 APT. This plan describes the 300 APT monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the 300 APT. This plan will be used to meet groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the 300 APT becomes part of the Permit and through the postclosure care period until certification of final closure.

  7. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakonson, T. E.; Gladney, E. S.

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burialsites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. The need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatment is demonstrated. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and sil overburden depth.

  8. A synthetic seismicity model for the Middle America Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Steven N.

    1991-01-01

    A novel iterative technique, based on the concept of fault segmentation and computed using 2D static dislocation theory, for building models of seismicity and fault interaction which are physically acceptable and geometrically and kinematically correct, is presented. The technique is applied in two steps to seismicity observed at the Middle America Trench. The first constructs generic models which randomly draw segment strengths and lengths from a 2D probability distribution. The second constructs predictive models in which segment lengths and strengths are adjusted to mimic the actual geography and timing of large historical earthquakes. Both types of models reproduce the statistics of seismicity over five units of magnitude and duplicate other aspects including foreshock and aftershock sequences, migration of foci, and the capacity to produce both characteristic and noncharacteristic earthquakes. Over a period of about 150 yr the complex interaction of fault segments and the nonlinear failure conditions conspire to transform an apparently deterministic model into a chaotic one.

  9. Structured surface reflector design for oblique incidence beam splitter at 610 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Defrance , Fabien; Casaletti , Massimiliano; Sarrazin , Julien; Wiedner , Martina; Gibson , Hugh; Gay , Gregory; Lefevre , Roland; Delorme , Yan

    2016-01-01

    International audience; An iterative alternate projection-based algorithm is developed to design structured surface reflectors to operate as beam splitters at GHz and THz frequencies. To validate the method, a surface profile is determined to achieve a reflector at 610 GHz that generates four equal-intensity beams towards desired directions of ±12.6° with respect to the specular reflection axis. A prototype is fabricated and the beam splitter behavior is experimentally demonstrated. Measureme...

  10. Identifying Preserved Storm Events on Beaches from Trenches and Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, H. M.; Gallagher, E. L.; McNinch, J.; Reniers, A.; Koktas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research suggests that even small scale variations in grain size in the shallow stratigraphy of sandy beaches can significantly influence large-scale morphology change. However, few quantitative studies of variations in shallow stratigraphic layers, as differentiated by variations in mean grain size, have been conducted, in no small part due to the difficulty of collecting undisturbed sediment cores in the energetic lower beach and swash zone. Due to this lack of quantitative stratigraphic grain size data, most coastal morphology models assume that uniform grain sizes dominate sandy beaches, allowing for little to no temporal or spatial variations in grain size heterogeneity. In a first-order attempt to quantify small-scale, temporal and spatial variations in beach stratigraphy, thirty-five vibracores were collected at the USACE Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC, in March-April of 2014 using the FRF's Coastal Research and Amphibious Buggy (CRAB). Vibracores were collected at set locations along a cross-shore profile from the toe of the dune to a water depth of ~1m in the surf zone. Vibracores were repeatedly collected from the same locations throughout a tidal cycle, as well as pre- and post a nor'easter event. In addition, two ~1.5m deep trenches were dug in the cross-shore and along-shore directions (each ~14m in length) after coring was completed to allow better interpretation of the stratigraphic sequences observed in the vibracores. The elevations of coherent stratigraphic layers, as revealed in vibracore-based fence diagrams and trench data, are used to relate specific observed stratigraphic sequences to individual storm events observed at the FRF. These data provide a first-order, quantitative examination of the small-scale temporal and spatial variability of shallow grain size along an open, sandy coastline. The data will be used to refine morphological model predictions to include variations in grain size and associated shallow stratigraphy.

  11. Robust design optimization method for centrifugal impellers under surface roughness uncertainties due to blade fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yaping; Zhang, Chuhua

    2016-03-01

    Blade fouling has been proved to be a great threat to compressor performance in operating stage. The current researches on fouling-induced performance degradations of centrifugal compressors are based mainly on simplified roughness models without taking into account the realistic factors such as spatial non-uniformity and randomness of the fouling-induced surface roughness. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the robust design optimization of centrifugal compressor impellers with considerations of blade fouling. In this paper, a multi-objective robust design optimization method is developed for centrifugal impellers under surface roughness uncertainties due to blade fouling. A three-dimensional surface roughness map is proposed to describe the nonuniformity and randomness of realistic fouling accumulations on blades. To lower computational cost in robust design optimization, the support vector regression (SVR) metamodel is combined with the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method to conduct the uncertainty analysis of fouled impeller performance. The analyzed results show that the critical fouled region associated with impeller performance degradations lies at the leading edge of blade tip. The SVR metamodel has been proved to be an efficient and accurate means in the detection of impeller performance variations caused by roughness uncertainties. After design optimization, the robust optimal design is found to be more efficient and less sensitive to fouling uncertainties while maintaining good impeller performance in the clean condition. This research proposes a systematic design optimization method for centrifugal compressors with considerations of blade fouling, providing a practical guidance to the design of advanced centrifugal compressors.

  12. Comparison of optical design methods of freeform surfaces for imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agócs, Tibor

    2015-09-01

    Optical systems based on freeform optical components offer many advantages over conventional systems in imaging applications, e.g. superior image quality, compact and lightweight designs. There are a few well established manufacturing method that can be used for the generation of freeform surfaces with low surface form error and low surface roughness, in the case of freeform mirrors e.g. diamond turning, nickel plating and post-polishing. Metrology is evolving rapidly, although developments are still needed in order to verify the manufactured surface with the necessary accuracy. Optical design methods of freeform surfaces are also lagging behind, many algorithms address non-imaging applications, but in the field of imaging (image-forming) only a few exists and works with various limitations. We compare the available techniques in freeform optical design for imaging and explore the advantages, disadvantages and boundary conditions of the different methods. We also intend to identify the most useful concepts and investigate how they can be embedded into commercially available optical design software.

  13. Design Considerations and Conceptual Designs for Surface Nuclear Power Systems for the Moon and Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, David L.; Kirkland, Joel

    2006-01-01

    A set of design considerations is proposed for nuclear power systems to provide power on the Moon or Mars. Setting the initial requirements is extremely important since they govern the choices that determine the final design. In addition, the choice of reactor and its operating conditions depends on details of the energy conversion and heat rejection systems, which must be studied in tandem. Refractory materials are not suitable for the primary pressure boundary for the reactor due to their susceptibility to chemical attack from particles of regolith on the Moon and Mars or by the carbon dioxide atmosphere on Mars. High nickel superalloys would be acceptable in these environments, but their limited creep strength at elevated temperatures limits reactor outlet temperature to about 1150 K or less. This temperature restriction results in the mass of a gas cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton power conversion system being somewhat lighter than that of a liquid metal-cooled reactors coupled to a Brayton power conversion system. The mass of a liquid metal-cooled reactor coupled to an advanced Stirling power conversion system would be in between that of the gas and liquid metal cooled systems which use Brayton power conversion

  14. Design, development and applications of novel techniques for studying surface mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    Research is reviewed for the adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of materials and examples of the results presented. The ceramic and metallic materials studied include silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and iron-base amorphous alloys. The design and operation of a torsion balance adapted for study of adhesion from the Cavendish balance are discussed first. The pull-off force (adhesion) and shear force (friction) required to break the interfacial junctions between contacting surfaces of the materials were examined at various temperatures in a vacuum. The surface chemistry of the materials was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Properties and environmental conditions of the surface regions which affect adhesion and friction-such as surface segregation, composition, crystal structure, surface chemistry, and temperature were also studied.

  15. Evaluation and design of drained low-level radioactive disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.

    1984-12-01

    Low-level disposal in shallow trenches has been the subject of much critical assessment in recent years. Historically most trenches have been located in fairly permeable settings and any liquid waste stored has migrated at rates limited mainly by hydraulic effects and the ion exchange capacity of underlying soil minerals. Attempts to minimize such seepage by choosing sites in very impermeable settings lead to overflow and surface runoff, whenever the trench cap is breached by subsidence or erosion. The work described in this report was directed to an optimum compromise situation where less reliance is placed on cap permanence, any ground seepage is directed and controlled, and the amount of waste leaching that would occur is minimized by keeping the soil surrounding the waste at only residual moisture levels at all times. Measurements have been conducted to determine these residual levels for some representative soils, to estimate the impact on waste migration of mainly unsaturated flow conditions, and to generate a conceptual design of a disposal facility which would provide adequate drainage to keep the waste from being exposed to continuous leaching by standing water. An attempt has also been made to quantify the reduced source terms under such periodic, unsaturated flow conditions, but those tests have not been conclusive to date. For low-permeability soils the waste should be placed about 1 ft. above the saturated layer formed by suction forces immediately above the gravel layer. Since most disposal sites, even in humid regions of the United States, are exposed only to intermittent rainfall and as most trench designs incorporate some gravel base for drainage, the results of this project have broader applications in assessing actual migration conditions in shallow trench disposal sites. Similar considerations may also apply to disposal of hazardous wastes

  16. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible, transparent superhydrophobic films with hierarchical surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Ha, Sung-Hun; Jang, Nam-Su; Kim, Jeonghyo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-03-11

    Optical transparency and mechanical flexibility are both of great importance for significantly expanding the applicability of superhydrophobic surfaces. Such features make it possible for functional surfaces to be applied to various glass-based products with different curvatures. In this work, we report on the simple and potentially cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible and transparent superhydrophobic films based on hierarchical surface design. The hierarchical surface morphology was easily fabricated by the simple transfer of a porous alumina membrane to the top surface of UV-imprinted polymeric micropillar arrays and subsequent chemical treatments. Through optimization of the hierarchical surface design, the resultant superhydrophobic films showed superior surface wetting properties (with a static contact angle of >170° and contact angle hysteresis of 82% at 550 nm wavelength). The superhydrophobic films were also experimentally found to be robust without significant degradation in the superhydrophobicity, even under repetitive bending and pressing for up to 2000 cycles. Finally, the practical usability of the proposed superhydorphobic films was clearly demonstrated by examining the antiwetting performance in real time while pouring water on the film and submerging the film in water.

  17. The comparison of laser surface designing and pigment printing methods for the product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguney, Arif Taner

    2007-07-01

    Developing new designs by using the computer and transferring the designs that are obtained to textile surfaces will not only increase and facilitate the production in a more practical manner, but also help you create identical designs. This means serial manufacturing of the products at standard quality and increasing their added values. Moreover, creating textile designs using the laser will also contribute to the value of the product as far as the consumer is concerned because it will not cause any wearing off and deformation in the texture of the fabric unlike the other methods. In the system that has been designed, the laser beam at selected wavelength and intensity was directed onto a selected textile surface and a computer-controlled laser beam source was used to change the colour substances on the textile surface. Pigment printing is also used for designing in textile and apparel sector. In this method, designs are transferred to the fabric manually by using dyestuff. In this study, the denim fabric used for the surfacing trial was 100% cotton, with a weft count per centimeter of 20 and a warp count per centimeter of 27, with fabric weight of 458 g/m 2. The first step was to prepare 40 pieces of denim samples, half of which were prepared manually pigment printing and the other half by using the laser beam. After this, some test applications were done. The tensile strength, tensile extension and some fastness values of designed pieces with two methods were compared according to the international standards.

  18. Lithography-based addtive manufacture of ceramic biodevices with design-controlled surface topographies

    OpenAIRE

    Blas Romero, Adrián de; Pfaffinger, Markus; Mitteramskogler, Gerald; Schwentenwein, Martin; Jellinek, Christopher; Homa, Johannes; Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Stampfl, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of manufacturing textured materials and devices, with surface properties controlled from the design stage, instead of being the result of machining processes or chemical attacks, is a key factor for the incorporation of advanced functionalities to a wide set of micro- and nanosystems. High-precision additive manufacturing (AM) technologies based on photopolymerization, together with the use of fractal models linked to computer-aided design tools, allow for a precise definit...

  19. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  20. Identification of Free-living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal regions of the Mariana Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs. Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in thirty four bacterial and four archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper

  1. Identification of Free-Living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal Regions of the Mariana Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Jonathan; Peoples, Logan M; Hardy, Kevin; Cameron, James; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs) and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs) within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs). Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1 m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in 34 bacterial and 4 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper regions of the Mariana Trench

  2. An optimal design of wind turbine and ship structure based on neuro-response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Chul Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface. The Response Surface Method (RSM is generally used to predict the system performance in engi-neering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM. The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II. Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance, we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.

  3. An optimal design of wind turbine and ship structure based on neuro-response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Shin, Sung-Chul; Kim, Soo-Young

    2015-07-01

    The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface). The Response Surface Method (RSM) is generally used to predict the system performance in engineering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN) which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM). The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance), we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.

  4. Reliability-based design optimization via high order response surface method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong Shuang

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the computational effort of reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), the response surface method (RSM) has been widely used to evaluate reliability constraints. We propose an efficient methodology for solving RBDO problems based on an improved high order response surface method (HORSM) that takes advantage of an efficient sampling method, Hermite polynomials and uncertainty contribution concept to construct a high order response surface function with cross terms for reliability analysis. The sampling method generates supporting points from Gauss-Hermite quadrature points, which can be used to approximate response surface function without cross terms, to identify the highest order of each random variable and to determine the significant variables connected with point estimate method. The cross terms between two significant random variables are added to the response surface function to improve the approximation accuracy. Integrating the nested strategy, the improved HORSM is explored in solving RBDO problems. Additionally, a sampling based reliability sensitivity analysis method is employed to reduce the computational effort further when design variables are distributional parameters of input random variables. The proposed methodology is applied on two test problems to validate its accuracy and efficiency. The proposed methodology is more efficient than first order reliability method based RBDO and Monte Carlo simulation based RBDO, and enables the use of RBDO as a practical design tool.

  5. Design and development of a profilometer for the fast and accurate characterization of optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pedrero, José A.; Rodríguez-Ibañez, Diego; Alonso, José; Quirgoa, Juan A.

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of techniques devised for the mass production of optical components made with surfaces of arbitrary form (also known as free form surfaces) in the last years, a parallel development of measuring systems adapted for these new kind of surfaces constitutes a real necessity for the industry. Profilometry is one of the preferred methods for the assessment of the quality of a surface, and is widely employed in the optical fabrication industry for the quality control of its products. In this work, we present the design, development and assembly of a new profilometer with five axis of movement, specifically suited to the measurement of medium size (up to 150 mm of diameter) "free-form" optical surfaces with sub-micrometer accuracy and low measuring times. The apparatus is formed by three X, Y, Z linear motorized positioners plus and additional angular and a tilt positioner employed to locate accurately the surface to be measured and the probe which can be a mechanical or an optical one, being optical one a confocal sensor based on chromatic aberration. Both optical and mechanical probes guarantee an accuracy lower than the micrometer in the determination of the surface height, thus ensuring an accuracy in the surface curvatures of the order of 0.01 D or better. An original calibration procedure based on the measurement of a precision sphere has been developed in order to correct the perpendicularity error between the axes of the linear positioners. To reduce the measuring time of the profilometer, a custom electronics, based on an Arduino™ controller, have been designed and produced in order to synchronize the five motorized positioners and the optical and mechanical probes so that a medium size surface (around 10 cm of diameter) with a dynamic range in curvatures of around 10 D, can be measured in less than 300 seconds (using three axes) keeping the resolution in height and curvature in the figures mentioned above.

  6. Design and characterization of textured surfaces for applications in the food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzini, G.; Romoli, L.; Blunt, L.; Gemini, L.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work is to design, manufacture and characterize surface morphologies on AISI 316L stainless steel produced by a custom designed laser-texturing strategy. Surface textures were characterized at a micrometric dimension in terms of areal parameters compliant with ISO 25178, and correlations between these parameters and processing parameters (e.g. laser energy dose supplied to the material, repetition rate of the laser pulses and scanning velocity) were investigated. Preliminary efforts were devoted to the research of special requirements for surface morphology that, according to the commonly accepted research on the influence of surface roughness on cellular adhesion on surfaces, should discourage the formation of biofilms. The topographical characterization of the surfaces was performed with a coherence scanning interferometer. This approach showed that increasing doses of energy to the surfaces increased the global level of roughness as well as the surface complexity. Moreover, the behavior of the parameters S pk, S vk also indicates that, due to the ablation process, an increase in the energy dose causes an average increase in the height of the highest peaks and in the depth of the deepest dales. The study of the density of peaks S pd showed that none of the surfaces analyzed here seem to perfectly match the conditions dictated by the theories on cellular adhesion to confer anti-biofouling properties. However, this result seems to be mainly due to the limits of the resolving power of coherence scanning interferometry, which does not allow the resolution of sub-micrometric features which could be crucial in the prevention of cellular attachment.

  7. Cogging torque optimization in surface-mounted permanent-magnet motors by using design of experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaszadeh, K., E-mail: Abbaszadeh@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee Alam, F.; Saied, S.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Magnet segment arrangement in cross section view of one pole for PM machine. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Magnet segmentation is an effective method for the cogging torque reduction. {yields} We have used the magnet segmentation method based on the design of experiment. {yields} We have used the RSM design of the design of experiment method. {yields} We have solved optimization via surrogate models like the polynomial regression. {yields} A significant reduction of the cogging torque is obtained by using RSM. - Abstract: One of the important challenges in design of the PM electrical machines is to reduce the cogging torque. In this paper, in order to reduce the cogging torque, a new method for designing of the motor magnets is introduced to optimize of a six pole BLDC motor by using design of experiment (DOE) method. In this method the machine magnets consist of several identical segments which are shifted to a definite angle from each other. Design of experiment (DOE) methodology is used for a screening of the design space and for the generation of approximation models using response surface techniques. In this paper, optimization is often solved via surrogate models, that is, through the construction of response surface models (RSM) like polynomial regression. The experiments were performed based on the response surface methodology (RSM), as a statistical design of experiment approach, in order to investigate the effect of parameters on the response variations. In this investigation, the optimal shifting angles (factors) were identified to minimize the cogging torque. A significant reduction of cogging torque can be achieved with this approach after only a few evaluations of the coupled FE model.

  8. Cogging torque optimization in surface-mounted permanent-magnet motors by using design of experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaszadeh, K.; Rezaee Alam, F.; Saied, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Magnet segment arrangement in cross section view of one pole for PM machine. Display Omitted Highlights: → Magnet segmentation is an effective method for the cogging torque reduction. → We have used the magnet segmentation method based on the design of experiment. → We have used the RSM design of the design of experiment method. → We have solved optimization via surrogate models like the polynomial regression. → A significant reduction of the cogging torque is obtained by using RSM. - Abstract: One of the important challenges in design of the PM electrical machines is to reduce the cogging torque. In this paper, in order to reduce the cogging torque, a new method for designing of the motor magnets is introduced to optimize of a six pole BLDC motor by using design of experiment (DOE) method. In this method the machine magnets consist of several identical segments which are shifted to a definite angle from each other. Design of experiment (DOE) methodology is used for a screening of the design space and for the generation of approximation models using response surface techniques. In this paper, optimization is often solved via surrogate models, that is, through the construction of response surface models (RSM) like polynomial regression. The experiments were performed based on the response surface methodology (RSM), as a statistical design of experiment approach, in order to investigate the effect of parameters on the response variations. In this investigation, the optimal shifting angles (factors) were identified to minimize the cogging torque. A significant reduction of cogging torque can be achieved with this approach after only a few evaluations of the coupled FE model.

  9. Design and evaluation of an inexpensive radiation shield for monitoring surface air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Anna E. Klene; Robert F. Keefe; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2013-01-01

    Inexpensive temperature sensors are widely used in agricultural and forestry research. This paper describes a low-cost (~3 USD) radiation shield (radshield) designed for monitoring surface air temperatures in harsh outdoor environments. We compared the performance of the radshield paired with low-cost temperature sensors at three sites in western Montana to several...

  10. Design data sheets Near-Surface Test Facility Bottom Loading Transporter (BLT): Title 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This document is an accumulation of all the Design Data Sheets relative to the handling equipment in the transporter for the Near-Surface Test Facility. The Data Sheets are in ascending numerical order. Each Data Sheet, regardless of the number of pages, shall stand by itself within this document

  11. Accelerating solving the dynamic multi-objective nework design problem using response surface methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; van Berkum, Eric C.; Bliemer, Michiel C.J.; Viti, F.; Immers, B.; Tampere, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multi objective optimization of externalities of traffic solving a network design problem in which Dynamic Traffic Management measures are used, is time consuming while heuristics are needed and solving the lower level requires solving the dynamic user equilibrium problem. Use of response surface

  12. The design procedures on brick building against surface ground deformations due to mining and earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, J.; Yang, S. (China University of Mining and Technology (China))

    1992-05-01

    By analysing the effects of ground motion and deformation on surface buildings, and drawing on the experience of damages caused by the Tangshan and Chenhai earthquakes, the authors discuss the design of brick and concrete buildings which are protected against the damaging effects of both earthquakes and mining activities. 5 figs.

  13. An in vitro study of the effect of design of repair surface on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-23

    Mar 23, 2013 ... if all other criteria are met such as good aesthetics, occlusion, and functionality; denture repair is acceptable. Once denture fractures, we ... Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different repair surface design on the transverse strength of repaired ... Website: www.njcponline.com.

  14. Production of specific structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification: optimization of the reaction by response surface design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Skands, Anja Rebecca Havegaard; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Rapeseed oil and capric acid were interesterified in solvent-free media catalyzed by Lipozyme IM (Rhizomucor miehei) to produce specific-structured lipids (SSLs). The process was optimized by response surface design concerning the effects of acyl migration and the by-products of diacylglycerols...

  15. Prediction of the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes by design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasulu, M.; Komaraiah, M.; Rao, C. S. Krishna Prasada

    2013-01-01

    Flow forming is a modern, chipless metal forming process that is employed for the production of thin-walled seamless tubes. Experiments are conducted on AA6082 alloy pre-forms to flow form into thin-walled tubes on a CNC flow-forming machine with a single roller. Design of experiments is used to predict the surface roughness of flow-formed tubes. The process parameters selected for this study are the roller axial feed, mandrel speed, and roller radius. A standard response surface methodology (RSM) called the Box Behnken design is used to perform the experimental runs. The regression model developed by RSM successfully predicts the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes within the range of the selected process parameters.

  16. Prediction of the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes by design of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasulu, M. [Government Polytechnic for Women Badangpet, Hyderabad (India); Komaraiah, M. [Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Rao, C. S. Krishna Prasada [Bharat Dynamics Limited, Hyderabad (India)

    2013-06-15

    Flow forming is a modern, chipless metal forming process that is employed for the production of thin-walled seamless tubes. Experiments are conducted on AA6082 alloy pre-forms to flow form into thin-walled tubes on a CNC flow-forming machine with a single roller. Design of experiments is used to predict the surface roughness of flow-formed tubes. The process parameters selected for this study are the roller axial feed, mandrel speed, and roller radius. A standard response surface methodology (RSM) called the Box Behnken design is used to perform the experimental runs. The regression model developed by RSM successfully predicts the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes within the range of the selected process parameters.

  17. Guidelines for the development of natural phenomena hazards design criteria for surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.; Hossain, Q.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the rationale behind the guidelines, criteria, and methodologies that are currently used for natural phenomena hazard design and evaluation of DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. The bases for the performance goals and usage categories specified in UCRL-15910 are examined, and the sources of intentional conservatism in the analyses, design, and evaluation methods and criteria are identified. Outlines of recent developments/changes in DOE Orders related to Natural Phenomena hazard mitigation are also presented. Finally, the authors recommend the use of DOE methodologies as embodied in UCRL-15910 for design and evaluation of surface facilities of the high level nuclear waste repository site

  18. Conceptual design plan near-surface test facility: Phase II, Project B-300b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heneveld, W.H.; Mack, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Activities are reported in programs devoted to demonstration and development of techniques for the safe placement and retrieval of the spent fuel canisters in a near-surface flow of the Columbia River Basalt. Other programs are reported designed to determine whether there are any unacceptable effects resulting from the interaction of the nuclear waste and basalt and to provide information to be used for near-term validation of the current numerical design models of the repository. Work is also reported on development of a data base for the design, construction, and licensing of a permanent large-scale basalt repository

  19. A Configurable Surface-Electrode Ion Trap Design for Quantum Information Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Ping-Xing; Wu Wei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a configurable surface-electrode ion trap design to alleviate the poor reusability of the existing traps. It can architecturally and electrically support 5 mainstream modes by design reuse, thus enhancing the trap reusability and reducing the experiment setup overhead. We also develop a corresponding simulation suite which can optimize trap geometries and calculate trap parameters to control the trapped ion's classic motion. According to our analytical and simulated results, the configurable design can serve as a unified platform for basic research of large-scale quantum information processing

  20. In situ grouting of a low-level radioactive waste trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Godsey, T.T.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-11-01

    A shallow land burial trench containing low level radioactive waste was injected with a particulate grout to help control subsidence and radionuclide migration. The trench's accessible voids have been estimated at 20 vol %, and most of these voids appear to have been filled with grout. This injection was accomplished with a simple, labor intensive technique, and an inexperienced crew at an estimated cost of about $55,000. The grout costs $0.21/gal and 8081 gal was injected into the trench. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches: Insights from in situ determination of benthic oxygen consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Mín; Glud, Ronnie N.; Pan, Binbin

    2018-01-01

    and exhibited relatively high diagenetic activity given the great water depths, that is, the Mariana Trench (2.0 × 102 μmol O2m2 d1, 10,853 m), the Mussau Trench (2.7 ± 0.1 × 102 μmol O2m2 d1, 7,011 m), and the New Britain Trench (6.0 ± 0.1 × 102 μmol O2m2  d1, 8,225 m). Combined with the analyses of total...

  2. Electrostatic potential fluctuation induced by charge discreteness in a nanoscale trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taesang; Kim, S. S.; Jho, Y. S.; Park, Gunyoung; Chang, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    A simplified two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation is performed to estimate the charging potential fluctuations caused by strong binary Coulomb interactions between discrete charged particles in nanometer scale trenches. It is found that the discrete charge effect can be an important part of the nanoscale trench research, inducing scattering of ion trajectories in a nanoscale trench by a fluctuating electric field. The effect can enhance the ion deposition on the side walls and disperse the material contact energy of the incident ions, among others

  3. Trench water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Dayal, R.; Kinsley, M.T.; Clinton, J.; Czyscinski, K.S.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Water samples from the disposal trenches of two low-level radioactive-waste-disposal sites were analyzed for their inorganic, organic, and radionuclide contents. Since oxidation of the trench waters can occur during their movement along the groundwater flow path, experiments were performed to measure the chemical and physical changes that occur in these waters upon oxidation. Low concentrations of chelating agents, shown to exist in trench waters, may be responsible for keeping radionuclides, particularly 60 Co, in solution. 4 figures, 5 tables

  4. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E.; Link, Steven O.

    2017-02-01

    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed as a 1000-year barrier with pre-determined design and performance objectives and demonstrated in field from 1994 to present. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all key objectives. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford’s semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr-1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of all the processes and mechanisms that could degrade the stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the base for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste.

  5. Optimum Design of a Helicopter Rotor for Low Vibration Using Aeroelastic Analysis and Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, R.

    2002-11-01

    An aeroelastic analysis based on finite elements in space and time is used to model the helicopter rotor in forward flight. The rotor blade is represented as an elastic cantilever beam undergoing flap and lag bending, elastic torsion and axial deformations. The objective of the improved design is to reduce vibratory loads at the rotor hub that are the main source of helicopter vibration. Constraints are imposed on aeroelastic stability, and move limits are imposed on the blade elastic stiffness design variables. Using the aeroelastic analysis, response surface approximations are constructed for the objective function (vibratory hub loads). It is found that second order polynomial response surfaces constructed using the central composite design of the theory of design of experiments adequately represents the aeroelastic model in the vicinity of the baseline design. Optimization results show a reduction in the objective function of about 30 per cent. A key accomplishment of this paper is the decoupling of the analysis problem and the optimization problems using response surface methods, which should encourage the use of optimization methods by the helicopter industry.

  6. Engineered surface barriers for waste disposal sites: lysimeter facility design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ruben, M.S.; Kirkham, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    A facility to evaluate performance of engineered surface carriers for confinement of buried wastes has been designed, constructed, and operations initiated. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility is located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The facility consists of 18 one-dimensional drainage and weighing lysimeters used to evaluate 7 replicated barrier treatments. Distinct layers of natural earth materials were used to construct layered soil and rock barriers in each lysimeter. These barrier designs are capable in principal of significantly reducing or precluding infiltration of meteoric water through barriers into underlying contaminated zones. This paper summarizes salient facility design and construction features used in testing of the Hanford Site's engineered surface barriers

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision No.:0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted uranium

  8. A novel design procedure for tractor clutch fingers by using optimization and response surface methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Oguz; Karpat, Fatih; Yuce, Celalettin; Kaya, Necmettin; Yavuz, Nurettin [Uludag University, Gorukle (Turkmenistan); Sen, Hasan [Valeo A. S., Bursa (Turkmenistan)

    2016-06-15

    This paper presents a methodology for re-designing a failed tractor transmission component subjected to cyclic loading. Unlike other vehicles, tractors cope with tough working conditions. Thus, it is necessary to re-design components by using modern optimization techniques. To extend their service life, we present a design methodology for a failed tractor clutch power take-off finger. The finger was completely re-designed using topology and shape optimization approach. Stress-life based fatigue analyses were performed. Shape optimization and response surface methodology were conducted to obtain optimum dimensions of the finger. Two design parameters were selected for the design of experiment method and 15 cases were analyzed. By using design of the experiment method, three responses were obtained: Maximum stresses, mass, and displacement depending on the selected the design parameters. After solving the optimization problem, we achieved a maximum stress and mass reduction of 14% and 6%, respectively. The stiffness was improved up to 31.6% compared to the initial design.

  9. Pre-Rationalized Parametric Designing of Roof Shells Formed by Repetitive Modules of Catalan Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzwierzynska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop an original, methodical, and practical approach to the early stages of parametric design of roof shells formed by repetitive modules of Catalan surfaces. It is presented on the example of designing the roof shells compound of four concrete elements. The designing process proposed by us consists in linking geometric shaping of roofs’ models with their structural analysis and optimization. Contrary to other methods, which use optimization process in order to find free roof forms, we apply it in order to explore and improve design alternatives. It is realized with the application of designing tools working in Rhinoceros 3D software. The flexible scripts elaborated by us, in order to achieve roofs’ models of regular and symmetrical shapes, are converted into simulation models to perform structural analysis. It is mainly focused on how the roof shells perform dependently on their geometric characteristics. The simulation enables one to evaluate various roof shells’ shapes, as well as to select an optimal design solution. The proposed approach to the conceptual design process may drive the designing to achieve geometric and structural forms which not only follow the design intentions but also target better results.

  10. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E; Link, Steven O

    2017-02-01

    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. After establishing a set of design and performance objectives, a package of design solutions was developed for 1000-year surface barriers over nuclear waste sites. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was then constructed in 1994 in the field over an existing waste site as a demonstration. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all objectives in the past two decades. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford's semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr -1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion and bio-intrusion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of the processes and mechanisms that could affect barrier stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the basis for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Digitally Milled Metal Framework for Fixed Complete Denture with Metal Occlusal Surfaces: A Design Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBader, Bader; AlHelal, Abdulaziz; Proussaefs, Periklis; Garbacea, Antonela; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Lozada, Jaime

    Implant-supported fixed complete dentures, often referred to as hybrid prostheses, have been associated with high implant survival rates but also with a high incidence of mechanical prosthetic complications. The most frequent of these complications have been fracture and wear of the veneering material. The proposed design concept incorporates the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth as part of a digital milled metal framework by designing the posterior first molars in full contour as part of the framework. The framework can be designed, scanned, and milled from a titanium blank using a milling machine. Acrylic resin teeth can then be placed on the framework by conventional protocol. The metal occlusal surfaces of the titanium-countered molars will be at centric occlusion. It is hypothesized that metal occlusal surfaces in the posterior region may reduce occlusal wear in these types of prostheses. When the proposed design protocol is followed, the connection between the metal frame and the cantilever part of the prosthesis is reinforced, which may lead to fewer fractures of the metal framework.

  12. The Design of Case Products’ Shape Form Information Database Based on NURBS Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Liu, Guo-zhong; Xu, Nuo-qi; Zhang, Wei-she

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the computer design of product shape design,applying the Non-uniform Rational B-splines(NURBS) of curves and surfaces surface to the representation of the product shape helps designers to design the product effectively.On the basis of the typical product image contour extraction and using Pro/Engineer(Pro/E) to extract the geometric feature of scanning mold,in order to structure the information data base system of value point,control point and node vector parameter information,this paper put forward a unified expression method of using NURBS curves and surfaces to describe products’ geometric shape and using matrix laboratory(MATLAB) to simulate when products have the same or similar function.A case study of electric vehicle’s front cover illustrates the access process of geometric shape information of case product in this paper.This method can not only greatly reduce the capacity of information debate,but also improve the effectiveness of computer aided geometric innovation modeling.

  13. Surface wave resonance and chirality in a tubular cavity with metasurface design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuzhou; Fang, Yangfu; Wang, Lu; Tang, Shiwei; Sun, Shulin; Liu, Zhaowei; Mei, Yongfeng

    2018-06-01

    Optical microcavities with whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) have been indispensable in both photonic researches and applications. Besides, metasurfaces, have attracted much attention recently due to their strong abilities to manipulate electromagnetic waves. Here, combining these two optical elements together, we show a tubular cavity can convert input propagating cylindrical waves into directed localized surface waves (SWs), enabling the circulating like WGMs along the wall surface of the designed tubular cavity. Finite element method (FEM) simulations demonstrate that such near-field WGM shows both large chirality and high local field. This work may stimulate interesting potential applications in e.g. directional emission, sensing, and lasing.

  14. The use of interpractive graphic displays for interpretation of surface design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An interactive computer graphics technique known as the Graphic Display Data method has been developed to provide a convenient means for rapidly interpreting large amounts of surface design data. The display technique should prove valuable in such disciplines as aerodynamic analysis, structural analysis, and experimental data analysis. To demonstrate the system's features, an example is presented of the Graphic Data Display method used as an interpretive tool for radiation equilibrium temperature distributions over the surface of an aerodynamic vehicle. Color graphic displays were also examined as a logical extension of the technique to improve its clarity and to allow the presentation of greater detail in a single display.

  15. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  16. Mars Relays Satellite Orbit Design Considerations for Global Support of Robotic Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Cesarone, Robert; Cook, Richard; Knocke, Phillip; McOmber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses orbit design considerations for Mars relay satellite (MRS)support of globally distributed robotic surface missions. The orbit results reported in this paper are derived from studies of MRS support for two types of Mars robotic surface missions: 1) the mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission, which in its current definition would deploy a global network of up to 16 small landers, and 2)a Small Mars Sample Return (SMSR) mission, which included four globally distributed landers, each with a return stage and one or two rovers, and up to four additional sets of lander/rover elements in an extended mission phase.

  17. Geotechnical analysis of soil samples from test trench at Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fickies, R.H.; Fakundiny, R.H.; Mosley, E.T.

    1979-04-01

    In July 1977, a deep research trench was excavated and soil samples collected at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, NY. The glacial till horizons sampled are considered to be representative of the till serving as a burial medium at the nearby low-level radioactive waste burial ground. A series of laboratory tests were conducted consisting of unit weight, moisture content, Atterberg limits, unconfined compression, dispersion, swell, permeability, and consolidation. These laboratory analyses and field observations indicate that the till exposed in the research trench is a generally dense mixture of silt and clay of low to medium plasticity, with minor amounts of fine to coarse sand and fine gravel. The till has a generally low coefficient of permeability in the range of 10 -7 cm/s horizontal and 10 -8 cm/s vertical. A network of vertical fractures exists in the upper 15 feet of weathered till which may allow some downward percolation of surface runoff. The test data indicates that the maximum depth to which these fractures could possibly penetrate is 50 feet

  18. Hydrogen-terminated diamond vertical-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with a trench gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Masafumi, E-mail: inaba-ma@ruri.waseda.jp; Muta, Tsubasa; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Saito, Toshiki; Shibata, Masanobu; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kudo, Takuya; Hiraiwa, Atsushi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kawarada, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Laboratory for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan)

    2016-07-18

    The hydrogen-terminated diamond surface (C-H diamond) has a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) layer independent of the crystal orientation. A 2DHG layer is ubiquitously formed on the C-H diamond surface covered by atomic-layer-deposited-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate oxide, C-H diamond metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) operate in a trench gate structure where the diamond side-wall acts as a channel. MOSFETs with a side-wall channel exhibit equivalent performance to the lateral C-H diamond MOSFET without a side-wall channel. Here, a vertical-type MOSFET with a drain on the bottom is demonstrated in diamond with channel current modulation by the gate and pinch off.

  19. Oceanographic cruise: Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench, April - May 1969 (NODC Accession 7100914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard HMAS DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench...

  20. Subsidence evaluation in 218-E-E12B, trench 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    An area in Trench 38 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground has been gradually sinking over the past few years. The area spans the width of the trench and extends approximately 80 feet down the trench. The depth of the depression is approximately 3 feet in the center and gradually rises to existing grade at the trench edge. It has been determined that the most likely cause of the subsidence is decomposition of buried waste material. Fifty-six percent of the waste buried in the subject area is decomposable and has been in the ground for nine years. Waste packaging is largely plastic lined dump trucks and fiberboard boxes. It is recommended that this area be treated with dynamic compaction to stabilize the waste and minimize the reoccurrence of subsidence in this area

  1. Oceanographic cruise Indian Ocean and Java Trench June 1969 (NODC Accession 7100908)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard H.M.A.S DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Java Trench and the Indian Ocean during...

  2. Comparison between infaunal communities of the deep floor and edge of the Tonga Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leduc, Daniel; Rowden, Ashley A.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    at the Horizon Deep site is consistent with a recent turbidite event, and may also reflect high rates of bioturbation by larger fauna resulting from high food availability. Determining the relative influences of different environmental factors on hadal trench benthic communities will require further...... factors. In this study, we describe and compare the abundance, biomass, vertical distribution in the sediment, diversity, and community structure of nematodes and other infauna in sediments from the Horizon Deep (similar to 10 800 m) in the Tonga Trench and a site on the edge of the trench (similar...... to 6250 m). Mean nematode abundance was six times greater at the Horizon Deep site (387 ind. 10 cm(-2)) than at the trench edge site (65 ind. 10 cm(-2)). A similar pattern was observed for biomass (15 vs 2 mu gDW 10 cm(-2), respectively), which likely resulted from elevated organic matter supply...

  3. Microbial activity of trench leachates from shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dobbs, S.; Nine, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Trench leachate samples collected anoxically from shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites were analyzed for total aerobic and anaerobic populations, sulfate reducers, denitrifiers, and methanogens. Among the several aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated, only Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and Clostridium sp. were identified. Mixed bacterial cultures isolated from the trench leachates were able to grow anaerobically in trench leachates, which indicates that the radionuclides and organic chemicals present were not toxic to these bacteria. Changes in concentrations of several of the organic constituents of the waste leachate samples were observed due to anaerobic microbial activity. Growth of a mixed culture of trench-water bacteria in media containing a mixture of radionuclides, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 134 137 Cs, was not affected at total activity concentrations of 2.6 x 10 2 and 2.7 x 10 3 pCi/ml

  4. Making an outreach movie -The Puerto Rico Trench: Exploring the deepest place in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, J.; ten Brink, U. S.

    2004-12-01

    A new movie will be screened that describes the exploration of the Puerto Rico trench with a multibeam echosounder and its significance to scientific research and tsunami hazard assessment. The movie audience is the general public including high school students. It aims to stimulate interest in Oceanography and to demonstrate scientific processes as they are applied in Geological Oceanography. The extensive use of 3-D visualization fly-bys over the dramatic ocean floor of the Puerto Rico trench should be particularly appealing to a generation growing up on video games and 3-D visualizations. The film is the product of close cooperation between a film maker and a scientist through all stages of its production and post production. This level of close cooperation is necessary because scientists' and film makers' approaches to presentation of information can differ greatly. In making an educational or outreach movie, the scientist must be responsible for the contents of the message, but the film maker has to design an effective delivery method. The creation of this movie was the result of following stages: (1) live action filming during a short research cruise; (2) generating 3-D fly-by using Fledermausr software; (3) rendering the fly-by sequences to a high-definition film; (4) collecting still photos and other supporting material; (5) generating graphs illustrating crucial scientific information and concepts; (6) preparing the script for voiceover narration; (7) working with a professional actor in order to ensure accurate delivery of the information. The biggest challenge in making the movie was the editing stage when the different elements of the movie were put together, incorporating music and voiceover into an aesthetically pleasing, interesting, and above all, scientifically accurate and coherent movie. Post-editing steps included replication of the master copy, package design, and distribution. The movie was completed in several weeks on a modest budget, thanks

  5. Wavelength-dependent Crosstalk in Trench-Assisted Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2014-01-01

    Analytical expressions for wavelength-dependent crosstalk in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers are derived. The calculated results from the expressions agree well with the numerical simulation results based on finite element method.......Analytical expressions for wavelength-dependent crosstalk in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers are derived. The calculated results from the expressions agree well with the numerical simulation results based on finite element method....

  6. Designed cellulose nanocrystal surface properties for improving barrier properties in polylactide nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Pérez, Etzael; Bras, Julien; Almeida, Giana; Plessis, Cédric; Belgacem, Naceur; Perré, Patrick; Domenek, Sandra

    2018-03-01

    Nanocomposites are an opportunity to increase the performance of polymer membranes by fine-tuning their morphology. In particular, the understanding of the contribution of the polymer matrix/nanofiller interface to the overall transport properties is key to design membranes with tailored selective and adsorptive properties. In that aim, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/polylactide (PLA) nanocomposites were fabricated with chemically designed interfaces, which were ensuring the compatibility between the constituents and impacting the mass transport mechanism. A detailed analysis of the mass transport behaviour of different permeants in CNC/PLA nanocomposites was carried out as a function of their chemical affinity to grafted CNC surfaces. Penetrants (O 2 and cyclohexane), which were found to slightly interact with the constituents of the nanocomposites, provided information on the small tortuosity effect of CNC on diffusive mass transport. The mass transport of water (highly interacting with CNC) and anisole (interacting only with designed CNC surfaces) exhibited non-Fickian, Case II behaviour. The water vapour caused significant swelling of the CNC, which created a preferential pathway for mass transport. CNC surface grafting could attenuate this phenomenon and decrease the water transport rate. Anisole, an aromatic organic vapour, became reversibly trapped at the specifically designed CNC/PLA interface, but without any swelling or creation of an accelerated pathway. This caused the decrease of the overall mass transport rate. The latter finding could open a way to the creation of materials with specifically designed barrier properties by designing nanocomposites interfaces with specific interactions towards permeants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pressurization Risk Assessment of CO2 Reservoirs Utilizing Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Park, E.; Han, K.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring of pressure buildup can provide explicit information on reservoir integrity and is an appealing tool, however pressure variation is dependent on a variety of factors causing high uncertainty in pressure predictions. This work evaluated pressurization of a reservoir system in the presence of leakage pathways as well as exploring the effects of compartmentalization of the reservoir utilizing design of experiments (Definitive Screening, Box Behnken, Central Composite, and Latin Hypercube designs) and response surface methods. Two models were developed, 1) an idealized injection scenario in order to evaluate the performance of multiple designs, and 2) a complex injection scenario implementing the best performing design to investigate pressurization of the reservoir system. A holistic evaluation of scenario 1, determined that the Central Composite design would be used for the complex injection scenario. The complex scenario evaluated 5 risk factors: reservoir, seal, leakage pathway and fault permeabilities, and horizontal position of the pathway. A total of 60 response surface models (RSM) were developed for the complex scenario with an average R2 of 0.95 and a NRMSE of 0.067. Sensitivity to the input factors was dynamic through space and time; at the earliest time (0.05 years) the reservoir permeability was dominant, and for later times (>0.5 years) the fault permeability became dominant for all locations. The RSM's were then used to conduct a Monte Carlo Analysis to further analyze pressurization risks, identifying the P10, P50, P90 values. This identified the in zone (lower) P90 values as 2.16, 1.77, and 1.53 MPa and above zone values of 1.35, 1.23, 1.09 MPa for monitoring locations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In summary, the design of experiments and response surface methods allowed for an efficient sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to be conducted permitting a complete evaluation of the pressurization across the entire parameter space.

  8. Laboratory coupling tests for optimum land streamer design over sand dunes surface

    KAUST Repository

    Almalki, Hashim

    2012-02-26

    The cost of data acquisition in land is becoming a major issue as we strive to cover larger areas with seismic surveys at high resolution. Over sand dunes the problem is compounded by the week coupling obtain using geophones, which often forces us to bury the phone. A major challenge is designing such a land streamer system that combines durability, mobility and the required coupling. We share a couple of such designs and discuss the merits behind such designs and test their capability. The testing includes, the level of coupling, mobility and drag over sand surfaces. For specific designs loose sand can accumulate inside the steamer reducing its mobility. On the other hand, poor coupling will attenuate the high frequencies and cause an effective delay in the signal. The weight of the streamer is also an important factor in both mobility and coupling as it adds to the coupling it reduces the mobility of the streamer. We study the impact of weight and base plate surface area on the seismic signal quality, as well as the friction factor of different designs.

  9. Conceptual design for relocation of the underground monitoring systems to ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toya, Naruhisa; Ogawa, Ken; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Ohnuki, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    One of the major subjects of the ongoing geoscientific research program, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in the Tono area, central Japan, is accumulation of knowledge on a recovery of the geological environment during and after the facility closure. Then it is necessary to plan the observation system which can be use of after the backfill of research tunnels. The main purpose of this report is contribution to the detailed design for relocation of the underground monitoring systems to ground surface. We discussed the restriction and requirement for the underground monitoring systems which can be use of after the backfill. Furthermore, we made the conceptual design for relocation of the current underground monitoring systems to ground surface. (author)

  10. Tribological properties of nanostripe surface structures-a design concept for improving tribological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, K; Nakano, M; Korenaga, A; Mano, H; Ando, Y

    2010-01-01

    The tribological properties of nanostripe surface structures were investigated using a pin-on-plate tribometer in order to propose a design concept for improving the tribological properties. The authors used four kinds of nanostripe structures consisting of different combinations of materials (Fe-Au, C-SiC, Al-Al 2 O 3 and Al-Pt) fabricated by a process they had previously proposed. The frictional properties of the nanostripe structures depended on the materials that constituted the nanostripes. When the sliding direction in friction tests was parallel to the microgrooves, nanostripe structures remained on all surfaces even after friction tests. Based on the friction test results, the authors considered a design concept for nanostripe structures in tribological applications.

  11. Mechanical stability of immediately loaded implants with various surfaces and designs: a pilot study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Weinländer, Michael; Lekovic, Vojislav; von Berg, Karl-Heinz Linne; Zoeller, Joachim E

    2009-01-01

    Immediate loading is among the most innovative techniques in implant therapy today. This pilot study investigates the biomechanical outcome of various designs and surfaces that claim to shorten implant treatment. In each quadrant of two mongrel dogs, four different implants were used for immediate loading. The following implants were placed 3 months after tooth extraction: screw with low thread profile and anodic oxidized surface (LPAOS), solid screw with wide thread profile and titanium plasma spray coating (WPTPS), screw with low profile and hybrid design of double-etched and machined surface (LPHES), and screw with two thread profiles and a sandblasted and acid-etched surface (DTSAE). The insertion torque of each implant was above 35 Ncm. Resonance frequency analysis was performed after implant placement and again after sacrifice. Additionally, the removal torque and the amount of embedded titanium particles in the peri-implant bone were measured. All 16 prostheses were functional after a 5-month loading period. The highest mean removal torque values were recorded with WPTPS implants (24.4 Ncm/mm), followed by DTSAE implants (22.3 Ncm/mm) and LPAOS implants (18.7 Ncm/mm); the lowest score was obtained by LPHES (12.0 Ncm/mm). The ISQ values increased between the time of surgery and recall for all systems on average, but a significant positive correlation was found for DTSAE only. Significantly higher amounts of titanium were found in the surrounding bone with WPTPS (0.76%) and LPAOS (0.41%) in comparison with DTSAE (0.10%) and LPHES (0.03%). Immediate loading is possible with various designs and surfaces if high primary stability can be achieved during implant placement.

  12. Chemical characteristics of hadal waters in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench of the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, Toshitaka; Shitashima, Kiminori

    2018-01-01

    Vertical profiles of potential temperature, salinity, and some chemical components were obtained at a trench station (29°05'N, 142°51'E; depth = 9768 m) in the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Trench in 1984 and 1994 to characterize the hadal waters below ∼6000 m depth. We compared portions of both the 1984 and 1994 profiles with nearby data obtained between 1976 and 2013. Results demonstrated that the hadal waters had slightly higher potential temperature and nitrate and lower dissolved oxygen than waters at sill depths (∼6000 m) outside the trench, probably due to the effective accumulation of geothermal heat and active biological processes inside the trench. The silicate, iron, and manganese profiles in 1984 showed slight but significant increases below ∼6000 m depth, suggesting that these components may have been intermittently supplied from the trench bottom. Significant amounts of 222 Rn in excess over 226 Ra were detected in the hadal waters up to 2675 m from the bottom, reflecting laterally supplied 222 Rn from the trench walls.

  13. A low on-resistance SOI LDMOS using a trench gate and a recessed drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Rui; Luo Xiaorong; Jiang Yongheng; Zhou Kun; Wang Pei; Wang Qi; Wang Yuangang; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji

    2012-01-01

    An integrable silicon-on-insulator (SOI) power lateral MOSFET with a trench gate and a recessed drain (TGRD MOSFET) is proposed to reduce the on-resistance. Both of the trench gate extended to the buried oxide (BOX) and the recessed drain reduce the specific on-resistance (R on,sp ) by widening the vertical conduction area and shortening the extra current path. The trench gate is extended as a field plate improves the electric field distribution. Breakdown voltage (BV) of 97 V and R on,sp of 0.985 mΩ·cm 2 (V GS = 5 V) are obtained for a TGRD MOSFET with 6.5 μm half-cell pitch. Compared with the trench gate SOI MOSFET (TG MOSFET) and the conventional MOSFET, R on,sp of the TGRD MOSFET decreases by 46% and 83% at the same BV, respectively. Compared with the SOI MOSFET with a trench gate and a trench drain (TGTD MOSFET), BV of the TGRD MOSFET increases by 37% at the same R on,sp . (semiconductor devices)

  14. Trench foot: the medical response in the first World War 1914-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenstaedt, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    The approaching 90-year anniversary of United States entry into the Great War is an apt time to examine the response to trench foot (now called nonfreezing cold injury [NFCI]) in this conflict. Trench foot appeared in the winter of 1914, characterized by pedal swelling, numbness, and pain. It was quickly recognized by military-medical authorities. There was little debate over whether it was frostbite or new condition, and it was quickly accepted as a specific disease. The major etiologies proposed were exposure, diet, and infection. The opinion emerged that it was caused by circulatory changes in the foot caused by cold, wet, and pressure. Predisposing factors included dietary inadequacy and fatigue. A number of labels were first given to the disease. However, the name "trench foot" was eventually officially sanctioned. Trench foot became a serious problem for the Allies, leading to 75 000 casualties in the British and 2000 in the American forces. Therapy for trench foot involved a number of conventional, tried-and-tested, and conservative methods. Some more innovative techniques were used. Amputation was only used as a last resort. Prevention involved general measures to improve the trench environment; modification of the footwear worn by the men; and the provision of greases to protect them from moisture. The medical reaction to this condition seems to have been relatively effective. The causation was identified, and prophylactic measures were introduced to fit this model; these seem to have been successful in reducing the prevalence of the condition by 1917-18.

  15. Study of shallow trench isolation technology with a poly-Si sidewall buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, M H; Chen, C L; Jang, S L

    2008-01-01

    Shallow trench isolation (STI) technology with a poly-Si buffer layer at the trench sidewall has been studied. At the densification temperature of 950 °C, for the samples without using a poly-Si buffer layer, the resulting junction shows a leakage of about 700 nA cm −2 for a diode area of 100 × 100 µm 2 , primarily due to large peripheral junction leakage. The large leakage is ascribed to the defect generation caused by a thermally induced stress near the trench sidewall. The usage of a poly-Si buffer layer in the trench sidewall is found to significantly improve the junction characteristics. As a result, when a 40 nm poly-Si buffer layer is sandwiched between the Si substrate and the trench-fill silicon oxide, the resultant junctions show a leakage of only about 8 nA cm −2 . This result may reflect the considerably reduced thermally induced stress near the trench sidewall. Furthermore, at the densification temperature of 1100 °C, the usage of a poly-Si buffer layer can help to achieve excellent junctions with a leakage smaller than 5 nA cm −2 for a diode area of 100 × 100 µm 2

  16. Characterization of trench water at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Francis, A.J.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently the United States Geological Survey is conducting a study of the hydrogeological and geochemical behavior of commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The data collected from this study will be used to establish criteria for selection of new sites for disposal of radioactive wastes. As part of this study, water samples from trenches at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site were analyzed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the source terms of the radionuclides and other components in solution in the trenches. Procedures for collection and filtration of the samples under anoxic conditions are described. The samples were analyzed for inorganic, radiochemical and organic constituents. The inorganic analysis includes the measurements of pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and various cations and anions. The radionuclides were measured by the gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, and gamma activities, followed by specific measurements of strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes. The organics were extracted, concentrated, and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Considerable quantities of organics were detected in all of the trench waters sampled. Specific organics were found in most of the trenches, however, the organic composition of the trench waters vary. The presence of a variety of organic compounds in trench waters suggest that they may play an important role in the transport of radionuclides

  17. Design of Sail-Assisted Unmanned Surface Vehicle Intelligent Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yong; Zhao, Yujiao; Diao, Jiantao; Gan, Langxiong; Bi, Huaxiong; Zhao, Jingming

    2016-01-01

    To achieve the wind sail-assisted function of the unmanned surface vehicle (USV), this work focuses on the design problems of the sail-assisted USV intelligent control systems (SUICS) and illustrates the implementation process of the SUICS. The SUICS consists of the communication system, the sensor system, the PC platform, and the lower machine platform. To make full use of the wind energy, in the SUICS, we propose the sail angle of attack automatic adjustment (Sail_4A) algorithm and present ...

  18. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B. [Department of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  19. Design and calibration of a scanning tunneling microscope for large machined surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    During the last year the large sample STM has been designed, built and used for the observation of several different samples. Calibration of the scanner for prope dimensional interpretation of surface features has been a chief concern, as well as corrections for non-linear effects such as hysteresis during scans. Several procedures used in calibration and correction of piezoelectric scanners used in the laboratorys STMs are described.

  20. Design and application of a surface vessel for autonomous inland water monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hitz Gregory; Pomerleau Francois; Garneau Marie-Eve; Pradalier Cedric; Posch Thomas; Pernthaler Jakob; Siegwart Roland

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel autonomous surface vessel (ASV) that was designed and manufactured specifically for the monitoring of water resources resources that are not only constantly drained but also face the growing threat of mass proliferation (bloom) of noxious cyanobacteria. On one hand the distribution of these blooms in a given water body requires a surveillance of biological data at high spatial resolution on both vertical and horizontal axes whereas on the other hand the understan...

  1. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  2. Simulation of new p-type strip detectors with trench to enhance the charge multiplication effect in the n-type electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Martínez, P.; Pellegrini, G.; Balbuena, J.P.; Quirion, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Flores, D.; Lozano, M.; Casse, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the simulation results of new p-type strip detectors with trench electrodes to enhance the charge multiplication effect in the irradiated detector. The new design includes baby microstrip detectors (area=1 cm 2 ) with a strip pitch of 80 μm and p-stop isolation structures. The strip has a 5 μm-wide trench along all its length, filled and doped with polysilicon to create a deep N + contact into the material bulk. The trench depth can be varied in order to study the influence of the electric field on the charge multiplication effect in heavily irradiated samples. Some alternative designs have also been studied to establish a comparison between various structures using different technologies. Simulation reproduce the electrical behaviour under different irradiation conditions, taking into account the damage accumulated after irradiation with neutrons and protons with several fluence values. The investigation of these effects provides important indications on the ability of this modified electrode geometry to control and optimise the charge multiplication effect, in order to fully recover the collection efficiency of heavily irradiated microstrip detectors, at reasonable bias voltage compatible with the voltage feed limitation of the CERN SLHC experiments.

  3. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  4. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 112: AREA 23 HAZARDOUS WASTE TRENCHES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA; FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 2003 - SEPTEMBER 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-01-01

    beneath each trench. Soil moisture results obtained to date indicate that the compliance criterion of less than 5% Residual Volumetric Moisture Content was met. Soil conditions remain dry and stable beneath the trenches, and the cover is functioning as designed within the compliance limits

  5. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests

  6. Design of an experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of metastable fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, V.; Hrubý, J.; Hykl, J.; Blaha, J.; Šmíd, B.

    2013-04-01

    A unique experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of aqueous mixtures has been designed, manufactured, and tested in our laboratory. The novelty of the setup is that it allows measurement of surface tension by two different methods: a modified capillary elevation method in a long vertical capillary tube and a method inspired by the approach of Hacker (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Note 2510, 1-20, 1951), i.e. in a short horizontal capillary tube. Functionality of all main components of the apparatus, e.g., glass chamber with the capillary tube, temperature control unit consisting of two thermostatic baths with special valves for rapid temperature jumps, helium distribution setup allowing pressure variation above the liquid meniscus inside the capillary tube, has been successfully tested. Preliminary results for the surface tension of the stable and metastable supercooled water measured by the capillary elevation method at atmospheric pressure are provided. The surface tension of water measured at temperatures between +26 °C and -11 °C is in good agreement with the extrapolated IAPWS correlation (IAPWS Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance, September 1994); however it disagrees with data by Hacker.

  7. Photomosaics and event evidence from the Frazier Mountain paleoseismic site, trench 1, cuts 1–4, San Andreas Fault Zone, southern California (2007–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Fumal, Tom E.; Weldon, Ray J.; Streig, Ashley R.

    2014-01-01

    The Frazier Mountain paleoseismic site is located at the northwest end of the Mojave section of the San Andreas Fault, in a small, closed depression at the base of Frazier Mountain near Tejon Pass, California (lat 34.8122° N., long 118.9034° W.). The site was known to contain a good record of earthquakes due to previous excavations by Lindvall and others (2002). This report provides data resulting from four nested excavations, or cuts, along trench 1 (T1) in 2007 and 2009 at the Frazier Mountain site. The four cuts were excavated progressively deeper and wider in an orientation perpendicular to the San Andreas Fault, exposing distal fan and marsh sediments deposited since ca. A.D. 1200. The results of the trenching show that earthquakes that ruptured the site have repeatedly produced a small depression or sag on the surface, which is subsequently infilled with sand and silt deposits. This report provides high-resolution photomosaics and logs for the T1 cuts, a detailed stratigraphic column for the deposits, and a table summarizing all of the evidence for ground rupturing paleoearthquakes logged in the trenches.

  8. A parylene-filled-trench technique for thermal isolation in silicon-based microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yinhua; Wang Wei; Li Ting; Jin Yufeng; Zhang Haixia; Li Zhihong; Yu Huaiqiang; Luo Yingcun

    2009-01-01

    Microdevices prepared in a silicon substrate have been widely used in versatile fields due to the matured silicon-based microfabrication technique and the excellent physical properties of silicon material. However, the high thermal conductivity of silicon restricts its application in most thermal microdevices, especially devices comprising different temperature zones. In this work, a parylene-filled-trench technique was optimized to realize high-quality thermal isolation in silicon-based microdevices. Parylene C, a heat transfer barricading material, was deposited on parallel high-aspect-ratio trenches, which surrounded the isolated target zones. After removing the remnant silicon beneath the trenches by deep reactive ion etching from the back side, a high-quality heat transfer barrier was obtained. By using narrow trenches, only 5 µm thick parylene was required for a complete filling, which facilitated multi-layer interconnection thereafter. The parylene filling performance inside the high-aspect-ratio trench was optimized by two approaches: multiple etch–deposition cycling and trench profile controlling. A 4 × 6 array, in which each unit was kept at a constant temperature and was well thermally isolated individually, was achieved on a silicon substrate by using the present parylene-filled-trench technique. The preliminary experimental results indicated that the present parylene-filled-trench structure exhibited excellent thermal isolation performance, with a very low power requirement of 0.134 mW (K mm 2 ) −1 for heating the isolated silicon unit and a high thermal isolation efficiency of 72.5% between two adjacent units. Accompanied with high-quality isolation performance, the microdevices embedded the present parylene-filled-trench structure to retain a strong mechanical connection larger than 400 kPa between two isolated zones, which is very important for a high-reliability-required micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) device. Considering its room

  9. An introduction to the integrated design of surface mine haul roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The world-wide expansion of surface mining has led to the development of very large off-highway trucks currently capable of hauling layloads in excess of 160 t. Typical axle loads ranging from 110 t to 170 t are applied to haul roads that have been, at best, empirically designed on the premise of `satisfactory` or `failed`, both in terms of structure and function of the road. The use of these empirical pavement design techniques will prove inadequate when high axle loads are encountered. Not only will the maintenance costs of existing haul roads of inadequate thickness increase, but vehicle operating and maintenance costs will also increase prohibitively. Under these conditions there is thus a clearly defined need for improved construction and management techniques for flexible mine haulage roads, appropriate for the wheel loads of vehicles now in use. The aim of this paper is to introduce developments in haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management which overcome the limitations associated with the previously empirical design techniques and to show how these developments are combined into an integrated design strategy combining construction techniques, available material and road maintenance equipment with hauler choice to realise a reduction in haulage and road maintenance costs. Future contributions will enumerate on the fundamental haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management research from which these developments originated. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Designed Surface Topographies Control ICAM-1 Expression in Tonsil-Derived Human Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksei S. Vasilevich

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs, the T-cell zone stromal cell subtype in the lymph nodes, create a scaffold for adhesion and migration of immune cells, thus allowing them to communicate. Although known to be important for the initiation of immune responses, studies about FRCs and their interactions have been impeded because FRCs are limited in availability and lose their function upon culture expansion. To circumvent these limitations, stromal cell precursors can be mechanotranduced to form mature FRCs. Here, we used a library of designed surface topographies to trigger FRC differentiation from tonsil-derived stromal cells (TSCs. Undifferentiated TSCs were seeded on a TopoChip containing 2176 different topographies in culture medium without differentiation factors, then monitored cell morphology and the levels of ICAM-1, a marker of FRC differentiation. We identified 112 and 72 surfaces that upregulated and downregulated, respectively, ICAM-1 expression. By monitoring cell morphology, and expression of the FRC differentiation marker ICAM-1 via image analysis and machine learning, we discovered correlations between ICAM-1 expression, cell shape and design of surface topographies and confirmed our findings by using flow cytometry. Our findings confirmed that TSCs are mechano-responsive cells and identified particular topographies that can be used to improve FRC differentiation protocols.

  11. Designing N-halamine based antibacterial surface on polymers: Fabrication, characterization, and biocidal functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yong, E-mail: ychen168@126.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, 579 Qianwangang Rd., Huangdao Zone, Qingdao 266510 (China); Han Qiuxia [Department of Biological Engineering, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China)

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate a valuable method to generate reactive groups on inert polymer surfaces and bond antibacterial agents for biocidal ability. Polystyrene (PS) surfaces were functionalized by spin coating of sub-monolayer and monolayer films of poly(styrene-b-tert-butyl acrylate) (PS-PtBA) block copolymer from solutions in toluene. PS-PtBA self-assembled to a bilayer structure on PS that contains a surface layer of the PtBA blocks ordering at the air-polymer interface and a bottom layer of the PS blocks entangling with the PS substrate. The thickness of PtBA layer could be linearly controlled by the concentration of the spin coating solution and a 2.5 nm saturated monolayer coverage of PtBA was achieved at 0.35% (w/w). Carboxyl groups were generated by exposing the tert-butyl ester groups of PtBA on saturated surface to trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) to bond tert-butylamine via amide bonds that were further chlorinated to N-halamine with NaOCl solution. The density of N-halamine on the chlorinated surface was calculated to be 1.05 x 10{sup -5} mol/m{sup 2} by iodimetric/thiosulfate titration. Presented data showed the N-halamine surface provided powerful antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Over 50% of the chlorine lost after UVA irradiation could be regained upon rechlorination. This design concept can be virtually applied to any inert polymer by choosing appropriate block copolymers and antibacterial agents to attain desirable biocidal activity.

  12. Design and verification of the miniature optical system for small object surface profile fast scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sheng; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Jen, Jen-Yu; Lai, Ti-Yu; Jan, Chia-Ming; Hu, Po-Chi

    2016-04-01

    As the progress of optical technologies, different commercial 3D surface contour scanners are on the market nowadays. Most of them are used for reconstructing the surface profile of mold or mechanical objects which are larger than 50 mm×50 mm× 50 mm, and the scanning system size is about 300 mm×300 mm×100 mm. There are seldom optical systems commercialized for surface profile fast scanning for small object size less than 10 mm×10 mm×10 mm. Therefore, a miniature optical system has been designed and developed in this research work for this purpose. Since the most used scanning method of such system is line scan technology, we have developed pseudo-phase shifting digital projection technology by adopting projecting fringes and phase reconstruction method. A projector was used to project a digital fringe patterns on the object, and the fringes intensity images of the reference plane and of the sample object were recorded by a CMOS camera. The phase difference between the plane and object can be calculated from the fringes images, and the surface profile of the object was reconstructed by using the phase differences. The traditional phase shifting method was accomplished by using PZT actuator or precisely controlled motor to adjust the light source or grating and this is one of the limitations for high speed scanning. Compared with the traditional optical setup, we utilized a micro projector to project the digital fringe patterns on the sample. This diminished the phase shifting processing time and the controlled phase differences between the shifted phases become more precise. Besides, the optical path design based on a portable device scanning system was used to minimize the size and reduce the number of the system components. A screwdriver section about 7mm×5mm×5mm has been scanned and its surface profile was successfully restored. The experimental results showed that the measurement area of our system can be smaller than 10mm×10mm, the precision reached to

  13. Design Options to Reduce Development Cost of First Generation Surface Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    Low-power surface reactors have the potential to have the lowest development cost of any space reactor application, primarily because system alpha (mass/kg) is not of utmost importance and mission lifetimes do not have to be a decade or more. Even then, the development cost of a surface reactor can vary substantially depending on the performance requirements (e.g. mass, power, lifetime, reliability) and technical development risk deemed acceptable by the end-user. It is important for potential users to be aware of these relationships before they determine their future architecture (i.e. decide what they need). Generally, the greatest potential costs of a space reactor program are a nuclear-powered ground test and extensive material development campaigns, so it is important to consider options that can minimize the need for or complexity of such tasks. The intended goal of this paper is to inform potential surface reactor users of the potential sensitivities of surface reactor development cost to design requirements, and areas where technical risk can be traded with development cost

  14. Modeling urban storm rainfall runoff from diverse underlying surfaces and application for control design in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Li, Junqi; Gong, Yongwei

    2012-12-30

    Managing storm rainfall runoff is paramount in semi-arid regions with urban development. In Beijing, pollution prevention in urban storm runoff and storm water utilization has been identified as the primary strategy for urban water management. In this paper, we sampled runoff during storm rainfall events and analyzed the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) in the runoff. Furthermore, the first flush effect of storm rainfall from diverse underlying surfaces was also analyzed. With the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the different impervious rates of underlying surfaces during the storm runoff process were expressed. The removal rates of three typical pollutants and their interactions with precipitation and underlying surfaces were identified. From these rates, the scenarios regarding the urban storm runoff pollution loading from different designs of underlying previous rates were assessed with the SWMM. First flush effect analysis showed that the first 20% of the storm runoff should be discarded, which can help in utilizing the storm water resource. The results of this study suggest that the SWMM can express in detail the storm water pollution patterns from diverse underlying surfaces in Beijing, which significantly affected water quality. The scenario analysis demonstrated that impervious rate adjustment has the potential to reduce runoff peak and decrease pollution loading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aluminium vacuum vessel/first surface conceptual design for a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbert, M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor (CTHR) vacuum vessel/first surface system which satisfies the engineering requirements for a commercial environment. An important distinction between the design constraints associated with 'pure' fusion and fusion-fission hybrid power reactors is that energy extraction from the first wall is not critical from the point of view of hybrid system economics. This allows the consideration of low temperature structural material for first wall application. The mechanical arrangement consists of a series of internally finned aluminium tube banks running poloidally around the torus. The coolant manifolds are at the top and bottom of the torus. The vessel is divided into sectors, the length of which depends on the spacing between TF coils. The tubes in each sector are welded to tube sheets which are in turn welded to semi-cylindrical manifolds which distribute the coolant uniformly to the tubes. The tubes, which are approx. equal to 2.5 cm in diameter at the manifold location, traverse the torus poloidal periphery and change from a circular cross section to a 2:1 elliptical cross section at the horizontal midplane. The arched tube is designed to be self-supporting between the manifold locations. The vacuum vessel's first surface will be plasma flamed sprayed aluminum applied to the tubular wall. (orig./GG)

  16. Structured surface reflector design for oblique incidence beam splitter at 610 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, F; Casaletti, M; Sarrazin, J; Wiedner, M C; Gibson, H; Gay, G; Lefèvre, R; Delorme, Y

    2016-09-05

    An iterative alternate projection-based algorithm is developed to design structured surface reflectors to operate as beam splitters at GHz and THz frequencies. To validate the method, a surface profile is determined to achieve a reflector at 610 GHz that generates four equal-intensity beams towards desired directions of ±12.6° with respect to the specular reflection axis. A prototype is fabricated and the beam splitter behavior is experimentally demonstrated. Measurements confirm a good agreement (within 1%) with computer simulations using Feko, validating the method. The beam splitter at 610 GHz has a measured efficiency of 78% under oblique incidence illumination that ensures a similar intensity between the four reflected beams (variation of about 1%).

  17. Multiple faulting events revealed by trench analysis of the seismogenic structure of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake, Tangshan Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Wali; Xie, Xinsheng

    2017-10-01

    The Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake occurred on 28 July 1976 at 03:42 CST. Approximately 15 h later, the Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake occurred approximately 40 km northeast of the main shock. The two earthquakes formed different surface rupture zones. The surface rupture of the Tangshan earthquake was NNE-trending and more than 47 km long. The surface rupture of the Luanxian earthquake was more than 6 km long and consisted of two sections, forming a protruding arc to the west. The north and south sections were NE- and NW-trending and 2 km and 4 km long, respectively. A trench was excavated in Sanshanyuan Village across the NE-trending rupture of the Luanxian earthquake, at the macroscopic epicenter of the Luanxian earthquake. Analysis of this trench revealed that the surface rupture is connected to the underground active fault. The following major conclusions regarding Late Quaternary fault activity have been reached. (1) The Sanshanyuan trench indicated that its fault planes trend NE30° and dip SE or NW at angles of approximately 69-82°. (2) The fault experienced four faulting events prior to the Luanxian earthquake at 27.98 ka with an average recurrence interval of approximately 7.5 ka. (3) The Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake resulted from the activity of the Luanxian Western fault and was triggered by the Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake. The seismogenic faults of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake and the 1976 Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake are not the same fault. This example of an M7 earthquake triggered by a nearly M8 earthquake after more than 10 h on a nearby fault is a worthy topic of research for the future prediction of strong earthquakes.

  18. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balpande, Suresh S., E-mail: balpandes@rknec.edu [Ph.D.. Scholar, Department of Electronics Engineering Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management, Nagpur-13, (M.S.) (India); Pande, Rajesh S. [Professor, Department of Electronics Engineering Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management, Nagpur-13, (M.S.) (India)

    2016-04-13

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of

  19. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balpande, Suresh S.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2016-04-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of harvester and

  20. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balpande, Suresh S.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of

  1. Design and Testing of a Prototype Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSLRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    This handbook describes a two-semester senior design course sponsored by the NASA Office of Education, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and the NASA Space Grant Consortium. The course was developed and implemented by the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department (MAE) at Utah State University. The course final outcome is a packaged senior design course that can be readily incorporated into the instructional curriculum at universities across the country. The course materials adhere to the standards of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and is constructed to be relevant to key research areas identified by ESMD. The design project challenged students to apply systems engineering concepts to define research and training requirements for a terrestrial-based lunar landing simulator. This project developed a flying prototype for a Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSRV). Per NASA specifications the concept accounts for reduced lunar gravity, and allows the terminal stage of lunar descent to be flown either by remote pilot or autonomously. This free-flying platform was designed to be sufficiently-flexible to allow both sensor evaluation and pilot training. This handbook outlines the course materials, describes the systems engineering processes developed to facilitate design fabrication, integration, and testing. This handbook presents sufficient details of the final design configuration to allow an independent group to reproduce the design. The design evolution and details regarding the verification testing used to characterize the system are presented in a separate project final design report. Details of the experimental apparatus used for system characterization may be found in Appendix F, G, and I of that report. A brief summary of the ground testing and systems verification is also included in Appendix A of this report. Details of the flight tests will be documented in a separate flight test

  2. A combination of transformation optics and surface impedance modulation to design compact retrodirective reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Haddad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new approach to flatten retrodirective corner reflectors. The proposed method enables compact reflectors via Transformation Optics (TO combined with Surface Impedance Modulation (SIM. This combination permits to relax the constraints on the anisotropic material resulting from the TO. Phase gradient approach is generalized to be used within anisotropic media and is implemented with SIM. Different reflector setups are designed, simulated and compared for fop = 8GHz using ANSYS® HFSS® in order to validate the use of such a combination.

  3. Curves and surfaces for computer-aided geometric design a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Farin, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    A leading expert in CAGD, Gerald Farin covers the representation, manipulation, and evaluation of geometric shapes in this the Third Edition of Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design. The book offers an introduction to the field that emphasizes Bernstein-Bezier methods and presents subjects in an informal, readable style, making this an ideal text for an introductory course at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.The Third Edition includes a new chapter on Topology, offers new exercises and sections within most chapters, combines the material on Geometric Continuity i

  4. Near-trench slip potential of megaquakes evaluated from fault properties and conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Tsuda, Kenichi; Tanikawa, Wataru; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Shibazaki, Bunichiro; Kinoshita, Masataka; Mori, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Near-trench slip during large megathrust earthquakes (megaquakes) is an important factor in the generation of destructive tsunamis. We proposed a new approach to assessing the near-trench slip potential quantitatively by integrating laboratory-derived properties of fault materials and simulations of fault weakening and rupture propagation. Although the permeability of the sandy Nankai Trough materials are higher than that of the clayey materials from the Japan Trench, dynamic weakening by thermally pressurized fluid is greater at the Nankai Trough owing to higher friction, although initially overpressured fluid at the Nankai Trough restrains the fault weakening. Dynamic rupture simulations reproduced the large slip near the trench observed in the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and predicted the possibility of a large slip of over 30 m for the impending megaquake at the Nankai Trough. Our integrative approach is applicable globally to subduction zones as a novel tool for the prediction of extreme tsunami-producing near-trench slip. PMID:27321861

  5. Design of Sail-Assisted Unmanned Surface Vehicle Intelligent Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the wind sail-assisted function of the unmanned surface vehicle (USV, this work focuses on the design problems of the sail-assisted USV intelligent control systems (SUICS and illustrates the implementation process of the SUICS. The SUICS consists of the communication system, the sensor system, the PC platform, and the lower machine platform. To make full use of the wind energy, in the SUICS, we propose the sail angle of attack automatic adjustment (Sail_4A algorithm and present the realization flow for each subsystem of the SUICS. By using the test boat, the design and implementation of the SUICS are fulfilled systematically. Experiments verify the performance and effectiveness of our SUICS. The SUICS enhances the intelligent utility of sustainable wind energy for the sail-assisted USV significantly and plays a vital role in shipping energy-saving emission reduction requirements issued by International Maritime Organization (IMO.

  6. Effects of surface design on aerodynamic forces of iced bridge cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the relevance of ice accretion for wind-induced vibration of structural bridge cables has been recognised and became a subject of research in bridge engineering. Full-scale monitoring and observation indicate that light precipitation at moderate low temperatures between zero and -...... influences the accretion of ice to an extent that the aerodynamic forces differ significantly amongst the designs. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate in-cloud icing conditions........ The determination of these force coefficients require a proper simulation of the ice layer occurring under the specific climatic conditions, favouring real ice accretion over simplified artificial reproduction. The work presented in this paper was performed to study whether the design of bridge cable surface...

  7. Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Hui Feng; Zhao, Jie; Dai, Jun Yan; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Liu Xi; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2018-05-01

    We propose a strategy to convert a linearly polarized wave from a single point source to an orbital angular momentum (OAM) wave by arbitrary polarization via an anisotropic frequency selective surface (FSS) in the microwave frequency. By tailoring the geometries of FSS elements, reflection-phases in x and y polarizations are engineered and encoded independently, which allows us to design the eventual polarization state of the generated OAM vortex beam by elaborately selecting individual coding sequences for each polarization. Two types of FSSs are designed and experimentally characterized to demonstrate the capability of OAM generation with circular and linear polarizations, respectively, showing excellent performance in a wide bandwidth from 14 to 16 GHz. This method provides opportunities for polarization multiplexing in microwave OAM communication systems.

  8. Design and Season Influence Nitrogen Dynamics in Two Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands Treating Nursery Irrigation Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. White

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands (CWs are used to remediate runoff from a variety of agricultural, industrial, and urban sources. CW remediation performance is often evaluated at the laboratory scale over durations less than one year. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of CW design (cell depth and residence time on nitrogen (N speciation and fate across season and years in two free water surface wetlands receiving runoff from irrigated plant production areas at an ornamental plant nursery. Water quality (mg·L−1 of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, dissolved oxygen and oxidation reduction potential was monitored at five sites within each of two CWs each month over four years. Nitrate-N was the dominant form of ionic N present in both CWs. Within CW1, a deep cell to shallow cell design, nitrate comprised 86% of ionic N in effluent. Within CW2, designed with three sequential deep cells, nitrate comprised only 66% of total N and ammonium comprised 27% of total N in CW2 effluent. Differences in ionic N removal efficacies and shifts in N speciation in CW1 and CW2 were controlled by constructed wetland design (depth and hydraulic retention time, the concentration of nutrients entering the CW, and plant species richness.

  9. Dynamic surface tracking controller design for a constrained hypersonic vehicle based on disturbance observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tracking control problem of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle subjects to aerodynamic parameter uncertainty and input constraint is investigated by combining nonlinear disturbance observer and dynamic surface control. To design controller simply, a control-oriented model is firstly derived and divided into two subsystems, velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem based on the engineering backgrounds of flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle. In every subsystem, compounded disturbances are included to consider aerodynamic uncertainty and the effect of the flexible modes. Then, disturbance observer is not only used to handle the compounded disturbance but also to handle the input constraint, where the estimation error converges to a random small region through appropriately choosing the observer parameters. To sequel, the disturbance observer–based robust control scheme and the disturbance observer-based dynamic surface control scheme are developed for the velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem, respectively. Besides, novel filters are designed to alleviate the problem of “explosion of terms” induced by backstepping method. On the basis of Lyapunov stability theory, the presented control scheme can assure that tracking error converges to an arbitrarily small neighborhood around zero by rigorous theoretical analysis. At last, simulation result shows the effectiveness of the presented control method.

  10. Design and optimization of surface profilometer based on coplanar guide rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Dai, Yifan; Hu, Hao; Tie, Guipeng

    2017-10-01

    In order to implement the sub-micron precision measurement, a surface profilometer which based on the coplanar guide rail is designed. This profilometer adopts the open type air floating load and is driven by the magnetic force. As to achieve sub-micron accuracy, the flatness of granite guide working face and aerodynamic block are both processed to the micron level based on the homogenization of air flotation film theory. Permanent magnet which could reduce the influence of the driving disturbance to the measurement accuracy is used as the driving part. In this paper, the bearing capacity and the air floating stiffness of air floating block are both simulated and analyzed as to optimize the design parameters firstly. The layout and magnetic force of the magnet are also simulated. According to the simulation results, type selection and the position arrangement of the magnets are then confirmed. The test results on the experimental platform show that the surface profilometer based on coplanar guide rail possess the basis for realizing the submicron precision measurement.

  11. Laser surface modification of electrically conductive fabrics: Material performance improvement and design effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunakova, Veronika; Hrubosova, Zuzana; Tunak, Maros; Kasparova, Marie; Mullerova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Development of lightweight flexible materials for electromagnetic interference shielding has obtained increased attention in recent years particularly for clothing, textiles in-house use and technical applications especially in areas of aircraft, aerospace, automobiles and flexible electronics such as portable electronics and wearable devices. There are many references in the literature concerning development and investigation of electromagnetic shielding lightweight flexible materials especially textile based with different electrically conductive additives. However, only little attention is paid to designing and enhancing the properties of these special fabrics by textile finishing processes. Laser technology applied as a physical treatment method is becoming very popular and can be used in different applications to make improvement and even overcome drawbacks of some of the traditional processes. The main purpose of this study is firstly to analyze the possibilities of transferring design onto the surface of electrically conductive fabrics by laser beam and secondly to study of effect of surface modification degree on performance of conductive fabric including electromagnetic shielding ability and mechanical properties. Woven fabric made of yarns containing 10% of extremely thin stainless steel fiber was used as a conductive substrate.

  12. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliants, Vadim [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  13. Formation mechanism of Al-depleted bands in MOVPE-AlGaN layer on GaN template with trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, Noriyuki [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ezaki, Tetsuya; Kurogi, Takuya [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    A microstructure in an AlGaN/GaN layer was analyzed in detail by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with special attention to the formation of steps on the surface. The AlGaN layer was grown by MOVPE on a GaN template with periodic trenches. It was revealed that there formed were Al-depleted bands in the AlGaN layer. These bands were generated from rather lower regions in the AlGaN layer or those above the trenches, and run upwards. Some of them reached the top surface to connect a macro step. The formation mechanism of the Al-depleted region is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. If the total bonding energy of atoms on the macro step of surface is assumed to be smaller than that of atoms on a flat surface, the Al-depletion can be explained provided that the local equilibrium in concentration is conserved during the growth of AlGaN layer. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitler, J. D.; Culling, J. R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  15. Charge deposition model for investigating SE-microdose effect in trench power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xin; Zhou Weisong; Liu Daoguang; Bo Hanliang; Xu Jun

    2015-01-01

    It was demonstrated that heavy ions can induce large current—voltage (I–V) characteristics shift in commercial trench power MOSFETs, named single event microdose effect (SE-microdose effect). A model is presented to describe this effect. This model calculates the charge deposition by a single heavy ion hitting oxide and the subsequent charge transport under an electric field. Holes deposited at the SiO 2 /Si interface by a Xe ion are calculated by using this model. The calculated results were then used in Sentaurus TCAD software to simulate a trench power MOSFET's I–V curve shift after a Xe ion has hit it. The simulation results are consistent with the related experiment's data. In the end, several factors which affect the SE-microdose effect in trench power MOSFETs are investigated by using this model. (paper)

  16. Charge deposition model for investigating SE-microdose effect in trench power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wan; Weisong, Zhou; Daoguang, Liu; Hanliang, Bo; Jun, Xu

    2015-05-01

    It was demonstrated that heavy ions can induce large current—voltage (I-V) characteristics shift in commercial trench power MOSFETs, named single event microdose effect (SE-microdose effect). A model is presented to describe this effect. This model calculates the charge deposition by a single heavy ion hitting oxide and the subsequent charge transport under an electric field. Holes deposited at the SiO2/Si interface by a Xe ion are calculated by using this model. The calculated results were then used in Sentaurus TCAD software to simulate a trench power MOSFET's I-V curve shift after a Xe ion has hit it. The simulation results are consistent with the related experiment's data. In the end, several factors which affect the SE-microdose effect in trench power MOSFETs are investigated by using this model.

  17. Close-range geophotogrammetric mapping of trench walls using multi-model stereo restitution software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, J.A.; Taylor, E.M.; Schilling, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for mapping geologic features exposed on trench walls have advanced from conventional gridding and sketch mapping to precise close-range photogrammetric mapping. In our study, two strips of small-format (60 x 60) stereo pairs, each containing 42 photos and covering approximately 60 m of nearly vertical trench wall (2-4 m high), were contact printed onto eight 205 x 255-mm transparent film sheets. Each strip was oriented in a Kern DSR15 analytical plotter using the bundle adjustment module of Multi-Model Stereo Restitution Software (MMSRS). We experimented with several systematic-control-point configurations to evaluate orientation accuracies as a function of the number and position of control points. We recommend establishing control-point columns (each containing 2-3 points) in every 5th photo to achieve the 7-mm Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) accuracy required by our trench-mapping project. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Close-range geophotogrammetric mapping of trench walls using multi-model stereo restitution software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, J.A.; Taylor, E.M.; Schilling, S.P.

    1991-06-01

    Methods for mapping geologic features exposed on trench walls have advanced from conventional gridding and sketch mapping to precise close-range photogrammetric mapping. In our study, two strips of small-format (60 {times} 60) stereo pairs, each containing 42 photos and covering approximately 60 m of nearly vertical trench wall (2-4 m high), were contact printed onto eight 205 {times} 255-mm transparent film sheets. Each strip was oriented in a Kern DSR15 analytical plotter using the bundle adjustment module of Multi-Model Stereo Restitution Software (MMSRS). We experimented with several systematic-control-point configurations to evaluate orientation accuracies as a function of the number and position of control points. We recommend establishing control-point columns (each containing 2-3 points) in every 5th photo to achieve the 7-mm Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) accuracy required by our trench-mapping project. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Simple analytical expression for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2014-01-01

    An analytical expression for the mode coupling coe cient in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers is derived, which has a sim- ple relationship with the one in normal step-index structures. The amount of inter-core crosstalk reduction (in dB) with trench-assisted structures compared...... to the one with normal step-index structures can then be written by a simple expression. Comparison with numerical simulations confirms that the obtained analytical expression has very good accuracy for crosstalk estimation. The crosstalk properties in trench-assisted multi-core fibers, such as crosstalk...... dependence on core pitch and wavelength-dependent crosstalk, can be obtained by this simple analytical expression....

  20. Formation of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Moonkeun; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Shin, Hong-Sik; Lee, Kijun; Do, Lee-Mi

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitor application. The deep Si trench via with size of 10.3 microm and depth of 71 microm were fabricated by Bosch process in deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) system. The aspect ratio was about 7. Then, nano-Ag ink and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) were used to form metal and dielectric liners, respectively. The thicknesses of the Ag and PVPh liners were about 144 and 830 nm, respectively. When the curing temperature of Ag film increased from 120 to 150 degrees C, the sheet resistance decreased rapidly from 2.47 to 0.72 Omega/sq and then slightly decreased to 0.6 Omega/sq with further increasing the curing temperature beyond 150 degrees C. The proposed liner formation method using solution process is a simple and cost effective process for the high capacity of deep trench capacitor.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Polyacetal & Design and Preparation of Superhydrophobic Photocatalytic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan

    controlled and thus the rate of photocatalytic reactions can be increased. In addition, the fraction of TiO2 particles that become fully embedded in the polymer surface, and so inaccessible to photocatalysis reactions, can be reduced through lamination process control, thereby reducing costs. In Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, a general approach is presented to incorporating particles into a superhydrophobic surface that catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. Superhydrophobic photocatalytic surfaces are prepared using hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles and hydrophobic Silicon-Phthalocyanine photosensitizer particles. A stable Cassie state was maintained, even on surfaces fabricated with hydrophilic TiO2 particles, due to significant hierarchical roughness. A triple phase photogenerator is designed and fabricated. By printing the surface on a porous support, oxygen could be flowed through the plastron resulting in significantly higher photooxidation rates relative to a static ambient. Photooxidation of Rhodamine B and BSA were studied on TiO2-containing surfaces and singlet oxygen was trapped on surfaces incorporating Silicon-Phthalocyanine photosensitizer particles. Catalyst particles could be isolated in the plastron to avoid contamination by the solution. This approach may prove useful for water purification and medical devices where isolation of the catalyst particle from the solution is necessary and so Cassie stability is required. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  2. Design and development of anisotropic inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites by surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang, Shiming [Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yilong, E-mail: yilongwang@tongji.edu.cn [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Donglu, E-mail: shid@ucmail.uc.edu [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); The Materials Science and Engineering Program, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites were prepared by combining miniemulsion polymerization and sol–gel reaction. The morphologies of the anisotropic composites were found to be greatly influenced by surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle seeds. Two different types of the oleic acid modified ZnO nanoparticles (OA-ZnO) were prepared by post-treatment of commercial ZnO powder and homemade OA-ZnO nanoparticles. The morphologies and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It was found that both post-treated OA-ZnO and in-situ prepared OA-ZnO nanoparticles resulted in the yolk–shell and Janus structure nanocomposites, but with varied size and morphology. These nanocomposites showed stable and strong fluorescence by introducing quantum dots as the co-seeds. The fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites were decorated separately with surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. These composites with unique anisotropic properties will have high potential in biomedical applications, particularly in bio-detection. - Graphical abstract: Design and development of anisotropic inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites by surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Non-magnetic anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus nanocomposites are prepared and characterized. • Different surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles results in varied morphology and size of the final product. • Fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites embodying quantum dots are an ideal candidate for bio-detection applications.

  3. Jet-Surface Interaction: High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test, Nozzle Design and Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford; Dippold, Vance

    2015-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio (JSI-HAR) nozzle test is part of an ongoing effort to measure and predict the noise created when an aircraft engine exhausts close to an airframe surface. The JSI-HAR test is focused on parameters derived from the Turbo-electric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) concept aircraft which include a high-aspect ratio mailslot exhaust nozzle, internal septa, and an aft deck. The size and mass flow rate limits of the test rig also limited the test nozzle to a 16:1 aspect ratio, half the approximately 32:1 on the TeDP concept. Also, unlike the aircraft, the test nozzle must transition from a single round duct on the High Flow Jet Exit Rig, located in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, to the rectangular shape at the nozzle exit. A parametric nozzle design method was developed to design three low noise round-to-rectangular transitions, with 8:1, 12:1, and 16: aspect ratios, that minimizes flow separations and shocks while providing a flat flow profile at the nozzle exit. These designs validated using the WIND-US CFD code. A preliminary analysis of the test data shows that the actual flow profile is close to that predicted and that the noise results appear consistent with data from previous, smaller scale, tests. The JSI-HAR test is ongoing through October 2015. The results shown in the presentation are intended to provide an overview of the test and a first look at the preliminary results.

  4. A Basic LEGO Reactor Design for the Provision of Lunar Surface Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-01-01

    A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched with lunar shipments from Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides approximately 5 kWe. The overall envelope for a single subunit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. Six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network, subject to lunar base power demand. Improvements in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, shielding, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques can help generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for

  5. Pressured drilling riser design for drilling in ultra deep water with surface bop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Morrison, D.; Efthymiou, M.; Lo, K.H. [Shell Global Solutions, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Magne, E.; Leach, C. [Shell Internationale Exploration and Production (Netherlands)

    2002-12-01

    In conventional drilling with a semi-submersible rig valuable rig time is used to run and retrieve the BOP and its accessories on the seabed, and this time increases with water depth. Furthermore, use of the conventional sub-sea BOP requires a large-diameter riser, which requires substantial rig storage and deck load capacity prior to installation. It also requires high riser-tensioning capacity or additional buoyancy. Thus as the water depth increases, it leads to a need for heavy duty 4. and 5. generation rigs with escalation in costs. The high cost of deep-water drill rigs is leading to the development of Surface BOP technology. In this development, the BOP is placed above sea level and the riser is simply a continuation of the casing (typical diameter 13-3/8''). This eliminates the need for a heavy 21'' riser and for running the BOP to the sea bed and retrieving it. Moreover, the reduced tension requirement for the smaller riser extends the water depth capability of 3. generation drilling semi-submersibles, enabling them to drill in deeper waters. A critical success factor for this development is the ability to design the riser/casing to withstand high internal pressures due to well kicks, in addition to environmental loads, and to restrict vessel offsets within certain limits so as not to overload the riser under the prevailing weather conditions. This paper addresses the design considerations of a pressured drilling riser that can be used with a surface BOP in deep-water. Key design issues that are sensitive to ultra-deep-water applications are discussed. The technical aspects of using (disposable) standard casing with threaded connector for the drilling riser are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the connector fatigue-testing program to quantify the stress concentration factor for fatigue design. Emerging composite material offers some alternatives to the steel riser when drilling in ultra-deep water Design issues related to the

  6. Removal of the radioactive materials from the trench submergence in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Takeshi; Ikeda, Akira; Oomura, Hisao; Kojima, Chiaki; Nozawa, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Toshiba has been contributing for stabilization from the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. One of the contribution areas is the treatment of highly contaminated water accumulated in the piping trench of Unit 2 and Unit 3. As an emergency countermeasure, Toshiba installed the mobile type water treatment system which is named SMARTS (Simplified Mobile Adsorption and Retrieve for Trench Submergence) for removal of radionuclide. SMARTS has achieved 10 3 ∼ 10 4 decontamination factor (DF) for Cesium (Cs) in the actual operation. This paper describes the formation of SMARTS and the result of performance. (author)

  7. Preliminary Hazard Classification for the 116-N-3 Crib and Trench Remediation Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a preliminary hazard classification (PHC) for the remediation of the 116-N-3 crib and trench, also known as the 1325-N crib and trench, which are located within the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site's 100-N Area. In addition to the work scope described below, current planning also includes removal of some of the pipelines located downstream from the 13 15-N valve box and sampling of other pipelines to determine if remedial actions goals have been met and the pipelines can be left in place

  8. A Novel Sensory Mapping Design for Bipedal Walking on a Sloped Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Min Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an environment recognition method for bipedal robots using a time-delay neural network. For a robot to walk in a varying terrain, it is desirable that the robot can adapt to any environment encountered in real-time. This paper aims to develop a sensory mapping unit to recognize environment types from the input sensory data based on an artificial neural network approach. With the proposed sensory mapping design, a bipedal walking robot can obtain real-time environment information and select an appropriate walking pattern accordingly. Due to the time-dependent property of sensory data, the sensory mapping is realized by using a time-delay neural network. The sensory data of earlier time sequences combined with current sensory data are sent to the neural network. The proposed method has been implemented on the humanoid robot NAO for verification. Several interesting experiments were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the sensory mapping design. The mapping design is validated for the uphill, downhill and flat surface cases, where three types of environment can be recognized by the NAO robot online.

  9. Design analysis of doped-silicon surface plasmon resonance immunosensors in mid-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPippo, William; Lee, Bong Jae; Park, Keunhan

    2010-08-30

    This paper reports the design analysis of a microfabricatable mid-infrared (mid-IR) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor platform. The proposed platform has periodic heavily doped profiles implanted into intrinsic silicon and a thin gold layer deposited on top, making a physically flat grating SPR coupler. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis was conducted to prove the design feasibility, characterize the sensor's performance, and determine geometric parameters of the heavily doped profiles. Finite element analysis (FEA) was also employed to compute the electromagnetic field distributions at the plasmon resonance. Obtained results reveal that the proposed structure can excite the SPR on the normal incidence of mid-IR light, resulting in a large probing depth that will facilitate the study of larger analytes. Furthermore, the whole structure can be microfabricated with well-established batch protocols, providing tunability in the SPR excitation wavelength for specific biosensing needs with a low manufacturing cost. When the SPR sensor is to be used in a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy platform, its detection sensitivity and limit of detection are estimated to be 3022 nm/RIU and ~70 pg/mm(2), respectively, at a sample layer thickness of 100 nm. The design analysis performed in the present study will allow the fabrication of a tunable, disposable mid-IR SPR sensor that combines advantages of conventional prism and metallic grating SPR sensors.

  10. Folding to Curved Surfaces: A Generalized Design Method and Mechanics of Origami-based Cylindrical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Gong, Haoran; Chen, Xi; Chen, C. Q.

    2016-09-01

    Origami structures enrich the field of mechanical metamaterials with the ability to convert morphologically and systematically between two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets and three-dimensional (3D) spatial structures. In this study, an in-plane design method is proposed to approximate curved surfaces of interest with generalized Miura-ori units. Using this method, two combination types of crease lines are unified in one reprogrammable procedure, generating multiple types of cylindrical structures. Structural completeness conditions of the finite-thickness counterparts to the two types are also proposed. As an example of the design method, the kinematics and elastic properties of an origami-based circular cylindrical shell are analysed. The concept of Poisson’s ratio is extended to the cylindrical structures, demonstrating their auxetic property. An analytical model of rigid plates linked by elastic hinges, consistent with numerical simulations, is employed to describe the mechanical response of the structures. Under particular load patterns, the circular shells display novel mechanical behaviour such as snap-through and limiting folding positions. By analysing the geometry and mechanics of the origami structures, we extend the design space of mechanical metamaterials and provide a basis for their practical applications in science and engineering.

  11. Performance Evaluation of a Modular Design of Wind Tower with Wetted Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad M.R. Khani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wind towers or wind catchers, as passive cooling systems, can provide natural ventilation in buildings located in hot, arid regions. These natural cooling systems can provide thermal comfort for the building inhabitants throughout the warm months. In this paper, a modular design of a wind tower is introduced. The design, called a modular wind tower with wetted surfaces, was investigated experimentally and analytically. To determine the performance of the wind tower, air temperature, relative humidity (RH and air velocity were measured at different points. Measurements were carried out when the wind speed was zero. The experimental results were compared with the analytical ones. The results illustrated that the modular wind tower can decrease the air temperature significantly and increase the relative humidity of airflow into the building. The average differences for air temperature and air relative humidity between ambient air and air exiting from the wind tower were approximately 10 °C and 40%, respectively. The main advantage of the proposed wind tower is that it is a modular design that can reduce the cost of wind tower construction.

  12. Approach and landing guidance design for reusable launch vehicle using multiple sliding surfaces technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous approach and landing (A&L guidance law is presented in this paper for landing an unpowered reusable launch vehicle (RLV at the designated runway touchdown. Considering the full nonlinear point-mass dynamics, a guidance scheme is developed in three-dimensional space. In order to guarantee a successful A&L movement, the multiple sliding surfaces guidance (MSSG technique is applied to derive the closed-loop guidance law, which stems from higher order sliding mode control theory and has advantage in the finite time reaching property. The global stability of the proposed guidance approach is proved by the Lyapunov-based method. The designed guidance law can generate new trajectories on-line without any specific requirement on off-line analysis except for the information on the boundary conditions of the A&L phase and instantaneous states of the RLV. Therefore, the designed guidance law is flexible enough to target different touchdown points on the runway and is capable of dealing with large initial condition errors resulted from the previous flight phase. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law in different scenarios.

  13. Reliability-Based Topology Optimization Using Stochastic Response Surface Method with Sparse Grid Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical framework is developed which integrates the reliability concept into topology optimization to solve reliability-based topology optimization (RBTO problems under uncertainty. Two typical methodologies have been presented and implemented, including the performance measure approach (PMA and the sequential optimization and reliability assessment (SORA. To enhance the computational efficiency of reliability analysis, stochastic response surface method (SRSM is applied to approximate the true limit state function with respect to the normalized random variables, combined with the reasonable design of experiments generated by sparse grid design, which was proven to be an effective and special discretization technique. The uncertainties such as material property and external loads are considered on three numerical examples: a cantilever beam, a loaded knee structure, and a heat conduction problem. Monte-Carlo simulations are also performed to verify the accuracy of the failure probabilities computed by the proposed approach. Based on the results, it is demonstrated that application of SRSM with SGD can produce an efficient reliability analysis in RBTO which enables a more reliable design than that obtained by DTO. It is also found that, under identical accuracy, SORA is superior to PMA in view of computational efficiency.

  14. Application of Box-Behnken Design and Response Surface Methodology for Surface Roughness Prediction Model of CP-Ti Powder Metallurgy Components Through WEDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arunangsu; Sarkar, Susenjit; Karanjai, Malobika; Sutradhar, Goutam

    2018-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate and characterize the machining parameters (such as surface roughness, etc.) of uni-axially pressed commercially pure titanium sintered powder metallurgy components. Powder was uni-axially pressed at designated pressure of 840 MPa to form cylindrical samples and the green compacts were sintered at 0.001 mbar for about 4 h with sintering temperature varying from 1350 to 1450 °C. The influence of the sintering temperature, pulse-on and pulse-off time at wire-EDM on the surface roughness of the preforms has been investigated thoroughly. Experiments were conducted under different machining parameters in a CNC operated wire-cut EDM. The surface roughness of the machined surface was measured and critically analysed. The optimum surface roughness was achieved under the conditions of 6 μs pulse-on time, 9 μs pulse-off time and at sintering temperature of 1450 °C.

  15. Application of Box-Behnken Design and Response Surface Methodology for Surface Roughness Prediction Model of CP-Ti Powder Metallurgy Components Through WEDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arunangsu; Sarkar, Susenjit; Karanjai, Malobika; Sutradhar, Goutam

    2017-06-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate and characterize the machining parameters (such as surface roughness, etc.) of uni-axially pressed commercially pure titanium sintered powder metallurgy components. Powder was uni-axially pressed at designated pressure of 840 MPa to form cylindrical samples and the green compacts were sintered at 0.001 mbar for about 4 h with sintering temperature varying from 1350 to 1450 °C. The influence of the sintering temperature, pulse-on and pulse-off time at wire-EDM on the surface roughness of the preforms has been investigated thoroughly. Experiments were conducted under different machining parameters in a CNC operated wire-cut EDM. The surface roughness of the machined surface was measured and critically analysed. The optimum surface roughness was achieved under the conditions of 6 μs pulse-on time, 9 μs pulse-off time and at sintering temperature of 1450 °C.

  16. Design and development of a smart aerial platform for surface hydrological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, F.; Pagano, C.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Currently available experimental methodologies for surface hydrological monitoring rely on the use of intrusive sensing technologies which tend to provide local rather than distributed information on the flow physics. In this context, drawbacks deriving from the use of invasive instrumentation are partially alleviated by Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV). LSPIV is based on the use of cameras mounted on masts along river banks which capture images of artificial tracers or naturally occurring objects floating on water surfaces. Images are then georeferenced and the displacement of groups of floating tracers statistically analyzed to reconstruct flow velocity maps at specific river cross-sections. In this work, we mitigate LSPIV spatial limitations and inaccuracies due to image calibration by designing and developing a smart platform which integrates digital acquisition system and laser calibration units onboard of a custom-built quadricopter. The quadricopter is designed to be lightweight, low cost as compared to kits available on the market, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee minimal vibrations during image acquisition. The onboard digital system includes an encased GoPro Hero 3 camera whose axis is constantly kept orthogonal to the water surface by means of an in-house developed gimbal. The gimbal is connected to the quadricopter through a shock absorber damping device which further reduces eventual vibrations. Image calibration is performed through laser units mounted at known distances on the quadricopter landing apparatus. The vehicle can be remotely controlled by the open-source Ardupilot microcontroller. Calibration tests and field experiments are conducted in outdoor environments to assess the feasibility of using the smart platform for acquisition of high quality images of natural streams. Captured images are processed by LSPIV algorithms and average flow velocities are compared to independently acquired flow estimates. Further, videos

  17. Surface water management: a user's guide to calculate a water balance using the CREAMS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.

    1984-11-01

    The hydrologic component of the CREAMS model is described and discussed in terms of calculating a surface water balance for shallow land burial systems used for waste disposal. Parameter estimates and estimation procedures are presented in detail in the form of a user's guide. Use of the model is illustrated with three examples based on analysis of data from Los Alamos, New Mexico and Rock Valley, Nevada. Use of the model in design of trench caps for shallow land burial systems is illustrated with the example applications at Los Alamos

  18. Research on improved design of airfoil profiles based on the continuity of airfoil surface curvature of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic of airfoil performance is closely related to the continuity of its surface curvature, and airfoil profiles with a better aerodynamic performance plays an important role in the design of wind turbine. The surface curvature distribution along the chord direction and pressure distributio...

  19. Design methodology for nano-engineered surfaces to control adhesion: Application to the anti-adhesion of particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taekyung [National Center for Optically-Assisted Ultra-High Precision Mechanical Systems, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Cheongwan [National Center for Optically-Assisted Ultra-High Precision Mechanical Systems, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myungki; Lee, Jinhyung; Park, Changsu [National Center for Optically-Assisted Ultra-High Precision Mechanical Systems, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shinill, E-mail: snlkang@yonsei.ac.kr [National Center for Optically-Assisted Ultra-High Precision Mechanical Systems, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A design method using the Derjaguin approximation with FEA for low-adhesion surface. • Fabrication of nanostructures with small adhesion forces by presented design method. • Characterization of adhesion force via AFM FD-curve with modified atypical tips. • Verification of low-adhesion of designed surfaces using centrifugal detachment tests. • Investigation of interdependence of hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion force. - Abstract: With increasing demand for means of controlling surface adhesion in various applications, including the semiconductor industry, optics, micro/nanoelectromechanical systems, and the medical industry, nano-engineered surfaces have attracted much attention. This study suggests a design methodology for nanostructures using the Derjaguin approximation in conjunction with finite element analysis for the control of adhesion forces. The suggested design methodology was applied for designing a nano-engineered surface with low-adhesion properties. To verify this, rectangular and sinusoidal nanostructures were fabricated and analyzed using force-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy and centrifugal detachment testing. For force-distance curve measurements, modified cantilevers with tips formed with atypical particles were used. Subsequently, centrifugal detachment tests were also conducted. The surface wettability of rectangular and sinusoidal nanostructures was measured and compared with the measured adhesion force and the number of particles remaining after centrifugal detachment tests.

  20. Paleoseismological data from a new trench across the El Camp Fault(Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boydell

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The El Camp Fault (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Iberian Peninsula is a slow slipping normal fault whose seismic potential has only recently been recognised. New geomorphic and trench investigations were carried out during a training course across the El Camp Fault at the La Porquerola alluvial fan site. A new trench (trench 8 was dug close to a trench made previously at this site (trench 4. With the aid of two long topographic profiles across the fault scarp we obtained a vertical slip rate ranging between 0.05 and 0.08 mm/yr. At the trench site, two main faults, which can be correlated between trenches 8 and 4, make up the fault zone. Using trench analysis three paleoseismic events were identified, two between 34.000 and 125.000 years BP (events 3 and 2 and another event younger than 13 500 years BP (event 1, which can be correlated, respectively, with events X (50.000- 125.000 years BP, Y (35.000-50.000 years BP and Z (3000-25.000 years BP. The last seismic event at the La Porquerola alluvial fan site is described for the first time, but with some uncertainties.

  1. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll... Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine..., 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument...

  2. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs

  3. The potential influence of subduction zone polarity on overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    A geodynamic model exists, the westward lithospheric drift model, in which the variety of overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angles is explained by the polarity of subduction zones. The model predicts overriding plate extension, a fixed trench and a steep slab dip for

  4. Optimal Experimental Design of Borehole Locations for Bayesian Inference of Past Ice Sheet Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. D.; Huan, X.; Heimbach, P.; Marzouk, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole data are essential for calibrating ice sheet models. However, field expeditions for acquiring borehole data are often time-consuming, expensive, and dangerous. It is thus essential to plan the best sampling locations that maximize the value of data while minimizing costs and risks. We present an uncertainty quantification (UQ) workflow based on rigorous probability framework to achieve these objectives. First, we employ an optimal experimental design (OED) procedure to compute borehole locations that yield the highest expected information gain. We take into account practical considerations of location accessibility (e.g., proximity to research sites, terrain, and ice velocity may affect feasibility of drilling) and robustness (e.g., real-time constraints such as weather may force researchers to drill at sub-optimal locations near those originally planned), by incorporating a penalty reflecting accessibility as well as sensitivity to deviations from the optimal locations. Next, we extract vertical temperature profiles from these boreholes and formulate a Bayesian inverse problem to reconstruct past surface temperatures. Using a model of temperature advection/diffusion, the top boundary condition (corresponding to surface temperatures) is calibrated via efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The overall procedure can then be iterated to choose new optimal borehole locations for the next expeditions.Through this work, we demonstrate powerful UQ methods for designing experiments, calibrating models, making predictions, and assessing sensitivity--all performed under an uncertain environment. We develop a theoretical framework as well as practical software within an intuitive workflow, and illustrate their usefulness for combining data and models for environmental and climate research.

  5. Conceptual Design and Architecture of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for Seismic Experiments Over Martian Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Akshay; Singh, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Keywords: MER, Mars, Rover, Seismometer Mars has been a subject of human interest for exploration missions for quite some time now. Both rover as well as orbiter missions have been employed to suit mission objectives. Rovers have been preferentially deployed for close range reconnaissance and detailed experimentation with highest accuracy. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the chosen science objectives and the rover operations as a whole. The objective of this proposed mechanism is to design a vehicle (MER) to carry out seismic studies over Martian surface. The conceptual design consists of three units i.e. Mother Rover as a Surrogate (Carrier) and Baby Rovers (two) as seeders for several MEMS-based accelerometer / seismometer units (Nodes). Mother Rover can carry these Baby Rovers, having individual power supply with solar cells and with individual data transmission capabilities, to suitable sites such as Chasma associated with Valles Marineris, Craters or Sand Dunes. Mother rover deploys these rovers in two opposite direction and these rovers follow a triangulation pattern to study shock waves generated through firing tungsten carbide shells into the ground. Till the time of active experiments Mother Rover would act as a guiding unit to control spatial spread of detection instruments. After active shock experimentation, the babies can still act as passive seismometer units to study and record passive shocks from thermal quakes, impact cratering & landslides. Further other experiments / payloads (XPS / GAP / APXS) can also be carried by Mother Rover. Secondary power system consisting of batteries can also be utilized for carrying out further experiments over shallow valley surfaces. The whole arrangement is conceptually expected to increase the accuracy of measurements (through concurrent readings) and prolong life cycle of overall experimentation. The proposed rover can be customised according to the associated scientific objectives and further

  6. A Response Surface-Based Cost Model for Wind Farm Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Chowdhury, Souma; Messac, Achille; Castillo, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    A Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model is developed for the engineering planning of wind farms. The RS-WFC model is developed using Extended Radial Basis Functions (E-RBF) for onshore wind farms in the U.S. This model is then used to explore the influences of different design and economic parameters, including number of turbines, rotor diameter and labor cost, on the cost of a wind farm. The RS-WFC model is composed of three components that estimate the effects of engineering and economic factors on (i) the installation cost, (ii) the annual Operation and Maintenance (O and M) cost, and (iii) the total annual cost of a wind farm. The accuracy of the cost model is favorably established through comparison with pertinent commercial data. The final RS-WFC model provided interesting insights into cost variation with respect to critical engineering and economic parameters. In addition, a newly developed analytical wind farm engineering model is used to determine the power generated by the farm, and the subsequent Cost of Energy (COE). This COE is optimized for a unidirectional uniform “incoming wind speed” scenario using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). We found that the COE could be appreciably minimized through layout optimization, thereby yielding significant cost savings. - Highlights: ► We present a Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model for wind farm design. ► The model could estimate installation cost, Operation and Maintenance cost, and total annual cost of a wind farm. ► The Cost of Energy is optimized using Particle Swarm Optimization. ► Layout optimization could yield significant cost savings.

  7. Vadose Zone Contaminant Fate and Transport Analysis for the 216-B-26 Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2004-10-14

    The BC Cribs and Trenches, part of the 200 TW 1 OU waste sites, received about 30 Mgal of scavenged tank waste, with possibly the largest inventory of 99Tc ever disposed to the soil at Hanford and site remediation is being accelerated. The purpose of this work was to develop a conceptual model for contaminant fate and transport at the 216-B-26 Trench site to support identification and development and evaluation of remediation alternatives. Large concentrations of 99Tc high above the water table implicated stratigraphy in the control of the downward migration. The current conceptual model accounts for small-scale stratigraphy; site-specific changes soil properties; tilted layers; and lateral spreading. It assumes the layers are spatially continuous causing water and solutes to move laterally across the boundary if conditions permit. Water influx at the surface is assumed to be steady. Model parameters were generated with pedotransfer functions; these were coupled high resolution neutron moisture logs that provided information on the underlying heterogeneity on a scale of 3 inches. Two approaches were used to evaluate the impact of remedial options on transport. In the first, a 1-D convolution solution to the convective-dispersive equation was used, assuming steady flow. This model was used to predict future movement of the existing plume using the mean and depth dependent moisture content. In the second approach, the STOMP model was used to first predict the current plume distribution followed by its future migration. Redistribution of the 99Tc plume was simulated for the no-action alternative and on-site capping. Hypothetical caps limiting recharge to 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mm yr-1 were considered and assumed not to degrade in the long term. Results show that arrival time of the MCLs, the peak arrival time, and the arrival time of the center of mass increased with decreasing recharge rate. The 1-D convolution model is easy to apply and can easily accommodate initial

  8. Geological mapping of investigation Trench OL-TK13 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talikka, M.

    2007-04-01

    Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK13 was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, as a part Posiva Oy's site investigation programme for the development of an underground repository for nuclear waste. The east-west striking, ca. 250 m long trench is located in the vicinity of boreholes OL-KR23 and OL-KR27, ca. 250 m east of the ONKALO research facility. The mapping was performed from washed bedrock surface and rock types were determined macroscopically. The main rock types in OL-TK13 are diatexitic gneiss, veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite and K-feldspar porphyry. Mica gneiss and granite/granitized mica gneiss exist to a lesser extent. The diatexitic gneiss is the dominant rock type in the western part and the veined gneiss in the eastern part of the trench. The veined gneiss consists of pelitic mica gneiss paleosome and pegmatitic granite leucosome veins that are parallel to the foliation. In the diatexitic gneiss, the proportion of the leucosome veins and patches is over 50 % and the rock has an ambiguous texture. The pegmatitic granite also occurs as wider sections in the western part of the trench. The K-feldspar porphyry is characterized by potassium feldspar phenocrysts (diameter 4 deformation phase. The migmatitic gneisses were folded during the D 3 deformation phase resulting in small scale, tight and asymmetrical F 3 folds plunging moderately to the NE. During the fracture mapping, all fractures longer than one metre and all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated. Measurements including orientation, length, fillings, Jr-value, Ja-value and undulation were recorded for a total of 860 fractures. The mean fracture density is 3.5 fracture/m. From the orientation data, three fracture sets were identified: (1) fractures parallel to the foliation, (2) subvertical N-S trending factures and (3) fractures dipping steeply to the N. ∼45 % of all fractures are 0.5-1.5 m in length and

  9. The Design and Testing of a Dual Fiber Textile Matrix for Accelerating Surface Hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas H.; Vournakis, John N.; Manning, James E.; McCurdy, Shane L.; Rich, Preston B.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Scull, Christopher M.; McCord, Marian G.; Decorta, Joseph A.; Johnson, Peter C.; Smith, Carr J.

    2011-01-01

    The standard treatment for severe traumatic injury is frequently compression and application of gauze dressing to the site of hemorrhage. However, while able to rapidly absorb pools of shed blood, gauze fails to provide strong surface (topical) hemostasis. The result can be excess hemorrhage-related morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that cost-effective materials (based on widespread availability of bulk fibers for other commercial uses) could be designed based on fundamental hemostatic principles to partially emulate the wicking properties of gauze while concurrently stimulating superior hemostasis. A panel of readily available textile fibers was screened for the ability to activate platelets and the intrinsic coagulation cascade in vitro. Type E continuous filament glass and a specialty rayon fiber were identified from the material panel as accelerators of hemostatic reactions and were custom woven to produce a dual fiber textile bandage. The glass component strongly activated platelets while the specialty rayon agglutinated red blood cells. In comparison with gauze in vitro, the dual fiber textile significantly enhanced the rate of thrombin generation, clot generation as measured by thromboelastography, adhesive protein adsorption and cellular attachment and activation. These results indicate that hemostatic textiles can be designed that mimic gauze in form but surpass gauze in ability to accelerate hemostatic reactions. PMID:19489008

  10. The characteristics and interpretability of land surface change and implications for project design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2004-01-01

    The need for comprehensive, accurate information on land-cover change has never been greater. While remotely sensed imagery affords the opportunity to provide information on land-cover change over large geographic expanses at a relatively low cost, the characteristics of land-surface change bring into question the suitability of many commonly used methodologies. Algorithm-based methodologies to detect change generally cannot provide the same level of accuracy as the analyses done by human interpreters. Results from the Land Cover Trends project, a cooperative venture that includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, have shown that land-cover conversion is a relatively rare event, occurs locally in small patches, varies geographically and temporally, and is spectrally ambiguous. Based on these characteristics of change and the type of information required, manual interpretation was selected as the primary means of detecting change in the Land Cover Trends project. Mixtures of algorithm-based detection and manual interpretation may often prove to be the most feasible and appropriate design for change-detection applications. Serious examination of the expected characteristics and measurability of change must be considered during the design and implementation phase of any change analysis project.

  11. Design, fabrication, and characterization of metallic nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and plasmonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qingzhen

    Metal/dielectric nanostructures have the ability to sustain coherent electron oscillations known as surface plasmons. Due to their capability of localizing and guiding light in sub-wavelength metal nanostructures beyond diffraction limits, surface plasmon-based photonics, or “plasmonics” has opened new physical phenomena and lead to novel applications in metamaterials, optoelectronics, surface enhanced spectroscopy and biological sensing. This dissertation centers on design, fabrication, characterization of metallic nanostructures and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and actively tunable plasmonics. Metal-dielectric nanostructures are the building blocks for photonic metamaterials. One valuable design guideline for metamaterials is the Babinet’s principle, which governs the optical properties of complementary nanostructures. However, most complementary metamaterials are designed for the far infrared region or beyond, where the optical absorption of metal is small. We have developed a novel dual fabrication method, capable of simultaneously producing optically thin complementary structures. From experimental measurements and theoretical simulations, we showed that Babinet’s principle qualitatively holds in the visible region for the optically thin complements. The complementary structure is also a good platform to study subtle differences between nanoparticles and nanoholes in SERS (a surface sensitive technique, which can enhance the conventional Raman cross-section by 106˜108 fold, thus very useful for highly sensitive biochemical sensing). Through experimental measurement and theoretical analysis, we showed that the SERS enhancement spectrum (plot of SERS enhancement versus excitation wavelengths), dominated by local near-field, for nanoholes closely follows their far-field optical transmission spectrum. However, the enhancement spectrum for nanoparticles red-shifts significantly from their far-field optical extinction

  12. Ultrahigh-density trench cpacitors in silicon and their application to integrated DC-DC conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Bergveld, H.J.; Nowak, K.; Le Cornec, F.; Guiraud, L.; Bunel, C.; Iochem, S.; Ferreira, J.; Ledain, S.; Pieraerts, E.; Pommier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses silicon-based integration of passive components applied to 3D integration with dies of other technologies within one package. Particularly, the development of high-density trench capacitors has enabled the realization of small-formfactor DC-DC converters. As illustration, an

  13. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Tamura, T.; Godsey, T.T.; Francis, C.L.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts

  14. Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    for a two-dimensional scatterer. We construct a simple resonator model which predicts the wavelength-dependent extinction, scattering, and absorption cross section of the trench and compare the model findings with full numerical simulations. Both extinction and scattering cross sections are mainly...

  15. Ship motion effects in CTD-data from weakly stratified waters of the Puerto Rico trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    Shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD)-casts have been made to maximum 7220 m in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). In PRT-waters from 5500 m and deeper and specifically below the 6500 m transition to the hadal-zone, the vertical density stratification is found very weak, with

  16. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-02-09

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan, under RCRA regulations in 40 CFR 265 Subpart F and WAC173-300-400, for the 216-B-63 Trench. This interim status facility is being sampled under detection monitoring criteria and this plan provides current program conditions and requirements.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  18. Conductive Oxides Trench Structures as Hyperbolic Metamaterials in Mid-infrared Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    ,2]. Moreover plasmonics for mid-infrared offer unique applications such as bio-sensing, thermal imaging and quest for novel materials and structures has been continuing [3]. In this report we show that vertical trench structures made of, for example, aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) or other transparent conductive...

  19. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility

  20. Partial liquid-penetration inside a deep trench by film flowing over it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc-Khanh; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis; Tsamopoulos, John

    2014-11-01

    Liquid film flow along substrates featuring a deep trench may not wet the trench floor, but create a second gas-liquid interface inside the trench. The liquid penetration inside the trench depends on the location and shape of this inner interface. The penetration increases by decreasing the two three-phase contact lines between the inner interface and the two side-walls or the flow rate and depends on the liquid properties. This partial-penetration is studied by employing the Galerkin / finite element method to solve the two-dimensional steady-state Navier-Stokes equations in a physical domain that is adaptively remeshed. Multiple branches of steady solutions connected via turning points are revealed by pseudo arc-length continuation. Flow hysteresis may occur in a certain range of liquid penetration depth, when the interaction of the two interfaces changes qualitatively. This induces an abrupt jump of penetration distance and deformation amplitude of the outer interface. Work supported by the General Secretariat of Research & Technology of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918) in the framework ``Education and Lifelong Learning'' co-funded by the ESF.