WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface sites prevents

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively

  2. Hanford Site pollution prevention progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BETSCH, M.D.

    1999-10-05

    The Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) are pleased to issue the attached Pollution Prevention Progress Report. We have just met the most aggressive waste reduction and A recycling goals to date and are publishing this report to recognize A the site's progress, and to ensure it will sustain success beyond 1 Fiscal Year 2000. This report was designed to inform the been made by RL and ORP in Waste Minimization (WMin) and Pollution Prevention (P2). RL, ORP and their contractors are committed to protecting the environment, and we reiterate pollution prevention should continue to be at the forefront of the environmental cleanup and research efforts. As you read the attached report, we believe you will see a clear demonstration of RL and ORP's outstanding performance as it has been responsible and accountable to the nation, its employees, and the community in which we live and work. commitment that all employees have for environmental stewardship. The report provides useful information about the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) environmental policy and programs, and contains countless examples of waste minimization projects. This year was the first year our site received the White House Closing the Circle in the category of Affirmative Procurement. This Award recognizes our site for designing a comprehensive strategy for achieving 100 percent purchases of the U.S.Environmenta1 Protection Agency designated recycled items. DOE-Headquarters also acknowledged the site in 1999 for its public outreach efforts in communicating pollution prevention to Hanford Site employees and the community. Our site is truly a recognized leader in outreach as it has kept this title for two consecutive years. In previous years, we received the White House Closing the Circle Honorable Mention in Affirmative Procurement and several other National DOE Awards. Through partnership with the local community and stakeholders, the site and its

  3. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  4. Prevention of hair surface aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesche, Erik Schulze Zur; Körner, Andrea; Schäfer, Karola; Wortmann, Franz-Josef

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobic character of the surface of human hair is particularly attributed to the lipid components of the epicuticle and to a layer of covalently bound fatty acids. This outer f-layer mainly consists of 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA), which is covalently bound to the underlying protein matrix, forming the epicuticle as composite surface structure. Daily weathering and chemical treatments, specifically oxidative bleaching, decrease the hydrophobicity of the outer hair surface drastically.Multiple daily stress, simulated by an automatic test device including shampooing, blow drying and sun light exposure, changed the lipid composition of hair significantly. A marked loss of 18-MEA was observed. Decreasing contact angles are the direct consequence. A new method to determine the "pseudo-static" contact angle on hair was developed. The results correlate with the corresponding data obtained by dynamic contact angle measurements according to Wilhelmy. Besides that, the resorption time of water droplets by the hair surface provides additional information about the intactness of the outer f-layer.Specific proteolipids, which are lipid-modified keratins, are able to reconstruct the surface layer of damaged hair by creating renewed surface hydrophobicity and extending the water resorption time by the hair surface.

  5. Preventing surgical site infection. Where now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2009-12-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is increasingly recognised as a measure of the quality of patient care by surgeons, infection control practitioners, health planners and the public. There is increasing pressure to compare SSI rates between surgeons, institutions and countries. For this to be meaningful, data must be standardised and must include post-discharge surveillance (PDS) as many superficial SSIs do not present to the original institution. Further work is required to determine the best method of conducting PDS. In 2008 two important documents on SSI were published from the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America\\/The Infectious Disease Society of America and the National Institute for Health and Clincal Excellence, UK. Both emphasise key aspects during the preoperative, operative and postoperative phases of patient care. In addition to effective interventions known to be important for some time, e.g. not shaving the surgical site until the day of the procedure, there is increasing emphasis on physiological parameters, e.g. blood glucose concentrations, oxygen tensions and body temperature. Laparoscopic procedures are increasingly associated with reduced SSI rates, and the screening and decontamination of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers is effective for certain surgical procedures but has to be balanced by cost and the risk of mupirocin resistance. Finally, there is a need to convert theory into practice by the rigorous application of SSI healthcare bundles. Recent studies suggest that, with a multidisciplinary approach, simple measures can be effective in reducing SSI rates.

  6. Surgical site infection prevention: the operating room environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Moucha, Calin S; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Surgical site infections can complicate orthopaedic procedures and contribute to morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Extensive literature has been published on this topic; however, the quality of data using standards of evidence-based medicine is variable with a lack of well-controlled studies. A review of the literature concerning measures to prevent surgical site infections in the operating room environment may be helpful in preventing such infections.

  7. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  8. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-02-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

  9. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushions etc) are used to help prevent ulcer development. This systematic review seeks to establish:(1) the extent to which pressure-relieving support surfaces reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with standard support surfaces, and,(2) their comparative effectiveness in ulcer prevention. In April 2015, for this fourth update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 April 2015) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any support surface for prevention of pressure ulcers, in any patient group or setting which measured pressure ulcer incidence. Trials reporting only proxy outcomes (e.g. interface pressure) were excluded. Two review authors independently selected trials. Data were extracted by one review author and checked by another. Where appropriate, estimates from similar trials were pooled for meta-analysis. For this fourth update six new trials were included, bringing the total of included trials to 59.Foam alternatives to standard hospital foam mattresses reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). The relative merits of alternating- and constant low-pressure devices are unclear. One high-quality trial suggested that alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context.Pressure-relieving overlays on the operating table reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence

  10. Surface barrier research at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Fayer, M.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    At the DOE Hanford Site, a field-scale prototype surface barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site as a part of a CERCLA treatability test. The above-grade barrier consists of a fine-soil layer overlying coarse layers of sands, gravels, basalt rock (riprap), and a low permeability asphalt layer. Two sideslope configurations, clean-fill gravel on a 10:1 slope and basalt riprap on a 2:1 slope, were built and are being tested. Design considerations included: constructability; drainage and water balance monitoring, wind and water erosion control and monitoring; surface revegetation and biotic intrusion; subsidence and sideslope stability, and durability of the asphalt layer. The barrier is currently in the final year of a three-year test designed to answer specific questions related to stability and long-term performance. One half of the barrier is irrigated such that the total water applied, including precipitation, is 480 mm/yr (three times the long-term annual average). Each year for the past two years, an extreme precipitation event (71 mm in 8 hr) representing a 1,000-yr return storm was applied in late March, when soil water storage was at a maximum. While the protective sideslopes have drained significant amounts of water, the soil cover (2-m of silt-loam soil overlying coarse sand and rock) has never drained. During the past year there was no measurable surface runoff or wind erosion. This is attributed to extensive revegetation of the surface. In addition, the barrier elevation has shown a small increase of 2 to 3 cm that is attributed to a combination of root proliferation and freeze/thaw activity. Testing will continue through September 1997. Performance data from the prototype barrier will be used by DOE in site-closure decisions at Hanford.

  11. Evolving issues in the prevention of surgical site infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, A

    2009-06-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the more common causes of post-operative morbidity. Such infections contribute to prolonged recovery, delayed discharge and increasing costs to both patients and the health service. In the current climate increased emphasis is being placed on minimising the risks of acquiring or transmitting these nosocomial infections. This article reviews the current literature obtained from a Pubmed database search in relation to three specific aspects of surgical site infection: compliance with prophylactic antibiotics, post-discharge surveillance and novel methods for preventing surgical site infections. These topics represent areas where many institutions will find room for improvement in the prevention of surgical site infections. Tight adherence to prophylactic antibiotic guidelines, close followup of surgical wounds during and after hospital discharge, and attention to oxygenation status and the body temperature of patients may all prove to be useful adjuncts in significantly decreasing surgical site infections.

  12. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  13. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  14. Fire Risks and Prevention Strategies for Architecture at Historic Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the features of China's architecture at historic sites with regard to fire protection, the causes of fire since 1949, reviewing their weaknesses in fire protection, and exploring modern technologies for fire prevention that are applicable to ancient buildings. We put forward suggestions to improve fire prevention and management: eliminating potential problems of fire, improving fire protection and establishing a better fire security system, which is especially important to protect ancient buildings.

  15. Performance improvement initiative: prevention of surgical site infection (SSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Khuan; Awad, Nawal

    2015-01-01

    Mafraq Hospital performs an average of 10,000 surgeries every year. The impact of having high volume high risk surgical procedures calls for the need to ensure safe surgery and a prevention of surgical site infection (SSI). SSI represents a significant portion of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The impact on morbidity, mortality, and cost of care has resulted in identifying the need to reduce SSI as a top priority to prevent healthcare associated infections. The good news is that the majority of SSIs are preventable. Mafraq Hospital performs a range of surgical procedures that covers 14 surgical specialties. The infection prevention and control team performs surveillance for SSI for all patients who undergo operative procedure included in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Operative Procedure Category (40 surgical procedures). Out of the 40 CDC NHSN listed, 33 operative procedures were performed at Mafraq Hospital, of which 17 were reported with SSI for 2013 and 2014. Surgical site infection has implicated an increase average length of stay from seven to 10 additional postoperative hospital days and additional costs of AED 10,000 to AED 100,000/SSI depending on procedure and pathogen. A multidisciplinary team was formed to develop and implement measures to reduce/eliminate surgical site infection, as well as evaluate and monitor compliance. Hence a group of multidisciplinary teams were initiated to analyse the results, find out the gaps, and implement a quality improvement project to correct the deficits. Recommendations for appropriate improvement measures were formed on evidence-based international guidelines from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and CDC. Evidence based practice supports that many of the causes of surgical site infection can be prevented with proper medical attention and care.

  16. [Cause and prevention of surgical site infection and hypertrophic scars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Rei

    2012-03-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) occurs at the site of surgery within 1 month of an operation or within 1 year of an operation if a foreign body is implanted as part of the surgery. Most SSIs (about 70%) are superficial infections involving the skin and subcutaneous tissues only. The remaining infections are more serious and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material. Hypertrophic scars( HSs) occur frequently on particular sites, including the anterior chest wall. The anterior chest wall is frequently subjected to skin stretching caused by the natural daily movements of the body. Most cases of SSIs and HSs can be prevented by (1) suture technique modification to prevent high stretching tension and ischemia, and (2) appropriate wound care after surgery. It would be useful to avoid subjecting wounded skin to sustained mechanical force, thereby permitting the wound to rest and heal normally.

  17. 76 FR 81959 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention... following information: Title of Proposal: Homelessness Prevention Study Site Visits. OMB Control Number, if... requirements associated with HUD's Homelessness Prevention Study Site Visits. This information...

  18. Surgical site infection prevention and control: an emerging paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard P; Clyburn, Terry A; Moucha, Calin S; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Examining the current state of infection in orthopaedic surgery provides tools and techniques to reduce the risks of nosocomial infections and prevent and treat infections from drug-resistant organisms. It is important for surgeons to recognize modifiable surgical risk factors and be aware of the importance of preoperative patient screening in reducing surgical site infections. The latest evidence-based data from scientific exhibits, instructional course lectures, and the Orthopaedic Knowledge Online continuing medical education module gathered during the past 5 years by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Patient Safety Committee are useful in understanding and controlling the increasing and vital problem of surgical site infection.

  19. Current Approaches for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Florman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections (SSIs are the most common type of nosocomial infection among surgical patients and are commonly caused by the patients’ own microbial flora. The prevalence of SSI is a major concern because of the associated increase in the incidence of morbidity and mortality, length of hospitalization and cost of care for postoperative patients. Key factors that determine whether patients are at risk for developing SSI include the inherent potential contamination of the surgical site, the duration of the operation and the individual patient susceptibility. Preventive preoperative measures that can reduce the risk of SSIs include administration of antimicrobial prophylaxis, proper utilization of skin antiseptic agents for both the patient and the surgical team, proper patient preoperative hair removal and the policy of canceling elective procedures when remote skin, urinary or pulmonary infections occur. This paper will review the efficacy and safety of available antiseptic agents, as well as discuss patient-specific prevention strategies.

  20. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Lee, Won Seok; Park, Jong In; Son, Kwang-Jae; Park, Min; Bang, Young-bong; Choy, Young Bin; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2015-06-01

    In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  1. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang-Jae [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young-bong [Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Young Bin, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  2. Operating theatre quality and prevention of surgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, A M; Ottria, G; Amicizia, D; Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L

    2013-09-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) account for 14% to 17% of all hospital-acquired infections and 38% of nosocomial infections in surgical patients. SSI remain a substantial cause of morbidity and death, possibly because of the larger numbers of elderly surgical patients or those with a variety of chronic and immunocompromising conditions, and emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Factors causing surgical site infection are multifarious. Several studies have identified the main patient-related (endogenous risk factors) and procedure-related (external risk factors) factors that influence the risk of SSI. The rate of surgical wound infections is strongly influenced by operating theatre quality, too. A safe and salubrious operating theatre is an environment in which all sources of pollution and any micro-environmental alterations are kept strictly under control. This can be achieved only through careful planning, maintenance and periodic checks, as well as proper ongoing training for staff Many international scientific societies have produced guidelines regarding the environmental features of operating theatres (positive pressure, exchanges of filtered air per hour, air-conditioning systems with HEPA filters, etc.) and issued recommendations on healthcare-associated infection, including SSI, concerning surveillance methods, intervention to actively prevent SSI and approaches to monitoring the implementation of such strategies. Therefore, the prevention of SSI requires a multidisciplinary approach and the commitment of all concerned, including that of those who are responsible for the design, layout and functioning of operating theatres.

  3. Patterning surface by site selective capture of biopolymer hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomard-Lack, Aurélie; Moreau, Céline; Delorme, Nicolas; Marquis, Mélanie; Fang, Aiping; Bardeau, Jean-François; Cathala, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    This communication describes the fabrication of microstructured biopolymer surfaces by the site-selective capture of pectin hydrogel beads. A positively charged surface consisting of poly-L-lysine (PLL) was subjected to site-selective enzymatic degradation using patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps covalently modified with trypsin, according to the recently described method. The patterned surface was used to capture ionically cross-linked pectin beads. The desired patterning of the hydrogel surfaces was generated by site-selective immobilization of these pectin beads. The ability of the hydrogels to be dried and swollen in water was assessed.

  4. The role of antimicrobial sutures in preventing surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, D; Wilson, P; Assadian, O; Edmiston, C; Kiernan, M; Miller, A; Bond-Smith, G; Yap, J

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) are falling following widespread and enforced introduction of guidelines, particularly those that have addressed antibiotic resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus or emergent pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, but no such decline has been seen in the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI), either in the UK, the EU or the US. SSI is one of the HCAIs, which are all avoidable complications of a surgical patient's pathway through both nosocomial and community care. METHODS This report is based on a meeting held at The Royal College of Surgeons of England on 21 July 2016. Using PubMed, members of the panel reviewed the current use of antiseptics and antimicrobial sutures in their specialties to prevent SSI. FINDINGS The group agreed that wider use of antiseptics in surgical practice may help in reducing reliance on antibiotics in infection prevention and control, especially in the perioperative period of open elective colorectal, hepatobiliary and cardiac operative procedures. The wider use of antiseptics includes preoperative showering, promotion of hand hygiene, (including the appropriate use of surgical gloves), preoperative skin preparation (including management of hair removal), antimicrobial sutures and the management of dehisced surgical wounds after infection. The meeting placed emphasis on the level I evidence that supports the use of antimicrobial sutures, particularly in surgical procedures after which the SSI rate is high (colorectal and hepatobiliary surgery) or when a SSI can be life threatening even when the rate of SSI is low (cardiac surgery).

  5. The Violence Prevention Community Meeting: A Multi-Site Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Marilyn; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Schmidt, Satu; Lovelace, Jeff; Amandus, Harlan

    2016-06-01

    The Violence Prevention Community Meeting (VPCM) is a specialized form of community meeting in which avoiding violence and promoting non-violent problem solving and interpersonal civility are focal points. A nationwide study to assess the VPCM as an effective intervention to reduce workplace violence was undertaken. Seven acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) throughout the United States participated in the study. All patients and all staff on the seven in-patient locked psychiatry units participated in the intervention (VPCM) or as a control (treatment as usual). The study was 21weeks at each site. The three time periods were pre-treatment weeks 1-3, treatment weeks 4-18, and post-treatment weeks 19-21. The VPCM was conducted during the treatment weeks. Overall rates of aggression declined by 0.6% (95% CI: -5.6%, 6.5%; nonsignificant) per week in the intervention hospitals and by 5.1% (95% CI: 0.4%, 9.6%; significant) per week for the control hospitals. Aggression decreased for both the intervention and control hospitals which could be due to enrollment in a research study and thus being more aware of their ability to address workplace violence at their site. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Cross-site scripting attacks procedure and Prevention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-site scripting attacks and defense has been the site of attack and defense is an important issue, this paper, the definition of cross-site scripting attacks, according to the current understanding of the chaos on the cross-site scripting, analyzes the causes and harm cross-site scripting attacks formation of attacks XXS complete process XSS attacks made a comprehensive analysis, and then for the web program includes Mobility there are cross-site scripting filter laxity given from ordinary users browse the web and web application developers two the defense cross-site scripting attacks effective strategy.

  7. Defining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Jiménez, Adrián; Mucci, Alfonso; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Schott, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Despite the success of surface complexation models (SCMs) to interpret the adsorptive properties of mineral surfaces, their construct is sometimes incompatible with fundamental chemical and/or physical constraints, and thus, casts doubts on the physical-chemical significance of the derived model parameters. In this paper, we address the definition of primary surface sites (i.e., adsorption units) at hydrated carbonate mineral surfaces and discuss its implications to the formulation and calibration of surface equilibria for these minerals. Given the abundance of experimental and theoretical information on the structural properties of the hydrated (10.4) cleavage calcite surface, this mineral was chosen for a detailed theoretical analysis of critical issues relevant to the definition of primary surface sites. Accordingly, a single, generic charge-neutral surface site ( tbnd CaCO 3·H 2O 0) is defined for this mineral whereupon mass-action expressions describing adsorption equilibria were formulated. The one-site scheme, analogous to previously postulated descriptions of metal oxide surfaces, allows for a simple, yet realistic, molecular representation of surface reactions and provides a generalized reference state suitable for the calculation of sorption equilibria for rhombohedral carbonate minerals via Law of Mass Action (LMA) and Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) approaches. The one-site scheme is extended to other rhombohedral carbonate minerals and tested against published experimental data for magnesite and dolomite in aqueous solutions. A simplified SCM based on this scheme can successfully reproduce surface charge, reasonably simulate the electrokinetic behavior of these minerals, and predict surface speciation agreeing with available spectroscopic data. According to this model, a truly amphoteric behavior is displayed by these surfaces across the pH scale but at circum-neutral pH (5.8-8.2) and relatively high ΣCO 2 (⩾1 mM), proton/bicarbonate co

  8. Failed Escape: Solid Surfaces Prevent Tumbling of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Barry, Michael; Stocker, Roman; Sheng, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Understanding how bacteria move close to surfaces is crucial for a broad range of microbial processes including biofilm formation, bacterial dispersion, and pathogenic infections. We used digital holographic microscopy to capture a large number (>103) of three-dimensional Escherichia coli trajectories near and far from a surface. We found that within 20 μm from a surface tumbles are suppressed by 50% and reorientations are largely confined to surface-parallel directions, preventing escape of bacteria from the near-surface region. A hydrodynamic model indicates that the tumble suppression is likely due to a surface-induced reduction in the hydrodynamic force responsible for the flagellar unbundling that causes tumbling. These findings imply that tumbling does not provide an effective means to escape trapping near surfaces.

  9. Protein function annotation by local binding site surface similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against ∼60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that predated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of 12 currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins.

  10. The Surface Groups and Active Site of Fibrous Mineral Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Fa-qin; WAN Pu; FENG Qi-ming; SONG Gong-bao; PENG Tong-jiang; LI Ping; LI Guo-wu

    2004-01-01

    The exposed and transformed groups of fibrous brucite,wollastonite,chrysotile asbestos,sepiolite,palygorskite,clinoptilolite,crocidolite and diatomaceous earth mineral materials are analyzed by IR spectra after acid and alikali etching,strong mechanical and polarity molecular interaction.The results show the active sites concentrate on the ends in stick mineral materials and on the defect or hole edge in pipe mineral materials.The inside active site of mineral materials plays a main role in small molecular substance.The shape of minerals influence their distribution and density of active site.The strong mechanical impulsion and weak chemical force change the active site feature of minerals,the powder process enables minerals exposed more surface group and more combined types.The surface processing with the small polarity molecular or the brand of middle molecular may produce ionation and new coordinate bond,and change the active properties and level of original mineral materials.

  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berríos-Torres, Sandra I; Umscheid, Craig A; Bratzler, Dale W; Leas, Brian; Stone, Erin C; Kelz, Rachel R; Reinke, Caroline E; Morgan, Sherry; Solomkin, Joseph S; Mazuski, John E; Dellinger, E Patchen; Itani, Kamal M F; Berbari, Elie F; Segreti, John; Parvizi, Javad; Blanchard, Joan; Allen, George; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Donlan, Rodney; Schecter, William P

    2017-08-01

    The human and financial costs of treating surgical site infections (SSIs) are increasing. The number of surgical procedures performed in the United States continues to rise, and surgical patients are initially seen with increasingly complex comorbidities. It is estimated that approximately half of SSIs are deemed preventable using evidence-based strategies. To provide new and updated evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of SSI. A targeted systematic review of the literature was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1998 through April 2014. A modified Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of evidence and the strength of the resulting recommendation and to provide explicit links between them. Of 5759 titles and abstracts screened, 896 underwent full-text review by 2 independent reviewers. After exclusions, 170 studies were extracted into evidence tables, appraised, and synthesized. Before surgery, patients should shower or bathe (full body) with soap (antimicrobial or nonantimicrobial) or an antiseptic agent on at least the night before the operative day. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered only when indicated based on published clinical practice guidelines and timed such that a bactericidal concentration of the agents is established in the serum and tissues when the incision is made. In cesarean section procedures, antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered before skin incision. Skin preparation in the operating room should be performed using an alcohol-based agent unless contraindicated. For clean and clean-contaminated procedures, additional prophylactic antimicrobial agent doses should not be administered after the surgical incision is closed in the operating room, even in the presence of a drain. Topical antimicrobial agents should not be applied to the surgical incision. During surgery, glycemic control should be

  12. Surface Sites for Engineering Allosteric Control in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Natarajan, Madhusudan; Nashine, Vishal C.; Socolich, Michael; Vo, Tina; Russ, William P.; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Ranganathan, Rama

    2010-01-01

    Statistical analyses of protein families reveal networks of coevolving amino acids that functionally link distantly positioned functional surfaces. Such linkages suggest a concept for engineering allosteric control into proteins: The intramolecular networks of two proteins could be joined across their surface sites such that the activity of one protein might control the activity of the other. We tested this idea by creating PAS-DHFR, a designed chimeric protein that connects a light-sensing signaling domain from a plant member of the Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) family of proteins with Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). With no optimization, PAS-DHFR exhibited light-dependent catalytic activity that depended on the site of connection and on known signaling mechanisms in both proteins. PAS-DHFR serves as a proof of concept for engineering regulatory activities into proteins through interface design at conserved allosteric sites. PMID:18927392

  13. Chemical characterization of the surface sites of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowkes, F.M.; Kardos, K.; Riddle, F.L. Jr.; Cole, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    We propose to do experimental studies in four related areas concerning the acid-base properties of coal surfaces: (1) develop high precision flow microcalorimetric methods for determining the concentrations and strengths of the acidic and basic surface sites of coal powders: (2) develop photo-acoustic FTIR and solid-state NMR spectral shift techniques for determination of the concentrations and strengths of acidic and basic surface sites of coal powders; (3) determine the concentrations and strengths of the acidic and basic surface sites of some of the well-characterized coal samples from Argonne National Labs., comparing the coal samples before and after demineralization treatments with HCl and HF; (4) study the effects of surface acidity and basicity on the coal/water interface, with emphasis on the role of interfacial acid-base interactions in the adsorption of ions, surfactants and coal/water slurry stabilizers. From measured heats of interaction, a reasonable estimate can be made of the most prevalent functional groups in coal. This quarter, heats of adsorption of phenols and pyridines were investigated. 2 tabs. (CBS)

  14. Prevention: A New and Maybe Wiser Approach to the Surface Contamination Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouppert, F.; Santarella, I.; Ackermann, E.; Tiquet, P.; Secourgeon, L.

    2003-02-26

    A decrease in the efficiency of some decontamination processes may occur after several implementations on the same surface, as recontamination between each implementation can occur. In some situations, achieving decontamination to acceptable levels can become difficult. The origin of this problem has been highlighted and solutions have been found. In fact, by thoroughly cleaning the surface, the decontamination process may lead to an increase of the adhesion of subsequent contaminants, thus making them much more difficult to remove. In concrete terms, some chemical functional groups, such as hydroxides make possible the chemical sorption of metal ions. Simply removing grease or natural pollutants from the surface allows direct contact between the contaminants and these reactive sites, increasing adhesion. If the cleaning process is badly suited to the material to be decontaminated, a modification of the chemical composition of the surface can occur, possibly increasing the density of reactive sites, making the problem worse. Predicting the evolution of the surface chemical properties with time is a challenge. Prevention of surface contamination appears to be a wiser approach. The principle is to prevent strong adhesion of the contaminants by masking the reactive groups likely to chemically bind the contaminants to the surface. With this aim in view, different methods of surface treatments offering such barrier effects have been developed at the French atomic Energy Commission (CEA). One possibility is the use of a removable protective polymer film, which can be used also for decontamination purposes. The other possibility is the vapor phase deposition of inert mineral layers on the surface. In this paper, we will describe both the studies and results that lead us to this prevention approach to the surface contamination problem, and the improvements obtained in terms of decontamination efficiency with this new approach.

  15. Electrophilic surface sites as precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, Thomas [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr.36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str.9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Fimland, Bjørn-Ove [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Vogt, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.vogt@tu-berlin.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr.36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-03-14

    We report how the presence of electrophilic surface sites influences the adsorption mechanism of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces. For this purpose, we have investigated the adsorption behavior of pyrrole on different GaAs(001) reconstructions with different stoichiometries and thus different surface chemistries. The interfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy in a spectral range between 1.5 and 5 eV. On the As-rich c(4 × 4) reconstruction that exhibits only nucleophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to physisorb on the surface without any significant modification of the structural and electronic properties of the surface. On the Ga-rich GaAs(001)-(4 × 2)/(6 × 6) reconstructions which exhibit nucleophilic as well as electrophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to form stable covalent bonds mainly to the electrophilic (charge deficient) Ga atoms of the surface. These results clearly demonstrate that the existence of electrophilic surface sites is a crucial precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces.

  16. Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Liang, Yunchang; Schneider, Oliver; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2017-09-01

    The activity of heterogeneous catalysts—which are involved in some 80 per cent of processes in the chemical and energy industries—is determined by the electronic structure of specific surface sites that offer optimal binding of reaction intermediates. Directly identifying and monitoring these sites during a reaction should therefore provide insight that might aid the targeted development of heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts (those that participate in electrochemical reactions) for practical applications. The invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the electrochemical STM promised to deliver such imaging capabilities, and both have indeed contributed greatly to our atomistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. But although the STM has been used to probe and initiate surface reactions, and has even enabled local measurements of reactivity in some systems, it is not generally thought to be suited to the direct identification of catalytically active surface sites under reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate, however, that common STMs can readily map the catalytic activity of surfaces with high spatial resolution: we show that by monitoring relative changes in the tunnelling current noise, active sites can be distinguished in an almost quantitative fashion according to their ability to catalyse the hydrogen-evolution reaction or the oxygen-reduction reaction. These data allow us to evaluate directly the importance and relative contribution to overall catalyst activity of different defects and sites at the boundaries between two materials. With its ability to deliver such information and its ready applicability to different systems, we anticipate that our method will aid the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  17. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, Jürgen; Exner, Martin; French, Gary; Chartier, Yves; Christiansen, Bärbel; Gemein, Stefanie; Goroncy-Bermes, Peter; Hartemann, Philippe; Heudorf, Ursel; Kramer, Axel; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Oltmanns, Peter; Rotter, Manfred; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper. Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges. Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects. Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection. PMID:23967396

  18. The role of surface disinfection in infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The Rudolf Schuelke Foundation addresses topics related to hygiene, infection prevention and public health. In this context a panel of scientists from various European countries discussed “The Role of Surface Disinfection in Infection Prevention”. The most important findings and conclusions of this meeting are summarised in the present consensus paper.Aim: Although the relevance of surface disinfection is increasingly being accepted, there are still a number of issues which remain controversial. In particular, the following topics were addressed: Transferral of microbes from surface to patients as a cause of infection, requirements for surface disinfectants, biocidal resistance and toxicity, future challenges.Methods and findings: After discussion and review of current scientific literature the authors agreed that contaminated surfaces contribute to the transmission of pathogens and may thus pose an infection hazard. Targeted surface disinfection based on a risk profile is seen as an indispensable constituent in a multibarrier approach of universal infection control precautions. Resistance and cross-resistance depend on the disinfectant agent as well as on the microbial species. Prudent implementation of surface disinfection regimens tested to be effective can prevent or minimize adverse effects.Conclusions: Disinfection must be viewed as a holistic process. There is a need for defining standard principles for cleaning and disinfection, for ensuring compliance with these principles by measures such as written standard operating procedures, adequate training and suitable audit systems. Also, test procedures must be set up in order to demonstrate the efficacy of disinfectants including new application methods such as pre-soaked wipes for surface disinfection.

  19. Surface energy budget and turbulent fluxes at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Persson, Ola; Uttal, Taneil; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Determination of the surface energy budget (SEB) and all SEB components at the air-surface interface are required in a wide variety of applications including atmosphere-land/snow simulations and validation of the surface fluxes predicted by numerical models over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, comparisons of net surface energy budgets at two Arctic sites are made using long-term near-continuous measurements of hourly averaged surface fluxes (turbulent, radiation, and soil conduction). One site, Eureka (80.0 N; Nunavut, Canada), is located in complex topography near a fjord about 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. The other site, Tiksi (71.6 N; Russian East Siberia), is located on a relatively flat coastal plain less than 1 km from the shore of Tiksi Bay, a branch of the Arctic Ocean. We first analyzed diurnal and annual cycles of basic meteorological parameters and key SEB components at these locations. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located on different continents and at different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and SEB components are qualitatively similar. Surface energy balance closure is a formulation of the conservation of energy principle. Our direct measurements of energy balance for both Arctic sites show that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes and the ground (conductive) heat flux systematically underestimate the net radiation by about 25-30%. This lack of energy balance closure is a fundamental and pervasive problem in micrometeorology. We discuss a variety of factors which may be responsible for the lack of SEB closure. In particular, various storage terms (e.g., air column energy storage due to radiative and/or sensible heat flux divergence, ground heat storage above the soil flux plate, energy used in photosynthesis, canopy biomass heat storage). For example, our observations show that the photosynthesis storage term is relatively small (about 1-2% of the net radiation), but about 8-12% of the

  20. FINAL CLOSURE PLAN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CLOSURE, SITE 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J E; Scott, J E; Mathews, S E

    2004-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the University of California (LLNL) operates two Class II surface impoundments that store wastewater that is discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater is the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years has significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners are nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project is to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using portable, above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks will be installed prior to closure of the impoundments and will include heaters for allowing evaporation during relatively cool weather. Golder Associates (Golder) has prepared this Final Closure Plan (Closure Plan) on behalf of LLNL to address construction associated with the clean closure of the impoundments. This Closure Plan complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR {section}21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Plan provides the following information: (1) A site characterization, including the site location, history, current operations, and geology and hydrogeology; (2) The regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) The closure procedures; and, (4) The procedures for validation and documentation of clean closure.

  1. Teamwork and Collaboration for Prevention of Surgical Site Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, E Patchen

    2016-04-01

    The surgeon has been regarded as the "captain of the ship" in the operating room (OR) for many years, but cannot accomplish successful operative intervention without the rest of the team. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. Many reports demonstrate very different impressions of teamwork and communication in the OR held by different members of the surgical team. Objective measures of teamwork and communication demonstrate a reduction in complications including surgical site infections with improved teamwork and communication, with fewer distractions such as noise, and with effective use of checklists. Efforts to improve teamwork and communication and promote the effective use of checklists promote patient safety and improved outcomes for patients with reduction in surgical site infections.

  2. Bed surfaces and pressure sore prevention: an abridged report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S J

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a systematic review of randomized controlled trials testing the effectiveness of special beds, mattresses, and cushions in preventing and treating pressure sores. The review's citation is Cullum, N., Deeks, J., Sheldon, T.A., Song, F., & Fletcher, A.W. (2000). Beds, mattresses and cushions for pressure sore prevention and treatment (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, 4. An integrative research review. 37 studies were included in the analysis. A broad search of databases and unpublished studies was conducted. Data were extracted from those that met the inclusion criteria. Studies were grouped in various ways but mainly by type of product evaluated. Many special products designed to prevent or treat pressure sores are more effective than standard hospital foam mattresses in preventing and treating pressure sores. Special pressure-relieving surfaces should be used for patients at risk for skin breakdown. Individual practitioners and agencies should have a systematic protocol for assessing patients' risk of skin breakdown and for taking action when patients are determined to be at risk. The findings of this review provide some guidance for choosing particular products, albeit not definitive evidence for matching risk levels to products.

  3. Sedimentation and fouling of optical surfaces at the ANTARES site

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTARES Collaboration; CAU CEFREM Collaboration; Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beltramelli, J.; Benhammou, Y.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R. W.; Blondeau, F.; de Botton, N.; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C. B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; van Dantzig, R.; de Marzo, C.; Destelle, J.-J.; de Vita, R.; Dispau, G.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Ferdi, C.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gournay, J.-F.; Hallewell, G.; Heijboer, A.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; de Jong, M.; Karolak, M.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Leilde, B.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G. J.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Romeyer, A.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G. V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Tilav, S.; Triay, R.; Usik, A.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Varlamov, I.; Vaudaine, G.; Vernin, P.; Vladimirsky, E.; Vorobiev, M.; de Witt Huberts, P.; de Wolf, E.; Zakharov, V.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zornoza, Juan de Dios; Zún~Iga, J.; Aloïsi, J.-C.; Kerhervé, Ph.; Monaco, A.

    2003-05-01

    ANTARES is a project leading towards the construction and deployment of a neutrino telescope in the deep Mediterranean Sea. The telescope will use an array of photomultiplier tubes to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by muons resulting from the interaction with matter of high energy neutrinos. In the vicinity of the deployment site the ANTARES Collaboration has performed a series of in situ measurements to study the change in light transmission through glass surfaces during immersions of several months. The average loss of light transmission is estimated to be only ~2% at the equator of a glass sphere one year after deployment. It decreases with increasing zenith angle, and tends to saturate with time. The transmission loss, therefore, is expected to remain small for the several year lifetime of the ANTARES detector whose optical modules are oriented downwards. The measurements were complemented by the analysis of the 210Pb activity profile in sediment cores and the study of biofouling on glass plates. Despite a significant sedimentation rate at the site, in the 0.02-0.05 cmyr-1 range, the sediments adhere loosely to the glass surfaces and can be washed off by water currents. Further, fouling by deposits of light-absorbing particulates is only significant for surfaces facing upwards.

  4. Seismic Surface-Wave Tomography of Waste Sites - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Timothy L.

    2000-09-14

    The objective of this study was to develop analysis programs for surface-wave group-velocity tomography, and apply these to three test areas. We succeeded by obtaining data covering two square areas that were 30 meters on a side, and a third area that was 16 meters on a side, in addition to a collaborative effort wherein we processed data from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory site. At all sites, usable group velocities were obtained for frequencies from 16 to 50 Hz using a sledgehammer source. The resulting tomographic images and velocity anomalies were sufficient to delineate suspected burial trenches (one 4-meters deep) and anomalous velocity structure related to rocks and disturbed soil. The success was not uniform because in portions of one area the inversion for shear-wave structure became unstable. More research is needed to establish a more robust inversion technique.

  5. Evidence update on prevention of surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, David; Ousey, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common healthcare-associated infection and complicates up to 10-20% of operations with considerable strain on healthcare resources. Apart from the widely adopted use of appropriate hair removal, antibiotic prophylaxis, avoidance of hypothermia and perioperative glycaemic control to reduce SSIs, this review has considered new research and systematic reviews, and whether their findings should be included in guidelines. The efficacy of preoperative bathing/showering, antibiotic prophylaxis for clean surgery and perioperative oxygen supplementation to reduce the risk of SSI is still in doubt. By contrast, the use of 2% chlorhexidine in alcohol skin preparation, postoperative negative pressure wound therapy and antiseptic surgical dressings do show promise. Antimicrobial sutures in independent meta-analyses were found to reduce the risk of SSI after all classes of surgery (except dirty) whereas the use of wound guards, or diathermy skin incision (compared with scalpel incision), did not. The incidence of SSI after surgery is not falling. Based on this review of published trials and evidence-based systematic reviews some advances might be included into these care bundles. More research is needed together with improved compliance with care bundles.

  6. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  7. The role of "inert" surface chemistry in marine biofouling prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhahn, Axel; Schilp, Sören; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen; Grunze, Michael

    2010-05-01

    review is written to outline for non-experts the hierarchical structure in length- and timescale of marine biofouling and the role of surface chemistry in fouling prevention. Experts in the field are referred to more specialized recent reviews.

  8. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Bussey, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate Exploration Zones (EZs) and Regions of Interests (ROIs) for the first human crews that will explore the surface of Mars. NASA's current effort to define the exploration of this planet by human crews, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), provides the context in which these EZs and ROIs are being considered. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars. An EZ is a collection of ROIs located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined. In 2015 these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. The resulting "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" was held in October 2015 during which 47 proposals for EZs and ROIs were presented and discussed. Proposed locations spanned all longitudes and all allowable latitudes (+/- 50 degrees). Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community. Several important findings resulted from this Workshop including: (a) a strong consensus that, at a scale of 100 km (radius), multiple places on Mars exist that have both sufficient scientific interest

  9. Numerical modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona (DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    SKB is currently performing site investigations at two potential sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report presents results of water flow and solute transport modelling of the Forsmark site. The modelling reported in this document focused on the near-surface groundwater, i.e. groundwater in Quaternary deposits and shallow rock, and surface water systems, and was performed using the MIKE SHE tool. The most recent site data used in the modelling were delivered in the Forsmark 2.3 dataset, which had its 'data freeze' on March 31, 2007. The present modelling is performed in support of the final version of the Forsmark site description that is produced during the site investigation phase. In this work, the hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow and the contact between groundwater and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the one-dimensional 'channel flow' modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. The MIKE SHE model was updated with data from the F2.3 data freeze. The main updates concerned the geological description of the saturated zone and the time series data on water levels and surface water discharges. The time series data used as input data and for calibration and validation was extended until the Forsmark 2.3 data freeze (March 31, 2007). The present work can be subdivided into the following four parts: 1. Update of the numerical flow model. 2. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the model parameters. 3. Validation of the calibrated model, followed by evaluation and identification of discrepancies between measurements and model results. 4. Additional sensitivity analysis and calibration in order to resolve the problems identified in point three above. The main actions taken during the calibration can be summarised as follows: 1. The potential evapotranspiration was

  10. PORT SITE INFECTION PREVENTION IN LAPRASCOPIC CHOLEYSTECTOMY USING TROCARS DIPPED IN 10% POVIDINE - IODINE SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Port site infection is a frequent problem encountered in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. The milestone which minimal invasive surgery achieved since its inception is that laparoscopic Cholecystectomy has become gold standard. Umbilical port site infection during cholecystectomy is reported to be 9%, (1, 2 even for difficult cholecystectomy . (3 The role of topical antibiotic prophylaxis is particularly useful in prevention o f local infection in all patients especially those taking immunosuppressive drugs , uncontrolled diabetic patients , and others. In the literature , no data shows differences in umbilical port site infections in Lap. Cholecystectomies who undergo different te chniques of peritoneal access : Hasson , Veress , and others. (4, 5 However , the incidence of port site complications has shown a proportional risk with the increase in size of port size incision & trocar (6, 7 Surgical site infection is because of microbial contamination of the surgical wound . The microorganisms may originate from either endogenous or exogenous sources. Sources of endogenous flora include the patient’s skin , mucous membranes or hollow viscera. Exogenous flora originate from any contaminated items on the sterile surgical field including , surgical team members , instruments , air , or material (8 In this study , we concentrated on the management and prevention of laparoscopic port site infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Tro cars & Stillets soaked in 10% topical povidone - lodine solution for prevention/lowering of laparoscopic port site infections.

  11. Analysis on effect of surface fault to site ground motion using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹炳政; 罗奇峰

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic contact theory is applied to simulate the sliding of surface fault. Finite element method is used to analyze the effect of surface fault to site ground motions. Calculated results indicate that amplification effect is obvious in the area near surface fault, especially on the site that is in the downside fault. The results show that the effect of surface fault should be considered when important structure is constructed in the site with surface fault.

  12. Asbestos contamination in feldspar extraction sites: a failure of prevention? Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavariani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous tremolite is a mineral species belonging to the amphibole group. It is present almost everywhere in the world as a natural contaminant of other minerals, like talc and vermiculite. It can be also found as a natural contaminant of the chrysotile form of asbestos. Tremolite asbestos exposures result in respiratory health consequences similar to the other forms of asbestos exposure, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. Although abundantly distributed on the earth's surface, tremolite is only rarely present in significant deposits and it has had little commercial use. Significant presence of amphibole asbestos fibers, characterized as tremolite, was identified in mineral powders coming from the milling of feldspar rocks extracted from a Sardinian mining site (Italy). This evidence raises several problems, in particular the prevention of carcinogenic risks for the workers. Feldspar is widespread all over the world and every year it is produced in large quantities and it is used for several productive processes in many manufacturing industries (over 21 million tons of feldspar mined and marketed every year). Until now the presence of tremolite asbestos in feldspar has not been described, nor has the possibility of such a health hazard for workers involved in mining, milling and handling of rocks from feldspar ores been appreciated. Therefore the need for a wider dissemination of knowledge of these problems among professionals, in particular mineralogists and industrial hygienists, must be emphasized. In fact both disciplines are necessary to plan appropriate environmental controls and adequate protections in order to achieve safe working conditions.

  13. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Fenerator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLACE, B.G.

    1999-11-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification.

  14. Identifying diabetes knowledge network nodes as sites for a diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesler, Wilbert M; Arcury, Thomas A; Skelly, Anne H; Nash, Sally; Soward, April; Dougherty, Molly

    2006-12-01

    This paper reports on the methods used and results of a study that identified specific places within a community that have the potential to be sites for a diabetes prevention program. These sites, termed diabetes knowledge network nodes (DKNNs), are based on the concept of socio-spatial knowledge networks (SSKNs), the web of social relationships within which people obtain knowledge about type 2 diabetes. The target population for the study was working poor African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans of both sexes in a small rural southern town who had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Information was collected from a sample of 121 respondents on the places they visited in carrying out their daily activities. Data on number of visits to specific sites, degree of familiarity with these sites, and ratings of sites as places to receive diabetes information were used to develop three categories of DKNNs for six subgroups based on ethnicity and sex. Primary potential sites of importance to one or more subgroups included churches, grocery stores, drugstores, the local library, a beauty salon, laundromats, a community service agency, and a branch of the County Health Department. Secondary potential sites included gas stations, restaurants, banks, and post offices. Latent potential sites included three medical facilities. Most of the DKNNs were located either in the downtown area or in one of two shopping areas along the most used highway that passed through the town. The procedures used in this study can be generalized to other communities and prevention programs for other chronic diseases.

  15. Sedimentation and Fouling of Optical Surfaces at the ANTARES Site

    CERN Document Server

    Amram, P

    2003-01-01

    ANTARES is a project leading towards the construction and deployment of a neutrino telescope in the deep Mediterranean Sea. The telescope will use an array of photomultiplier tubes to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by muons resulting from the interaction with matter of high energy neutrinos. In the vicinity of the deployment site the ANTARES collaboration has performed a series of in-situ measurements to study the change in light transmission through glass surfaces during immersions of several months. The average loss of light transmission is estimated to be only ~2% at the equator of a glass sphere one year after deployment. It decreases with increasing zenith angle, and tends to saturate with time. The transmission loss, therefore, is expected to remain small for the several year lifetime of the ANTARES detector whose optical modules are oriented downwards. The measurements were complemented by the analysis of the ^{210}Pb activity profile in sediment cores and the study of biofouling on glass plates. D...

  16. Search for Astronomical Sites in Developing Countries and their Preventive Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Querci, F R

    2000-01-01

    The archives of meteorological satellites permit to find around the world dry sites well adapted to astronomical observations (in the visible, IR, and millimetric ranges), as a pre-selection of sites. The GSM (Grating Scale Monitor) technique permits to qualify some of them as astronomical sites for a future setting-up of astronomical observatories. Such sites are found in new astronomical countries or in Developing Countries. At the same time, their preventive protection from light pollution and/or radio interference has to be viewed. In practice, once the pre-selection is made, the government of these countries ought to be alerted for example by IAU and/or UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. The local site testing through GSM should be carried out in cooperation with astronomers or scientists of these countries under the umbrella of IAU. This should be an approach to help to introduce astronomy and astrophysics in Developing Countries.

  17. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (Sweden)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Kalinowski, Birgitta (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Based on a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, with the intention of providing an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry of the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from Laxemar stage 2.3, including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to provide a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns and anomalies, and ultimately to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry of the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also serve as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast Sicada database and specialised expert models. The topography in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area is characterised by elevated areas covered by thin or no Quaternary deposits, intersected by deep fissure valleys filled with thick sediments. This topography, in combination with the withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to isostatic land uplift, are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Furthermore, marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits influence the hydrochemistry in areas at low elevation close to the coast, whereas higher-lying areas are mostly influenced by atmospheric deposition and weathering processes. The vegetation cover has also great impact on the hydrochemistry of the surface system. Degradation of biogenic carbon generates large numbers of H+ ions, which drive weathering processes in the Quaternary deposits as well as in the upper parts of the bedrock. The present situation in the surface system is a consequence of the palaeohydrological past. In higher

  18. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (SE)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (SE))

    2007-10-15

    With a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area, with the intention to give an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry in the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from the Forsmark 2.2 stage including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to give a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns as well as anomalies, and, ultimately, to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry in the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also function as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast SICADA database and specialised expert models. The flat topography and the recent withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to the isostatic land-uplift are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area. Marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits, as well as modern sea water intrusions, are therefore strongly influencing the hydrochemistry, especially in areas at low altitude close to the coast. Large-scale marine gradients in the surface system are consistent with the conceptual model that describes the hydrochemical evolution in a paleo-hydrologic perspective. The Forsmark area is covered by glacial remnants, mostly in the form of a till layer, which was deposited during the Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation. When the ice cover retreated about 11,000 years ago, these deposits were exposed on the sea floor. This till layer is characterized by a rich content of calcite, originating from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. The dissolution of this

  19. Improving Surveillance and Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Melissa; Hersey, Diane; Harrison, Sheilah; Joy, Brian; Naguib, Aymen; Galantowicz, Mark; Simsic, Janet

    2016-03-01

    Postoperative cardiovascular surgical site infections are preventable events that may lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. To improve surgical wound surveillance and reduce the incidence of surgical site infections. An institutional review of surgical site infections led to implementation of 8 surveillance and process measures: appropriate preparation the night before surgery and the day of surgery, use of appropriate preparation solution in the operating room, appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotic administration, placement of a photograph of the surgical site in the patient's chart at discharge, sending a photograph of the surgical site to the patient's primary care physician, 30-day follow-up of the surgical site by an advanced nurse practitioner, and placing a photograph of the surgical site obtained on postoperative day 30 in the patient's chart. Mean overall compliance with the 8 measures from March 2013 through February 2014 was 88%. Infections occurred in 10 of 417 total operative cases (2%) in 2012, in 8 of 437 total operative cases (2%) in 2013, and in 7 of 452 total operative cases (1.5%) in 2014. Institution of the surveillance process has resulted in improved identification of suspected surgical site infections via direct rather than indirect measures, accurate identification of all surgical site infections based on definitions of the National Healthcare Safety Network, collaboration with all persons involved, and enhanced communication with patients' family members and referring physicians. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  20. Site-discrimination by molecular imposters at dissymmetric molecular crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Laura N.

    -cystine surfaces. Collectively, these findings identify the key structural factors responsible for molecular recognition between molecular imposters and L-cystine crystal step sites, thereby articulating a strategy for stone prevention based on molecular design. The second part of this thesis describes the crystal growth and inhibition of a P2X3 receptor antagonist, denoted as DAPSA, recently reported as a non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. The low solubility of this compound results in the formation of drug-induced renal calculi (a.k.a. xenostones). in situ AFM of the morphologically significant (011) DAPSA surface revealed dislocation-actuated growth spirals with an anisotropic morphology, behavior that can be attributed to the non-uniform rate of solute attachment to eight crystallographically unique steps of the spiral, a direct consequence of the dissymmetry of this crystal surface. Eighteen molecular imposters were selected from the screening library to systematically investigate the roles of imposter substitute position, size, and functionality on the step velocities along the eight unique crystallographic directions. A non-uniform reduction in step velocities was observed, signaling site discrimination of imposter binding that can be attributed to stereochemical recognition of the imposters at specific crystal sites. The anisotropy of growth inhibition observed in the presence of the various imposters is consistent with binding energies calculated for the thirty-two crystallographically unique kink sites on steps advancing along predominant growth directions. These results provide insight to the design of growth inhibitors for molecular crystalline solids with complex and dissymmetric surfaces, while also suggesting a strategy for formulations containing congeners that can prevent harmful crystal growth in human renal structures. The last two crystalline systems discussed in this thesis are two isomorphous crystal systems that are ideal for the study of impurity

  1. Improving surgical site infection prevention practices through a multifaceted educational intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, P

    2015-03-01

    As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.

  2. Surgical site infections in dermatologic surgery: etiology, pathogenesis, and current preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Karim; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2015-05-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) after dermatologic surgery continue to represent undesirable complications that affect patients in several aspects. The etiology and pathogenesis of SSIs are not completely understood, and as a result, current preventative measures are debatable. To review and summarize the current available literature specific to SSIs in dermatologic surgery. The pathogenesis of SSIs, factors contributing to SSIs, current preventative guidelines, and evidence supporting their use are explored. A review of the medical literature. Most measures used to prevent SSIs in dermatologic surgery are based on studies of wounds in general surgery. Evidence specific to dermatologic surgery is scarce. More research related to the pathogenesis of SSIs is needed to establish effective preventative measures that are key to reducing incidences of SSIs.

  3. SURFACE SITES AND MOBILITIES OF IN ATOMS ON A STEPPED CU(100) SURFACE STUDIED AT LOW COVERAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREEMAN, M; DORENBOS, G; BOERMA, DO

    1992-01-01

    The various surface sites of In atoms deposited to a coverage of 0.013 monolayer (ML) onto a stepped Cu(100) surface were determined with low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) as a function of deposition temperature. From the fractions of In atoms occupying different sites, observed in the temperature ra

  4. SURFACE SITES AND MOBILITIES OF IN ATOMS ON A STEPPED CU(100) SURFACE STUDIED AT LOW COVERAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREEMAN, M; DORENBOS, G; BOERMA, DO

    1992-01-01

    The various surface sites of In atoms deposited to a coverage of 0.013 monolayer (ML) onto a stepped Cu(100) surface were determined with low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) as a function of deposition temperature. From the fractions of In atoms occupying different sites, observed in the temperature ra

  5. Two simple leg net devices designed to protect lower-extremity skin grafts and donor sites and prevent decubitus ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Travis L; Chapman, Ted T; Dewey, William S; Quick, Charles D; Wolf, Steven E; Holcomb, John B

    2007-01-01

    Burn therapists routinely are tasked to position the lower extremities of burn patients for pressure ulcer prevention, skin graft protection, donor site ventilation, and edema reduction. We developed two durable and low-maintenance devices that allow effective positioning of the lower extremities. The high-profile and low-profile leg net devices were simple to fabricate and maintain. The frame was assembled using a three-quarter-inch diameter copper pipe and copper fittings (45 degrees, 90 degrees, and tees). A double layer of elasticized tubular netting was pulled over the frame and doubled back for leg support to complete the devices. The devices can be placed on any bed surface. The netting can be exchanged when soiled and the frame can be disinfected between patients using standard techniques. Both devices were used on approximately 250 patients for a total of 1200 treatment days. No incidence of pressure ulcer was observed, and graft take was not adversely affected. The devices have not required repairs or replacement. Medical providers reported they are easy to apply and effectively maintain proper positioning throughout application. Neither device interfered with the application of other positioning devices. Both devices were found to be an effective method of positioning lower extremities to prevent pressure ulcer, minimize graft loss and donor site morbidity, and reduce edema. The devices allowed for proper wound ventilation and protected grafted lower extremities on any bed surface. The devices are simple to fabricate and maintain. Both devices can be effectively used simultaneously with other positioning devices.

  6. Quality improvement initiative: Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizh, David; Ascher, Enrico; Raza Rizvi, Syed Ali; Hingorani, Anil; Amaturo, Michael; Johnson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review was performed between 2012 and 2016 for all surgical site infections after revascularization procedures of the lower extremity. A quality improvement protocol was initiated in January 2015. Primary outcome was the assessment of surgical site infection rate reduction in the pre-protocol vs. post-protocol era. Secondary outcomes evaluated patient demographics, closure method, perioperative antibiotic coverage, and management outcomes. Results Implementation of the protocol decreased the surgical site infection rate from 6.4% to 1.6% p = 0.0137). Patient demographics and comorbidities were assessed and failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference among the infection and no-infection groups. Wound closure with monocryl suture vs. staple proved to be associated with decreased surgical site infection rate ( p surgical site infections in the vascular surgery population are effective and necessary. Our data suggest that there may be benefit in the incorporation of MRSA and Gram-negative coverage as part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project perioperative guidelines.

  7. Resistivity and Surface Wave Seismic Surveys in Geotechnical Site Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Wisén, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of geophysical methods for civil engineering purposes represents an important contribution to the development of geotechnical site investigation methodology. The term geotechnical site investigation here refers to all investigations performed prior to or during construction; i.e. investigations to support and refine a conceptual geological model as well as to provide a model of geotechnical design parameters. At any stage in the site investigation process, geophysical methods p...

  8. Preventing surgical site infections after bariatric surgery: value of perioperative antibiotic regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Zhao, Jing J; Alangaden, George; Wood, Michael H; Kaye, Keith S

    2010-01-01

    Bariatric surgery for obesity has emerged as an effective and commonly used treatment modality. This paper reviews the surgical site infections (SSIs) that occur post bariatric surgery and SSI prevention. The benefit of bariatric surgery resulting in profound weight loss brings with it consequences in the form of postoperative complications that can have profound effects on morbidity and mortality in these patients. This paper sets out to define different types of SSIs that occur following bariatric surgery and to discuss existing literature on the critical aspects of SSI prevention and the appropriate use of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis for bariatric surgery. PMID:20545596

  9. Prevention of Localized Osteitis in Mandibular Third-Molar Sites Using Platelet-Rich Fibrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Hoaglin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review our experience utilizing platelet rich fibrin (PRF, which is reported to aid in wound healing of extraction sites, for the prevention of localized osteitis following lower third-molar removal. Materials and Methods. PRF was placed in the mandibular third-molar extraction sites, 200 sites total, on 100 consecutive patients treated in our practice, by the authors. The patients were managed with standard surgical techniques, intraoperative IV antibiotic/steroid coverage, and routine postoperative narcotic analgesics/short-term steroid coverage. All patients were reevaluated for localized osteitis within 7–10 days of the surgery. A comparison group consisted of 100 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral removal of indicated mandibular wisdom teeth and did not receive PRF placement within the lower third molar surgical sites. Results. The incidence of localized osteitis (LO following removal of 200 lower third molars with simultaneous PRF placement within the extraction site was 1% (2 sites out of 200. The group of patients whose mandibular 3rd molar sockets were not treated with PRF demonstrated a 9.5% (19 sites out of 200 incidence of localized osteitis. The latter group also required 6.5 hours of additional clinical time to manage LO than the study group who received PRF. Conclusions. This retrospective review demonstrated that preventative treatment of localized osteitis can be accomplished using a low cost, autogenous, soluble, biologic material, PRF, that PRF enhanced third-molar socket healing/clot retention and greatly decreased the clinical time required for postoperative management of LO.

  10. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-11-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs).

  11. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-11-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs).

  12. Surface and Near-surface Investigations of a Legacy Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Chipman, V.; Cogbill, A. H.; Conklin, G.; Townsend, M.

    2012-12-01

    Salut, one of 82 underground U.S. nuclear tests conducted at Pahute Mesa, was detonated on June 12, 1985, in rhyolitic lava 608 m below the surface and with announced yield of 20-150 kt. One of the objectives of the Comprehensive Inspection Technologies (CIT) team, a component of the National Center for Nuclear Security is to evaluate Salut and other legacy sites as a test bed for use in treaty monitoring, verification, and other national security applications. As opposed to a surface collapse resulting in a crater, Salut experienced a subsurface collapse such that the most obvious feature associated with nuclear testing was not produced, giving the CIT team an opportunity to test a number of inspection technologies in a broad context. Ground-based visual observation, ground-based LiDAR, gravity and magnetics data were collected during a field campaign in the summer of 2012. Visual observations were performed using different approaches which were assessed for accuracy and efficiency. The complete set of visual observation data was integrated with the LiDAR. The primary purpose of the Salut gravity survey was to attempt to detect a possible subsurface collapse zone which might be located as little as 200 meters below the surface. The Salut survey was conducted along radial lines centered upon the location of the Salut vertical borehole; lines were 45° apart and 800 long. A residual gravity map of the area was calculated by subtracting a least-squares' planar surface from the observed Bouguer gravity data, which were calculated using a reduction density of 2450 kg/m^3. The residual map shows a gravity low of -150 to -190 mGal centered about 50 m west of the Salut borehole. In addition, a gravity anomaly of about -40 mGal is centered over the nearby (460 m to the west) Tenabo event: the Tenabo event, like Salut, did not collapse to the surface. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security AdministrationAward No. DE-AC52-06NA

  13. Probing the Active Surface Sites for CO Reduction on Oxide-Derived Copper Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Li, Christina W.; Johansson, Tobias Peter

    2015-01-01

    . Temperature-programmed desorption of CO on OD-Cu revealed the presence of surface sites with strong CO binding that are distinct from the terraces and stepped sites found on polycrystalline Cu foil. After annealing at 350 degrees C, the surface-area corrected current density for CO reduction is 44-fold lower...

  14. High affinity binding site-mediated prevention of chemical absorption across the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M V; Barker, T T; Silbart, L K

    2001-12-15

    Preventing mucosal absorption of low-molecular weight compounds such as carcinogens, toxins and drugs could help prevent many diseases. To characterize the effects of dose and timing on high-affinity binding site mediated sequestration of specific chemical ligands in the gastrointestinal tract, avidin was perorally-administered to mice either prior to or mixed with 3H-biotin. Avidin enhanced fecal 3H-biotin excretion in a dose-dependent manner, consistent with the accepted mechanism of egg white-induced biotin deficiency syndrome. Avidin administration up to 4 h before 3H-biotin administration also enhanced fecal 3H-biotin excretion. Activated charcoal (AC) reduced 3H-biotin absorption when mixed with 3H-biotin before ingestion, but was ineffective when ingested prior to 3H-biotin. These studies suggest that ingestion of high-affinity protein binding sites can establish an absorptive barrier at the gastrointestinal mucosa to prevent the uptake of unwanted low molecular-weight chemicals.

  15. Evolution of anatase surface active sites probed by in situ sum-frequency phonon spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Chen, Shiyou; Li, Yadong; Gao, Yi; Yang, Deheng; Shen, Yuen Ron; Liu, Wei-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Surface active sites of crystals often govern their relevant surface chemistry, yet to monitor them in situ in real atmosphere remains a challenge. Using surface-specific sum-frequency spectroscopy, we identified the surface phonon mode associated with the active sites of undercoordinated titanium ions and conjoint oxygen vacancies, and used it to monitor them on anatase (TiO2) (101) under ambient conditions. In conjunction with theory, we determined related surface structure around the active sites and tracked the evolution of oxygen vacancies under ultraviolet irradiation. We further found that unlike in vacuum, the surface oxygen vacancies, which dominate the surface reactivity, are strongly regulated by ambient gas molecules, including methanol and water, as well as weakly associated species, such as nitrogen and hydrogen. The result revealed a rich interplay between prevailing ambient species and surface reactivity, which can be omnipresent in environmental and catalytic applications of titanium dioxides.

  16. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added.

  17. Hanford Site Long-term Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1994 highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, plus preventing or minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. A team of scientists from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) direct the barrier development effort. ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, in conjunction with WHC and PNL, developed design drawings and construction specifications for a 5-acre prototype barrier. The highlight of efforts in FY 1994 was the construction of the prototype barrier. The prototype barrier was constructed on the Hanford Site at the 200 BP-1 Operable Unit of the 200 East Area. Construction was completed in August 1994 and monitoring instruments are being installed so experiments on the prototype barrier can begin in FY 1995. The purpose of the prototype barrier is to provide insights and experience with issues regarding barrier design, construction, and performance that have not been possible with individual tests and experiments conducted to date. Additional knowledge and experience was gained in FY 1994 on erosion control, physical stability, water infiltration control, model testing, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) comparisons, biointrusion control, long-term performance, and technology transfer.

  18. The role of oral antibiotics prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infection in colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullouros, Michalis; Khan, Nadir; Aly, Emad H

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) continues to be a challenge in colorectal surgery. Over the years, various modalities have been used in an attempt to reduce SSI risk in elective colorectal surgery, which include mechanical bowel preparation before surgery, oral antibiotics and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis at induction of surgery. Even though IV antibiotics have become standard practice, there has been a debate on the exact role of oral antibiotics. The primary aim was to identify the role of oral antibiotics in reduction of SSI in elective colorectal surgery. The secondary aim was to explore any potential benefit in the use of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) in relation to SSI in elective colorectal surgery. Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. Any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies after 1980, which investigated the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis and/or MBP in preventing SSIs in elective colorectal surgery were included. Twenty-three RCTs and eight cohorts were included. The results indicate a statistically significant advantage in preventing SSIs with the combined usage of oral and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Furthermore, our analysis of the cohort studies shows no benefits in the use of MBP in prevention of SSIs. The addition of oral antibiotics to systemic antibiotics could potentially reduce the risk of SSIs in elective colorectal surgery. Additionally, MBP does not seem to provide a clear benefit with regard to SSI prevention.

  19. Acidity of edge surface sites of montmorillonite and kaolinite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Lu, X.; Sprik, M.; Cheng, J.; Meijer, E.J.; Wang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Acid-base chemistry of clay minerals is central to their interfacial properties, but up to now a quantitative understanding on the surface acidity is still lacking. In this study, with first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) based vertical energy gap technique, we calculate the acidity constants

  20. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Shu-Cui [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Zhi-Gang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Ji-Lin, E-mail: zjl@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Sun, De-Hui [Changchun Institute Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu, Gui-Xia, E-mail: liuguixia22@163.com [Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • To examine surface hydroxyl functional groups of the calcined diatomite by TGA-DSC, FTIR, and XPS. • To calculate the optimized log K{sub 1}, log K{sub 2} and log C values and the surface species distribution of each surface reactive site using ProtoFit and PHREEQC, respectively. - Abstract: The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation–deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid–base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m{sup 2}/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. ≡Si-OH, ≡Fe-OH, and ≡Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K{sub 1}, log K{sub 2}) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation–deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  1. PEP-SiteFinder: a tool for the blind identification of peptide binding sites on protein surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Adrien; Rey, Julien; Thévenet, Pierre; Zacharias, Martin; Moroy, Gautier; Tufféry, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Peptide-protein interactions are important to many processes of life, particularly for signal transmission or regulatory mechanisms. When no information is known about the interaction between a protein and a peptide, it is of interest to propose candidate sites of interaction at the protein surface, to assist the design of biological experiments to probe the interaction, or to serve as a starting point for more focused in silico approaches. PEP-SiteFinder is a tool that will, given the structure of a protein and the sequence of a peptide, identify protein residues predicted to be at peptide-protein interface. PEP-SiteFinder relies on the 3D de novo generation of peptide conformations given its sequence. These conformations then undergo a fast blind rigid docking on the complete protein surface, and we have found, as the result of a benchmark over 41 complexes, that the best poses overlap to some extent the experimental patch of interaction for close to 90% complexes. In addition, PEP-SiteFinder also returns a propensity index we have found informative about the confidence of the prediction. The PEP-SiteFinder web server is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/PEP-SiteFinder.

  2. C¹ Positive Surface over Positive Scattered Data Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Ibraheem

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a local positivity preserving scheme when the data amassed from different sources is positioned at sparse points. The proposed algorithm first triangulates the irregular data using Delauny triangulation method, therewith interpolates each boundary and radial curve of the triangle by C¹ rational trigonometric cubic function. Half of the parameters in the description of the interpolant are constrained to keep up the positive shape of data while the remaining half are set free for users' requirement. Orthogonality of trigonometric function assures much smoother surface as compared to polynomial functions. The proposed scheme can be of great use in areas of surface reconstruction and deformation, signal processing, CAD/CAM design, solving differential equations, and image restoration.

  3. C¹ Positive Surface over Positive Scattered Data Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Farheen; Hussain, Malik Zawwar; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a local positivity preserving scheme when the data amassed from different sources is positioned at sparse points. The proposed algorithm first triangulates the irregular data using Delauny triangulation method, therewith interpolates each boundary and radial curve of the triangle by C¹ rational trigonometric cubic function. Half of the parameters in the description of the interpolant are constrained to keep up the positive shape of data while the remaining half are set free for users' requirement. Orthogonality of trigonometric function assures much smoother surface as compared to polynomial functions. The proposed scheme can be of great use in areas of surface reconstruction and deformation, signal processing, CAD/CAM design, solving differential equations, and image restoration.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-23, 100-B/C Area Surface Debris, Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-027

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-16

    The 100-B-23, 100-B/C Surface Debris, waste consisted of multiple locations of surface debris and chemical stains that were identified during an Orphan Site Evaluation of the 100-B/C Area. Evaluation of the collected information for the surface debris features yielded four generic waste groupings: asbestos-containing material, lead debris, oil and oil filters, and treated wood. Focused verification sampling was performed concurrently with remediation. Site remediation was accomplished by selective removal of the suspect hazardous items and potentially impacted soils. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-02-01

    The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation-deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid-base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m2/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. tbnd Si-OH, tbnd Fe-OH, and tbnd Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K1, log K2) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation-deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  6. Evaluation of the Significance of Starch Surface Binding Sites on Human Pancreatic α-Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Caner, Sami; Kwan, Emily; Li, Chunmin; Brayer, Gary D; Withers, Stephen G

    2016-11-01

    Starch provides the major source of caloric intake in many diets. Cleavage of starch into malto-oligosaccharides in the gut is catalyzed by pancreatic α-amylase. These oligosaccharides are then further cleaved by gut wall α-glucosidases to release glucose, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. Potential surface binding sites for starch on the pancreatic amylase, distinct from the active site of the amylase, have been identified through X-ray crystallographic analyses. The role of these sites in the degradation of both starch granules and soluble starch was probed by the generation of a series of surface variants modified at each site to disrupt binding. Kinetic analysis of the binding and/or cleavage of substrates ranging from simple maltotriosides to soluble starch and insoluble starch granules has allowed evaluation of the potential role of each such surface site. In this way, two key surface binding sites, on the same face as the active site, are identified. One site, containing a pair of aromatic residues, is responsible for attachment to starch granules, while a second site featuring a tryptophan residue around which a malto-oligosaccharide wraps is shown to heavily influence soluble starch binding and hydrolysis. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which enzymes tackle the degradation of largely insoluble polymers and also present some new approaches to the interrogation of the binding sites involved.

  7. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  8. Intraoperative technique as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-02-28

    Approximately five percent of patients who undergo surgery develop surgical site infections (SSIs) which are associated with an extra seven days as an inpatient and with increased postoperative mortality. The competence and technique of the surgeon is considered important in preventing SSI. We have reviewed the evidence on different aspects of surgical technique and its role in preventing SSI. The most recent guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK recommend avoiding diathermy for skin incision even though this reduces incision time and blood loss, both associated with lower infection rates. Studies comparing different closure techniques, i.e. continuous versus interrupted sutures, have not found a statistically significant difference in the SSI rate, but using continuous sutures is quicker. For contaminated wounds, the surgical site should be left open for four days to allow for treatment of local infection before subsequent healing by primary intention. Surgical drains should be placed through separate incisions, closed suction drains are preferable to open drains, and all drains should be removed as soon as possible. There are relatively few large studies on the impact of surgical techniques on SSI rates. Larger multicentre prospective studies are required to define what aspects of surgical technique impact on SSI, to better inform surgical practice and support education programmes for surgical trainees.

  9. Intraoperative technique as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2012-02-01

    Approximately five percent of patients who undergo surgery develop surgical site infections (SSIs) which are associated with an extra seven days as an inpatient and with increased postoperative mortality. The competence and technique of the surgeon is considered important in preventing SSI. We have reviewed the evidence on different aspects of surgical technique and its role in preventing SSI. The most recent guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK recommend avoiding diathermy for skin incision even though this reduces incision time and blood loss, both associated with lower infection rates. Studies comparing different closure techniques, i.e. continuous versus interrupted sutures, have not found a statistically significant difference in the SSI rate, but using continuous sutures is quicker. For contaminated wounds, the surgical site should be left open for four days to allow for treatment of local infection before subsequent healing by primary intention. Surgical drains should be placed through separate incisions, closed suction drains are preferable to open drains, and all drains should be removed as soon as possible. There are relatively few large studies on the impact of surgical techniques on SSI rates. Larger multicentre prospective studies are required to define what aspects of surgical technique impact on SSI, to better inform surgical practice and support education programmes for surgical trainees.

  10. Intraoperative technique as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, S M; Hill, A D K; Humphreys, H

    2011-05-01

    Approximately five percent of patients who undergo surgery develop surgical site infections (SSIs) which are associated with an extra seven days as an inpatient and with increased postoperative mortality. The competence and technique of the surgeon is considered important in preventing SSI. We have reviewed the evidence on different aspects of surgical technique and its role in preventing SSI. The most recent guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK recommend avoiding diathermy for skin incision even though this reduces incision time and blood loss, both associated with lower infection rates. Studies comparing different closure techniques, i.e. continuous versus interrupted sutures, have not found a statistically significant difference in the SSI rate, but using continuous sutures is quicker. For contaminated wounds, the surgical site should be left open for four days to allow for treatment of local infection before subsequent healing by primary intention. Surgical drains should be placed through separate incisions, closed suction drains are preferable to open drains, and all drains should be removed as soon as possible. There are relatively few large studies on the impact of surgical techniques on SSI rates. Larger multicentre prospective studies are required to define what aspects of surgical technique impact on SSI, to better inform surgical practice and support education programmes for surgical trainees. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CSRFDtool: Automated Detection and Prevention of a Reflected Cross-Site Request Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Batarfi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of Internet users is dramatically increased every year. Most of these users are exposed to the dangers of attackers in one way or another. The reason for this lies in the presence of many weaknesses that are not known for ordinary users. In addition, the lack of user awareness is considered as the main reason for falling into the attackers' snares. Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF has placed in the list of the most dangerous threats to security in OWASP Top Ten for 2013. CSRF is an attack that forces the user's browser to send or perform unwanted request or action without user awareness by exploiting a valid session between the browser and the server. When CSRF attack success, it leads to many bad consequences. An attacker may reach private and personal information and modify it. This paper aims to detect and prevent a specific type of CSRF, called reflected CSRF. In a reflected CSRF, a malicious code could be injected by the attackers. This paper explores how CSRF Detection Extension prevents the reflected CSRF by checking browser specific information. Our evaluation shows that the proposed solution is successful in preventing this type of attack.

  12. Point 5 - civil engineering : surface site, SX, pit, buildings, PX

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    > de 00 :00 à 13 :15 le 06 janvier 2000 - vues extérieures du montage du bâtiment SX, du chantier, du puit PX dont le pourtour est congelé- installation des tubes de congélation du sol- bâtiments de la Cryogénie, avec mur anti-bruit- fond des puits creusement et évacuation des déblais > de 13 :17 à 17 :38 le 10 février 2000 - avancement du montage du SX - vues générales du chantier en surface > de 13 :40 à 24 :00 le 10 février 2000 - bâtiment SX vide, fin d’installation des ponts roulants - ferraillage de la dalle d’un bâtiment

  13. Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbin, Amir; So, Jeannette P; Aleem, Ilyas S; Stephens, Derek; Matlow, Anne G; Wright, James G

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) and surgical-site infection in pediatric patients. Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies in adults, benefit of AP in preventing SSIs in children is uncertain. Patients aged 0 to 21 years who underwent surgical procedures at a pediatric acute care hospital from April 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010, were assessed. Antibiotic prophylaxis indication and administration according to an evidence-based guideline were recorded. Complete compliance was defined as AP given, when indicated, within 60 minutes before incision. Surgical-site infections were identified using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and documented in the medical records using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Multiple logistic regressions adjusting for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, wound classification, admission status, surgical discipline, and surgical duration evaluated association of AP compliance and SSI. Of 5309 patients for whom antibiotics were indicated, 3901 (73.5%) with complete compliance had an infection rate of 3.0%, whereas 1408 (26.5%) who were not compliant had an infection rate of 4.3% (adjusted relative risk: 0.7; 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.9; P = 0.02). Of 4156 patients for whom antibiotics were not indicated, the 895 (21.5%) who received antibiotics had an infection rate of 1.7% compared with 0.7% in the 3261 (78.5%) who did not receive antibiotics (adjusted relative risk: 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.8-3.1; P = 0.18). In pediatric surgery, complete compliance with AP was associated with 30% decreased risk of SSI.

  14. New WHO recommendations on preoperative measures for surgical site infection prevention : an evidence-based global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allegranzi, Benedetta; Bischoff, Peter; de Jonge, Stijn; Kubilay, N Zeynep; Zayed, Bassim; Gomes, Stacey M; Abbas, Mohamed; Atema, Jasper J; Gans, Sarah; van Rijen, Miranda; Boermeester, Marja A; Egger, Matthias; Kluytmans, Jan; Pittet, Didier; Solomkin, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most preventable health-care-associated infections and are a substantial burden to health-care systems and service payers worldwide in terms of patient morbidity, mortality, and additional costs. SSI prevention is complex and requires the integration of

  15. Pancreatic hormones are expressed on the surfaces of human and rat islet cells through exocytotic sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L I; Hutton, J C; Madsen, O D

    1989-01-01

    . Electron microscopy reveals the labeling to occur at sites of exocytotic granule release, involving the surfaces of extruded granule cores. The surfaces of islet cells were labeled both by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, excluding that receptor-interacting, anti-idiotypic hormone antibodies were...... responsible for the staining. Human insulin cells were surface-labeled by monoclonal antibodies recognizing the mature secretory products, insulin and C-peptide but not with monoclonal antibodies specific for proinsulin. Thus, routing of unprocessed preproinsulin to the cell surface may not account...... for these results. It is concluded that the staining reflects interactions between the appropriate antibodies and exocytotic sites of hormone release....

  16. The Most Effective Safety Codes on Occupational Accidents Prevention in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid pace of the construction projects have led to safety negligence on the part of the contractors causing higher numbers of accidents in construction industry. Thus, over 2200 legal provisions have been established for the prevention of accidents on construction sites. Not only contractors are unable to implement all provisions, but also it is hard for regulatory bodies to implement all rules, but they are also hard to remember and attend to by regulatory forces. Therefore, identifying the set of codes with the highest effect on reducing accidents would be most beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective legal provisions in reducing accidents on construction sites in Zanjan city. Methods: In this study, 378 work-related accidents in construction sites in Zanjan city, already registered in the Labor Inspection Authority, were investigated .Then the codes that had not been respected in the construction industry accidents were identified. Effective codes were determined based on their frequency on Pareto chart. Results: Results indicated that out of 2200 legal matters, only 164 were broken in the accidents. Conclusion: Application of Pareto chart could raise safety professionals' awareness of the specific broken codes in accidents, thus draw higher attention to the codes.

  17. Benzene derivatives adsorbed to the Ag(111) surface: Binding sites and electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P.; Simpson, Scott; Tymińska, Nina; Zurek, Eva

    2015-03-01

    Dispersion corrected Density Functional Theory calculations were employed to study the adsorption of benzenes derivatized with functional groups encompassing a large region of the activated/deactivated spectrum to the Ag(111) surface. Benzenes substituted with weak activating or deactivating groups, such as methyl and fluoro, do not have a strong preference for adsorbing to a particular site on the substrate, with the corrugations in the potential energy surface being similar to those of benzene. Strong activating (N(CH3)2) and deactivating (NO2) groups, on the other hand, possess a distinct site preference. The nitrogen in the former prefers to lie above a silver atom (top site), but in the latter a hollow hexagonal-closed-packed (Hhcp) site of the Ag(111) surface is favored instead. Benzenes derivatized with classic activating groups donate electron density from their highest occupied molecular orbital to the surface, and those functionalized with deactivating groups withdraw electron density from the surface into orbitals that are unoccupied in the gas phase. For benzenes functionalized with two substituents, the groups that are strongly activating or deactivating control the site preference and the other groups assume sites that are, to a large degree, dictated by their positions on the benzene ring. The relative stabilities of the ortho, meta, and para positional isomers of disubstituted benzenes can, in some cases, be modified by adsorption to the surface.

  18. ICR SS protozoan data site-by-site: a picture of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in U.S. surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongerth, Jerry E

    2013-09-17

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Information Collection Rule Supplemental Survey (ICR SS) required analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in 10 L surface water samples twice a week for a year by USEPA Method 1623 at 80 representative U.S. public water systems (PWS). The resulting data are examined site-by-site in relation to objectives of the Federal drinking water regulation, The Long-Term (2) Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), currently under formal 6-year review by the USEPA. The data describe Cryptosporidium and Giardia in watersheds nation-wide over a single annual cycle. Due to limited recovery efficiency measurement results are not fully quantified. In the required sample volumes of 10 L no Cryptosporidium were found in 86% of samples and no Giardia were found in 67% of samples. Yet, organisms were found in enough samples at 34 of 80 sites to detail a specrtum of occurrence and variability for both organisms. The data are shown to describe indivudual site risk essential for guidance of watershed and water treatment management by PWSs. The span of median occurrence for both organisms was about 2 orders of magnitude above the limit of detection (LD), ca. 0.05 raw no's/L for Cryptosporidium and ca. 0.10 raw no's/L for Giardia. Data analysis illustrates key features of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water: presence is continuous not intermittent; zeros indicate presence below the LD; occurrence level and variations depend on watershed sources; risk depends on both magnitude and variability of concentration; accurate estimation of risk requires routine measurement of recovery efficiency and calculation of concentration. The data and analysis illustrate features of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in surface water relevant to their effective regulation for public health protection.

  19. Corrosion prevention of magnesium surfaces via surface conversion treatments using ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin

    2016-09-06

    A method for conversion coating a magnesium-containing surface, the method comprising contacting the magnesium-containing surface with an ionic liquid compound under conditions that result in decomposition of the ionic liquid compound to produce a conversion coated magnesium-containing surface having a substantially improved corrosion resistance relative to the magnesium-containing surface before said conversion coating. Also described are the resulting conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface, as well as mechanical components and devices containing the conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface.

  20. Modification of proteins with cyclodextrins prevents aggregation and surface adsorption and increases thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, Deepali; Cui, DaWei; Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2011-11-01

    This work describes a general approach for preventing protein aggregation and surface adsorption by modifying proteins with β-cyclodextrins (βCD) via an efficient water-driven ligation. As compared to native unmodified proteins, the cyclodextrin-modified proteins (lysozyme and RNase A) exhibit significant reduction in aggregation, surface adsorption and increase in thermal stability. These results reveal a new chemistry for preventing protein aggregation and surface adsorption that is likely of different mechanisms than that by modifying proteins with poly(ethylene glycol).

  1. Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: a multiple site evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S

    2010-07-01

    "Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple

  2. Brominated lipids identify lipid binding sites on the surface of the reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszak, Aleksander W; Gardiner, Alastair T; Isaacs, Neil W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2007-03-20

    This study describes the use of brominated phospholipids to distinguish between lipid and detergent binding sites on the surface of a typical alpha-helical membrane protein. Reaction centers isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides were cocrystallized with added brominated phospholipids. X-ray structural analysis of these crystals has revealed the presence of two lipid binding sites from the characteristic strong X-ray scattering from the bromine atoms. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this approach to mapping lipid binding sites at the surface of membrane proteins.

  3. A comparison of surface fluxes at the HAPEX-Sahel fallow bush sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloyd, C.R.; Bessemoulin, P.; Cropley, F.D.; Culf, A.D.; Dolman, A.J.; Elbers, J.; Moncrieff, J.; Monteny, B.; Verhoef, A.

    1997-01-01

    The variability between surface flux measurements at the fallow sites of the three HAPEX-Sahel supersites is examined over periods of three or four consecutive days. A roving eddy correlation instrument provided a common base for comparison at each supersite. The inhomogeneity of the surface and the

  4. Fluoride adsorption on goethite in relation to different types of surface sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Metal (hydr)oxides have different types of surface groups. Fluoride ions have been used as a probe to assess the number of surface sites. We have studied the F− adsorption on goethite by measuring the F− and H interaction and F− adsorption isotherms. Fluoride ions exchange against singly coordinated

  5. Evaluation of adherence to measures for the prevention of surgical site infections by the surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEEvaluate pre- and intraoperative practices adopted by medical and nursing teams for the prevention of surgical infections.METHODA prospective study carried out in the period of April to May 2013, in a surgical center of a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.RESULTS18 surgeries were followed and 214 surgical gloves were analyzed, of which 23 (10.7% had postoperative glove perforation detected, with 52.2% being perceived by users. Hair removal was performed on 27.7% of patients in the operating room, with the use of blades in 80% of the cases. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to 81.8% of patients up to 60 minutes prior to surgical incision. An average of nine professionals were present during surgery and the surgery room door remained open in 94.4% of the procedures.CONCLUSIONPartial adhesion to the recommended measures was identified, reaffirming a need for greater attention to these critical steps/actions in order to prevent surgical site infection.

  6. Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.

  7. Benzene Derivatives Adsorbed to the Ag(111) Surface: A Binding Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel; Simpson, Scott; Tyminska, Nina; Zurek, Eva; Zurek Group Team

    2015-03-01

    Dispersion corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were employed to study the interaction of benzenes mono and disubstituted with functional groups encompassing a region of the activated/deacivated spectrum. Benzenes substituted with weak activating or deactivating groups like methyl and fluoro, respectively, do not have a strong site preference for adsorption to the Ag(111) surface. Strong activating (N(CH3)2) and deactivating (NO2) groups, on the other hand, have a distinct site preference. The nitrogen in the former prefers to lie above a silver atom (top site), but in the latter an Hhcp site of the Ag(111) surface is favored. Benzenes derivatized with classic activating groups donate electron density from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the molecule to the surface, and those functionalized with deactivating groups withdraw electron density from the surface into orbitals that are unoccupied in the gas phase. In the case of disubstituted benzenes, the strong activating/deactivating groups control the site preference and other groups assume sites that are, to a large degree, dictated by their positions on the benzene ring. Surface adsorption alters the relative stabilities of the ortho, meta and para positional isomers of disubstituted benzenes.

  8. Surface site diffusion and reaction on molecular organizates and colloidal catalysts: a geometrical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politowicz, P.A.; Kozak, J.J.

    1987-12-01

    The authors study surface-mediated, diffusion-controlled reactive processes on particles whose overall geometry is homeomorphic to a sphere. Rather than assuming that a coreactant can diffuse freely over the surface of the particle to a target site (reaction center), they consider the case where the coreactant can migrate only among N-1 satellite sites that are networked to the reaction site by means of a number of pathways or reaction channels. Five distinct lattice topologies are considered and they study the reaction efficiency both for the case where the satellite sites are passive and for the case where reaction may occur with finite probability at these sites. The results obtained for this class of surface problems are compared with those obtained by assuming that the reaction-diffusion process takes place on a planar, two-dimensional surface (lattice). The applicability of their results to surface-mediated processes on organizates (cells, vesicles, micelles) and on colloidally dispersed catalyst particles is brought out in the Introduction, and the correspondence between the lattice-based, Markovian approach developed here and Fickian models of surface diffusion, particularly with regard to the exponentiality of the decay, is discussed in the concluding section.

  9. Prevention of significant deterioration application for approval to construct SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The following application is being submitted by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352, pursuant to WAC 173-403-080, and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing a Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for a new source of airborne radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The new source, the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site, will be located in the 309 Building of the 300 Area. The US Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the US Department of Defense (DOD) have entered into an agreement to jointly develop space nuclear reactor power system technology. The DOE has primary responsibility for developing and ground testing the nuclear subsystem. A ground test of a reactor is necessary to demonstrate technology readiness of this major subsystem before proceeding with the flight system development and demonstration. The SP-100 GES Test Site will provide a location for the operation and testing of a prototype space-based, liquid metal-cooled, fast flux nuclear reactor in an environment closely simulating the vacuum and temperature conditions of space operations. The purpose of the GES is to develop safe, compact, light-weight and durable space reactor power system technology. This technology will be used to provide electric power, in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts, for a variety of potential future civilian and military space missions requiring long-term, high-power level sources of energy. 20 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Probing and mapping the binding sites on streptavidin imprinted polymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, Memed, E-mail: memi@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2014-10-01

    Molecular imprinting is an effective technique for preparing recognition sites which act as synthetic receptors on polymeric surfaces. Herein, we synthesized MIP surfaces with specific binding sites for streptavidin and characterized them at nanoscale by using two different atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. While the single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) reveals the unbinding kinetics between streptavidin molecule and binding sites, simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) was employed, for the first time, to directly map the binding sites on streptavidin imprinted polymers. Streptavidin modified AFM cantilever showed specific unbinding events with an unbinding force around 300 pN and the binding probability was calculated as 35.2% at a given loading rate. In order to prove the specificity of the interaction, free streptavidin molecules were added to AFM liquid cell and the binding probability was significantly decreased to 7.6%. Moreover, the recognition maps show that the smallest recognition site with a diameter of around ∼ 21 nm which corresponds to a single streptavidin molecule binding site. We believe that the potential of combining SMFS and TREC opens new possibilities for the characterization of MIP surfaces with single molecule resolution under physiological conditions. - Graphical abstract: Simultaneous Topography and RECognition (TREC) imaging is a novel characterization technique to reveal binding sites on molecularly imprinted polymer surfaces with single molecule resolution under physiological conditions. - Highlights: • Highly specific streptavidin printed polymer surfaces were synthesized. • Unbinding kinetic rate of single streptavidin molecule was studied by SMFS. • The distribution of binding pockets was revealed for the first time by TREC imaging. • TREC showed that the binding pockets formed nano-domains on MIP surface. • SMFS and TREC are powerful AFM techniques for characterization of MIP surfaces.

  11. Exploring site-specific chemical interactions at surfaces: a case study on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdeviren, Omur E.; Götzen, Jan; Altman, Eric I.; Schwarz, Udo D.

    2016-12-01

    A material’s ability to interact with approaching matter is governed by the structural and chemical nature of its surfaces. Tailoring surfaces to meet specific needs requires developing an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles that determine a surface’s reactivity. A particularly insightful case occurs when the surface site exhibiting the strongest attraction changes with distance. To study this issue, combined noncontact atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments have been carried out, where the evolution of the local chemical interaction with distance leads to a contrast reversal in the force channel. Using highly ordered pyrolytic graphite surfaces and metallic probe tips as a model system, we find that at larger tip-sample distances, carbon atoms exhibit stronger attractions than hollow sites while upon further approach, hollow sites become energetically more favorable. For the tunneling current that is recorded at large tip-sample separations during acquisition of a constant-force image, the contrast is dominated by the changes in tip-sample distance required to hold the force constant (‘cross-talk’) at smaller separations the contrast turns into a convolution of this cross-talk and the local density of states. Analysis shows that the basic factors influencing the force channel contrast reversal are locally varying decay lengths and an onset of repulsive forces that occurs for distinct surface sites at different tip-sample distances. These findings highlight the importance of tip-sample distance when comparing the relative strength of site-specific chemical interactions.

  12. Preventing protein adsorption from a range of surfaces using an aqueous fish protein extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Saju; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Meyer, Rikke L.;

    2009-01-01

    We utilize an aqueous extract of fish proteins (FPs) as a coating for minimizing the adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA). The surfaces include stainless steel (SS), gold (Au), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and poly(styrene) (PS). The adsorption processes (kinetics and adsorbed...... Fg- or HSA-coated surfaces are exposed to the FPs, a significant increase in adsorbed mass occurs because the FPs are highly surface-active displacing Fg. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy confirms that very little Fg adsorbs to the FP-coated surfaces. We propose that FP coatings prevent protein...

  13. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  14. Spectroscopic link between adsorption site occupation and local surface chemical reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraldi, A.; Lizzit, S.; Comelli, G.;

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter we show that sequences of adsorbate-induced shifts of surface core level (SCL) x-ray photoelectron spectra contain profound information on surface changes of electronic structure and reactivity. Energy shifts and intensity changes of time-lapsed spectral components follow simple...... rules, from which adsorption sites are directly determined. Theoretical calculations rationalize the results for transition metal surfaces in terms of the energy shift of the d-band center of mass and this proves that adsorbate-induced SCL shifts provide a spectroscopic measure of local surface...... reactivity....

  15. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka

    2017-07-01

    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions (δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  16. Surgical site infection prevention: time to move beyond the surgical care improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawn, Mary T; Vick, Catherine C; Richman, Joshua; Holman, William; Deierhoi, Rhiannon J; Graham, Laura A; Henderson, William G; Itani, Kamal M F

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) improved surgical site infection (SSI) rates using national data at the patient level for both SCIP adherence and SSI occurrence. The SCIP was established in 2006 with the goal of reducing surgical complications by 25% in 2010. National Veterans' Affairs (VA) data from 2005 to 2009 on adherence to 5 SCIP SSI prevention measures were linked to Veterans' Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program SSI outcome data. Effect of SCIP adherence and year of surgery on SSI outcome were assessed with logistic regression using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for procedure type and variables known to predict SSI. Correlation between hospital SCIP adherence and SSI rate was assessed using linear regression. There were 60,853 surgeries at 112 VA hospitals analyzed. SCIP adherence ranged from 75% for normothermia to 99% for hair removal and all significantly improved over the study period (P Surgical site infection occurred after 6.2% of surgeries (1.6% for orthopedic surgeries to 11.3% for colorectal surgeries). None of the 5 SCIP measures were significantly associated with lower odds of SSI after adjusting for variables known to predict SSI and procedure type. Year was not associated with SSI (P = 0.71). Hospital SCIP performance was not correlated with hospital SSI rates (r = -0.06, P = 0.54). Adherence to SCIP measures improved whereas risk-adjusted SSI rates remained stable. SCIP adherence was neither associated with a lower SSI rate at the patient level, nor associated with hospital SSI rates. Policies regarding continued SCIP measurement and reporting should be reassessed.

  17. Dissolution kinetics at edge dislocation site of (1 1 1) surface of copper crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashimizu, Y.

    2011-03-01

    For the study of the dissolution kinetics at dislocation site of crystal surface, copper crystals were anodically dissolved under several different conditions of potentiostatic electrolysis by using an electrolytic cell. The overpotential and temperature dependences of the dissolution rates at dislocation-free and edge dislocation sites of (1 1 1) surface were investigated. The experimental results were electrochemically analyzed, and quantitatively discussed by a nucleation model of two-dimensional pit. The critical free energy change for the formation of a two-dimensional pit at edge dislocation site as well as the activation energy at separation of an atom from the active site were estimated. It is concluded that the present estimation of the critical free energy change seems to reasonably consist with the evaluation of the precedent study and also that its value changes in different manners respectively with overpotential and temperature.

  18. Organoselenium Surface Modification of Stainless Steel Surfaces To Prevent Biofouling in Treatment of Space Wastestreams Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this work is to quantify the reduction of biofilm formation in a water distribution system resulting from an organoselenium surface coating on...

  19. On the interaction between ethylene and defect-sites on the Cu(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibbe, Olaf; Pucci, Annemarie [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D- 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    It is well-known, that ethylene adsorbed on rough copper surfaces shows a strong chemical enhancement in the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In former research, these Raman-active vibrational bands also have been detected also with infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) on cold deposited and hence rough copper films. They were therefore referred to as defect sites (annealable sites). By evaporating small amounts (sub-monolayers) of copper to the cold surface, we could show that the occurence of such Ramanactive absorption bands in IRRAS of ethylene on a smooth Cu(111) surface is related to defect sites. Surprisingly, not only the intensity of the Raman-active bands was increasing with the amount of evaporated copper, but an unforeseen strong decrease in intensity of the infrared-active out-of-plane vibration (CH{sub 2} wagging mode) was also detected. In order to understand the morphology of the roughened surface and the nature of the interaction between the copper adatoms and the ethylene molecules, we used high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) to examine the vibrational modes of the copper adatoms on the surface and those of the adsorbed ethylene. By doing so, we found that the CH{sub 2} wagging mode of ethylene is still present on the roughened surface. The loss in dipole-activity of this vibration is an unexpected result.

  20. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B. [Department of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  1. Guanine Nucleotides Modulate Cell Surface cAMP-Binding Sites in Membranes from Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1984-01-01

    D. discoideum contains kinetically distinguishable cell surface cAMP binding sites. One class, S, is slowly dissociating and has high affinity for cAMP (Kd = 15 nM, t½ = 15 s). A second class is fast dissociating (t½ about 1 s) and is composed of high affinity binding sites H (Kd ≈ 60 nM), and low a

  2. Spatial Variability of Surface Irradiance Measurements at the Manus ARM Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-05-16

    The location of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site on Manus island in Papua New Guinea was chosen because it is very close the coast, in a geographically at, near-sea level area of the island, minimizing the impact of local island effects on the meteorology of the measurements [Ackerman et al., 1999]. In this study, we confirm that the Manus site is in deed less impacted by the island meteorology than slightly inland by comparing over a year of broadband surface irradiance and ceilometer measurements and derived quantities at the standard Manus site and a second location 7 km away as part of the AMIE-Manus campaign. The two sites show statistically similar distributions of irradiance and other derived quantities for all wind directions except easterly winds, when the inland site is down wind from the standard Manus site. Under easterly wind conditions, which occur 17% of the time, there is a higher occurrence of cloudiness at the down wind site likely do to land heating and orographic effects. This increased cloudiness is caused by shallow, broken clouds often with bases around 700 m in altitude. While the central Manus site consistently measures a frequency of occurrence of low clouds (cloud base height less than 1200 m) about 25+4% regardless of wind direction, the AMIE site has higher frequencies of low clouds (38%) when winds are from the east. This increase in low, locally produced clouds causes an additional -20 W/m2 shortwave surface cloud radiative effect at the AMIE site in easterly conditions than in other meteorological conditions that exhibit better agreement between the two sites.

  3. Site-selective adsorption of protein induced by a metal pattern on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiali; Wu, Zhongkui; Li, Shaoying; Tang, Hongxiao; Mei, Qilin

    2013-11-01

    A novel technique for inducing site-selective adsorption of protein through constructing metal patterns on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces is presented. The substrates were first modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation through a photomask to introduce regions with different functional groups. Then the designed metal patterns were constructed on the surfaces of VUV-treated substrates. The surface rearrangement was effectively prevented by constructing silver patterns on poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces, thus significantly improving the stability and selectivity of protein adsorption on the surfaces. Moreover, the protein-repulsive layer further reinforced the effect. Finally, protein patterns were successfully obtained. As confirmed by fluorescence microscope, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and static water contact angle measurement, the protein patterns possess both excellent selectivity and high fidelity. Feature size of the protein patterns surrounded by a protein-repulsive layer was exactly the same as that of the photomask. And the grain sizes of silver particles were approximately 50 nm. This work could potentially be used in various fields such as biomedicine, bioelectronic components, and tissue repair and replacement, where selective adsorption of protein is desired.

  4. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, S.H.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; Lodha, G.S.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D. [AECL Research, Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL`s strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB`s R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL`s investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL`s strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL`s R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs.

  5. Reexamination of Correlations for Nucleate Site Distribution on Boiling Surface by Fractal Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChunxin

    1997-01-01

    Nucleate site distribution plays an essential role in nucleate boiling process.In this paper,it is pointed out that the size and spatial distributioin density of nucleate sites presented on real boiling surface can be described by the normalized fractal distribution function,and the physical meaning of parameters involved in some experimental correlations proposed by early investigations are identified according to fractal distribution function.It is further suggested that the surface micro geometry characteristics such as the shape of cavities should be described and analyzed qualitatively by using fractal theory.

  6. Surface Hardness of Dental Composite Resin Restorations in Response to Preventive Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2016-12-01

    To assess the impact of using preventive mouthwash agents on the surface hardness of various resins composites. Hundred specimens were prepared from five types of composite resin material in a Teflon mold. Five specimens from each type of restorative materials (Herculite XRV Ultra, Estelite Σ Quick, Z Hermack, Versa Comp Sultan, and Empress Direct IPS) were evaluated posttreatment with immersion in four types of preventive mouthwashes gels and rinses - group 1: Flocare gel (0.4% stannous fluoride), group 2: Pascal gel (topical APF fluoride), group 3: Pro-relief mouthwash (Na fluoride), and group 4: Plax Soin mouthwash (Na fluoride) - at 37°C in a dark glass container at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Surface hardness measurement was made for each tested material. Statistically, we analyzed the mean values with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test, with significance level of p composite resin materials showed decrease in their surface hardness with the time elapsed (24, 48, and 72 hours) postimmersion in the preventive mouthwashes and gels except the Herculite XRV Ultra and Versa Comp Sultan materials. Flocare gel group showed increase in the surface hardness after 48 hours of immersion than the other periods and in Estelite Σ Quick after 72 hours. There was significant differences in all materials tested with the immersion in the preventive mouthwashes and gels, such as Flocare gel (0.4% stannous fluoride), Pro-relief mouthwash (Na fluoride), and Plax Soin mouthwash (Na fluoride) except Pascal gel (topical APF fluoride) (p > 0.05), at time intervals mentioned earlier (p resin composite materials was decreased surface hardness with the time elapse of immersion for all materials except the Flocare gel group, which contains 0.4% stannous fluoride as a preventive ingredient increases the surface hardness after 48 h for Herculite XRV Ultra and Versa Comp Sultan and Estelite Σ Quick after 72 hours. The preventive agents in the form of mouthwash and gel are

  7. A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2013-04-01

    Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Niño and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

  8. A Review of HIV Prevention Studies that Use Social Networking Sites: Implications for Recruitment, Health Promotion Campaigns, and Efficacy Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F

    2016-11-01

    This review describes the use of social networking sites (SNS) in the context of primary prevention of HIV. A review was conducted to assess the published literature for HIV interventions using SNS. Sixteen articles describing twelve interventions were included. SNS were instrumental in recruiting hard-to-reach populations within a short amount of time; were able to reach wide audiences beyond the targeted population for HIV prevention campaigns; and helped to significantly reduce sexual risk behaviors and increase HIV testing. SNS are a viable option to recruit hidden populations, engage the target audience, and disseminate HIV prevention messages. Researchers should use SNS to generate sampling frames that can be used to select participants. Practitioners should use SNS to post images of preventive behavior within health promotion campaigns. Researchers should use multiple SNS platforms to engage participants. As more studies are published using SNS for HIV prevention, meta-analyses will be needed.

  9. Distribution, Arrangement and Interconnectedness of Cell Surface Receptor sites in the body of an Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors have been identified as the sites of disease infectivity in living organisms in a previous study. Drugs used for the treatment or cure of infections have to eliminate infections through attacking infective organisms at the cell surface receptors to which the infective organisms are attached. Problem statement: The present study examines a wide sample of living things to get more information on the relationship of one cell surface receptor to other cell surface receptors in the body of an organism. Approach: The arrangement of cell surface receptors on the external covering of a few samples of fruits, leaves, stems, dry wood of a plant; wall gecko and some parts of the human body, were examined and photographed. Transverse and/or Longitudinal sections of soursop fruit and sycamore fruit were also examined and photographed. The five different coverings of the fleshy part of a coconut were also photographed. The photographs were studied to note the relationship of disease infection attached to cell surface receptors on the external surface of an organ to disease infection on the innermost covering of the same organ. Results: The results of the study showed that all living things had ubiquitous distribution of cell surface receptors which are usually observable with the unaided eye as dots or spots on the external covering of an organ, tissue or cell. The dots or receptor sites of cell surface receptors in the study are arranged in lines which were perpendicular, oblique, transverse or arranged in any other lineal geometrical form. The lineally arranged cell surface receptors were noted to be connected by grooves, channels or pipes which joined other receptor channels or intersected with them. Smaller cell surface receptor channels emptied into bigger channels or continued as small sized channels that ran side by side in a connective tissue bundle. These connective tissue bundles that carried many independent small-sized cell

  10. [Field measurement of Gobi surface emissivity spectrum at Dunhuang calibration site of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Yuan; Rong, Zhi-guo; Hu, Xiu-qing; Zhang, Li-jun; Liu, Jing-jing

    2009-05-01

    Gobi surface emissivity spectrum of Dunhuang radiometric calibration site of China is one of the key factors to calibrate the thermal infrared remote sensors using land surface. Based on the iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation (ISSTES)algorithm, Dunhuang Gobi surface emissivity spectrum was measured using BOMEM MR154 Fourier transform spectroradiometer and Infrared Golden Board. Emissivity spectrum data were obtained at different time and locations. These spectrum data were convolved with the channel response function of CE312 radiometer and compared with the channel emissivity measured by the same instrument. The results showed that the difference between these two kinds of channel emissivity was within 0.012 and exhibited a good consistency. With these measured emissivity spectra, all of the mainstream thermal infrared remote sensors can be calibrated using Dunhuang Gobi surface at radiometric calibration site of China.

  11. On-Site Surface Functionalization for Titanium Dental Implant with Nanotopography: Review and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Byung Gyu Kim; Seog-Jin Seo; Jung-Hwan Lee; Hae-Won Kim

    2016-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) has been the first choice of material for dental implant due to bonding ability to natural bone and great biocompatibility. Various types of surface roughness modification in nanoscale have been made as promising strategy for accelerating osseointegration of Ti dental implant. To have synergetic effect with nanotopography oriented favors in cell attachment, on-site surface functionalization with reproducibility of nanotopography is introduced as next strategy to further enhance ...

  12. Prevention and treatment of peri-implant diseases : Cleaning of titanium dental implant surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louropoulou, A.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis assessed the effect of variable instruments on differed titanium dental implant surfaces. Furthermore, a clinical guideline was developed and recommendations are made regarding the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of peri-implant diseases. Air abrasive device

  13. Frequency-Selective Surface to Prevent Interference Between Radar and SATCOM Antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monni, S.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Nennie, F.; Tijhuis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Interference between neighboring antennas operating in nearby frequency ranges can lead to damage of the front-end electronics. This letter presents the design of a frequency-selective surface (FSS) aimed at preventing the saturation of the low noise amplifiers of a phased-array radar antenna due to

  14. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  15. Use of organic acids for prevention and removal of Bacillus subtilis biofilms on food contact surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Cag, Seyda

    2016-10-01

    The efficacies of organic acid (citric, malic, and gallic acids) treatments at 1% and 2% concentrations on prevention and removal of Bacillus subtilis biofilms were investigated in this study. The analyses were conducted on microtitration plates and stainless steel coupons. The biofilm removal activities of these organic acids were compared with chlorine on both surfaces. The results showed that citric acid treatments were as powerful as chlorine treatments for prevention and removal of biofilms. The antibiofilm effects of malic acid treatments were higher than gallic acid and less than citric acid treatment. When the antibiofilm effects of these acids and chlorine on the two surfaces were compared, the prevention and removal of biofilms were measured higher on microtitration plates than those on stainless steel coupons. Higher reductions were obtained by increasing concentrations of sanitizers on 24-hour biofilm with 20-minute sanitizer treatments for removal of biofilms.

  16. Site-protected fixation and immobilization of Escherichia coli cells displaying surface-anchored beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A; Abramov, S; Georgiou, G

    1999-01-20

    Bacteria displaying heterologous receptors or enzymes on their surface hold great potential as whole-cell adsorbents and biocatalysts, respectively. For industrial applications, such surface-engineered cells need to be killed and chemically fixed to prevent disintegration and leakage of the displayed proteins under process conditions. It is also highly desirable to couple the chemically stabilized cells onto a solid support matrix for additional mechanical stability, flexibility in reactor choice, and easy separation from processed medium. Recently, we described the development of a readily scalable methodology for cell killing, fixation, and outer membrane stabilization via glutaraldehyde fixation followed by secondary crosslinking (Freeman, A., Abramov, S. and Georgiou, G. 1996. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 52: 625-630). Glutaraldehyde treatment was also found, however, to reduce the specific activity of a model enzyme, beta-lactamase displayed on the surface of E. coli. Here, we show that crosslinking carried out in the presence of beta-lactamase inhibitors, namely phenyl boronic acid or sodium borate, protects the active site from chemical modification resulting in up to threefold higher specific activities without affecting the cell-stabilizing effect of the glutaraldehyde treatment. To prepare an immobilized whole cell biocatalyst, residual unreacted surface aldehyde groups were employed to immobilize covalently the fixed bacteria onto chitosan-coated cellulose powder. The binding of the bacteria onto chitosan-coated cellulose was quantitative up to cell loading of 83 mg dry cell weight/g of support. Cell immobilization did not introduce mass transfer limitations and created only a modest reduction in Vmax. Thus, chemical crosslinking, affected in presence of reversible active-site inhibitors and coupled with cell immobilization on chitosan-coated cellulose represents a widely useful methodology for the process application of recombinant bacteria displaying surface

  17. Investigations of adsorption sites on oxide surfaces using solid-state NMR and TPD-IGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombeck, Rebecca A.

    The number and chemical identity of reactive sites on surfaces of glass affects the processing, reliability, and lifetime of a number of important commercial products. Surface site densities, distributions, and structural identities are closely tied to the formation and processing of the glass surface, and exert a direct influence on strength and coating performance. The surface of a glass sample may vary markedly from the composition and chemistry of the bulk glass. We are taking a physicochemical approach to understanding adsorption sites on pristine multicomponent glass fibers surfaces, directly addressing the effect of processing on surface reactivity. This project aimed to understand the energy distributions of surface adsorption sites, the chemical/structural identity of those sites, and the relationship of these glasses to glass composition, thermal history, and in future work, surface coatings. We have studied the bulk and surface structure as well as the surface reactivity of the glass fibers with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography (IGC), and computational chemistry methods. These methods, solid-state NMR and IGC, typically require high surface area materials; however, by using probe molecules for NMR experiments or packing a column at high density for IGC measurements, lower surface area materials, such as glass fibers, can be investigated. The glasses used within this study were chosen as representative specimens of fibers with potentially different reactive sites on their surfaces. The two glass compositions were centered around a nominal E-glass, which contains very little alkali cations and mainly alkaline earth cations, and wool glass, which contains an abundance of alkali cations. The concentration of boron was varied from 0 to 8 mole % in both fiber compositions. Fibers were drawn from each composition at a variety of temperatures and draw speeds to provide a range of glass samples with varying

  18. Selectivity of the surface binding site (SBS) on barley starch synthase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Palcic, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Starch synthase I (SSI) from various sources has been shown to preferentially elongate branch chains of degree of polymerisation (DP) from 6–7 to produce chains of DP 8–12. In the recently determined crystal structure of barley starch synthase I (HvSSI) a so-called surface binding site (SBS) was ...

  19. Clear-sky radiative closure for the Cabauw Baseline Surface Radiation Network site, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Knap, W.H.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Stammes, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a clear-sky shortwave closure analysis is presented for the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site of Cabauw, Netherlands (51.97°N, 4.93°E). The analysis is based on an exceptional period of fine weather during the first half of May 2008, resulting in a selection of 72 comparis

  20. Optimal site for throat culture: tonsillar surface versus posterior pharyngeal wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. van der Veen; E.A.M. Sanders; W.J.M. Videler; B.K. van Staaij; P.P.G. van Benthem; A.G.M. Schilder

    2006-01-01

    To determine the optimal site of throat culture for the detection of potential pathogens by comparing culture results from the tonsillar surface and the posterior pharyngeal wall in children selected for adenotonsillectomy and in children without upper respiratory disease. Cotton culture swabs were

  1. Clear-sky radiative closure for the Cabauw Baseline Surface Radiation Network site, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Knap, W.H.; Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; Stammes, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a clear-sky shortwave closure analysis is presented for the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site of Cabauw, Netherlands (51.97°N, 4.93°E). The analysis is based on an exceptional period of fine weather during the first half of May 2008, resulting in a selection of 72

  2. [Surface disinfection in the context of infection prevention in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, A; Schaber, S; Kipp, F

    2013-03-01

    The highest proportion of nosocomial infections occurs on intensive care units (ICU) and infections with multiresistant pathogens are an ever increasing problem. Preventative measures should consist of a bundle of different measures including measures that address a specific problem and standard hygiene measures that are relevant in all areas. Specific measures in ICUs primarily aim at the prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia, blood vessel catheter associated infections and nosocomial urinary tract infections. Surface disinfection belongs to the standard hygiene measures and plays an inferior role compared to hand hygiene; however, surfaces come into focus in outbreak situations. The Commission on Hospital Hygiene (KRINKO) at the Robert Koch Institute (the German health protection agency) published recommendations regarding the cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. The frequency with which cleaning and/or disinfection is required varies according to defined areas of risk. The frequency and the disinfection agents used are documented in the disinfection plan.

  3. Corrosive inorganic contamination on wafer surfaces after nickel-iron electroplating formation mechanisms and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritzer, P. [Freudenberg Nonwovens KG, Technical Nonwovens Div., Weinheim (Germany); Diel, W.; Barber, P.H. [IBM Speichersysteme Deutschland GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Romankiw, L.T. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Electroplating of Nickel-Iron alloys is widely used in the production of magnetic heads for storage systems. Usually, the plating process is performed in acidic, salt-containing solutions. After the plating step, a complete removal of the plating salts is necessary to receive a clean surface. In disadvantageous cases, a precipitation of sticky particles is observed that cannot be removed from the plated surface without damaging the surface. Some of these substances (esp. nickel sulfates) might lead to severe local corrosion and thus might act as ''time-bomb'' in the later product. Non-corrosive precipitations (i.e. nickel hydroxides) strongly hinder or even prevent the following production steps. In the present paper, the mechanisms of the origin of the different kinds of precipitation are described and the principle actions for their prevention are given. An outlook is given for other possible technical applications. (orig.)

  4. A bioinspired omniphobic surface coating on medical devices prevents thrombosis and biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Daniel C; Waterhouse, Anna; Berthet, Julia B; Valentin, Thomas M; Watters, Alexander L; Jain, Abhishek; Kim, Philseok; Hatton, Benjamin D; Nedder, Arthur; Donovan, Kathryn; Super, Elana H; Howell, Caitlin; Johnson, Christopher P; Vu, Thy L; Bolgen, Dana E; Rifai, Sami; Hansen, Anne R; Aizenberg, Michael; Super, Michael; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ingber, Donald E

    2014-11-01

    Thrombosis and biofouling of extracorporeal circuits and indwelling medical devices cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We apply a bioinspired, omniphobic coating to tubing and catheters and show that it completely repels blood and suppresses biofilm formation. The coating is a covalently tethered, flexible molecular layer of perfluorocarbon, which holds a thin liquid film of medical-grade perfluorocarbon on the surface. This coating prevents fibrin attachment, reduces platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses biofilm formation and is stable under blood flow in vitro. Surface-coated medical-grade tubing and catheters, assembled into arteriovenous shunts and implanted in pigs, remain patent for at least 8 h without anticoagulation. This surface-coating technology could reduce the use of anticoagulants in patients and help to prevent thrombotic occlusion and biofouling of medical devices.

  5. Examining the association between surface bioburden and frequently touched sites in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C E; Smith, J; Watson, V; Robertson, C; Dancer, S J

    2017-01-01

    Critical care patients are at increased risk of infection. Near-patient surfaces act as reservoirs of microbial soil, which may contain pathogens. To correlate soil levels with hand-touch frequency of near-patient sites in an intensive care unit (ICU). Five sites around each bed in a 10-bed ICU were screened for total microbial soil (cfu/cm(2)) and Staphylococcus aureus every month for 10 months. Selected sites were infusion pump and cardiac monitor, left and right bedrails, and bed table. Ten 1 h covert audits of hand-touch frequency of these sites were performed in order to provide an average hand-touch count, which was modelled against soil levels obtained from microbiological screening. Seven of 10 staphylococci were found in conjunction with gross contamination of a specific site (P=0.005) and the same proportion from three most frequently touched sites (bedrails and bed table). There was a linear association between four sites demonstrating gross microbial contamination (>12 cfu/cm(2)) and mean number of hand-touch counts (P=0.08). The bed table was handled most but was not the most contaminated site. We suspected that customary placement of alcohol gel containers on bed tables may have reduced microbiological yield. Removing the gel container from one table confirmed its inhibitory effect on microbial contamination after rescreening (19% vs 50% >12 cfu/cm(2): P=0.007). Surface bioburden at near-patient sites in ICU is associated with hand-contact frequencies by staff and visitors. This supports the need for targeted hygienic cleaning in a high-risk healthcare environment. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multivariate Thermo-Hygrometric Characterisation of the Archaeological Site of Plaza de l’Almoina (Valencia, Spain) for Preventive Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navajas, Ángel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Preventive conservation requires monitoring and control of the parameters involved in the deterioration process, mainly temperature and relative humidity. It is important to characterise an archaeological site prior to carrying out comparative studies in the future for preventive conservation, either by regular studies to verify whether the conditions are constant, or occasional ones when the boundary conditions are altered. There are numerous covered archaeological sites, but few preventive conservation works that give special attention to the type of cover installed. In particular, there is no background of microclimatic studies in sites that are in the ground and, as in the Plaza de l’Almoina (Valencia, Spain), are buried and partially covered by a transparent roof. A large effect of the transparent cover was found by the sensors located below this area, with substantial increases in temperature and a decrease in the relative humidity during the day. Surrounding zones also have values above the recommended temperature values. On the other hand, the influence of a buried water drainage line near the site is notable, causing an increase in relative humidity levels in the surrounding areas. Multivariate statistical analyses enabled us to characterise the microclimate of the archaeological site, allowing future testing to determine whether the conservation conditions have been altered. PMID:23899937

  7. Functional link between surface low-coordination sites and the electrochemical durability of Pt nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Young; Shin, Heejong; Yoo, Ji Mun; Lee, Kug-Seung; Lee, Nam-Suk; Kang, Kisuk; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-12-01

    A promising strategy for achieving enhanced catalytic activity involves the use of nanoscale electrocatalysts; however, their low stability remains a major challenge. Among the various performance-degradation mechanisms, atomic dissolution is known to cause severe nanoparticle deactivation. To date, the factors influencing these catalysts' durability are not understood. Herein, we assess the role of low-coordination surface sites, focusing on the atomic dissolution of Pt nanoparticles. The density of low-coordination sites was finely controlled, and no significant size change occurred. Based on our findings, we suggest that the initial low-coordination sites trigger metal dissolution, which subsequently accelerates Pt dissolution. We believe that controlling the surface coordination number can open new routes for the design of highly durable nanoscale electrocatalysts.

  8. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  9. New developments for the site-specific attachment of protein to surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A

    2005-05-12

    Protein immobilization on surfaces is of great importance in numerous applications in biology and biophysics. The key for the success of all these applications relies on the immobilization technique employed to attach the protein to the corresponding surface. Protein immobilization can be based on covalent or noncovalent interaction of the molecule with the surface. Noncovalent interactions include hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces, electrostatic forces, or physical adsorption. However, since these interactions are weak, the molecules can get denatured or dislodged, thus causing loss of signal. They also result in random attachment of the protein to the surface. Site-specific covalent attachment of proteins onto surfaces, on the other hand, leads to molecules being arranged in a definite, orderly fashion and uses spacers and linkers to help minimize steric hindrances between the protein surface. This work reviews in detail some of the methods most commonly used as well as the latest developments for the site-specific covalent attachment of protein to solid surfaces.

  10. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  11. Preliminary Correlation Map of Geomorphic Surfaces in North-Central Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-08-01

    This correlation map (scale = 1:12,000) presents the results of a mapping initiative that was part of the comprehensive site characterization required to operate the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in northern Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Eight primary map units are recognized for Quaternary surfaces: remnants of six alluvial fan or terrace surfaces, one unit that includes colluvial aprons associated with hill slopes, and one unit for anthropogenically disturbed surfaces. This surficial geology map provides fundamental data on natural processes for reconstruction of the Quaternary history of northern Frenchman Flat, which in turn will aid in the understanding of the natural processes that act to develop the landscape, and the time-frames involved in landscape development. The mapping was conducted using color and color-infrared aerial photographs and field verification of map unit composition and boundaries. Criteria for defining the map unit composition of geomorphic surface units are based on relative geomorphic position, landform morphology, and degree of preservation of surface morphology. The bedrock units identified on this map were derived from previous published mapping efforts and are included for completeness.

  12. Site-specific immobilization of protein layers on gold surfaces via orthogonal sortases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Parthasarathy, Ranganath; Boder, Eric T

    2015-04-01

    We report a site-specific, sortase-mediated ligation to immobilize proteins layer-by-layer on a gold surface. Recombinant fluorescent proteins with a Sortase A recognition tag at the C-terminus were immobilized on peptide-modified gold surfaces. We used two sortases with different substrate specificities (Streptococcus pyogenes Sortase A and Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A) to immobilize layers of GFP and mCherry site-specifically on the gold surface. Surfaces were characterized using fluorescence and atomic force microscopy after immobilizing each layer of protein. Fluorescent micrographs showed that both protein immobilization on the modified gold surface and protein oligomerization are sortase-dependent. AFM images showed that either homogenous protein monolayers or layers of protein oligomers can be generated using appropriately tagged substrate proteins. Using Sortase A variants with orthogonal peptide substrate specificities, site-specific immobilization of appropriately tagged GFP onto a layer of immobilized mCherry was achieved without disruption of the underlying protein layer.

  13. Design and Development of Portable Support Surface and Multilayered Fabric Cover for Bed Sore Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandha Vadivu, P

    2015-12-01

    Pressure ulcers are serious and common health concern affecting about 1.5-3 million adults and is a serious health concern for elders. Pressure ulcers or bed sores seem to be one of the most challenging inflicts to the doctors and may result in significant morbidity and mortality and are associated with high cost in terms of human sufferings, cost of treatment, and possible litigation. Though modern medical science has launched a variety of treatment methods, prevention is the best way to get rid of it. Pressure sores are best prevented by using support surfaces that are volatile in nature-like water mattress, variable pressure mattress, etc. In this research work, a portable support surface has been designed and developed for preventing bedsore. It consists of four individual components for the body part such as bodice back, hip, elbow, and heel which are likely to be affected by bedsores. Each component has volatile surface provisions in them with refilling and cleaning facility. The portable support surface is easy to wear and remove and also cheaper. Above all, the kit is user-friendly with no side effects and preferred and guaranteed by the doctors.

  14. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  15. Investigators' - Site Coordinators' Opportunity for Research Excellence (I-SCORE) Workshop | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DCP Organ Systems Research Groups develop, support and oversee clinical cancer prevention trials and promote participation by all populations. The trials are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of promising new preventive agents, the utility of novel biomarkers and the value of innovative technologies to identify premalignant lesions. The Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials program was created to facilitate the efficient implementation of these studies by teams of multidisciplinary investigators. |

  16. Surface and downhole shear wave seismic methods for thick soil site investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J.A.; Benjumea, B.; Harris, J.B.; Miller, R.D.; Pullan, S.E.; Burns, R.A.; Good, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Shear wave velocity-depth information is required for predicting the ground motion response to earthquakes in areas where significant soil cover exists over firm bedrock. Rather than estimating this critical parameter, it can be reliably measured using a suite of surface (non-invasive) and downhole (invasive) seismic methods. Shear wave velocities from surface measurements can be obtained using SH refraction techniques. Array lengths as large as 1000 m and depth of penetration to 250 m have been achieved in some areas. High resolution shear wave reflection techniques utilizing the common midpoint method can delineate the overburden-bedrock surface as well as reflecting boundaries within the overburden. Reflection data can also be used to obtain direct estimates of fundamental site periods from shear wave reflections without the requirement of measuring average shear wave velocity and total thickness of unconsolidated overburden above the bedrock surface. Accurate measurements of vertical shear wave velocities can be obtained using a seismic cone penetrometer in soft sediments, or with a well-locked geophone array in a borehole. Examples from thick soil sites in Canada demonstrate the type of shear wave velocity information that can be obtained with these geophysical techniques, and show how these data can be used to provide a first look at predicted ground motion response for thick soil sites. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Direct site-directed photocoupling of proteins onto surfaces coated with β-cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Städe, Lars W; Wimmer, Reinhard; Stensballe, Allan

    2010-01-01

    A method called Dock'n'Flash was developed to offer site-specific capture and direct UVA-induced photocoupling of recombinant proteins. The method involves the tagging of recombinant proteins with photoreactive p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (pBpa) by genetic engineering. The photoreactive pBpa tag...... photoimmobilization of N27pBpa-cutinase on quartz slides coated with beta-CD was achieved from liquid or dry films by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The Dock'n'Flash method offers a solution for direct photocoupling and patterning of recombinant proteins onto surfaces with site-specific attachment....

  18. Techniques of surface optical breakdown prevention for low-depths femtosecond waveguides writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, M. A.; Skryabin, N. N.; Ganin, D. V.; Khudyakov, D. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrated technique of direct femtosecond waveguide writing at record low depth (2-15 μm) under surface of lithium niobate, that play a key role in design of electrooptical modulators with low operating voltage. To prevent optical breakdown of crystal surface we used high numerical aperture objectives for focusing of light and non-thermal regime of inscription in contrast to widespread femtosecond writing technique at depths of tens micrometers or higher. Surface optical breakdown threshold was measured for both x- and z- cut crystals. Inscribed waveguides were examined for intrinsic microstructure. It also reported sharp narrowing of operating pulses energy range with writing depth under the surface of crystal, that should be taken in account when near-surface waveguides design. Novelty of the results consists in reduction of inscription depth under the surface of crystals that broadens applications of direct femtosecond writing technique to full formation of near-surface waveguides and postproduction precise geometry correction of near-surfaces optical integrated circuits produced with proton-exchanged technique.

  19. Carboxylator: incorporating solvent-accessible surface area for identifying protein carboxylation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Chen, Shu-An; Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Cheng, Tzu-Hsiu; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2011-10-01

    In proteins, glutamate (Glu) residues are transformed into γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues in a process called carboxylation. The process of protein carboxylation catalyzed by γ-glutamyl carboxylase is deemed to be important due to its involvement in biological processes such as blood clotting cascade and bone growth. There is an increasing interest within the scientific community to identify protein carboxylation sites. However, experimental identification of carboxylation sites via mass spectrometry-based methods is observed to be expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Thus, we were motivated to design a computational method for identifying protein carboxylation sites. This work aims to investigate the protein carboxylation by considering the composition of amino acids that surround modification sites. With the implication of a modified residue prefers to be accessible on the surface of a protein, the solvent-accessible surface area (ASA) around carboxylation sites is also investigated. Radial basis function network is then employed to build a predictive model using various features for identifying carboxylation sites. Based on a five-fold cross-validation evaluation, a predictive model trained using the combined features of amino acid sequence (AA20D), amino acid composition, and ASA, yields the highest accuracy at 0.874. Furthermore, an independent test done involving data not included in the cross-validation process indicates that in silico identification is a feasible means of preliminary analysis. Additionally, the predictive method presented in this work is implemented as Carboxylator (http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/Carboxylator/), a web-based tool for identifying carboxylated proteins with modification sites in order to help users in investigating γ-glutamyl carboxylation.

  20. A Wood-Waste Cover Prevents Sulphide Oxidation and Treats Acid Effluents at the East-Sullivan Mine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, D.; Tassé, N.; Cyr, J.

    2004-05-01

    At the East Sullivan site, wood wastes covering the abandoned mine tailings impoundment prevent sulphide oxidation by creating an anoxic environment. The addition of coarse ligneous wastes favours infiltration, resulting in a water table rise. This maintains most tailings saturated and thus provides an additional protection against sulphide oxidation. Moreover, high infiltration allows a more rapid flushing of acid prone groundwater generated prior to the cover placement. Finally, the pore-waters under the cover are characterized by a strong reducing potential and high alkalinity. These conditions favour sulphate reduction and base metal precipitation as sulphides and carbonates. The restoration strategy capitalized on the alkaline and reductive properties of the waters underlying the wood-waste cover. An original treatment of acid effluents, based on the recirculation of water discharging around the impoundment through the organic cover, was implemented in 1998. In 2003, the total volume of water treated was 725 000 m3. Data gathered near the dispersal zone show that despite dispersing acid water, the groundwater pH decreases by only one unit from 7 to 6, during the recirculation period: May to October. However, alkalinity decreases from 800 to 100 mg/L-CaCO3. But it is back up to 800 mg/L the following spring, thanks to sulphate reduction. Fe2+ concentrations near the dispersal zone are maintained below 2 mg/L. Evolution of the iron mass in the surface waters suggests that the contaminated groundwater flush is completed in the north and west sectors of the impoundment; the east and south ones are expected to be recovered within 3 to 4 years. A wood-waste cover, besides limiting sulphide oxidation, can fill the role of alkaline reducing barrier for the treatment of these acidogenic waters, until a balance between acidity and alkalinity in the effluent is reached.

  1. Web site construction for prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, Evangelia; Ponirou, Paraskevi; Bizopoulou, Zoi; Diomidous, Marianna; Mantas, John

    2013-01-01

    The sexually transmitted diseases are a group of infectious diseases with increasing incidence worldwide. In recent years, these diseases have taken epidemic proportions in many countries and huge efforts have been made to prevent them. The gonococcus infections, the HPV virus, AIDS, chlamydia, herpes genitalia, hepatitis B and C, the trichomonas and syphilis are the most common sexually transmitted diseases. This paper describes the clinical and epidemiological symptoms and the preventive measures that should be taken for each disease. lt also presents the dimensions of the sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents who are particularly a "sensitive" group. One of the most important and widely disseminated measures of prevention is the use of condoms. We can also see the importance of and other preventive measures which can be taken against sexually transmitted diseases. Finally, it is noted also the role of the state to treat these diseases, which are unfortunately quite common, and the measures taken by it to prevent and treat them.

  2. Efficient surface modification of biomaterial to prevent biofilm formation and the attachment of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaka, Kateryna; Jacob, Mohan V; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2012-07-01

    Biomaterials play a fundamental role in disease management and the improvement of health care. In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the diversity, function, and number of biomaterials used worldwide. Yet, attachment of pathogenic microorganisms onto biomaterial surfaces remains a significant challenge that substantially undermines their clinical applicability, limiting the advancement of these systems. The emergence and escalating pervasiveness of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains makes the management of biomaterial-associated nosocomial infections increasingly difficult. The conventional post-operative treatment of implant-caused infections using systemic antibiotics is often marginally effective, further accelerating the extent of antimicrobial resistance. Methods by which the initial stages of bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can be restricted or prevented are therefore sought. The surface modification of biomaterials has the potential to alleviate pathogenic biofouling, therefore preventing the need for conventional antibiotics to be applied.

  3. femoral neck fracture during physical therapy following surface replacement arthroplasty: a preventable complication? A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayton Michael R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This case report describes two cases of peri-prosthetic fracture during physical therapy in patients who underwent a hip resurfacing, or surface replacement arthroplasty. The fractures occurred with forceful passive combined flexion and external rotation. Functional results were ultimately obtained in both cases, requiring conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Recognizing patient risk factors and cautioning therapists about the possibility of fracture may have prevented these complications.

  4. LIGSITEcsc: predicting ligand binding sites using the Connolly surface and degree of conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Michael

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying pockets on protein surfaces is of great importance for many structure-based drug design applications and protein-ligand docking algorithms. Over the last ten years, many geometric methods for the prediction of ligand-binding sites have been developed. Results We present LIGSITEcsc, an extension and implementation of the LIGSITE algorithm. LIGSITEcsc is based on the notion of surface-solvent-surface events and the degree of conservation of the involved surface residues. We compare our algorithm to four other approaches, LIGSITE, CAST, PASS, and SURFNET, and evaluate all on a dataset of 48 unbound/bound structures and 210 bound-structures. LIGSITEcsc performs slightly better than the other tools and achieves a success rate of 71% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion The use of the Connolly surface leads to slight improvements, the prediction re-ranking by conservation to significant improvements of the binding site predictions. A web server for LIGSITEcsc and its source code is available at scoppi.biotec.tu-dresden.de/pocket.

  5. Conjugation of Hyaluronic Acid onto Surfaces via the Interfacial Polymerization of Dopamine to Prevent Protein Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Renliang; Liu, Xia; Ye, Huijun; Su, Rongxin; Qi, Wei; Wang, Libing; He, Zhimin

    2015-11-10

    A versatile, convenient, and cost-effective method that can be used for grafting antifouling materials onto different surfaces is highly desirable in many applications. Here, we report the one-step fabrication of antifouling surfaces via the polymerization of dopamine and the simultaneous deposition of anionic hyaluronic acid (HA) on Au substrates. The water contact angle of the Au surfaces decreased from 84.9° to 24.8° after the attachment of a highly uniform polydopamine (PDA)/HA hybrid film. The results of surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the Au-PDA/HA surfaces adsorbed proteins from solutions of bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, β-lactoglobulin, fibrinogen, and soybean milk in ultralow or low amounts (4.8-31.7 ng/cm(2)). The hydrophilicity and good antifouling performance of the PDA/HA surfaces is attributable to the HA chains that probably attached onto their upper surface via hydrogen bonding between PDA and HA. At the same time, the electrostatic repulsion between PDA and HA probably prevents the aggregation of PDA, resulting in the formation of a highly uniform PDA/HA hybrid film with the HA chains (with a stretched structure) on the upper surface. We also developed a simple method for removing this PDA/HA film and recycling the Au substrates by using an aqueous solution of NaOH as the hydrolyzing agent. The Au surface remained undamaged, and a PDA/HA film could be redeposited on the surface, with the surface exhibiting good antifouling performance even after 10 such cycles. Finally, it was found that this grafting method is applicable to other substrates, including epoxy resins, polystyrene, glass, and steel, owing to the strong adhesion of PDA with these substrates.

  6. Goethite surface reactivity: III. Unifying arsenate adsorption behavior through a variable crystal face - Site density model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Camacho, Carlos; Villalobos, Mario

    2010-04-01

    We developed a model that describes quantitatively the arsenate adsorption behavior for any goethite preparation as a function of pH and ionic strength, by using one basic surface arsenate stoichiometry, with two affinity constants. The model combines a face distribution-crystallographic site density model for goethite with tenets of the Triple Layer and CD-MUSIC surface complexation models, and is self-consistent with its adsorption behavior towards protons, electrolytes, and other ions investigated previously. Five different systems of published arsenate adsorption data were used to calibrate the model spanning a wide range of chemical conditions, which included adsorption isotherms at different pH values, and adsorption pH-edges at different As(V) loadings, both at different ionic strengths and background electrolytes. Four additional goethite-arsenate systems reported with limited characterization and adsorption data were accurately described by the model developed. The adsorption reaction proposed is: lbond2 FeOH +lbond2 SOH +AsO43-+H→lbond2 FeOAsO3[2-]…SOH+HO where lbond2 SOH is an adjacent surface site to lbond2 FeOH; with log K = 21.6 ± 0.7 when lbond2 SOH is another lbond2 FeOH, and log K = 18.75 ± 0.9, when lbond2 SOH is lbond2 Fe 2OH. An additional small contribution of a protonated complex was required to describe data at low pH and very high arsenate loadings. The model considered goethites above 80 m 2/g as ideally composed of 70% face (1 0 1) and 30% face (0 0 1), resulting in a site density for lbond2 FeOH and for lbond2 Fe 3OH of 3.125/nm 2 each. Below 80 m 2/g surface capacity increases progressively with decreasing area, which was modeled by considering a progressively increasing proportion of faces (0 1 0)/(1 0 1), because face (0 1 0) shows a much higher site density of lbond2 FeOH groups. Computation of the specific proportion of faces, and thus of the site densities for the three types of crystallographic surface groups present in

  7. Introduction to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomkin, Joseph S; Mazuski, John; Blanchard, Joan C; Itani, Kamal M F; Ricks, Philip; Dellinger, E Patchen; Allen, George; Kelz, Rachel; Reinke, Caroline E; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common type of health-care-associated infection (HAI) and adds considerably to the individual, social, and economic costs of surgical treatment. This document serves to introduce the updated Guideline for the Prevention of SSI from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). The Core section of the guideline addresses issues relevant to multiple surgical specialties and procedures. The second procedure-specific section focuses on a high-volume, high-burden procedure: Prosthetic joint arthroplasty. While many elements of the 1999 guideline remain current, others warrant updating to incorporate new knowledge and changes in the patient population, operative techniques, emerging pathogens, and guideline development methodology.

  8. Surface radioactivity at the plowshare gas-stimulation test sites: Gasbuggy, Rulison, Rio Blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    A surface soil characterization was conducted at three former underground nuclear test sites: Gasbuggy, New Mexico; Rulison, Colorado; and Rio Blanco, Colorado. The abundances of man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides were determined with their contributions to total exposure rate. CS-137 was the only man-made radionuclide detected in the study and was highest at undisturbed locations with little forest litter cover. The amounts observed are consisted with radiocesium fallout concentration observed in other parts of the United States.

  9. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  10. Contaminated site risk and uncertainty assessment for impacts on surface and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak

    in clay till geology and the impact on streams; 3) the characterization of the dominating anthropogenic stressors in headwater streams at catchment scale and 4) the development of a method for assessing the uncertainty in conceptual site models. Advances in risk assessment methods for contaminated sites...... carbon and ammonium) in the groundwater and the stream. Based on the results of the mass balance method, significant spatial heterogeneity was expected in the contaminant mass discharge pattern to Risby Stream. To obtain a better understanding of this impact, a detailed investigation was conducted....... The investigation involved an array of methods including studies of the site hydrogeology, groundwater and surface water discharge and landfill leachate composition and distribution. The methods included driven wells, seepage meters, grab samples, measurement of the temperature gradient in the stream bed...

  11. Surface geophysics and porewater evaluation at the Lower Darby Creek Area Superfund Site, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles W.; Degnan, James R.; Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 3, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is participating in an ongoing study to aid in the identification of subsurface heterogeneities that may act as preferential pathways for contaminant transport in and around the Lower Darby Creek Area (LDCA) Superfund Site, Philadelphia Pa. Lower Darby Creek, which flows into the Delaware River, borders the western part of the former landfill site. In 2013, the USGS conducted surface geophysics measurements and stream porewater sampling to provide additional data for EPA’s site characterization. This report contains data collected from field measurements of direct current (DC) resistivity, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, and stream porewater specific conductance (SC).

  12. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Site Optimization for Poyang Lake, the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a coupled method to optimize the surface water quality monitoring sites for a huge freshwater lake based on field investigations, mathematical analysis, and numerical simulation tests. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on the field investigated water quality data in the 5 years from 2008 to 2012, the water quality inter-annual variation coefficients at all the present sites and the water quality correlation coefficients between adjacent sites were calculated and analyzed to present an optimization scheme. A 2-D unsteady water quality model was established to get the corresponding water quality data at the optimized monitoring sites, which were needed for the rationality test on the optimized monitoring network. We found that: (1 the water quality of Piaoshan (No. 10 fluctuated most distinguishably and the inter-annual variation coefficient of NH3-N and TP could reach 99.77% and 73.92%, respectively. The four studied indexes were all closely related at Piaoshan (No. 10 and Tangyin (No. 11, and the correlation coefficients of COD and NH3-N could reach 0.91 and 0.94 separately. (2 It was suggested that the present site No. 10 be removed to avoid repeatability, and it was suggested that the three sites of Changling, Huzhong, and Nanjiang be added to improve the representativeness of the monitoring sites. (3 According to the rationality analysis, the 21 optimized water quality monitoring sites could scientifically replace the primary network, and the new monitoring network could better reflect the water quality of the whole lake.

  13. Recommendations for prevention of surgical site infection in adult elective arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Chuluyán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections complicating orthopedic implant surgeries prolong hospital stay and increase risk of readmission, hospitalization costs and mortality. These recommendations are aimed at: (i optimizing compliance and incorporating habits in all surgery phases by detecting risk factors for surgical site infections which are potentially correctable or modifiable; and (ii optimizing preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis as well as intraoperative and postoperative care

  14. Feline injection-site sarcoma : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Katrin; Day, Michael J; Thiry, Etienne; Lloret, Albert; Frymus, Tadeusz; Addie, Diane; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: In cats, the most serious of adverse effects following vaccination is the occurrence of invasive sarcomas (mostly fibrosarcomas): so-called 'feline injection-site sarcomas' (FISSs). These develop at sites of previous vaccination or injection. They have characteristics that are distinct fro

  15. Cyanoacrylate Skin Microsealant for Preventing Surgical Site Infection after Vascular Surgery : A Discontinued Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, Bastiaan P.; Ott, Alewijn; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Oskam, Jacques; Ott, Alewijn; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) after vascular surgery are related to substantial morbidity. Restriction of bacterial access to the site of surgery with a cyanoacrylate sealant is a new concept. We performed a randomized clinical trial to assess the effect of the sealing of skin with a

  16. Effect of particle surface area on ice active site densities retrieved from droplet freezing spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hassan; Polen, Michael; Sullivan, Ryan C.

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation remains one of the outstanding problems in cloud physics and atmospheric science. Experimental challenges in properly simulating particle-induced freezing processes under atmospherically relevant conditions have largely contributed to the absence of a well-established parameterization of immersion freezing properties. Here, we formulate an ice active, surface-site-based stochastic model of heterogeneous freezing with the unique feature of invoking a continuum assumption on the ice nucleating activity (contact angle) of an aerosol particle's surface that requires no assumptions about the size or number of active sites. The result is a particle-specific property g that defines a distribution of local ice nucleation rates. Upon integration, this yields a full freezing probability function for an ice nucleating particle. Current cold plate droplet freezing measurements provide a valuable and inexpensive resource for studying the freezing properties of many atmospheric aerosol systems. We apply our g framework to explain the observed dependence of the freezing temperature of droplets in a cold plate on the concentration of the particle species investigated. Normalizing to the total particle mass or surface area present to derive the commonly used ice nuclei active surface (INAS) density (ns) often cannot account for the effects of particle concentration, yet concentration is typically varied to span a wider measurable freezing temperature range. A method based on determining what is denoted an ice nucleating species' specific critical surface area is presented and explains the concentration dependence as a result of increasing the variability in ice nucleating active sites between droplets. By applying this method to experimental droplet freezing data from four different systems, we demonstrate its ability to interpret immersion freezing temperature spectra of droplets containing variable particle concentrations. It is shown that general

  17. Prototype of web-based database of surface wave investigation results for site classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Cakir, R.; Martin, A. J.; Craig, M. S.; Lorenzo, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    As active and passive surface wave methods are getting popular for evaluating site response of earthquake ground motion, demand on the development of database for investigation results is also increasing. Seismic ground motion not only depends on 1D velocity structure but also on 2D and 3D structures so that spatial information of S-wave velocity must be considered in ground motion prediction. The database can support to construct 2D and 3D underground models. Inversion of surface wave processing is essentially non-unique so that other information must be combined into the processing. The database of existed geophysical, geological and geotechnical investigation results can provide indispensable information to improve the accuracy and reliability of investigations. Most investigations, however, are carried out by individual organizations and investigation results are rarely stored in the unified and organized database. To study and discuss appropriate database and digital standard format for the surface wave investigations, we developed a prototype of web-based database to store observed data and processing results of surface wave investigations that we have performed at more than 400 sites in U.S. and Japan. The database was constructed on a web server using MySQL and PHP so that users can access to the database through the internet from anywhere with any device. All data is registered in the database with location and users can search geophysical data through Google Map. The database stores dispersion curves, horizontal to vertical spectral ratio and S-wave velocity profiles at each site that was saved in XML files as digital data so that user can review and reuse them. The database also stores a published 3D deep basin and crustal structure and user can refer it during the processing of surface wave data.

  18. Surface elevation change artifact at the NEEM ice core drilling site, North Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Larsen, Lars; Schøtt Hvidberg, Christine; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Lilja Buchardt, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    The NEEM deep drilling site (77.45°N 51.06°W) is located at the main ice divide in North Greenland. For the ice core drilling project, a number of buildings was erected and left on the snow surface during the five-year project period. The structures created snowdrifts that formed accordingly to the predominant wind direction on the lee side on the buildings and the overwintering cargo. To get access to the buildings, the snowdrifts and the accumulated snow were removed and the surface in the camp was leveled with heavy machinery each summer. In the camp a GPS reference pole was placed as a part of the NEEM strain net, 12 poles placed in three diamonds at distances of 2,5 km, 7,5 km and 25 km they were all measured with high precision GPS every year. Around the reference pole, a 1 km x 1 km grid with a spacing of 100 m was measured with differential GPS each year. In this work, we present results from the GPS surface topography measurements in and around the campsite. The mapping of the topography in and around the campsite shows how the snowdrifts evolve and are the reason for the lift of the camp site area. The accumulated snowdrifts are compared to the dominant wind directions from year to year. The annual snow accumulation at the NEEM site is 0.60 m. The reference pole in the camp indicates an additional snow accumulation of 0.50 m per year caused by collected drifting snow. The surface topography mapping shows that this artificially elevated surface extends up to several kilometers out in the terrain. This could have possible implications on other glaciological and geophysical measurements in the area i.e. pit and snow accumulation studies.

  19. Surface properties of the Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites: characterization from orbit and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the interpretation of THEMIS-derived thermal inertia data at the Eberswalde, Gale, Holden, and Mawrth Vallis Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) candidate landing sites and determines how thermophysical variations correspond to morphology and, when apparent, mineralogical diversity. At Eberswalde, the proportion of likely unconsolidated material relative to exposed bedrock or highly indurated surfaces controls the thermal inertia of a given region. At Gale, the majority of the landing site region has a moderate thermal inertia (250 to 410 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), which is likely an indurated surface mixed with unconsolidated materials. The primary difference between higher and moderate thermal inertia surfaces may be due to the amount of mantling material present. Within the mound of stratified material in Gale, layers are distinguished in the thermal inertia data; the MSL rover could be traversing through materials that are both thermophysically and compositionally diverse. The majority of the Holden ellipse has a thermal inertia of 340 to 475 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and consists of bed forms with some consolidated material intermixed. Mawrth Vallis has a mean thermal inertia of 310 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and a wide variety of materials is present contributing to the moderate thermal inertia surfaces, including a mixture of bedrock, indurated surfaces, bed forms, and unconsolidated fines. Phyllosilicates have been identified at all four candidate landing sites, and these clay-bearing units typically have a similar thermal inertia value (400 to 500 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting physical properties that are also similar.

  20. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions.

  1. DFT Study of Metal Atoms Adsorbed at Low-coordinated Sites of MgO (001) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艺军; 章永凡; 陈文凯; 李俊篯

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption of metal atoms, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Au, at low-coordinated edge and corner oxygen sites of MgO (001) surface has been studied theoretically by using density functional method with cluster models embedded in a large array of point charges. For comparison, the interaction of metal atoms with perfect regular oxygen site of MgO (001) surface was also calculated. As regards these metal atoms adsorbed at perfect oxygen sites of MgO (001) surface, Cu, Ag and Au are very weakly bonded to the surface of MgO; Ni, Pd and Pt, on the other hand, exhibit strong interactions with perfect oxygen sites of MgO (001) surface; the large adsorption energy shows that there exist strong bonds formed between these metal atoms with surface oxygen sites. For the metal atoms adsorbed at edge and corner sites, the adsorption energy is much increased, consistent with our previous study of CO and Cl2 adsorption on MgO (001) surface. This illustrates that the low-coordinated sites, especially corner site, are more advantageous positions for those metal atoms adsorbed on MgO (001) surface. The Mulliken population analysis indicates that the electron transferred from MgO to the metal atoms were increased with the decrease of the coordination numbers, which may be one of the reasons for changing catalytic efficiency and selectivity of the metal particles supported by MgO.

  2. Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When acute inflammation in anterior eye segment of a forward piece of an eye was stopped, ophthalmologists face a problem of absence of acute inflammation signs and at the same time complaints to the remain discomfort feelings. It causes dissatisfaction from the treatment. The complaints are typically caused by disturbance of tears productions. No accidental that the new group of diseases was allocated — the diseases of the ocular surface. Ocular surface is a difficult biologic system, including epithelium of the conjunctiva, cornea and limb, as well as the area costal margin eyelid and meibomian gland ducts. Pathological processes in conjunctiva, cornea and eyelids are linked with tears production. Ophthalmologists prescribes tears substitutions, providing short-term relief to patients. However, in respect that the lipid component of the tear film plays the key role in the preservation of its stability, eyelids hygiene is the basis for the treatment of dry eye associated with ocular surface diseases. Eyelids hygiene provides normal functioning of glands, restores the metabolic processes in skin and ensures the formation of a complete tear film. Protection of eyelids, especially the marginal edge from aggressive environmental agents, infections and parasites and is the basis for the prevention and treatment of blepharitis and dry eye syndrome. The most common clinical situations and algorithms of their treatment and prevention of dysfunction of the meibomian glands; demodectic blepharitis; seborrheic blepharitis; staphylococcal blepharitis; allergic blepharitis; barley and chalazion are discussed in the article. The prevention keratoconjunctival xerosis (before and postoperative period, caused by contact lenses, computer vision syndrome, remission after acute conjunctiva and cornea inflammation is also presented. The first part of the article presents the treatment and prevention algorithms for dysfunction of the meibomian glands, as well as

  3. Sand Dune Ridge Alignment Effects on Surface BRF over the Libya-4 CEOS Calibration Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Govaerts

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm.

  4. Sand dune ridge alignment effects on surface BRF over the Libya-4 CEOS calibration site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Yves M

    2015-02-03

    The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm.

  5. Surface PEGylation of intraocular lens for PCO prevention: An in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Tang, Jun-Mei; Han, Yue-Mei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Quan-Kui

    2016-07-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a common complication in cataract surgery. The development of PCO is attributed to the combination of adhesion, migration, proliferation, and transdifferentiation of the residual lens epithelial cells (LEC) onto the interface of intraocular lens (IOL) material and lens posterior, in which the initial adhesion is the beginning step and plays important roles. In the present study, hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) was immobilized onto IOL surface via plasma-aided chemical grafting procedure. The attenuated total reflection - Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle (CA) - measurements indicate the successful surface PEGylation, as well as the excellent hydrophilicity of the surfaces. Compared with pristine IOL, the PEGylation does not influent its optical property, whereas the initial adhesion of LEC is greatly inhibited. In vivo ocular implantation results show that the PEGylated IOL presents good in vivo biocompatibility, and can effectively prevent the PCO development.

  6. Control and Prevention of Ice Formation on the Surface of an Aluminum Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral

    In cold climates, mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery, e.g. air-to-air exchangers, are often used to reduce energy demand for heating by recovering the heat from the exhausted air. This, however, creates a risk of ice accretion on the fins of the heat exchanger as warm and humid...... modified with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxy silane (APTES) exhibited longer freezing delays as compared to both more hydrophilic and more hydrophobic substrates. This is attributed to a particular surface chemistry of the APTES modification that prevents ice formation at the interface of the substrate due...... to presence of high local ion concentration (amino groups), hence leading to significant freezing point suppression. Furthermore, the results suggest that surface topography and wettability determine the freezing kinetics of a droplet placed on a precooled sample. Therefore, surface chemistry which may change...

  7. Waste generation and pollution prevention progress fact sheet: Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Nevada Test Site is responsible for maintaining nuclear testing capability, supporting science-based Stockpile Stewardship experiments, maintaining nuclear agency response capability, applying environmental restoration techniques to areas affected by nuclear testing, managing low-level and mixed radioactive waste, investigating demilitarization technologies, investigating counter- proliferation technologies, supporting work-for-others programs and special Department of Defense activities, operating a hazardous materials spill test center, and providing for the commercial development of the site. This fact sheet provides information on routine waste generation and projected reduction by waste type. Also, materials recycled by the Nevada Test Site in 1994 are listed.

  8. Multi-site evaluation of the JULES land surface model using global and local data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Slevin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the ability of the JULES land surface model (LSM to simulate photosynthesis using local and global data sets at 12 FLUXNET sites. Model parameters include site-specific (local values for each flux tower site and the default parameters used in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM climate model. Firstly, gross primary productivity (GPP estimates from driving JULES with data derived from local site measurements were compared to observations from the FLUXNET network. When using local data, the model is biased with total annual GPP underestimated by 16% across all sites compared to observations. Secondly, GPP estimates from driving JULES with data derived from global parameter and atmospheric reanalysis (on scales of 100 km or so were compared to FLUXNET observations. It was found that model performance decreases further, with total annual GPP underestimated by 30% across all sites compared to observations. When JULES was driven using local parameters and global meteorological data, it was shown that global data could be used in place of FLUXNET data with a 7% reduction in total annual simulated GPP. Thirdly, the global meteorological data sets, WFDEI and PRINCETON, were compared to local data to find that the WFDEI data set more closely matches the local meteorological measurements (FLUXNET. Finally, the JULES phenology model was tested by comparing results from simulations using the default phenology model to those forced with the remote sensing product MODIS leaf area index (LAI. Forcing the model with daily satellite LAI results in only small improvements in predicted GPP at a small number of sites, compared to using the default phenology model.

  9. Analysis of Binding Site Hot Spots on the Surface of Ras GTPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrman, Greg; O; #8242; Connor, Casey; Zerbe, Brandon; Kearney, Bradley M.; Napoleon, Raeanne; Kovrigina, Elizaveta A.; Vajda, Sandor; Kozakov, Dima; Kovrigin, Evgenii L.; Mattos, Carla (NCSU); (MCW); (BU)

    2012-09-17

    We have recently discovered an allosteric switch in Ras, bringing an additional level of complexity to this GTPase whose mutants are involved in nearly 30% of cancers. Upon activation of the allosteric switch, there is a shift in helix 3/loop 7 associated with a disorder to order transition in the active site. Here, we use a combination of multiple solvent crystal structures and computational solvent mapping (FTMap) to determine binding site hot spots in the 'off' and 'on' allosteric states of the GTP-bound form of H-Ras. Thirteen sites are revealed, expanding possible target sites for ligand binding well beyond the active site. Comparison of FTMaps for the H and K isoforms reveals essentially identical hot spots. Furthermore, using NMR measurements of spin relaxation, we determined that K-Ras exhibits global conformational dynamics very similar to those we previously reported for H-Ras. We thus hypothesize that the global conformational rearrangement serves as a mechanism for allosteric coupling between the effector interface and remote hot spots in all Ras isoforms. At least with respect to the binding sites involving the G domain, H-Ras is an excellent model for K-Ras and probably N-Ras as well. Ras has so far been elusive as a target for drug design. The present work identifies various unexplored hot spots throughout the entire surface of Ras, extending the focus from the disordered active site to well-ordered locations that should be easier to target.

  10. Uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model at multiple flux tower sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshi; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle – ET from the land surface returns approximately 60% of the global precipitation back to the atmosphere. ET also plays an important role in energy transport among the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Current regional to global and daily to annual ET estimation relies mainly on surface energy balance (SEB) ET models or statistical and empirical methods driven by remote sensing data and various climatological databases. These models have uncertainties due to inevitable input errors, poorly defined parameters, and inadequate model structures. The eddy covariance measurements on water, energy, and carbon fluxes at the AmeriFlux tower sites provide an opportunity to assess the ET modeling uncertainties. In this study, we focused on uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for ET estimation at multiple AmeriFlux tower sites with diverse land cover characteristics and climatic conditions. The 8-day composite 1-km MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) was used as input land surface temperature for the SSEBop algorithms. The other input data were taken from the AmeriFlux database. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the SSEBop model performed well in estimating ET with an R2 of 0.86 between estimated ET and eddy covariance measurements at 42 AmeriFlux tower sites during 2001–2007. It was encouraging to see that the best performance was observed for croplands, where R2 was 0.92 with a root mean square error of 13 mm/month. The uncertainties or random errors from input variables and parameters of the SSEBop model led to monthly ET estimates with relative errors less than 20% across multiple flux tower sites distributed across different biomes. This uncertainty of the SSEBop model lies within the error range of other SEB models, suggesting systematic error or bias of the SSEBop model is within

  11. Uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model at multiple flux tower sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshi; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle - ET from the land surface returns approximately 60% of the global precipitation back to the atmosphere. ET also plays an important role in energy transport among the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Current regional to global and daily to annual ET estimation relies mainly on surface energy balance (SEB) ET models or statistical and empirical methods driven by remote sensing data and various climatological databases. These models have uncertainties due to inevitable input errors, poorly defined parameters, and inadequate model structures. The eddy covariance measurements on water, energy, and carbon fluxes at the AmeriFlux tower sites provide an opportunity to assess the ET modeling uncertainties. In this study, we focused on uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for ET estimation at multiple AmeriFlux tower sites with diverse land cover characteristics and climatic conditions. The 8-day composite 1-km MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) was used as input land surface temperature for the SSEBop algorithms. The other input data were taken from the AmeriFlux database. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the SSEBop model performed well in estimating ET with an R2 of 0.86 between estimated ET and eddy covariance measurements at 42 AmeriFlux tower sites during 2001-2007. It was encouraging to see that the best performance was observed for croplands, where R2 was 0.92 with a root mean square error of 13 mm/month. The uncertainties or random errors from input variables and parameters of the SSEBop model led to monthly ET estimates with relative errors less than 20% across multiple flux tower sites distributed across different biomes. This uncertainty of the SSEBop model lies within the error range of other SEB models, suggesting systematic error or bias of the SSEBop model is within the

  12. 网站安全防范技巧%Web Site Safety Prevention Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆林

    2012-01-01

      Whether corporate website or personal Web site,Website security is a very important aspect,Because site security problems may cause your Web site credibility, flow, profit, and even political influence.Web sites were brought by black hung horses,Website content has been tampered,The proliferation of viruses, user information leakage problems can bring to the site of catastrophe,Web site security testing and security maintenance is a very important work.Experience in security work through a Web site here, divided into several parts to talk about website security construction and management practices.In practical work, ensure that the site's normal application.%  无论是企业网站还是个人网站,网站安全都是一个很重要的方面,因为网站安全问题可能对网站造成信誉、流量、盈利,甚至政治影响。网站被黑带来的挂马,网站内容篡改,病毒的扩散点,用户信息泄漏等等的问题都可能会给网站带来灭顶之灾,故做好网站的安全检测和安全维护都是非常重要的工作。这里通过网站安全工作中的经验积累,分几个部分谈谈网站安全建设与管理方面的做法。在实际工作中,保证了网站的正常应用。

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Evaporative properties and pinning strength of laser-ablated, hydrophilic sites on lotus-leaf-like, nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlin, Melissa L; Yang, Dongqing; Aella, P; Garcia, Antonio A; Picraux, S T; Hayes, Mark A

    2007-04-24

    Wetting, evaporative, and pinning strength properties of hydrophilic sites on superhydrophobic, nanostructured surfaces were examined. Understanding these properties is important for surface characterization and designing features in self-cleaning, lotus-leaf-like surfaces. Laser-ablated, hydrophilic spots between 250 mum and 2 mm in diameter were prepared on silicon nanowire (NW) superhydrophobic surfaces. For larger circumference pinning sites, initial contact angle measurements resemble the contact angle of the surface within the pinning site: 65-69 degrees . As the drop volume is increased, the contact angles approach the contact angle of the NW surface without pinning sites: 171-176 degrees . The behavior of water droplets on the pinning sites is governed by how much of the water droplet is being influenced by the superhydrophobic NW surfaces versus the hydrophilic areas. During the evaporation of sinapic acid solution, drops are pinned by the spots except for the smaller circumference sites. Pinning strengths of the hydrophilic sites are a linear function of the pinning spot circumference. Protein samples prepared and deposited on the pinning sites for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization indicate an improvement in sensitivity from that of a standard plate analysis by a factor of 5.

  15. Final Clean Closure Report Site 300 Surface Impoundments Closure Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, K

    2006-02-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory operated two Class II surface impoundments that stored wastewater that was discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater was the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners were nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project was to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks were installed and put into service prior to closure of the impoundments. This Clean Closure Report (Closure Report) complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR section 21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Closure Report provides the following information: (1) a brief site description; (2) the regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) the closure procedures; and (4) the findings and documentation of clean closure.

  16. TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, R.

    2012-07-31

    Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.

  17. Predicting Ligand Binding Sites on Protein Surfaces by 3-Dimensional Probability Density Distributions of Interacting Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jhih-Wei; Elumalai, Pavadai; Pitti, Thejkiran; Wu, Chih Yuan; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Predicting ligand binding sites (LBSs) on protein structures, which are obtained either from experimental or computational methods, is a useful first step in functional annotation or structure-based drug design for the protein structures. In this work, the structure-based machine learning algorithm ISMBLab-LIG was developed to predict LBSs on protein surfaces with input attributes derived from the three-dimensional probability density maps of interacting atoms, which were reconstructed on the query protein surfaces and were relatively insensitive to local conformational variations of the tentative ligand binding sites. The prediction accuracy of the ISMBLab-LIG predictors is comparable to that of the best LBS predictors benchmarked on several well-established testing datasets. More importantly, the ISMBLab-LIG algorithm has substantial tolerance to the prediction uncertainties of computationally derived protein structure models. As such, the method is particularly useful for predicting LBSs not only on experimental protein structures without known LBS templates in the database but also on computationally predicted model protein structures with structural uncertainties in the tentative ligand binding sites. PMID:27513851

  18. Biofouling Prevention of Ancient Brick Surfaces by TiO2-Based Nano-Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Graziani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brick constitutes a significant part of the construction materials used in historic buildings around the world. This material was used in Architectural Heritage for structural scope, and even for building envelopes. Thus, components made of clay brick were subjected to weathering for a long time, and this causes their deterioration. One of the most important causes for deterioration is biodeterioration caused by algae and cyanobacteria. It compromises the aesthetical properties, and, at a later stage, the integrity of the elements. In fact, traditional products used for the remediation/prevention of biofouling do not ensure long-term protection, and they need re-application over time. The use of nanotechnology, especially the use of photocatalytic products for the prevention of organic contamination of building façades is increasing. In this study, TiO2-based photocatalytic nano-coatings were applied to ancient brick, and its efficiency towards biofouling was studied. A composed suspension of algae and cyanobacteria was sprinkled on the bricks’ surface for a duration of twelve weeks. Digital Image Analysis and colorimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate algal growth on specimens’ surfaces. Results show that photocatalytic nano-coating was able to inhibit biofouling on bricks’ surfaces. In addition, substrata (their porosity and roughness clearly influences the adhesion of algal cells.

  19. Initial rotor position estimation and sliding preventing for elevators with surface-mounted PMSMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Shen, Anwen; Tang, Qipeng; Xu, Jinbang

    2016-03-01

    Improved methods of initial rotor position estimation and sliding prevention are presented in this paper for elevators with surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines (SPMSMs). In contrast to most of the existing literature, in this paper, estimation errors caused by stator resistance and dead time are analysed in detail. The improved estimation method can reduce the errors greatly without dead-time compensations and knowledge of motor parameters. Besides, an observer-based feedforward compensation of load torque is introduced to elevator applications to prevent sliding during the starting process. Since the torque observer is widely used in other motor applications, we focus on the impact caused by the change in inertia. Finally, a series of experiments are performed on a testing system with two 13.4 kW SPMSMs and drivers to illustrate the effectiveness and improvement of the method.

  20. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B. G.

    1997-11-25

    This document provides guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste. Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The program documentation is intended to demonstrate generator compliance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements as well as state and Federal regulations.

  1. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  2. Directed Hierarchical Patterning of Polycarbonate Bisphenol A Glass Surface along Predictable Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new approach in designing textured and hierarchical surfaces on polycarbonate bisphenol A type glass to improve hydrophobicity and dust repellent application for solar panels. Solvent- and vapor-induced crystallization of thermoplastic glass polycarbonate bisphenol A (PC is carried out to create hierarchically structured surfaces. In this approach dichloromethane (DCM and acetone are used in sequence. Samples are initially immersed in DCM liquid to generate nanopores, followed by exposing to acetone vapor resulting in the generation of hierarchical structure along the interporous sites. The effects of exposure time on the size, density, and distance of the generated spherules and gaps are studied and correlated with the optical transmittance and contact angle measurements at the surface. At optimized exposure time a contact angle of 98° was achieved with 80% optical transmittance. To further increase the hydrophobicity while maintaining optical properties, the hierarchical surfaces were coated with a transparent composite of tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursor and hexamethyldisilazane as silylation agent resulting in an average contact angle of 135.8° and transmittance of around 70%. FTIR and AFM characterization techniques are employed to study the composition and morphology of the generated surfaces.

  3. The surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia – Part 2: Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boike

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the winter time surface energy balance at a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia based on independent measurements of the net radiation, the sensible heat flux and the ground heat flux from two winter seasons. The latent heat flux is inferred from measurements of the atmospheric turbulence characteristics and a model approach. The long-wave radiation is found to be the dominant factor in the surface energy balance. The radiative losses are balanced to about 60 % by the ground heat flux and almost 40 % by the sensible heat fluxes, whereas the contribution of the latent heat flux is small. The main controlling factors of the surface energy budget are the snow cover, the cloudiness and the soil temperature gradient. Large spatial differences in the surface energy balance are observed between tundra soils and a small pond. The ground heat flux released at a freezing pond is by a factor of two higher compared to the freezing soil, whereas large differences in net radiation between the pond and soil are only observed at the end of the winter period. Differences in the surface energy balance between the two winter seasons are found to be related to differences in snow depth and cloud cover which strongly affect the temperature evolution and the freeze-up at the investigated pond.

  4. Surface binding sites in amylase have distinct roles in recognition of starch structure motifs and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Morten M; Christiansen, Camilla; Andersen, Joakim M; Rannes, Julie B; Blennow, Andreas; Svensson, Birte

    2015-04-01

    Carbohydrate converting enzymes often possess extra substrate binding regions that enhance their activity. These can be found either on separate domains termed carbohydrate binding modules or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) situated on the catalytic domain. SBSs are common in starch degrading enzymes and critically important for their function. The affinity towards a variety of starch granules as well as soluble poly- and oligosaccharides of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) wild-type and mutants of two SBSs (SBS1 and SBS2) was investigated using Langmuir binding analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, affinity gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance to unravel functional roles of the SBSs. SBS1 was critical for binding to different starch types as Kd increased by 7-62-fold or was not measurable upon mutation. By contrast SBS2 was particularly important for binding to soluble polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with α-1,6 linkages, suggesting that branch points are key structural elements in recognition by SBS2. Mutation at both SBS1 and SBS2 eliminated binding to all starch granule types tested. Taken together, the findings indicate that the two SBSs act in concert to localize AMY1 to the starch granule surface and that SBS2 works synergistically with the active site in the degradation of amylopectin.

  5. Enzymic and immunochemical properties of lysozyme. Accurate definition of the antigenic site around the disulphide bridge 30-115 (site 3) by 'surface-simulation' synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C L; Atassi, M Z

    1977-12-01

    1. Previous reports from this laboratory have shown that both Lys-33 and Lys-116 are parts of an antigenic site in native lysozyme. Similar studies of tyrosine derivatives indicated that one or both of Tyr-20 and Tyr-23 are located in or very close to an antigenic site in lysozyme. The site, which was located around the disulphide bridge 30-115, was recently shown unequivocally to include the residues Tyr-20, Arg-21, Lys-116, Asn-113, Arg-114, Phe-34 and Lys-33. This was confirmed by the ;surface-simulation' synthetic approach that we have recently developed, in which the foregoing eight surface residues were directly linked via peptide bonds, with intervening spacers where appropriate, into a single peptide. The peptide does not exist in native lysozyme, but simulates a surface region of it. 2. In the present work several surface-simulation peptides were synthesized representing various parts of the region, to determine the minimum structural feature that retains full antigenic reactivity and to investigate if the spatially constructed antigenic site has a preferred direction. 3. The peptide Lys-Asn-Arg-Gly-Phe-Lys exhibited a remarkable inhibitory activity towards the immune reaction of lysozyme and accounted entirely for the maximum expected reactivity of the site in the native protein (i.e. about one-third of the total lysozyme reactivity). An immunoadsorbent of the peptide bound about one-third of the total antibody to lysozyme. 4. The residues Tyr-20 and Arg-21 are not part of the site. The previously reported immunochemical effect observed on nitration of Tyr-20 was due to a deleterious ionic effect exerted by the modified tyrosine residue on the adjacent Lys-96, which is in an entirely different antigenic site of lysozyme. Thus the modification of Tyr-20 impairs the reactivity of an adjacent antigenic site, even though the residue itself is not part of a site. The conformational and immunochemical implications of this finding are discussed. 5. The antigenic

  6. Data Validation Package September 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nguyen, Jason [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites are referred to as the Slick Rock West Processing Site (SRK05) and the Slick Rock East Processing Site (SRK06). This annual event involved sampling both sites for a total of 16 monitoring wells and 6 surface water locations as required by the 2006 Draft Final Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites (GCAP). A domestic well was also sampled at a property adjacent to the Slick Rock East site at the request of the landowner.

  7. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1994: Surface and Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-07-01

    Environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division, as part of its contract to operate the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy. The data collected provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals. Pacific Northwest Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1994 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1994 b PNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface and river monitoring data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries.

  8. Influence of secondary treatment with CO2 laser irradiation for mitigation site on fused silica surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Zhou, Qiang; Qiu, Rong; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hui-Li; Yao, Cai-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Bo; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Ming; Xiang, Xia; Zu, Xiao-Tao; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Miao, Xin-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    The ablation debris and raised rim, as well as residual stress and deep crater will be formed during the mitigation of damage site with a CO2 laser irradiation on fused silica surface, which greatly affects the laser damage resistance of optics. In this study, the experimental study combined with numerical simulation is utilized to investigate the effect of the secondary treatment on a mitigated site by CO2 laser irradiation. The results indicate that the ablation debris and the raised rim can be completely eliminated and the depth of crater can be reduced. Notable results show that the residual stress of the mitigation site after treatment will reduce two-thirds of the original stress. Finally, the elimination and the controlling mechanism of secondary treatment on the debris and raised rim, as well as the reasons for changing the profile and stress are analyzed. The results can provide a reference for the optimization treatment of mitigation sites by CO2 laser secondary treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505170, 61505171, and 51535003), the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1530109), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M592709).

  9. Justified Cross-Site Scripting Attacks Prevention from Client-Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.MONIKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Web apps are fetching towards the overriding way to offer access to web services. In parallel, vulnerabilities of web application are being revealed and unveiled at an frightening rate. Web apps frequently make JavaScript code utilization that is entrenched into web pages to defend client-side behavior which is dynamic. This script code is accomplished in the circumstance of the client’s web browser. From malicious JavaScript code to shield the client’s environment, a mechanism known as sandboxing is utilized that confines a program to admittance only resources connected with its origin website. Regrettably, these protection mechanisms not succeed if a client can be attracted into malicious JavaScript code downloading from an in-between, faithful site. In this situation, the wicked script is approved complete entrée to each and every resource (for example cookies and authentication tokens that be in the right place to the trusted/faithful site. Those types of attacks are described as XSS (crosssite scripting attacks. Commonly, cross-site scripting attacks are simple to perform, but complicated to identify and stop. One cause is the far above the ground HTML encoding methods flexibility, presenting the attacker a lot of chances for circumventing input filters on the server-side that must put off malicious scripts from entering into trusted/faithful sites. Also, developing a client-side way out is not simple cause of the complicatedness of recognizing JavaScript code as formatted as malicious. This theory shows that noxes is the finest of our understanding the initial client-side resolution to moderate cross-site scripting attacks. Noxes works as a web proxy and utilizes both automatically and manual produced rules to moderate possible cross-site scripting efforts. Noxes efficiently defends against data outflow from the client’s environment while needs least client communication and customization attempt.

  10. The effect of antibiotic irrigation of surgical Incisions in prevention of Surgical Site Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsharifi S R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: surgical site infection is one of the most common post operative complications alongside with sepsis, cardiovascular, pulmonary and thromboembolic complications. The development of surgical site infection is related to three factors: the degree of microbial contamination of the wound during surgery, the duration of the procedure, and host factors such as diabetes, malnutrition, obesity, immune suppression, and a number of other underlying disease states. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of topical cephazolin in controlling infection of the site of surgery after non-laparoscopic cholecystecomy.Methods: One hundred and two of patients referred to the outpatient clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital from fall 2005 to fall 2006 non- laparoscopic cholecystectomy enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. All patients underwent the same procedure of anesthesia and surgery and they were randomly assigned into two groups of cases with irrigation of the site of surgery with 1g of topical Cephazolin prior to the termination of the operation- and controls. Cephazolin is a first generation cephalosporin which binds penicillin binding protein and is a potent cell wall synthesis inhibitor. The patients were followed up for six weeks for symptoms and signs of infection including discharge of the wound; and presence of pain, warmness, swelling and erythema of the wound.Results: There were no significant differences between two study groups regarding mean age, duration of operation, and sex. There was no significant difference in the incidence of infection of the site of surgery (11.8% in both groups with p=0.99 between two groups.Conclusion: Analyzing the collected data confirms that prophylactic use of topical cephazolin was unable to decrease the risk of infection of the site of surgery in patients undergoing non- laparascopic cheolecystectomy.

  11. Desulfurization reactions on Ni2P(001) and alpha-Mo2C(001) surfaces: complex role of P and C sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Rodriguez, José A; Asakura, Takeshi; Gomes, João; Nakamura, Kenichi

    2005-03-17

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles density-functional calculations were used to study the interaction of thiophene, H(2)S, and S(2) with Ni(2)P(001), alpha-Mo(2)C(001), and polycrystalline MoC. In general, the reactivity of the surfaces increases following the sequence MoC P charge transfer) that allows a high activity for the dissociation of thiophene and molecular hydrogen. Second, the number of active Ni sites present in the surface decreases due to an "ensemble effect" of P, which prevents the system from deactivation induced by high coverages of strongly bound S. Third, the P sites are not simple spectators and provide moderate bonding to the products of the decomposition of thiophene and the H adatoms necessary for hydrogenation.

  12. Surface binding sites (SBSs), mechanism and regulation of enzymes degrading amylopectin and α-limit dextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Jonas W.;

    2013-01-01

    Certain enzymes interact with polysaccharides at surface binding sites (SBSs) situated outside of their active sites. SBSs are not easily identified and their function has been discerned in relatively few cases. Starch degradation is a concerted action involving GH13 hydrolases. New insight...... into barley seed α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and limit dextrinase (LD) includes i. kinetics of bi-exponential amylopectin hydrolysis by AMY1, one reaction having low Km (8 μg/mL) and high kcat (57 s-1) and the other high Km (97 μg/mL) and low kcat (23 s-1). β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) inhibits the first reaction by binding...

  13. Effects of sodium on cell surface and intracellular TH-naloxone binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, A.E.; Wooten, G.F.

    1987-07-27

    The binding of the opiate antagonist TH-naloxone was examined in rat whole brain homogenates and in crude subcellular fractions of these homogenates (nuclear, synaptosomal, and mitochondrial fractions) using buffers that approximated intra- (low sodium concentration) and extracellular (high sodium concentration) fluids. Saturation studies showed a two-fold decrease in the dissociation constant (Kd) in all subcellular fractions examined in extracellular buffer compared to intracellular buffer. In contrast, there was no significant effect of the buffers on the Bmax. Thus, TH-naloxone did not distinguish between binding sites present on cell surface and intracellular tissues in these two buffers. These results show that the sodium effect of opiate antagonist binding is probably not a function of altered selection of intra- and extracellular binding sites. 17 references, 2 tables.

  14. Atmospheric stability of surface boundary layer in coastal region of the Wol-Ryong site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Chang

    2012-08-01

    In order to provide statistically reliable information of a wind energy site, accurate analysis on the atmospheric stability and climate characteristics in a certain area is a prerequisite. Two 2-D ultrasonic anemometers and one cup anemometer, located perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction, were used to measure the atmospheric wind environment at a height of 4.5 m in coastal region of the Wol-Ryong, Jeju, South Korea. The study is aiming to understand the atmospheric stability about a coastal region, and the effect of roughness length. We calculate the Monin-Obukhov length for division of atmospheric stability about unstable regime, neutral regime and stable regime. The distribution of diurnal Monin-Obukhov length is highly sporadic in the coastal region due to the effect of radiant heat from the surface or other environmental effects. In order to calculate the roughness length in coastal region, three different methods are applied in terms of the surface roughness, flow fluctuation and gust wind, which are called logarithmic profile, standard deviation and gust factor methods. In the study, the atmospheric stability was insignificant when applying these three methods. In the results, three different roughness length scales sufficiently showed the effect of obstacle and surface conditions around the measurement position. On the basis of an overall analysis of the short-term data measured in the Wol-Ryong area, Jeju Island, it is concluded that for the development of future wind energy resources, the Wol-Ryong site could be a good candidate for a future wind energy site.

  15. Near-surface gas mapping studies of salt geologic features at Weeks Island and other sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carney, K.R.; Autin, W.J.; Overton, E.B. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Field sampling and rapid gas analysis techniques were used to survey near-surface soil gases for geotechnical diagnostic purposes at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and other salt dome locations in southern Louisiana. This report presents the complete data, results and interpretations obtained during 1995. Weeks Island 1994 gas survey results are also briefly summarized; this earlier study did not find a definitive correlation between sinkhole No. 1 and soil gases. During 1995, several hundred soil gas samples were obtained and analyzed in the field by gas chromatography, for profiling low concentrations and gas anomalies at ppm to percent levels. The target gases included hydrogen, methane, ethane and ethylene. To supplement the field data, additional gas samples were collected at various site locations for laboratory analysis of target gases at ppb levels. Gases in the near-surface soil originate predominantly from the oil, from petrogenic sources within the salt, or from surface microbial activity. Surveys were conducted across two Weeks Island sinkholes, several mapped anomalous zones in the salt, and over the SPR repository site and its perimeter. Samples were also taken at other south Louisiana salt dome locations for comparative purposes. Notable results from these studies are that elevated levels of hydrogen and methane (1) were positively associated with anomalous gassy or shear zones in the salt dome(s) and (2) are also associated with suspected salt fracture (dilatant) zones over the edges of the SPR repository. Significantly elevated areas of hydrogen, methane, plus some ethane, were found over anomalous shear zones in the salt, particularly in a location over high pressure gas pockets in the salt, identified in the mine prior to SPR operations. Limited stable isotope ratio analyses, SIRA, were also conducted and determined that methane samples were of petrogenic origin, not biogenic.

  16. Surface binding sites in amylase have distinct roles in recognition of starch structure motifs and degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Morten M.; Christiansen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate converting enzymes often possess extra substrate binding regions that enhance their activity. These can be found either on separate domains termed carbohydrate binding modules or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) situated on the catalytic domain. SBSs are common in starch...... to soluble polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with α-1,6 linkages, suggesting that branch points are key structural elements in recognition by SBS2. Mutation at both SBS1 and SBS2 eliminated binding to all starch granule types tested. Taken together, the findings indicate that the two SBSs act in concert...

  17. Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from a Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Farrington, J.W.; Jannasch, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Petroleum-like materials found at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site (Gulf of California) are derived from pyrolysis of organic matter. Two characteristics surface sediment cores differing in temperature profiles and other parameters were collected by DSV ALVIN, sectioned, and analyzed for hydrocarbons. The quantitative and qualitative composition of alkanes, steranes, diasteranes, and triterpanes differed between these cores as well as within sections of the same core. These differences, apparent for scales of tens of centimeters, are related to interactive physical, chemical, and microbial processes as well as the influence of multiple sources for the petroleum.

  18. Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from a Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Farrington, J.W.; Jannasch, H.W. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Petroleum-like materials found at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site (Gulf of California) are derived from pyrolysis of organic matter. Two characteristic surface sediment cores differing in temperature profiles and other parameters were collected by DSV ALVIN, sectioned and analyzed for hydrocarbons. The quantitative and qualitative composition of alkanes, steranes, diasteranes, and triterpanes differed between these cores as well as within sections of the same core. These differences, apparent for scales of tens of centimeters, are related to interactive physical, chemical, and microbial processes as well as the influence of multiple sources for the petroleum.

  19. Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, L.G.; Kluytmans, J.A.; Wertheim, H.F.; Bogaers, D.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.; Roosendaal, R.; Troelstra, A.; Box, A.T.; Voss, A.; Tweel, I. van de; Belkum, A. van; Verbrugh, H.A.; Vos, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are at increased risk for health care-associated infections with this organism. Decolonization of nasal and extranasal sites on hospital admission may reduce this risk. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial,

  20. Evaluation of adherence to measures for the prevention of surgical site infections by the surgical team

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira; Camila Sarmento Gama

    2015-01-01

    AbstractOBJECTIVEEvaluate pre- and intraoperative practices adopted by medical and nursing teams for the prevention of surgical infections.METHODA prospective study carried out in the period of April to May 2013, in a surgical center of a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.RESULTS18 surgeries were followed and 214 surgical gloves were analyzed, of which 23 (10.7%) had postoperative glove perforation detected, with 52.2% being perceived by users. Hair removal was performed on ...

  1. On the characterization of acidic and basic surface sites on carbons by various techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Active carbons of different origins have been oxidized with H2O2 and (NH4)2S2O8 and their oxygen surface complexes have been characterized by TPD, classical titration following Boehm's method and by neutralization calorimetry. The net enthalpies of neutralization, determined by immersion calorimetry into NaOH and HCl 2 N lead to −41.1±1.8 and −52.3±2.0 kJ eq−1 for the acidic and basic sites on the surface. Experiments with NaHCO3 lead to −39.7±1.7 kJ eq−1 for the carboxylic groups alone. Thes...

  2. Doubly Reentrant Cavities Prevent Catastrophic Wetting Transitions on Intrinsically Wetting Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Domingues, Eddy

    2017-06-05

    Omniphobic surfaces, i.e. which repel all known liquids, have proven of value in applications ranging from membrane distillation to underwater drag reduction. A limitation of currently employed omniphobic surfaces is that they rely on perfluorinated coatings, increasing cost and environmental impact, and preventing applications in harsh environments. There is, thus, a keen interest in rendering conventional materials, such as plastics, omniphobic by micro/nano-texturing rather than via chemical make-up, with notable success having been achieved for silica surfaces with doubly reentrant micropillars. However, we found a critical limitation of microtextures comprising of pillars that they undergo catastrophic wetting transitions (apparent contact angles, θr → 0° from θr > 90°) in the presence of localized physical damages/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. In response, a doubly reentrant cavity microtexture is introduced, which can prevent catastrophic wetting transitions in the presence of localized structural damage/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. Remarkably, our silica surfaces with doubly reentrant cavities could exhibited apparent contact angles, θr ≈ 135° for mineral oil, where the intrinsic contact angle, θo ≈ 20°. Further, when immersed in mineral oil or water, doubly reentrant microtextures in silica (θo ≈ 40° for water) were not penetrated even after several days of investigation. Thus, microtextures comprising of doubly reentrant cavities might enable applications of conventional materials without chemical modifications, especially in scenarios that are prone to localized damages or immersion in wetting liquids, e.g. hydrodynamic drag reduction and membrane distillation.

  3. Doubly Reentrant Cavities Prevent Catastrophic Wetting Transitions on Intrinsically Wetting Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Eddy M; Arunachalam, Sankara; Mishra, Himanshu

    2017-06-28

    Omniphobic surfaces, that is, which repel all known liquids, have proven of value in applications ranging from membrane distillation to underwater drag reduction. A limitation of currently employed omniphobic surfaces is that they rely on perfluorinated coatings, increasing cost and environmental impact and preventing applications in harsh environments. Thus, there is a keen interest in rendering conventional materials, such as plastics, omniphobic by micro/nanotexturing rather than via chemical makeup, with notable success having been achieved for silica surfaces with doubly reentrant micropillars. However, we found a critical limitation of microtextures comprising pillars that they undergo catastrophic wetting transitions (apparent contact angles, θr → 0° from θr > 90°) in the presence of localized physical damages/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. In response, a doubly reentrant cavity microtexture is introduced, which can prevent catastrophic wetting transitions in the presence of localized structural damage/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. Remarkably, our silica surfaces with doubly reentrant cavities could exhibit apparent contact angles, θr ≈ 135° for mineral oil, where the intrinsic contact angle, θo ≈ 20°. Further, when immersed in mineral oil or water, doubly reentrant microtextures in silica (θo ≈ 40° for water) were not penetrated even after several days of investigation. Thus, microtextures comprising doubly reentrant cavities might enable applications of conventional materials without chemical modifications, especially in scenarios that are prone to localized damages or immersion in wetting liquids, for example, hydrodynamic drag reduction and membrane distillation.

  4. Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance allow quantifying substrate binding to different binding sites of Bacillus subtilis xylanase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuyvers, Sven; Dornez, Emmie; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2012-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance were tested for their ability to study substrate binding to the active site (AS) and to the secondary binding site (SBS) of Bacillus subtilis xylanase A separately. To this end, three enzyme variants were compared. The first was a cat......Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance were tested for their ability to study substrate binding to the active site (AS) and to the secondary binding site (SBS) of Bacillus subtilis xylanase A separately. To this end, three enzyme variants were compared. The first...

  5. Detecting local ligand-binding site similarity in nonhomologous proteins by surface patch comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-04-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations.

  6. Nanoscale electrochemical patterning reveals the active sites for catechol oxidation at graphite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha N; McKelvey, Kim; Unwin, Patrick R

    2012-12-19

    Graphite-based electrodes (graphite, graphene, and nanotubes) are used widely in electrochemistry, and there is a long-standing view that graphite step edges are needed to catalyze many reactions, with the basal surface considered to be inert. In the present work, this model was tested directly for the first time using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy reactive patterning and shown to be incorrect. For the electro-oxidation of dopamine as a model process, the reaction rate was measured at high spatial resolution across a surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Oxidation products left behind in a pattern defined by the scanned electrochemical cell served as surface-site markers, allowing the electrochemical activity to be correlated directly with the graphite structure on the nanoscale. This process produced tens of thousands of electrochemical measurements at different locations across the basal surface, unambiguously revealing it to be highly electrochemically active, with step edges providing no enhanced activity. This new model of graphite electrodes has significant implications for the design of carbon-based biosensors, and the results are additionally important for understanding electrochemical processes on related sp(2)-hybridized materials such as pristine graphene and nanotubes.

  7. Distribution of 137Cs In the Surface Soil of Serpong Nuclear Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of 137Cs in the surface soil layer of Serpong Nuclear Site (SNS was investigated by field sampling. The Objectives of the investigation is finding the profile of 137Cs distribution in the surface soil and the Tf value that can be used for estimation of radiation dose from livestock product-man pathways. The results indicates that the 137Cs activity in surface soil of SNS is 0.80 ± 0,29 Bq/kg, much lower than in the Antarctic. The contribution value of 137Cs from the operation of G.A.Siwabessy Reactor until now is undetectable. The Tf of 137Cs from surface soil to Panisetum Purpureum, Setaria Spha Celata and Imperata Cylindrica grasses were 0.71 ± 0.14, 0.84 ± 0.27 and 0.81 ± 0.11 respectively. The results show that value of the transfer factor of 137Cs varies between cultivated and uncultivated soil and also with the soils with thick humus

  8. Surface Spills at Unconventional Oil and Gas Sites: a Contaminant Transport Modeling Study for the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, J. E.; Kanno, C.; McLaughlin, M.; Blotevogel, J.; Borch, T.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has revolutionized the U.S.'s energy portfolio by making shale reservoirs productive and commercially viable. However, the public is concerned that the chemical constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluid, produced water, or natural gas itself could potentially impact groundwater. Here, we present fate and transport simulations of aqueous fluid surface spills. Surface spills are the most likely contamination pathway to occur during oil and gas production operations. We have three primary goals: 1) evaluate whether or not these spills pose risks to groundwater quality in the South Platte aquifer system, 2) develop a screening level methodology that could be applied at other sites and for various pollutants, and 3) demonstrate the potential importance of co-contaminant interactions using selected chemicals. We considered two types of fluid that can be accidentally released at oil and gas sites: produced water and hydraulic fracturing fluid. Benzene was taken to be a representative contaminant of interest for produced water. Glutaraldehyde, polyethylene glycol, and polyacrylamide were the chemical additives considered for spills of hydraulic fracturing fluid. We focused on the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer, which is located in the greater Denver metro area and overlaps a zone of high-density oil and gas development. Risk of groundwater pollution was based on predicted concentration at the groundwater table. In general, results showed groundwater contamination due to produced water and hydraulic fracturing fluid spills is low in most areas of the South Platte system for the contaminants and spill conditions investigated. Substantial risk may exist in certain areas where the groundwater table is shallow (less than 10 ft below ground surface) and when large spills and large post-spill storms occur. Co-chemical interactions are an important consideration in certain cases when modeling hydraulic fracturing fluid spills. By helping to identify locations

  9. Vesicular stomatitis virus infection promotes immune evasion by preventing NKG2D-ligand surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Jensen

    Full Text Available Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection leads to a robust induction of MICA mRNA expression, however the subsequent surface expression is potently hindered. Thus, VSV lines up with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and adenovirus, which actively subvert the immune system by negatively affecting NKG2D-ligand surface expression. VSV infection caused an active suppression of NKG2D-ligand surface expression, affecting both endogenous and histone deacetylase (HDAC-inhibitor induced MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 expression. The classical immune escape mechanism of VSV (i.e., the M protein blockade of nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport was not involved, as the VSV mutant strain, VSV(ΔM51, which possess a defective M protein, prevented MICA surface expression similarly to wild-type VSV. The VSV mediated down modulation of NKG2D-ligand expression did not involve apoptosis. Constitutive expression of MICA bypassed the escape mechanism, suggesting that VSV affect NKG2D-ligand expression at an early post-transcriptional level. Our results show that VSV possess an escape mechanism, which could affect the immune recognition of VSV infected cancer cells. This may also have implications for immune recognition of cancer cells after combined treatment with VSV and chemotherapeutic drugs.

  10. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Werner, Kent [SWECO VIAK AB/Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Juston, John [DBE Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The results from the investigations at the sites are used as a basic input to the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDM). The SDM shall summarise the current state of knowledge of the site, and provide parameters and models to be used in further analyses within Safety Assessment, Repository Design and Environmental Impact Assessment. The present report is a background report describing the meteorological conditions and the modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology in support of the Forsmark version 1.2 SDM based on the data available in the Forsmark 1.2 'data freeze' (July 31, 2004). The groundwater is very shallow, with groundwater levels within one meter below ground as an annual mean for almost all groundwater monitoring wells. Also, the annual groundwater level amplitude is less than 1.5 m for most wells. The shallow groundwater levels mean that there is a strong interaction between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and groundwater. In the modelling, surface water and near-surface groundwater divides are assumed to coincide. The small-scale topography implies that many local, shallow groundwater flow systems are formed in the Quaternary deposits, overlaying more large-scale flow systems associated with groundwater flows at greater depths. Groundwater level time series from wells in till and bedrock within the same areas show a considerably higher groundwater level in the till than in the bedrock. The observed differences in levels are not fully consistent with the good hydraulic contact between overburden and bedrock indicated by the hydraulic tests in the Quaternary deposits. However, the relatively lower groundwater levels in the bedrock may be caused by the horizontal to sub-horizontal highly

  11. Comparison of surface fluxes and boundary-layer measurements at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Persson, Ola; Stone, Robert; Crepinsek, Sara; Albee, Robert; Makshtas, Alexander; Kustov, Vasily; Repina, Irina; Artamonov, Arseniy

    2014-05-01

    dioxide was mostly negative (uptake by the surface) in summer indicating that the Arctic terrestrial sites are generally net sinks for atmospheric CO2 during the growing season when surface is extensively covered with vegetation. This study also shows that the sensible heat flux, water vapor, and carbon dioxide fluxes as well as air temperature exhibit clear diurnal cycles during the Arctic summer. During the Polar winter and cold seasons, the sensible heat flux, water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes were small and mostly irregular when the ground is covered with snow and air temperatures are sufficiently below freezing. The work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) with award ARC 11-07428 and by the U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation (CRDF) with award RUG1-2976-ST-10.

  12. Characteristics of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides at urban, suburban and rural sites in Ningbo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lei; Zhang, Huiling; Yu, Jie; He, Mengmeng; Xu, Nengbin; Zhang, Jingjing; Qian, Feizhong; Feng, Jiayong; Xiao, Hang

    2017-05-01

    Surface ozone (O3) is a harmful air pollutant that has attracted growing concern in China. In this study, the mixing ratios of O3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at three different sites (urban, suburban and rural) of Ningbo were continuously measured to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of O3 and its relationships with environmental variables. The diurnal O3 variations were characterized by afternoon maxima (38.7-53.1 ppb on annual average) and early morning minima (11.7-26.2 ppb) at all the three sites. Two seasonal peaks of O3 were observed in spring (April or May) and autumn (October) with minima being observed in winter (December). NOx levels showed generally opposite variations to that of O3 with diurnal and seasonal maxima occurring in morning/evening rush-hours and in winter, respectively. As to the inter-annual variations of air pollutants, generally decreasing and increasing trends were observed in NO and O3 levels, respectively, from 2012 to 2015 at both urban and suburban sites. O3 levels were positively correlated with temperature but negatively correlated with relative humidity and NOx levels. Significant differences in O3 levels were observed for different wind speeds and wind directions (p urban site exhibited lower O3 but higher NOx levels due to the influence of traffic emissions. Larger amplitudes of diurnal and monthly O3 variations were observed at the suburban site than those at the urban and rural sites. In general, the O3 levels at the non-urban sites were more affected by the background transport, while both the local and regional contributions played roles in urban O3 variations. The annual average O3 mixing ratios (22.7-37.7 ppb) in Ningbo were generally similar to those of other regions around the world. However, the recommended air quality standards for O3 were often exceeded during warm seasons, which could be a potential threat to both local population and plant growth.

  13. Site characterization studies along coastal Andhra Pradesh—India using multichannel analysis of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupti, S.; Srinivas, K. N. S. S. S.; Pavan Kishore, P.; Seshunarayana, T.

    2012-04-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique was employed for site characterization studies at the identified lineament locations along coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh covering ~ 600 km to measure the shear wave velocity. The shear (S)-wave velocity of near surface materials (such as soil, rocks and pavement) and its effect on seismic wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many groundwater, engineering and environmental studies. Geologically, the study area comprises of Precambrian basement over which younger rocks commencing with Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary have given rise to varying sequences in different parts. The study has been conducted along the lineaments and these were selected based on the analysis of IRS-1D LISS-IV satellite images and the field geological investigation. The average shear wave velocity, stiffness and the liquefaction potential were evaluated by using the obtained shear wave velocities. Soils are classified into four categories as soft soils, stiff soils, dense soils/soft rock and hard rock based on the obtained shear wave velocities. The factor of safety (FS) against liquefaction is determined and it is found that the sites with low shear wave velocity have FS canal alignments, and cross-drainage structures.

  14. Surface Radiation Survey at the Shepley’s Hill Remediation Site, Devens, Massachusettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Giles; C. P. Oertel; L. G. Roybal

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided technical support for ongoing environmental remediation activities at the Shepley’s Hill remediation site, near Devens, MA. The technical support included the completion of a radiation survey of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at Shepley’s Hill, Shepley’s Hill landfill cover, and Red Cove areas. The objective of the radiation survey was to assess the ability of the INL backpack sodium iodide spectroscopy (BaSIS) system to detect elevated levels of NORM that may be associated with radon-222 emanation from near surface and subsurface fractures in the area. It is postulated that these fracture zones provide subsurface conduits for the transport of environmental contaminants. As such, location of these fracture sets will proved EPA Region 1 with the means for completing the development of an accurate site conceptual model. The results of the radiological survey show that some of the radiological anomalies correlate with currently mapped rock outcrops; however, not all of the rock outcrops in the surveyed area have been mapped. As such, it is not conclusive that all of the radiological anomalies correspond with surface rock outcrops. EPA Region 1 intends to perform a more comprehensive correlation of the radiation data collected with the BaSIS system with additional data sets such as detailed bedrock structural mapping, 2-dimensional resistivity profiling, and high-resolution topographic mapping. The results of this effort will be used in consideration of designing a potential follow-on effort for mapping of radon.

  15. Soil Surface Leak Detection From Carbon Storage Sites Using ∆(CO2:O2) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. M.; Norman, A. L.; Layzell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The early detection and remediation of CO2 leaks from Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites is essential for the safety and public support of the technology. A model that integrates gas diffusion, mass flow and biological processes in soils was developed and used to predict the ∆CO2 and ∆O2 concentration differential between the soil surface and the bulk atmosphere under a wide range of environmental conditions that include temperature, soil gas and water content, soil respiratory quotient and rate of O2 uptake, soil porosity and CO2 leakage rate. The results predicted that measurement of ∆(CO2:O2) measurements at the soil surface relative to air should be able to detect a CCS leak as low as 2 µmol/m2/sec. To test this hypothesis, a gas analysis system was designed and constructed. It should allow a series of experiments under controlled conditions to test all aspects of the model. It is hoped that the results from this work will ultimately lead to the development of a new instrument and protocol for the early detection of CO2 leaks from a geological storage sites.

  16. INORGANIC PLUME DELINEATION USING SURFACE HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AT THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES SITE HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2007-05-29

    A surface resistivity survey was conducted on the Hanford Site over a waste disposal trench that received a large volume of liquid inorganic waste. The objective of the survey was to map the extent of the plume that resulted from the disposal activities approximately 50 years earlier. The survey included six resistivity transects of at least 200m, where each transect provided two-dimensional profile information of subsurface electrical properties. The results of the survey indicated that a low resistivity plume resides at a depth of approximately 25-44 m below ground surface. The target depth was calibrated with borehole data of pore-water electrical conductivity. Due to the high correlation of the pore-water electrical conductivity to nitrate concentration and the high correlation of measured apparent resistivity to pore-water electrical conductivity, inferences were made that proposed the spatial distribution of the apparent resistivity was due to the distribution of nitrate. Therefore, apparent resistivities were related to nitrate, which was subsequently rendered in three dimensions to show that the nitrate likely did not reach the water table and the bounds of the highest concentrations are directly beneath the collection of waste sites.

  17. A new method for multilayered, site-directed immobilization of antibody on polystyrene surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Wang, Caiyun; Xie, Xiaomei; Feng, Xi; Li, Yuqin; Cao, Zhijian

    2014-07-18

    Polystyrene is a common substrate material for protein adsorption in biosensors and bioassays. Here, we present a new method for multilayered, site-directed immobilization of antibody on polystyrene surface through the linkage of a genetically engineered ligand and the assembly of staphylococcal protein A (SPA) with immunoglobulin G (IgG). In this method, antibodies were stacked on polystyrene surface layer by layer in a potential three-dimensional way and exposed the analyte-binding sites well. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the new method showed a 32-fold higher detection sensitivity compared with the conventional one. Pull-down assay and Western blot analysis further confirmed that it is different from the ones of monolayer adsorption according to the comparison of adsorption capacity. The differentiated introduction of functional ligands, which is the key of this method, might offer a unique idea as a way to interfere with the dynamic behavior of a protein complex during the process of adsorption.

  18. Efficacy of Quilting Sutures and Fibrin Sealant Together for Prevention of Seroma in Extended Latissimus Dorsi Flap Donor Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Soo Shin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe extended latissimus dorsi flap is important for breast reconstruction. Unfortunately, donor site seroma is the most common complication of extended latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction. Although using fibrin sealant in the donor site reduces the rate of seroma formation, donor site seroma remains a troublesome complication. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the combination of quilting sutures and fibrin sealant in the latissimus dorsi donor site for the prevention of seroma.MethodsForty-six patients who underwent breast reconstruction with extended latissimus flap were enrolled in the study. The patients received either fibrin sealant (group 1, n=25 or a combination of fibrin sealant and quilting sutures (group 2, n=21 in the extended latissimus dorsi donor site. Outcome measures were obtained from the incidence, volume of postoperative seroma, total drainage amount, indwelling period of drainage, and duration of hospital stay.ResultsThe incidence of seroma was 76% in group 1 and 42.9% in group 2 (P=0.022. We also found significant reductions in seroma volume (P=0.043, total drainage amount (P=0.002, indwelling period of drainage (P=0.01, and frequency of aspiration (P=0.043. The quilting sutures did not affect the rate of drainage, tube reinsertion, or hospital stay.ConclusionsThe use of quilting sutures combined with fibrin sealant on the latissimus dorsi flap donor site is helpful for reducing the overall seroma volume, frequency of aspiration, and total drainage amount.

  19. 钓鱼网站防范策略研究%Study on Prevention Strategy of Phishing Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萍; 陈文兵

    2012-01-01

    校企合作中企业方处于被动地位,高职院校必须通过有效手段推动合作深入开展。通过调动学校资源,如招生宣传、订单班冠名等方式,扩大服务企业;通过拓宽教学范围,为企业进行技术培训;通过改革教学模式,提高毕业生专业技能和综合素质,最终让企业主动找高职院校进行合作,从而深化校企合作。%With the increase of the rampant activities of phishing sites,phishing site is becoming the the biggest security risk of the internet in our country.Therefore,finding out the essential features and the main types of phishing site,understanding its dissemination way and harm method have great significance for spreading the network security knowledge and building the network security defensive line.It is necessary to build the network security awareness and master the identification and prevention strategies of phishing site.

  20. The Role of Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy in Latissimus Dorsi Flap Donor Site Seroma Prevention: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apichai Angspatt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Donor site seroma is the most common complication after latissimus dorsi (LD flap harvest. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT in preventing donor site seroma formation after the harvest of an LD flap for breast reconstruction. Methods In this prospective matched-pair study, 40 patients in whom an LD flap was harvested for breast reconstruction were enrolled. NPWT was used in 20 patients, and in a control group composed of another 20 patients, the conventional donor site dressing technique was used. Information was collected regarding postoperative complications, the incidence of seroma, total drainage volume, the number of percutaneous seroma aspirations, and the volume aspirated. Results In the NPWT group, the incidence of seroma formation after drain removal was significantly lower than in the control group (15% vs. 70%; odds ratio=0.07; relative risk, 0.24. Both the mean percutaneous aspirated volume (P=0.004 and the number of percutaneous aspirations (P=0.001 were also significantly lower in the NPWT group. There were no significant differences in the total drainage volume or the duration of wound drainage between the NPWT dressing group and the control group (P>0.05. Conclusions This study showed that NPWT is a promising tool for reducing the incidence of seroma formation after removing the drain at the donor site after LD flap harvesting. It is a simple and safe technique.

  1. Directional site resonances and the influence of near-surface geology on ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamassa, Ornella; Vidale, John E.; Houston, Heidi; Schwartz, Susan Y.

    1991-05-01

    We examine the horizontal motions at close stations from earthquakes in the Loma Prieta and Whittier Narrows sequences to study the shear wave polarizations. We use a dense, six station array recording 10 aftershocks for the former, and use two events and 11 stations across the Los Angeles area for the latter.We compute the average azimuth of strongest shaking in the shear wave as a function of frequency from 1 to 18 Hz for each record of each earthquake. The direction of shaking at a given frequency often correlates much better with an empirical site resonance direction than with the direction of shaking expected from the focal mechanism of the earthquake. The effect tends to be greatest at the frequencies that are the most amplified. This phenomenon can complicate determination of the earthquake source at frequencies higher than 1 Hz.Further, since sites only 25 meters apart show different preferred directions, very near-surface geology is probably responsible. Estimation of directional site resonances may prove useful for seismic design.

  2. Surfaces: processing, coating, decontamination, pollution, etc. Surface mastering to prevent component corrosion; Surfaces: traitement, revetements, decontamination, pollution, etc. Maitrise de la surface pour prevenir la corrosion des composants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucault, M. [Departement Corrosion Chimie, AREVA Centre Technique, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2012-07-01

    In the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, AREVA uses several nickel-based alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role hold by the component surface state in their life duration. In this paper, we present four examples of problem encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of processes for the surface control of the repaired components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in term of analysis means to improve the surface knowledge and control of the manufactured components. (author)

  3. Data Related to Late Quaternary Surface Faulting on the Sangre de Cristo Fault, Rito Seco Site, Costilla County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Mahan, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we present detailed maps of the trenches and a compilation of field and laboratory data used to support our interpretation of the history of four (PE1-PE4) prehistoric surface-faulting earthquakes at this site.

  4. Prevention of low back pain in female eldercare workers: randomized controlled work site trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Gonge, Henrik Gjesing; Jørs, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized controlled trial. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of an ergonomic and psychosocial intervention in reducing low back pain (LBP) among health care workers. Summary of Background Data. LBP and injuries are reported frequently among health care workers worldwide......, stress management, or reference arm. A total of 163 individuals (79% of the source population) participated in both baseline and follow-up after 2 years. Outcome was intra-individual change in rating of LBP during the past 3 and 12 months. Results. We found no difference in LBP in any of the intervention...... arms over the study period. Conclusion. The study showed no effect of a transfer technique or stress management program targeting LBP. Thus, there is a need for discussing other priorities in the prevention of LBP among health care workers....

  5. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-04-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  6. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2012-02-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  7. Surface properties of Mars' polar layered deposits and polar landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Greeley, Ronald; Murray, Bruce C.; Bass, Deborah S.; McBride, Karen S.

    2000-03-01

    On December 3, 1999, the Mars Polar Lander and Mars Microprobes will land on the planet's south polar layered deposits near (76°S, 195°W) and conduct the first in situ studies of the planet's polar regions. The scientific goals of these missions address several poorly understood and globally significant issues, such as polar meteorology, the composition and volatile content of the layered deposits, the erosional state and mass balance of their surface, their possible relationship to climate cycles, and the nature of bright and dark aeolian material. Derived thermal inertias of the southern layered deposits are very low (50-100 Jm-2s-1/2K-1), suggesting that the surface down to a depth of a few centimeters is generally fine grained or porous and free of an appreciable amount of rock or ice. The landing site region is smoother than typical cratered terrain on ~1 kmpixel-1 Viking Orbiter images but contains low-relief texture on ~5 to 100 mpixel-1 Mariner 9 and Mars Global Surveyor images. The surface of the southern deposits is older than that of the northern deposits and appears to be modified by aeolian erosion or ablation of ground ice.

  8. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  9. Surface chondromyxoid fibroma of the distal ulna: unusual tumor, site, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Klein, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign cartilage congener tumor comprising less than 1 % of primary bone tumors. Although the age range is wide, it is most commonly seen in the second and third decades. The most frequent location of CMF is in the long tubular bones of the lower extremities, particularly the proximal tibia and distal femur. Although the majority of chondromyxoid fibromas present as intramedullary tumors, a subgroup of chondromyxoid fibromas arising as surface lesions of the bone has recently been described. These are associated with an older mean age and an increased incidence of matrix calcifications. Chondromyxoid fibromas are rare in the distal ulna. We report a CMF presenting as a surface lesion of the distal metaphysis of the left ulna in a 41-year-old woman. We reviewed the literature on chondromyxoid fibromas involving the ulna and found that out of 22 cases, 1 was in the distal ulna, 13 in the proximal ulna, and in the remaining 8 the ulnar sites were unspecified. No case of chondromyxoid fibroma in the published literature had been designated as a surface lesion. Our own unpublished data include 70 chondromyxoid fibromas, 4 of which are in the ulna. Two of these are in the distal portion.

  10. Message development for surface markers at the Hanford Radwaste Disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1984-12-31

    At the Hanford Reservation in Washington, there are sites which received liquid and solid transuranic wastes from the late 1940`s until 1970. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) is investigating the feasibility of several options for the permanent disposal of these wastes. One option is to stabilize the wastes in their present locations and to add barriers to minimize water infiltration and root penetration into the wastes. This report forms part of the project to develop a marking system for transuranic wastes on the Hanford Reservation. The focus of this report is the development of the message system to appear on the surface markers. A logical framework is developed to deduce what is required by the message system. Alternatives for each message component are evaluated and justification is provided for the choice of each component. The components are then laid out on the surface marker to provide a legible, comprehensible message system. The surface markers are tall, standing monoliths which ring the perimeter of each disposal area. Based on the logical framework, it is recommended that three domains of representation -- symbols, pictures, and language -- be used in the message system. The warning symbol chosen for the message system is the radiation trefoil. Two other options were considered, including the warning symbol developed by the Human Interference Task Force for a high-level waste repository. The trefoil was preferred because of the widespread usage and international acceptance which is already enjoys.

  11. Analysis of surface binding sites (SBSs) in carbohydrate active enzymes with focus on glycoside hydrolase families 13 and 77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Ruzanski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Surface binding sites (SBSs) interact with carbohydrates outside of the enzyme active site. They are frequently situated on catalytic domains and are distinct from carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). SBSs are found in a variety of enzymes and often seen in crystal structures. Notably about half ...

  12. Compilation of surface-water and water-quality data-collection sites on selected streams in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugh, Byron; Humphrey, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a listing of about 8,900 selected surface-water and water-quality data sites in Virginia where hydrologic and water-quality measurements have been made for the past 100 yr. The listing includes the agency station/site identification number and name, drainage area, datum, source agency, type of data collected, period of record for data collection, latitude and longitude, county, and name of the 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle containing the site location

  13. Slow versus fast subcutaneous heparin injections for prevention of bruising and site-pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Sari, Ali; Janani, Leila; Mohammady, Mina; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2014-07-18

    Heparin is an anticoagulant medication that is normally injected subcutaneously. Subcutaneous administration of heparin may result in complications such as bruising, haematoma and pain at the injection site. One of the factors that may affect pain, haematoma and bruising is injection speed. To assess the effects of the duration (speed) of subcutaneous heparin injection on pain, haematoma and bruising at the injection site in people admitted to hospitals or clinics who require treatment with unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched August 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, Issue 7). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and two Persian databases Iranmedex and SID (August 2013). We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of different durations of subcutaneous injections of heparin on pain, bruising and haematoma at the injection site. Two review authors, working independently, extracted data onto a structured form and assessed study quality. We used the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Handbook to assess the quality of included studies. The study outcomes were summarised using quantitative and qualitative methods. One RCT was identified which met the inclusion criteria, involving 50 participants with a mean age of 55.25 (± 12.37) years. In this trial it was not possible to blind the participants and care givers. The method of sequence generation and allocation concealment was not described. The overall quality of the evidence was moderate due to the single small included study. Each participant had two injections, one in the left side and one in right side of the abdomen. One of these was injected slowly (intervention) and the other was injected fast (control). The second injection was 12 hours after the first injection. The duration of fast injection was 10 seconds and the duration of slow injection was 30

  14. Surgical attire, practices and their perception in the prevention of surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, S M; Corrigan, M A; Hill, A D K; Humphreys, H

    2014-02-01

    Clean surgical scrubs, surgical gowns and headgear are worn by operative teams to decrease bacterial contamination and lower surgical site infection (SSI) rates. A detailed review was undertaken of peer-reviewed publications and other sources of material in the English language over the last 50 years included. Surgical scrubs should be clean and made of tightly woven material. Studies investigating single-use gowns and drapes versus reusable gowns report conflicting evidence. Double gloving may reduce SSI rates in procedures where no antibiotic prophylaxis was administered. Bacterial contamination of the operative field has been shown to be decreased by the wearing of surgical headgear by the operating team. Further consideration and better trials are required to determine the impact of different theatre clothing on SSI rates. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variability of surface roughness and turbulence intensities at a coastal site in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Radhika; Prakash, J. Winston Jeeva; Gupta, K. Sen; Nair, K. Narayanan; Kunhikrishnan, P. K.

    1994-09-01

    Surface-layer features with different prevailing wind directions for two distinct seasons (Southwest Monsoon and Northeast Monsoon) on the west coast of India are studied using data obtained from tower-based sensors at a site located about 500 m from the coast. Only daytime runs have been used for the present analysis. The surface boundary-layer fluxes have been estimated using the eddy correlation method. The surface roughness z 0 obtained using the stability-corrected wind profiles (Paulson, 1970) has been found to be low for the Southwest monsson season. For the other season, z 0 is relatively high. The drag coefficient C D varies with height in the NE monsoon season but not in the season with low z 0. This aspect is reflected in the wind profiles for the two seasons and is discussed in detail. The scaling behaviour of friction velocity u * and the turbulence intensity of longitudinal, lateral and vertical winds σu, σv and σw, respectively) are further examined to study their dependence on fetch. Our study shows that for the non-dimensional case, σu/u* and σv/u* do not show any surface roughness dependence in either season. On the other hand, for σw/u* for the season with low z 0, the values are seen to agree well with that of Panofsky et al. (1977) for homogeneous terrain whereas for the other season with high z 0, the results seem to conform more to the values observed by Smedman and Högström (1983) for coastal terrain. The results are discussed in the light of observations by other investigators.

  16. SIRT6 recruits SNF2H to DNA break sites, preventing genomic instability through chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiber, Debra; Erdel, Fabian; Bouazoune, Karim; Silberman, Dafne M; Zhong, Lei; Mulligan, Peter; Sebastian, Carlos; Cosentino, Claudia; Martinez-Pastor, Barbara; Giacosa, Sofia; D'Urso, Agustina; Näär, Anders M; Kingston, Robert; Rippe, Karsten; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2013-08-22

    DNA damage is linked to multiple human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging. Little is known about the role of chromatin accessibility in DNA repair. Here, we find that the deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is one of the earliest factors recruited to double-strand breaks (DSBs). SIRT6 recruits the chromatin remodeler SNF2H to DSBs and focally deacetylates histone H3K56. Lack of SIRT6 and SNF2H impairs chromatin remodeling, increasing sensitivity to genotoxic damage and recruitment of downstream factors such as 53BP1 and breast cancer 1 (BRCA1). Remarkably, SIRT6-deficient mice exhibit lower levels of chromatin-associated SNF2H in specific tissues, a phenotype accompanied by DNA damage. We demonstrate that SIRT6 is critical for recruitment of a chromatin remodeler as an early step in the DNA damage response, indicating that proper unfolding of chromatin plays a rate-limiting role. We present a unique crosstalk between a histone modifier and a chromatin remodeler, regulating a coordinated response to prevent DNA damage.

  17. Shisa6 traps AMPA receptors at postsynaptic sites and prevents their desensitization during synaptic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Remco V; Stroeder, Jasper; Coussen, Françoise; Hafner, Anne-Sophie; Petersen, Jennifer D; Renancio, Cedric; Schmitz, Leanne J M; Normand, Elisabeth; Lodder, Johannes C; Rotaru, Diana C; Rao-Ruiz, Priyanka; Spijker, Sabine; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Choquet, Daniel; Smit, August B

    2016-03-02

    Trafficking and biophysical properties of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the brain depend on interactions with associated proteins. We identify Shisa6, a single transmembrane protein, as a stable and directly interacting bona fide AMPAR auxiliary subunit. Shisa6 is enriched at hippocampal postsynaptic membranes and co-localizes with AMPARs. The Shisa6 C-terminus harbours a PDZ domain ligand that binds to PSD-95, constraining mobility of AMPARs in the plasma membrane and confining them to postsynaptic densities. Shisa6 expressed in HEK293 cells alters GluA1- and GluA2-mediated currents by prolonging decay times and decreasing the extent of AMPAR desensitization, while slowing the rate of recovery from desensitization. Using gene deletion, we show that Shisa6 increases rise and decay times of hippocampal CA1 miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Shisa6-containing AMPARs show prominent sustained currents, indicating protection from full desensitization. Accordingly, Shisa6 prevents synaptically trapped AMPARs from depression at high-frequency synaptic transmission.

  18. Pre-operative patient preparation in the prevention of surgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Tara; Beamer, Jennifer

    2007-12-01

    In 1999 the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care granted funding to St. Mary's General Hospital for a Regional Cardiac Care Center. In July 2003 the cardiac surgery program opened. During the program-planning phase, protocols and procedures related to patient preparation for cardiac surgery were developed. To share policies, protocols and patient teaching tools developed from research driven, evidenced based standards of practice. To complete a one-year review (January to December 2004) and assess the compliance rates with pre-operative patient preparation procedures on all Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) cardiac surgery patients. Retrospective chart review. 191 bed community-based Regional Cardiac Care Centre. All adult patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery from January 1st 2004 to December 31st 2004. Compliance rate following patient education related to pre-operative washes, assessing completion of pre-operative washes, and location of clipping relative to the Cardiovascular Operating Room (CVOR). A team of Registered Nurses was able to effectively implement policies and protocols within a cardiac surgery program that meet the recommended standards of care of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Operating Room Nurses Association of Canada (ORNAC) and Safer Health Care Now! Initiative. A retrospective chart review has demonstrated that staff consistently apply and document care in accordance with the developed pre-operative wash and hair clipping protocols.

  19. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Promotes Immune Evasion by Preventing NKG2D-Ligand Surface Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection...... mutant strain, VSV DM51, which possess a defective M protein, prevented MICA surface expression similarly to wild-type VSV. The VSV mediated down modulation of NKG2D-ligand expression did not involve apoptosis. Constitutive expression of MICA bypassed the escape mechanism, suggesting that VSV affect NKG2......D-ligand expression at an early post-transcriptional level. Our results show that VSV possess an escape mechanism, which could affect the immune recognition of VSV infected cancer cells. This may also have implications for immune recognition of cancer cells after combined treatment with VSV...

  20. Reconstruction of iliac crest with rib to prevent donor site complications: A prospective study of 26 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tricortical bone graft from the iliac crest are used to reconstruct the post corpectomy spinal defects. The donor iliac area defect is large and may give rise to pain at donor site, instability of pelvis, fracture of ilium, donor site muscle herniation or abdominal content herniation. Rib removed during thoracotomy was used by us to reconstruct the iliac crest defect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients who underwent thoracotomy for dorsal spine corpectomy or curettage for various spinal pathologies from June 2002 to May 2004 were included in the study. After adequate decompression the spine was reconstructed by tricortical bone graft from iliac crest and reconstruction of the iliac crest was done with the rib removed for exposure during thoracotomy. Results: The mean follow up was 15 months. All patients had good graft incorporation which was evaluated on the basis of local tenderness and radiographs. One patient had graft displacement. Conclusion: The reconstruction of iliac crest by rib is a simple and effective procedure to prevent donor site complications.

  1. Data Validation Package October 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Sampling Period: October 10–12, 2016. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Samples were collected from 54 of 64 planned locations (16 of 17 former mill site wells, 15 of 18 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 3 of 3 bedrock wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations).

  2. Late Eocene sea surface cooling of the western North Atlantic (ODP Site 647A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska, Kasia K.; Coxall, Helen K.; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The initial shift out of the early Cenozoic greenhouse and into a glacial icehouse climate occurred during the middle to late Eocene and culminated in the abrupt growth of a continental-scale ice cap on Antarctica, during an episode known as the Oligocene Isotope Event 1 (Oi-1) ˜33.7 Ma. Documenting the patterns of global and regional cooling prior to Oi-1 is crucial for understanding the driving force and feedback behind the switch in climate mode. Well-dated high-resolution temperature records, however, remain sparse and the climatic response in some of the most climatically sensitive regions of the Earth, including the high latitude North Atlantic (NA), where today large amounts of ocean heat are exchanged, are poorly known. Here we present a sea surface palaeotemperature record from the late Eocene to the early Oligocene (32.5 Ma to 35 Ma) of ODP Hole 647A based on archaeal tetraether lipids (TEX86H). The site is located in the western North Atlantic (Southern Labrador Sea) and is the most northerly located (53° N) open ocean site with a complete Eocene-Oligocene sequence which yields both calcareous and organic microfossils suitable for detailed proxy reconstructions. Our record agrees with the magnitude of temperature decrease (˜3 ° C sea surface cooling) recorded by alkenones and pollen data from the Greenland Sea, but our higher resolution study reveals that the high latitude NA cooling step occurred about 500 kyrs prior to the Oi-1 Antarctic glaciation, at around ˜34.4 Ma. This cooling can be explained by regional effects related to local NA tectonics including ocean gateways, known to have changed at the time, with potential to effect NA overturning circulation due to adjustments in the thermohaline density balance. Alternatively, the cooling itself may be due to changes in NA circulation, suggesting that global ocean circulation played a role in pre-conditioning the Earth for Antarctic glaciation.

  3. Prevention of Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerabilities using Dynamic Hash Generation Technique on the Server Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Gupta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cookies are a means to provide statefulcommunication over the HTTP. In the World WideWeb (WWW, once the user using web browser hasbeen successfully authenticated by the web server ofthe web application, then the web server willgenerate and transfer the cookie to the web browser.Now each time, if the user again wants to send arequest to the web server as a part of the activeconnection, the user has to include thecorresponding cookie in its request, so that the webserver associates the cookie to the correspondinguser. Cookies are the mechanisms that maintain anauthentication state between the user and webapplication. Therefore cookies are the possibletargets for the attackers. Cross Site Scripting (XSSattack is one of such attacks against the webapplications in which a user has to compromise itsbrowser’s resources (e.g. cookies etc.. In this paper,a novel technique called Dynamic Hash GenerationTechnique is introduced whose aim is to makecookies worthless for the attackers. This techniqueis implemented on the server side whose main taskis to generate a hash of the value of name attributein the cookie and send this hash value to the webbrowser. With this technique, the hash value ofname attribute in the cookie which is stored on thebrowser’s database is not valid for the attackers toexploit the vulnerabilities of XSS attacks.

  4. Preoperative skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Solano Castro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of secondary research that refers to preoperative skin preparation with antiseptic chlorhexidine 2% are presented. Surgical Site Infections are one of the most common complications in surgical procedures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the user and are the third -associated infection more frequent in the health care . Steps of clinical practice based on evidence were applied, considering in the first instance a question in PICO format, then a search for information in databases recommended in the Course of Clinical Nursing Practice Evidence-Based, taught by the program for Collaborative Research in Evidence-Based Nursing of Costa Rica ( CIEBE -CR . The PubMed database and Cochrane LIBRARY was consulted, National Center for Biotechnology Information ( NCBI, Google Scholar, CINAHL (cummulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature. SCIELO (Scientific Electronic Library on line www.Scielo.org . 22 documents were recovered, but only three were selected because had methodological rigor. For the critical analysis Critical Reading Sheets 2.0 ( FLC software was used. Was concluded that 2% chlorhexidine, is the best choice for preoperative skin preparation antiseptic, however, it is necessary to conduct further studies in order to determine which is the correct way in strength, frequency, technical and adverse effects in the pediatric population.

  5. Bionic approach for the prevention of exit-site infections of percutaneous devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großhauser, Johannes; Reiter, Katja; Große-Siestrup, Christian; Kikhney, Judith; Kertzscher, Ulrich; Affeld, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Exit-site infections remain one of the main complications for percutaneous devices, such as catheters for peritoneal dialysis or drivelines for ventricular assist devices. Many efforts have been made to create a biological seal, yet without long-term success. This study investigates a new kind of percutaneous device which is coated with an extricable polymeric membrane. The bionic approach applies the naturally outwards directed growth of skin structures to technology: by pulling the protective membrane it slowly grows out of the body and a developing sulcus is exposed to dry air and an infection is avoided. In a feasibility study this kind of device was shown to reduce the rate of infection. To further investigate these devices, they were implanted in the skin of goats and observed for a period of more than 500 days. The membranes were pulled with a force of up to 2 N and the resulting movement was recorded. When being pulled, the membranes moved 0.4-0.9 mm per week, showing that the application of a continuously acting, defined force on the protective membrane causes the desired slow movement.

  6. Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1992 and 1993 highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W. [eds.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company to design and test an earthen cover system that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company provided engineering design support for the program. Work on barrier design has been under way at Hanford for nearly 10 years. The comprehensive development of a long-term barrier, formerly the Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program, was initiated in FY 1986, and a general field-tested design is expected to be completed by FY 1998. Highlights of efforts in FY 1992 and FY 1993 included the resumption of field testing, the completion of the prototype barrier design, and the convening of an external peer review panel, which met twice with the barrier development team. The review panel provided helpful guidance on current and future barrier development activities, while commending the program for its significant technical contributions to innovative barrier technology development.

  7. Nanoseeding via dual surface modification of alkyl monolayer for site-controlled electroless metallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Te; Chen, Giin-Shan

    2011-10-04

    In this work, an attempt to fabricate nanostructured metallization patterns on SiO(2) dielectric layers is made by using plasma-patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), in conjunction with a novel aqueous seeding and electroless process. Taking octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) as a test material, the authors demonstrate that optimizing the N(2)-H(2) plasma conditions leads to the successive conversion of the topmost aliphatic chains of alkyl SAMs to carboxyl (COOH) and hydroxyl (C-OH) functional groups, which was previously found in alkyl SAMs only by exposure to "oxygen-based" plasma. Further modifying the plasma-exposed (either COOH or C-OH terminated) regions with an aqueous solution (SC-1) creates surface functionalities that are viable for site-controlled metallic seeding (e.g., Co or Ni) with an adsorption selectivity of greater than 1000:1. Neither the combination of costly PdCl(2) and complex additives nor the demerits of the associated aqueous chemistry (e.g., seed agglomeration and seed sparseness) are involved. Therefore, the seed particles are only 3 nm in size. Simultaneously, there are sufficient particle densities previously unattainable for electroless deposition to trigger highly resolved Cu metallization patterns with a film thickness of less than 10 nm. The formation of the seed-adsorbing sites is discussed, based on a plasma-dissociated, water-mediated chemical oxidation route.

  8. Site effects in Mexico City: Constraints from surface wave inversion of shallow refraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martínez, J.; Chávez-García, F. J.; Romero-Jiménez, E.; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, J. L.; Gómez-González, J. M.

    1997-03-01

    In order to understand and simulate site effects on strong ground motion records of recent earthquakes in Mexico City, it is fundamental to determine the in situ elastic and anelastic properties of the shallow stratigraphy of the basin. The main properties of interest are the shear wave velocities and Q-quality factors and their correlation with similar parameters in zones of the city. Despite population density and paved surfaces, it is feasible to gather shallow refraction data to obtain laterally homogeneous subsoil structures at some locations. We focused our analysis in the Texcoco Lake region of the northeastern Mexico City basin. This area consists of unconsolidated clay sediments, similar to those of the lake bed zone in Mexico City, where ground motion amplification and long duration disturbances are commonly observed. We recorded Rayleigh and Love waves using explosive and sledgehammer sources and 4.5 Hz vertical and horizontal geophones, respectively. Additionally, for the explosive source, we recorded three-component seismograms using 1 Hz seismometers. We obtained phase velocity dispersion curves from ray parameter-frequency domain analyses and inverted them for vertical distribution of S wave velocity. The initial model was obtained from a standard first-break refraction analysis. We also obtained an estimation of the QS shear wave quality factor for the uppermost stratigraphy. Results compare well with tilt and cone penetrometer resistance measurements at the same test site, emphasizing the importance of these studies for engineering purposes.

  9. Collagen fibril surface displays a constellation of sites capable of promoting fibril assembly, stability, and hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgel, J.P.; Antipova, O.; Sagi, I.; Bitler, A.; Qiu, D.; Wang, R.; Xu, Y.; San Antonio, J.D. (IIT)

    2011-12-14

    Fibrillar collagens form the structural basis of organs and tissues including the vasculature, bone, and tendon. They are also dynamic, organizational scaffolds that present binding and recognition sites for ligands, cells, and platelets. We interpret recently published X-ray diffraction findings and use atomic force microscopy data to illustrate the significance of new insights into the functional organization of the collagen fibril. These data indicate that collagen's most crucial functional domains localize primarily to the overlap region, comprising a constellation of sites we call the 'master control region.' Moreover, the collagen's most exposed aspect contains its most stable part - the C-terminal region that controls collagen assembly, cross-linking, and blood clotting. Hidden beneath the fibril surface exists a constellation of 'cryptic' sequences poised to promote hemostasis and cell - collagen interactions in tissue injury and regeneration. These findings begin to address several important, and previously unresolved, questions: How functional domains are organized in the fibril, which domains are accessible, and which require proteolysis or structural trauma to become exposed? Here we speculate as to how collagen fibrillar organization impacts molecular processes relating to tissue growth, development, and repair.

  10. An important base triple anchors the substrate helix recognition surface within the Tetrahymena ribozyme active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczak, A A; Ortoleva-Donnelly, L; Zivarts, M V; Oyelere, A K; Kazantsev, A V; Strobel, S A

    1999-09-28

    Key to understanding the structural biology of catalytic RNA is determining the underlying networks of interactions that stabilize RNA folding, substrate binding, and catalysis. Here we demonstrate the existence and functional importance of a Hoogsteen base triple (U300.A97-U277), which anchors the substrate helix recognition surface within the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme active site. Nucleotide analog interference suppression analysis of the interacting functional groups shows that the U300.A97-U277 triple forms part of a network of hydrogen bonds that connect the P3 helix, the J8/7 strand, and the P1 substrate helix. Product binding and substrate cleavage kinetics experiments performed on mutant ribozymes that lack this base triple (C A-U, U G-C) or replace it with the isomorphous C(+).G-C triple show that the A97 Hoogsteen triple contributes to the stabilization of both substrate helix docking and the conformation of the ribozyme's active site. The U300. A97-U277 base triple is not formed in the recently reported crystallographic model of a portion of the group I intron, despite the presence of J8/7 and P3 in the RNA construct [Golden, B. L., Gooding, A. R., Podell, E. R. & Cech, T. R. (1998) Science 282, 259-264]. This, along with other biochemical evidence, suggests that the active site in the crystallized form of the ribozyme is not fully preorganized and that substantial rearrangement may be required for substrate helix docking and catalysis.

  11. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  12. Identifying and overcoming the constraints that prevent the full implementation of decommissioning and remediation programs in uranium mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2013-05-01

    Environmental remediation of radioactive contamination is about achieving appropriate reduction of exposures to ionizing radiation. This goal can be achieved by means of isolation or removal of the contamination source(s) or by breaking the exposure pathways. Ideally, environmental remediation is part of the planning phase of any industrial operation with the potential to cause environmental contamination. This concept is even more important in mining operations due to the significant impacts produced. This approach has not been considered in several operations developed in the past. Therefore many legacy sites face the challenge to implement appropriate remediation plans. One of the first barriers to remediation works is the lack of financial resources as environmental issues used to be taken in the past as marginal costs and were not included in the overall budget of the company. This paper analyses the situation of the former uranium production site of Poços de Caldas in Brazil. It is demonstrated that in addition to the lack of resources, other barriers such as the lack of information on site characteristics, appropriate regulatory framework, funding mechanisms, stakeholder involvement, policy and strategy, technical experience and mechanism for the appropriation of adequate technical expertise will play key roles in preventing the implementation of remediation programs. All these barriers are discussed and some solutions are suggested. It is expected that lessons learned from the Poços de Caldas legacy site may stimulate advancement of more sustainable options in the development of future uranium production centers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

    2012-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  15. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  16. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  17. Mapping surface soil moisture over the Gourma mesoscale site (Mali by using ENVISAT ASAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baup

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities of ENVISAT ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar multi-angle data for mapping surface soil moisture (SSM in Sahelian rangelands are investigated at medium scale (30 000 km2. The Wide Swath data are selected to take advantage of their high temporal repetitivity (about 8 days at the considered scale associated to a moderate spatial resolution (150 m. In the continuity of previous studies conducted at a local scale in the same region, SSM maps are here processed over the whole AMMA Gourma mesoscale site at 1 km resolution scale. Overall, the generated maps are found to be in good agreement with field data, EPSAT-SG (Estimation des Pluies par SATellite – Second Generation rainfall estimates and ERS (European Remote Sensing Wind Scatterometer (WSC SSM products. The present study shows that the spatial pattern of SSM can be realistically estimated at a kilometric scale. The resulting SSM maps are expected to provide valuable information for initialisation of land surface models and the estimation of the spatial distribution of radiative fluxes. Particularly, SSM maps could help to desaggregate low-resolution products such as those derived from WSC data.

  18. Surface Disturbances at the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site: Another Indicator of Nuclear Testing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabian, Frank V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coblentz, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-02-03

    A review of available very high-resolution commercial satellite imagery (bracketing the time of North Korea’s most recent underground nuclear test on 9 September 2016 at the Punggye-ri Underground Nuclear Test Site) has led to the detection and identification of several minor surface disturbances on the southern flank of Mt. Mantap. These surface disturbances occur in the form of small landslides, either alone or together with small zones of disturbed bare rock that appear to have been vertically lofted (“spalled”) as a result of the most recent underground explosion. Typically, spall can be uniquely attributed to underground nuclear testing and is not a result of natural processes. However, given the time gap of up to three months between images (pre- and post-event), which was coincident with a period of heavy typhoon flooding in the area1, it is not possible to determine whether the small landslides were exclusively explosion induced, the consequence of heavy rainfall erosion, or some combination of the two.

  19. Passive wireless surface acoustic wave sensors for monitoring sequestration sites CO2 emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yizhong [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Chyu, Minking [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Qing-Ming [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-02-14

    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/°C. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/°C. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2 . The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2 . With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  20. Protein-Protein Interaction Site Predictions with Three-Dimensional Probability Distributions of Interacting Atoms on Protein Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Tai; Peng, Hung-Pin; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Yang, Ei-Wen; Chen, Jun-Bo; Ho, Shinn-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, An-Suei

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are key to many biological processes. Computational methodologies devised to predict protein-protein interaction (PPI) sites on protein surfaces are important tools in providing insights into the biological functions of proteins and in developing therapeutics targeting the protein-protein interaction sites. One of the general features of PPI sites is that the core regions from the two interacting protein surfaces are complementary to each other, similar to the interior of proteins in packing density and in the physicochemical nature of the amino acid composition. In this work, we simulated the physicochemical complementarities by constructing three-dimensional probability density maps of non-covalent interacting atoms on the protein surfaces. The interacting probabilities were derived from the interior of known structures. Machine learning algorithms were applied to learn the characteristic patterns of the probability density maps specific to the PPI sites. The trained predictors for PPI sites were cross-validated with the training cases (consisting of 432 proteins) and were tested on an independent dataset (consisting of 142 proteins). The residue-based Matthews correlation coefficient for the independent test set was 0.423; the accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity were 0.753, 0.519, 0.677, and 0.779 respectively. The benchmark results indicate that the optimized machine learning models are among the best predictors in identifying PPI sites on protein surfaces. In particular, the PPI site prediction accuracy increases with increasing size of the PPI site and with increasing hydrophobicity in amino acid composition of the PPI interface; the core interface regions are more likely to be recognized with high prediction confidence. The results indicate that the physicochemical complementarity patterns on protein surfaces are important determinants in PPIs, and a substantial portion of the PPI sites can be predicted correctly with

  1. Effect of microbial treatment on the prevention and removal of paraffin deposits on stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Li, Wen-Hong; Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Luo, Yi-Jing; Qiao, Wei; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhong, Wei-Zhang; Zhang, Min

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biosurfactant-producing strain N2 and non-biosurfactant producing stain KB18 were used to investigate the effects of microbial treatment on the prevention and removal of paraffin deposits on stainless steel surfaces. Strain N2, with a biosurfactant production capacity, reduced the contact angle of stainless steel to 40.04°, and the corresponding adhesion work of aqueous phase was decreased by 26.5 mJ/m(2). By contrast, KB18 could only reduce the contact angle to 50.83°, with a corresponding 7.6 mJ/m(2) decrease in the aqueous phase work adhesion. The paraffin removal test showed that the paraffin removal efficiencies of strain N2 and KB18 were 79.0% and 61.2%, respectively. Interestingly, the N2 cells could attach on the surface of the oil droplets to inhibit droplets coalescence. These results indicate that biosurfactant-producing strains can alter the wettability of stainless steel and thus eliminate paraffin deposition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  3. Cloudy sky shortwave radiative closure for a Baseline Surface Radiation Network site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Knap, Wouter H.; Stammes, Piet

    2011-04-01

    A shortwave radiative closure analysis for cloudy skies is presented for the Cabauw Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site (51.97°N, 4.93°E). The cloudy cases are carefully selected to be overcast, single-layer, homogeneous, nonprecipitating water clouds. We selected in total 639 cases on 9 days between May 2008 and May 2009 and on 30 January 2007. The Doubling-Adding KNMI (DAK) code is used to simulate global irradiances. The cloud optical thickness is derived from the cloud liquid water path from microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements and the MODIS L2 cloud effective radius product. The scattering phase matrix of the cloud particles is calculated using a Mie code with the two-parameter Gamma size distribution. The MWR integrated water vapor column and an aerosol climatology are also used in the simulations. The cloudy cases cover a large range of liquid water path (30-400 g/m2), water vapor column (0.7-3.1 cm), and solar zenith angle (41°-75°). The mean difference between simulated global irradiances and BSRN measurements is 6 W/m2 (5%), with a standard deviation of 14 W/m2 (13%). This difference is within the uncertainties of the model input parameters and measurement errors. The correlation coefficient between the measured and simulated global irradiances is 0.95. The good closure results demonstrate the high quality of the MODIS effective radius data and MWR liquid water path data and the accuracy of the DAK model for the selected water cloud cases. Furthermore, the effects of clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and surface albedo on the global irradiance have been analyzed carefully. The sensitivity study shows that in order to achieve the closure with an uncertainty of a few W/m2, more frequent effective radius data, simultaneous aerosol and cloud measurements, and surface albedo measurements are essential.

  4. Effectiveness of N-butyl cyanoacrylate-based microbial skin sealant on the prevention of surgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa Tahir; Sinan, Huseyin; Saydam, Mehmet; Kilic, Abdullah; Akyol, Mesut; Coskun, Ali Kagan; Bedir, Orhan; Demibas, Sezai

    2014-02-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a serious concern in health care, and wound contamination by endogenous skin flora is a major factor in the development of SSIs. Despite preventive tactics in pre-operative skin care, antibiotic prophylaxis, surgical technique, and post-operative incision care, complete sterilization of the skin is not possible. Recently developed microbial skin sealant forms a continuous but breathable barrier that prevents migration of endogenous skin flora into the incision. The skin sealant closes dermal microabrasions, preventing re-colonization of potential pathogens at the incision. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an N-butyl cyanoacrylate-based microbial skin sealant in reducing the occurrence of SSIs in an experimental rodent model. This was a randomized, controlled animal trial. Forty-eight Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of eight rats each. Three groups received application of sealant against specific bacteria, and three matched control groups received only the bacteria without the sealant. Group one underwent pre-operative hair removal, followed by application of skin sealant, then abdominal incision and closure. Group two (control) simply underwent hair removal, followed by incision and closure, with no skin sealant applied. Group three received an application of cage swabs (containing a mixture of urine, stool and sawdust from the animals' cages) before application of skin sealant, and group four (control) received cage swabs without subsequent skin sealant. Group five received methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) followed by skin sealant, and group six (control) received MRSA without skin sealant. Seven days after surgery, the animals were sacrificed. Samples were taken from the abdomen of each rat and placed in culture medium. Proliferation of the following bacteria were observed: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), gram-positive bacilli (GPB), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and

  5. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  6. Adsorption sites of single noble metal atoms on the rutile TiO2 (1 1 0) surface influenced by different surface oxygen vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Ishikawa, Ryo; Dong, Qian; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Shibata, Naoya

    2016-05-05

    Atomic adsorption of Au and Pt on the rutile (1 1 0) surface was investigated by atomic-resolution aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) measurements combined with density functional theory calculations. Au single atoms were deposited on the surface in a vacuum condition, and the observed results were compared with Pt single atoms on the same surface prepared by the same experimental manner. It was found that Au single atoms are stably adsorbed only at the bridging oxygen vacancy sites, which is quite different from Pt single atoms exhibiting the most frequently observed adsorption at the basal oxygen vacancy sites. Such a difference in oxygen-vacancy effect between Au and Pt can be explained by electronic structures of the surface vacancies as well as characters of outermost atomic orbitals of Au and Pt.

  7. Long term analysis of the columnar and surface aerosol relationship at an urban European coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, S.; Estellés, V.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous PM2.5, PM10 and columnar (ground and satellite based) AOD measurements have been analyzed at Burjassot site in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain) during the period 2007-2016. The site is representative of a south European city in the Western Mediterranean coastal area, influenced by local urban pollution but also from frequent Saharan dust events. First, multiannual statistics were performed to characterize the main aerosol burden characteristics. The averages and standard deviations resulted 18 ± 9 μg m-3, 25 ± 19 μg m-3, 0.15 ± 0.11, 0.23 ± 0.17, 0.19 ± 0.15 and 1.2 ± 0.3 for PM2.5, PM10, AERONET AOD, MODIS Terra AOD, MODIS Aqua AOD, and AERONET Ångström exponent AE, respectively. The AOD is always referred to 550 nm. PM10 and AOD showed seasonal patterns with maxima in summer and minima in winter. However, PM2.5 and AE did not show such an evident seasonality. The relationship between surface and columnar measurements show a poor correlation (r down to 0.30) for daily values, although the correlation increases to r up to 0.90 for yearly averages. The relationship between PM and AOD becomes more consistent when the databases are binned in intervals of 0.05 AOD. Results for AERONET and MODIS AOD are very similar, although for daily averages is slightly worse for satellite than ground based measurements. In order to explain some seasonality effects found, the mixing layer height has been included in the analysis. Results show that the correlation is maximum when PM2.5 is used and the mixing layer height is greater than 1 000 m (r > 0.90).

  8. Convective signals from surface measurements at ARM Tropical Western Pacific site: Manus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Long, Charles N.; Mather, James H.; Liu, Xiaodong

    2011-02-01

    Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) signals have been detected using highly sampled observations from the U.S. DOE ARM Climate Research Facility located at the Tropical Western Pacific Manus site. Using downwelling shortwave radiative fluxes and derived shortwave fractional sky cover, and the statistical tools of wavelet, cross wavelet, and Fourier spectrum power, we report finding major convective signals and their phase change from surface observations spanning from 1996 to 2006. Our findings are confirmed with the satellite-gauge combined values of precipitation from the NASA Global Precipitation Climatology Project and the NOAA interpolated outgoing longwave radiation for the same location. We find that the Manus MJO signal is weakest during the strongest 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) year. A significant 3-5-month lead in boreal winter is identified further between Manus MJO and NOAA NINO3.4 sea surface temperature (former leads latter). A striking inverse relationship is found also between the instantaneous synoptic and intraseasonal phenomena over Manus. To further study the interaction between intraseasonal and diurnal scale variability, we composite the diurnal cycle of cloudiness for 21-MJO events that have passed over Manus. Our diurnal composite analysis of shortwave and longwave fractional sky covers indicates that during the MJO peak (strong convection), the diurnal amplitude of cloudiness is reduced substantially, while the diurnal mean cloudiness reaches the highest value and there are no significant phase changes. We argue that the increasing diurnal mean and decreasing diurnal amplitude are caused by the systematic convective cloud formation that is associated with the wet phase of the MJO, while the diurnal phase is still regulated by the well-defined solar forcing. This confirms our previous finding of the anti-phase relationship between the synoptic and intraseasonal phenomena. The detection of the MJO over the Manus site provides

  9. Clear-sky shortwave radiative closure for the Cabauw Baseline Surface Radiation Network site, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Knap, W. H.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Stammes, P.

    2009-04-01

    During the last two decades, several attempts have been made to achieve agreement between clear-sky shortwave broadband irradiance models and surface measurements of direct and diffuse irradiance. In general, models and measurements agreed well for the direct component but closing the gap for diffuse irradiances remained problematic. The number of studies reporting a satisfactory degree of closure for both direct and diffuse irradiance is still limited, which motivated us to perform the study presented here. In this paper a clear-sky shortwave closure analysis is presented for the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site of Cabauw, the Netherlands (51.97 °N, 4.93 °E). The analysis is based on an exceptional period of fine weather in the first half of May 2008 during the Intensive Measurement Period At the Cabauw Tower (IMPACT), an activity of the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI). Although IMPACT produced a wealth of data, it was decided to conduct the closure analysis using routine measurements only, provided by BSRN and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), completed with radiosonde obervations. The rationale for this pragmatic approach is the possibility of applying the method presented here to other periods and (BSRN) sites, where routine measurements are readily available, without having to deal with the investments and restrictions of an intensive observation period. The analysis is based on a selection of 72 comparisons on 6 days between BSRN measurements and Doubling Adding KNMI (DAK) model simulations of direct, diffuse, and global irradiance. The data span a wide range of aerosol properties, water vapour columns, and solar zenith angles. The model input consisted of operational Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol products and radiosonde data. On the basis of these data excellent closure was obtained: the mean differences between model and measurements are 2 W/m2 (+0.2%) for direct

  10. Excited state potential energy surfaces and their interactions in Fe(IV)=O active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnec, Martin; Wong, Shaun D; Solomon, Edward I

    2014-12-21

    The non-heme ferryl active sites are of significant interest for their application in biomedical and green catalysis. These sites have been shown to have an S = 1 or S = 2 ground spin state; the latter is functional in biology. Low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (LT MCD) spectroscopy probes the nature of the excited states in these species including ligand-field (LF) states that are otherwise difficult to study by other spectroscopies. In particular, the temperature dependences of MCD features enable their unambiguous assignment and thus determination of the low-lying excited states in two prototypical S = 1 and S = 2 NHFe(IV)[double bond, length as m-dash]O complexes. Furthermore, some MCD bands exhibit vibronic structures that allow mapping of excited-state interactions and their effects on the potential energy surfaces (PESs). For the S = 2 species, there is also an unusual spectral feature in both near-infrared absorption and MCD spectra - Fano antiresonance (dip in Abs) and Fano resonance (sharp peak in MCD) that indicates the weak spin-orbit coupling of an S = 1 state with the S = 2 LF state. These experimental data are correlated with quantum-chemical calculations that are further extended to analyze the low-lying electronic states and the evolution of their multiconfigurational characters along the Fe-O PESs. These investigations show that the lowest-energy states develop oxyl Fe(III) character at distances that are relevant to the transition state (TS) for H-atom abstraction and define the frontier molecular orbitals that participate in the reactivity of S = 1 vs. S = 2 non-heme Fe(IV)[double bond, length as m-dash]O active sites. The S = 1 species has only one available channel that requires the C-H bond of a substrate to approach perpendicular to the Fe-oxo bond (the π channel). In contrast, there are three channels (one σ and two π) available for the S = 2 non-heme Fe(IV)[double bond, length as m-dash]O system allowing C-H substrate approach

  11. Molecular dynamics study to identify the reactive sites of a liquid squalane surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Sven P K; Reed, Stewart K; Westacott, Robin E; McKendrick, Kenneth G

    2006-06-22

    Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid squalane, C30H62, were performed, focusing in particular on the liquid-vacuum interface. These theoretical studies were aimed at identifying potentially reactive sites on the surface, knowledge of which is important for a number of inelastic and reactive scattering experiments. A united atom force field (Martin, M. G.; Siepmann, J. I. J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 4508-4517) was used, and the simulations were analyzed with respect to their interfacial properties. A modest but clearly identifiable preference for methyl groups to protrude into the vacuum has been found at lower temperatures. This effect decreases when going to higher temperatures. Additional simulations tracking the flight paths of projectiles directed at a number of randomly chosen surfaces extracted from the molecular dynamics simulations were performed. The geometrical parameters for these calculations were chosen to imitate a typical abstraction reaction, such as the reaction between ground-state oxygen atoms and hydrocarbons. Despite the preference for methyl groups to protrude further into the vacuum, Monte Carlo tracking simulations suggest, on geometric grounds, that primary and secondary hydrogen atoms are roughly equally likely to react with incoming gas-phase atoms. These geometric simulations also indicate that a substantial fraction of the scattered products is likely to undergo at least one secondary collision with hydrocarbon side chains. These results help to interpret the outcome of previous measurements of the internal and external energy distribution of the gas-phase OH products of the interfacial reaction between oxygen atoms and liquid squalane.

  12. Measurements of scattering and absorption properties of surface aerosols at a semi-arid site, Anantapur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Gopal, K.; Balakrishnaiah, G.; Arafath, S. Md.; Raja Obul Reddy, K.; Siva Kumar Reddy, N.; Pavan Kumari, S.; Raghavendra Kumar, K.; Chakradhar Rao, T.; Lokeswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, R. R.; Nazeer Hussain, S.; Vasudeva Reddy, M.; Suresh Babu, S.; Mallikarjuna Reddy, P.

    2017-01-01

    Aerosol optical properties are continuously measured at a semi-arid station, Anantapur from June 2012 to May 2013 which describes the impact of surface aerosols on climate change over the region. Scattering coefficient (σsct) and absorption coefficient (σabs) are obtained from integrating Nephelometer and Aethalometer, respectively. Also, the single scattering albedo (ω0), Scattering/absorption Ångström exponents were examined during the period of study. Diurnal variations of σsct and σabs show a bi-peak pattern with two maxima and one minimum in a day. The largest values of σsct and σabs are obtained in winter while the lowest values are measured in monsoon. From the measurements σsct550 and σabs550 are found to be 110 ± 12.23 Mm- 1 and 33 ± 5.2 Mm- 1, respectively during the study period. An analysis of the ω0 suggests that there is a more absorbing fraction in the particle composition over the measurement site. The ω0 obtained in the surface boundary layer of Anantapur is below the critical value of 0.86 that determines the shift from cooling to warming. A relationship between scattering/absorption coefficients and scattering/absorption Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo is further examined. In order to understand the origins of the air masses in the study region, we performed seven-day back trajectory analyses based on the NOAA HYSPLIT model. These trajectories were computed at several altitudes (3000 m, 1500 m, and 500 m) for June 2012 and May 2013. These results put in evidence the need of efforts to reduce absorbing particles (black carbon) emissions to avoid the possible warming that would result from the reductions of the cooling aerosol only.

  13. Seismic site characterization of an urban dedimentary basin, Livermore Valley, California: Site tesponse, basin-edge-induced surface waves, and 3D simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Leeds, Alena L.; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Allen, James P.; Schmitt, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty‐two accelerometers were deployed in the Livermore Valley, California, for approximately one year to study sedimentary basin effects. Many local and near‐regional earthquakes were recorded, including the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa, California, earthquake. The resulting ground‐motion data set is used to quantify the seismic response of the Livermore basin, a major structural depression in the California Coast Range Province bounded by active faults. Site response is calculated by two methods: the reference‐site spectral ratio method and a source‐site spectral inversion method. Longer‐period (≥1  s) amplification factors follow the same general pattern as Bouguer gravity anomaly contours. Site response spectra are inverted for shallow shear‐wave velocity profiles, which are consistent with independent information. Frequency–wavenumber analysis is used to analyze plane‐wave propagation across the Livermore Valley and to identify basin‐edge‐induced surface waves with back azimuths different from the source back azimuth. Finite‐element simulations in a 3D velocity model of the region illustrate the generation of basin‐edge‐induced surface waves and point out strips of elevated ground velocities along the margins of the basin.

  14. Data Validation Package - April and July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in July because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0113, 0248, and 0477. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  15. Orbital Calculations of Kaolinite Surface:on Substitution of Al3+ for Si4+ in the Tetrahedral Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The surface properties of kaolinite were determined using density functional theory discrete variational method (DFT-DVM) and Gaussian 03 program. A SiO4 tetrahedral hexagonal ring with two Al octahedra was chosen to model the kaolinite crystal. The total density of states of the kaolinite cluster are located near the Fermi level at both sides of the Fermi level. Both the highest occupied molecular orbit(HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit (LUMO) of kaolinite indicate that kaolinite system can not only readily interact with electron-acceptor species, but also readily interact with electron-donor species on the edge surface and the gibbsite layer surface, and thus, shows amphoteric behavior. Substitution of Al3+ for Si4+ in the tetrahedral site linking the vacant Al3+ octahedra does not increase the surface chemical reactivity of kaolinite, while substitution of Al3+ for Si4+ in the tetrahedral site with the apex O linking Al3+ octahedra increase the surface chemical reactivity of the siloxane surface of kaolinite, especially acting as electron donors.Additionally, substitution of Al3+ for Si4+ in the tetrahedral site results in the re-balance of charges, leading to the increase of negative charge of the coordinated O atoms of the AlO4 tetrahedra, and therefore favoring the formation of ionic bonds between cations and the surface O atoms in the basal plane.

  16. The Role of OOH Binding Site and Pt Surface Structure on ORR Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qingying; Caldwell, Keegan; Ziegelbauer, Joseph M.; Kongkanand, Anusorn; Wagner, Frederick T.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Ramaker, David E.

    2015-01-01

    We present experimentally observed molecular adsorbate coverages (e.g., O(H), OOH and HOOH) on real operating dealloyed bimetallic PtMx (M = Ni or Co) catalysts under oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) conditions obtained using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). The results reveal a complex Sabatier catalysis behavior and indicate the active ORR mechanism changes with Pt–O bond weakening from the O2 dissociative mechanism, to the peroxyl mechanism, and finally to the hydrogen peroxide mechanism. An important rearrangement of the OOH binding site, an intermediate in the ORR, enables facile H addition to OOH and faster O–O bond breaking on 111 faces at optimal Pt–O bonding strength, such as that occurring in dealloyed PtM core-shell nanoparticles. This rearrangement is identified by previous DFT calculations and confirmed from in situ measured OOH adsorption coverages during the ORR. The importance of surface structural effects and 111 ordered faces is confirmed by the higher specific ORR rates on solid core vs porous multi-core nanoparticles. PMID:26190857

  17. Electronic Wiring of a Multi-Redox Site Membrane Protein in a Biomimetic Surface Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Marcel G.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Walz, Dieter; Knoll, Wolfgang; Naumann, Renate L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectronic coupling of multi-redox-site membrane proteins was accomplished with cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) as an example. A biomimetic membrane system was used for the oriented immobilization of the CcO oxidase on a metal electrode. When the protein is immobilized with the CcO binding side directed toward the electrode and reconstituted in situ into a lipid bilayer, it is addressable by direct electron transfer to the redox centers. Electron transfer to the enzyme via the spacer, referred to as electronic wiring, shows an exceptionally high rate constant. This allows a kinetic analysis of all four consecutive electron transfer steps within the enzyme to be carried out. Electron transfer followed by rapid scan cyclic voltametry in combination with surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy provides mechanistic and structural information about the heme centers. Probing the enzyme under turnover conditions showed mechanistic insights into proton translocation coupled to electron transfer. This bioelectronic approach opens a new field of activity to investigate complex processes in a wide variety of membrane proteins. PMID:18222995

  18. Molecular aspects of muco- and bioadhesion: tethered structures and site-specific surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Leobandung, W; Foss, A; Peppas, N A

    2000-03-01

    Mucoadhesive controlled-release devices can improve the effectiveness of a drug by maintaining the drug concentration between the effective and toxic levels, inhibiting the dilution of the drug in the body fluids, and allowing targeting and localization of a drug at a specific site. Acrylic-based hydrogels have been used extensively as mucoadhesive systems. They are well suited for bioadhesion due to their flexibility and nonabrasive characteristics in the partially swollen state, which reduce damage-causing attrition to the tissues in contact. Crosslinked polymeric devices may be rendered adhesive to the mucosa. For example, adhesive capabilities of these hydrogels can be improved by tethering of long flexible chains to their surfaces. Tethering of long poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains on poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels and their copolymers can be achieved by grafting reactions, or by copolymerization in the presence of several PEG-containing acrylates. The ensuing hydrogels exhibit mucoadhesive properties due to enhanced anchoring of the chains with the mucosa. Theoretical calculations can lead to optimization of the tethered structure. Experimental results indicate that the chain interpenetration is a strong function of the PEG molecular weight, the polymer swelling ratio and the mucosa composition.

  19. Discovery and characterization of surface binding sites in polysaccharide converting enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper

    polysaccharide binding interactions to also occur at a distance from the active site. AnAbf62A-m2,3’s preferred substrate is wheat arabinoxylan having kcat and KM of 178 ± 26 s-1 and 4.90 ± 0.91 mg ml-1, respectively. While AnAbf62A-m2,3 from singly substituted xylose releases 1,2-linked at threefold higher rate...... than 1,3-linked arabinosyl residues, it has no activity towards doubly 1,2- and 1,3-arabinose substituted xylosyl residues. 1H NMR identified produced arabinose as the β-furanose form indicating AnAbf62A-m2,3 to have an inverting mechanism as also inferred from the similarity with GH43 that together...... almost 10 years ago that a SBS was present on AgaA. AgaA E147S was subjected to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis and KD values were determined for deca-agarose (92.5 ± 9.8 µM), octa-agarose (128.0 ± 0.5 µM) and hexa-agarose (266.4 ± 7.2 µM). The three-fold difference in affinity between deca...

  20. High-resolution 3-D imaging of surface damage sites in fused silica with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, G; Bass, I; Hackel, R; Mailhiot, C; Demos, S G

    2007-10-30

    In this work, we present the first successful demonstration of a non-contact technique to precisely measure the 3D spatial characteristics of laser induced surface damage sites in fused silica for large aperture laser systems by employing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). What makes OCT particularly interesting in the characterization of optical materials for large aperture laser systems is that its axial resolution can be maintained with working distances greater than 5 cm, whether viewing through air or through the bulk of thick optics. Specifically, when mitigating surface damage sites against further growth by CO{sub 2} laser evaporation of the damage, it is important to know the depth of subsurface cracks below the damage site. These cracks are typically obscured by the damage rubble when imaged from above the surface. The results to date clearly demonstrate that OCT is a unique and valuable tool for characterizing damage sites before and after the mitigation process. We also demonstrated its utility as an in-situ diagnostic to guide and optimize our process when mitigating surface damage sites on large, high-value optics.

  1. Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang; Zhang, Jinhu; Dong, Guofeng; Shao, Hezhu; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Zhao, Li; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhuang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.

  2. Surface magnetic contribution in zinc ferrite thin films studied by element- and site-specific XMCD hysteresis-loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Zélis, P.; Pasquevich, G.A. [IFLP-CCT-La Plata-CONICET and Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, C. C. 67, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Salcedo Rodríguez, K.L.; Sánchez, F.H. [IFLP-CCT-La Plata-CONICET and Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, C. C. 67, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rodríguez Torres, C.E., E-mail: torres@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [IFLP-CCT-La Plata-CONICET and Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, C. C. 67, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-12-01

    Element- and site-specific magnetic hysteresis-loops measurements on a zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin film were performed by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Results show that iron in octahedral and tetrahedral sites of spinel structure are coupled antiferromagnetically between them, and when magnetic field is applied the magnetic moment of the ion located at octahedral sites aligns along the field direction. The magnetic measurements reveal a distinctive response of the surface with in-plane anisotropy and an effective anisotropy constant value of 12.6 kJ/m{sup 3}. This effective anisotropy is due to the combining effects of demagnetizing field and, volume and surface magnetic anisotropies K{sub V} =3.1 kJ/m{sup 3} and K{sub S} =16 μJ/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Surface magnetic response in ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film (thickness t ∼57 nm) by XMCD is studied. • Measurements of magnetic moment vs. applied field cycles via XMCD are presented. • Fe{sup 3+} at A- and B-sites are coupled antiferromagnetically between them. • A distinctive response of the surface with in-plane magnetic anisotropy is determined. • Volume and surface magnetic anisotropy are determined: 3.1 kJ/m{sup 3} and 16 μJ/m{sup 2}.

  3. Surface-Water Hydrology and Quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of surface water in and around the Pike Hill Brook watershed, in Corinth, Vermont, was studied from October 2004 to December 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Pike Hill was mined intermittently for copper from 1847 to 1919 and the site is known to be contributing trace elements and acidity to Pike Hill Brook and an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook. The site has been listed as a Superfund site since 2004. Streamflow, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured continuously and monthly at three sites on Pike Hill Brook to determine the variation in these parameters over an annual cycle. Synoptic water-quality sampling was done at 10 stream sites in October 2004, April 2005, and June 2005 and at 13 stream sites in August 2005 to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality. Samples for analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate populations were collected at 11 stream sites in August 2005. Water samples were analyzed for 5 major ions and 32 trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements at sites in the Pike Hill Brook watershed exceeded USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria acute and chronic toxicity standards for aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of copper exceeded the chronic criteria in an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook in one sample. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc decreased with distance from a site directly downstream from the mine (site 1), as a result of dilution and through sorption and precipitation of the trace elements. Maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were observed during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, cadmium, copper, and zinc, and instantaneous loads of calcium and aluminum were

  4. Surface-Water Hydrology and Quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of surface water in and around the Pike Hill Brook watershed, in Corinth, Vermont, was studied from October 2004 to December 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Pike Hill was mined intermittently for copper from 1847 to 1919 and the site is known to be contributing trace elements and acidity to Pike Hill Brook and an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook. The site has been listed as a Superfund site since 2004. Streamflow, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured continuously and monthly at three sites on Pike Hill Brook to determine the variation in these parameters over an annual cycle. Synoptic water-quality sampling was done at 10 stream sites in October 2004, April 2005, and June 2005 and at 13 stream sites in August 2005 to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality. Samples for analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate populations were collected at 11 stream sites in August 2005. Water samples were analyzed for 5 major ions and 32 trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements at sites in the Pike Hill Brook watershed exceeded USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria acute and chronic toxicity standards for aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of copper exceeded the chronic criteria in an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook in one sample. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc decreased with distance from a site directly downstream from the mine (site 1), as a result of dilution and through sorption and precipitation of the trace elements. Maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were observed during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, cadmium, copper, and zinc, and instantaneous loads of calcium and aluminum were

  5. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    microzonation map based on generalized velocity profiles, where the amplifications were computed using Shake (Schnable and others, 1972), along with an assumed input ground motion. The velocities were constrained by only a few local measurements associated with the Central Artery/Tunnel project. The additional VS measurements presented in this report provide a number of benefits. First, these measurements provide improved spatial coverage. Second, the larger sample size provides better constraints on the mean and variance of the VS distribution for each layer, which may be paired with a three-dimensional (3D) model of the stratigraphy to generate one-dimensional (1D) profiles for use in a standard site-response analysis (for example, Britton, 2003). Third, the velocity profiles may also be used, along with a 3D model of the stratigraphy, as input into a 3D simulation of the ground motion to investigate the effects of basin-generated surface waves and the potential focusing of seismic waves.This report begins with a short review of the geology of the study area and the field methods that we used to estimate the velocity profiles. The raw data, processed data, and the interpreted VS profiles are given in appendix 1. Photographs and descriptions of the sites are provided in appendix 2.

  6. Surface seismic refraction/reflection measurement determinations of potential site resonances and the areal uniformity of NEHRP site class D in Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Wood, S.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.; Meremonte, M.E.; Street, R.; Worley, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    We determined S-wave velocities (Vs) to about 40-m depth at 65 locations in the Memphis-Shelby County, Tennessee, area. The Vs measurements were made using high-resolution seismic refraction and reflection methods on the ground surface. We find a clear difference in the Vs profiles between sites located on the Mississippi River flood plain and those located to the east, mostly covered by loess, in the urban areas of Memphis. The average Vs to 30-m depth at 19 sites on the modern Mississippi River floodplain averages 197 m/s (?? 15 m/s) and places 17 of these sites at the low end of NEHRP soil profile category type D (average Vs 180-360 m/s). The two remaining sites are type E. Vs to 30-m depth at 46 sites in the urban areas east of the modern floodplain are more variable and generally higher than the floodplain sites, averaging about 262 m/s (??45 m/s), still within category D. We often observed the base of the loess as a prominent S-wave reflection and as an increase in Vs to about 500 m/s. Based on the two-way travel time of this reflection, during an earthquake the impedance boundary at the loess base may generate resonances in the 3- to 6-Hz range over many areas of Memphis. Amplitude spectra from four local earthquakes recorded at one site located on loess indicate consistent resonance peaks in the 4.5- to 6.5-Hz range.

  7. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  8. Meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of triclosan-coated sutures for the prevention of surgical-site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, S W; Atema, J J; Solomkin, J S; Boermeester, M A

    2017-01-01

    Triclosan-coated sutures (TCS) were developed to reduce the risk of surgical-site infection (SSI). Level 1A evidence of effectiveness has been presented in various recent meta-analyses, yet well designed RCTs have not been able to reproduce these favourable results. The aim of this study was to evaluate all available evidence critically with comprehensive analysis to seek a more reliable answer regarding the effectiveness of TCS in the prevention of SSI. PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched from 1990 to November 2015 for RCTs that compared TCS with sutures that were exactly the same, but uncoated, in the prevention of SSI. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95 per cent confidence intervals were estimated using a random-effects model. Metaregression was used to substantiate subgroup effects, trial sequential analysis was employed to assess the risk of random error, and quality of evidence was determined using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Twenty-one RCTs including 6462 patients were included. Risk of bias was serious. Pooled effects showed a RR of 0·72 (95 per cent c.i. 0·60 to 0·86; P < 0·001) for all publications. At a risk of 138 SSIs per 1000 procedures, the use of TCS reduced this by 39 (95 per cent c.i. 19, 55). Trial sequential analysis confirmed a RR reduction of 15 per cent for the use of TCS. GRADE assessment shows moderate-quality evidence that TCS are effective in reducing SSI. Trial sequential analysis indicates that the effect was robust, and additional data are unlikely to alter the summary effect. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Idaho's surface-water-quality monitoring program: results from five sites sampled during water years 1990-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality, implemented a statewide water-quality monitoring program in response to Idaho's antidegradation policy as required by the Clean Water Act. The program objective is to provide water-quality managers with a coordinated statewide network to detect trends in surface-water quality. The monitoring program includes the collection and analysis of samples from 56 sites on the Bear, Clearwater, Kootenai, Pend Oreille, Salmon, Snake, and Spokane Rivers and their tributaries (fig. 1). Samples are collected every year at 5 sites (annual sites) in drainage basins where long-term water-quality management is practiced, every other year at 19 sites (biennial sites) in basins where land and water uses change slowly, and every third year at 32 sites (triennial sites) where future development may affect water quality. Each year, 25 of the 56 sites are sampled. This report discusses results of sampling at five annual sites. During water years 1990-93 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1993), samples were collected six times per year at the five annual sites (fig. 1). Onsite analyses were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, bacteria (fecal coliform and fecal streptococci), and alkalinity. Laboratory analyses were made for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Suspended sediment, nitrate, fecal coliform, trace elements, and specific conductance were used to characterize surface-water quality. Because concentrations of all trace elements except zinc were near detection limits, only zinc is discussed.

  10. Efficacy of 48-hour post-operative antibiotics prophylaxis for patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in preventing site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Adnan; Alsaudi, Dib; Furnari, Manuele; Abdulhadi Ali, Mamdouh M; Al-Majadah, Saeed Salim Abdullah; Savarino, Vincenzo; Inferrera, Simona; Giannini, Edoardo G

    2011-06-01

    Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) is an endoscopic procedure for placing a feeding tube into the stomach through the skin, primarily to avoid malnutrition. Malnutrition can increase the risk of wound infection, whose incidence can be decreased by using antibiotic prophylaxis. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new antibiotic regimen in preventing acute post-PEG procedure complications. Ninety-seven consecutive patients were put on combined antibiotic therapy of clindamycin 600 mg and cefotaxime 1,000 mg every eight hours, starting with the insertion of the PEG tube and maintained for 48 hours. Pain/tenderness, leakage/drainage, bleeding fever, maximum white blood cells (WBC) count, pus/discharge, and PEG tube function were evaluated within 48 hours and 1 week from PEG insertion. Infection at the site of PEG insertion occurred in 3 cases (3.1%) within 48 hours and in 1 case (1.0%) within 7 days. Within 48 hours from the procedure, incidence of fever and increased WBC count was 10.3% and 9.3%, respectively, though at 7 days all were resolved. Pain, leak, and bleeding at the site of PEG placement were prevalently mild within 48 hours (74.2%, 12.4%,13.4% of patients, respectively) and subsided within 7 days (2.1%, 0%, 0%). One case (1.0%) of minor antibiotic side effect occurred. Two patients died due to complications not related to the procedure. The combined use of short-term cefotaxime and clindamycin seems to be effective in reducing incidence of acute complications due to PEG placement without increasing side-effects.

  11. Increasing Compliance With an Antibiotic Prophylaxis Guideline to Prevent Pediatric Surgical Site Infection: Before and After Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jeannette P; Aleem, Ilyas S; Tsang, Derek S; Matlow, Anne G; Wright, James G

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate an intervention for improving antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) guideline compliance to prevent surgical site infections in children. Although appropriate AP reduces surgical site infection, and guidelines improve quality of care, changing practice is difficult. To facilitate behavioral change, various barriers need to be addressed. A multidisciplinary task force at a pediatric hospital developed an evidence-based AP guideline. Subsequently, the guideline was posted in operating rooms and the online formulary, only recommended antibiotics were available in operating rooms, incoming trainees received orientation, antibiotic verification was included in time-out, computerized alerts were set for inappropriate postoperative prophylaxis, and surgeons received e-mails when guideline was not followed. AP indication and administration were documented for surgical procedures in July 2008 (preintervention), September 2011 (postintervention), and April-May 2013 (follow-up). Compliance was defined as complete--appropriate antibiotic, dose, timing, redosing, and duration when prophylaxis was indicated; partial--appropriate drug and timing when prophylaxis was indicated; and appropriate use--complete compliance when prophylaxis was indicated, no antibiotics when not indicated. Compliance at preintervention and follow-up was compared using χ(2) tests. AP was indicated in 43.9% (187/426) and 62.0% (124/200) of surgical procedures at preintervention and follow-up, respectively. There were significant improvements in appropriate antibiotic use (51.6%-67.0%; P < 0.001), complete (26.2%-53.2%; P < 0.001) and partial compliance (73.3%-88.7%, P = 0.001), correct dosage (77.5%-90.7%; P = 0.003), timing (83.3%-95.8%; P = 0.001), redosing (62.5%-95.8%, P = 0.003), and duration (47.1%-65.3%; P < 0.002). A multifaceted intervention improved compliance with a pediatric AP guideline.

  12. Performance of a Surface Barrier for Waste Isolation and Flux Reduction at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Morse, John G.; Leary, Kevin D.; Freshley, Mark D.

    2016-05-13

    Based on the knowledge gained from a decade of laboratory, field, and numerical studies, the Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed and constructed between late 1993 and late 1994 over the 216-B-57 Crib in the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site. The PHB has been monitored since 1994 to evaluate the physical, hydrologic, and ecological performance. Two stress tests were carried out in the past: (1) an enhanced (about 3 times the multi-year average of 160 mm/year) precipitation test from water year (WY) 1995 to WY1997, which included a man-made 1000-year return 24-hour rainstorms in March each year, and (2) a controlled fire test in 2008. The purpose of this article is to present the main findings of the PHB demonstration since 1994. From 1994 to present, the PHB has limited drainage of less than 0.2 mm yr-1, which is below the 0.5 mm yr-1 design goal, and minimized erosion. The observations suggest the PHB is robust enough to endure the hydrological stress of three times average precipitation and 1000-year return 24-hour rainstorms. After the controlled fire, far less vegetation grows and grasses are the dominant vegetation (compared to shrubs on the unburned section). Even so, the grasses can remove nearly all the stored water in the burned section, although during a longer period of time than in the unburned section. The findings at the PHB are useful for the design and monitoring of future surface barriers at Hanford and elsewhere.

  13. Clear-sky shortwave radiative closure for the Cabauw Baseline Surface Radiation Network site, Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Knap, Wouter H.; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Stammes, Piet

    2009-07-01

    In this paper a clear-sky shortwave closure analysis is presented for the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site of Cabauw, Netherlands (51.97°N, 4.93°E). The analysis is based on an exceptional period of fine weather during the first half of May 2008, resulting in a selection of 72 comparisons, on 6 days, between BSRN measurements and Doubling Adding KNMI (DAK) model simulations of direct, diffuse, and global irradiances. The data span a wide range of aerosol properties, water vapor columns, and solar zenith angles. The model input consisted of operational Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol products and radiosonde data. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol optical thickness, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter was taken into account. On the basis of these data, excellent closure was obtained: the mean differences between model and measurements are 2 W/m2 (+0.2%) for the direct irradiance, 1 W/m2 (+0.8%) for the diffuse irradiance, and 2 W/m2 (+0.3%) for the global irradiance. The good results were obtained because of proper specification of the DAK model input and the high quality of the AERONET and BSRN measurements. The sensitivity of the achieved closure to uncertainties in the aerosol optical thickness, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter was examined. Furthermore, several sensitivity experiments related to the wavelength dependence of the aerosol optical properties and the treatment of water vapor were performed. It appeared that a correct description of the wavelength dependence of the aerosol optical properties is important for achieving broadband closure. However, broadband closure can also be obtained by means of using spectrally averaged values of the single scattering albedo and the asymmetry parameter. Cancellation of errors in different parts of the solar spectrum also contributes to the achieved closure.

  14. AATSR land surface temperature product algorithm verification over a WATERMED site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, E. J.; Sòria, G.; Sobrino, J. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.

    A new operational Land Surface Temperature (LST) product generated from data acquired by the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) provides the opportunity to measure LST on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The target accuracy of the product, which utilises nadir data from the AATSR thermal channels at 11 and 12 μm, is 2.5 K for daytime retrievals and 1.0 K at night. We present the results of an experiment where the performance of the algorithm has been assessed for one daytime and one night time overpass occurring over the WATERMED field site near Marrakech, Morocco, on 05 March 2003. Top of atmosphere (TOA) brightness temperatures (BTs) are simulated for 12 pixels from each overpass using a radiative transfer model, with the LST product and independent emissivity values and atmospheric data as inputs. We have estimated the error in the LST product over this biome for this set of conditions by applying the operational AATSR LST retrieval algorithm to the modelled BTs and comparing the results with the original AATSR LSTs input into the model. An average bias of -1.00 K (standard deviation 0.07 K) for the daytime data, and -1.74 K (standard deviation 0.02 K) for the night time data is obtained, which indicates that the algorithm is yielding an LST that is too cold under these conditions. While these results are within specification for daytime retrievals, this suggests that the target accuracy of 1.0 K at night is not being met within this biome.

  15. Re-Inversion of Surface Electrical Resistivity Tomography Data from the Hanford Site B-Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2013-05-01

    This report documents the three-dimensional (3D) inversion results of surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data collected over the Hanford Site B-Complex. The data were collected in order to image the subsurface distribution of electrically conductive vadose zone contamination resulting from both planned releases of contamination into subsurface infiltration galleries (cribs, trenches, and tile fields), as well as unplanned releases from the B, BX, and BY tank farms and/or associated facilities. Electrically conductive contaminants are those which increase the ionic strength of pore fluids compared to native conditions, which comprise most types of solutes released into the subsurface B-Complex. The ERT data were collected and originally inverted as described in detail in report RPP-34690 Rev 0., 2007, which readers should refer to for a detailed description of data collection and waste disposal history. Although the ERT imaging results presented in that report successfully delineated the footprint of vadose zone contamination in areas outside of the tank farms, imaging resolution was not optimized due to the inability of available inversion codes to optimally process the massive ERT data set collected at the site. Recognizing these limitations and the potential for enhanced ERT characterization and time-lapse imaging at contaminated sites, a joint effort was initiated in 2007 by the U.S. Department of Energy – Office of Science (DOE-SC), with later support by the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), to develop a high-performance distributed memory parallel 3D ERT inversion code capable of optimally processing large ERT data sets. The culmination of this effort was the development of E4D (Johnson et al., 2010,2012) In 2012, under the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), the U.S. Department of Energy – Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation

  16. Active Sites on the Surface of Nano-Sized SiO2-TiO2 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valova, M. S.; Koryakova, O. V.; Maksimovskikh, A. I.; Fedorova, O. V.; Murashkevich, A. N.; Alisienok, O. A.

    2014-07-01

    The nature and amount of active sites on the surface of nano-sized SiO2-TiO2 oxides were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and back-titration methods. Increasing the TiO2 content in the SiO2-TiO2 composites increased the amount of activated surface H2O and adsorbed CO2. This increased the amount of active basic centers on the oxide surface and caused the first of two observed mechanisms for benzaldehyde adsorption (with and without its activation) to begin to prevail.

  17. Ab-Initio Modelling Of Surface Site Reactivity And Fluid Transport In Clay Minerals Case Study: Pyrophyllite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churakov, S.V

    2005-03-01

    Pyrophyllite, Al{sub 2}[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}](OH){sub 2}, is the simplest structural prototype for 2:1 dioctahedral phyllosilicate. Because the net electric charge in pyrophyllite is zero, it is the best candidate for investigating the non electrostatic contribution to sorption and transport phenomena in clays. Using ab-initio simulations, we have investigated the reactivity and structure of the water-solid interface on the basal plane and edge sites of pyrophyllite. The calculations predict slightly hydrophobic behaviour of the basal plane. For the high water coverage (100), (110) and (-110), lateral facets have a lower energy than for the (010), (130) and (-130) surfaces. Analysis of the surface reactivity reveals that the =Al-OH groups are most easily protonated on the (010), (130) and (-130) facets. The =Al-O-Si= sites will be protonated on the (100), (130), (110), (-110) and (-130) surfaces. The =Al-OH{sub 2} complexes are more easily de-protonated than the =Si-OH and =Al-OH sites. A spontaneous, reversible exchange of the protons between the solution and the edge sites has been observed in ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations at 300 K. Such near-surface proton diffusion may result in a significant contribution to the diffusion coefficients measured in neutron scattering experiments. (author)

  18. IMPLICATION OF LAKE WATER RESIDENCE TIME ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF NORWEGIAN SURFACE WATER SITES INTO PROGRESSIVE STAGES OF NITROGEN SATURATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal behaviour of NO3- in surface water is often used as an indicator on a catchment's ability to retain N from atmospheric deposition. In this paper, we classify 12 pristine sites (five streams and seven lakes) in southernmost Norway according to the N saturation stage conce...

  19. Quinacrine impairs enterovirus 71 RNA replication by preventing binding of polypyrimidine-tract binding protein with internal ribosome entry sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wang

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, epidemics of enterovirus 71 (EV71 and other enteroviruses have occurred in Asian countries and regions, causing a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs are indispensable for the initiation of translation in enteroviruses. Several cellular factors, as well as the ribosome, are recruited to the conserved IRES during this process. Quinacrine intercalates into the RNA architecture and inhibits RNA transcription and protein synthesis, and a recent study showed that quinacrine inhibited encephalomyocarditis virus and poliovirus IRES-mediated translation in vitro without disrupting internal cellular IRES. Here, we report that quinacrine was highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA, expression of viral capsid protein, and production of virus were all strongly inhibited by quinacrine. Interaction of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB with the conserved IRES was prevented by quinacrine. Coxsackieviruses and echovirus were also inhibited by quinacrine in cultured cells. These results indicate that quinacrine may serve as a potential protective agent for use in the treatment of patients with chronic enterovirus infection.

  20. SIRT6 recruits SNF2H to sites of DNA breaks, preventing genomic instability through chromatin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiber, Debra; Erdel, Fabian; Bouazoune, Karim; Silberman, Dafne M.; Zhong, Lei; Mulligan, Peter; Sebastian, Carlos; Cosentino, Claudia; Martinez-Pastor, Barbara; Giacosa, Sofia; D’Urso, Agustina; Näär, Anders M.; Kingston, Robert; Rippe, Karsten; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Summary DNA damage is linked to multiple human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration and senescence. Little is known about the role of chromatin accessibility in DNA repair. Here, we find that the histone deacetylase SIRT6 is one of the earliest factors recruited to sites of Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs). SIRT6 recruits the ISWI-chromatin remodeler SNF2H to DSBs, and deacetylates focally histone H3K56. Lack of SIRT6 and SNF2H impairs chromatin remodeling, increasing sensitivity to genotoxic damage and recruitment of downstream factors, such as 53BP1, BRCA1 and RPA. Remarkably, SIRT6 deficient mice exhibit lower levels of chromatin-associated SNF2H in specific tissues, a phenotype accompanied by increased DNA damage. We demonstrate that SIRT6 is critical for recruitment of a chromatin remodeler as an early step in the DNA damage response, indicating that proper unfolding of chromatin plays a rate-limiting role. We present a novel crosstalk between a histone modifier and a chromatin remodeler, regulating a coordinated response to prevent DNA damage. PMID:23911928

  1. Surface magnetic contribution in zinc ferrite thin films studied by element- and site-specific XMCD hysteresis-loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Zélis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Salcedo Rodríguez, K. L.; Sánchez, F. H.; Rodríguez Torres, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Element- and site-specific magnetic hysteresis-loops measurements on a zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) thin film were performed by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Results show that iron in octahedral and tetrahedral sites of spinel structure are coupled antiferromagnetically between them, and when magnetic field is applied the magnetic moment of the ion located at octahedral sites aligns along the field direction. The magnetic measurements reveal a distinctive response of the surface with in-plane anisotropy and an effective anisotropy constant value of 12.6 kJ/m3. This effective anisotropy is due to the combining effects of demagnetizing field and, volume and surface magnetic anisotropies KV =3.1 kJ/m3 and KS =16 μJ/m2.

  2. Activity of radon (222Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Charan; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon (222Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth's surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5∘N and 79.2∘E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon in relation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence of rocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon (R = - 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be 12.01±0.66 Bq m-3 and 4.25±0.18 Bq m-3 for its progenies, in the study period.

  3. Activity of radon (222Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Charan; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon (222Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth's surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5∘N and 79.2∘E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon in relation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence of rocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon ( R = - 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be 12.01±0.66 Bq m-3 and 4.25±0.18 Bq m-3 for its progenies, in the study period.

  4. Activity of radon ($^{222}$Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Charan Kumar; T Rajendra Prasad; M Venkat Ratnam; Nagaraja Kamsali

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon ($^{222}$Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth’s surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5◦N and 79.2◦E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon inrelation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence ofrocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon (R = – 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be12.01±0.66 Bq m$^{−3}$ and 4.25±0.18 Bq m$^{−3}$ for its progenies, in the study period.

  5. Surface meteorological conditions at benthic disturbance experiment site - INDEX area during austral winter 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.; Beena, B.S.

    Benthic Disturbance Experiment surveys in the Central Indian Ocean Basin yielded baseline data on surface meteorological conditions during June and August, 1997 together with sea surface temperature (SST) and could data to estimate the air-sea heat...

  6. Major Surface-Water Sampling Sites in the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program: 1991 and 1994 Study-Unit Starts - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set shows the 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study units' major surface-water sampling sites. These sites are in NAWQA's fixed...

  7. Role of the carbohydrate-binding sites of griffithsin in the prevention of DC-SIGN-mediated capture and transmission of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hoorelbeke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The glycan-targeting C-type DC-SIGN lectin receptor is implicated in the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV by binding the virus and transferring the captured HIV-1 to CD4(+ T lymphocytes. Carbohydrate binding agents (CBAs have been reported to block HIV-1 infection. We have now investigated the potent mannose-specific anti-HIV CBA griffithsin (GRFT on its ability to inhibit the capture of HIV-1 to DC-SIGN, its DC-SIGN-directed transmission to CD4(+ T-lymphocytes and the role of the three carbohydrate-binding sites (CBS of GRFT in these processes. FINDINGS: GRFT inhibited HIV-1(IIIB infection of CEM and HIV-1(NL4.3 infection of C8166 CD4(+ T-lymphocytes at an EC50 of 0.059 and 0.444 nM, respectively. The single mutant CBS variants of GRFT (in which a key Asp in one of the CBS was mutated to Ala were about ∼20 to 60-fold less potent to prevent HIV-1 infection and ∼20 to 90-fold less potent to inhibit syncytia formation in co-cultures of persistently HIV-1 infected HuT-78 and uninfected C8166 CD4(+ T-lymphocytes. GRFT prevents DC-SIGN-mediated virus capture and HIV-1 transmission to CD4(+ T-lymphocytes at an EC50 of 1.5 nM and 0.012 nM, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR studies revealed that wild-type GRFT efficiently blocked the binding between DC-SIGN and immobilized gp120, whereas the point mutant CBS variants of GRFT were ∼10- to 15-fold less efficient. SPR-analysis also demonstrated that wild-type GRFT and its single mutant CBS variants have the capacity to expel bound gp120 from the gp120-DC-SIGN complex in a dose dependent manner, a property that was not observed for HHA, another mannose-specific potent anti-HIV-1 CBA. CONCLUSION: GRFT is inhibitory against HIV gp120 binding to DC-SIGN, efficiently prevents DC-SIGN-mediated transfer of HIV-1 to CD4(+ T-lymphocytes and is able to expel gp120 from the gp120-DC-SIGN complex. Functionally intact CBS of GRFT are important for the optimal action of

  8. Fire Impact on Surface Fuels and Carbon Emissions in Scots pine Logged Sites of Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, V. A.; Zhila, S. V.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due great amounts of logging slash, which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population. Both legal and illegal logging are also increasing rapidly in many forest areas of Siberia. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on logged vs. unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region in 2009-2012 as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Dead down woody fuels are significantly less at unburned/logged area of dry southern regions compared to more humid northern regions. Fuel consumption was typically less in spring fires than during summer fires. Fire-caused carbon emissions on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration is less at logged areas compared to undisturbed forest. After fire soil respiration decreases both at logged and unlogged areas. arbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

  9. A surface structural model for ferrihydrite I: Sites related to primary charge, molar mass, and mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2009-08-01

    A multisite surface complexation (MUSIC) model for ferrihydrite (Fh) has been developed. The surface structure and composition of Fh nanoparticles are described in relation to ion binding and surface charge development. The site densities of the various reactive surface groups, the molar mass, the mass density, the specific surface area, and the particle size are quantified. As derived theoretically, molecular mass and mass density of nanoparticles will depend on the types of surface groups and the corresponding site densities and will vary with particle size and surface area because of a relatively large contribution of the surface groups in comparison to the mineral core of nanoparticles. The nano-sized (˜2.6 nm) particles of freshly prepared 2-line Fh as a whole have an increased molar mass of M ˜ 101 ± 2 g/mol Fe, a reduced mass density of ˜3.5 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, both relatively to the mineral core. The specific surface area is ˜650 m 2/g. Six-line Fh (5-6 nm) has a molar mass of M ˜ 94 ± 2 g/mol, a mass density of ˜3.9 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, and a surface area of ˜280 ± 30 m 2/g. Data analysis shows that the mineral core of Fh has an average chemical composition very close to FeOOH with M ˜ 89 g/mol. The mineral core has a mass density around ˜4.15 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, which is between that of feroxyhyte, goethite, and lepidocrocite. These results can be used to constrain structural models for Fh. Singly-coordinated surface groups dominate the surface of ferrihydrite (˜6.0 ± 0.5 nm -2). These groups can be present in two structural configurations. In pairs, the groups either form the edge of a single Fe-octahedron (˜2.5 nm -2) or are present at a single corner (˜3.5 nm -2) of two adjacent Fe octahedra. These configurations can form bidentate surface complexes by edge- and double-corner sharing, respectively, and may therefore respond differently to the binding of ions such as uranyl, carbonate, arsenite, phosphate, and others. The relatively low PZC of

  10. Economic and organizational sustainability of a negative-pressure portable device for the prevention of surgical-site complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foglia E

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emanuela Foglia,1 Lucrezia Ferrario,1 Elisabetta Garagiola,1 Giuseppe Signoriello,2 Gianluca Pellino,3 Davide Croce,1,4 Silvestro Canonico3 1Centre for Health Economics, Social and Health Care Management - LIUC University, Castellanza, Italy; 2Department of Mental Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy; 3School of Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy; 4School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South \tAfrica Purpose: Surgical-site complications (SSCs affect patients’ clinical pathway, prolonging their hospitalization and incrementing their management costs. The present study aimed to assess the economic and organizational implications of a portable device for negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT implementation, compared with the administration of pharmacological therapies alone for preventing surgical complications in patients undergoing general, cardiac, obstetrical–gynecological, or orthopedic surgical procedures.Patients and methods: A total of 8,566 hospital procedures, related to the year 2015 from one hospital, were evaluated considering infection risk index, occurrence rates of SSCs, drug therapies, and surgical, diagnostic, and specialist procedures and hematological exams. Activity-based costing and budget impact analyses were implemented for the economic assessment.Results: Patients developing an SSC absorbed i 64.27% more economic resources considering the length of stay (€ 8,269±2,096 versus € 5,034±2,901, p<0.05 and ii 42.43% more economic resources related to hematological and diagnostic procedures (€ 639±117 versus € 449±72, p<0.05. If the innovative device had been used over the 12-month time period, it would have decreased the risk of developing SSCs; the hospital would have realized an average reduction in health care expenditure equal to −0.69% (−€ 483

  11. Surface sites on carbon-supported Ru, Co and Ni nanoparticles as determined by microcalorimetry of CO adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro-Alarcon, M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, C/Senda del Rey no 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Grupo de Diseno y Aplicacion de Catalizadores Heterogeneos, Unidad Asociada UNED-ICP(CSIC) (Spain); Maroto-Valiente, A. [Grupo de Diseno y Aplicacion de Catalizadores Heterogeneos, Unidad Asociada UNED-ICP(CSIC) (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, C/Marie Curie no 2, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Ramos, I. [Grupo de Diseno y Aplicacion de Catalizadores Heterogeneos, Unidad Asociada UNED-ICP(CSIC) (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, C/Marie Curie no 2, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Guerrero-Ruiz, A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, C/Senda del Rey no 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain) and Grupo de Diseno y Aplicacion de Catalizadores Heterogeneos, Unidad Asociada UNED-ICP (CSIC) (Spain)]. E-mail: aguerrero@ccia.uned.es

    2005-08-15

    The adsorption of CO on carbon-supported metal (Ru, Co and Ni) catalysts was studied by microcalorimetry. A correlation of the results thus obtained with those reported for monocrystals or with other studies available in the scientific literature for supported metal catalysts, including infrared spectroscopy data, enables the determination of the type of exposed crystalline planes and/or of the different types of CO adsorbed species. The results obtained suggest that the energetic distribution of the surface sites depends on the carbon support material and on the applied reduction treatment. In this way, the use of a high surface area graphite (clean of surface oxygen groups) leads to an electron density enrichment on the small metal particles (Ru) and, in general, to a higher heterogeneity of the active surface sites. The elimination of surface oxygen functional groups (with the reduction treatment at the higher temperature) of the carbon molecular sieve support leads to changes in the surface structure of the metal particles and, consequently, to higher CO adsorption heats, particularly for Ru and Co.

  12. Biological variables for the site survey of surface ecosystems - existing data and survey methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Berggren, Jens; Larsson, Mats; Liberg, Maria; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    In the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep level repository of nuclear waste, site surveys will be carried out. These site surveys will also include studies of the biota at the site, in order to assure that the chosen site will not conflict with important ecological interests, and to establish a thorough baseline for future impact assessments and monitoring programmes. As a preparation to the site survey programme, a review of the variables that need to be surveyed is conducted. This report contains the review for some of those variables. For each variable, existing data sources and their characteristics are listed. For those variables for which existing data sources are inadequate, suggestions are made for appropriate methods that will enable the establishment of an acceptable baseline. In this report the following variables are reviewed: Fishery, Landscape, Vegetation types, Key biotopes, Species (flora and fauna), Red-listed species (flora and fauna), Biomass (flora and fauna), Water level, water retention time (incl. water body and flow), Nutrients/toxins, Oxygen concentration, Layering, stratification, Light conditions/transparency, Temperature, Sediment transport, (Marine environments are excluded from this review). For a major part of the variables, the existing data coverage is most likely insufficient. Both the temporal and/or the geographical resolution is often limited, which means that complementary surveys must be performed during (or before) the site surveys. It is, however, in general difficult to make exact judgements on the extent of existing data, and also to give suggestions for relevant methods to use in the site surveys. This can be finally decided only when the locations for the sites are decided upon. The relevance of the different variables also depends on the environmental characteristics of the sites. Therefore, we suggest that when the survey sites are selected, an additional review is

  13. Data Validation Package October 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Sampling Period: October 12–14, 2015. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the 2004 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Post-Record of Decision Monitoring Plan, Draft Final and Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Samples were collected from 52 of 61 planned locations (15 of 17 former mill site wells, 17 of 18 downgradient wells, 9 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 2 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Locations MW00-07, Seep 1, Seep 2, Seep 3, Seep 5, Seep 6, SW00-01, T01-13, and T01-19 were not sampled because of insufficient water availability. All samples were filtered as specified in the monitoring plan. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location W3-04 and from monitoring wells 82-08, 92-09, and 92-10. Water levels were measured at all but one sampled well and an additional set of wells. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in this report. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed.

  14. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassotis, Christopher D., E-mail: christopher.kassotis@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Iwanowicz, Luke R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, Fish Health Branch, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam C. [U.S. Geological Survey, National Research Program, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 430, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Energy Resources Science Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Nagel, Susan C., E-mail: nagels@health.missouri.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women' s Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Currently, > 95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. - Highlights: • Oil and gas wastewater disposal may increase endocrine disrupting activity in water. • Tested EDC activity in surface water near oil and gas wastewater injection site. • Water downstream had significantly

  15. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  16. Shear wave velocity estimation of the near-surface materials of Chittagong City, Bangladesh for seismic site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Zillur; Siddiqua, Sumi; Kamal, A. S. M. Maksud

    2016-11-01

    The average shear wave velocity of the near-surface materials down to a depth of 30 m (Vs30) is essential for seismic site characterization to estimate the local amplification factor of the seismic waves during an earthquake. Chittagong City is one of the highest risk cities of Bangladesh for its seismic vulnerability. In the present study, the Vs30 is estimated for Chittagong City using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), small scale microtremor measurement (SSMM), downhole seismic (DS), and correlation between the shear wave velocity (Vs) and standard penetration test blow count (SPT-N). The Vs30 of the near-surface materials of the city varies from 123 m/s to 420 m/s. A Vs30 map is prepared from the Vs30 of each 30 m grid using the relationship between the Holocene soil thickness and the Vs30. Based on the Vs30, the near-surface materials of Chittagong City are classified as site classes C, D, and E according to the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), USA and as site classes B, C, and D according to the Eurocode 8. The Vs30 map can be used for seismic microzonation, future planning, and development of the city to improve the earthquake resiliency of the city.

  17. Clinical relevance of surgical site infection as defined by the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, N A; Meyhoff, C S; Wetterslev, J; Wille-Jørgensen, P; Rasmussen, L S; Jorgensen, L N

    2010-07-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after abdominal surgery and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria are commonly used for diagnosis and surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SSI diagnosed according to CDC is clinically relevant (CRSSI) and whether there is agreement between evaluations according to the CDC criteria, the ASEPSIS score (Additional treatment, presence of Serous discharge, Erythema, Purulent exudate, Separation of the deep tissues, Isolation of bacteria and duration of Stay) and CRSSI. We included 54 patients diagnosed with SSI and a matched control group (N=46) without SSI according to the CDC criteria after laparotomy. Two blinded experienced surgeons evaluated the hospital records and determined whether patients had CRSSI, based on the following criteria: antibiotic treatment, surgical intervention, prolonged hospital stay or referral to an intensive care unit for SSI. The rate of CRSSI was 38 of 54 (70%) in patients with CDC-diagnosed SSI and none in patients without a CDC-diagnosed SSI. Sixty-one percent of the CDC-diagnosed SSIs were superficial, of which 48% were considered clinically relevant. There was substantial agreement between the CDC criteria and CRSSI [kappa=0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.83] and fair agreement between the ASEPSIS score and the CDC criteria (kappa=0.23; 95% CI: 0-0.49) and between the ASEPSIS score and CRSSI (kappa=0.39; 95% CI: 0.17-0.61). The CDC criteria represent a suitable standard definition for monitoring and identifying SSI, even if some cases of less clinically significant superficial SSI are included.

  18. A comparison of the preventive effects of lanthanides and fluoride on human experimental root surface carious-like lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Jin, H; Liu, A

    1999-02-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of lanthanides prevention of human root surface carious-like lesions and to compare the effectiveness of lanthanum (La) with that of cerium (Ce) and fluoride (F). Various treatment procedures were also compared. Acetic buffers containing lanthanum, cerium, and fluoride (500 ppm) were used individually or in combination to treat 48 cementum-dentin samples. The acid-resistant capacity of various treatment procedures was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, and polarizing light microscope analyses. The acid-resistant effects of lanthanide element were comparable to those of fluoride, and their acid-resistant effects were even stronger when combined with fluoride and cerium. These effects are likely due to the formation of La(Ce)HAP, FLa(Ce)HAP, and lanthanum/cerium phosphate compounds. Combined F/La(Ce) was more effective in the prevention of root surface caries than were lanthanides alone.

  19. Prevention of burn-on defect on surface of hydroturbine blade casting of ultra-low-carbon refining stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The burn-on sand is common surface defect encountered in CO2-cured silicate-bonded sand casting of hydroturbine blade of ultra-low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, its feature, causes and prevention measures are presented in this paper. Experiments showed that the burn-on defect is caused by oxidization of chromium in the molten steel at high temperature and can be effectively eliminated by using chromium-corundum coating.

  20. Prevention of burn-on defect on surface of hydroturbine blade casting of ultra-low-carbon refining stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ling; Xie Huasheng; Huang Danzhong; Li Hankun; Tan Rui; Zhou Jingyi

    2008-01-01

    The burn-on sand is common surface defect encountered in CO2-cured silicate-bonded sand casting of hydroturbine blade of ultra-low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, its feature, causes and prevention measures are presented in this paper. Experiments showed that the bum-on defect is caused by oxidization of chromium in the molten steel at high temperature and can be effectively eliminated by using chromium-corundum coating.

  1. Methanol synthesis over binary Cu/ZnO surfaces: exploration of energy surfaces for determining adsorption sites for CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Suarez, Luis; Frenzel, Johannes; Marx, Dominik [Ruhr University Bochum, Theoretical Chemistry, Bochum (Germany); Meyer, Bernd [Interdisziplinaeres Centrum fuer Molekulare Materialien (ICMM), ComputerChemieCentrum (CCC), Department Chemie und Pharmazie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Methanol is synthesized from syngas over Cu/ZnO in a heterogeneous catalytic process with CO{sub 2} as carbon source. Atomistic insight into the strong metal substrate interaction (SMSI) effect in Cu/ZnO catalysts has been obtained in a static picture. Calculations of surface phase diagrams by ab initio-thermodynamics determined realistic structures of a small Cu{sub 8} cluster on ZnO(000 anti 1) in a hydrogen atmosphere with temperature and pressure conditions as required in the industrial process. These structures are stabilized by the interplay of structural changes as a result of redox properties of the syngas with realistic saturation of the catalyst surface by hydrogen interacting with defect sites. Herein the global energy landscape of the CO{sub 2} reactant over several thermodynamically relevant catalyst surface structures is explored with spatial resolution employing density functional theory. After having identified all possible adsorption sites on the complex Cu/ZnO surfaces the adsorption modes of the complexes are refined investigating their individual structures.

  2. A database of global reference sites to support validation of satellite surface albedo datasets (SAVS 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Alexander; Bennartz, Ralf; Fell, Frank; Lattanzio, Alessio; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Schulz, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Validating the accuracy and long-term stability of terrestrial satellite data products necessitates a network of reference sites. This paper documents a global database of more than 2000 sites globally which have been characterized in terms of their spatial heterogeneity. The work was motivated by the need for potential validation sites for geostationary surface albedo data products, but the resulting database is useful also for other applications. The database (SAVS 1.0) is publicly available through the EUMETSAT website (http://savs.eumetsat.int/" target="_blank">http://savs.eumetsat.int/, http://dx.doi.org/10.15770/EUM_SEC_CLM_1001" target="_blank">doi:10.15770/EUM_SEC_CLM_1001). Sites can be filtered according to different criteria, providing a flexible way to identify potential validation sites for further studies and a traceable approach to characterize the heterogeneity of these reference sites. The present paper describes the detailed information on the generation of the SAVS 1.0 database and its characteristics.

  3. Amuchina 10% solution, safe antiseptic for preventing infections of exit-site of Tenckhoff catheters, in the pediatric population of a dialysis program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Guevara, L; Castro-Vazquez, F; Aguilar-Kitsu, A; Morales-Nava, A; Rodriguez-Leyva, F; Sanchez-Barbosa, J L

    2007-01-01

    Although, decreasing in incidence with the disconnection systems, the first complication is still peritonitis in patients with chronic renal failure and the second is infection of Tenckhoff catheter exit-site. All efforts made to diminish the frequency of exit-site infection lower the possibility of peritonitis. The pediatric population is well-known to have a major risk of infectious complications, and making easy and safe the care of the exit-site will prevent the peritonitis that follows. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Amuchina 10% solution vs. pH neutral soap in children with chronic renal failure, on preventing exit-site infection. There were 60 patients who were assigned randomly to one of two groups. One group used Amuchina 10% solution for the daily cleaning of the exit-site, and the other used pH neutral soap, with 14 months of follow-up. Before the study they have to be free of infection for at least 30 days. All were taught by the same nurse how to clean their exit-site. Groups were almost identical in years, sex, and time on dialysis. We had nine infections in the soap group and none in the Amuchina 10% solution group, with an OR: 17 (p = 0.004). From these nine infections, the bacteria isolated were: 4 (13%) were caused by Pseudomona aeruginosa, 1 (3.3%) by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-positive staphylococci in 2 (6.6%) and Serratia marcensens in 1 (3.3%). In conclusion, Amuchina 10% solution is effective in preventing infection on the exit-site, without any secondary topical reaction.

  4. Data Validation Package November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0659 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0304. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920), with one exception: New Rifle location 0635 could not be sampled because it was inaccessible; a fence installed by the Colorado Department of Transportation prevents access to this location. DOE is currently negotiating access with the Colorado Department of Transportation. Analytes measured at the New Rifle site included contaminants of concern (COCs) (arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen, selenium, uranium, and vanadium) ammonia as nitrogen, major cations, and major anions. Field measurements of total alkalinity, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, and temperature were made at each location, and the water level was measured at each sampled well. A proposed alternate concentration limit (ACL) for vanadium of 50 milligrams per liter (mg/L), specific to the compliance (POC) wells (RFN-0217, -0659, -0664, and -0669) is included in the New Rifle GCAP. Vanadium concentrations in the POC wells were below the proposed ACL as shown in the time-concentration graphs in the Data Presentation section (Attachment 2). Time-concentration graphs from all other locations sampled are also included in Attachment 2. Sampling location RFN-0195 was misidentified for the June/August 2014

  5. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO{sub 3} prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollfrank, Cordt, E-mail: cordt.zollfrank@ww.uni-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering 3-Glass and Ceramics, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Gutbrod, Kai [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering 3-Glass and Ceramics, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wechsler, Peter [LEONI Kabel GmbH, Stieberstrasse 5, D-91154 Roth (Germany); Guggenbichler, Josef Peter [Laboratory for the Development of Healthcare Products, Leitweg 23, A-6345 Koessen (Austria)

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO{sub 3} particles or sol-gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO{sub 3} are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  6. Superhydrophobic Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensing using Janus Particle Arrays Realized by Site-Specific Electrochemical Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shikuan; Hricko, Patrick John; Huang, Po-Hsun; Li, Sixing; Zhao, Yanhui; Xie, Yuliang; Guo, Feng; Wang, Lin; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific electrochemical deposition is used to prepare polystyrene (PS)-Ag Janus particle arrays with superhydrophobic properties. The analyte molecules can be significantly enriched using the superhydrophobic property of the PS-Ag Janus particle array before SERS detections, enabling an extremely sensitive detection of molecules in a highly diluted solution (e.g., femtomolar level). This superhydrophobic surface enhanced Raman scattering sensing concept described here is of critical sig...

  7. Data Validation Package April 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Complete sample sets were collected from 42 of 48 planned locations (9 of 9 former mill site wells, 13 of 13 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Locations R6-M3, SW00-01, Seep 1, Seep 2, and Seep 5 were not sampled due to insufficient water availability. A partial sample was collected at location R4-M3 due to insufficient water. All samples from the permeable reactive barrier wells were filtered as specified in the program directive. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location Sorenson and from monitoring wells 92-07 and RlO-Ml. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and an additional set of wells. See Attachment2, Trip Report for additional details. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello sites are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate+ nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate+ nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 4.

  8. Amino Acid Hydrolysis and Analysis System for Investigation of Site Directed Nucleation and Growth of Ceramic Films on Metallic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    of biomineralization by hemocytes isolated from a bivalve on a metal substrate outside of the organism. These results indicate that it is possible...to deposit a ceramic material onto a metal substrate at ambient temperature and pressure. Figure I A-B. SEM evidence of cellular biomineralization on...hydrolysis and analysis system for investigation of site directed nucleation and growth of cera1nic films on metallic surfaces Sb. GRANT NUMBER

  9. Investigation of pre-structured GaAs surfaces for subsequent site-selective InAs quantum dot growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gröger Roland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we investigated pre-structured (100 GaAs sample surfaces with respect to subsequent site-selective quantum dot growth. Defects occurring in the GaAs buffer layer grown after pre-structuring are attributed to insufficient cleaning of the samples prior to regrowth. Successive cleaning steps were analyzed and optimized. A UV-ozone cleaning is performed at the end of sample preparation in order to get rid of remaining organic contamination.

  10. Validation of SMAP Surface Soil Moisture Products with Core Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Bindlish, R.; Chan, S.; Das, N.; Kim, S. B.; Cosh, M. H.; Dunbar, R. S.; Dang, L.; Pashaian, L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission has utilized a set of core validation sites as the primary methodology in assessing the soil moisture retrieval algorithm performance. Those sites provide well calibrated in situ soil moisture measurements within SMAP product grid pixels for diverse conditions and locations.The estimation of the average soil moisture within the SMAP product grid pixels based on in situ measurements is more reliable when location specific calibration of the sensors has been performed and there is adequate replication over the spatial domain, with an up-scaling function based on analysis using independent estimates of the soil moisture distribution. SMAP fulfilled these requirements through a collaborative CalVal Partner program.This paper presents the results from 34 candidate core validation sites for the first eleven months of the SMAP mission. As a result of the screening of the sites prior to the availability of SMAP data, out of the 34 candidate sites 18 sites fulfilled all the requirements at one of the resolution scales (at least). The rest of the sites are used as secondary information in algorithm evaluation. The results indicate that the SMAP radiometer-based soil moisture data product meets its expected performance of 0.04 cu m/cu m volumetric soil moisture (unbiased root mean square error); the combined radar-radiometer product is close to its expected performance of 0.04 cu m/cu m, and the radar-based product meets its target accuracy of 0.06 cu m/cu m (the lengths of the combined and radar-based products are truncated to about 10 weeks because of the SMAP radar failure). Upon completing the intensive CalVal phase of the mission the SMAP project will continue to enhance the products in the primary and extended geographic domains, in co-operation with the CalVal Partners, by continuing the comparisons over the existing core validation sites and inclusion of candidate sites that can address shortcomings.

  11. Hemispheric Symmetries of Plio-Pleistocene Surface Ocean Conditions: Insights from Southern Hemisphere ODP Sites 1125 and 1088

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K. T.; Peterson, L.; Kelly, C.; Miller, H.; Seidenstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    For decades, most studies of Plio-Pleistocene climate and of the transition from the warmth of the Pliocene to the colder and more variable conditions of the Pleistocene have focused solely on northern hemisphere climate processes and responses. Here, we explore the southern hemisphere response to this major climate transition by documenting ocean surface conditions at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1125 (42οS, 178οW, 1360m) and 1088 (40οS, 15οE, 2082m) through the Plio-Pleistocene. Secular trends in alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) records indicate that these mid-latitude southern hemisphere sites cooled ~3-4οC over the past 3 Myrs, a magnitude comparable to sites located at similar latitudes in both the North Atlantic and North Pacific. This observation suggests that contraction of the low latitude warm pool was hemispherically symmetric. Our highly resolved (3 kyr resolution) Site 1125 SST record bears considerable structural similarity to SST records from nearby site 1123 (42οS,171οW) as well as sites 846 (3οS, 91οW) in the eastern equatorial Pacific and U1313 (41οN, 33οW) in the North Atlantic. Most of these SST records are dominated by 100k power and contain strong secondary 41k peaks throughout the past 3 million years. North Atlantic site U1313 is the exception, mirroring the shift in dominant periodicity from 41k to 100k associated with the mid-Pleistocene transition, that has long been observed in benthic oxygen isotope records. Finally, in southern hemisphere SST records as well as at site U1313 from the north Atlantic we observe weak precessional power that is not evident in benthic oxygen isotope record. These results suggest a fairly hemispherically-coordinated response of ocean surface temperature to changing global climate conditions during the Plio-Pleistocene in terms of both secular trends and dominant orbital frequencies.

  12. Fabrication of hydrophobic polymer foams with double acid sites on surface of macropore for conversion of carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianming; Mao, Yanli; Gao, Heping; Xiong, Qingang; Qiu, Fengxian; Zhang, Tao; Niu, Xiangheng

    2016-06-05

    Herein we reported a simple and novel synthetic strategy for the fabrication of two kinds of hydrophobic polymer foam catalysts (i.e. Cr(3+)-HPFs-1-H(+) and HPFs-1-H(+)) with hierarchical porous structure, inhomogeneous acidic composition and Lewis-Brønsted double acid sites distributed on the surface, which was used to one-pot conversion of carbohydrate (such as cellulose, glucose and fructose) to a key chemical platform (i.e. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, HMF). The water-in-oil (W/O) high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs), stabilized by both Span 80 and acidic prepolymers as analogous particles offered the acidic actives, were used as the template for simultaneous polymerization of oil phase in the presence of divinylbenzene (DVB) and styrene (St). After subsequent ion-exchange process, Lewis and Brønsted acid sites derived from exchanged Cr(3+) and H(+) ion were both fixed on the surface of cell of the catalysts. The HPFs-1-H(+) and Cr(3+)-HPFs-1-H(+) had similar hierarchical porous, hydrophobic surface and acid sites (HPFs-1-H(+) with macropores ranging from 0.1 μm to 20 μm, uniform mesopores in 14.4 nm, water contact angle of 122° and 0.614 mmolg(-1) of Brønsted acid sites, as well as Cr(3+)-HPFs-1-H(+) with macropores ranging from 0.1 μm to 20 μm, uniform mesopores in 13.3 nm, water contact angle of 136° and 0.638 mmolg(-1) of Lewis-Brønsted acid sites). It was confirmed that Lewis acid sites of catalyst had a slight influence on the HMF yield of fructose came from the function of Brønsted acid sites, and Lewis acid sites were in favor of improving the HMF yield from cellulose and glucose. This work opens up a simple and novel route to synthesize multifunctional polymeric catalysts for efficient one-pot conversion of carbohydrate to HMF.

  13. [Spatial distribution prediction of surface soil Pb in a battery contaminated site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xin; Guo, Guan-Lin

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the reliability of risk estimation and to improve the accuracy of pollution scope determination in a battery contaminated site with the soil characteristic pollutant Pb, four spatial interpolation models, including Combination Prediction Model (OK(LG) + TIN), kriging model (OK(BC)), Inverse Distance Weighting model (IDW), and Spline model were employed to compare their effects on the spatial distribution and pollution assessment of soil Pb. The results showed that Pb concentration varied significantly and the data was severely skewed. The variation coefficient of the site was higher in the local region. OK(LG) + TIN was found to be more accurate than the other three models in predicting the actual pollution situations of the contaminated site. The prediction accuracy of other models was lower, due to the effect of the principle of different models and datum feature. The interpolation results of OK(BC), IDW and Spline could not reflect the detailed characteristics of seriously contaminated areas, and were not suitable for mapping and spatial distribution prediction of soil Pb in this site. This study gives great contributions and provides useful references for defining the remediation boundary and making remediation decision of contaminated sites.

  14. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  15. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  16. Near-Surface Shear Wave Velocity Versus Depth Profiles, VS30, and NEHRP Classifications for 27 Sites in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.; Worley, David M.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Asencio, Eugenio; Irizarry, Harold; Cameron, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program (PRSMP) and the Geology Department at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez (UPRM) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to study near-surface shear-wave (Vs) and compressional-wave (Vp) velocities in and around major urban areas of Puerto Rico. Using noninvasive seismic refraction-reflection profiling techniques, we acquired velocities at 27 locations. Surveyed sites were predominantly selected on the premise that they were generally representative of near-surface materials associated with the primary geologic units located within the urbanized areas of Puerto Rico. Geologic units surveyed included Cretaceous intrusive and volcaniclastic bedrock, Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic units, and Quaternary unconsolidated eolian, fluvial, beach, and lagoon deposits. From the data we developed Vs and Vp depth versus velocity columns, calculated average Vs to 30-m depth (VS30), and derived NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program) site classifications for all sites except one where results did not reach 30-m depth. The distribution of estimated NEHRP classes is as follows: three class 'E' (VS30 below 180 m/s), nine class 'D' (VS30 between 180 and 360 m/s), ten class 'C' (VS30 between 360 and 760 m/s), and four class 'B' (VS30 greater than 760 m/s). Results are being used to calibrate site response at seismograph stations and in the development of regional and local shakemap models for Puerto Rico.

  17. Probabilistic assessment of surface level seismic hazard in India using topographic gradient as a proxy for site condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.G. Sitharam; Sreevalsa Kolathayar; Naveen James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents spatial variation of seismic hazard at the surface level for India, covering 6e38? N and 68e98? E. The most recent knowledge on seismic activity in the region has been used to evaluate the hazard incorporating uncertainties associated with the seismicity parameters using different modeling methodologies. Three types of seismic source models, viz. linear sources, gridded seismicity model and areal sources, were considered to model the seismic sources and different sets of ground motion pre-diction equations were used for different tectonic provinces to characterize the attenuation properties. The hazard estimation at bedrock level has been carried out using probabilistic approach and the results obtained from various methodologies were combined in a logic tree framework. The seismic site char-acterization of India was done using topographic slope map derived from Digital Elevation Model data. This paper presents estimation of the hazard at surface level, using appropriate site amplification factors corresponding to various site classes based on VS30 values derived from the topographic gradient. Spatial variation of surface level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) for return periods of 475 years and 2475 years are presented as contour maps.

  18. Probabilistic assessment of surface level seismic hazard in India using topographic gradient as a proxy for site condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G. Sitharam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial variation of seismic hazard at the surface level for India, covering 6–38° N and 68–98° E. The most recent knowledge on seismic activity in the region has been used to evaluate the hazard incorporating uncertainties associated with the seismicity parameters using different modeling methodologies. Three types of seismic source models, viz. linear sources, gridded seismicity model and areal sources, were considered to model the seismic sources and different sets of ground motion prediction equations were used for different tectonic provinces to characterize the attenuation properties. The hazard estimation at bedrock level has been carried out using probabilistic approach and the results obtained from various methodologies were combined in a logic tree framework. The seismic site characterization of India was done using topographic slope map derived from Digital Elevation Model data. This paper presents estimation of the hazard at surface level, using appropriate site amplification factors corresponding to various site classes based on VS30 values derived from the topographic gradient. Spatial variation of surface level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA for return periods of 475 years and 2475 years are presented as contour maps.

  19. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Promotes Immune Evasion by Preventing NKG2D-Ligand Surface Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    leads to a robust induction of MICA mRNA expression, however the subsequent surface expression is potently hindered. Thus, VSV lines up with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and adenovirus, which actively subvert the immune system by negatively affecting NKG2D-ligand surface expression. VSV infection caused...

  20. Uranium(VI) adsorption and surface complexation modeling onto background sediments from the F-Area Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenming; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Davis, James A; Wan, Jiamin

    2012-02-07

    The mobility of an acidic uranium waste plume in the F-Area of Savannah River Site is of great concern. In order to understand and predict uranium mobility, U(VI) adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH using background F-Area aquifer sediments and reference goethite and kaolinite (major reactive phases of F-Area sediments), and a component-additivity (CA) based surface complexation model (SCM) was developed. Our experimental results indicate that the fine fractions (≤45 μm) in sediments control U(VI) adsorption due to their large surface area, although the quartz sands show a stronger adsorption ability per unit surface area than the fine fractions at pH 4.0. Our CA model combines an existing U(VI) SCM for goethite and a modified U(VI) SCM for kaolinite along with estimated relative surface area abundances of these component minerals. The modeling approach successfully predicts U(VI) adsorption behavior by the background F-Area sediments. The model suggests that exchange sites on kaolinite dominate U(VI) adsorption at pH 6.0.

  1. A facile reflux procedure to increase active surface sites form highly active and durable supported palladium@platinum bimetallic nanodendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Li, Yingjun; Liu, Baocang; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    A series of well-dispersed bimetallic Pd@Pt nanodendrites uniformly supported on XC-72 carbon black are fabricated by using different capping agents. These capping agents are essential for the branched morphology control. However, the surfactant adsorbed on the nanodendrites surface blocks the access of reactant molecules to the active surface sites, and the catalytic activities of these bimetallic nanodendrites are significantly restricted. Herein, a facile reflux procedure to effectively remove the capping agent molecules without significantly affecting their sizes is reported for activating supported nanocatalysts. More significantly, the structure and morphology of the nanodendrites can also be retained, enhancing the numbers of active surface sites, catalytic activity and stability toward methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions. The as-obtained hot water reflux-treated Pd@Pt/C catalyst manifests superior catalytic activity and stability both in terms of surface and mass specific activities, as compared to the untreated catalysts and the commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts. We anticipate that this effective and facile removal method has more general applicability to highly active nanocatalysts prepared with various surfactants, and should lead to improvements in environmental protection and energy production.

  2. Age of a prehistoric "Rodedian" cult site constrained by sediment and rock surface luminescence dating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Porat, N.

    2015-01-01

    The construction age of a pavement in a “Rodedian” prehistoric cult site in Negev desert, Israel, is established by determining the burial age of (i) a cobble used in the pavement, and (ii) the underlying sediment. The quartz OSL age and the K-feldspar corrected IR50 age from the sediment and the...

  3. Surface coatings on carbon steel for prevention of flow accelerated corrosion under two phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Kyung Mo; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to prevent FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were suggested as a corrosion inhibitor. A platinum decoration was applied as another prevention strategy of carbon steel thinning. The severe FAC-damaged carbon steel pipings were replaced by tolerant materials such as SA335 Gr.P22. However, some components such as the piping materials between moisture separator and turbine have still suffered from the FAC degradation. This work provides a coating method to prevent the FAC degradation of the SA106 Gr.B, which is a piping material between moisture separator and high-pressure turbine, under two-phase flow. We suggested the coating materials to prevent FAC of SA106Gr.B under two-phase water-vapor flow. The FAC resistance of SA106Gr.B was improved with 5 times by electroless-deposited Ni-P protective layer. Other coating materials also enhanced the tolerance up to 5 times for the FAC in a condition of 150 .deg. C and 3.8 bar at 9.5 compared to non-coated SA106Gr.B.

  4. Surface wetting strategy prevents acute heat exposure-induced alterations of hypothalamic stress- and metabolic-related genes in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei-Sharifabadi, H; Greene, E; Piekarski, A; Falcon, D; Ellestad, L; Donoghue, A; Bottje, W; Porter, T; Liang, Y; Dridi, S

    2017-03-01

    Heat stress (HS) is devastating to poultry production worldwide, yet its biology and molecular responses are not well defined. Although advances in management strategy have partially alleviated the negative impact of HS, productivity still continues to decline when the ambient temperature rises. Therefore, identifying mechanism-based approaches to decrease HS susceptibility while improving production traits is critical. Recently, we made a breakthrough by applying a surface wetting strategy and showing that it improves growth performance compared with the current conventional cooling system. In the present study, we aimed to further define molecular mechanisms associated with surface wetting in ameliorating HS productivity loss in broilers. Five-week-old broiler chickens were exposed to acute HS (35°C for 2 h) alone or in combination with surface wetting. A control group was maintained at thermoneutral conditions (25°C). Core body temperature (BT) and feed intake were recorded. Blood was collected and hypothalamic tissues (main site involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis) were harvested to determine the expression profile of stress- and metabolic-related genes. Surface wetting prevents HS from increasing BT and plasma corticosterone levels ( heat shock protein and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein-induced by HS and significantly modulates the expression of feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides (agouti-related protein, proopiomelanocortin, orexin, orexin receptor, and leptin receptor). Taken together, our data represent the first evidence that surface wetting alleviates systemic and intracellular stress induced by HS and preserves the intracellular energy status, which, in turn, may result in improved broiler well-being and growth performance.

  5. A Non-Electrostatic Surface Complexation Approach to Modeling Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site: II. Aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M; Bruton, C J

    2004-12-16

    Reliable quantitative prediction of contaminant transport in subsurface environments is critical to evaluating the risks associated with radionuclide migration. As part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) program, radionuclide transport away from selected underground nuclear tests conducted in the saturated zone at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is being examined. In the near-field environment, reactive transport simulations must account for changes in water chemistry and mineralogy as a function of time and their effect on radionuclide migration. Unlike the Kd approach, surface complexation reactions, in conjunction with ion exchange and precipitation, can be used to describe radionuclide reactive transport as a function of changing environmental conditions. They provide a more robust basis for describing radionuclide retardation in geochemically dynamic environments. In a companion report (Zavarin and Bruton, 2004), a database of radionuclide surface complexation reactions for calcite and iron oxide minerals was developed. In this report, a second set of reactions is developed: surface complexation (SC) and ion exchange (IE) to aluminosilicate minerals. The most simplified surface complexation model, the one-site non-electrostatic model (NEM), and the Vanselow IE model were used to fit a large number of published sorption data and a reaction constant database was developed. Surface complexation of Am(III), Eu(III), Np(V), Pu(IV), Pu(V), and U(VI) to aluminum oxide, silica, and aluminosilicate minerals was modeled using a generalized approach in which surface complexation to aluminosilicate >SiOH or >AlOH reactive sites was considered equivalent to the reactivity of aluminum oxide and silica reactive sites. Ion exchange was allowed to be mineral-dependent. The generalized NEM approach, in conjunction with Vanselow IE, was able to fit most published sorption data well. Fitting results indicate that surface complexation will dominate over ion exchange at pH >7 for the

  6. Nano and Microscale Topographies for the Prevention of Bacterial Surface Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary V. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial surface fouling is problematic for a wide range of applications and industries, including, but not limited to medical devices (implants, replacement joints, stents, pacemakers, municipal infrastructure (pipes, wastewater treatment, food production (food processing surfaces, processing equipment, and transportation (ship hulls, aircraft fuel tanks. One method to combat bacterial biofouling is to modify the topographical structure of the surface in question, thereby limiting the ability of individual cells to attach to the surface, colonize, and form biofilms. Multiple research groups have demonstrated that micro and nanoscale topographies significantly reduce bacterial biofouling, for both individual cells and bacterial biofilms. Antifouling strategies that utilize engineered topographical surface features with well-defined dimensions and shapes have demonstrated a greater degree of controllable inhibition over initial cell attachment, in comparison to undefined, texturized, or porous surfaces. This review article will explore the various approaches and techniques used by researches, including work from our own group, and the underlying physical properties of these highly structured, engineered micro/nanoscale topographies that significantly impact bacterial surface attachment.

  7. Surface implantation treatments to prevent infection complications in short term devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenas, J; Thévenard, P; Philippe, F; Arnaud, M N

    2002-08-01

    Surface treatments of short term devices are actually evaluated to reduce the risk of infections, which in particular are one of the main causes of complications following catheter insertion. We have investigated the efficacy of ion beam techniques to reduce bacterial adhesion-or to induce bactericidal activity of different polymer materials: PVC, silicone rubber, poly(urethane) and poly(ethylene). Two routes have been evaluated, based on the production of non fouling surfaces, through the production of diamond-like surfaces upon irradiation with rare gases, or the implantation of silver, known for its bactericidal action. In this contribution we discuss more specifically the treatment of poly(ethylene), where a broad range of surface characterisation techniques could show that the biological activity resulted from the formation of metallic colloidal silver near the surface of the polymer, associated to the formation of a dense surface acting as a diffusion barrier. Reduction of the implantation energy to 10 keV, led to activity enhancement resulting from the easier accessibility of surface colloids evidenced by AFM microscopy. This study emphasises the specific processes induced by the formation of silver nano-particles at low energy implantation, which differs basically from Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD technique) leading to the formation of a continuous silver coating (Artif. Organs 18 (1994) 266; International Patent (PCT) WO 95/18637 (1995)).

  8. Electronic structures of active sites on metal oxide surfaces: Definition of the Cu/ZnO methanol synthesis catalyst by photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, E.I.; Jones, P.M.; May, J.A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-12-01

    The focus of this review is on the use of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) to study the interaction of small molecules (particularly carbon monoxide) with metal ion sites on metal oxide surfaces. There have been numerous photoemission studies of chemisorption on metal surfaces. However, it is important to note that while metal oxides are involved in many heterogeneous catalytic processes, only a limited number of electron spectroscopic studies of chemically relevant molecules on metal oxide surfaces have appeared. The paper contains the following sections: The electronic structure of clean ZnO surfaces -- variable-energy photoelectron spectroscopy; CO chemisorption on ZnO surfaces; geometric structures for CO binding to the four chemically different surfaces of ZnO; electronic structure of the CO/ZnO surface complex; nature of copper sites on ZnO surfaces; electronic structures of CO bonding to d[sup 10] metal ion sites; relevance to catalysis; and summary and future directions. 185 refs.

  9. Managing and understanding risk perception of surface leaks from CCS sites: risk assessment for emerging technologies and low-probability, high-consequence events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as a partial solution to the greenhouse gas emissions problem. As CCS has become mainstream, researchers have raised multiple risk assessment issues typical of emerging technologies. In our research, we examine issues occuring when stored carbon dioxide (CO2) migrates to the near-surface or surface. We believe that both the public misperception and the physical reality of potential environmental, health, and commercial impacts of leak events from such subsurface sites have prevented widespread adoption of CCS. This paper is presented in three parts; the first is an evaluation of the systemic risk of a CCS site CO2 leak and models indicating potential likelihood of a leakage event. As the likelihood of a CCS site leak is stochastic and nonlinear, we present several Bayesian simulations for leak events based on research done with other low-probability, high-consequence gaseous pollutant releases. Though we found a large, acute leak to be exceptionally rare, we demonstrate potential for a localized, chronic leak at a CCS site. To that end, we present the second piece of this paper. Using a combination of spatio-temporal models and reaction-path models, we demonstrate the interplay between leak migrations, material interactions, and atmospheric dispersion for leaks of various duration and volume. These leak-event scenarios have implications for human, environmental, and economic health; they also have a significant impact on implementation support. Public acceptance of CCS is essential for a national low-carbon future, and this is what we address in the final part of this paper. We demonstrate that CCS remains unknown to the general public in the United States. Despite its unknown state, we provide survey findings -analyzed in Slovic and Weber's 2002 framework - that show a high unknown, high dread risk perception of leaks from a CCS site. Secondary findings are a

  10. Permafrost and surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia – Part 1: Spring to fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Langer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost thawing is essentially determined by the surface energy balance, which potentially triggers the activation of a massive carbon source, if previously frozen organic soils are exposed to microbial decomposition. In this article, we present the first part of a comprehensive annual surface energy balance study performed at a polygonal tundra landscape in northeast Siberia, realized between spring 2007 and winter 2009. This part of the study focuses on the half year period from April to September 2007–2008, during which the surface energy balance is obtained from independent measurements of the radiation budget, the turbulent heat fluxes and the ground heat flux at several sites. The short-wave radiation is the dominant factor in the surface energy balance during the entire observation period. About 50% of the available net radiation is consumed by latent heat flux, while the sensible and the ground heat flux are both on the order of 20 to 30%. The ground heat flux is mainly consumed by active layer thawing, where 60% of soil energy storage are attributed to. The remainder is used for soil warming down to a depth of 15 m. The controlling factors for the surface energy partitioning are in particular the snow cover, the cloud cover and the soil temperature gradient. Significant surface temperature differences of the heterogeneous landscape indicate spatial variabilities of sensible and latent heat fluxes, which are verified by measurements at different locations. However, differences in the partition between sensible and latent heat flux for the different sites only exist during conditions of high radiative forcing, which only occur occasionally.

  11. Persistent Surface River on Nansen Ice Shelf Drains Meltwater Preventing Collapse for Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Chu, W.; Kingslake, J.; Das, I.; Tedesco, M.; Tinto, K. J.; Zappa, C. J.; Frezzotti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Meltwater ponding on the surface of Antarctic ice shelves has been advanced as the trigger for their collapse through loading and hydrofracturing. While ponding was associated with the Larsen B Ice Shelf collapse, draining meltwater off an ice shelf could limit the destructive role of increasing surface melt in the future. In this regard, we present the first evidence of the presence and evolution of a persistent active network of streams, ponds, and rivers on the Nansen Ice Shelf, Antarctica. This active drainage system has delivered meltwater into the Ross Sea since at least 1908, reducing the volume of water seasonally stored on the ice surface and protecting the ice shelf from collapsing. We integrated early 20th century observations with modern airborne and satellite imagery to identify three distinct surface hydrology systems on the Nansen Ice Shelf. Near the calving front, surface meltwater coalesces into surface streams and ponds that grow over days to weeks, eventually connecting to a shear margin river that drains at a large waterfall into the Ross Sea. Between 1989 and 2016, the shear margin river drained into a rift associated with a large calving event in 2016. The second system forms close to the grounding line where surface meltwater drains into regions of rifted mélange, possibly explaining the low salinity of the ice drilled in these regions. This surface meltwater is injected into the ice shelf cavity through the mélange and may foster basal melting beneath the shear margins. The third system develops on the steeper Priestly Glacier flow where surface melt is produced adjacent to exposed bedrock and moraines and then is transported by surface streams that terminate in firn-covered regions. Ice shelf hydrology is spatially complex, sensitive to glaciological and climatic conditions, and evolves seasonally. Surface streams that coalesce melt and rivers that export water off the ice shelf will limit the damage from ponding-induced hydrofracturing

  12. Screening Mixtures of Small Molecules for Binding to Multiple Sites on the Surface Tetanus Toxin C Fragment by Bioaffinity NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosman, M; Zeller, L; Lightstone, F C; Krishnan, V V; Balhorn, R

    2002-01-01

    The clostridial neurotoxins include the closely related tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) toxins. Botulinum toxin is used to treat severe muscle disorders and as a cosmetic wrinkle reducer. Large quantities of botulinum toxin have also been produced by terrorists for use as a biological weapon. Because there are no known antidotes for these toxins, they thus pose a potential threat to human health whether by an accidental overdose or by a hostile deployment. Thus, the discovery of high specificity and affinity compounds that can inhibit their binding to neural cells can be used as antidotes or in the design of chemical detectors. Using the crystal structure of the C fragment of the tetanus toxin (TetC), which is the cell recognition and cell surface binding domain, and the computational program DOCK, sets of small molecules have been predicted to bind to two different sites located on the surface of this protein. While Site-1 is common to the TeNT and BoNTs, Site-2 is unique to TeNT. Pairs of these molecules from each site can then be linked together synthetically to thereby increase the specificity and affinity for this toxin. Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy was used to experimentally screen each compound for binding. Mixtures containing binders were further screened for activity under biologically relevant conditions using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The screening of mixtures of compounds offers increased efficiency and throughput as compared to testing single compounds and can also evaluate how possible structural changes induced by the binding of one ligand can influence the binding of the second ligand. In addition, competitive binding experiments with mixtures containing ligands predicted to bind the same site could identify the best binder for that site. NMR transfer nuclear Overhauser effect (trNOE) confirm that TetC binds doxorubicin but that this molecule is displaced by N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) in a mixture that

  13. Data Validation Package, April and June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site, October 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the draft 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in June because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0126, 0477, and 0780. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 3. Interpretation and presentation of results, including an assessment ofthe natural flushing compliance strategy, will be reported in the upcoming 2016 Verification Monitoring Report. U.S.

  14. Biofouling of metal surfaces : study of adsorbed biomolecules and prevention strategy based on renewable copolymer layer

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling refers to the accumulation of organisms and their products onto surfaces immersed in a biological aqueous environment. It includes molecular-, micro- and macro-fouling. Molecular fouling is the initial step of biofouling, in which a conditioning film is formed by adsorption of organic biomolecules. Furthermore, surface-associated aggregates of microorganisms with their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are called biofilm, known to provoke the biocorrosion of metals. Chlorina...

  15. Synergistic prevention of biofouling in seawater desalination by zwitterionic surfaces and low-level chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Jang, Hongchul; Stocker, Roman; Gleason, Karen K

    2014-03-19

    Smooth, durable, ultrathin antifouling layers are deposited onto commercial reverse osmosis membranes without damaging them and they exhibit a fouling reduction. A new synergistic approach to antifouling, by coupling surface modification and drinking-water-level chlorination is enabled by the films' unique resistance against chlorine degradation. This approach substantially enhances longer-term fouling resistance compared with surface modification or chlorination alone, and can reduce freshwater production cost and its collateral toxicity to marine biota.

  16. Deposition of fibrinogen on the surface of in vitro thrombi prevents platelet adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaynat, Hadil; Yermolenko, Ivan S; Turaga, Ramya; Lishko, Valeryi K; Sheller, Michael R; Ugarova, Tatiana P

    2015-12-01

    The initial accumulation of platelets after vessel injury is followed by thrombin-mediated generation of fibrin which is deposited around the plug. While numerous in vitro studies have shown that fibrin is highly adhesive for platelets, the surface of experimental thrombi in vivo contains very few platelets suggesting the existence of natural anti-adhesive mechanisms protecting stabilized thrombi from platelet accumulation and continuous thrombus propagation. We previously showed that adsorption of fibrinogen on pure fibrin clots results in the formation of a nonadhesive matrix, highlighting a possible role of this process in surface-mediated control of thrombus growth. However, the deposition of fibrinogen on the surface of blood clots has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the presence of intact fibrinogen on the surface of fibrin-rich thrombi generated from flowing blood and determined whether deposited fibrinogen is nonadhesive for platelets. Stabilized fibrin-rich thrombi were generated using a flow chamber and the time that platelets spend on the surface of thrombi was determined by video recording. The presence of fibrinogen and fibrin on the surface of thrombi was analyzed by confocal microscopy using specific antibodies. Examination of the spatial distribution of two proteins revealed the presence of intact fibrinogen on the surface of stabilized thrombi. By manipulating the surface of thrombi to display either fibrin or intact fibrinogen, we found that platelets adhere to fibrin- but not to fibrinogen-coated thrombi. These results indicate that the fibrinogen matrix assembled on the outer layer of stabilized in vitro thrombi protects them from platelet adhesion.

  17. April 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-12

    Sampling and analysis were conducted on April 16-19, 2012, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office Of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations SA1-1-H, HMH-5R, SA3-4-H, SA1-2-H, Pond W of GZ, and SA5-4-4. One trip blank was collected during this sampling event.

  18. Surface and Subsurface Characterization of a Carbon Sequestration Pilot Site: San Juan Basin, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henthorn, B. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Wilson, T.H.; Wells, A.W.

    2007-04-01

    Successful sequestration of CO2 requires that the majority of injected CO2 remain underground for hundreds to thousands of years. Evaluation of site integrity is important in the design and implementation stages of the sequestration effort. This study presents some of the background evaluation undertaken of a Fruitland coal pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan basin. The study includes comparison of fracture traces measured in the field and in high resolution QuickBird satellite imagery, along with multi-frequency terrain conductivity surveys and subsurface maps of the surrounding area. Prominent fracture systems are exposed along the edges of mesas formed in the nearly flat-lying Eocene age San Jose Formation. Fracture trend varies considerably, however, rose diagrams reveal two prominent fracture sets: one trending ~N30E and the other ~N45W. Analysis of the QuickBird image reveals similar variability along with two prominent sets: one trending N35E and another smaller set trending N50W. Previous studies in the area suggest that the face cleat orientation and direction of preferential flow during CO2 injection will follow this NE trend. The site lies in the "High Rate Fairway" near a structural low in the Fruitland Formation. Subsurface maps will help determine whether smaller scale folds and faults similar to those observed to the northwest in the Cedar Hill area exist. If present, they may exert additional control on CO2 flow patterns and serve as potential avenues for CO2 escape. The study will help National Energy Technology Laboratory scientists position tracer and soil monitors at the site.

  19. Autocatalytic surface hydroxylation of MgO(100) terrace sites observed under ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newberg, J.T.; Mysak, E.R.; Bluhm, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the reaction of water vapor with the MgO(100) surface using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS), which permits the study of the chemical composition of the MgO/water vapor interface at p(H2O) in the Torr range. Water dissociation on thin MgO(100) films ...

  20. Molecular N-2 chemisorption-specific adsorption on step defect sites on Pt surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripa, C. Emil; Zubkov, T.S.; Yates, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory, within the generalized gradient approximation, were used to investigate both experimentally and theoretically N-2 chemisorption on stepped and smooth Pt surfaces. N-2 chemisorption was observed to occur only on the edge...

  1. New Tools for the site-specific attachment of proteins to surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A; Kwon, Y; Coleman, M A

    2005-06-17

    Protein microarrays in which proteins are immobilized to a solid surface are ideal reagents for high-throughput experiments that require very small amounts of analyte. Such protein microarrays ('protein chips') can be used very efficiently to analyze all kind of protein interactions en masse. Although a variety of methods are available for attaching proteins on solid surfaces. Most of them rely on non-specific adsorption methods or on the reaction of chemical groups within proteins (mainly, amino and carboxylic acid groups) with complementary reactive groups. In both cases the protein is attached to the surface in random orientations. The use of recombinant affinity tags addresses the orientation issue, however in most of the cases the interaction of the tags are reversible (e.g., glutathione S-transferase, maltose binding protein and poly-His) and, hence, are not stable over the course of subsequent assays or require large mediator proteins (e.g., biotin-avidin and antigen antibody). The key for the covalent attachment of a protein to a solid support with a total control over the orientation is to introduce two unique and mutually reactive groups on both the protein and the surface. The reaction between these two groups should be highly selective thus behaving like a molecular 'Velcro'.

  2. New Tools for the site-specific attachment of proteins to surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y; Coleman, M A; Camarero, J A

    2006-06-27

    Protein microarrays in which proteins are immobilized to a solid surface are ideal reagents for high-throughput experiments that require very small amounts of analyte. Such protein microarrays (''protein chips'') can be used very efficiently to analyze all kind of protein interactions en masse. Although a variety of methods are available for attaching proteins on solid surfaces. Most of them rely on non-specific adsorption methods or on the reaction of chemical groups within proteins (mainly, amino and carboxylic acid groups) with complementary reactive groups. In both cases the protein is attached to the surface in random orientations. The use of recombinant affinity tags addresses the orientation issue, however in most of the cases the interaction of the tags are reversible (e.g., glutathione S-transferase, maltose binding protein and poly-His) and, hence, are not stable over the course of subsequent assays or require large mediator proteins (e.g., biotin-avidin and antigen antibody). The key for the covalent attachment of a protein to a solid support with a total control over the orientation is to introduce two unique and mutually reactive groups on both the protein and the surface. The reaction between these two groups should be highly selective thus behaving like a molecular ''velcro''.

  3. Theoretical prediction of single-site enthalpies of surface protonation for oxides and silicates in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D.A.; Sahai, N. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Morton K. Blaustein Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1998-12-01

    Surface protonation is the most fundamental adsorption process of geochemical interest. Yet remarkably little is known about protonation of mineral surfaces at temperatures greater than 25 C. Experimentally derived standard enthalpies of surface protonation, {Delta}H{degree}{sub r,1}, {Delta}H{degree}{sub r,2}, and {Delta}H{degree}{sub r,ZPC}, correspond to the reactions >SOH + H{sup +} = >SOH{sub 2}{sup +}; >SO{sup {minus}} + H{sup +} = >SOH; and >SO{sup {minus}} + 2H{sup +} = >SOH{sub 2}{sup +}, respectively, and provide a starting point for evaluating the role of surface protonation in geochemical processes at elevated temperatures. However, the experimental data for oxides do not have a theoretical explanation, and data are completely lacking for silicates other than SiO{sub 2}. In the present study, the combination of crystal chemical and Born solvation theory provides a theoretical basis for explaining the variation of the enthalpies of protonation of oxides. Experimental values of {Delta}H{degree}{sub r,1}, {Delta}H{degree}{sub r,2}, and {Delta}H{degree}{sub r,ZPC} consistent with the triple layer model can be expressed in terms of the inverse of the dielectric constant (1/{epsilon}) and the Pauling bond strength per angstrom (s/r{sub M-OH}) of each mineral. Predicted standard enthalpies of surface protonation for oxides and silicates extend over the ranges (in kcal/mole):{Delta}H{degree}{sub r,1} {approx} {minus}3 to {minus}15; {Delta}H{degree}{sub r,2} {approx} {minus}5 to {minus}18; {Delta}H{degree}{sub r,ZPC} {approx} {minus}4 to {minus}33.

  4. A prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind study of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar at donor site of skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Chittoria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic scarring at donor site of skin grafting is prevalent among Asians. The effectiveness of silicone gel in scar prevention may influence the surgeons and patients regarding its routine use during the postoperative period. Aims and Objectives: To study the efficacy of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scars at donor site of skin grafting. Design: Prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study. Setting: The study was conducted in the department of Plastic Surgery, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India from June 2007 to June 2009. Patients were recruited during follow-up in the OPD. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility to scar development varied among patients; therefore, donor site scars were divided into upper half and lower half. Two types of coded gel prepared by an independent pharmacist were used on either half. Thus, selection and assessment biases and confounders were eliminated. Results: 100 scars in 50 patients were randomized into two arms, 50 control and 50 silicone gel. The median age was 25.5 years and there were 30 men (60% and 20 women (40%. Thirty-seven patients (74% had good compliance. The overall incidence of donor site hypertrophic scar was 94% (47 out of 50. At the second month postoperatively, the silicone gel scars were scored lower when compared with the control scars. The differences were statistically significant in all parameters, including pigmentation ( P = 0.001, Vascularity ( P = 0.010, pliability ( P = 0.001, and height ( P = 0.010. Conclusion: The effect of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar development in donor site scars is promising. Success of silicone gel in its prophylactic role will create its routine use in all types of surgery to minimize the formation of hypertrophic scars in the early postoperative period.

  5. Designing Surface Monitoring Meshes for Geologic Carbon Capture and Storage Sites: Accurate Emissions Accounting for an Essential 2°C Mitigation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, C. M.; Swart, P. K.; Broad, K.

    2014-12-01

    Geologic carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a feasible solution to the international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions problem and it has recently been called a "vital" mitigation tool by the International Energy Agency. However, there exists uncertainty concerning the terminal fate of stored carbon dioxide (CO2.) In this regard, reliable monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) technologies are essential for making CCS publicly acceptable. Chiefly, MVA addresses safety and environmental concerns by providing a warning system to prevent or alleviate CO2 leakages. A secondary purpose of MVA technologies is to prove compliance with CO2 reduction standards through inventory verification. A key MVA tool for tracking CO2 leakages is surface (atmospheric) monitoring. Demonstrating its value, industry actors feel an impetus to invest in surface monitoring as a low-risk, high-value technology to mitigate liability in cases of potential leakages. Despite how necessary this tool is, to date, all surface monitoring mesh designs and best practices have been proposed locally, without discussion of standardization or optimization on a regional, national or international level. We identify the fundamental problem of surface monitoring mesh design as locating the monitoring sites to record CO2 levels over the designated geographic area at lowest cost with maximum impact. We approach this problem from both an operations research (OR) perspective and atmospheric dispersion perspective. From an OR perspective, we approach mesh design using multiobjective optimization models - we specify the relative placement of candidate sites, observation time interval, and optimality criteria. In the second approach, we model CO2 leakage scenarios to test the effectiveness of proposed mesh design from the first approach. We use atmospheric dispersion modeling softwares AERMOD and SCREEN3 - both tools developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and codified into law - for

  6. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesten, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment

    2005-06-01

    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  7. Does The Principle Of Equivalence Prevent Trapped Surfaces From Being Formed In The General Relativistic Collapse Process?

    CERN Document Server

    Leiter, D; Robertson, S; Leiter, Darryl; Mitra, Abhas; Robertson, Stanley

    2001-01-01

    It has been recently shown (Mitra, 2000 - astro-ph/9910408) that the timelike spherical collapse of a radiating, physical fluid in General Relativity, as seen by an interior co-moving observer at rest in the physical fluid, does not permit formation of ``trapped surfaces''. This followed from the fact that the formation of a trapped surface in a physical fluid would cause the timelike world lines of the collapsing fluid to become null at the would be trapped surface, thus violating the Principle of Equivalence in General Theory of Relativity. In this paper we generalize and extend this result by studying the problem from the point of view of the exterior Vaidya metric of a collapsing radiating fluid as seen by an exterior stationary observer, and find that the "no trapped surface condition" becomes g00 > 0 consistent with that obtained for the interior co-moving metric. Since we have shown that the Principle of Equivalence prevents trapped surfaces from being formed in collapsing, radiating objects, then true...

  8. Chlorine-rich plasma polymer coating for the prevention of attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont-Friedrich, Stephanie J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Giles, Carla; Griesser, Hans J.; Coad, Bryan R.

    2016-07-01

    The attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces, which is often followed by biofilm formation, causes adverse consequences in a wide range of areas. Here we have investigated the ability of thin film coatings from chlorinated molecules to deter fungal colonization of solid materials by contact killing of fungal cells reaching the surface of the coating. Coatings were deposited onto various substrate materials via plasma polymerization, which is a substrate-independent process widely used for industrial coating applications, using 1,1,2-trichloroethane as the process vapour. XPS surface analysis showed that the coatings were characterized by a highly chlorinated hydrocarbon polymer nature, with only a very small amount of oxygen incorporated. The activity of these coatings against human fungal pathogens was quantified using a recently developed, modified yeast assay and excellent antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Plasma polymer surface coatings derived from chlorinated hydrocarbon molecules may therefore offer a promising solution to preventing yeast and mould biofilm formation on materials surfaces, for applications such as air conditioners, biomedical devices, food processing equipment, and others.

  9. Noctis Landing: A Proposed Landing Site/Exploration Zone for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pascal; Acedillo, Shannen; Braham, Stephen; Brown, Adrian; Elphic, Richard; Fong, Terry; Glass, Brian; Hoftun, Christopher; Johansen, Brage W.; Lorber, Kira; Mittlefehldt, David; Takagi, Yuta; Thomas, Peter; West, Michael; West, Stephen; Zolensky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ) offer many such outcrop options. -­- Identifiable stratigraphic contacts and cross-cutting relationships from which relative ages can be determined. In place and collapsed canyon walls in NL, TC, and IC offer such opportunities. -­- Other types of ROIs include access points to surrounding plateau top areas for longer term regional exploration. A key attribute of the proposed Noctic Landing site is its strategic location to allow the shortest possible surface excusions to Tharsis and Valles Marineris (VM). VM is the feature and region on Mars that exposes the longest record of Mars' geology and evolution through time. Tharsis is the region of Mars that has experienced the longest and most extensive volcanic history, and might still be volcanically active. Some of the youngest lava flows on Mars have been identified on the western flanks of the Tharsis Bulge, i.e., within driving range of future longrange (500 - 1000 km) pressurized rover traverses. The proposed site also contains ROIs that offer the following Resources (incl. Civil Engineering) characteristics: -­- Access to raw material that exhibits the potential to (1) be used as feedstock for water-generating in situ resource utilization (ISRU) processes and (2) yield significant quantities (greater than 100 MT) of water. The raw material is likely in the form of hydrated minerals, and possibly ice/regolith mix. The top of the raw material deposit is at the surface. -­- Access to a region where infrastructure can be emplaced or constructed. This region is less than 5 km from the LS and contains flat, stable terrain. The region exhibits evidence for an abundant source of loose regolith. Several deep pits in the area combined with the availability of sand suggests that some natural terrain features can be adapted for construction purposes. -­- Access to raw material that exhibits the potential to be used as metal feedstock for ISRU and construction purposes. Iron and sulfur-rich mineral surface deposits have been

  10. Land surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle over the Baotou test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01-0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%-12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD = 0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0).

  11. Land surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle over the Baotou test site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Bo Duan

    Full Text Available To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER, a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE of approximately 0.01-0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%-12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD conditions (AOD = 0.18. However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0.

  12. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Promotes Immune Evasion by Preventing NKG2D-Ligand Surface Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection...... leads to a robust induction of MICA mRNA expression, however the subsequent surface expression is potently hindered. Thus, VSV lines up with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and adenovirus, which actively subvert the immune system by negatively affecting NKG2D-ligand surface expression. VSV infection caused...... an active suppression of NKG2D-ligand surface expression, affecting both endogenous and histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitor induced MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 expression. The classical immune escape mechanism of VSV (i.e., the M protein blockade of nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport) was not involved, as the VSV...

  13. System and method for laser-based, non-evaporative repair of damage sites in the surfaces of fused silica optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, John J.; Bolourchi, Masoud; Bude, Jeffrey D.; Guss, Gabriel M.; Jarboe, Jeffery A.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Nostrand, Michael C; Wegner, Paul J.

    2016-09-06

    A method for repairing a damage site on a surface of an optical material is disclosed. The method may involve focusing an Infrared (IR) laser beam having a predetermined wavelength, with a predetermined beam power, to a predetermined full width ("F/W") 1/e.sup.2 diameter spot on the damage site. The focused IR laser beam is maintained on the damage site for a predetermined exposure period corresponding to a predetermined acceptable level of downstream intensification. The focused IR laser beam heats the damage site to a predetermined peak temperature, which melts and reflows material at the damage site of the optical material to create a mitigated site.

  14. Diverse functionalization of Aurora-A kinase at specified surface and buried sites by native chemical modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Rowan

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain a homogeneous sample of protein is invaluable when studying the effect of alterations such as post-translational modifications (PTMs. Selective functionalization of a protein to investigate the effect of PTMs on its structure or activity can be achieved by chemical modification of cysteine residues. We demonstrate here that one such technique, which involves conversion of cysteine to dehydroalanine followed by thiol nucleophile addition, is suitable for the site-specific installation of a wide range of chemical mimics of PTMs, including acetylated and dimethylated lysine, and other unnatural amino acids. These reactions, optimized for the clinically relevant kinase Aurora-A, readily proceed to completion as revealed by intact protein mass spectrometry. Moreover, these reactions proceed under non-denaturing conditions, which is desirable when working with large protein substrates. We have determined reactivity trends for a diverse range of thiol nucleophile addition reactions at two separate sites on Aurora-A, and we also highlight limitations when using thiol nucleophiles that contain basic functional groups. We show that chemical modification of cysteine residues is possible not only on a flexible surface-exposed loop, but also within a deep active site pocket at the conserved DFG motif, which reveals the potential use of this method in exploring enzyme function through modification of catalytic site residues.

  15. Task-based lead exposures and work site characteristics of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D

    2009-02-01

    This study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts investigated the causes of elevated blood lead levels and assessed their exposure to lead. Bridge work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which personal and area air samples and information on work site characteristics and lead abatement methods were gathered. Short-duration personal inhalable samples collected from 18 tasks had geometric means (GM) of 3 microg/m(3) to 7286 microg/m(3). Full-shift, time-weighted average (TWA) inhalable samples (>or=6 hours) collected from selected workers and work sites had GMs of 2 microg/m(3) to 15,704 microg/m(3); 80% of samples exceeded the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 microg/m(3), on average by a factor of 30. Area inhalable samples collected from three locations ranged from 2 microg/m(3) to 40,866 microg/m(3) from inside the containment, 2 microg/m(3) to 471 microug/m(3) from a distance of 6 meters from the containment. Seventy nine percent of the area samples from inside the containment exceeded the PEL on average by a factor of 140. Through observations of work site characteristics, opportunities for improving work methods were identified, particularly the institution of engineering controls (which were only occasionally present) and improvement in the design and construction of the containment structure. The high levels of airborne lead exposures indicate a potential for serious exposure hazard for workers and environmental contamination, which can be mitigated through administrative and engineering controls. Although these data were collected over 10 years ago, a 2005 regulatory review by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of its lead in construction standard reported that elevated lead exposures and blood lead levels, high occurrence of noncompliance with the lead standard, and nonimplementation of newer technology especially among small painting firms employing <10 workers are still widespread. As a

  16. Condensation on the outdoor surface of window glazing — Calculation methods, key parameters and prevention with low-emissivity coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gläser, Hans Joachim, E-mail: glaesergm@arcor.de [Paul-Ehrlich-Str 10, 51643 Gummersbach (Germany); Ulrich, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.ulrich@ist.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The market share of thermally insulating, triple glazing installed as window glazing increased to nearly 50% in Germany in 2011 and is continuing to rise in 2012. Dew and frost on the outdoor surface of insulating glazing units with thermal transmittance values U{sub g} below 1.0 W/(m{sup 2}K) present a severe problem, because unimpeded visual contact, one of the essential features of glazing, is disturbed. The report describes calculation methods to determine the occurrence and prevention of outdoor condensation and the key parameters influencing it. From this parameter study, it follows that condensation on the outdoor surface of window glazing in the form of frost and dew is prevented for all the glazing by low-emissivity (low-e) coatings with a certain thermal emissivity value ε{sub o} between 0 and 1 on the outdoor surface if the outdoor air temperature t{sub o} is lower than the room temperature t{sub i}, normally given for buildings in the Central European climate when outdoor condensation occurs. However, today weather resistant low-e coatings with sufficient transmittance applied on outdoor surfaces of window glazing can only be manufactured on the basis of indium tin oxide with ε{sub o} ≈ 0.2. The study shows that with such low-e coatings frost can be prevented as well as the frequency of dew occurrence can be reduced on all vertically installed glazing with thermal transmittance values U{sub g} ≥ 0.47 W/(m{sup 2}K) and on the outside of skylight glazing with U{sub g} ≥ 0.70 W/(m{sup 2}K). This is sufficient for all window glazing marketed nowadays. Weather-resistant, cost-effective coatings on glass with ε{sub o} < 0.2, which are required for energy-neutral glazing with U{sub g} values < 0.5 W/(m{sup 2}K), are the subject of ongoing development. - Highlights: ► Condensation on the outside of highly insulating window glazing ► Calculation methods for the occurrence of this condensation ► Prevention with low-e coating on the outdoor of

  17. "Textbook" adsorption at "nontextbook" adsorption sites: Halogen atoms on alkali halide surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Li, B.; Michaelides, A.; Scheffler, M.

    2006-01-01

    Density-functional theory (DFT) and second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations indicate that halogen atoms bond preferentially to halide substrate atoms on a series of alkali halide surfaces, rather than to the alkali atoms as might be anticipated. An analysis of the electronic structures in each system reveals that this novel adsorption mode is stabilized by the formation of textbook two-center three-electron covalent bonds. The implications of these findings to, for exampl...

  18. Modeling the effects of topography and wind on atmospheric dispersion of CO2 surface leakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Fotini K.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the potential impacts of unexpected surface releases of CO{sub 2} is an essential part of risk assessment for geologic carbon sequestration sites. We have extended a mesoscale atmospheric model to model dense gas dispersion of CO{sub 2} leakage. The hazard from CO{sub 2} leakage is greatest in regions with topographic depressions where the dense gas can pool. Simulation of dispersion in idealized topographies shows that CO{sub 2} can persist even under high winds. Simulation of a variety of topographies, winds, and release conditions allows the generation of a catalog of simulation results that can be queried to estimate potential impacts at actual geologic carbon sequestration sites.

  19. Combination of site-directed mutagenesis and yeast surface display enhances Rhizomucor miehei lipase esterification activity in organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuang-yan; Zhang, Jun-hui; Han, Zhen-lin; Zheng, Sui-ping; Lin, Ying

    2011-12-01

    To increase the activity of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) in organic solvent, multiple sequence alignments and rational site-directed mutagenesis were used to create RML variants. The obtained proteins were surface-displayed on Pichia pastoris by fusion to Flo1p as an anchor protein. The synthetic activity of four variants showed from 1.1- to 5-fold the activity of native lipase in an esterification reaction in heptane with alcohol and caproic acid as substrates. The increase in esterification activity may be attributed to the four mutations changing the flexibility of RML or facilitating the reaction. In conclusion, this method demonstrated that multiple sequence alignments and rational site-directed mutagenesis combined with yeast display technology is a faster and more effective means of obtaining high-efficiency esterification lipase variants compared with previous similar methods.

  20. Permafrost and surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in Northern Siberia – Part 2: Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Langer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost is largely determined by the surface energy balance. Its vulnerability to degradation due to climate warming depends on complex soil-atmosphere interactions. This article is the second part of a comprehensive surface energy balance study at a polygonal tundra site in Northern Siberia. It comprises two consecutive winter periods from October 2007 to May 2008 and from October 2008 to January 2009. The surface energy balance is obtained by independent measurements of the radiation budget, the sensible heat flux and the ground heat flux, whereas the latent heat flux is inferred from measurements of the atmospheric turbulence characteristics and a model approach. The measurements reveal that the long-wave radiation is the dominant factor in the surface energy balance. The radiative losses are balanced to about 60% by the ground heat flux and almost 40% by the sensible heat fluxes, whereas the contribution of the latent heat flux is found to be relatively small. The main controlling factors of the surface energy budget are the snow cover, the cloudiness and the soil temperature gradient. Significant spatial differences in the surface energy balance are observed between the tundra soils and a small pond. The heat flux released from the subsurface heat storage is by a factor of two increased at the freezing pond during the entire winter period, whereas differences in the radiation budget are only observed at the end of winter. Inter-annual differences in the surface energy balance are related to differences in snow depth, which substantially affect the temperature evolution at the investigated pond. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of the ground heat flux for the soil-atmosphere energy exchange and reveal high spatial and temporal variabilities in the subsurface heat budget during winter.

  1. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  2. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  3. Research on flood prevention design of mine industrial site%浅析煤矿工业场地防洪设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the engineering cases, the flood control measures in different situations were introduced, the in-teractions of the flood prevention and site formation of industrial site in mountain area were discussed, and the balance and coordination between flood control works and the site elevation was analyzed.%结合工程实例,介绍了不同条件下的防洪工程措施,对山区工业场地防洪与工业场地平场之间的相互影响关系进行了探讨;从“平衡”的角度,协调防、排洪工程与场地高程之间的关系,以达到工程实施的合理性。

  4. Effect of Surface Geology on Ground Motions: The Case of Station TAP056 - Chutzuhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Wen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Tatun mountain area of northern Taiwan are two strong motion stations approximately 2.5 km apart, TAP056 and TAP066 of the TSMIP network. The accelerometer at station TAP056 is often triggered by earthquakes, but that at TAP066 station is not. Comparisons of vertical and horizontal peak ground accelerations reveal PGA in the vertical, east-west, and north-south components at TAP056 station to be 3.89, 7.57, and 5.45 times those at station TAP066, respectively. The PGA ratio does not seem to be related to earthquake source or path. Fourier spectra of earthquake records at station TAP056 always have approximately the same dominant frequency; however, those at station TAP066 are different due to different sources and paths of different events. This shows that spectra at TAP056 station are mainly controlled by local site effects. The spectral ratios of TAP056/TAP066 show the S-wave is amplified at around 8 ~ 10 Hz. The horizontal/vertical spectral ratios of station TAP056 also show a dominant frequency at about 6 and 8 ~ 10 Hz. After dense microtremor surveying and the addition of one accelerometer just 20 meters away from the original observation station, we can confirm that the top soft soil layer upon which the observation station is constructed generates the local site response at station TAP056.

  5. Design and Development of Portable Support Surface and Multilayered Fabric Cover for Bed Sore Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kandha Vadivu, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are serious and common health concern affecting about 1.5–3 million adults and is a serious health concern for elders. Pressure ulcers or bed sores seem to be one of the most challenging inflicts to the doctors and may result in significant morbidity and mortality and are associated with high cost in terms of human sufferings, cost of treatment, and possible litigation. Though modern medical science has launched a variety of treatment methods, prevention is the best way to get...

  6. Prevention of Surgical Site Infections : Decontamination With Mupirocin Based on Preoperative Screening for Staphylococcus aureus Carriers or Universal Decontamination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetem, David J; Bootsma, Martin C J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830305; Bonten, Marc J M

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers with mupirocin together with chlorhexidine body washing reduces the incidence of S. aureus surgical site infection. A targeted strategy, applied in S. aureus carriers only, is costly, and implementation may reduce effectiveness.

  7. Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2: Evidence of the Key Role of Surface Active Sites in Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Tadeusz; Li, Wenxian; Nowotny, Janusz; Atanacio, Armand J; Davis, Joel

    2015-09-10

    Photocatalytic activity of oxide semiconductors is commonly considered in terms of the effect of the band gap on the light-induced performance. The present work considers a combined effect of several key performance-related properties (KPPs) on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 (rutile), including the chemical potential of electrons (Fermi level), the concentration of surface active sites, and charge transport, in addition to the band gap. The KPPs have been modified using defect engineering. This approach led to imposition of different defect disorders and the associated KPPs, which are defect-related. This work shows, for the first time, a competitive influence of different KPPs on photocatalytic activity that was tested using oxidation of methylene blue (MB). It is shown that the increase of oxygen activity in the TiO2 lattice from 10(-12) Pa to 10(5) Pa results in (i) increase in the band gap from 2.42 to 2.91 eV (direct transitions) or 2.88 to 3 eV (indirect transitions), (ii) increase in the population of surface active sites, (iii) decrease of the Fermi level, and (iv) decrease of the charge transport. It is shown that the observed changes in the photocatalytic activity are determined by two dominant KPPs: the concentration of active surface sites and the Fermi level, while the band gap and charge transport have a minor effect on the photocatalytic performance. The effect of the defect-related properties on photoreactivity of TiO2 with water is considered in terms of a theoretical model offering molecular-level insight into the process.

  8. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec, Taeby (Sweden)); Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Holgersson, Bjoern (SWECO VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden)); Roennback, Kristoffer (Aqualog AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Marelius, Fredrick (WSP Sverige, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report presents and analyses meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological time-series data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, available in SKB's Sicada database at time of the Laxemar 2.3 data freeze (Aug. 31, 2007). The meteorological data set includes data from two local stations, located on the island of Aespoe and at Plittorp, located further inland. In addition, the data evaluation uses a longer-term data set from 7 surrounding stations, operated by SMHI. As part of this study, a time series is constructed of the water content of snow. According to the data evaluation, the site-average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration can be estimated to be on the order of 600 and 535 mm, respectively. In particular, precipitation demonstrates a near-coastal gradient, with less precipitation at the coast compared to areas further inland. The surface-water level data set includes data from 4 lake-level gauging stations and 3 sea-level gauging stations. All lakes are located above sea level, including the near-coastal Lake Soeraa. Hence, no intrusion of sea water to lakes takes place. There is a strong co-variation among the monitored lake-water levels, typically with maxima during spring and minima during late summer and early autumn. Concerning the sea as a hydraulic boundary, the maximum and minimum sea levels (daily averages) during the site-investigation period were -0.52 and 0.71 metres above sea level, respectively, whereas the average sea level was 0.03 metres above sea level (RHB 70). The data set on stream discharge, surface-water temperature and electrical conductivity includes data from 9 discharge-gauging stations in 7 streams. Based on the discharge data, the site-average specific discharge for the years 2005-2007 can be estimated to 165 mm/y, which is within the interval of the estimated long-term average. Overall, discharge-data errors are likely to be small. The hydrogeological

  9. Kinetic analysis of inhibition of glucoamylase and active site mutants via chemoselective oxime immobilization of acarbose on SPR chip surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Jørgen; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte;

    2013-01-01

    We here report a quantitative study on the binding kinetics of inhibition of the enzyme glucoamylase and how individual active site amino acid mutations influence kinetics. To address this challenge, we have developed a fast and efficient method for anchoring native acarbose to gold chip surfaces...... shown that at pH 7.0 the association and dissociation rate constants for the acarbose-glucoamylase interaction are 104M−1s−1 and 103s−1, respectively, and that the conformational change to a tight enzyme–inhibitor complex affects the dissociation rate constant by a factor of 102s−1. Additionally...

  10. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  11. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Kane, Ravi S. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Ricketts Building, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2011-02-08

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. The CONSERT Instrument during Philae's Descent onto 67P/C-G's surface: Insights on Philae's Attitude and the Surface Permittivity Measurements at the Agilkia-Landing-Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettemeier, D.; Statz, C.; Hahnel, R.; Hegler, S.; Herique, A.; Pasquero, P.; Rogez, Y.; Zine, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Kofman, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    necessary for the mapping of dominant signatures and the estimation of the dielectric properties of prominent features. From this data it is possible to create a contrast and permittivity mapping of the comet's surface in the vicinity of the Agilkia landing site.

  13. "Textbook" adsorption at "nontextbook" adsorption sites: halogen atoms on alkali halide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Michaelides, Angelos; Scheffler, Matthias

    2006-07-28

    Density-functional theory and second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations indicate that halogen atoms bond preferentially to halide substrate atoms on a series of alkali halide surfaces, rather than to the alkali atoms as might be anticipated. An analysis of the electronic structures in each system reveals that this novel adsorption mode is stabilized by the formation of textbook two-center three-electron covalent bonds. The implications of these findings to, for example, nanostructure crystal growth, are briefly discussed.

  14. Roles of multiple surface sites, long substrate binding clefts, and carbohydrate binding modules in the action of amylolytic enzymes on polysaccharide substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Munch; Seo, E.S.; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2008-01-01

    with a characteristic subsite binding energy profile around the catalytic site. Furthermore, several amylolytic enzymes that facilitate attack on the natural substrate, i.e. the endosperm starch granules, have secondary sugar binding sites either situated on the surface of the protein domain or structural unit...... that contains the catalytic site or belonging to a separate starch binding domain. The role of surface sites in the function of barley alpha-amylase 1 has been investigated by using mutational analysis in conjunction with carbohydrate binding analyses and crystallography. The ability to bind starch depends...

  15. A prototype of radar-drone system for measuring the surface flow velocity at river sites and discharge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moramarco, Tommaso; Alimenti, Federico; Zucco, Graziano; Barbetta, Silvia; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Mezzanotte, Paolo; Rosselli, Luca; Orecchini, Giulia; Virili, Marco; Valigi, Paolo; Ciarfuglia, Thomas; Pagnottelli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Discharge estimation at a river site depends on local hydraulic conditions identified by recording water levels. In fact, stage monitoring is straightforward and relatively inexpensive compared with the cost necessary to carry out flow velocity measurements which are, however, limited to low flows and constrained by the accessibility of the site. In this context the mean flow velocity is hard to estimate for high flow, affecting de-facto the reliability of discharge assessment for extreme events. On the other hand, the surface flow velocity can be easily monitored by using radar sensors allowing to achieve a good estimate of discharge by exploiting the entropy theory applied to rivers hydraulic (Chiu,1987). Recently, a growing interest towards the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UVA), henceforth drone, for topographic applications is observed and considering their capability drones may be of a considerable interest for the hydrological monitoring and in particular for streamflow measurements. With this aim, for the first time, a miniaturized Doppler radar sensor, operating at 24 GHz, will be mounted on a drone to measure the surface flow velocity in rivers. The sensor is constituted by a single-board circuit (i.e. is a fully planar circuits - no waveguides) with the antenna on one side and the front-end electronic on the other side (Alimenti et al., 2007). The antenna has a half-power beam width of less than 10 degrees in the elevation plane and a gain of 13 dBi. The radar is equipped with a monolithic oscillator and transmits a power of about 4 mW at 24 GHz. The sensor is mounted with an inclination of 45 degrees with respect to the drone flying plane and such an angle is considered in recovering the surface speed of the water. The drone is a quadricopter that has more than 30 min, flying time before recharging the battery. Furthermore its flying plan can be scheduled with a suitable software and is executed thanks to the on-board sensors (GPS, accelerometers

  16. Local growth of aligned carbon nanotubes at surface sites irradiated by pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, K.; Böhme, R.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2008-05-01

    The utilization of the unique properties of nanostructures often requires their arrangement in mesoscopic patterns, e.g., to facilitate the connection to microelectrodes. Such arrangements can be achieved by local growth of nanostructures. The stimulation of the localized growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been achieved by excimer laser irradiation of iron(III)nitride-coated silicon substrates at a wavelength of 248 nm. After the growth using a thermal CVD process, vertical aligned CNT bundles were found within the laser-irradiated areas. Pulsed UV-laser irradiation causes the transformation of the nitride film into nanoparticles at the substrate surface as AFM measurements show. Surface modification by direct writing techniques allows the growth of arbitrary shaped CNT-forest patterns. Despite the optimization of the processing parameters, an unequal growth of CNT has been observed at the regions of pulse overlap at direct writing. The dissimilar particle properties at the overlap regions are the reason for the different CNT heights. These differences in the catalytic particles properties are caused by the lower laser fluence at the mask edges and the interaction of the laser plasma plume with the pristine nitride film.

  17. Influences of the boundary layer evolution on surface ozone variations at a tropical rural site in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Reddy; M Naja; N Ojha; P Mahesh; S Lal

    2012-08-01

    Collocated measurements of the boundary layer evolution and surface ozone, made for the first time at a tropical rural site (Gadanki 13.5°N, 79.2°E, 375 m amsl) in India, are presented here. The boundary layer related observations were made utilizing a lower atmospheric wind profiler and surface ozone observations were made using a UV analyzer simultaneously in April month. Daytime average boundary layer height varied from 1.5 km (on a rainy day) to a maximum of 2.5 km (on a sunny day). Correlated day-to-day variability in the daytime boundary layer height and ozone mixing ratios is observed. Days of higher ozone mixing ratios are associated with the higher boundary layer height and vice versa. It is shown that higher height of the boundary layer can lead to the mixing of near surface air with the ozone rich air aloft, resulting in the observed enhancements in surface ozone. A chemical box model simulation indicates about 17% reduction in the daytime ozone levels during the conditions of suppressed PBL in comparison with those of higher PBL conditions. On a few occasions, substantially elevated ozone levels (as high as 90 ppbv) were observed during late evening hours, when photochemistry is not intense. These events are shown to be due to southwesterly wind with uplifting and northeasterly winds with downward motions bringing ozone rich air from nearby urban centers. This was further corroborated by backward trajectory simulations.

  18. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    The Ketzin pilot site in Germany is the longest operating on-shore CO2 storage site in Europe. From June 2008 till August 2013, a total of ˜67,000 tonnes of CO2 were safely stored in a saline aquifer at depths of 630 m to 650 m. The storage site has now entered the abandonment phase, and continuation of the multi-disciplinary monitoring as part of the national project "CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site" (COMPLETE) provides the unique chance to participate in the conclusion of the complete life cycle of a CO2 storage site. As part of the continuous evaluation of the functionality and integrity of the CO2 storage in Ketzin, from October 12, 2015 till January 6, 2015 a total of ˜2,900 tonnes of brine were successfully injected into the CO2 reservoir, hereby simulating in time-lapse the natural backflow of brine and the associated displacement of CO2. The main objectives of this brine injection experiment include investigation of how much of the CO2 in the pore space can be displaced by brine and if this displacement of CO2 during the brine injection differs from the displacement of formation fluid during the initial CO2 injection. Geophysical monitoring of the brine injection included continuous geoelectric measurements accompanied by monitoring of pressure and temperature conditions in the injection well and two adjacent observation wells. During the previous CO2 injection, the geoelectrical monitoring concept at the Ketzin pilot site consisted of permanent crosshole measurements and non-permanent large-scale surveys (Kiessling et al., 2010). Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies derived from the weekly crosshole data at near-wellbore scale complemented by six surface-downhole surveys at a scale of 1.5 km showed a noticeable resistivity signature within the target storage zone, which was attributed to the CO2 plume (Schmidt-Hattenberger et al., 2011) and interpreted in terms of relative CO2 and brine saturations (Bergmann

  19. Groundwater flow evaluation through backfilling materials of a surface coal mining site of Northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Ojeda, C.; Martínez-Morales, M.; Ortíz-Flores, G.

    2013-05-01

    Surface coal mining at the Allende-Piedras Negras aquifer system requires the complete dewatering and removal of the aquifer. The aquifer contains several geologic layers of variable hydraulic conductivity. Backfilling material is composed of a mixture of permeable and impermeable layers and it was initially considered as impermeable. Exploratory drillings, pumping tests and a geophysical survey were performed in the backfilling materials and the surrounding unaltered materials in order to evaluate the natural groundwater flow modification due to the mining activities. Results of geophysical survey evidenced a saturated water table within the back filling material which was verified by exploratory drilling. Pumping tests showed that unaltered materials have a mean hydraulic conductivity of 34.5 m/day while the backfilling of 5.3 m/day. Although the mining activities reduce the hydraulic conductivity by almost an order of magnitude, it was corroborated the existence of a groundwater flow through the backfilling materials.

  20. Surface-wave and refraction tomography at the FACT Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Pullammanappallil, Satish (Optim, Inc., Reno, NV); Engler, Bruce Phillip

    2006-08-01

    We present a technique that allows for the simultaneous acquisition and interpretation of both shear-wave and compressive-wave 3-D velocities. The technique requires no special seismic sources or array geometries, and is suited to studies with small source-receiver offsets. The method also effectively deals with unwanted seismic arrivals by using the statistical properties of the data itself to discriminate against spurious picks. We demonstrate the technique with a field experiment at the Facility for Analysis, Calibration, and Testing at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The resulting 3-D shear-velocity and compressive-velocity distributions are consistent with surface geologic mapping. The averaged velocities and V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio in the upper 30 meters are also consistent with examples found in the scientific literature.

  1. Surface-wave and refraction tomography at the FACT Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Pullammanappallil, Satish (Optim, Inc., Reno, NV); Engler, Bruce Phillip

    2006-08-01

    We present a technique that allows for the simultaneous acquisition and interpretation of both shear-wave and compressive-wave 3-D velocities. The technique requires no special seismic sources or array geometries, and is suited to studies with small source-receiver offsets. The method also effectively deals with unwanted seismic arrivals by using the statistical properties of the data itself to discriminate against spurious picks. We demonstrate the technique with a field experiment at the Facility for Analysis, Calibration, and Testing at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The resulting 3-D shear-velocity and compressive-velocity distributions are consistent with surface geologic mapping. The averaged velocities and V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio in the upper 30 meters are also consistent with examples found in the scientific literature.

  2. Localization of the site of origin of reentrant arrhythmia from body surface potential maps: a model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenguang [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 7-105 BSBE, 312 Church St., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Li Guanglin [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); He Bin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 7-105 BSBE, 312 Church St., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-04-07

    We have developed a model-based imaging approach to estimate the site of origin of reentrant arrhythmia from body surface potential maps (BSPMs), with the aid of a cardiac arrhythmia model. The reentry was successfully simulated and maintained in the cardiac model, and the simulated ECG waveforms over the body surface corresponding to a maintained reentry have evident characteristics of ventricular tachycardia. The performance of the inverse imaging approach was evaluated by computer simulations. The present simulation results show that an averaged localization error of about 1.5 mm, when 5% Gaussian white noise was added to the BSPMs, was detected. The effects of the heart-torso geometry uncertainty on the localization were also initially assessed and the simulation results suggest that no significant influence was observed when 10% torso geometry uncertainty or 10 mm heart position shifting was considered. The present simulation study suggests the feasibility of localizing the site of origin of reentrant arrhythmia from non-invasive BSPMs, with the aid of a cardiac arrhythmia model.

  3. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  4. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  5. Time-windows-based filtering method for near-surface detection of leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Fischer, M.L.

    2010-02-28

    We use process-based modeling techniques to characterize the temporal features of natural biologically controlled surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and the relationships between the assimilation and respiration fluxes. Based on these analyses, we develop a signal-enhancing technique that combines a novel time-window splitting scheme, a simple median filtering, and an appropriate scaling method to detect potential signals of leakage of CO{sub 2} from geologic carbon sequestration sites from within datasets of net near-surface CO{sub 2} flux measurements. The technique can be directly applied to measured data and does not require subjective gap filling or data-smoothing preprocessing. Preliminary application of the new method to flux measurements from a CO{sub 2} shallow-release experiment appears promising for detecting a leakage signal relative to background variability. The leakage index of ?2 was found to span the range of biological variability for various ecosystems as determined by observing CO{sub 2} flux data at various control sites for a number of years.

  6. Geotechnical, Hydrogeologic and Vegetation Data Package for 200-UW-1 Waste Site Engineered Surface Barrier Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.

    2007-11-26

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is designing and assessing the performance of engineered barriers for final closure of 200-UW-1 waste sites. Engineered barriers must minimize the intrusion and water, plants and animals into the underlying waste to provide protection for human health and the environment. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator is being used to optimize the performance of candidate barriers. Simulating barrier performance involves computation of mass and energy transfer within a soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum and requires a variety of input parameters, some of which are more readily available than others. Required input includes parameter values for the geotechnical, physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of the materials comprising the barrier and the structural fill on which it will be constructed as well as parameters to allow simulation of plant effects. This report provides a data package of the required parameters as well as the technical basis, rationale and methodology used to obtain the parameter values.

  7. Characterization of heparin-binding site of tissue transglutaminase: its importance in cell surface targeting, matrix deposition, and cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Collighan, Russell J; Pytel, Kamila; Rathbone, Daniel L; Li, Xiaoling; Griffin, Martin

    2012-04-13

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional Ca(2+)-activated protein cross-linking enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it is involved in wound healing and scarring, tissue fibrosis, celiac disease, and metastatic cancer. Extracellular TG2 can also facilitate cell adhesion important in wound healing through a nontransamidating mechanism via its association with fibronectin, heparan sulfates (HS), and integrins. Regulating the mechanism how TG2 is translocated into the ECM therefore provides a strategy for modulating these physiological and pathological functions of the enzyme. Here, through molecular modeling and mutagenesis, we have identified the HS-binding site of TG2 (202)KFLKNAGRDCSRRSSPVYVGR(222). We demonstrate the requirement of this binding site for translocation of TG2 into the ECM through a mechanism involving cell surface shedding of HS. By synthesizing a peptide NPKFLKNAGRDCSRRSS corresponding to the HS-binding site within TG2, we also demonstrate how this mimicking peptide can in isolation compensate for the RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion on fibronectin via binding to syndecan-4, leading to activation of PKCα, pFAK-397, and ERK1/2 and the subsequent formation of focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton organization. A novel regulatory mechanism for TG2 translocation into the extracellular compartment that depends upon TG2 conformation and the binding of HS is proposed.

  8. Kd Values for Agricultural and Surface Soils for Use in Hanford Site Farm, Residential, and River Shoreline Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-08-01

    This report provides best estimate Kd values and a minimum and maximum range of Kd values to be used for agricultural soils and Columbia River bank sediments that exist today or would exist in the future when portions of the Hanford Site are released for farming, residential, and recreational use after the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) completes clean up of defense waste on the site. The Kd values should be used to determine the fate and transport rates of contaminants and their availability for plant and animal uptake in selected non-groundwater scenarios included in Hanford Site environmental impact statements, risk assessments and specific facility performance assessments. This report describes scenarios such as a small farm where drilling of a well inadvertently goes through buried waste and brings waste to the surface, allowing the tailings to become available for direct human exposure or incorporation into garden crops and farm animals used for food by the farm family. The Kd values recommended in this report can also be used to calculate sediment-water partitioning factors used to predict plant and animal uptake from interaction with the contaminated soil.

  9. Analysis of multi-temporal landsat satellite images for monitoring land surface temperature of municipal solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Mahendrarajah, Prathees; Shaker, Ahmed; Faisal, Kamil; Luong, Robin; Al-Ahmad, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This studypresents a remote sensing application of using time series Landsat satellite images for monitoring the Trail Road and Nepean municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal sites in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Currently, the Trail Road landfill is in operation; however, during the 1960s and 1980s, the city relied heavily on the Nepean landfill. More than 400 Landsat satellite images were acquired from the US Geological Survey (USGS) data archive between 1984 and 2011. Atmospheric correction was conducted on the Landsat images in order to derive the landfill sites' land surface temperature (LST). The findings unveil that the average LST of the landfill was always higher than the immediate surrounding vegetation and air temperature by 4 to 10 °C and 5 to 11.5 °C, respectively. During the summer, higher differences of LST between the landfill and its immediate surrounding vegetation were apparent, while minima were mostly found in fall. Furthermore, there was no significant temperature difference between the Nepean landfill (closed) and the Trail Road landfill (active) from 1984 to 2007. Nevertheless, the LST of the Trail Road landfill was much higher than the Nepean by 15 to 20 °C after 2007. This is mainly due to the construction and dumping activities (which were found to be active within the past few years) associated with the expansion of the Trail Road landfill. The study demonstrates that the use of the Landsat data archive can provide additional and viable information for the aid of MSW disposal site monitoring.

  10. Surface modification of PET films using pulsed AC plasma polymerisation aimed at preventing protein adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ademovic, Z.; Wei, J.; Winther-Jensen, Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    We utilise pulsed AC plasma polymerisation to create thin films that either contain reactive acid functional groups (by deposition of maleic anhydride (MAH) followed by hydrolysis) or are poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-like in nature (by using diethylene glycol vinyl ether (DEGVE) as monomer). The MAH...... films were further modified with PEG chains using a two-step wet chemical method. For the DEGVE films the plasma power was varied in order to change the degree of monomer fragmentation and thus retention of PEG-like character. The chemistry of the surfaces was determined using Fourier-transform infrared...

  11. Uranium partition coefficients (Kd) in forest surface soil reveal long equilibrium times and vary by site and soil size fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Pinder, John E; Ibrahim, Shawki A; Stone, James M; Breshears, David D; Baker, Kristine N

    2007-07-01

    The environmental mobility of newly deposited radionuclides in surface soil is driven by complex biogeochemical relationships, which have significant impacts on transport pathways. The partition coefficient (Kd) is useful for characterizing the soil-solution exchange kinetics and is an important factor for predicting relative amounts of a radionuclide transported to groundwater compared to that remaining on soil surfaces and thus available for transport through erosion processes. Measurements of Kd for 238U are particularly useful because of the extensive use of 238U in military applications and associated testing, such as done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Site-specific measurements of Kd for 238U are needed because Kd is highly dependent on local soil conditions and also on the fine soil fraction because 238U concentrates onto smaller soil particles, such as clays and soil organic material, which are most susceptible to wind erosion and contribute to inhalation exposure in off-site populations. We measured Kd for uranium in soils from two neighboring semiarid forest sites at LANL using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-based protocol for both whole soil and the fine soil fraction (diametersKd values, which are those specified in the EPA protocol, ranged from 276-508 mL g-1 for whole soil and from 615-2249 mL g-1 for the fine soil fraction. Unexpectedly, the 30-d Kd values, measured to test for soil-solution exchange equilibrium, were more than two times the 7-d values. Rates of adsorption of 238U to soil from solution were derived using a 2-component (FAST and SLOW) exponential model. We found significant differences in Kd values among LANL sampling sites, between whole and fine soils, and between 7-d and 30-d Kd measurements. The significant variation in soil-solution exchange kinetics among the soils and soil sizes promotes the use of site-specific data for estimates of environmental transport rates and suggests possible differences in

  12. Prevention of surface-to-human transmission of rotaviruses by treatment with disinfectant spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R L; Bernstein, D I; Knowlton, D R; Sherwood, J R; Young, E C; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R; Schiff, G M

    1991-09-01

    A model was developed to examine the effects of disinfectants on the transmission of infectious rotavirus from a dried surface to humans. The initial experiments were designed to find a method of preserving rotavirus infectivity during drying. Culture-adapted human rotavirus (CJN strain) was dried at room temperature in different organic suspensions, including fecal matter, several laboratory media, and nonfat dry milk (NDM). Recoveries of infectious virus were then compared. Fecal matter provided little protection in this study relative to distilled water, but the other suspensions were quite protective, especially NDM, which consistently allowed recoveries of greater than 50%. When 10(3) focus-forming units of unpassaged CJN virus were dried in NDM and administered to subjects who licked the dried material, 100% (8 of 8) became infected. The effect of Lysol brand disinfectant spray (LDS) was next examined. Although NDM provided some protection against inactivation by LDS, spraying under conditions recommended by the manufacturer consistently caused the CJN virus titer to decrease greater than 5 log10. Consumption of CJN virus (10(3) focus-forming units) sprayed with LDS caused no infection in 14 subjects, whereas 13 of 14 subjects who consumed the unsprayed virus became infected (P less than 0.00001). The methods developed in this study could be used to test the effects of other disinfectants on the spread of infectious rotavirus from inanimate surfaces to humans.

  13. Near Surface Geophysical Exploration at The Archaeological Site of San Miguel Tocuila, Basin of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, A.; Hernandez, E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Diaz-Molina, O.; Morett, L.; Soler, A.

    2008-12-01

    The village of Tocuila is located on the western margin of Lake Texcoco in central Mexico. Volcanic activity during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene closed the basin's drainage and facilitated the development of a lacustrine environment and subsequent deposition of volcano-sedimentary sequences with abundant archaeological and paleontological record. Tocuila was one of the most prominent suburbs of the main civic ceremonial complex of the Aztecs. The rapid expansion of Mexico City's Metropolitan areas in the last three decades strongly influenced Tocuila's environment and has compromised several of its archaeological and ancient human settlements. A near surface geophysical survey including magnetometry, seismic refraction tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques was conducted to investigate pre-Hispanic structures. The magnetometric survey was performed using an Overhauser magnetometer with an omnidirectional, 0.015 nT/Hz sensor and 1Hz sampling rate over a 80x100 m area, yielding 990 measurements of total intensity magnetic field at 1.0m height above the ground surface. Thirty seismic refraction profiles were obtained with a 48-channel 24 bits Geometrics StrataVisor NZ seismograph, 14 Hz natural frequency vertical geophones with a 2m separation array and an impact source of 5 kg. The GPR survey consisted of 15 cross sections at two different resolutions with a GSSI SIR-3000 instrument, using a GSSI 200 MHz and a RadarTeam 70 MHz antennas. All surveys were georeferenced with a dual frequency GPS local station and a GPS rover attached to the surveying geophysical instruments. Seismic refraction tomography and GPR radargrams show a platform structure of approx. 80x60 m which can be subdivided in three distinctive layers with a total height of ~10m. Based on the history of ancient settlements in the area surrounding Lake Texcoco and considering the characteristics of shape and height of the surveyed structure, we interpreted that the resulting

  14. Forecasting surface-layer atmospheric parameters at the Large Binocular Telescope site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Alessio; Masciadri, Elena; Fini, Luca

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we quantify the performance of an automated weather forecast system implemented on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site at Mt Graham (Arizona) in forecasting the main atmospheric parameters close to the ground. The system employs a mesoscale non-hydrostatic numerical model (Meso-Nh). To validate the model, we compare the forecasts of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity close to the ground with the respective values measured by instrumentation installed on the telescope dome. The study is performed over a large sample of nights uniformly distributed over 2 yr. The quantitative analysis is done using classical statistical operators [bias, root-mean-square error (RMSE) and σ] and contingency tables, which allows us to extract complementary key information, such as the percentage of correct detections (PC) and the probability of obtaining a correct detection within a defined interval of values (POD). The results of our study indicate that the model performance in forecasting the atmospheric parameters we have just cited are very good, in some cases excellent: RMSE for temperature is below 1°C, for relative humidity it is 14 per cent and for the wind speed it is around 2.5 m s-1. The relative error of the RMSE for wind direction varies from 9 to 17 per cent depending on the wind speed conditions. This work is performed in the context of the ALTA (Advanced LBT Turbulence and Atmosphere) Center project, whose final goal is to provide forecasts of all the atmospheric parameters and the optical turbulence to support LBT observations, adaptive optics facilities and interferometric facilities.

  15. First Results of Continuous GPS Monitoring of Surface Deformation at the Aquistore Underground CO2 Storage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, M. R.; Ferland, R.; Piraszewski, M.; Samsonov, S. V.; Czarnogorska, M.

    2014-12-01

    Aquistore is a demonstration project for the underground storage of CO2 at a depth of ~3350 m near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. An objective of the project is to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods that have not been systematically utilized to date for monitoring CO2 storage projects, and to integrate the data from these various monitoring tools to obtain quantitative estimates of the change in subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Monitoring methods being applied include satellite-, surface- and wellbore-based monitoring systems and comprise natural- and controlled-source electromagnetic methods, gravity monitoring, GPS, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), tiltmeter array analysis, and chemical tracer studies. Here we focus on the GPS monitoring of surface deformation. Five GPS monitoring stations were installed in 2012 and another six in 2013, some collocated on top of InSAR retroreflectors. The GPS data from these stations have been processed on a weekly basis in both baseline processing mode using the Bernese GPS Software and precise point positioning mode using CSRS-PPP. Here we present the first complete results with 1-2 years of data at all sites prior to CO2 injection. The time series of these sites are examined, compared and analysed with respect to monument stability, seasonal signals and estimates of expected regional ground motion. The individual weekly network solutions have also been combined together in a cumulative 4D network solution to provide a preliminary local velocity field in the immediately vicinity of the injection well. These results are also compared to those obtained independently from InSAR, in particular the direct comparison of GPS and InSAR at the retroreflectors.

  16. Protein attachment onto silica surfaces--a survey of molecular fundamentals, resulting effects and novel preventive strategies in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Hanno

    2009-06-01

    This review addresses the fundamentals governing the adsorption of individual protein molecules onto the surface of fused-silica capillaries, the protein aggregation to adsorbate clusters and their final accretion to monolayers with subsequent stratification to protein multilayers. The attention in CE protein separation has primarily been focused on (i) tuning the BGE including the buffer type, ionic strength, pH and additives, (ii) tailored post-rinse procedures to detach adhered protein residues and (iii) the optimization of capillary wall shielding in order to reduce protein attachment. Improvements in protein separation as well as related adverse effects are mainly discussed on the basis of parameters known to become deteriorated in case of protein adhesion, e.g. repeatability of the EOF and of migration times, peak width, theoretical plate numbers, resolution and asymmetry factor. However, knowledge of the molecular principles controlling protein adsorption onto silica surfaces is indispensable for separation optimization. Furthermore, it facilitates troubleshooting and the interpretation of undesired concomitant phenomena. This review comprehensively discusses protein adsorption models derived from surface chemistry primarily in terms of their relevance for CE, clearly showing that the adsorption process in its complexity is only partially revealed by models, which address single or binary protein solutions. In a further section theoretical concepts and surface models are related to surface phenomena encountered in CE. The final part of the review surveys recent concepts for prevention of protein adhesion, thereby addressing capillary treatment, favorable buffer types, dynamic and adhesive semi-permanent coating strategies covering the literature from 2000-2008.

  17. Exploring the role of water in molecular recognition: predicting protein ligandability using a combinatorial search of surface hydration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Sinisa; Brennan, Paul E.; Huggins, David J.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between any two biological molecules must compete with their interaction with water molecules. This makes water the most important molecule in medicine, as it controls the interactions of every therapeutic with its target. A small molecule binding to a protein is able to recognize a unique binding site on a protein by displacing bound water molecules from specific hydration sites. Quantifying the interactions of these water molecules allows us to estimate the potential of the protein to bind a small molecule. This is referred to as ligandability. In the study, we describe a method to predict ligandability by performing a search of all possible combinations of hydration sites on protein surfaces. We predict ligandability as the summed binding free energy for each of the constituent hydration sites, computed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory. We compared the predicted ligandability with the maximum observed binding affinity for 20 proteins in the human bromodomain family. Based on this comparison, it was determined that effective inhibitors have been developed for the majority of bromodomains, in the range from 10 to 100 nM. However, we predict that more potent inhibitors can be developed for the bromodomains BPTF and BRD7 with relative ease, but that further efforts to develop inhibitors for ATAD2 will be extremely challenging. We have also made predictions for the 14 bromodomains with no reported small molecule K d values by isothermal titration calorimetry. The calculations predict that PBRM1(1) will be a challenging target, while others such as TAF1L(2), PBRM1(4) and TAF1(2), should be highly ligandable. As an outcome of this work, we assembled a database of experimental maximal K d that can serve as a community resource assisting medicinal chemistry efforts focused on BRDs. Effective prediction of ligandability would be a very useful tool in the drug discovery process.

  18. Comparison of mesenchymal stem cell surface markers from bone marrow aspirates and adipose stromal vascular fraction sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan eSullivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objective of this study was to subjectively evaluate the harvest of 2 areas of adipose collection and 3 areas of bone marrow collection as potential sites for clinical harvest of adipose stromal vascular fraction and bone marrow concentrate for clinical use by quantifying the amount of tissue harvested, subjective ease of harvest, the variation of each site, and determining the cell surface marker characteristics using commercially available antibodies. Bone marrow and adipose tissue samples were collected from 10 adult mixed breed dogs. Adipose tissue was collected from the caudal scapular region and falciform fat ligament. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from the ilium, humerus, and tibia. Tissues were weighed (adipose or measured by volume (bone marrow, processed to isolate the stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow concentrate, and flow cytometry was performed to quantitate the percentage of cells that were CD90, CD44 positive and CD45 negative. Sites and tissue types were compared using matched pairs t-test. Subjectively subcutaneous fat collection was the most difficult and large amounts of tissue dissection were necessary. Additionally the subcutaneous area yielded less than the goal amount of tissue. The bone marrow harvest ranged from 10-27.5 ml. Adipose tissue had the highest concentration of cells with CD90+, CD44+, and CD45- markers (p<0.05, and bone marrow had the highest total number of these cells at harvest (p<0.05. Variation was high for all sites but the adipose collection yielded more consistent results. These results describe the relative cellular components in the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue and bone marrow as defined by the biomarkers chosen. Although bone marrow yielded higher absolute cell numbers on average, adipose tissue yielded more consistent results. Fat from the falciform ligament was easily obtained with less dissection and therefore created less perceived relative patient trauma.

  19. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon polymer films on titanium for preventing cell adhesion: a surface finishing for temporarily used orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, B.; Testrich, H.; Rebl, H.; Walschus, U.; Schlosser, M.; Zietz, C.; Staehlke, S.; Nebe, J. B.; Weltmann, K. D.; Meichsner, J.; Polak, M.

    2016-06-01

    The design of a titanium implant surface should ideally support its later application in clinical use. Temporarily used implants have to fulfil requirements different from permanent implants: they should ensure the mechanical stabilization of the bone stock but in trauma surgery they should not be integrated into the bone because they will be removed after fracture healing. Finishing of the implant surface by a plasma-fluorocarbon-polymer (PFP) coating is a possible approach for preventing cell adhesion of osteoblasts. Two different low pressure gas-discharge plasma processes, microwave (MW 2.45 GHz) and capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) plasma, were applied for the deposition of the PFP film using a mixture of the precursor octafluoropropane (C3F8) and hydrogen (H2). The thin films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. Cell culture experiments show that cell adhesion and spreading of MG-63 osteoblasts were clearly reduced or nonexistent on these surfaces, also after 24 h of storage in the cell culture medium. In vivo data demonstrated that the local inflammatory tissue response for the PFP films deposited in MW and RF plasma were comparable to uncoated controls.

  20. Do posture correction exercises have to be boring? Using unstable surfaces to prevent poor posture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymanska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor posture in children is a common problem. It appears most often in early school-age children and, if not corrected, progresses quickly as they mature. Aim of the research: To find a method that can prevent poor posture, is effective and attractive for children, and can be used on a wide scale in state schools. Material and methods : Seventy-seven first year pupils were tested at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Nineteen children undertook corrective exercises using unstable surfaces; 41 children sat on sensorimotor pillows during classes; and 17 children were the control group. Body mass and body height were measured. Body mass index was calculated. The symmetry of the position of selected skeletal points was assessed: the acromions, lower angles of the scapulas, apexes of the iliac crests, antero-superior iliac spine, and postero-superior iliac spine using a Duometer electronic device. The differences between the groups and changes between the first and second study for each group were estimated. Results : In the first study there were no significant differences in quality of posture. In the second study a significant improvement was noted in symmetry of the shoulders, scapulas, and pelvis in children who sat on sensorimotor pillows, as well as the position of the iliac crests and iliac spines in children exercising regularly on unstable surfaces. Conclusions: Exercises using unstable surfaces and sitting on sensorimotor pillows during classes might be an effective alternative to traditional posture correction exercises.

  1. Multi-Site Model Benchmarking: Do Land Surface Models Leak Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocko, D. M.; Nearing, G. S.; Kumar, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely reported that land surface models (LSMs) are unable to use all of the information available from boundary conditions [1-4]. Evidence for this is that statistical models typically out-perform physics LSMs with the same forcing data. We demonstrate that this conclusion is not necessarily correct. The statistical models don't consider parameters, and the experiments cannot distinguish between information loss and bad information (disinformation). Recent work has outlined a rigorous interpretation of model benchmarking that allows us to measure the amount of information provided by model physics and the amount of information lost due to model error [5]. Recognizing that a complete understanding of model adequacy requires treatment across multiple locations [6] allows us to expand benchmarking theory to segregate bad and missing information. The result is a benchmarking method that that can distinguish error due to parameters, forcing data, and model structure - and, unlike other approaches, does not rely on parameter estimation, which can only provide estimates of parameter uncertainty conditional on model physics. Our new benchmarking methodology was compared with the standard methodology to measure information loss in several LSMs included in the current and developmental generations of the North American Land Data Assimilation System. The classical experiments implied that each of these models lose a significant amount of information from the forcing data; however, the new methodology shows clearly that this information did not actually exist in the boundary conditions in the first place. Almost all model bias can be attributed to incorrect parameters, and that most of the LSMs actually add information (via model physics) to what is available in the boundary conditions. 1 Abramowitz, G., Geophys Res Let 32, (2005). 2 Gupta, H. V., et al., Water Resour Res 48, (2012). 3 Luo, Y. Q. et al., Biogeosciences 9, (2012). 4 Han, E., et al., J Hydromet (2014). 5

  2. Preliminary results of continuous GPS monitoring of surface deformation at the Aquistore underground CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.; Silliker, J.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Aquistore is a demonstration project for the underground storage of CO2 at a depth of ~3350 m near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. An objective of the project is to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods that have not been systematically utilized to date for monitoring CO2 storage projects, and to integrate the data from these various monitoring tools to obtain quantitative estimates of the change in subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Monitoring methods being applied include satellite-, surface- and wellbore-based monitoring systems and comprise natural- and controlled-source electromagnetic methods, gravity monitoring, GPS, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), tiltmeter array analysis, and chemical tracer studies. Here we focus on the GPS monitoring of surface deformation. Five of the planned thirteen GPS monitoring stations were installed in November 2012 and results subsequently processed on a weekly basis. The first GPS results prior to CO2 injection have just been determined using both precise point positioning (PPP) and baseline processing with the Bernese GPS Software. The time series of the five sites are examined, compared and analysed with respect to monument stability, seasonal signals and estimates of expected regional ground motion. The individual weekly network solutions are combined together in a cumulative 4D network solution to provide a preliminary local velocity field in the immediately vicinity of the injection well. The results are compared to those from InSAR.

  3. NIA-funded Alzheimer centers are more efficient than commercial clinical recruitment sites for conducting secondary prevention trials of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edland, Steven D; Emond, Jennifer A; Aisen, Paul S; Petersen, Ronald C

    2010-01-01

    Study participant dropout compromises clinical trials by reducing statistical power and potentially biasing findings. We use data from a trial of treatments to delay the progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease (AD) [NEJM 2005;352 (23):79 to 88] to determine predictors of study participant dropout and inform the design and implementation of future trials. Time to study discontinuation was modeled by proportional hazards regression with censoring at incident dementia or trial completion. Of 769 participants, 230 (30%) discontinued prematurely. Risk of dropout was higher among nonwhites [hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, P=0.0007], participants with less than college education (HR=1.6, P=0.02), participants with a Hamilton Depression score of 6 or more (HR=1.3, P=0.04), unmarried males (HR=2.1 relative to married males, P=0.003) and participants recruited by commercial clinical sites (HR=2.2 relative to participants recruited by NIA-funded AD research centers, PNIA-funded AD research center sites. Targeted retention efforts and utilization of academic sites could substantively improve the statistical power and validity of future clinical trials of cognitively impaired elderly.

  4. Characterization of Deep Internal Layers and Basal Conditions Around the WAIS Divide Drill Site by Surface-Based Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, C. M.; Blake, W. A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Allen, C. T.; Leuschen, C. J.; Braaten, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    We used an ultra-wideband, very high frequency (120 to 300 MHz) surface-based radar to simultaneously map ice thickness, deep internal layers and the ice-bed interface around the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide deep drill site at a fine resolution. The radar was built by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project with the main goal of developing and testing surface-operated radars to characterize ice thickness and bedrock conditions in Antarctica and Greenland. The system was fine-tuned in the field to a center frequency of 150 MHz with a bandwidth of 20 MHz to produce greater sensitivity. The survey covered a 30 km by 8 km area with 1-km line spacing along a polar stereographic grid that overlapped both the drill site and the WAIS Divide. The data have been processed for general use and are available on the CReSIS website (www.cresis.ku.edu). Echograms and digital ice thickness, bed elevation and bed reflectivity maps have been produced while analysis continues. Our major findings to date include: 1) internal layers are observed nearly continuously to 2800 m depth, as much as 500 m below the deepest previously mapped layers in this region, 2) internal layers have been detected to within 350 m of the bed, covering about 90% of the ice thickness, 3) ice thickness varies between approximately 3100 m and 3550 m over the grid and is about 3500 m at the drill site, 4) basal returns were mapped nearly continuously along grid lines and vary by more than 30 dB, indicating a wet bed at the drill site and frozen conditions elsewhere. The data will aid rigorous interpretations of the WAIS ice cores (including impurity records and the depth/age scale) and the morphology and evolution of the WAIS (mean annual accumulation rates, spatial extent, divide migration and volcanism). Fine-resolution information on deep internal layers, basal conditions and ice thickness/bed elevation will help

  5. Near Surface Gas Simulator (NSGS): A Visual Basic program to improve the design of near-surface gas geochemistry surveys above CO2 geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubien, S. E.; Annunziatellis, A.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.

    2009-04-01

    If CO2 were to leak from a geological storage site and be released to the atmosphere, where would it occur and how large would the leak be in terms of dimension and flow rate? There are many options available to monitor storage sites, including deep and shallow geophysical or geochemical methods, biological markers, or remote sensing techniques, each with its advantages and disadvantages. However only the direct measurement of CO2 at the earth's surface, that is soil gas or gas flux analyses, can give a definitive answer to these questions. Considering that these methods involve point measurements, the question has be raised regarding the sampling density that would be needed to locate a leak above a storage site, or, conversely, to ensure that a leak does not exist. To address this issue we have written a program in Visual Basic which uses highly-detailed, gridded synthetic data (with user-defined gas leakage areas) to study the link between sampling density and anomaly size and to find a sampling strategy which minimises the number of samples collected while maximizing the probability that an anomaly (i.e. a leak) will be found. At the beginning of a run the user is asked to define the location, size, and intensity of leakage areas; these areas are then superimposed on a grid (1 x 1 m step size) of normally-distributed background CO2 flux values. Then the user is asked to provide a series of sampling densities (for example, x = 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 samples km-2) and the number of simulations that must be conducted for each sampling density (e.g. y = 100). The program then uses a nested loop structure whereby the synthetic dataset is randomly subsampled at the sampling density "x" for a total of "y" times - each of these smaller datasets is then analysed statistically and spatially using subroutines from the programs Statistica and Surfer, and the resultant data from each simulation for that "x" sampling density is combined to define its statistical

  6. Development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy monitoring of fuel markers to prevent fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Timothy; Clarkson, John; White, Peter C.; Meakin, Nicholas; McDonald, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Governments often tax fuel products to generate revenues to support and stimulate their economies. They also subsidize the cost of essential fuel products. Fuel taxation and subsidization practices are both subject to fraud. Oil marketing companies also suffer from fuel fraud with loss of legitimate sales and additional quality and liability issues. The use of an advanced marking system to identify and control fraud has been shown to be effective in controlling illegal activity. DeCipher has developed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as its lead technology for measuring markers in fuel to identify and control malpractice. SERS has many advantages that make it highly suitable for this purpose. The SERS instruments are portable and can be used to monitor fuel at any point in the supply chain. SERS shows high specificity for the marker, with no false positives. Multiple markers can also be detected in a single SERS analysis allowing, for example, specific regional monitoring of fuel. The SERS analysis from fuel is also quick, clear and decisive, with a measurement time of less than 5 minutes. We will present results highlighting our development of the use of a highly stable silver colloid as a SERS substrate to measure the markers at ppb levels. Preliminary results from the use of a solid state SERS substrate to measure fuel markers will also be presented.

  7. High wind speeds prevent formation of a distinct bacterioneuston community in the sea-surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlff, Janina; Stolle, Christian; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Hodapp, Dorothee; Wurl, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the boundary between atmosphere and hydrosphere represents a demanding habitat for bacteria. Wind speed is a crucial but poorly studied factor for its physical integrity. Increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, as suggested for future climate scenarios, may particularly act on this habitat at the air-sea interface. We investigated the effect of increasing wind speeds and different pCO2 levels on SML microbial communities in a wind-wave tunnel, which offered the advantage of low spatial and temporal variability. We found that enrichment of bacteria in the SML occurred solely at a U10 wind speed of ≤5.6 m s-1 in the tunnel and ≤4.1 m s-1 in the Baltic Sea. High pCO2 levels further intensified the bacterial enrichment in the SML during low wind speed. In addition, low wind speed and pCO2 induced the formation of a distinctive bacterial community as revealed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and influenced the presence or absence of individual taxonomic units within the SML. We conclude that physical stability of the SML below a system-specific wind speed threshold induces specific bacterial communities in the SML entailing strong implications for ecosystem functioning by wind-driven impacts on habitat properties, gas exchange and matter cycling processes. © FEMS 2017.

  8. Surface and Interfacial Properties of Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Mixtures Released to the Subsurface at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, Scott; Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charlie; Oostrom, Martinus; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2009-05-01

    Surface and interfacial tensions that arise at the interface between different phases are key parameters affecting Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) movement and redistribution in the vadose zone after spill events. In this study, the impact of major additive components on surface and interfacial tensions for organic mixtures and wastewater was investigated. Organic mixture and wastewater compositions are based upon carbon tetrachloride (CT) mixtures released at the Hanford site, where CT was discharged simultaneously with dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), dibutyl phosphate (DBP), and a machining lard oil (LO). A considerable amount of wastewater consisting primarily of nitrates and metal salts was also discharged. The tension values measured in this study revealed that the addition of these additive components caused a significant lowering of the interfacial tension with water or wastewater and the surface tension of the wastewater phase in equilibrium with the organic mixtures, compared to pure CT, but had minimal effect on the surface tension of the NAPL itself. These results lead to large differences in spreading coefficients for several mixtures, where the additives caused both a higher (more spreading) initial spreading coefficient and a lower (less spreading) equilibrium spreading coefficient. This indicates that if these mixtures migrate into uncontaminated areas, they will tend to spread quickly, but form a higher residual NAPL saturation after equilibrium, as compared to pure CT. Over time, CT likely volatilizes more rapidly than other components in the originally disposed mixtures and the lard oil and phosphates would become more concentrated in the remaining NAPL, resulting in a lower interfacial tension for the mixture. Spreading coefficients are expected to increase and perhaps change the equilibrated organic mixtures from nonspreading to spreading in water-wetting porous media. These results show that the behavior of organic

  9. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ziervogel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (β-glucosidase; peptidase, as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

  10. Fractionation and risk assessment of Fe and Mn in surface sediments from coastal sites of Sonora, Mexico (Gulf of California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Marini, Martín E; García-Camarena, Raúl; Gómez-Álvarez, Agustín; García-Rico, Leticia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Fe and Mn distribution in geochemical fractions of the surface sediment of four oyster culture sites in the Sonora coast, Mexico. A selective fractionation scheme to obtain five fractions was adapted for the microwave system. Surface sediments were analyzed for carbonates, organic matter contents, and Fe and Mn in geochemical fractions. The bulk concentrations of Fe ranged from 10,506 to 21,918 mg/kg (dry weight, dry wt), and the bulk concentrations of Mn ranged from 185.1 to 315.9 mg/kg (dry wt) in sediments, which was low and considered as non-polluted in all of the sites. The fractionation study indicated that the major geochemical phases for the metals were the residual, as well as the Fe and Mn oxide fractions. The concentrations of metals in the geochemical fractions had the following order: residual > Fe and Mn oxides > organic matter > carbonates > interchangeable. Most of the Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction. Among non-residual fractions, high percentages of Fe and Mn were linked to Fe and Mn oxides. The enrichment factors (EFs) for the two metals were similar in the four studied coasts, and the levels of Fe and Mn are interpreted as non-enrichment (EF < 1) because the metals concentrations were within the baseline concentrations. According to the environmental risk assessment codes, Fe and Mn posed no risk and low risk, respectively. Although the concentrations of Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction, the levels in non-residual fractions may significantly result in the transference of other metals, depending on several physico-chemical and biological factors.

  11. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  12. Short-term microbial release during rain events from on-site sewers and cattle in a surface water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Reischer, Georg H; Hermansson, Malte

    2013-09-01

    The protection of drinking water from pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia requires an understanding of the short-term microbial release from faecal contamination sources in the catchment. Flow-weighted samples were collected during two rainfall events in a stream draining an area with on-site sewers and during two rainfall events in surface runoff from a bovine cattle pasture. Samples were analysed for human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) Bacteroidales genetic markers through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria through culturing as a complement to traditional faecal indicator bacteria, somatic coliphages and the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. analysed by standard methods. Significant positive correlations were observed between BacH, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, sulphite-reducing Clostridia, turbidity, conductivity and UV254 in the stream contaminated by on-site sewers. For the cattle pasture, no correlation was found between any of the genetic markers and the other parameters. Although parasitic protozoa were not detected, the analysis for genetic markers provided baseline data on the short-term faecal contamination due to these potential sources of parasites. Background levels of BacH and BacR makers in soil emphasise the need to including soil reference samples in qPCR-based analyses for Bacteroidales genetic markers.

  13. Experimental and theoretical characterization of Cu adsorption sites on the Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutombo, P.; Shukrinov, P.; Cháb, V.

    2005-06-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments were used to study Cu adsorption on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7. The experimental results suggest that Cu atoms appear as dark spots while Si adatoms adjacent to them are imaged as gray or bright protrusions in the filled states images. We observed a mutual contrast reversal in the empty states between these bright and gray spots. Based on these experimental findings, we propose that Cu is located below the Si adatom layer. In order to verify this hypothesis, we performed total energy calculations and simulated STM maps by means of Density Functional Calculations. We tested different chemisorption geometries of Cu on the Si surface: on top of a rest atom and a corner adatom, at the so-called T 4 and H 3 sites as well as at positions situated halfway between the above adsorption positions. The theoretical results lead to the conclusion that Cu is located between the T 4 and H 3 adsorption sites.

  14. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in surface soil of coal stockpile sites in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Priatmadi, Bambang Joko; Abdi, Chairul; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations, spatial distribution, and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in surface soils of three different coal stockpile, agricultural, and residential sites in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Total PAHs concentration ranged from 4.69 to 22.67 mg kg(-1)-dw. PAHs concentrations in soil of coal stockpile sites were higher than those in agricultural and residential soil. A complex of petrogenic origin and pyrolytic sources was found within the study area, as suggested by the isomeric ratios of PAHs. The results of principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions (PCA/MLR) showed that three sources contributed to the PAHs in the study area, including biomass and coal combustion (48.46%), raw coal (35.49%), and vehicular emission (16.05%). The high value of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) suggests that local residents are exposed to a high carcinogenic potential.

  15. Lunar prospector epithermal neutrons from impact craters and landing sites: Implications for surface maturity and hydrogen distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Maurice, S.; Swindle, T.D.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Initial studies of neutron spectrometer data returned by Lunar Prospector concentrated on the discovery of enhanced hydrogen abundances near both lunar poles. However, the nonpolar data exhibit intriguing patterns that appear spatially correlated with surface features such as young impact craters (e.g., Tycho). Such immature crater materials may have low hydrogen contents because of their relative lack of exposure to solar wind-implanted volatiles. We tested this hypothesis by comparing epithermal* neutron counts (i.e., epithermal -0.057 ?? thermal neutrons) for Copernican-age craters classified as relatively young, intermediate, and old (as determined by previous studies of Clementine optical maturity variations). The epithermal* counts of the crater and continuous ejecta regions suggest that the youngest impact materials are relatively devoid of hydrogen in the upper 1 m of regolith. We also show that the mean hydrogen contents measured in Apollo and Luna landing site samples are only moderately well correlated to the epithermal* neutron counts at the landing sites, likely owing to the effects of rare earth elements. These results suggest that further work is required to define better how hydrogen distribution can be revealed by epithermal neutrons in order to understand more fully the nature and sources (e.g., solar wind, meteorite impacts) of volatiles in the lunar regolith.

  16. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Kinase CK2: Combining Surface Display and Click Chemistry for Drug Discovery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienberg, Christian; Retterath, Anika; Becher, Kira-Sophie; Saenger, Thorsten; Mootz, Henning D; Jose, Joachim

    2016-06-27

    Human CK2 is a heterotetrameric constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and is an emerging target in current anti-cancer drug discovery. The kinase is composed of two catalytic CK2α subunits and two regulatory CK2β subunits. In order to establish an assay to identify protein-protein-interaction inhibitors (PPI) of the CK2α/CK2β interface, a bioorthogonal click reaction was used to modify the protein kinase α-subunit with a fluorophore. By expanding the genetic code, the unnatural amino acid para azidophenylalanine (pAzF) could be incorporated into CK2α. Performing the SPAAC click reaction (Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition) by the use of a dibenzylcyclooctyne-fluorophore (DBCO-fluorophore) led to a specifically labeled human protein kinase CK2α. This site-specific labeling does not impair the phosphorylation activity of CK2, which was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore a dissociation constant (KD) of 631 ± 86.2 nM was determined for the substrate αS1-casein towards CK2α. This labeling strategy was also applied to CK2β subunit on Escherichia coli, indicating the site-specific modifications of proteins on the bacterial cell surface when displayed by Autodisplay.

  17. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Kinase CK2: Combining Surface Display and Click Chemistry for Drug Discovery Applications †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienberg, Christian; Retterath, Anika; Becher, Kira-Sophie; Saenger, Thorsten; Mootz, Henning D.; Jose, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Human CK2 is a heterotetrameric constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and is an emerging target in current anti-cancer drug discovery. The kinase is composed of two catalytic CK2α subunits and two regulatory CK2β subunits. In order to establish an assay to identify protein-protein-interaction inhibitors (PPI) of the CK2α/CK2β interface, a bioorthogonal click reaction was used to modify the protein kinase α-subunit with a fluorophore. By expanding the genetic code, the unnatural amino acid para azidophenylalanine (pAzF) could be incorporated into CK2α. Performing the SPAAC click reaction (Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition) by the use of a dibenzylcyclooctyne-fluorophore (DBCO-fluorophore) led to a specifically labeled human protein kinase CK2α. This site-specific labeling does not impair the phosphorylation activity of CK2, which was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore a dissociation constant (KD) of 631 ± 86.2 nM was determined for the substrate αS1-casein towards CK2α. This labeling strategy was also applied to CK2β subunit on Escherichia coli, indicating the site-specific modifications of proteins on the bacterial cell surface when displayed by Autodisplay. PMID:27355959

  18. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Kinase CK2: Combining Surface Display and Click Chemistry for Drug Discovery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nienberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human CK2 is a heterotetrameric constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and is an emerging target in current anti-cancer drug discovery. The kinase is composed of two catalytic CK2α subunits and two regulatory CK2β subunits. In order to establish an assay to identify protein-protein-interaction inhibitors (PPI of the CK2α/CK2β interface, a bioorthogonal click reaction was used to modify the protein kinase α-subunit with a fluorophore. By expanding the genetic code, the unnatural amino acid para azidophenylalanine (pAzF could be incorporated into CK2α. Performing the SPAAC click reaction (Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition by the use of a dibenzylcyclooctyne-fluorophore (DBCO-fluorophore led to a specifically labeled human protein kinase CK2α. This site-specific labeling does not impair the phosphorylation activity of CK2, which was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore a dissociation constant (KD of 631 ± 86.2 nM was determined for the substrate αS1-casein towards CK2α. This labeling strategy was also applied to CK2β subunit on Escherichia coli, indicating the site-specific modifications of proteins on the bacterial cell surface when displayed by Autodisplay.

  19. Data Validation Package - June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected during the 2015 sampling event from point-of-compliance (POC) wells 0171, 0173, 0176, 0179, 0181, and 0813 to monitor the disposition of contaminants in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Groundwater samples also were collected from alluvium monitoring wells 0188, 0189, 0192, 0194, and 0707, and basal sandstone monitoring wells 0182, 0184, 0185, and 0588 as a best management practice. Surface locations 0846 and 0847 were sampled to monitor for degradation of water quality in the backwater area of Brown’s Wash and in the Green River immediately downstream of Brown’s Wash. The Green River location 0801 is upstream from the site and is sampled to determine background-threshold values (BTVs). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Water levels were measured at each sampled well. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. All six POC wells are completed in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation and are monitored to measure contaminant concentrations for comparison to proposed alternate concentration limits (ACLs), as provided in Table 1. Contaminant concentrations in the POC wells remain below their respective ACLs.

  20. Comparison of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Surface Markers from Bone Marrow Aspirates and Adipose Stromal Vascular Fraction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Meghan O; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Fredericks, Lisa Page; Kiefer, Kristina; Conzemius, Michael G; Griffon, Dominique J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to subjectively evaluate the harvest of two areas of adipose collection and three areas of bone marrow collection as potential sites for clinical harvest of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and bone marrow concentrate for clinical use by quantifying the amount of tissue harvested, subjective ease of harvest, the variation of each site, and determining the cell surface marker characteristics using commercially available antibodies. Bone marrow and adipose tissue samples were collected from 10 adult mixed breed dogs. Adipose tissue was collected from the caudal scapular region and falciform fat ligament. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from the ilium, humerus, and tibia. Tissues were weighed (adipose) or measured by volume (bone marrow), processed to isolate the SVF or bone marrow concentrate, and flow cytometry was performed to quantitate the percentage of cells that were CD90, CD44 positive, and CD45 negative. Sites and tissue types were compared using matched pairs t-test. Subjectively subcutaneous fat collection was the most difficult and large amounts of tissue dissection were necessary. Additionally the subcutaneous area yielded less than the goal amount of tissue. The bone marrow harvest ranged from 10 to 27.5 ml. Adipose tissue had the highest concentration of cells with CD90(+), CD44(+), and CD45(-) markers (P adipose collection yielded more consistent results. These results describe the relative cellular components in the SVF of adipose tissue and bone marrow as defined by the biomarkers chosen. Although bone marrow yielded higher absolute cell numbers on average, adipose tissue yielded more consistent results. Fat from the falciform ligament was easily obtained with less dissection and therefore created less perceived relative patient trauma.

  1. Chromium speciation and fractionation in ground and surface waters in the vicinity of chromite ore processing residue disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, John G; Thomas, Rhodri P; Graham, Margaret C; Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Lumsdon, David G; Paterson, Edward

    2002-04-01

    Chromium concentrations of up to 91 mg l(-1) were found by ICP-OES for ground water from nine boreholes at four landfill sites in an area of S.E. Glasgow/S. Lanarkshire where high-lime chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from a local chemical works had been deposited from 1830 to 1968. Surface water concentrations of up to 6.7 mg l(-1) in a local tributary stream fell to 0.11 mg l(-1) in the River Clyde. Two independent techniques of complexation/colorimetry and speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) showed that Cr was predominantly (>90%) in hexavalent form (CrVI) as CrO4(2-), as anticipated at the high pH (7.5-12.5) of the sites. Some differences between the implied and directly determined concentrations of dissolved CrIII, however, appeared related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content. This was most significant for the ground water from one borehole that had the highest TOC concentration of 300 mg l(-1) and at which ultrafiltration produced significant decreases in Cr concentration with decreasing size fractions, e.g. complex. This showed for the main Cr-containing fraction, 100 kDa-0.45 microm, that the Cr was associated with a dark brown band characteristic of organic (humic) matter. Comparison of gel electrophoresis and FTIR results for ultrafilter retentates of ground water from this borehole with those for a borehole at another site where CrVI predominated suggested the influence of carboxylate groups, both in reducing CrVI and in forming soluble CrIII-humic complexes. The implications of this for remediation strategies (especially those based on the addition of organic matter) designed to reduce highly mobile and carcinogenic Cr(VI)O4(2-) to the much less harmful CrIII as insoluble Cr(OH)3 are discussed.