WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface science tools

  1. Surface science tools for nanomaterials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Fourth volume of a 40volume series on nano science and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  2. The science writing tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhart, Arthur L.

    This is a two-part dissertation. The primary part is the text of a science-based composition rhetoric and reader called The Science Writing Tool. This textbook has seven chapters dealing with topics in Science Rhetoric. Each chapter includes a variety of examples of science writing, discussion questions, writing assignments, and instructional resources. The purpose of this text is to introduce lower-division college science majors to the role that rhetoric and communication plays in the conduct of Science, and how these skills contribute to a successful career in Science. The text is designed as a "tool kit," for use by an instructor constructing a science-based composition course or a writing-intensive Science course. The second part of this part of this dissertation reports on student reactions to draft portions of The Science Writing Tool text. In this report, students of English Composition II at Northern Virginia Community College-Annandale were surveyed about their attitudes toward course materials and topics included. The findings were used to revise and expand The Science Writing Tool.

  3. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for surface science and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron, Miquel; Salmeron, Miquel; Schlogl, Robert

    2008-03-12

    Progress in science often follows or parallels the development of new techniques. The optical microscope helped convert medicine and biology from a speculative activity in old times to today's sophisticated scientific disciplines. The telescope changed the study and interpretation of heavens from mythology to science. X-ray diffraction enabled the flourishing of solid state physics and materials science. The technique object of this review, Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy or APPES for short, has also the potential of producing dramatic changes in the study of liquid and solid surfaces, particularly in areas such as atmospheric, environment and catalysis sciences. APPES adds an important missing element to the host of techniques that give fundamental information, i.e., spectroscopy and microscopy, about surfaces in the presence of gases and vapors, as encountered in industrial catalysis and atmospheric environments. APPES brings electron spectroscopy into the realm of techniques that can be used in practical environments. Decades of surface science in ultra high vacuum (UHV) has shown the power of electron spectroscopy in its various manifestations. Their unique property is the extremely short elastic mean free path of electrons as they travel through condensed matter, of the order of a few atomic distances in the energy range from a few eV to a few thousand eV. As a consequence of this the information obtained by analyzing electrons emitted or scattered from a surface refers to the top first few atomic layers, which is what surface science is all about. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and other such techniques have been used for decades and provided some of the most fundamental knowledge about surface crystallography, composition and electronic structure available today. Unfortunately the high interaction cross section of

  4. The shear-force/ultrasonic near-field microscope: a nanometrology tool for surface science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, A.; Li, N.; Asante, K.

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained with the Ultrasonic/Shear-Force Microscope (SUNM), an analytical tool suitable for investigating the quite different dynamic displayed by fluid-like films when subjected to mesoscopic confinement and while in intimate contact with two sliding solid boundaries. The SUNM uses two sensory modules to concurrently but independently monitor the effects that fluid-mediated interactions exert on two sliding bodies: the microscope's sharp probe (attached to a piezoelectric sensor) and the analyzed sample (attached to an ultrasonic transducer). This dual capability allows correlating the fluid-like film's viscoelastic properties with changes in the probe's resonance frequency and the generation of sound. A detailed monitoring of sliding friction by ultrasonic means and with nanometer resolution is unprecedented, which opens potential uses of the versatile microscope as a surface and subsurface material characterization tool. As a surface metrology tool, the SUNM presents a potential impact in diverse areas ranging from fundamental studies of nanotribology, confinement-driven solid to liquid phase transformation of polymer films, characterization of industrial lubricants, and the study of elastic properties of bio-membranes. As a sub-surface metrology tool, the SUNM can be used in the investigation of the elastic properties of low- and high-k dielectric materials, piezoelectric and ferroelectric films, as well as quality control in the construction of micro- and nano-fluidics devices.

  5. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  6. Surface science and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Modern surface science studies have explored a large number of metal catalyst systems. Three classes of catalytic reactions can be identified: (1) those that occur over the metal surface; (2) reactions that take place on top of a strongly adsorbed overlayer and (3) reactions that occur on co-adsorbate modified surfaces. Case histories for each class are presented. 44 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  8. Surface science an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, John

    1991-01-01

    The whole field of surface science is covered in this work. Starting with a description of the structure and thermodynamics of clean surfaces, the book goes on to discuss kinetic theory of gases and molecular beam formation. This is followed by a largesection on gas-surface interactions, and another major section on energetic particle-surface interactions. The final chapter provides the background to crystal nucleation and growth. The approach adopted is interdisciplinary and slanted towards theexperimental side, with practical analytical techniques being used to illustrate general princi

  9. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  10. Tools for open geospatial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, V.; Petrasova, A.; Mitasova, H.

    2017-12-01

    Open science uses open source to deal with reproducibility challenges in data and computational sciences. However, just using open source software or making the code public does not make the research reproducible. Moreover, the scientists face the challenge of learning new unfamiliar tools and workflows. In this contribution, we will look at a graduate-level course syllabus covering several software tools which make validation and reuse by a wider professional community possible. For the novices in the open science arena, we will look at how scripting languages such as Python and Bash help us reproduce research (starting with our own work). Jupyter Notebook will be introduced as a code editor, data exploration tool, and a lab notebook. We will see how Git helps us not to get lost in revisions and how Docker is used to wrap all the parts together using a single text file so that figures for a scientific paper or a technical report can be generated with a single command. We will look at examples of software and publications in the geospatial domain which use these tools and principles. Scientific contributions to GRASS GIS, a powerful open source desktop GIS and geoprocessing backend, will serve as an example of why and how to publish new algorithms and tools as part of a bigger open source project.

  11. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  12. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  13. Solvay Conference on Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The articles collected in this volume give a broad overview of the current state of surface science. Pioneers in the field and researchers met together at this Solvay Conference to discuss important new developments in surface science, with an emphasis on the common area between solid state physics and physical chemistry. The contributions deal with the following subjects: structure of surfaces, surface science and catalysis, two-dimensional physics and phase transitions, scanning tunneling microscopy, surface scattering and surface dynamics, chemical reactions at surfaces, solid-solid interfaces and superlattices, and surface studies with synchrotron radiation. On each of these subjects an introductory review talk and a number of short research contributions are followed by extensive discussions, which appear in full in the text. This nineteenth Solvay Conference commemorates the 75th anniversary of the Solvay Institutes.

  14. Data Mining Tools in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premysl Zaskodny

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main principle of paper is Data Mining in Science Education (DMSE as Problem Solving. The main goal of paper is consisting in Delimitation of Complex Data Mining Tool and Partial Data Mining Tool of DMSE. The procedure of paper is consisting of Data Preprocessing in Science Education, Data Processing in Science Education, Description of Curricular Process as Complex Data Mining Tool (CP-DMSE, Description of Analytical Synthetic Modeling as Partial Data Mining Tool (ASM-DMSE and finally Application of CPDMSE and ASM-DMSE via Physics Education.

  15. Science dialogues basic concepts and tools for effective science communication

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book is dedicated to scientists who decide to engage in science communication. It covers the main aspects of science communication, seen as an essential element in constructing the relationship between science and society. It outlines the international context, the principle forms of communication, and provides some tools for helping the reader to construct their own personal communication project.

  16. Software Tools in Science Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a spreadsheet system that enables students, teachers, and curriculum developers to use Microsoft EXCEL's database and graphics capabilities in the science classroom. System design goals are explained, examples of system applications are given, and possible future developments are discussed. (15 references) (LRW)

  17. Undergraduate Laboratory for Surface Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Mitchio; Beauchamp, Jesse L.; Dickert, Jeffrey M.; Essy, Blair R.; Claypool, Christopher L.

    1996-02-01

    Surface science has developed into a multidisciplinary field of research with applications ranging from heterogeneous catalysis to semiconductor etching (1). Aspects of surface chemistry are now included in physical chemistry textbooks (2) and undergraduate curricula (3), but the perceived cost and complexity of equipment has deterred the introduction of surface science methods in undergraduate laboratories (4). Efforts to expose chemistry undergraduates to state-of-the-art surface instrumentation have just begun (5). To provide our undergraduates with hands-on experience in using standard techniques for characterizing surface morphology, adsorbates, kinetics, and reaction mechanisms, we have developed a set of surface science experiments for our physical chemistry laboratory sequence. The centerpiece of the laboratory is an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for studies of single crystal surfaces. This instrument, shown in the figure, has surface analysis capabilities including low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The laboratory exercises involve experiments on the well-studied Pt(111) surface. Students prepare a previously mounted single crystal sample by sputtering it with an argon ion gun and heating it under O2. Electron diffraction patterns from the cleaned surface are then obtained with a reverse view LEED apparatus (Princeton Instruments). Images are captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera interfaced to a personal computer for easy downloading and subsequent analysis. Although the LEED images from a Pt(111) surface can be readily interpreted using simple diffraction arguments, this lab provides an excellent context for introducing Miller indices and reciprocal lattices (6). The surface chemical composition can be investigated by Auger spectroscopy, using the LEED apparatus as a simple energy analyzer. The temperature programmed desorption experiment, which is nearly complete, will be

  18. The surface science of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    One of the largest challenges to science in the coming years is to find the relation between enzyme structure and function. Can we predict which reactions an enzyme catalyzes from knowledge of its structure-or from its amino acid sequence? Can we use that knowledge to modify enzyme function......? To solve these problems we must understand in some detail how enzymes interact with reactants from its surroundings. These interactions take place at the surface of the enzyme and the question of enzyme function can be viewed as the surface science of enzymes. In this article we discuss how to describe...... catalysis by enzymes, and in particular the analogies between enzyme catalyzed reactions and surface catalyzed reactions. We do this by discussing two concrete examples of reactions catalyzed both in nature (by enzymes) and in industrial reactors (by inorganic materials), and show that although analogies...

  19. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Modern techniques of surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, D Phil

    2016-01-01

    This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation tec...

  1. How old is surface science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paparazzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces

  2. How old is surface science?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparazzo, E. E-mail: paparazzo@ism.cnr.it

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces.

  3. NEEMO 20: Science Training, Operations, and Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, T.; Miller, M.; Rodriguez-Lanetty, M.; Chappell, S.; Naids, A.; Hood, A.; Coan, D.; Abell, P.; Reagan, M.; Janoiko, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 20th mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) was a highly integrated evaluation of operational protocols and tools designed to enable future exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. NEEMO 20 was conducted from the Aquarius habitat off the coast of Key Largo, FL in July 2015. The habitat and its surroundings provide a convincing analog for space exploration. A crew of six (comprised of astronauts, engineers, and habitat technicians) lived and worked in and around the unique underwater laboratory over a mission duration of 14-days. Incorporated into NEEMO 20 was a diverse Science Team (ST) comprised of geoscientists from the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES/XI) Division from the Johnson Space Center (JSC), as well as marine scientists from the Department of Biological Sciences at Florida International University (FIU). This team trained the crew on the science to be conducted, defined sampling techniques and operational procedures, and planned and coordinated the science focused Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs). The primary science objectives of NEEMO 20 was to study planetary sampling techniques and tools in partial gravity environments under realistic mission communication time delays and operational pressures. To facilitate these objectives two types of science sites were employed 1) geoscience sites with available rocks and regolith for testing sampling procedures and tools and, 2) marine science sites dedicated to specific research focused on assessing the photosynthetic capability of corals and their genetic connectivity between deep and shallow reefs. These marine sites and associated research objectives included deployment of handheld instrumentation, context descriptions, imaging, and sampling; thus acted as a suitable proxy for planetary surface exploration activities. This abstract briefly summarizes the scientific training, scientific operations, and tool

  4. Interoperability science cases with the CDPP tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanaël, J.; Cecconi, B.; André, N.; Bouchemit, M.; Gangloff, M.; Budnik, E.; Jacquey, C.; Pitout, F.; Durand, J.; Rouillard, A.; Lavraud, B.; Genot, V. N.; Popescu, D.; Beigbeder, L.; Toniutti, J. P.; Caussarieu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Data exchange protocols are never as efficient as when they are invisible for the end user who is then able to discover data, to cross compare observations and modeled data and finally to perform in depth analysis. Over the years these protocols, including SAMP from IVOA, EPN-TAP from the Europlanet 2020 RI community, backed by standard web-services, have been deployed in tools designed by the French Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas (CDPP) including AMDA, the Propagation Tool, 3DView, ... . This presentation will focus on science cases which show the capability of interoperability in the planetary and heliophysics contexts, involving both CDPP and companion tools. Europlanet 2020 RI has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654208.

  5. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9 mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Laser surface texturing of tool steel: textured surfaces quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šugár, Peter; Šugárová, Jana; Frnčík, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this experimental investigation the laser surface texturing of tool steel of type 90MnCrV8 has been conducted. The 5-axis highly dynamic laser precision machining centre Lasertec 80 Shape equipped with the nano-second pulsed ytterbium fibre laser and CNC system Siemens 840 D was used. The planar and spherical surfaces first prepared by turning have been textured. The regular array of spherical and ellipsoidal dimples with a different dimensions and different surface density has been created. Laser surface texturing has been realized under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of ablated surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results show limited possibility of ns pulse fibre laser application to generate different surface structures for tribological modification of metallic materials. These structures were obtained by varying the processing conditions between surface ablation, to surface remelting. In all cases the areas of molten material and re-cast layers were observed on the bottom and walls of the dimples. Beside the influence of laser beam parameters on the machined surface quality during laser machining of regular hemispherical and elipsoidal dimple texture on parabolic and hemispherical surfaces has been studied.

  7. Augmentation Award for Surface Science Research Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sibener, Steven

    1996-01-01

    This AASERT grant provided augmentation funds that helped support US citizen graduate student research in the area of surface science as it pertains to gas-surface reactions, collisional energy transfer...

  8. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 6 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the progress in surface and membrane science; the solid state chemistry of the silver halide surface; and the experimental and theoretical aspects of the double layer at the mercury-solution interface. The text also describes contact-angle hysteresis; ion binding and ion transport produced by neutral lipid-soluble molecules; and the biophysical interactions of blood proteins with polymeric and artificial surfaces. Physical chemists, biophysicists, and phys

  9. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1977-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 11 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the quantum theory of surface phenomena; some fundamental aspects of electrocrystallization; and exoelectric emission. The text also describes the surface of titanium dioxide; and the prospects for atomic resolution electron microscopy in membranology. Chemists, physicists, and people involved in the electrochemical power laboratory will find the book useful.

  10. Materials science tools for regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Wade Nicholas

    Regenerative therapies originating from recent technological advances in biology could revolutionize medicine in the coming years. In particular, the advent of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), with their ability to become any cell in the adult body, has opened the door to an entirely new way of treating disease. However, currently these medical breakthroughs remain only a promise. To make them a reality, new tools must be developed to surmount the new technical hurdles that have arisen from dramatic departure from convention that this field represents. The collected work presented in this dissertation covers several projects that seek to apply the skills and knowledge of materials science to this tool synthesizing effort. The work is divided into three chapters. The first deals with our work to apply Raman spectroscopy, a tool widely used for materials characterization, to degeneration in cartilage. We have shown that Raman can effectively distinguish the matrix material of healthy and diseased tissue. The second area of work covered is the development of a new confocal image analysis for studying hPSC colonies that are chemical confined to uniform growth regions. This tool has important application in understanding the heterogeneity that may slow the development of hPSC -based treatment, as well as the use of such confinement in the eventually large-scale manufacture of hPSCs for therapeutic use. Third, the use of structural templating in tissue engineering scaffolds is detailed. We have utilized templating to tailor scaffold structures for engineering of constructs mimicking two tissues: cartilage and lung. The work described here represents several important early steps towards large goals in regenerative medicine. These tools show a great deal of potential for accelerating progress in this field that seems on the cusp of helping a great many people with otherwise incurable disease.

  11. Ontologies as integrative tools for plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Ramona L; Athreya, Balaji; Cooper, Laurel; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mungall, Christopher J; Preece, Justin; Rensing, Stefan; Smith, Barry; Stevenson, Dennis W

    2012-08-01

    Bio-ontologies are essential tools for accessing and analyzing the rapidly growing pool of plant genomic and phenomic data. Ontologies provide structured vocabularies to support consistent aggregation of data and a semantic framework for automated analyses and reasoning. They are a key component of the semantic web. This paper provides background on what bio-ontologies are, why they are relevant to botany, and the principles of ontology development. It includes an overview of ontologies and related resources that are relevant to plant science, with a detailed description of the Plant Ontology (PO). We discuss the challenges of building an ontology that covers all green plants (Viridiplantae). Ontologies can advance plant science in four keys areas: (1) comparative genetics, genomics, phenomics, and development; (2) taxonomy and systematics; (3) semantic applications; and (4) education. Bio-ontologies offer a flexible framework for comparative plant biology, based on common botanical understanding. As genomic and phenomic data become available for more species, we anticipate that the annotation of data with ontology terms will become less centralized, while at the same time, the need for cross-species queries will become more common, causing more researchers in plant science to turn to ontologies.

  12. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved beyond being a sub-field of chemistry or physics and has now become an underpinning science. The Third Edition of this book incorporates extensive worked solutions, as well as details on how problem solving relevant to surface science should be performed. It contextualizes the exercises and their solutions to further explicate the methods of problem solving, application of scientific principles and to deliver a deeper understanding of the field of surface science. Solutions will be accompanied by figures and/or graphs of data, as appropriate.

  13. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved from being a sub-field of chemistry or physics, and has now established itself as an interdisciplinary topic. Knowledge has developed sufficiently that we can now understand catalysis from a surface science perspective. No-where is the underpinning nature of surface science better illustrated than with nanoscience. Now in its third edition, this successful textbook aims to provide students with an understanding of chemical transformations and the formation of structures at surfaces. The chapters build from simple to more advanced principles with each featuring exerc

  14. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1972-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 5 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the Mössbauer effect in surface science; the surface functional groups on carbon and silica; and the wetting phenomena pertaining to adhesion. The text also describes the physical state of phospholipids and cholesterol in monolayers, bilayers, and membranes; the characteristics of heterocoagulation; and the effects of calcium on excitable membranes and neurotransmitter action. Chemists, physiologists, biophysicists, and civil engineers will find the book i

  15. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1979-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 12 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the topographical differentiation of the cell surface; the NMR studies of model biological membrane system; and an irreversible thermodynamic approach to energy coupling in mitochondria and chloroplasts. The text also describes water at surfaces; the nature of microemulsions; and the energy principle in the stability of interfaces. Biochemists, physicists, chemical engineers, and people involved in surface and coatings research will find the book invaluable.

  16. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 4 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses waves at interfaces; recent investigations on the thickness of surface layers; and surface analysis by low-energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. The text also describes the anode electrolyte interface; the interactions of adsorbed proteins and polypeptides at interfaces; and peptide-induced ion transport in synthetic and biological membranes. The monolayer adsorption on crystalline surfaces is also considered. Chemists and metallurgi

  17. Topics in theoretical surface science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, R.

    1991-10-25

    The energetics and structures of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces are investigated in this dissertation. First, the formalism, within the Corrected Effective Medium (CEM) method, for calculating the surface energy of a clean surface is derived. The surface energies for many different metals and their low index surfaces are presented. The minimization of the surface energy is then used to predict the multilayer relaxation of the Al(111), (100), Ni(100), (110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Extensions of the surface CEM formalism to calculate the binding energies of ordered adsorbates on metals surfaces are also derived. The minimization of the binding energy allowed determination of the binding heights, sites and the extent of induced multilayer relaxation for H and N atoms on the Fe(110), (100) and W(110) surfaces. The last topic deals with the dynamics of the epitaxial growth of metals on metal surfaces. The CEM method was first modified by making approximations to enable faster evaluations of the potential and its corresponding forces for molecular dynamics simulations. The goal of these simulations was to identify the important steps in the formation of equilibrium epitaxial structures. 180 refs., 31 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Recent progress in surface science v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Riddiford, A C

    1964-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 2 is a 10-chapter text that covers the significant advances in some aspects of surface science, including in catalysis, genetic control of cell surface, and cell membrane. The opening chapter deals with the major factors affecting adsorption at the gas-solid interface. The subsequent chapters explore the advances in understanding of heterogeneous catalysis in terms of fundamental surface processes, as well as the concept of dynamic contact angles. These topics are followed by discussions on emulsions, flotation, and the extraordinary complexity of cel

  19. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1974-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the applications of statistical mechanics to physical adsorption; the impact of electron spectroscopy and cognate techniques on the study of solid surfaces; and the ellipsometric studies of thin films. The text also describes the interfacial photochemistry of bilayer lipid membranes; cell junctions and their development; and the composition and function of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The role of the cell surface in contact inhibition of cell division

  20. Current trends of surface science and catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jeong Young

    2014-01-01

    Including detail on applying surface science in renewable energy conversion, this book covers the latest results on model catalysts including single crystals, bridging "materials and pressure gaps", and hot electron flows in heterogeneous catalysis.

  1. Report of the surface science workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized. (GHT)

  2. Report of the surface science workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized

  3. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1975-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 9 covers the developments in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the physical adsorption of gases and vapors in micropores; the chemisorption theory; and the role of radioisotopes in the studies of chemisorption and catalysis. The text also describes the interaction of ions with monolayers; and the isolation and characterization of mycoplasma membranes. Chemists, physical chemists, and microbiologists will find the book useful.

  4. Sustainability Tools Inventory - Initial Gaps Analysis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consumption, waste generation, and hazard generation including air pollution and greenhouse gases. In addition, the tools have been evaluated using four screening criteria: relevance to community decision making, tools in an appropriate developmental stage, tools that may be transferrable to situations useful for communities, and tools with requiring skill levels appropriate to communities. This document provides an initial gap analysis in the area of community sustainability decision support tools. It provides a reference to communities for existing decision support tools, and a set of gaps for those wishing to develop additional needed tools to help communities to achieve sustainability. It contributes to SHC 1.61.4

  5. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1976-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 10 covers the advances in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the selective changes of cellular particles influencing sedimentation properties; and the rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes in investigations of surface phenomena at the metal-electrolyte interface. The text also describes the membrane potential of phospholipid bilayer and biological membranes; the adsorption of surfactant monolayers at gas/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces; and the enzymes immobilized on glass. Chemists and people involved in electrochemistry will

  6. Technical activities, 1990: Surface Science Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The report summarizes technical activities and accomplishments of the NIST Surface Science Division during Fiscal Year 1990. Overviews are presented of the Division and of its three constituent groups: Surface Dynamical Processes, Thin Films and Interfaces, and Surface Spectroscopies and Standards. These overviews are followed by reports of selected technical accomplishments during the year. A summary is given of Division outputs and interactions that includes lists of publications, talks, committee assignments, seminars (including both Division seminars and Interface Science seminars arranged through the Division), conferences organized, and a standard reference material certified. Finally, lists are given of Division staff and of guest scientists who have worked in the Division during the past year

  7. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the theoretical and experimental aspects of the van der Waals forces; the electric double layer on the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; and the long-range and short-range order in adsorbed films. The text also describes the hydrodynamical theory of surface shear viscosity; the structure and properties of monolayers of synthetic polypeptides at the air-water interface; and the structure and molecular dynamics of water. The role of glycoproteins in cell

  8. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1981-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 14 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses statistical thermodynamics of monolayer adsorption from gas and liquid mixtures on homogeneous and heterogeneous solid surfaces; and the structure of the boundary layers of liquids and its influence on the mass transfer in fine pores. The text then describes the coupling of ionic and non-electrolyte fluxes in ion selective membranes; the electrocatalytic properties of matalloporphins at the interface; and the adsorption from binary gas and liquid phases. Phas

  9. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  10. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  11. OMICs technologies: tools for food science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benkeblia, Noureddine

    2012-01-01

    ... in the transformation from industrial to sustained food technologies and the role of these omics tools to mitigate the growing pressure of limited natural resources and environmental degradation...

  12. Airport Surface Management Tools for NAS Users, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Decision support tools that make use of surface surveillance technologies data can potentially make it possible to increase airport throughput, better accommodate...

  13. Practical guide to surface science and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2001-01-01

    Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to surface science as well as describes the basic analytical techniques that researchers use to understand what occurs at the surfaces of materials and at their interfaces. These techniques include auger electron spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, inelastic scattering of electrons and ions, low energy electron diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and interfacial segregation. Understanding the behavior of materials at their surfaces is essential for materials scientists and engineers as they design and fabricate microelectronics and semiconductor devices. The book gives over 100 examples, discussion questions and problems with varying levels of difficulty. Included with this book is a CD-ROM, which not only contains the same information, but also provides many elements of animation and interaction that are not easily emulated on paper. In diverse subject matters ranging from the operation of ion pumps, computer-...

  14. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and...

  15. Surface science principles and current applications

    CERN Document Server

    Taglauer, E; Wandelt, K

    1996-01-01

    Modern technologies increasingly rely on low-dimensional physics at interfaces and in thin-films and nano-structures. Surface science holds a key position in providing the experimental methods and theoretical models for a basic understanding of these effects. This book includes case studies and status reports about research topics such as: surface structure determination by tensor-LEED and surface X-ray diffraction; the preparation and detection of low-dimensional electronic surface states; quantitative surface compositional analysis; the dynamics of adsorption and reaction of adsorbates, e.g. kinetic oscillations; the characterization and control of thin-film and multilayer growth including the influence of surfactants; a critical assessment of the surface physics approach to heterogeneous catalysis.

  16. Tips and Tools for Teaching Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N. M.

    2011-10-01

    The poster will describe handson exercises with demonstrations, clicker questions and discussion to demonstrate how to help students understand planets on a deeper conceptual level. We'll also discuss ways to take the latest discoveries beyond "wow" and turn them into teachable moments. The goal is to give modern strategies for teaching planetary science, emphasizing physical concepts and comparative principles. All will be given digital copies of video clips, demonstration descriptions, clicker questions, web links and powerpoint slidesets on recent planetary science discoveries.

  17. Using Forensic Science Problems as Teaching Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kanesa; Daly-Engel, Toby

    2006-01-01

    The desire to observe and understand the natural world is strong in young children, but high school students often consider science irrelevant to their daily lives. Therefore, as teachers of older age groups, the authors constantly struggle to engage students in scientific exploration so they can master concepts and appreciate the nature of…

  18. Mind Maps as Facilitative Tools in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Ammar H.; Jafer,Yaqoub J.; Alqadiri, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions, attitudes, and willingness of pre-service science teachers in the College of Education at Kuwait University about using concept/mind maps and its related application software as facilitative tools, for teaching and learning, in science education. The first level (i.e., reaction) of Kirkpatrick's/Phillips'…

  19. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surfaceheights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection zone the measurements may deriveparameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have...

  20. Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. I.; Verdera, D.; Vieira, M. T.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of enhanced tool steel (AISI D2) surfaces produced using a friction stir welding (FSW) related procedure, called friction stir processing (FSP), are analysed in this work. The surface of the tool steel samples was processed using a WC-Co pinless tool and varying processing conditions. Microstructural analysis revealed that meanwhile the original substrate structure consisted of a heterogeneous distribution of coarse carbides in a ferritic matrix, the transformed surfaces consisted of very small carbides, homogenously distributed in a ferrite- bainite- martensite matrix. The morphology of the surfaces, as well as its mechanical properties, evaluated by hardness and tensile testing, were found to vary with increasing tool rotation speed. Surface hardness was drastically increased, relative to the initial hardness of bulk steel. This was attributed to ferrite and carbide refinement, as well as to martensite formation during solid state processing. At the highest rotation rates, tool sliding during processing deeply compromised the characteristics of the processed surfaces.

  1. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    . This impedance concept gives an accurate lower boundary condition in the determination of the electromagnetic field, and makes itpossible to simulate reflections and the effects of transitions between different mediums. A semi-isotropic Philipsspectrum is used to represent the air-sea interaction.Simulated GPS...... on the solution of the parabolic equation. The parabolic equation in our simulator is solvedusing the split-step sine transformation. The Earth’s surface is modeled with the use of an impedance model. The value of the Earth impedance is given as a function of the range along the surface of the Earth...

  2. Nanosystem Characterization Tools in the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first dedicated, all-encompassing text characterizes nanomaterials intended for biological or physiological environments and biomedical applications, in particular for medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. It finally fills the gap for a concise overview of a wide range of different characterization techniques and how to best employ them in the context of nanoscale life science research. It thus serves as a single source of information gathering up the knowledge otherwise spread over many journal articles, and provides an overall picture to members of all the disciplines involved. This handy volume covers all important probing techniques, including nuclear and electron spin resonance, light scattering, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic resonance, tomography, x-ray techniques, and microbalance measurement of antibody binding. Biochemists, biologists, chemists, materials scientists, and materials engineers as well as all others working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries or at related research institutions will here a book of great value and importance.

  3. Scattered surface charge density: A tool for surface characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Naydenov, Borislav

    2011-11-28

    We demonstrate the use of nonlocal scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements to characterize the local structure of adspecies in their states where they are significantly less perturbed by the probe, which is accomplished by mapping the amplitude and phase of the scattered surface charge density. As an example, we study single-H-atom adsorption on the n-type Si(100)-(4 × 2) surface, and demonstrate the existence of two different configurations that are distinguishable using the nonlocal approach and successfully corroborated by density functional theory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  4. The surface science of titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature on rutile (1 1 0), (1 0 0), (0 0 1), and anatase surfaces is reviewed. This paper starts with a summary of the wide variety of technical fields where TiO 2 is of importance. The bulk structure and bulk defects (as far as relevant to the surface properties) are briefly reviewed. Rules to predict stable oxide surfaces are exemplified on rutile (1 1 0). The surface structure of rutile (1 1 0) is discussed in some detail. Theoretically predicted and experimentally determined relaxations of surface geometries are compared, and defects (step edge orientations, point and line defects, impurities, surface manifestations of crystallographic shear planes—CSPs) are discussed, as well as the image contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The controversy about the correct model for the (1×2) reconstruction appears to be settled. Different surface preparation methods, such as reoxidation of reduced crystals, can cause a drastic effect on surface geometries and morphology, and recommendations for preparing different TiO 2(1 1 0) surfaces are given. The structure of the TiO 2(1 0 0)-(1×1) surface is discussed and the proposed models for the (1×3) reconstruction are critically reviewed. Very recent results on anatase (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces are included. The electronic structure of stoichiometric TiO 2 surfaces is now well understood. Surface defects can be detected with a variety of surface spectroscopies. The vibrational structure is dominated by strong Fuchs-Kliewer phonons, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectra often need to be deconvoluted in order to render useful information about adsorbed molecules. The growth of metals (Li, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Cr, Mo, Mn, Fe, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) as well as some metal oxides on TiO 2 is reviewed. The tendency to 'wet' the overlayer, the growth morphology, the

  5. Tribological influence of tool surface roughness within microforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Weidel, S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    A comparative friction study of tooling dies with a simple internal cylindrical geometry has been performed. The purpose of the experiment consist of studying the influence of the surface characteristics of tooling dies on the frictional behaviour in a micro bulk forming operation. This research ...

  6. NEEMO 21: Tools, Techniques, Technologies & Training for Science Exploration EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The 21st mission of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) was a highly integrated operational test and evaluation of tools, techniques, technologies, and training for science driven exploration during Extravehicular Activity (EVA).The 16-day mission was conducted from the Aquarius habitat, an underwater laboratory, off the coast of Key Largo, FL. The unique facility, authentic science objectives, and diverse skill-sets of the crew/team facilitate the planning and design for future space exploration.

  7. Python data science handbook essential tools for working with data

    CERN Document Server

    VanderPlas, Jake

    2016-01-01

    For many researchers, Python is a first-class tool mainly because of its libraries for storing, manipulating, and gaining insight from data. Several resources exist for individual pieces of this data science stack, but only with the Python Data Science Handbook do you get them all—IPython, NumPy, Pandas, Matplotlib, Scikit-Learn, and other related tools. Working scientists and data crunchers familiar with reading and writing Python code will find this comprehensive desk reference ideal for tackling day-to-day issues.

  8. The Effect of Tool Dimension, Tool Overhang and Cutting Parameters Towards Tool Vibration and Surface Roughness on Turning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuingli Santo Bandaso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Turning process is the removal of metal from the outer diameter of a rotating cylindrical workpiece. Turning is used to reduce the diameter of the workpiece, usually to a specified dimension, and to produce a smooth finish on the metal. This research investigates the effect of feed rate, spindle speed, tool overhang and tool dimensions toward vibration amplitude and surface roughness on turning process. This study uses both statistical and graphical analysis of the data collected. The experimentation was carried out on conventional lathe machine with straight turning operation. Material used as workpiece was St.60 carbon steel which was turned with HSS tool bit with the dimension of 3/8 Inches and ½ Inches. Cutting parameters varied by spindle speed, feed rate, and tool overhang, while the depth of cut is maintained at a depth of 0.5 mm. The vibration data of cutting tool obtained from a transducer (vibrometer mounted at a distance of 10 mm from the tip of the cutting tool during the cutting process takes place, whereas the surface roughness data obtained from measurements of surface roughness apparatus after turning process. The results showed that, The effect of feed rate, spindle speed, tool overhang, and tool dimension simultaneously towards vibration amplitude and surface roughness has a grater effects on the use of 3/8 inches cutting tool than ½ inches cutting tool. With the use of the same tool dimensions obtained that, The most influential parameters on the vibration amplitude is tool overhang while the most influential parameter on surface roughness value is feed rate.

  9. Recent progress in surface science 3

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Rosenberg, M D

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 3 covers topics on the structure and mechanisms of the cell membranes. The book discusses the incorporation of chemisorbed species; the recent developments in the study of epitaxy; and the ""diffusion"" or ""hydride"" component of overpotential at cathodes of the ""platinum metals"". The text also describes the mechanism of hydrogen exchange in proteins; the nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipids, lipoproteins, and cell membranes; and the monolayers of synthetic phospholipids. The formation, electrical properties, transport, and excitability cha

  10. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  11. Determining Useful Tools for the Flipped Science Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a 3-year longitudinal study on the perceived utility of supplying elementary science teacher interns with four asynchronous tools to assist them in creating their first lesson plan of a constructivist nature. The research accessed qualitative and quantitative measures to sample intern reaction to the notion of a…

  12. Performance Assessment as a Diagnostic Tool for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, Patricia; Oostdam, Ron; van den Berg, Ed; Schuitema, Jaap

    2018-04-01

    Information on students' development of science skills is essential for teachers to evaluate and improve their own education, as well as to provide adequate support and feedback to the learning process of individual students. The present study explores and discusses the use of performance assessments as a diagnostic tool for formative assessment to inform teachers and guide instruction of science skills in primary education. Three performance assessments were administered to more than 400 students in grades 5 and 6 of primary education. Students performed small experiments using real materials while following the different steps of the empirical cycle. The mutual relationship between the three performance assessments is examined to provide evidence for the value of performance assessments as useful tools for formative evaluation. Differences in response patterns are discussed, and the diagnostic value of performance assessments is illustrated with examples of individual student performances. Findings show that the performance assessments were difficult for grades 5 and 6 students but that much individual variation exists regarding the different steps of the empirical cycle. Evaluation of scores as well as a more substantive analysis of students' responses provided insight into typical errors that students make. It is concluded that performance assessments can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring students' skill performance as well as to support teachers in evaluating and improving their science lessons.

  13. The Effect of Tool Dimension, Tool Overhang and Cutting Parameters Towards Tool Vibration and Surface Roughness on Turning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zuingli Santo Bandaso; Johannes Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Turning process is the removal of metal from the outer diameter of a rotating cylindrical workpiece. Turning is used to reduce the diameter of the workpiece, usually to a specified dimension, and to produce a smooth finish on the metal. This research investigates the effect of feed rate, spindle speed, tool overhang and tool dimensions toward vibration amplitude and surface roughness on turning process. This study uses both statistical and graphical analysis of the data collected. The experim...

  14. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, José A.

    2012-05-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.

  15. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components. (paper)

  16. Reusable science tools for analog exploration missions: xGDS Web Tools, VERVE, and Gigapan Voyage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Cohen, Tamar; Allan, Mark; Deans, Matthew; Morse, Theodore; Park, Eric; Smith, Trey

    2013-10-01

    The Exploration Ground Data Systems (xGDS) project led by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center creates software tools to support multiple NASA-led planetary analog field experiments. The two primary tools that fall under the xGDS umbrella are the xGDS Web Tools (xGDS-WT) and Visual Environment for Remote Virtual Exploration (VERVE). IRG has also developed a hardware and software system that is closely integrated with our xGDS tools and is used in multiple field experiments called Gigapan Voyage. xGDS-WT, VERVE, and Gigapan Voyage are examples of IRG projects that improve the ratio of science return versus development effort by creating generic and reusable tools that leverage existing technologies in both hardware and software. xGDS Web Tools provides software for gathering and organizing mission data for science and engineering operations, including tools for planning traverses, monitoring autonomous or piloted vehicles, visualization, documentation, analysis, and search. VERVE provides high performance three dimensional (3D) user interfaces used by scientists, robot operators, and mission planners to visualize robot data in real time. Gigapan Voyage is a gigapixel image capturing and processing tool that improves situational awareness and scientific exploration in human and robotic analog missions. All of these technologies emphasize software reuse and leverage open source and/or commercial-off-the-shelf tools to greatly improve the utility and reduce the development and operational cost of future similar technologies. Over the past several years these technologies have been used in many NASA-led robotic field campaigns including the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), the Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP), the K10 Robotic Follow-Up tests, and most recently we have become involved in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) field experiments. A major objective of these joint robot and crew experiments is

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  18. Integrating Computational Science Tools into a Thermodynamics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camilo; Magana, Alejandra J.; García, R. Edwin; Jana, Aniruddha; Krafcik, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Computational tools and methods have permeated multiple science and engineering disciplines, because they enable scientists and engineers to process large amounts of data, represent abstract phenomena, and to model and simulate complex concepts. In order to prepare future engineers with the ability to use computational tools in the context of their disciplines, some universities have started to integrate these tools within core courses. This paper evaluates the effect of introducing three computational modules within a thermodynamics course on student disciplinary learning and self-beliefs about computation. The results suggest that using worked examples paired to computer simulations to implement these modules have a positive effect on (1) student disciplinary learning, (2) student perceived ability to do scientific computing, and (3) student perceived ability to do computer programming. These effects were identified regardless of the students' prior experiences with computer programming.

  19. Developing Healthcare Data Analytics APPs with Open Data Science Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bibo; Sun, Wen; Yu, Yiqin; Xie, Guotong

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in big data analytics provide more flexible, efficient, and open tools for researchers to gain insight from healthcare data. Whilst many tools require researchers to develop programs with programming languages like Python, R and so on, which is not a skill set grasped by many researchers in the healthcare data analytics area. To make data science more approachable, we explored existing tools and developed a practice that can help data scientists convert existing analytics pipelines to user-friendly analytics APPs with rich interactions and features of real-time analysis. With this practice, data scientists can develop customized analytics pipelines as APPs in Jupyter Notebook and disseminate them to other researchers easily, and researchers can benefit from the shared notebook to perform analysis tasks or reproduce research results much more easily.

  20. Clinical Correlations as a Tool in Basic Science Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical correlations are tools to assist students in associating basic science concepts with a medical application or disease. There are many forms of clinical correlations and many ways to use them in the classroom. Five types of clinical correlations that may be embedded within basic science courses have been identified and described. (1) Correlated examples consist of superficial clinical information or stories accompanying basic science concepts to make the information more interesting and relevant. (2) Interactive learning and demonstrations provide hands-on experiences or the demonstration of a clinical topic. (3) Specialized workshops have an application-based focus, are more specialized than typical laboratory sessions, and range in complexity from basic to advanced. (4) Small-group activities require groups of students, guided by faculty, to solve simple problems that relate basic science information to clinical topics. (5) Course-centered problem solving is a more advanced correlation activity than the others and focuses on recognition and treatment of clinical problems to promote clinical reasoning skills. Diverse teaching activities are used in basic science medical education, and those that include clinical relevance promote interest, communication, and collaboration, enhance knowledge retention, and help develop clinical reasoning skills. PMID:29349328

  1. Clinical Correlations as a Tool in Basic Science Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda J. Klement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical correlations are tools to assist students in associating basic science concepts with a medical application or disease. There are many forms of clinical correlations and many ways to use them in the classroom. Five types of clinical correlations that may be embedded within basic science courses have been identified and described. (1 Correlated examples consist of superficial clinical information or stories accompanying basic science concepts to make the information more interesting and relevant. (2 Interactive learning and demonstrations provide hands-on experiences or the demonstration of a clinical topic. (3 Specialized workshops have an application-based focus, are more specialized than typical laboratory sessions, and range in complexity from basic to advanced. (4 Small-group activities require groups of students, guided by faculty, to solve simple problems that relate basic science information to clinical topics. (5 Course-centered problem solving is a more advanced correlation activity than the others and focuses on recognition and treatment of clinical problems to promote clinical reasoning skills. Diverse teaching activities are used in basic science medical education, and those that include clinical relevance promote interest, communication, and collaboration, enhance knowledge retention, and help develop clinical reasoning skills.

  2. NEEMO 21: Tools, Techniques, Technologies and Training for Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, T.; Young, K.; Coan, D.; Merselis, D.; Bellantuono, A.; Dougan, K.; Rodriguez-Lanetty, M.; Nedimyer, K.; Chappell, S.; Beaton, K.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The 21st mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) was a highly integrated operational field test and evaluation of tools, techniques, technologies, and training for science driven exploration during extravehicular activity (EVA). The mission was conducted in July 2016 from the Aquarius habitat, an underwater laboratory, off the coast of Key Largo in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. An international crew of eight (comprised of NASA and ESA astronauts, engineers, medical personnel, and habitat technicians) lived and worked in and around Aquarius and its surrounding reef environment for 16 days. The integrated testing (both interior and exterior objectives) conducted from this unique facility continues to support current and future human space exploration endeavors. Expanding on the scientific and operational evaluations conducted during NEEMO 20, the 21st NEEMO mission further incorporated a diverse Science Team comprised of planetary geoscientists from the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES/XI) Division from the Johnson Space Center, marine scientists from the Department of Biological Sciences at Florida International University (FIU) Integrative Marine Genomics and Symbiosis (IMaGeS) Lab, and conservationists from the Coral Restoration Foundation. The Science Team worked in close coordination with the long-standing EVA operations, planning, engineering, and research components of NEEMO in all aspects of mission planning, development, and execution.

  3. Our path to better science in less time using open data science tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Julia S Stewart; Best, Benjamin D; Scarborough, Courtney; Afflerbach, Jamie C; Frazier, Melanie R; O'Hara, Casey C; Jiang, Ning; Halpern, Benjamin S

    2017-05-23

    Reproducibility has long been a tenet of science but has been challenging to achieve-we learned this the hard way when our old approaches proved inadequate to efficiently reproduce our own work. Here we describe how several free software tools have fundamentally upgraded our approach to collaborative research, making our entire workflow more transparent and streamlined. By describing specific tools and how we incrementally began using them for the Ocean Health Index project, we hope to encourage others in the scientific community to do the same-so we can all produce better science in less time.

  4. Discourse Analysis: A Tool for Helping Educators to Teach Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Plakitsi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to a part of a collaborative action research project in three elementary science classrooms. The project aims at the transformation of the nature and type of teachers' discursive practices into more collaborative inquiries. The basic strategy is to give the teachers the opportunity to analyze their discourse using a three-dimensional context of analysis. The teachers analyzed their discursive repertoires when teaching science. They studied the companion meaning, i.e., the different layers of explicit and tacit messages they communicate about Nature of Science (NoS, Nature of Teaching (NoT, and Nature of Language (NoL. The question investigated is the following: Could an action research program, which involves teachers in the analysis of their own discursive practices, lead to the transformation of discourse modes that take place in the science classrooms to better communicate aspects of NoS, NoT and NoL in a collaborative, inquiry-based context? Results indicate that the teachers' involvement in their discourse analysis led to a transformation in the discursive repertoires in their science classrooms. Gradually, the teachers' companion meanings that were created, implicitly/explicitly, from the dialogues taking place during science lessons were more appropriate for the establishment of a productive collaborative inquiry learning context. We argue that discourse analysis could be used for research purposes, as a training medium or as a reflective tool on how teachers communicate science. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs170168

  5. Tool steel quality and surface finishing of plastic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic industry is today in a constant growth, demanding several products from other segments, which includes the plastic molds, mainly used in the injection molding process. Considering all the requirements of plastic molds, the surface finishing is of special interest, as the injected plastic part is able to reproduce any details (and also defects from the mold surface. Therefore, several aspects on mold finishing are important, mainly related to manufacturing conditions - machining, grinding, polishing and texturing, and also related to the tool steel quality, in relation to microstructure homogeneity and non-metallic inclusions (cleanliness. The present paper is then focused on this interrelationship between steel quality and manufacturing process, which are both related to the final quality of plastic mold surfaces. Examples are discussed in terms of surface finishing of plastic molds and the properties or the microstructure of mold steels.

  6. Thermochemical Surface Engineering: A Playground for Science and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    at the surface. Current research and innovation activities are used to exemplify thermochemical surface engineering and the interplay of science and innovation. The examples given encompass aspects of the synthesis of extremely porous materials, low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel, surface...

  7. Comprehensive surface treatment of high-speed steel tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Sergey V.; Aleshin, Sergey V.; Swe, Min Htet; Abdirova, Raushan D.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Egorov, Sergey B.

    2018-03-01

    One of the promising directions of hardening of high-speed steel tool is the creation on their surface of the layered structures with the gradient of physic-chemical properties between the wear-resistant coatings to the base material. Among the methods of such surface modification, a special process takes place based on the use of pulsed high-intensity charged particle beams. The high speed of heating and cooling allows structural-phase transformations in the surface layer, which cannot be realized in a stationary mode. The treatment was conducted in a RITM-SP unit, which constitutes a combination of a source of low-energy high-current electron beams "RITM" and two magnetron spraying systems on a single vacuum chamber. The unit enables deposition of films on the surface of the desired product and subsequent liquid-phase mixing of materials of the film and the substrate by an intense pulse electron beam. The article discusses features of the structure of the subsurface layer of high-speed steel M2, modified by surface alloying of a low-energy high-current electron beam, and its effect on the wear resistance of the tool when dry cutting hard to machine Nickel alloy. A significant decrease of intensity of wear of high-speed steel with combined treatment happens due to the displacement of the zone of wear and decrease the radius of rounding of the cutting edge because of changes in conditions of interaction with the material being treated.

  8. A novel ultrasonic surface machining tool utilizing elastic traveling waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruinan; Jin, Jiamei; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Jianhui

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of modern industrial technology and high performance technology products, ultra-precision machining technology becomes increasingly important. However, joint clearance of kinematic pairs, lack of feeding accuracy and overlarge contact stress still limit the further improvement of ultra-precision machining technology. In this study, a novel surface machining method utilizing structural elastic waves was proposed, and a machining tool using the piezoelectric actuating principle was presented for verifying the proposed method. Two vibration modes with a phase shift of π/2 in both space and time domains are exited simultaneously in the elliptical motion of points on the structural surface. By means of adjusting driving signal parameters, such as frequency, voltage amplitude and phase shift, different machining performances could be achieved. The configuration and working vibration modes of the proposed machining tool were firstly calculated by the finite element method, and then the optimal working frequency of the machining tool prototype was determined by vibration characteristic experiments. At last, machining characteristic experiments were conducted to validate the proposed machining method. Experimental results showed that the minimum working contact force between the machining tool and workpiece was 1N, and the chipped depth of 1.93μm was achieved at the same contact force after machining for 5min. And at the conditions of the contact force of 6N, two driving voltages of 400V pp with a phase shift of π/2, and machining time of 5min, the prototype could achieve to machine the workpiece most efficiently and the roughness of the machined workpiece surface could be reached approximating 0.20μm. In conclusion, this proposed machining method could achieve a good quality machined surface with low residual stress and little damage by applying low contact force. Furthermore, it also had the advantage of no joint clearance error due to no

  9. Laser grooving of surface cracks on hot work tool steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of laser grooving of 1.2343 tool steel hardened to 46 HRC. The effect of laser power and grooving speed on groove shape (i.e. depth and width, the material removal rate and the purity of produced groove as a measure of groove quality was investigated and analyzed using response surface methodology. Optimal parameters of laser grooving were found, which enables pure grooves suitable for laser welding.

  10. Science Base and Tools for Evaluating Stream Restoration Project Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluer, B.; Thorne, C.; Skidmore, P.; Castro, J.; Pess, G.; Beechie, T.; Shea, C.

    2008-12-01

    Stream restoration, stabilization, or enhancement projects typically employ site-specific designs and site- scale habitat improvement projects have become the default solution to many habitat problems and constraints. Such projects are often planned and implemented without thorough consideration of the broader scale problems that may be contributing to habitat degradation, attention to project resiliency to flood events, accounting for possible changes in climate or watershed land use, or ensuring the long term sustainability of the project. To address these issues, NOAA Fisheries and USFWS have collaboratively commissioned research to develop a science document and accompanying tools to support more consistent and comprehensive review of stream management and restoration projects proposals by Service staff responsible for permitting. The science document synthesizes the body of knowledge in fluvial geomorphology and presents it in a way that is accessible to the Services staff biologists, who are not trained experts in this field. Accompanying the science document are two electronic tools: a Project Information Checklist to assist in evaluating whether a proposal includes all the information necessary to allow critical and thorough project evaluation; and a Project Evaluation Tool (in flow chart format) that guides reviewers through the steps necessary to critically evaluate the quality of the information submitted, the goals and objectives of the project, project planning and development, project design, geomorphic-habitat-species relevance, and risks to listed species. Materials for training Services staff and others in the efficient use of the science document and tools have also been developed. The longer term goals of this effort include: enabling consistent and comprehensive reviews that are completed in a timely fashion by regulators; facilitating improved project planning and design by proponents; encouraging projects that are attuned to their watershed

  11. Cloud-Based Computational Tools for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, A. A.; Fatland, R.; Howe, B.

    2015-12-01

    Earth scientists are increasingly required to think across disciplines and utilize a wide range of datasets in order to solve complex environmental challenges. Although significant progress has been made in distributing data, researchers must still invest heavily in developing computational tools to accommodate their specific domain. Here we document our development of lightweight computational data systems aimed at enabling rapid data distribution, analytics and problem solving tools for Earth science applications. Our goal is for these systems to be easily deployable, scalable and flexible to accommodate new research directions. As an example we describe "Ice2Ocean", a software system aimed at predicting runoff from snow and ice in the Gulf of Alaska region. Our backend components include relational database software to handle tabular and vector datasets, Python tools (NumPy, pandas and xray) for rapid querying of gridded climate data, and an energy and mass balance hydrological simulation model (SnowModel). These components are hosted in a cloud environment for direct access across research teams, and can also be accessed via API web services using a REST interface. This API is a vital component of our system architecture, as it enables quick integration of our analytical tools across disciplines, and can be accessed by any existing data distribution centers. We will showcase several data integration and visualization examples to illustrate how our system has expanded our ability to conduct cross-disciplinary research.

  12. Data Grid tools: enabling science on big distributed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allcock, Bill; Chervenak, Ann; Foster, Ian; Kesselman, Carl; Livny, Miron

    2005-01-01

    A particularly demanding and important challenge that we face as we attempt to construct the distributed computing machinery required to support SciDAC goals is the efficient, high-performance, reliable, secure, and policy-aware management of large-scale data movement. This problem is fundamental to diverse application domains including experimental physics (high energy physics, nuclear physics, light sources), simulation science (climate, computational chemistry, fusion, astrophysics), and large-scale collaboration. In each case, highly distributed user communities require high-speed access to valuable data, whether for visualization or analysis. The quantities of data involved (terabytes to petabytes), the scale of the demand (hundreds or thousands of users, data-intensive analyses, real-time constraints), and the complexity of the infrastructure that must be managed (networks, tertiary storage systems, network caches, computers, visualization systems) make the problem extremely challenging. Data management tools developed under the auspices of the SciDAC Data Grid Middleware project have become the de facto standard for data management in projects worldwide. Day in and day out, these tools provide the 'plumbing' that allows scientists to do more science on an unprecedented scale in production environments

  13. SURFACE INTEGRITY EVALUATION OF TURNING WITH AUTO-ROTATING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Struharnansky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The technical practice requirements comes to have increased demands on higher productivity, speed and quality of the machining process of various materials. Hard to machine materials, whose machining led to the development of turning with rotating cutting edge are not an exception. The machining process of auto-rotating tool is more complicated than the conventional process of turning, especially for the process of reshaping cutting layers into chips. There is a significant load in the system, that may affect the life of the cutting edge of the tool as well as the whole system and also in the final extent of the qualitative parameters of the workpiece (product / product. The article specifies the knowledge and findings of measurement in machining material 100Cr6 with an auto-rotating tool. The measurements were conducted to evaluate the integrity of the surface (roughness of the workpiece to the impacts of cutting conditions, in particular the feed and the cutting edge inclination. It also analyzes the presence (size, character, action of residual stresses concentrated in the surface layers of the workpiece by changing the cutting conditions.

  14. Tested Tools You Can Use: Evaluating Earth System Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. P.; Prakash, A.; Reider, D.; Baker, D.

    2006-12-01

    Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21) has created a public access on-line evaluation resource available at http://esse21.usra.edu/evaltoolkit in collaboration with the ESSE 21 institutions, PIs, and evaluators. The purpose of the ESSE toolkit is to offer examples of how evaluation and assessment are/have been used in Earth System Science courses and programs. Our goal is to help instructors recognize different types of assessment and evaluation tools and uses that have proved useful in these courses and provide models for designing assessments in new courses. We have included actual examples of evaluations used by ESSE institution faculty in their own courses. This is not a comprehensive toolkit on educational evaluation and assessment, but it does provide several examples of evaluations that have been used successfully in Earth System Science courses and links to many good web resources on course evaluation. We have provided examples of assessments that are designed to collect information from students before, during and after courses. Some, presented in different formats, are designed to assess what students learn, others are designed to provide course instructors with information they can use to revise their courses. These assessments range from content tests to portfolios, from feedback forms to interviews, and from concept maps to attitude surveys.

  15. A Customized Drought Decision Support Tool for Hsinchu Science Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jung; Tien, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Hsuan-Te; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Tung, Ching-Pin

    2016-04-01

    Climate change creates more challenges for water resources management. Due to the lack of sufficient precipitation in Taiwan in fall of 2014, many cities and counties suffered from water shortage during early 2015. Many companies in Hsinchu Science Park were significantly influenced and realized that they need a decision support tool to help them managing water resources. Therefore, a customized computer program was developed, which is capable of predicting the future status of public water supply system and water storage of factories when the water rationing is announced by the government. This program presented in this study for drought decision support (DDSS) is a customized model for a semiconductor company in the Hsinchu Science Park. The DDSS is programmed in Java which is a platform-independent language. System requirements are any PC with the operating system above Windows XP and an installed Java SE Runtime Environment 7. The DDSS serves two main functions. First function is to predict the future storage of Baoshan Reservoir and Second Baoshan Reservoir, so to determine the time point of water use restriction in Hsinchu Science Park. Second function is to use the results to help the company to make decisions to trigger their response plans. The DDSS can conduct real-time scenario simulations calculating the possible storage of water tank for each factory with pre-implementation and post-implementation of those response plans. In addition, DDSS can create reports in Excel to help decision makers to compare results between different scenarios.

  16. Friction Evaluation of Laser Textured Tool Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šugárová Jana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface textures can be defined as a regularly arranged micro-depressions or grooves with defined shape and dimensions. These textures, if they are manufactured by laser ablation process, contribute to a significant improvement of the tribological, optical or various biological properties. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the surface textures prepared by laser surface texturing (LST at the friction coefficient value measured on the tool (90MnCrV8 steel – workpiece (S235JRG1 steel interface. Planar frontal surfaces of compression platens have been covered by parabolic dimple-like depressions with different dimensions. The morphological analysis of such manufactured depressions has been performed by laser scanning microscopy. Influence of such created textures on the tribological properties of the contact pair has been analyzed by the ring compression test method in the terms of hydrodynamic lubrication regime. The experimental research shown that by applying of surface textures with defined shape and dimensions and using an appropriate liquid lubricant at the same time, the coefficient of contact friction can be reduced nearly to the half of its original value.

  17. Advancing alternate tools: why science education needs CRP and CRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo Seriki, Vanessa

    2018-03-01

    Ridgeway and Yerrick's paper, Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, unearthed the tensions that existed between a local community "expert" and a group of students and their facilitator in an afterschool program. Those of us who work with youth who are traditionally marginalized, understand the importance of teaching in culturally relevant ways, but far too often—as Ridgeway and Yerrick shared—community partners have beliefs, motives, and ideologies that are incompatible to the program's mission and goals. Nevertheless, we often enter partnerships assuming that the other party understands the needs of the students or community; understands how in U.S. society White is normative while all others are deficient; and understands how to engage with students in culturally relevant ways. This forum addresses the underlying assumption, described in the Ridgeway and Yerrick article, that educators—despite their background and experiences—are able to teach in culturally relevant ways. Additionally, I assert based on the finding in the article that just as Ladson-Billings and Tate (Teach Coll Rec 97(1):47-68, 1995) asserted, race in the U.S. society, as a scholarly pursuit, was under theorized. The same is true of science education; race in science education is under theorized and the use of culturally relevant pedagogy and critical race theory as a pedagogical model and analytical tool, respectively, in science education is minimal. The increased use of both would impact our understanding of who does science, and how to broaden participation among people of color.

  18. Surface coating metrology of carbides of cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, V. D.; Basova, G. D.

    2017-10-01

    The coatings were studied by their main sign of the micrometric thickness by means of coating destruction and electron microscopical study of cleavage surfaces. Shock stress ruptures of heated carbides of cutting tools were performed. The discovery of the coating technology and creation of the coating structure for nonuniform and nonequilibrium conditions of the cutting process were dealt with. Multifracture microdestruction of nitride coatings, caused by complex external influences, was analysed to reveal the mechanism of interaction of elementary failures. Positive results were obtained in the form of improving the strength and wear resistance of the product, crack resistance increasing.

  19. Workshop on surface and interface science at the ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Stierle, A.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.; Schmidt, S.; Hufner, S.; Moritz, W.; Fedley, Ch.S.; Rossi, G.; Durr Hermann, A.; Rohlsberger, R.; Dalmas, J.; Oughaddou, H.; Leandri, Ch.; Gay, J.M.; Treglia, G.; Le Lay, G.; Aufray, B.; Bunk, O.; Johnson, R.L.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Lucas, C.A.; Bauer, G.; Zhong, Z.; Springholz, G.; Lechner, R.; Stang, J.; Schulli, T.; Metzger, T.H.; Holy, V.; Woodruff, D.P.; Dellera, C.; Zegenhagen, J.; Robinson, I.; Malachias, A.; Schulli, T.U.; Magalhaes-Paniago, R.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Valbusa, U.; Felici, R.; Yacoby, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Van der Veen, J.F

    2004-07-01

    The main aim of the workshop is to reflect the future of surface and interface research at the high brilliance synchrotron radiation source ESRF taking into account experimental facilities which are becoming available at new synchrotron radiation facilities in Europe. 6 sessions have been organized: 1) surface and interface research and synchrotron radiation - today and tomorrow -, 2) aspects of surface and interface research, 3) real surfaces and interfaces, 4) synchrotron techniques in surface and interface research, 5) new directions in surface and interface research, and 6) surface and interface science at ESRF. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  20. Workshop on surface and interface science at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Stierle, A.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.; Schmidt, S.; Hufner, S.; Moritz, W.; Fedley, Ch.S.; Rossi, G.; Durr Hermann, A.; Rohlsberger, R.; Dalmas, J.; Oughaddou, H.; Leandri, Ch.; Gay, J.M.; Treglia, G.; Le Lay, G.; Aufray, B.; Bunk, O.; Johnson, R.L.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Lucas, C.A.; Bauer, G.; Zhong, Z.; Springholz, G.; Lechner, R.; Stang, J.; Schulli, T.; Metzger, T.H.; Holy, V.; Woodruff, D.P.; Dellera, C.; Zegenhagen, J.; Robinson, I.; Malachias, A.; Schulli, T.U.; Magalhaes-Paniago, R.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Valbusa, U.; Felici, R.; Yacoby, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Van der Veen, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the workshop is to reflect the future of surface and interface research at the high brilliance synchrotron radiation source ESRF taking into account experimental facilities which are becoming available at new synchrotron radiation facilities in Europe. 6 sessions have been organized: 1) surface and interface research and synchrotron radiation - today and tomorrow -, 2) aspects of surface and interface research, 3) real surfaces and interfaces, 4) synchrotron techniques in surface and interface research, 5) new directions in surface and interface research, and 6) surface and interface science at ESRF. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  1. The Tool Path Planning for Ring Torus Optical Surface Diamond Turning with Parallel 2DOF Fast Tool Servo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Aiyun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available FTS (Fast Tool Servo has always been an important method for manufacturing non-axisymmetric optical surface. In this paper, a novel tool path planning method is presented which plans tool path in two coordinate directions of a parallel structure 2 DOFs FTS simultaneously. Comparing with single DOF FTS, this method has significantly improved the ability of producing non-axisymmetric optical surface, such as ring torus surface.

  2. Thermodynamics and structure of liquid surfaces investigated directly with surface analytical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Gunther [Flinders Univ., Adelaide, SA (Australia). Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology; Morgner, Harald [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Wilhelm Ostwald Inst. for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

    2017-06-15

    Measuring directly the composition, the distribution of constituents as function of the depth and the orientation of molecules at liquid surfaces is essential for determining physicochemical properties of liquid surfaces. While the experimental tools that have been developed for analyzing solid surfaces can in principal be applied to liquid surfaces, it turned out that they had to be adjusted to the particular challenges imposed by liquid samples, e.g. by the unavoidable vapor pressure and by the mobility of the constituting atoms/molecules. In the present work it is shown, how electron spectroscopy and ion scattering spectroscopy have been used for analyzing liquid surfaces. The emphasis of this review is on using the structural information gained for determining the physicochemical properties of liquid surfaces. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  4. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, poweful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  5. Meta-heuristic algorithms as tools for hydrological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Do Guen; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, meta-heuristic optimization techniques are introduced and their applications to water resources engineering, particularly in hydrological science are introduced. In recent years, meta-heuristic optimization techniques have been introduced that can overcome the problems inherent in iterative simulations. These methods are able to find good solutions and require limited computation time and memory use without requiring complex derivatives. Simulation-based meta-heuristic methods such as Genetic algorithms (GAs) and Harmony Search (HS) have powerful searching abilities, which can occasionally overcome the several drawbacks of traditional mathematical methods. For example, HS algorithms can be conceptualized from a musical performance process and used to achieve better harmony; such optimization algorithms seek a near global optimum determined by the value of an objective function, providing a more robust determination of musical performance than can be achieved through typical aesthetic estimation. In this paper, meta-heuristic algorithms and their applications (focus on GAs and HS) in hydrological science are discussed by subject, including a review of existing literature in the field. Then, recent trends in optimization are presented and a relatively new technique such as Smallest Small World Cellular Harmony Search (SSWCHS) is briefly introduced, with a summary of promising results obtained in previous studies. As a result, previous studies have demonstrated that meta-heuristic algorithms are effective tools for the development of hydrological models and the management of water resources.

  6. FOSS Tools and Applications for Education in Geospatial Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciolli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While the theory and implementation of geographic information systems (GIS have a history of more than 50 years, the development of dedicated educational tools and applications in this field is more recent. This paper presents a free and open source software (FOSS approach for education in the geospatial disciplines, which has been used over the last 20 years at two Italian universities. The motivations behind the choice of FOSS are discussed with respect to software availability and development, as well as educational material licensing. Following this philosophy, a wide range of educational tools have been developed, covering topics from numerical cartography and GIS principles to the specifics regarding different systems for the management and analysis of spatial data. Various courses have been implemented for diverse recipients, ranging from professional training workshops to PhD courses. Feedback from the students of those courses provides an invaluable assessment of the effectiveness of the approach, supplying at the same time directions for further improvement. Finally, lessons learned after 20 years are discussed, highlighting how the management of educational materials can be difficult even with a very open approach to licensing. Overall, the use of free and open source software for geospatial (FOSS4G science provides a clear advantage over other approaches, not only simplifying software and data management, but also ensuring that all of the information related to system design and implementation is available.

  7. Fractal analysis as a potential tool for surface morphology of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, S.; Swapna, M. S.; Raj, Vimal; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sankararaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Fractal geometry developed by Mandelbrot has emerged as a potential tool for analyzing complex systems in the diversified fields of science, social science, and technology. Self-similar objects having the same details in different scales are referred to as fractals and are analyzed using the mathematics of non-Euclidean geometry. The present work is an attempt to correlate fractal dimension for surface characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Taking the AFM images of zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, under different annealing temperatures, the effect of annealing temperature and surface roughness on fractal dimension is studied. The annealing temperature and surface roughness show a strong correlation with fractal dimension. From the regression equation set, the surface roughness at a given annealing temperature can be calculated from the fractal dimension. The AFM images are processed using Photoshop and fractal dimension is calculated by box-counting method. The fractal dimension decreases from 1.986 to 1.633 while the surface roughness increases from 1.110 to 3.427, for a change of annealing temperature 30 ° C to 600 ° C. The images are also analyzed by power spectrum method to find the fractal dimension. The study reveals that the box-counting method gives better results compared to the power spectrum method.

  8. Learning in Science: A Comparison of Deep and Surface Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Christine; Brown, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the differences between deep and surface approaches to learning science. Findings indicate that the deep-surface learning differences fall into five categories: (1) generative thinking; (2) nature of explanations; (3) asking questions; (4) metacognitive activity; and (5) approach to tasks. Suggests that teachers can encourage a deep…

  9. Children's Science Journals: Tools for Teaching, Learning, and Assessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Britsch, Susan J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses effective ways of using children's journals in science teaching and methods for assessing children's journals for science learning. Emphasizes the importance of children's own cognitive and verbal efforts to make sense of science phenomena. (JRH)

  10. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  11. The Mars mapper science and mission planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Mapper Program (MOm) is an interactive tool for science and mission design developed for the Mars Observer Mission (MO). MOm is a function of the Planning and Sequencing Element of the MO Ground Data System. The primary users of MOm are members of the science and mission planning teams. Using MOm, the user can display digital maps of Mars in various projections and resolutions ranging from 1 to 256 pixels per degree squared. The user can overlay the maps with ground tracks of the MO spacecraft (S/C) and footprints and swaths of the various instruments on-board the S/C. Orbital and instrument geometric parameters can be computed on demand and displayed on the digital map or plotted in XY-plots. The parameter data can also be saved into files for other uses. MOm is divided into 3 major processes: Generator, Mapper, Plotter. The Generator Process is the main control which spawns all other processes. The processes communicate via sockets. At any one time, only 1 copy of MOm may operate on the system. However, up to 5 copies of each of the major processes may be invoked from the Generator. MOm is developed on the Sun SPARCStation 2GX with menu driven graphical user interface (GUI). The map window and its overlays are mouse-sensitized to permit on-demand calculations of various parameters along an orbit. The program is currently under testing and will be delivered to the MO Mission System Configuration Management for distribution to the MO community in 3/93.

  12. Video Creation: A Tool for Engaging Students to Learn Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Students today process information very differently than those of previous generations. They are used to getting their news from 140-character tweets, being entertained by You-Tube videos, and Googling everything. Thus, traditional passive methods of content delivery do not work well for many of these millennials. All students, regardless of career goals, need to become scientifically literate to be able to function in a world where scientific issues are of increasing importance. Those who have had experience applying scientific reasoning to real-world problems in the classroom will be better equipped to make informed decisions in the future. The problem to be solved is how to present scientific content in a manner that fosters student learning in today's world. This presentation will describe how the appeal of technology and social communication via creation of documentary-style videos has been used to engage students to learn scientific concepts in a university non-science major course focused on energy and the environment. These video projects place control of the learning experience into the hands of the learner and provide an opportunity to develop critical thinking skills. Students discover how to locate scientifically reliable information by limiting searches to respected sources and synthesize the information through collaborative content creation to generate a "story". Video projects have a number of advantages over research paper writing. They allow students to develop collaboration skills and be creative in how they deliver the scientific content. Research projects are more effective when the audience is larger than just a teacher. Although our videos are used as peer-teaching tools in the classroom, they also are shown to a larger audience in a public forum to increase the challenge. Video will be the professional communication tool of the future. This presentation will cover the components of the video production process and instructional lessons

  13. Open Educational Resources in Support of Science Learning: Tools for Inquiry and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the potential of free tools, particularly inquiry tools for influencing participation in twenty-first-century learning in science, as well as influencing the development of communities around tools. Two examples are presented: one on the development of an open source tool for structured inquiry learning that can bridge the…

  14. The use of the history of science as a motivational tool in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapel, Fredrick Milton

    In science classrooms, the content of science is usually taught as sets of facts to be learned as they are, with little understanding as to how those facts were discovered, verified, and challenged by the scientific community (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1990). Additionally, laboratory activities are not used to challenge those established facts, but only verify them (Roth & Roychoudhury, 1993). The result is science devoid of inherent interest for students, creating a downward spiral of decreasing engagement and achievement, a conclusion supported by recent national and international assessment measures (Schmidt, McKnight, Cogan, Jakwerth, & Houang, 1999). The challenge is to create classroom environments in middle school science that support and motivate students to become and remain engaged in productive learning activities. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using the history of science (HOS) as a motivational tool in middle school science education. The behaviors and work samples of students were observed and analyzed in relation to three research questions: (1) What patterns of motivated student behavior emerge during a unit of instruction? (2) What evidence of student conceptual change can be observed during a unit of instruction? (3) What is the role of the HOS in the science classroom in regard to student motivation? This naturalistic, ethnographic case study examined four eighth-grade science classrooms in an inner-city charter middle school. The data collected included transcripts of classroom dialogue, student work samples (notes, essays, projects), daily anecdotal notes of the teacher, and observations of the classroom by educational consultants and school personnel. Data analysis was based upon specialized forms of discourse and task analysis with ethnomethodological and phenomenological sensitivity as to how students make meaning of what they are learning. The findings identified patterns of

  15. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy analytical, biophysical and life science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schlücker, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Covering everything from the basic theoretical and practical knowledge to new exciting developments in the field with a focus on analytical and life science applications, this monograph shows how to apply surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for solving real world problems. From the contents: * Theory and practice of SERS * Analytical applications * SERS combined with other analytical techniques * Biophysical applications * Life science applications including various microscopies Aimed at analytical, surface and medicinal chemists, spectroscopists, biophysicists and materials scientists. Includes a Foreword by the renowned Raman spectroscopist Professor Wolfgang Kiefer, the former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy.

  16. Tradespace Analysis Tool for Designing Earth Science Distributed Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ESTO 2030 Science Vision envisions the future of Earth Science to be characterized by 'many more distributed observations,' and 'formation-flying [missions that]...

  17. Clays causing adhesion with tool surfaces during mechanical tunnel driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, G.; Fernández-Steeger, T.; Stanjek, H.; Feinendegen, M.; Post, C.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    During mechanical excavation with a tunnel boring machine (TBM) it is possible that clays stick to the cutting wheel and to other metal parts. The resulting delays in the progress of construction work, cause great economic damage and often disputes between the public awarding authorities and executing companies. One of the most important factors to reduce successfully the clay adhesion is the use of special polymers and foams. But why does the clay stick to the metal parts? A first step is to recognize which kind of clay mineralogy shows serious adhesion problems. The mechanical properties of clay and clay suspensions are primarily determined by surface chemistry and charge distribution at the interfaces, which in turn affect the arrangement of the clay structure. As we know, clay is a multi-phase material and its behaviour depends on numerous parameters such as: clay mineralogy, clay fraction, silt fraction, sand fraction, water content, water saturation, Atterberg limits, sticky limit, activity, cation exchange capacity, degree of consolidation and stress state. It is therefore likely that adhesion of clay on steel is also affected by these clay parameters. Samples of clay formations, which caused problems during tunnel driving, will be analyzed in laboratory. Mineralogical analyses (diffractometry, etc.) will be carried out to observe which minerals are responsible for adherence problems. To manipulate the physical properties, batch tests will be carried out in order to eliminate or reduce the adhesion on tool surfaces through variation of the zeta potential. Second step is the performance of vane shear tests on clay samples. Different pore fluid (distilled water, pure NaCl solution, ethanol and methanol) will be used to study the variation of the mechanical behaviour of clay depending on the dielectric constant of the fluids. This project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the DFG (German Research Foundation) in the

  18. Response Surface Modeling Tool Suite, Version 1.x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-05

    The Response Surface Modeling (RSM) Tool Suite is a collection of three codes used to generate an empirical interpolation function for a collection of drag coefficient calculations computed with Test Particle Monte Carlo (TPMC) simulations. The first code, "Automated RSM", automates the generation of a drag coefficient RSM for a particular object to a single command. "Automated RSM" first creates a Latin Hypercube Sample (LHS) of 1,000 ensemble members to explore the global parameter space. For each ensemble member, a TPMC simulation is performed and the object drag coefficient is computed. In the next step of the "Automated RSM" code, a Gaussian process is used to fit the TPMC simulations. In the final step, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to evaluate the non-analytic probability distribution function from the Gaussian process. The second code, "RSM Area", creates a look-up table for the projected area of the object based on input limits on the minimum and maximum allowed pitch and yaw angles and pitch and yaw angle intervals. The projected area from the look-up table is used to compute the ballistic coefficient of the object based on its pitch and yaw angle. An accurate ballistic coefficient is crucial in accurately computing the drag on an object. The third code, "RSM Cd", uses the RSM generated by the "Automated RSM" code and the projected area look-up table generated by the "RSM Area" code to accurately compute the drag coefficient and ballistic coefficient of the object. The user can modify the object velocity, object surface temperature, the translational temperature of the gas, the species concentrations of the gas, and the pitch and yaw angles of the object. Together, these codes allow for the accurate derivation of an object's drag coefficient and ballistic coefficient under any conditions with only knowledge of the object's geometry and mass.

  19. A Methodology for Integrating Computer-Based Learning Tools in Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadouris, Nicos; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a methodology for effectively integrating computer-based learning tools in science teaching and learning. This methodology provides a means of systematic analysis to identify the capabilities of particular software tools and to formulate a series of competencies relevant to physical science that could be developed by means…

  20. 7th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains review articles which were written by the invited speak­ ers of the seventh International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS), held at the University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee in July 1985. The form of ISISS is a set of tutorial review lectures presented over a one-week period by internationally recognized experts on various aspects of surface science. Each speaker is asked, in addition, to write a review article on his lecture topic. No single volume in the series Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the entire field of modern surface science. However, the series as a whole is intended to provide experts and students alike with a comprehensive set of reviews and literature references, particularly empha­ sizing the gas-solid interface. The collected articles from previous Summer Institutes have been published under the following titles: Surface Science: Recent Progress and Perspectives, Crit. Rev. Solid State Sci. 4, 125-559 (1974) Chemistry and Physics of ...

  1. The development of surface science in China: Retrospect and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xide (Fudan University, Shanghai (China))

    1994-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the year of 1977 marked the birth of surface science in China, therefore the length of its history of development is only half of that shown in the title of this volume. Since 1977 laboratories with modern facilities for surface studies have been established in various universities and research institutes. Three open laboratories better equipped than others have been set up in Beijing, Xiamen and Shanghai for surface physics, surface chemistry and applied surface physics, respectively. Five National Conferences on Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces were held in 1982, 1984, 1985, 1988 and 1991. In 1993 China is going to host the Fourth International Conference on the Structure of Surfaces in Shanghai August 16-19 which will serve as a milestone in the history of development of surface science in China. With the access to many overseas laboratories, quite a number of Chinese scientists and students have had opportunities to work and study abroad and have brought back with them experiences acquired. During the Conferences just mentioned, one could witness a number of steady progresses made over the years. In the present review, a brief description about the establishment of some major research facilities and progresses of some of the research is given with emphasis on work related to semiconductor surfaces, interfaces, superlattices, heterojunctions and quantum wells. Although the review nominally covers the development of research in surface science in China, due to the limitation of the capabilities of the author, mostly work done at Fudan University is included. For this the author would like to express her deep apology to many Chinese colleagues whose works have not been properly mentioned

  2. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH 3 synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures

  3. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH/sub 3/ synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures. (DLC)

  4. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact of SciDAC on Accelerator Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects

  5. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  6. A molecular surface science study of the structure of adsorbates on surfaces: Importance to lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mate, C.M.

    1986-09-01

    The interaction and bonding of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces is explored under ultra-high vacuum conditions using a variety of surface science techniques: high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), work function measurements, and second harmonic generation (SHG). 164 refs., 51 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Narrative as a learning tool in science centers : potentials, possibilities and merits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murmann, Mai; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    In this theoretical paper we explore the use of narrative as a learning tool in informal science settings. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to ex-plore how narrative can be applied to exhibits in the context of science centers to scaffold visitors science learning. In exploring this idea,

  8. Wonder as a Tool to Engage Preservice Elementary Teachers in Science Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew; Byers, Christie C.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory project considers the use of "wonder" as a pedagogical tool with preservice elementary teachers (PSETs). An ongoing vexation facing science teacher educators is helping future elementary teachers overcome anxiety and negative associations with science due to their own school science experiences, while simultaneously…

  9. Bridging the Design-Science Gap with Tools: Science Learning and Design Behaviors in a Simulated Environment for Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Xie, Charles; Nourian, Saeid; Chen, Guanhua; Bailey, Siobhan; Goldstein, Molly H.; Purzer, Senay; Adams, Robin S.; Tutwiler, M. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Many pedagogical innovations aim to integrate engineering design and science learning. However, students frequently show little attempt or have difficulties in connecting their design projects with the underlying science. Drawing upon the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, we argue that the design tools available in a learning environment…

  10. Minimization of Surface Roughness and Tool Vibration in CNC Milling Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdev S. Bhogal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tool vibration and surface roughness are two important parameters which affect the quality of the component and tool life which indirectly affect the component cost. In this paper, the effect of cutting parameters on tool vibration, and surface roughness has been investigated during end milling of EN-31 tool steel. Response surface methodology (RSM has been used to develop mathematical model for predicting surface finish, tool vibration and tool wear with different combinations of cutting parameters. The experimental results show that feed rate is the most dominating parameter affecting surface finish, whereas cutting speed is the major factor effecting tool vibration. The results of mathematical model are in agreement with experimental investigations done to validate the mathematical model.

  11. Evaluating the Development of Science Research Skills in Work-Integrated Learning through the Use of Workplace Science Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Susan M.; Zegwaard, Karsten E.; Dalgety, Jacinta

    2013-01-01

    Concept understanding, the development of analytical skills and a research mind set are explored through the use of academic tools common in a tertiary science education and relevant work-integrated learning (WIL) experiences. The use and development of the tools; laboratory book, technical report, and literature review are examined by way of…

  12. LSST Data Products and Tools for Solar System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario; Jones, R.; Moeyens, Joachim; Ivezic, Zeljko; Slater, Colin; LSST Data Management Team

    2017-10-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will be an 8-meter, wide-field, ground-based telescope that will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm. It is currently being constructed at Cerro Pachon, Chile, with first light expected in 2020 and start of survey operations in 2022.The LSST is expected to make a significant contribution to the study of the Solar System, delivering a billion highly precise observations of millions of Solar System objects (5mmag photometry and 10mas astrometry, per observation, on the bright end). Current estimates show yields ranging from ~100,000 new discoveries of nearby NEOs (Jones et al. 2017), to 5.5 million for the main belt, and ~40,000 for KBO populations (Ivezic et al 2008).To enable Solar System science, the LSST will employ a suite of specialized software tools and generate Solar System-specific data products. These are designed to enable both detection (rapid identification and alerting, and orbit determination) and characterization (delivering information such as color and variability). Solar System processing will occur on three distinct cadences. In near real-time, trailed moving objects will be identified and alerts sent to the community within minutes of observation. These will be a part of LSST’s alert stream, with flags set to denote they are trailed (Juric et al. 2016). At the end of each night of observing, a next generation Moving Object Processing Software (MOPS) will be utilized to identify, link, compute orbits, and perform precovery for new asteroid detections. This will result in an updated orbit catalog, published daily. In addition to orbital solutions, this catalog will include covariances and uncertainty estimates, absolute magnitude and slope parameter estimates, quality metrics, and other useful information (Juric et al. 2013). Finally, all LSST data will be reprocessed on an annual cadence, to derive better astrometric and photometric solutions

  13. Chemical beam epitaxy — a child of surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüth, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) or MOMBE is currently one of the major deposition techniques in semiconductor technology. The growth process is performed in a UHV chamber under low pressure conditions and the source material is supplied by molecular beams, such that only surface kinetics are determining the chemical reactions leading to growth of the epilayer. This paper intends to give a review on the development of this deposition technique. After considering the early period, where this epitaxy method started to develop, partially from ideas being born in surface science, some milestones in the further development and basic understanding are presented. The mutual interaction between CBE/MOMBE as a deposition technique and other fields of surface science is described as well as the impact on the deposition technology of other semiconductors (e.g. for Si-based material systems). Future prospects of CBE are finally discussed, particularly in comparison with the competing techniques MBE and MOCVD (metal-organic chemical vapor deposition).

  14. 8th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains review articles written by the invited speakers at the eighth International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS 1987), held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in August of 1987. During the course of ISISS, invited speakers, all internationally recognized experts in the various fields of surface science, present tutorial review lectures. In addition, these experts are asked to write review articles on their lecture topic. Former ISISS speakers serve as advisors concerning the selection of speakers and lecture topics. Em­ phasis is given to those areas which have not been covered in depth by recent Summer Institutes, as well as to areas which have recently gained in significance and in which important progress has been made. Because of space limitations, no individual volume of Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the whole area of modem surface science, or even give a complete survey of recent pro­ gress in the field. However, an attempt is made to pres...

  15. Virtual tool mark generation for efficient striation analysis in forensic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrand, Laura [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, a National Academy of Sciences report called for investigation into the scienti c basis behind tool mark comparisons (National Academy of Sciences, 2009). Answering this call, Chumbley et al. (2010) attempted to prove or disprove the hypothesis that tool marks are unique to a single tool. They developed a statistical algorithm that could, in most cases, discern matching and non-matching tool marks made at di erent angles by sequentially numbered screwdriver tips. Moreover, in the cases where the algorithm misinterpreted a pair of marks, an experienced forensics examiner could discern the correct outcome. While this research served to con rm the basic assumptions behind tool mark analysis, it also suggested that statistical analysis software could help to reduce the examiner's workload. This led to a new tool mark analysis approach, introduced in this thesis, that relies on 3D scans of screwdriver tip and marked plate surfaces at the micrometer scale from an optical microscope. These scans are carefully cleaned to remove noise from the data acquisition process and assigned a coordinate system that mathematically de nes angles and twists in a natural way. The marking process is then simulated by using a 3D graphics software package to impart rotations to the tip and take the projection of the tip's geometry in the direction of tool travel. The edge of this projection, retrieved from the 3D graphics software, becomes a virtual tool mark. Using this method, virtual marks are made at increments of 5 and compared to a scan of the evidence mark. The previously developed statistical package from Chumbley et al. (2010) performs the comparison, comparing the similarity of the geometry of both marks to the similarity that would occur due to random chance. The resulting statistical measure of the likelihood of the match informs the examiner of the angle of the best matching virtual mark, allowing the examiner to focus his/her mark analysis on a smaller range of angles

  16. LOW-TEMPERATURE SURFACE HARDENING FOR DIAMOND TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shmatov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of cutting diamond tools subjected to thermo-hydro-chemical treatment are examined in the paper. The process involves a chemical treatment of tools in a specially prepared aqueous suspension of oxides Ti, Mo and other ingredients and subsequent heat treatment (minimal process temperature 130 °C. Thermo-hydro-chemical method permits to increase a wear resistance of cutting diamond tools by the factor of 1.3–4.0 in comparison with traditional one.

  17. Surface Roughness of Composite Panels as a Quality Control Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ulker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study of the quantify surface roughness of experimentally manufactured particleboards and sandwiched panels having fibers on the surface layers. Surface quality of specimens before and after being overlaid with thin melamine impregnated papers was determined by employing profilometer equipment. Roughness measurements and Janka hardness were carried out on the specimens conditioned at 60% and 95% relative humidity levels. Based on the findings in this work, surface roughness of the specimens that were exposed two relative humidity exposure showed significant differences from each others. Data determined in this study could be beneficial to understand behavior of such panels exposed different humidity levels.

  18. Scenario planning: a tool for academic health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan; Giesecke, Joan; Walton, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Review the International Campaign to Revitalise Academic Medicine (ICRAM) Future Scenarios as a potential starting point for developing scenarios to envisage plausible futures for health sciences libraries. At an educational workshop, 15 groups, each composed of four to seven Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) directors and AAHSL/NLM Fellows, created plausible stories using the five ICRAM scenarios. Participants created 15 plausible stories regarding roles played by health sciences librarians, how libraries are used and their physical properties in response to technology, scholarly communication, learning environments and health care economic changes. Libraries are affected by many forces, including economic pressures, curriculum and changes in technology, health care delivery and scholarly communications business models. The future is likely to contain ICRAM scenario elements, although not all, and each, if they come to pass, will impact health sciences libraries. The AAHSL groups identified common features in their scenarios to learn lessons for now. The hope is that other groups find the scenarios useful in thinking about academic health science library futures.

  19. Art and Science the Inseparable Tools of Effective Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfitt, A.; Thompson, L.

    The traditional view in outreach activities is to perceive space and planetary science in education as belonging to two main user groups; primary school, where space is explored as a thematic topic at a simple level, and upper secondary school where it comes into its own as a subject domain in astronomy, cosmology or as a small optional extension of a wider physics curriculum. However the arts (the wider humanities) and the sciences are closely bound together, both historically and in education practice. Traditionally men of science were also men of art and poetry and culture. They were rational and enlightened scholars. Astronomy and planetary science have not lost any of this value in modern education terms. It as relevant today to the performing arts, to history, geography, literature and language as it always has been. Historically it is only recently that sciences and arts have grown formally apart. Astronomy and space appears across the breadth and depth of formal and `hidden' curricula. It supports knowledge and skill bases; it is relevant to every subject from religion to international relations; it is evident in all manner of hands-on and field visit activities and is practiced in all countries. Using a multi disciplinary approach will increase the effectiveness of any outreach effort by a hundred fold. This paper describes the mutuality between the arts and the sciences as practiced in education; it highlights classroom interconnectivity between subject disciplines, knowledge and skill bases; it illustrates approaches and techniques for utilising surprising opportunities within formal and informal fields that considerably enhance outreach effort. It acknowledges the already heavy work load of the scientist and the very real constraints of time, mandates, resources, finance; it provides realistic methods, techniques and opportunities for the noneducation specialist to offer a wider exciting outreach and education programme.

  20. Investigation of Tooling for Anisotropic Optical Functional Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Regi, Francesco; Zhang, Yang

    is assessed by processing the images obtained from a digital microscope Hirox RH-2000 [1]. Figure 1 illustrates the studied surface structure and the microscope. The optical axis of microscope can be tilted within 90 degrees from the horizontal level, which simulates the viewing angle; the analysed surface...

  1. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  2. The impact of tool wear on the functionality of replicated polymer surface with micro structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Zhang, Yang; Regi, Francesco

    -axis micro milling ma-chine was employed to pattern the surface of a steel insert for subsequent polymer replication. In order to conduct the study, 1200 pixels (0.8 x 0.8 mm2) was machined on the surface of a steel insert using the same mill tool (Ф0.5 mm, ARNO®); each of the pixels contains16 ridges which...... is illustrated in figure 1 (a). The obtained surface structures were replicated using liquid silicon rubber (LSR). The mill tool was inspected by scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after the machining. Noticeable wear was observed. The weight of the studied tool was measured before and after machining......Wear happened frequently in the tooling process of mold for polymer production. The scope of this paper is to understand how the wear of the milling tool affected the function of the replicated polymer surface. This study is part of the process chain of fabrication of optical functional surfaces...

  3. Gender Theory as a Tool for Analyzing Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kristina; Hussenius, Anita; Gustafsson, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This study examines to what extent experienced teachers are aware of gender issues in the science classroom. It also explores how an introduction to gender theory might alter this awareness. Teachers wrote their reflections about a real classroom situation. They were then asked to analyse the same situation after having read texts that discussed…

  4. Propositional Analysis: A Tool for Library and Information Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the use of propositional analysis in library and information science research. Evidence that different analysts produce similar judgments about texts and use the method consistently over time is presented, and it is concluded that propositional analysis is a reliable and valid research method. An example of an analysis is appended. (32…

  5. Crossword Puzzles as Learning Tools in Introductory Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.

    2010-01-01

    Students in introductory courses generally respond favorably to novel approaches to learning. To this end, I developed and used three crossword puzzles in spring and fall 2009 semesters in Introductory Soil Science Laboratory at Colorado State University. The first hypothesis was that crossword puzzles would improve introductory soil science…

  6. Science comics as tools for science education and communication: a brief, exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tatalovic

    2009-01-01

    Comics are a popular art form especially among children and as such provide a potential medium for science education and communication. In an attempt to present science comics in a museum exhibit I found many science themed comics and graphic books. Here I attempt to provide an overview of already available comics that communicate science, the genre of ‘science comics’. I also provide a quick literature review for evidence that comics can indeed be efficiently used for promoting scientific li...

  7. A quantitative method to estimate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosen, B-G [Halmstad University, The Functional Surfaces Research Group, Box 823, SE-301 18 HALMSTAD (Sweden); Sandberg, A, E-mail: sabina.rebeggiani@hh.se [Uddeholms AB, SE-683 85 Hagfors (Sweden)

    2011-08-19

    Visual estimations are today the most common way to assess the surface quality of moulds and dies; a method that are both subjective and, with today's high demands on surfaces, hardly usable to distinguish between the finest surface qualities. Instead a method based on non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis is suggested. Several types of tool steel samples, manually as well as machine polished, were analysed to study different types of surface defects such as pitting, orange peel and outwardly features. The classification of the defect structures serves as a catalogue where known defects are described. Suggestions of different levels of 'high surface quality' defined in numerical values adapted to high gloss polished tool steel surfaces are presented. The final goal is to develop a new manual that can work as a 'standard' for estimations of tool steel surfaces for steel producers, mould makers, polishers etc.

  8. The Influence of the Tool Surface Texture on Friction and the Surface Layers Properties of Formed Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šugárová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological texturing of forming tool surfaces has high potential to reduce friction and tool wear and also has impact on the surface layers properties of formed material. In order to understand the effect of different types of tool textures, produced by nanosecond fibre laser, on the tribological conditions at the interface tool-formed material and on the integrity of formed part surface layers, the series of experimental investigations have been carried out. The coefficient of friction for different texture parameters (individual feature shape, including the depth profile of the cavities and orientation of the features relative to the material flow was evaluated via a Ring Test and the surface layers integrity of formed material (surface roughness and subsurface micro hardness was also experimentally analysed. The results showed a positive effect of surface texturing on the friction coefficients and the strain hardening of test samples material. Application of surface texture consisting of dimple-like depressions arranged in radial layout contributed to the most significant friction reduction of about 40%. On the other hand, this surface texture contributed to the increase of surface roughness parameters, Ra parameter increased from 0.49 μm to 2.19 μm and the Rz parameter increased from 0.99 μm to 16.79 μm.

  9. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  10. In-Service Science Teachers' and the Use of Multimedia as a Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyaw, Y.; Quansah, E.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the attitudes of in-service teachers' towards the use of multimedia as a tool for science teaching in Junior High Schools in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The population sample consisted of 100 Junior High School (JHS) science teachers made up of 60 urban teachers and 40 rural teachers from three selected districts…

  11. An Online Image Analysis Tool for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeside, L.; Busschots, B.; Waddington, S.; Keating, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an online image analysis tool developed as part of an iterative, user-centered development of an online Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) called the Education through Virtual Experience (EVE) Portal. The VLE provides a Web portal through which schoolchildren and their teachers create scientific proposals, retrieve images and…

  12. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Surface Management System (SMS), developed by NASA Ames Research Center in cooperation with the FAA, has received wide and significant acceptance by the air...

  13. Special issue on enabling open and interoperable access to Planetary Science and Heliophysics databases and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The large amount of data generated by modern space missions calls for a change of organization of data distribution and access procedures. Although long term archives exist for telescopic and space-borne observations, high-level functions need to be developed on top of these repositories to make Planetary Science and Heliophysics data more accessible and to favor interoperability. Results of simulations and reference laboratory data also need to be integrated to support and interpret the observations. Interoperable software and interfaces have recently been developed in many scientific domains. The Virtual Observatory (VO) interoperable standards developed for Astronomy by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) can be adapted to Planetary Sciences, as demonstrated by the VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) team within the Europlanet-H2020-RI project. Other communities have developed their own standards: GIS (Geographic Information System) for Earth and planetary surfaces tools, SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) for space plasma, PDS4 (NASA Planetary Data System, version 4) and IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) for planetary mission archives, etc, and an effort to make them interoperable altogether is starting, including automated workflows to process related data from different sources.

  14. The Tools Used by Science Teachers and Their Relevance to Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş KUBAT

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the views of science teachers on the use of tools in the learning-teaching process. Well-designed tools provide a rich learning environment. In this research qualitative research method was used. Semi-structured interview form was used as data collection tool. The working group consisted of 16 science teachers. According to the findings of the research, teachers use the most experimental materials as tools and teaching materials and 4 + 4 + 4 system creates problems for tools and materials. In addition, teachers have emphasized the problem of lack of material development. They indicated that well designed tools contribute to the achievement of objectives

  15. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  16. Separated isotopes: vital tools for science and medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Deliberations and conclusions of a Workshop on Stable Isotopes and Derived Radioisotopes organized by the Subcommittee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry of the National Research Council's Committee on Chemical Sciences at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) are summarized. The workshop was jointly supported by the National Institutes of Health and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. An overview with three recommendations resulting from the Workshop is followed by reports of the four Workshop panels. Background papers were prepared by individuals on the Steering Committee and made available to all participants prior to the Workshop. They are reproduced as Appendixes 3 to 8. Short reports on alternate separation techniques were presented at the Workshop and are reproduced in Appendixes 9 to 11.

  17. Separated isotopes: vital tools for science and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Deliberations and conclusions of a Workshop on Stable Isotopes and Derived Radioisotopes organized by the Subcommittee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry of the National Research Council's Committee on Chemical Sciences at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) are summarized. The workshop was jointly supported by the National Institutes of Health and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. An overview with three recommendations resulting from the Workshop is followed by reports of the four Workshop panels. Background papers were prepared by individuals on the Steering Committee and made available to all participants prior to the Workshop. They are reproduced as Appendixes 3 to 8. Short reports on alternate separation techniques were presented at the Workshop and are reproduced in Appendixes 9 to 11

  18. Citizen Science as a Tool for Mosquito Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Sorensen, Amanda E; Ladeau, Shannon

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we share our findings from a 2-year citizen science program called Mosquito Stoppers. This pest-oriented citizen science project is part of a larger coupled natural-human systems project seeking to understand the fundamental drivers of mosquito population density and spatial variability in potential exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens in a matrix of human construction, urban renewal, and individual behaviors. Focusing on residents in West Baltimore, participants were recruited through neighborhood workshops and festivals. Citizen scientists participated in yard surveys of potential mosquito habitat and in evaluating mosquito nuisance. We found that citizen scientists, with minimal education and training, were able to accurately collect data that reflect trends found in a comparable researcher-generated database.

  19. Biomagnetism: a new tool in sport and exercise science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael J

    2003-10-01

    Biomagnetometry is a non-invasive technique for detecting magnetic fields associated with the electrophysiology and magnetic susceptibility of body tissues. The aims of this paper are to provide a review of the discipline of biomagnetism and its measurement using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), and to discuss the potential utility of this technique in sport and exercise science. A tutorial section is presented to provide an introduction to the theory and practical application of SQUID biomagnetometry. A review of the biomagnetism literature demonstrates the variety of previous biomagnetic investigations and suggests several potential applications of biomagnetometry in sport and exercise science. A discussion of these includes an assessment of the advantages of measuring biomagnetic fields as opposed to electrical potentials, with particular reference to the improved precision and accuracy of physiological source modelling using biomagnetic data. There is evidence to suggest that SQUID biomagnetometry would provide useful (and perhaps unique) information on functional, anatomical and physiological assessments in sport and exercise science. Further investigations of biomagnetometry in this discipline should focus on three main areas: cardiology, encephalography and neurology, and body composition assessment.

  20. Nuclear stimulated desorption as a potential tool for surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir, Dror.

    1993-03-01

    The described research work constitutes a base for an experimental method to be implemented in the study of solid surfaces. Nuclear Stimulated Desorption (NSD) is a new mode of experimentation in thin film and surface physics. It Is based on the interplay between nuclear phenomena (reactions and spontaneous decays), and atomic - scale induced effects on surfaces and very thin films. One may distinguish between two generically different relationships between the two. First, the dynamics of the nuclear reaction -primarily the recoil of the nucleus - may effect the position of the atom or molecule containing it. Second, the nuclear reaction (or decay) may serve as an analytical indicator of the whereabouts of the atom, or molecule, in question. In nuclear stimulated desorption, both thee aspects combine in an essential way. Namely, one employs a series of two consecutive decays (normally weak decays or isomeric transition) . The first of these decays causes the nucleus to desorb from a surface onto which it had been placed; the second serves to determine the position of the daughter and thereby the characteristics of the primary desorption . The essential feature in NSD is that it occurs almost exclusively from the outermost surface layer. This is because we choose to work with nuclei whose recoil energy Is of the same order of magnitude of the binding energy of the atom to the surface . Furthermore, the desorption probability and its angular (and temporal) characteristics, depend on the features (topology, morphology) of its immediate neighborhood. This work describes experiments which were designed to give relevant, phenomenological information about the outgoing flux of the radioactive daughters (for specifically chosen nuclear species) , and in particular the magnitude of the flux, its time dependence and its charged state. In addition. the basic phenomena itself is being distinguished from competing processes (thermal desorption, in particular). We will now

  1. Semantic Web applications and tools for the life sciences: SWAT4LS 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott; Splendiani, Andrea

    2012-01-25

    As Semantic Web technologies mature and new releases of key elements, such as SPARQL 1.1 and OWL 2.0, become available, the Life Sciences continue to push the boundaries of these technologies with ever more sophisticated tools and applications. Unsurprisingly, therefore, interest in the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for the Life Sciences) activities have remained high, as was evident during the third international SWAT4LS workshop held in Berlin in December 2010. Contributors to this workshop were invited to submit extended versions of their papers, the best of which are now made available in the special supplement of BMC Bioinformatics. The papers reflect the wide range of work in this area, covering the storage and querying of Life Sciences data in RDF triple stores, tools for the development of biomedical ontologies and the semantics-based integration of Life Sciences as well as clinicial data.

  2. Effect of different machining processes on the tool surface integrity and fatigue life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chuan Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang (China); Zhang, Xianglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Ultra-precision grinding, wire-cut electro discharge machining and lapping are often used to machine the tools in fine blanking industry. And the surface integrity from these machining processes causes great concerns in the research field. To study the effect of processing surface integrity on the fine blanking tool life, the surface integrity of different tool materials under different processing conditions and its influence on fatigue life were thoroughly analyzed in the present study. The result shows that the surface integrity of different materials was quite different on the same processing condition. For the same tool material, the surface integrity on varying processing conditions was quite different too and deeply influenced the fatigue life.

  3. Surface science in hernioplasty: The role of plasma treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Magnacca, Giuliana; Martorana, Selanna

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this review is to clarify the importance of surface modifications induced in biomaterials for hernia-repair application. Starting from the pioneering experiences involving proto-materials as ancient prosthesis, a historical excursus between the biomaterials used in hernioplasty was realized. Subsequently, after the revolutionary discovery of stereoregular polymerization followed by the PP application in the biomedical field performed by the surgeon F. Usher, a comparative study on different hernia-repair meshes available was realized in order to better understand all the outstanding problems and possible future developments. Furthermore, since many unsolved problems on prosthetic devices implantation are linked to phenomena occurring at the interface between the biomaterials surface and the body fluids, the importance of surface science in hernioplasty was highlighted and case studies of new surface-modified generations of prosthesis presented. The results discussed in the following evidence how the surface study are becoming increasingly important for a proper knowledge of issues related to the interaction between the living matter and the artificial prostheses.

  4. Reducing Motional Decoherence in Ion Traps with Surface Science Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Many trapped ions experiments ask for low motional heating rates while trapping the ions close to trapping electrodes. However, in practice small ion-electrode distances lead to unexpected high heating rates. While the mechanisms for the heating is still unclear, it is now evident that surface contamination of the metallic electrodes is at least partially responsible for the elevated heating rates. I will discuss heating rate measurements in a microfabricated surface trap complemented with basic surface science studies. We monitor the elemental surface composition of the Cu-Al alloy trap with an Auger spectrometer. After bake-out, we find a strong Carbon and Oxygen contamination and heating rates of 200 quanta/s at 1 MHz trap frequency. After removing most of the Carbon and Oxygen with Ar-Ion sputtering, the heating rates drop to 4 quanta/s. Interestingly, we still measure the decreased heating rate even after the surface oxidized from the background gas throughout a 40-day waiting time in UHV.

  5. The Effectiveness of Traditional and 21st Century Teaching Tools on Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellflower, Julie V.

    Any student seeking a high school diploma from the public school system in one U.S. state must pass the state's high school graduation test. In 2009, only 88% of students at one high school in the state met the basic proficiency requirements on the science portion of the test. Because improved science education has been identified as an explicit national goal, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine whether traditional teaching tools (notes, lecture, and textbook) or 21st century teaching tools (online tutorials, video games, YouTube, and virtual labs) lead to greater gains in students' science learning. Bruner's constructivist and Bandura's social cognitive theories served as the foundations for the study. Quantitative research questions were used to investigate the relationship between the type of teaching tools used and student learning gains. Quantitative data from students' pre and posttests were collected and analyzed using a dependent samples t-test. Qualitative data were collected through a focus group interview and participant journals. Analysis of the qualitative data included coding the data and writing a descriptive narrative to convey the findings. Results showed no statistically significant differences in students' science achievement: both types of teaching tools led to student learning gains. As a result, an action plan was developed to assist science educators in the implementation of traditional and 21st century teaching tools that can be used to improve students' science learning. Implications for positive social change included providing science educators with a specific plan of action that will enhance students' science learning, thereby increasing science scores on the state and other high stakes tests.

  6. Math tools 500+ applications in science and arts

    CERN Document Server

    Glaeser, Georg

    2017-01-01

    In this book, topics such as algebra, trigonometry, calculus and statistics are brought to life through over 500 applications ranging from biology, physics and chemistry to astronomy, geography and music. With over 600 illustrations emphasizing the beauty of mathematics, Math Tools complements more theoretical textbooks on the market, bringing the subject closer to the reader and providing a useful reference to students. By highlighting the ubiquity of mathematics in practical fields, the book will appeal not only to students and teachers, but to anyone with a keen interest in mathematics and its applications.

  7. Citizen Science as a Tool for Conservation in Residential Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as mining, forestry, and agriculture, strongly influence processes in natural systems. Because conservation has focused on managing and protecting wildlands, research has focused on understanding the indirect influence of these human activities on wildlands. Although a conservation focus on wildlands is critically important, the concept of residential area as an ecosystem is relatively new, and little is known about the potential of such areas to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. As urban sprawl increases, it becomes urgent to construct a method to research and improve the impacts of management strategies for residential landscapes. If the cumulative activities of individual property owners could help conserve biodiversity, then residential matrix management could become a critical piece of the conservation puzzle. "Citizen science" is a method of integrating public outreach and scientific data collection locally, regionally, and across large geographic scales. By involving citizen participants directly in monitoring and active management of residential lands, citizen science can generate powerful matrix management efforts, defying the "tyranny of small decisions" and leading to positive, cumulative, and measurable impacts on biodiversity.

  8. Separated isotopes: vital tools for science and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the deliberations and conclusions of a Workshop on Stable Isotopes and Derived Radioisotopes organized by the Subcommittee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry of the National Research Council's Committee on Chemical Sciences at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE). The workshop was jointly supported by the National Institutes of Health and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. An Overview with three recommendations resulting from the Workshop, prepared by the Steering Committee, is followed by Chapters 1 to 4, reports of the following four Workshop panels: (1) panel on research applications in physics, chemistry and geoscience; (2) panel on commercial applications; (3) panel on biomedical research applications; (4) panel on clinical applications. Background papers were prepared by individuals on the Steering Committee and made available to all participants prior to the Workshop. They proved of great value and are reproduced as Appendixes 3 to 8. Short reports on alternate separation techniques were presented at the Workshop and are reproduced in Appendixes 9 to 11. Selected papers have been abstracted and indexed

  9. Explorers of the Universe: Metacognitive Tools for Learning Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Marino C.

    1998-01-01

    Much of school learning consists of rote memorization of facts with little emphasis on meaningful interpretations. Knowledge construction is reduced to factual knowledge production with little regard for critical thinking, problem solving, or clarifying misconceptions. An important role of a middle and secondary teacher when teaching science is to aid students' ability to reflect upon what they know about a given topic and make available strategies that will enhance their understanding of text and science experiments. Developing metacognition, the ability to monitor one's own knowledge about a topic of study and to activate appropriate strategies, enhances students' learning when faced with reading, writing and problem solving situations. Two instructional strategies that can involve students in developing metacognitive awareness are hierarchical concept mapping, and Vee diagrams. Concept maps enable students to organize their ideas and reveal visually these ideas to others. A Vee diagram is a structured visual means of relating the methodological aspects of an activity to its underlying conceptual aspect in ways that aid learners in meaningful understanding of scientific investigations.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND TOOL FLANK WEAR IN TURNING OF AISI 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WITH CVD COATED TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KALADHAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel is a popularly used grade in the various fields of manufacturing because of its high ductility, high durability and excellent corrosion resistance. High work hardening, low heat conductivity and high built up edge (BUE formation made this as difficult-to- machine material. Poor surface quality and rapid tool wear are the common problems encountered while machining it. In the present work, an attempt has been made to explore the influence of machining parameters on the performance measures, surface roughness and flank wear in turning of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with a two layer Chemical vapour deposition(CVD coated tool. In order to achieve this, Taguchi approach has been employed. The results revealed that the cutting speed most significantly, influences both surface roughness and flank wear. In addition to this the optimal setting of process parameters and optimal ranges of performance measures are predicted.

  11. Science comics as tools for science education and communication: a brief, exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatalovic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comics are a popular art form especially among children and as such provide a potential medium for science education and communication. In an attempt to present science comics in a museum exhibit I found many science themed comics and graphic books. Here I attempt to provide an overview of already available comics that communicate science, the genre of ‘science comics’. I also provide a quick literature review for evidence that comics can indeed be efficiently used for promoting scientific literacy via education and communication. I address the issue of lack of studies about science comics and their readers and suggest some possible reasons for this as well as some questions that could be addressed in future studies on the effect these comics may have on science communication.

  12. Laser-induced plasma spectrometry: truly a surface analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadillo, Jose M.; Laserna, J.

    2004-01-01

    For a long period, analytical applications of laser induced plasma spectrometry (LIPS) have been mainly restricted to overall and quantitative determination of elemental composition in bulk, solid samples. However, introduction of new compact and reliable solid state lasers and technological development in multidimensional intensified detectors have made possible the seeking of new analytical niches for LIPS where its analytical advantages (direct sampling from any material irrespective of its conductive status without sample preparation and with sensitivity adequate for many elements in different matrices) could be fully exploited. In this sense, the field of surface analysis could take advantage from the cited advantages taking into account in addition, the capability of LIPS for spot analysis, line scan, depth-profiling, area analysis and compositional mapping with a single instrument in air at atmospheric pressure. This review paper outlines the fundamental principles of laser-induced plasma emission relevant to sample surface studies, discusses the experimental parameters governing the spatial (lateral and in-depth) resolution in LIPS analysis and presents the applications concerning surface examination

  13. Design Science Methodology Applied to a Chemical Surveillance Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhuanyi; Han, Kyungsik; Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Henry, Michael J.

    2017-05-11

    Public health surveillance systems gain significant benefits from integrating existing early incident detection systems,supported by closed data sources, with open source data.However, identifying potential alerting incidents relies on finding accurate, reliable sources and presenting the high volume of data in a way that increases analysts work efficiency; a challenge for any system that leverages open source data. In this paper, we present the design concept and the applied design science research methodology of ChemVeillance, a chemical analyst surveillance system.Our work portrays a system design and approach that translates theoretical methodology into practice creating a powerful surveillance system built for specific use cases.Researchers, designers, developers, and related professionals in the health surveillance community can build upon the principles and methodology described here to enhance and broaden current surveillance systems leading to improved situational awareness based on a robust integrated early warning system.

  14. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    This issue is dedicated to Karl-Heinz Rieder on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It contains contributions written by his former students and colleagues from all over the world. Experimental techniques based on free electrons, such as photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy and low energy electron diffraction (LEED), were foundational to surface science. While the first revealed the band structures of materials, the second provided nanometer scale imagery and the latter elucidated the atomic scale periodicity of surfaces. All required an (ultra-)high vacuum, and LEED illustrated impressively that adsorbates, such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen or oxygen, can markedly and periodically restructure surfaces from their bulk termination, even at pressures ten orders of magnitude or more below atmospheric. Yet these techniques were not generally able to reveal atomic scale surface defects, nor could they faithfully show adsorption of light atoms such as hydrogen. Although a complete atom, helium can also be regarded as a wave with a de Broglie wavelength that allows the study of surface atomic periodicities at a delicateness and sensitivity exceeding that of electrons-based techniques. In combination, these and other techniques generated insight into the periodicity of surfaces and their vibrational properties, yet were limited to simple and periodic surface setups. All that changed with the advent of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) roughly 30 years ago, allowing real space access to surface defects and individual adsorbates. Applied at low temperatures, not only can STM establish a height profile of surfaces, but can also perform spectroscopy and serve as an actuator capable of rearranging individual species at atomic scale resolution. The direct and intuitive manner in which STM provided access as a spectator and as an actor to the atomic scale was foundational to today's surface science and to the development of the concepts of nanoscience in general. The

  15. Soils in art as a teaching tool in soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Rosa M.

    2017-04-01

    The representation of soils in the different artistic expressions occurs much less often than that of other naturalistic scientific disciplines, like botany or zoology, due to the minor perception of soils as a natural body since the humans started to express themselves through art. Nevertheless, painters, writers and even musicians and film directors have been forced to deal with soils in their works, as a component of the landscape and as the main actor of the various soil functions. Even if the artists are not aware of soils in the sense of soil science - a study object - their observation of nature invariably leads to express their properties, the problems due to their misuse or degradation and their management practices. These art works have a great value when teaching soil science to students, because the latter can learn to intepret and go beyond the artist's observation and therefore they can appreciate the perception of soils and soil properties along the history of humankind. Paintings from various periods can be used as exercises, mainly those depicting landscapes or agricultural works. Some examples are Dutch landscape painters, as Brueghel the Young showing detailed soil erosion features; or Wijnants (XVII century) depicting very clear podzols on sand dunes. Also the impressionists (Van Gogh, Cézanne, Gaugin), or the landscapes of the romantic nationalists (XIX- early XX century) show forest or agricultural soils that can be used either to deduce soil forming processes and describe horizons, or to discuss the effectivity of soil management practices (deforestation, burning, plowing, terracing). Also some pieces of literature can be used either for illustrating real soil landscapes and soil-water relationships (Steinbeck's "The Grapes of Wrath") or in case of fiction literature, as exercice for soil mapping (Tolkien's Middle Earth in "The Hobbit" and "The Lord of the Rings"). Films as "The field" (Jim Sheridan, 1990) or "Corn Island" (George Ovasvili

  16. Catalog of Existing Small Tools for Surface Preparation and Support Equipment for Blasters and Painters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peart, John; Unthank, H. D

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to provide supervisors of shipyard surface preparation and coating operators with a catalog of the small tools and support equipment used by blasters and painters...

  17. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  18. EDITORIAL: Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    Three decades ago, with a tiny tip of platinum, the scientific world saw the real space imaging of single atoms with unprecedented spatial resolution. This signalled the birth of one of the most versatile surface probes, based on the physics of quantum mechanical tunnelling: the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). Invented in 1981 by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of IBM, Zurich, it led to their award of the 1986 Nobel Prize. Atoms, once speculated to be abstract entities used by theoreticians for mere calculations, can be seen to exist for real with the nano-eye of an STM tip that also gives real-space images of molecules and adsorbed complexes on surfaces. From a very fundamental perspective, the STM changed the course of surface science and engineering. STM also emerged as a powerful tool to study various fundamental phenomena relevant to the properties of surfaces in technological applications such as tribology, medical implants, catalysis, sensors and biology—besides elucidating the importance of local bonding geometries and defects, non-periodic structures and the co-existence of nano-scale phases. Atom-level probing, once considered a dream, has seen the light with the evolution of STM. An important off-shoot of STM was the atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface mapping of insulating samples. Then followed the development of a flurry of techniques under the general name of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These techniques (STM, AFM, MFM, PFM etc) designed for atomic-scale-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, have led to brand new developments in surface analysis. All of these novel methods enabled researchers in recent years to image and analyse complex surfaces on microscopic and nanoscopic scales. All of them utilize a small probe for sensing the surface. The invention of AFM by Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate and Christopher Gerber opened up new opportunities for characterization of a variety of materials, and various industrial applications could be

  19. Surface and catalysis science in the Materials and Molecular Research Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Surface science studies at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are detailed. Subject areas include: structure of surfaces and adsorbed monolayers; reduction and oxidation of surfaces; catalytic chemistry; and structure of interfaces and thin films

  20. Statistical analysis of surface roughness in turning based on cutting parameters and tool vibrations with response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Soufiane; Mekhilef, Slimane

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study to determine the effect of the cutting conditions and tool vibration on the surface roughness in finish turning of 32CrMoV12-28 steel, using carbide cutting tool YT15. For these purposes, a linear quadratic model in interaction of connecting surface roughness (Ra, Rz) with different combinations of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool vibration, in radial and in tangential cutting force directions (Vy) and (Vz) is elaborated. In order to express the degree of interaction of cutting parameters and tool vibration, a multiple linear regression and response surface methodology are adopted. The application of this statistical technique for predicting the surface roughness shows that the feed rate is the most dominant factor followed by the cutting speed. However, the depth of the cut and tool vibrations have secondary effect. The presented models have some interest since they are used in the cutting process optimization.

  1. Surface characteristics analysis of dry EDMed AISI D2 steel using modified tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pragadish, N.; Kumar, M. Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A modified tool design is proposed which helps in drilling holes without any central core, and also enables the effective removal of the debris particles. Experiments were conducted on AISI D2 Steel using copper electrode as tool in both conventional EDM and dry EDM processes and the performance of both processes is compared. Experiments were designed using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Discharge current (I), gap voltage (V), pulse on time (T ON ), gas pressure (P) and tool rotational speed (N) were chosen as the various input parameters, and their effect on the material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface morphology, microstructure and elemental composition of the machined surface is analyzed. The experimental results show better surface characteristics in the surface machined under dry EDM process.

  2. USGS Science Data Life Cycle Tools - Lessons Learned in moving to the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, M. T.; Mancuso, T.; Hutchison, V.; Zolly, L.; Wheeler, B.; Urbanowski, S.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) Core Science Systems has been working for the past year to design, re-architect, and implement several key tools and systems within the USGS Cloud Hosting Service supported by Amazon Web Services (AWS). As a result of emerging USGS data management policies that align with federal Open Data mandates, and as part of a concerted effort to respond to potential increasing user demand due to these policies, the USGS strategically began migrating its core data management tools and services to the AWS environment in hopes of leveraging cloud capabilities (i.e. auto-scaling, replication, etc.). The specific tools included: USGS Online Metadata Editor (OME); USGS Digital Object Identifier (DOI) generation tool; USGS Science Data Catalog (SDC); USGS ScienceBase system; and an integrative tool, the USGS Data Release Workbench, which steps bureau personnel through the process of releasing data. All of these tools existed long before the Cloud was available and presented significant challenges in migrating, re-architecting, securing, and moving to a Cloud based environment. Initially, a `lift and shift' approach, essentially moving as is, was attempted and various lessons learned about that approach will be discussed, along with recommendations that resulted from the development and eventual operational implementation of these tools. The session will discuss lessons learned related to management of these tools in an AWS environment; re-architecture strategies utilized for the tools; time investments through sprint allocations; initial benefits observed from operating within a Cloud based environment; and initial costs to support these data management tools.

  3. On Biblical Hebrew and Computer Science: Inspiration, Models, Tools, And Cross-fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Eep Talstra's work has been an inspiration to maby researchers, both within and outside of the field of Old Testament scholarship. Among others, Crist-Jan Doedens and the present author have been heavily influenced by Talstra in their own work within the field of computer science. The present...... of the present author. In addition, the tools surrounding Emdros, including SESB, Libronis, and the Emdros Query Tool, are described. Ecamples Biblical Hebrew scholar. Thus the inspiration of Talstra comes full-circle: from Biblical Hebrew databases to computer science and back into Biblical Hebrew scholarship....

  4. Getting The Picture: Our Changing Climate- A new learning tool for climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, K.; Balog, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Earth Vision Trust (EVT), founded by James Balog- photographer and scientist, has developed a free, online, multimedia climate science education tool for students and educators. Getting The Picture (GTP) creates a new learning experience, drawing upon powerful archives of Extreme Ice Survey's unique photographs and time-lapse videos of changing glaciers around the world. GTP combines the latest in climate science through interactive tools that make the basic scientific tenets of climate science accessible and easy to understand. The aim is to use a multidisciplinary approach to encourage critical thinking about the way our planet is changing due to anthropogenic activities, and to inspire students to find their own voice regarding our changing climate The essence of this resource is storytelling through the use of inspiring images, field expedition notes and dynamic multimedia tools. EVT presents climate education in a new light, illustrating the complex interaction between humans and nature through their Art + Science approach. The overarching goal is to educate and empower young people to take personal action. GTP is aligned with national educational and science standards (NGSS, CCSS, Climate Literacy) so it may be used in conventional classrooms as well as education centers, museum kiosks or anywhere with Internet access. Getting The Picture extends far beyond traditional learning to provide an engaging experience for students, educators and all those who wish to explore the latest in climate science.

  5. Integrating Contemplative Tools into Biomedical Science Education and Research Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic preparation of science researchers and/or human or veterinary medicine clinicians through the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM curriculum has usually focused on the students (1 acquiring increased disciplinary expertise, (2 learning needed methodologies and protocols, and (3 expanding their capacity for intense, persistent focus. Such educational training is effective until roadblocks or problems arise via this highly-learned approach. Then, the health science trainee may have few tools available for effective problem solving. Training to achieve flexibility, adaptability, and broadened perspectives using contemplative practices has been rare among biomedical education programs. To address this gap, a Cornell University-based program involving formal biomedical science coursework, and health science workshops has been developed to offer science students, researchers and health professionals a broader array of personal, contemplation-based, problem-solving tools. This STEM educational initiative includes first-person exercises designed to broaden perceptional awareness, decrease emotional drama, and mobilize whole-body strategies for creative problem solving. Self-calibration and journaling are used for students to evaluate the personal utility of each exercise. The educational goals are to increase student self-awareness and self-regulation and to provide trainees with value-added tools for career-long problem solving. Basic elements of this educational initiative are discussed using the framework of the Tree of Contemplative Practices.

  6. An investigation on the effect of surface characteristics on adhesion between polymer melts and replication tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Kevin D.; Kennedy, Jonathan David; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Understanding interfacial characteristics between a polymer and its associated tool surface is critical to successful optimization of processes such as injection moulding, embossing and extrusion used to produce polymer parts. One of the factors characterizing the strength of the polymer-tool int......Understanding interfacial characteristics between a polymer and its associated tool surface is critical to successful optimization of processes such as injection moulding, embossing and extrusion used to produce polymer parts. One of the factors characterizing the strength of the polymer...

  7. Grid Information Technology as a New Technological Tool for e-Science, Healthcare and Life Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Maqueira Marín

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, scientific projects require collaborative environments and powerful computing resources capable of handling huge quantities of data, which gives rise to e-Science. These requirements are evident in the need to optimise time and efforts in activities to do with health. When e-Science focuses on the collaborative handling of all the information generated in clinical medicine and health, e-Health is the result. Scientists are taking increasing interest in an emerging technology – Grid Information Technology – that may offer a solution to their current needs. The current work aims to survey how e-Science is using this technology all around the world. We also argue that the technology may provide an ideal solution for the new challenges facing e-Health and Life Science.

  8. Science Excursion As A One Of The Tool For CCE In Science Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhari, Dr. Priti

    2015-01-01

    The present world is a world of science and technology. Everything and every event happening around us demand some knowledge of simple scientific facts or principles. Learning by doing and learning by living are the two cardinal principles of teaching and same is true in case of teaching science. It is the natural urge in the children to make things, to break things and to handle things but the present curriculum does not provide ample opportunities for the students for self expression, indep...

  9. A software tool for simulation of surfaces generated by ball nose end milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    mathematical relationships relating surface parameters to cutting conditions are available. Basic models of kinematical roughness, determined by the tool profile and the pattern of relative motions of tool and workpiece, have been so far not reliable. The actual roughness may be more than five times higher due...... readable by a surface processor software (SPIP [2]), for calculation of a number of surface roughness parameters. In the next paragraph a description of the basic features of ball nose end milled surfaces is given, while in paragraph 3 the model is described.......The number of models available for prediction of surface topography is very limited. The main reason is that these models cannot be based on engineering principles like those for elastic deformations. Most knowledge about surface roughness and integrity is empirical and up to now very few...

  10. Hydrologic Science and Satellite Measurements of Surface Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    While significant advances continue to be made for satellite measurements of surface waters, important science and application opportunities remain. Examples include the following: (1) Our current methods of measuring floodwater dynamics are either sparsely distributed or temporally inadequate. As an example, flood depths are measured by using high water marks, which capture only the peak of the flood wave, not its temporal variability. (2) Discharge is well measured at individual points along stream networks using in-situ gauges, but these do not capture within-reach hydraulic variability such as the water surface slope changes on the rising and falling limbs of flood waves. (3) Just a 1.0 mm/day error in ET over the Congo Basin translates to a 35,000 m3/s discharge error. Knowing the discharge of the Congo River and its many tributaries should significantly improve our understanding of the water balance throughout the basin. The Congo is exemplary of many other basins around the globe. (4) Arctic hydrology is punctuated by millions of unmeasured lakes. Globally, there might be as many as 30 million lakes larger than a hectare. Storage changes in these lakes are nearly unknown, but in the Arctic such changes are likely an indication of global warming. (5) Well over 100 rivers cross international boundaries, yet the sharing of water data is poor. Overcoming this helps to better manage the entire river basin while also providing a better assessment of potential water related disasters. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) mission is designed to meet these needs by providing global measurements of surface water hydrodynamics. SWOT will allow estimates of discharge in rivers wider than 100m (50m goal) and storage changes in water bodies larger than 250m by 250m (and likely as small as one hectare).

  11. Designing high-temperature steels via surface science and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Cameron T.; Jiang, Zilin; Mathai, Allan; Chung, Yip-Wah

    2016-06-01

    Electricity in many countries such as the US and China is produced by burning fossil fuels in steam-turbine-driven power plants. The efficiency of these power plants can be improved by increasing the operating temperature of the steam generator. In this work, we adopted a combined surface science and computational thermodynamics approach to the design of high-temperature, corrosion-resistant steels for this application. The result is a low-carbon ferritic steel with nanosized transition metal monocarbide precipitates that are thermally stable, as verified by atom probe tomography. High-temperature Vickers hardness measurements demonstrated that these steels maintain their strength for extended periods at 700 °C. We hypothesize that the improved strength of these steels is derived from the semi-coherent interfaces of these thermally stable, nanosized precipitates exerting drag forces on impinging dislocations, thus maintaining strength at elevated temperatures.

  12. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  13. The influence of machining condition and cutting tool wear on surface roughness of AISI 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, A. R.; Ghani, J. A.; Che Haron, C. H.; Syarif, J.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable machining by using cryogenic coolant as the cutting fluid has been proven to enhance some machining outputs. The main objective of the current work was to investigate the influence of machining conditions; dry and cryogenic, as well as the cutting tool wear on the machined surface roughness of AISI 4340 steel. The experimental tests were performed using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coated carbide inserts. The value of machined surface roughness were measured at 3 cutting intervals; beginning, middle, and end of the cutting based on the readings of the tool flank wear. The results revealed that cryogenic turning had the greatest influence on surface roughness when machined at lower cutting speed and higher feed rate. Meanwhile, the cutting tool wear was also found to influence the surface roughness, either improving it or deteriorating it, based on the severity and the mechanism of the flank wear.

  14. Tools for Science Inquiry Learning: Tool Affordances, Experimentation Strategies, and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wieman, Carl; Blikstein, Paulo

    2017-12-01

    Manipulative environments play a fundamental role in inquiry-based science learning, yet how they impact learning is not fully understood. In a series of two studies, we develop the argument that manipulative environments (MEs) influence the kind of inquiry behaviors students engage in, and that this influence realizes through the affordances of MEs, independent of whether they are physical or virtual. In particular, we examine how MEs shape college students' experimentation strategies and conceptual understanding. In study 1, students engaged in two consecutive inquiry tasks, first on mass and spring systems and then on electric circuits. They either used virtual or physical MEs. We found that the use of experimentation strategies was strongly related to conceptual understanding across tasks, but that students engaged differently in those strategies depending on what ME they used. More students engaged in productive strategies using the virtual ME for electric circuits, and vice versa using the physical ME for mass and spring systems. In study 2, we isolated the affordance of measurement uncertainty by comparing two versions of the same virtual ME for electric circuits—one with and one without noise—and found that the conditions differed in terms of productive experimentation strategies. These findings indicate that measures of inquiry processes may resolve apparent ambiguities and inconsistencies between studies on MEs that are based on learning outcomes alone.

  15. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    -support bonding and structure, which identify the supports as ligands with electron-donor properties that influence reactivity and catalysis. Each of the catalyst design variables has been varied independently, illustrated by mononuclear and tetranuclear iridium on zeolite HY and on MgO and by isostructural rhodium and iridium (diethylene or dicarbonyl) complexes on these supports. The data provide examples resolving the roles of the catalyst design variables and place the catalysis science on a firm foundation of organometallic chemistry linked with surface science. Supported molecular catalysts offer the advantages of characterization in the absence of solvents and with surface-science methods that do not require ultrahigh vacuum. Families of supported metal complexes have been made by replacement of ligands with others from the gas phase. Spectroscopically identified catalytic reaction intermediates help to elucidate catalyst performance and guide design. The methods are illustrated for supported complexes and clusters of rhodium, iridium, osmium, and gold used to catalyze reactions of small molecules that facilitate identification of the ligands present during catalysis: alkene dimerization and hydrogenation, H-D exchange in the reaction of H2 with D2, and CO oxidation. The approach is illustrated with the discovery of a highly active and selective MgO-supported rhodium carbonyl dimer catalyst for hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene to give butenes.

  16. EFFECT OF MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICATION ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN TOOL-BASED MICROMILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yeakub Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutting fluid plays an important role in machining processes to achieve dimensional accuracy in reducing tool wear and improving the tool life. Conventional flood cooling method in machining processes is not cost effective and consumption of huge amount of cutting fluids is not healthy and environmental friendly. In micromachining, flood cooling is not recommended to avoid possible damage of the microstructures. Therefore, one of the alternatives to overcome the environmental issues to use minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL in machining process. MQL is eco-friendly and has economical advantage on manufacturing cost. However, there observed lack of study on MQL in improving machined surface roughness in micromilling. Study of the effects of MQL on surface roughness should be carried out because surface roughness is one of the important issues in micromachined parts such as microfluidic channels. This paper investigates and compares surface roughness with the presence of MQL and dry cutting in micromilling of aluminium alloy 1100 using DT-110 milling machine. The relationship among depth of cut, feed rate, and spindle speed on surface roughness is also analyzed. All three machining parameters identified as significant for surface roughness with dry cutting which are depth of cut, feed rate, and spindle speed. For surface roughness with MQL, it is found that spindle speed did not give much influence on surface roughness. The presence of MQL provides a better surface roughness by decreasing the friction between tool and workpiece.

  17. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  18. Handbook of Research on Science Education and University Outreach as a Tool for Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimharao, B. Pandu, Ed.; Wright, Elizabeth, Ed.; Prasad, Shashidhara, Ed.; Joshi, Meghana, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions play a vital role in their surrounding communities. Besides providing a space for enhanced learning opportunities, universities can utilize their resources for social and economic interests. The "Handbook of Research on Science Education and University Outreach as a Tool for Regional Development" is a…

  19. Incorporating a Soil Science Artifact into a University ePortfolio Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Elena; Werts, Joshua; Post, Christopher; Ring, Gail

    2014-01-01

    The ePortfolio is a useful educational tool that is utilized in many educational institutions to showcase student accomplishments and provide students with an opportunity to reflect on their educational progress. The objective of this study was to develop and test an artifact from an introductory soil science course to be included in the…

  20. Involving the Child in the Management of Science Museums: A Tool of Social Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo Martorell, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The participation of children in the management of science museums, following the theoretical approach of psychologist and educator Francesco Tonucci, is an effective tool both for the improvement at an internal level of the organization itself and for the implementation of a series of significant changes in the child's most immediate…

  1. Utilization of Software Tools for Uncertainty Calculation in Measurement Science Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangl, Hubert; Zine-Zine, Mariam; Hoermaier, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance, uncertainty is often neglected by practitioners in the design of system even in safety critical applications. Thus, problems arising from uncertainty may only be identified late in the design process and thus lead to additional costs. Although there exists numerous tools to support uncertainty calculation, reasons for limited usage in early design phases may be low awareness of the existence of the tools and insufficient training in the practical application. We present a teaching philosophy that addresses uncertainty from the very beginning of teaching measurement science, in particular with respect to the utilization of software tools. The developed teaching material is based on the GUM method and makes use of uncertainty toolboxes in the simulation environment. Based on examples in measurement science education we discuss advantages and disadvantages of the proposed teaching philosophy and include feedback from students

  2. Utilization of Software Tools for Uncertainty Calculation in Measurement Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangl, Hubert; Zine-Zine, Mariam; Hoermaier, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Despite its importance, uncertainty is often neglected by practitioners in the design of system even in safety critical applications. Thus, problems arising from uncertainty may only be identified late in the design process and thus lead to additional costs. Although there exists numerous tools to support uncertainty calculation, reasons for limited usage in early design phases may be low awareness of the existence of the tools and insufficient training in the practical application. We present a teaching philosophy that addresses uncertainty from the very beginning of teaching measurement science, in particular with respect to the utilization of software tools. The developed teaching material is based on the GUM method and makes use of uncertainty toolboxes in the simulation environment. Based on examples in measurement science education we discuss advantages and disadvantages of the proposed teaching philosophy and include feedback from students.

  3. Simulating the Effect of Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking On Surface Texture and Chip Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.S.; McFarland, J.T.; Tursky, D. A.; Assaid, T. S.; Barkman, W. E.; Babelay, Jr., E. F.

    2010-04-30

    One method for creating broken chips in turning processes involves oscillating the cutting tool in the feed direction utilizing the CNC machine axes. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the Y-12 National Security Complex have developed and are refining a method to reliably control surface finish and chip length based on a particular machine's dynamic performance. Using computer simulations it is possible to combine the motion of the machine axes with the geometry of the cutting tool to predict the surface characteristics and map the surface texture for a wide range of oscillation parameters. These data allow the selection of oscillation parameters to simultaneously ensure broken chips and acceptable surface characteristics. This paper describes the machine dynamic testing and characterization activities as well as the computational method used for evaluating and predicting chip length and surface texture.

  4. Surface Modeling of Workpiece and Tool Trajectory Planning for Spray Painting Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Automated tool trajectory planning for spray-painting robots is still a challenging problem, especially for a large free-form surface. A grid approximation of a free-form surface is adopted in CAD modeling in this paper. A free-form surface model is approximated by a set of flat patches. We describe here an efficient and flexible tool trajectory optimization scheme using T-Bézier curves calculated in a new way from trigonometrical bases. The distance between the spray gun and the free-form surface along the normal vector is varied. Automotive body parts, which are large free-form surfaces, are used to test the scheme. The experimental results show that the trajectory planning algorithm achieves satisfactory performance. This algorithm can also be extended to other applications. PMID:25993663

  5. Enabling Wide-Scale Computer Science Education through Improved Automated Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Bryce A.

    There is a proliferating demand for newly trained computer scientists as the number of computer science related jobs continues to increase. University programs will only be able to train enough new computer scientists to meet this demand when two things happen: when there are more primary and secondary school students interested in computer science, and when university departments have the resources to handle the resulting increase in enrollment. To meet these goals, significant effort is being made to both incorporate computational thinking into existing primary school education, and to support larger university computer science class sizes. We contribute to this effort through the creation and use of improved automated assessment tools. To enable wide-scale computer science education we do two things. First, we create a framework called Hairball to support the static analysis of Scratch programs targeted for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Scratch is a popular building-block language utilized to pique interest in and teach the basics of computer science. We observe that Hairball allows for rapid curriculum alterations and thus contributes to wide-scale deployment of computer science curriculum. Second, we create a real-time feedback and assessment system utilized in university computer science classes to provide better feedback to students while reducing assessment time. Insights from our analysis of student submission data show that modifications to the system configuration support the way students learn and progress through course material, making it possible for instructors to tailor assignments to optimize learning in growing computer science classes.

  6. Adaptive tool servo diamond turning for enhancing machining efficiency and surface quality of freeform optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet

    2015-08-10

    Fast tool servo/ slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning is a very promising technique for the generation of freeform optics. However, the currently adopted constant scheme for azimuth sampling and side-feeding motion possesses no adaptation to surface shape variation, leading to the non-uniform surface quality and low machining efficiency. To overcome this defect, this paper reports on a novel adaptive tool servo (ATS) diamond turning technique which is essentially based on the novel two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) FTS/STS. In the ATS, the sampling interval and the side-feeding motion are actively controlled at any cutting point to adapt the machining process to shape variation of the desired surface, making both the sampling induced interpolation error and the side-feeding induced residual tool mark be within the desired tolerances. Characteristic of the required cutting motion suggests that besides the conventional z-axis servo motion, another servo motion along the x-axis synthesizing by the c-axis is mandatory for implementing the ATS. Comparative studies of surface generation of typical micro-structured surfaces in FTS/STS and ATS are thoroughly conducted both theoretically and experimentally. The result demonstrates that the ATS outperforms the FTS/STS with improved surface quality while simultaneously enhanced machining efficiency.

  7. Forward impact extrusion of surface textured steel blanks using coated tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Rafael; Feuerhack, Andreas; Trauth, Daniel; Arghavani, Mostafa; Kruppe, Nathan C.; Brögelmann, Tobias; Bobzin, Kirsten; Klocke, Fritz

    2017-10-01

    A method to enable dry metal forming by the means of a self-lubricating coating and surface textures was researched using an innovative Pin-On-Cylinder-Tribometer. The experimental analysis was complemented by a numerical model of the complex contact conditions between coated tools and the surface textured specimen at the micro-level. Based on the results, the explanation of the tribological interactions between surface textured specimens and the tool in dry full forward extrusion is the objective of this work. Therefore, experimental dry extrusion tests were performed using a tool system. The extruded specimens were evaluated regarding their geometry as well as by the required punch force. Thereby, the effectiveness and the feasibility of dry metal forming on the example of full forward extrusion was evaluated. Thus, one more step towards the technical realization of dry metal forming of low alloy steels under industrial conditions was realized.

  8. Evaluation of Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading: Effective Tools for Developing Literacy through Science in the Early Grades-Light Energy Unit. CRESST Report 781

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Pete; Jung, Hyekyung

    2011-01-01

    This evaluation focuses on the Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading: Effective Tools for Developing Literacy through Science in the Early Grades ("Seeds/Roots") model of science-literacy integration. The evaluation is based on a cluster randomized design of 100 teachers, half of which were in the treatment group. Multi-level models are employed to…

  9. Surface physics of materials materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Blakely, J M

    2013-01-01

    Surface Physics of Materials presents accounts of the physical properties of solid surfaces. The book contains selected articles that deal with research emphasizing surface properties rather than experimental techniques in the field of surface physics. Topics discussed include transport of matter at surfaces; interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces; chemical analysis of surfaces; and adhesion and friction. Research workers, teachers and graduate students in surface physics, and materials scientist will find the book highly useful.

  10. Study on optimal surface property of WC-Co cutting tool for aluminium alloy cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizar, Mohd; Arimatsu, Naoya; Kawamitsu, Hiroshi; Takai, Kazuteru; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The light weight property as well as high corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy has increased their demand especially in automobile industries. Aluminium alloy as a matter of fact has a low melting point and high ductility that severely adhere to the cutting tool surface and cause deterioration of chip evacuation. This problem often resulting in tools breakage. In this paper, in order to impart functions of anti-adhesion, we propose a technique by controlling the grinding marks micro texture on the tool surface by using the blast polishing treatment without any coating technologies. The results show that the tool which underwent polishing treatment reduces the cutting force as well as the aluminium adherence during the initial cutting process, and become worst as the process cutting continues. These results indicate that grinding mark texture improves the anti-adhesion by reducing the contact area during cutting and provide storage for the lubricant. In addition, too much polishing on the tool surface may remove these textures and resultantly worsen the tool performance. (paper)

  11. Study on optimal surface property of WC-Co cutting tool for aluminium alloy cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Mohd; Arimatsu, Naoya; Kawamitsu, Hiroshi; Takai, Kazuteru; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    The light weight property as well as high corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy has increased their demand especially in automobile industries. Aluminium alloy as a matter of fact has a low melting point and high ductility that severely adhere to the cutting tool surface and cause deterioration of chip evacuation. This problem often resulting in tools breakage. In this paper, in order to impart functions of anti-adhesion, we propose a technique by controlling the grinding marks micro texture on the tool surface by using the blast polishing treatment without any coating technologies. The results show that the tool which underwent polishing treatment reduces the cutting force as well as the aluminium adherence during the initial cutting process, and become worst as the process cutting continues. These results indicate that grinding mark texture improves the anti-adhesion by reducing the contact area during cutting and provide storage for the lubricant. In addition, too much polishing on the tool surface may remove these textures and resultantly worsen the tool performance.

  12. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000: a cooperative health sciences library/public school information literacy program for medical assistant students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, L; Marks, E; Adams, N

    1998-10-01

    Educating diverse groups in how to access, use, and evaluate information available through information technologies is emerging as an essential responsibility for health sciences librarians in today's complex health care system. One group requiring immediate attention is medical assistants. Projections indicate that medical assistant careers will be among the fastest growing occupations in the twenty-first century. The expanding use and importance of information in all health care settings requires that this workforce be well versed in information literacy skills. But, for public school vocational education staff charged with educating entry level workers to meet this specialized demand, the expense of hiring qualified professionals and acquiring the sophisticated technology necessary to teach such skills poses a dilemma. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000, a cooperative work-study information literacy program jointly formulated by the Wayne State University's Shiffman Medical Library and the Detroit Public Schools' Crockett Career and Technical Center, demonstrates that cooperation between the health sciences library and the public school is a mutually beneficial and constructive solution. This article describes the background, goals, curriculum, personnel, costs, and evaluation methods of Tools 2000. The Shiffman-Crockett information literacy program, adaptable to a variety of library settings, is an innovative means of preparing well-trained high school vocational education students for beginning level medical assistant positions as well as further education in the health care field.

  13. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000: a cooperative health sciences library/public school information literacy program for medical assistant students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, L; Marks, E; Adams, N

    1998-01-01

    Educating diverse groups in how to access, use, and evaluate information available through information technologies is emerging as an essential responsibility for health sciences librarians in today's complex health care system. One group requiring immediate attention is medical assistants. Projections indicate that medical assistant careers will be among the fastest growing occupations in the twenty-first century. The expanding use and importance of information in all health care settings requires that this workforce be well versed in information literacy skills. But, for public school vocational education staff charged with educating entry level workers to meet this specialized demand, the expense of hiring qualified professionals and acquiring the sophisticated technology necessary to teach such skills poses a dilemma. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000, a cooperative work-study information literacy program jointly formulated by the Wayne State University's Shiffman Medical Library and the Detroit Public Schools' Crockett Career and Technical Center, demonstrates that cooperation between the health sciences library and the public school is a mutually beneficial and constructive solution. This article describes the background, goals, curriculum, personnel, costs, and evaluation methods of Tools 2000. The Shiffman-Crockett information literacy program, adaptable to a variety of library settings, is an innovative means of preparing well-trained high school vocational education students for beginning level medical assistant positions as well as further education in the health care field. PMID:9803297

  14. Article Commentary: Online Learning Tools as Supplements for Basic and Clinical Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Ellman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate medical educators are increasingly incorporating online learning tools into basic and clinical science curricula. In this paper, we explore the diversity of online learning tools and consider the range of applications for these tools in classroom and bedside learning. Particular advantages of these tools are highlighted, such as delivering foundational knowledge as part of the “flipped classroom” pedagogy and for depicting unusual physical examination findings and advanced clinical communication skills. With accelerated use of online learning, educators and administrators need to consider pedagogic and practical challenges posed by integrating online learning into individual learning activities, courses, and curricula as a whole. We discuss strategies for faculty development and the role of school-wide resources for supporting and using online learning. Finally, we consider the role of online learning in interprofessional, integrated, and competency-based applications among other contemporary trends in medical education are considered.

  15. Online Learning Tools as Supplements for Basic and Clinical Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Matthew S; Schwartz, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate medical educators are increasingly incorporating online learning tools into basic and clinical science curricula. In this paper, we explore the diversity of online learning tools and consider the range of applications for these tools in classroom and bedside learning. Particular advantages of these tools are highlighted, such as delivering foundational knowledge as part of the "flipped classroom" pedagogy and for depicting unusual physical examination findings and advanced clinical communication skills. With accelerated use of online learning, educators and administrators need to consider pedagogic and practical challenges posed by integrating online learning into individual learning activities, courses, and curricula as a whole. We discuss strategies for faculty development and the role of school-wide resources for supporting and using online learning. Finally, we consider the role of online learning in interprofessional, integrated, and competency-based applications among other contemporary trends in medical education are considered.

  16. Sea Surface Height, Absolute, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Absolute Sea Surface Height is the Sea Surface Height Deviation plus the long term mean dynamic height. This is Science Quality data.

  17. Estimation of the solubility parameters of model plant surfaces and agrochemicals: a valuable tool for understanding plant surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayet, Mohamed; Fernández, Victoria

    2012-11-14

    Most aerial plant parts are covered with a hydrophobic lipid-rich cuticle, which is the interface between the plant organs and the surrounding environment. Plant surfaces may have a high degree of hydrophobicity because of the combined effects of surface chemistry and roughness. The physical and chemical complexity of the plant cuticle limits the development of models that explain its internal structure and interactions with surface-applied agrochemicals. In this article we introduce a thermodynamic method for estimating the solubilities of model plant surface constituents and relating them to the effects of agrochemicals. Following the van Krevelen and Hoftyzer method, we calculated the solubility parameters of three model plant species and eight compounds that differ in hydrophobicity and polarity. In addition, intact tissues were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the surface free energy, polarity, solubility parameter and work of adhesion of each were calculated from contact angle measurements of three liquids with different polarities. By comparing the affinities between plant surface constituents and agrochemicals derived from (a) theoretical calculations and (b) contact angle measurements we were able to distinguish the physical effect of surface roughness from the effect of the chemical nature of the epicuticular waxes. A solubility parameter model for plant surfaces is proposed on the basis of an increasing gradient from the cuticular surface towards the underlying cell wall. The procedure enabled us to predict the interactions among agrochemicals, plant surfaces, and cuticular and cell wall components, and promises to be a useful tool for improving our understanding of biological surface interactions.

  18. Estimation of the solubility parameters of model plant surfaces and agrochemicals: a valuable tool for understanding plant surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Most aerial plant parts are covered with a hydrophobic lipid-rich cuticle, which is the interface between the plant organs and the surrounding environment. Plant surfaces may have a high degree of hydrophobicity because of the combined effects of surface chemistry and roughness. The physical and chemical complexity of the plant cuticle limits the development of models that explain its internal structure and interactions with surface-applied agrochemicals. In this article we introduce a thermodynamic method for estimating the solubilities of model plant surface constituents and relating them to the effects of agrochemicals. Results Following the van Krevelen and Hoftyzer method, we calculated the solubility parameters of three model plant species and eight compounds that differ in hydrophobicity and polarity. In addition, intact tissues were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the surface free energy, polarity, solubility parameter and work of adhesion of each were calculated from contact angle measurements of three liquids with different polarities. By comparing the affinities between plant surface constituents and agrochemicals derived from (a) theoretical calculations and (b) contact angle measurements we were able to distinguish the physical effect of surface roughness from the effect of the chemical nature of the epicuticular waxes. A solubility parameter model for plant surfaces is proposed on the basis of an increasing gradient from the cuticular surface towards the underlying cell wall. Conclusions The procedure enabled us to predict the interactions among agrochemicals, plant surfaces, and cuticular and cell wall components, and promises to be a useful tool for improving our understanding of biological surface interactions. PMID:23151272

  19. ESA Science Archives, VO tools and remote Scientific Data reduction in Grid Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviset, C.; Barbarisi, I.; de La Calle, I.; Fajersztejn, N.; Freschi, M.; Gabriel, C.; Gomez, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Ibarra, A.; Laruelo, A.; Leon, I.; Micol, A.; Parrilla, E.; Ortiz, I.; Osuna, P.; Salgado, J.; Stebe, A.; Tapiador, D.

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the latest functionalities of the ESA Science Archives located at ESAC, Spain, in particular, the following archives : the ISO Data Archive (IDA {http://iso.esac.esa.int/ida}), the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA {http://xmm.esac.esa.int/xsa}), the Integral SOC Science Data Archive (ISDA {http://integral.esac.esa.int/isda}) and the Planetary Science Archive (PSA {http://www.rssd.esa.int/psa}), both the classical and the map-based Mars Express interfaces. Furthermore, the ESA VOSpec {http://esavo.esac.esa.int/vospecapp} spectra analysis tool is described, which allows to access and display spectral information from VO resources (both real observational and theoretical spectra), including access to Lines database and recent analysis functionalities. In addition, we detail the first implementation of RISA (Remote Interface for Science Analysis), a web service providing remote users the ability to create fully configurable XMM-Newton data analysis workflows, and to deploy and run them on the ESAC Grid. RISA makes fully use of the inter-operability provided by the SIAP (Simple Image Access Protocol) services as data input, and at the same time its VO-compatible output can directly be used by general VO-tools.

  20. Create your own science planning tool in 3 days with SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; Polanskey, Carol A.; O'Reilly, Taifun

    2003-01-01

    Scientific discovery and advancement of knowledge has been, and continues to be, the goal for space missions at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Scientist must plan their observation/experiments to get the maximum data return in order to make those discoveries. However, each mission has different science objectives, a different spacecraft and different instrument payloads, as well as, different routes to different destinations with different spacecraft restrictions and characteristics. In the current reduced cost environment, manageable cost for mission planning software is a must. Science Opportunity Analyzer (SOA), a planning tool for scientists and mission planners, utilizes a simple approach to reduce cost and promote reusability.

  1. Graphical surface-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model as a pedagogical and research tool

    OpenAIRE

    Gillies, Robert R.; Carlson, Toby N.; Ripley, David A.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers, by example, the use of a Surface-Atmosphere-Vegetation-Transfer (SVAT), Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) model designed as a pedagogical tool. The goal of the computer software and the approach is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of communicating often complex and mathematical based disciplines (e.g., micrometeorology, land surface processes) to the non-specialist interested in studying problems involving interactions between vegetation and the atmosphere and,...

  2. HYDROLOGIC AND FEATURE-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS FOR TOOL MARK INVESTIGATION ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of detailed surface documentation methods provides unique tool mark-study opportunities in the field of archaeological researches. One of these data collection techniques is short-range laser scanning, which creates a digital copy of the object’s morphological characteristics from high-resolution datasets. The aim of our work was the accurate documentation of a Bronze Age sluice box from Mitterberg, Austria with a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm. Furthermore, the investigation of the entirely preserved tool marks on the surface of this archaeological find was also accomplished by these datasets. The methodology of this tool mark-study can be summarized in the following way: At first, a local hydrologic analysis has been applied to separate the various patterns of tools on the finds’ surface. As a result, the XYZ coordinates of the special points, which represent the edge lines of the sliding tool marks, were calculated by buffer operations in a GIS environment. During the second part of the workflow, these edge points were utilized to manually clip the triangle meshes of these patterns in reverse engineering software. Finally, circle features were generated and analysed to determine the different sections along these sliding tool marks. In conclusion, the movement of the hand tool could be reproduced by the spatial analysis of the created features, since the horizontal and vertical position of the defined circle centre points indicated the various phases of the movements. This research shows an exact workflow to determine the fine morphological structures on the surface of the archaeological find.

  3. The Pitfalls of a Tool-based Science and the Promise of a Problem-focused Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E. McKnight

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our present social sciences are at risk of losing sight of their primary purpose: the goal of reducing uncertainty. For years social scientists have drifted slowly toward the routine of employing of accepted methodological, conceptual, and analytical tools rather than engaging in problem oriented inquiry. Scientific contributions are reviewed in accordance to their compliance with the routine application of tools rather than focusing on their ability to problem-solve for a wider population. Researchers in every area of psychology for instance now insist on using methods such as random assignment and control groups, as well as data analytic procedures such as null hypothesis significance testing without regard to their relevance. A problem-focused inquiry would not dictate the routine use of any particular tool but rather the judicious application of tools when deemed appropriate. The following article describes  the current situation in the framework contrasting toolbased and problem-focused inquiry and offers several insights that may create a more balanced and fruitful approach to scientific inquiry. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i2.99

  4. 3S'83 Symposium on surface science. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Betz, G.; Husinsky, W.; Soellner, E.; Stoeri, H.; Varga, P.

    1983-01-01

    This symposium included the topics: electronic structure; ion-surface-interaction; surface structure; adsorption and reactivity; surface analysis; 60 papers were presented, only part of which pertain to INIS. (G.Q.)

  5. Geometric Parameters of Cutting Tools that Can be Used for Forming Sided Surfaces with Variable Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumov M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes machining technology of polyhedral surfaces with varying profile, which is provided by planetary motion of multiblade block tools. The features of the technology and urgency of the problem is indicated. The purpose of the study is to determine the minimum value of the clearance angle of the tool. Also, the study is carried out about changing the value of the front and rear corners during the formation of polygonal surface using a planetary gear. The scheme of calculating the impact of various factors on the value of the minimum clearance angle of the tool and kinematic front and rear corners of the instrument is provided. The mathematical formula for calculating the minimum clearance angle of the tool is given. Also, given the formula for determining the front and rear corners of the tool during driving. This study can be used in the calculation of the design operations forming multifaceted external surfaces with a variable profile by using the planetary gear.

  6. Adsorption of DNA onto gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide: surface science and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juewen

    2012-08-14

    The interaction between DNA and inorganic surfaces has attracted intense research interest, as a detailed understanding of adsorption and desorption is required for DNA microarray optimization, biosensor development, and nanoparticle functionalization. One of the most commonly studied surfaces is gold due to its unique optical and electric properties. Through various surface science tools, it was found that thiolated DNA can interact with gold not only via the thiol group but also through the DNA bases. Most of the previous work has been performed with planar gold surfaces. However, knowledge gained from planar gold may not be directly applicable to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for several reasons. First, DNA adsorption affinity is a function of AuNP size. Second, DNA may interact with AuNPs differently due to the high curvature. Finally, the colloidal stability of AuNPs confines salt concentration, whereas there is no such limit for planar gold. In addition to gold, graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as a new material for interfacing with DNA. GO and AuNPs share many similar properties for DNA adsorption; both have negatively charged surfaces but can still strongly adsorb DNA, and both are excellent fluorescence quenchers. Similar analytical and biomedical applications have been demonstrated with these two surfaces. The nature of the attractive force however, is different for each of these. DNA adsorption on AuNPs occurs via specific chemical interactions but adsorption on GO occurs via aromatic stacking and hydrophobic interactions. Herein, we summarize the recent developments in studying non-thiolated DNA adsorption and desorption as a function of salt, pH, temperature and DNA secondary structures. Potential future directions and applications are also discussed.

  7. Rapid evaluation of machine tools with position-dependent milling stability based on response surface model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The milling stability is one of the important evaluation criterions of dynamic characteristics of machine tools, and it is of great importance for machine tools’ design and manufacturing. The milling stability of machine tools generally varies with the position combinations of moving parts. The traditional milling stability analysis of machine tools is based on some specific positions in the whole workspace of machine tools, and the results are not comprehensive. Furthermore, it is very time-consuming for operation and calculation to complete analysis of multiple positions. A new method to rapidly evaluate the stability of machine tools with position dependence is developed in this article. In this method, the key position combinations of moving parts are set as the samples of calculation to calculate the dynamic characteristics of machine tools with SAMCEF finite element simulation analysis software. Then the minimum critical axial cutting depth of each sample is obtained. The relationship between the position and the value of minimum critical axial cutting depth at any position in the whole workspace can be obtained through established response surface model. The precision of the response surface model is evaluated and the model could be used to rapidly evaluate the milling stability of machine tools with position dependence. With a precision horizontal machining center with box-in-box structure as an example, the value of minimum critical axial cutting depth at any position is shown. This method of rapid evaluation of machine tools with position-dependent stability avoids complicated theoretical calculation, so it can be easily adopted by engineers and technicians in the phase of design process of machine tools.

  8. Thermomechanical modelling of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Tamanna, N.; Naher, S.

    2018-03-01

    A two-dimensional thermomechanical finite element (FE) model of laser surface glazing (LSG) has been developed for H13 tool steel. The direct coupling technique of ANSYS 17.2 (APDL) has been utilised to solve the transient thermomechanical process. A H13 tool steel cylindrical cross-section has been modelled for laser power 200 W and 300 W at constant 0.2 mm beam width and 0.15 ms residence time. The model can predict temperature distribution, stress-strain increments in elastic and plastic region with time and space. The crack formation tendency also can be assumed by analysing the von Mises stress in the heat-concentrated zone. Isotropic and kinematic hardening models have been applied separately to predict the after-yield phenomena. At 200 W laser power, the peak surface temperature achieved is 1520 K which is below the melting point (1727 K) of H13 tool steel. For laser power 300 W, the peak surface temperature is 2523 K. Tensile residual stresses on surface have been found after cooling, which are in agreement with literature. Isotropic model shows higher residual stress that increases with laser power. Conversely, kinematic model gives lower residual stress which decreases with laser power. Therefore, both plasticity models could work in LSG for H13 tool steel.

  9. Developing Web-based Tools for Collaborative Science and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A.; Pizarro, O.; Williams, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    With the advances in high bandwidth communications and the proliferation of social media tools, education & outreach activities have become commonplace on ocean-bound research cruises. In parallel, advances in underwater robotics & other data collecting platforms, have made it possible to collect copious amounts of oceanographic data. This data then typically undergoes laborious, manual processing to transform it into quantitative information, which normally occurs post cruise resulting in significant lags between collecting data and using it for scientific discovery. This presentation discusses how appropriately designed software systems, can be used to fulfill multiple objectives and attempt to leverage public engagement in order to compliment science goals. We will present two software platforms: the first is a web browser based tool that was developed for real-time tracking of multiple underwater robots and ships. It was designed to allow anyone on board to view or control it on any device with a web browser. It opens up the possibility of remote teleoperation & engagement and was easily adapted to enable live streaming over the internet for public outreach. While the tracking system provided context and engaged people in real-time, it also directed interested participants to Squidle, another online system. Developed for scientists, Squidle supports data management, exploration & analysis and enables direct access to survey data reducing the lag in data processing. It provides a user-friendly streamlined interface that integrates advanced data management & online annotation tools. This system was adapted to provide a simplified user interface, tutorial instructions and a gamified ranking system to encourage "citizen science" participation. These examples show that through a flexible design approach, it is possible to leverage the development effort of creating science tools to facilitate outreach goals, opening up the possibility for acquiring large volumes of

  10. Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) Special Case Study Report: Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian

    2000-01-01

    This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.

  11. Multi-Parameter Analysis of Surface Finish in Electro-Discharge Machining of Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Victoria Anghel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multi- parameter analysis of surface finish imparted to tool-steel plates by electro-discharge machining (EDM is presented. The interrelationship between surface texture parameters and process parameters is emphasized. An increased number of parameters is studied including amplitude, spacing, hybrid and fractal parameters,, as well. The correlation of these parameters with the machining conditions is investigated. Observed characteristics become more pronounced, when intensifying machining conditions. Close correlation exists between certain surface finish parameters and EDM input variables and single and multiple statistical regression models are developed.

  12. Scientific Tools and Techniques: An Innovative Introduction to Planetary Science / Astronomy for 9th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Edward F.

    2014-11-01

    Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, GA (USA) offers instruction in planetary science and astronomy to gifted 9th grade students within a program called "Scientific Tools and Techniques" (STT). Although STT provides a semester long overview of all sciences, the planetary science / astronomy section is innovative since students have access to instruction in the Center's Zeiss planetarium and observatory, which includes a 0.9 m cassegrain telescope. The curriculum includes charting the positions of planets in planetarium the sky; telescopic observations of the Moon and planets; hands-on access to meteorites and tektites; and an introduction to planetary spectroscopy utilizing LPI furnished ALTA reflectance spectrometers. In addition, students have the opportunity to watch several full dome planetary themed planetarium presentations, including "Back to the Moon for Good" and "Ring World: Cassini at Saturn." An overview of NASA's planetary exploration efforts is also considered, with special emphasis on the new Orion / Space Launch System for human exploration of the solar system. A primary goal of our STT program is to not only engage but encourage students to pursue careers in the field of science, with the hope of inspiring future scientists / leaders in the field of planetary science.

  13. Data Albums: An Event Driven Search, Aggregation and Curation Tool for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Maskey, Manil; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Li, Xiang; Flynn, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Approaches used in Earth science research such as case study analysis and climatology studies involve discovering and gathering diverse data sets and information to support the research goals. To gather relevant data and information for case studies and climatology analysis is both tedious and time consuming. Current Earth science data systems are designed with the assumption that researchers access data primarily by instrument or geophysical parameter. In cases where researchers are interested in studying a significant event, they have to manually assemble a variety of datasets relevant to it by searching the different distributed data systems. This paper presents a specialized search, aggregation and curation tool for Earth science to address these challenges. The search rool automatically creates curated 'Data Albums', aggregated collections of information related to a specific event, containing links to relevant data files [granules] from different instruments, tools and services for visualization and analysis, and information about the event contained in news reports, images or videos to supplement research analysis. Curation in the tool is driven via an ontology based relevancy ranking algorithm to filter out non relevant information and data.

  14. Social networks as a tool for science communication and public engagement: focus on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Goñi, Ignacio; Sánchez-Angulo, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Social networks have been used to teach and engage people about the importance of science. The integration of social networks in the daily routines of faculties and scientists is strongly recommended to increase their personal brand, improve their skills, enhance their visibility, share and communicate science to society, promote scientific culture, and even as a tool for teaching and learning. Here we review the use of Twitter in science and comment on our previous experience of using this social network as a platform for a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) in Spain and Latin America. We propose to extend this strategy to a pan-European Microbiology MOOC in the near future. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Online Teaching Tool Simplifies Faculty Use of Multimedia and Improves Student Interest and Knowledge in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John P.; Chih-Yuan Sun, Jerry; Riconscente, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Digital technologies can improve student interest and knowledge in science. However, researching the vast number of websites devoted to science education and integrating them into undergraduate curricula is time-consuming. We developed an Adobe ColdFusion– and Adobe Flash–based system for simplifying the construction, use, and delivery of electronic educational materials in science. The Online Multimedia Teaching Tool (OMTT) in Neuroscience was constructed from a ColdFusion-based online interface, which reduced the need for programming skills and the time for curriculum development. The OMTT in Neuroscience was used by faculty to enhance their lectures in existing curricula. Students had unlimited online access to encourage user-centered exploration. We found the OMTT was rapidly adapted by multiple professors, and its use by undergraduate students was consistent with the interpretation that the OMTT improved performance on exams and increased interest in the field of neuroscience. PMID:21885826

  16. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council, Sarah E; Horvath, Julie E

    2016-03-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects.

  17. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Council

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects.

  18. Finite Element Analysis of Surface Residual Stress in Functionally Gradient Cemented Carbide Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuangnan; Liu, Deshun; Tang, Siwen; Li, Pengnan; Qiu, Xinyi

    2018-03-01

    A component distribution model is proposed for three-component functionally gradient cemented carbide (FGCC) based on electron probe microanalysis results obtained for gradient layer thickness, microstructure, and elemental distribution. The residual surface stress of FGCC-T5 tools occurring during the fabrication process is analyzed using an ANSYS-implemented finite element method (FEM) and X-ray diffraction. A comparison of the experimental and calculated values verifies the feasibility of using FEM to analyze the residual surface stress in FGCC-T5 tools. The effects of the distribution index, geometrical shape, substrate thickness, gradient layer thickness, and position of the cobalt-rich layer on residual surface stress are studied in detail.

  19. 52nd colloid and surface science symposium. Proceedings volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Corbett, H.G.

    1978-05-01

    Abstracts are presented under the headings: cell/surface interactions, surface properties and reactions of catalysts, solution chemistry of surfactants, dynamic systems, microorganism/surface interactions, gas-solid interactions, biological surfaces, solid sorbents, lung surfactant and intestinal absorption, pigments, and liquid systems. (DLC)

  20. Students' Reactions to the Use of Animals as Instructional Tools for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzau, Vickie Anne

    Teaching science to students with special needs requires different approaches. A program at the study site supplemented packaged science kits with animal-assisted instruction, but such an approach was never evaluated. The purpose of this study was to provide a formative program evaluation documenting students' reactions to the use of animals as instructional tools for science. Conceptually this research project was framed in the constructivist paradigm based on the work of Dewey and Darling-Hammond. This evaluation involved a qualitative case-study approach to explore how 5th grade students with learning disabilities reacted toward science when animals were used to facilitate instruction. The research question was addressed based on the collection of data through focus group interviews, observations, and student journals. Data were analyzed as they emerged using inductive analysis in combination with typological analysis, to deconstruct the data into themes and patterns. Findings revealed students' reactions to the use of animals were positive, resulting from the engagement of students in the lesson activities and connections to the animals. Students' verbal and nonverbal engagements were noted, as well as feelings of curiosity, anxiety, and self-efficacy. The project for this study was an evaluation report for stakeholders that contained recommendations for enhancing science instruction with animals as instructional tools, acknowledging students' interests, and providing students with authentic, hands-on experiences. Implications for positive social change were that students with disabilities may be provided affirmation of their abilities to actively learn, experience, and understand science through the use of animals in such a way as to recognize their interests and develop their strengths.

  1. Cloud-Based Mobile Application Development Tools and NASA Science Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, D.; Lewis, P. M.; Chambers, L. H.; Moore, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    A number of cloud-based visual development tools have emerged that provide methods for developing mobile applications quickly and without previous programming experience. This paper will explore how our new and current data users can best combine these cloud-based mobile application tools and available NASA climate science datasets. Our vision is that users will create their own mobile applications for visualizing our data and will develop tools for their own needs. The approach we are documenting is based on two main ideas. The first is to provide training and information. Through examples, sharing experiences, and providing workshops, users can be shown how to use free online tools to easily create mobile applications that interact with NASA datasets. The second approach is to provide application programming interfaces (APIs), databases, and web applications to access data in a way that educators, students and scientists can quickly integrate it into their own mobile application development. This framework allows us to foster development activities and boost interaction with NASA's data while saving resources that would be required for a large internal application development staff. The findings of this work will include data gathered through meetings with local data providers, educators, libraries and individuals. From the very first queries into this topic, a high level of interest has been identified from our groups of users. This overt interest, combined with the marked popularity of mobile applications, has created a new channel for outreach and communications between the science and education communities. As a result, we would like to offer educators and other stakeholders some insight into the mobile application development arena, and provide some next steps and new approaches. Our hope is that, through our efforts, we will broaden the scope and usage of NASA's climate science data by providing new ways to access environmentally relevant datasets.

  2. Pika: A snow science simulation tool built using the open-source framework MOOSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, A.; Johnson, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investing millions of dollars annually into various modeling and simulation tools for all aspects of nuclear energy. An important part of this effort includes developing applications based on the open-source Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE; mooseframework.org) from Idaho National Laboratory (INL).Thanks to the efforts of the DOE and outside collaborators, MOOSE currently contains a large set of physics modules, including phase-field, level set, heat conduction, tensor mechanics, Navier-Stokes, fracture and crack propagation (via the extended finite-element method), flow in porous media, and others. The heat conduction, tensor mechanics, and phase-field modules, in particular, are well-suited for snow science problems. Pika--an open-source MOOSE-based application--is capable of simulating both 3D, coupled nonlinear continuum heat transfer and large-deformation mechanics applications (such as settlement) and phase-field based micro-structure applications. Additionally, these types of problems may be coupled tightly in a single solve or across length and time scales using a loosely coupled Picard iteration approach. In addition to the wide range of physics capabilities, MOOSE-based applications also inherit an extensible testing framework, graphical user interface, and documentation system; tools that allow MOOSE and other applications to adhere to nuclear software quality standards. The snow science community can learn from the nuclear industry and harness the existing effort to build simulation tools that are open, modular, and share a common framework. In particular, MOOSE-based multiphysics solvers are inherently parallel, dimension agnostic, adaptive in time and space, fully coupled, and capable of interacting with other applications. The snow science community should build on existing tools to enable collaboration between researchers and practitioners throughout the world, and advance the

  3. Influence of Cooling Lubricants on the Surface Roughness and Energy Efficiency of the Cutting Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jersák, J.; Simon, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Technical University of Liberec and Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg investigated the influence of cooling lubricants on the surface roughness and energy efficiency of cutting machine tools. After summarizing the achieved experimental results, the authors conclude that cooling lubricants extensively influence the cutting temperature, cutting forces and energy consumption. Also, it is recognizable that cooling lubricants affect the cutting tools lifetime and the workpiece surface quality as well. Furthermore, costs of these cooling lubricants and the related environmental burden need to be considered. A current trend is to reduce the amount of lubricants that are used, e.g., when the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) technique is applied. The lubricant or process liquid is thereby transported by the compressed air in the form of an aerosol to the contact area between the tool and workpiece. The cutting process was monitored during testing by the three following techniques: lubricant-free cutting, cutting with the use of a lubricant with the MQL technique, and only utilizing finish-turning and finish-face milling. The research allowed the authors to monitor the cutting power and mark the achieved surface quality in relation to the electrical power consumption of the cutting machine. In conclusions, the coherence between energy efficiency of the cutting machine and the workpiece surface quality regarding the used cooling lubricant is described.

  4. Influence of Cooling Lubricants on the Surface Roughness and Energy Efficiency of the Cutting Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jersák J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Technical University of Liberec and Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg investigated the influence of cooling lubricants on the surface roughness and energy efficiency of cutting machine tools. After summarizing the achieved experimental results, the authors conclude that cooling lubricants extensively influence the cutting temperature, cutting forces and energy consumption. Also, it is recognizable that cooling lubricants affect the cutting tools lifetime and the workpiece surface quality as well. Furthermore, costs of these cooling lubricants and the related environmental burden need to be considered. A current trend is to reduce the amount of lubricants that are used, e.g., when the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL technique is applied. The lubricant or process liquid is thereby transported by the compressed air in the form of an aerosol to the contact area between the tool and workpiece. The cutting process was monitored during testing by the three following techniques: lubricant-free cutting, cutting with the use of a lubricant with the MQL technique, and only utilizing finish-turning and finish-face milling. The research allowed the authors to monitor the cutting power and mark the achieved surface quality in relation to the electrical power consumption of the cutting machine. In conclusions, the coherence between energy efficiency of the cutting machine and the workpiece surface quality regarding the used cooling lubricant is described.

  5. Residual Stress Examination In Surface Layers Turned By Auto-Rotary Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struharňanský, Jozef; Stančeková, Dana; Martikáň, Anton; Varga, Daniel; Kuždál, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    In this article, unconventional kinematics of turning is examined with the aim on influence of cutting parameters on surface layers residual stress. The auto-rotary cutting tool prototype for turning was developed, designed and constructed at the University of Zilina. The tool is made of high speed steel. Residual stress examination of material 100Cr6 was performed by non-destructive measuring method of X-ray diffraction. This method is able to determine normal and shear stress conditions without damaging the examined sample.

  6. Study on effect of tool electrodes on surface finish during electrical discharge machining of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Anshuman Kumar; Chatterjee, Suman; Nayak, Praveen Kumar; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2018-03-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process which is widely used in machining of difficult-to-machine materials. EDM process can produce complex and intrinsic shaped component made of difficult-to-machine materials, largely applied in aerospace, biomedical, die and mold making industries. To meet the required applications, the EDMed components need to possess high accuracy and excellent surface finish. In this work, EDM process is performed using Nitinol as work piece material and AlSiMg prepared by selective laser sintering (SLS) as tool electrode along with conventional copper and graphite electrodes. The SLS is a rapid prototyping (RP) method to produce complex metallic parts by additive manufacturing (AM) process. Experiments have been carried out varying different process parameters like open circuit voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ), pulse-on-time (Ton) and tool material. The surface roughness parameter like average roughness (Ra), maximum height of the profile (Rt) and average height of the profile (Rz) are measured using surface roughness measuring instrument (Talysurf). To reduce the number of experiments, design of experiment (DOE) approach like Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been chosen. The surface properties of the EDM specimen are optimized by desirability function approach and the best parametric setting is reported for the EDM process. Type of tool happens to be the most significant parameter followed by interaction of tool type and duty cycle, duty cycle, discharge current and voltage. Better surface finish of EDMed specimen can be obtained with low value of voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ) and pulse on time (Ton) along with the use of AlSiMg RP electrode.

  7. Tools for Engaging Scientists in Education and Public Outreach: Resources from NASA's Science Mission Directorate Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Meinke, B. K.; Gross, N. A.; Woroner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its E/PO community by enhancing the coherency and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums foster collaboration and partnerships between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We will present tools to engage and resources to support scientists' engagement in E/PO efforts. Scientists can get connected to educators and find support materials and links to resources to support their E/PO work through the online SMD E/PO community workspace (http://smdepo.org) The site includes resources for scientists interested in E/PO including one page guides about "How to Get Involved" and "How to Increase Your Impact," as well as the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau to connect scientists to audiences across the country. Additionally, there is a set of online clearinghouses that provide ready-made lessons and activities for use by scientists and educators: NASA Wavelength (http://nasawavelength.org/) and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/). The NASA Forums create and partner with organizations to provide resources specifically for undergraduate science instructors including slide sets for Earth and Space Science classes on the current topics in astronomy and planetary science. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities at professional science conferences each year including AGU, LPSC, AAS, and DPS to support higher education faculty who are teaching undergraduate courses. These offerings include best practices in instruction, resources for teaching planetary science and astronomy topics, and other special topics such as working with diverse students and the use of social media in the classroom. We are continually soliciting ways that we can better support scientists' efforts in effectively engaging in E/PO. Please contact Sanlyn Buxner (buxner@psi.edu) or Jennifer Grier (jgrier@psi.edu) to

  8. Effect of dental tool surface texture and material on static friction with a wet gloved fingertip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Charles; Barr, Alan; Dong, Hui; Rempel, David

    2007-01-01

    Hand injuries are an important cause of pain and disability among dentists and dental hygienists and may be due to the high pinch forces involved in periodontal work. The pinch forces required to perform scaling may be reduced by increasing the friction between the tool and fingers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether modifying the tool material, surface texture, or glove type altered the coefficient of static friction for a wet gloved finger. Seven tools with varying surface topography were machined from 13 mm diameter stainless steel and Delrin and mounted to a 6-component force plate. The textures tested were a fine, medium and coarse diamond knurled pattern and a medium and fine annular pattern (concentric rings). Thirteen subjects pulled their gloved, wet thumb pad along the long axis of the tool while maintaining a normal force of 40 N. Latex and nitrile gloves were tested. The coefficient of static friction was calculated from the shear force history. The mean coefficients of static friction ranged from 0.20 to 0.65. The coefficient of static friction was higher for a smooth tool of Delrin than one of stainless steel. Differences in the coefficient of static friction were observed between the coarse and medium knurled patterns and the fine knurled and annular patterns. Coefficients of static friction were higher for the nitrile glove than the latex glove for tools with texture. These findings may be applied to the design of hand tools that require fine motor control with a wet, gloved hand.

  9. Classroom Preschool Science Learning: The Learner, Instructional Tools, and Peer-Learning Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Jamie M.

    The recent decades have seen an increased focus on improving early science education. Goals include helping young children learn about pertinent concepts in science, and fostering early scientific reasoning and inquiry skills (e.g., NRC 2007, 2012, 2015). However, there is still much to learn about what constitutes appropriate frameworks that blend science education with developmentally appropriate learning environments. An important goal for the construction of early science is a better understanding of appropriate learning experiences and expectations for preschool children. This dissertation examines some of these concerns by focusing on three dimensions of science learning in the preschool classroom: (1) the learner; (2) instructional tools and pedagogy; and (3) the social context of learning with peers. In terms of the learner, the dissertation examines some dimensions of preschool children's scientific reasoning skills in the context of potentially relevant, developing general reasoning abilities. As young children undergo rapid cognitive changes during the preschool years, it is important to explore how these may influence scientific thinking. Two features of cognitive functioning have been carefully studied: (1) the demonstration of an epistemic awareness through an emerging theory of mind, and (2) the rapid improvement in executive functioning capacity. Both continue to develop through childhood and adolescence, but changes in early childhood are especially striking and have been neglected as regards their potential role in scientific thinking. The question is whether such skills relate to young children's capacity for scientific thinking. Another goal was to determine whether simple physics diagrams serve as effective instructional tools in supporting preschool children's scientific thinking. Specifically, in activities involving predicting and checking in scientific contexts, the question is whether such diagrams facilitate children's ability to

  10. Acousto-Optic Imaging Spectrometers for Mars Surface Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenar, D. A.; Blaney, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's long term plan for Mars sample collection and return requires a highly streamlined approach for spectrally characterizing a landing site, documenting the mineralogical make-up of the site and guiding the collections of samples which represent the diversity of the site. Ideally, image data should be acquired at hundreds of VIS and IR wavelengths, in order to separately distinguish numerous anticipated species, using principal component analysis and linear unmixing. Cameras with bore-sighted point spectrometers can acquire spectra of isolated scene elements, but it requires 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 2) successive motions and precise relative pointing knowledge in order to create a single data cube which qualifies as a spectral map. These and other competing science objectives have to be accomplished within very short lander/rover operational lifetime (a few sols). True, 2-D imaging spectroscopy greatly speeds up the data acquisition process, since the spectra of all pixels in the scene are collected at once. This task can be accomplished with cameras that use electronically tunable acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) as the optical tuning element. AOTFs made from TeO2 are now a mature technology, and operate at wavelengths from near-UV to about 5 microns. Because of incremental improvements in the last few years, present generation devices are rugged, radiation-hard and operate at temperatures down to at least 150K so they can be safely integrated into the ambient temperature optics of in-situ instruments such as planetary or small-body landers. They have been used for ground-based astronomy, and were also baselined for the ST-4 Champollion IR comet lander experiment (CIRCLE), prior to cancellation of the ST-4 mission last year. AIMS (for Acousto-optic Imaging spectrometer), is a prototype lander instrument which is being built at GSFC with support by the NASA OSS Advanced Technologies and Mission Studies, Mars Instrument Definition and Development Program (MIDP

  11. Online learning tools in an M.Ed. in Earth Sciences program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, E.

    2011-12-01

    Penn State's Master of Education in Earth Sciences program is a fully online 30-credit degree program serving mid-career secondary science teachers. Teachers in the program have a diverse background in science and math, are usually many years removed from their most recent degree, and are often deficient in the same geoscience skills as are beginning undergraduates. For example, they habitually assign incorrect causal relationships to concepts that are taught at the same time (such as sea-floor spreading and magnetic field reversals), and they have trouble with both object and spatial visualization. Program faculty also observe anecdotally that many teachers enter the program lacking the ability to describe their mental model of a given Earth science process, making it difficult to identify teachers' knowledge gaps. We have implemented many technical strategies to enhance program content delivery while trying to minimize the inherent barriers to completing quantitative assignments online and at a distance. These barriers include competence with and access to sophisticated data analysis and plotting programs commonly used by scientists. Here, I demonstrate two technical tools I use frequently to strengthen online content delivery and assessment. The first, Jing, is commercially-available, free, and platform-independent. Jing allows the user to make screencasts with narration and embed them into a web page as a flash movie or as an external link. The second is a set of simple sketching tools I have created using the programming language Processing, which is a free, open source, platform-independent language built on Java. The integration of easy-to-use drawing tools into problem sets and other assessments has enabled faculty to appraise a learner's grasp of the material without the steep technical learning curve and expense inherent in most computer graphics packages. A serendipitous benefit of teaching with these tools is that they are easy to learn and freely

  12. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts...... for subsequent polymer replication by injection moulding was analyzed. New tooling solutions to produce nano structured mould surfaces were investigated. Experiments based on three different chemical-based-batch techniques to establish surface nano (i.e. sub-μm) structures on large areas were performed. Three...... approaches were selected: (1) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition for direct patterning of a 4” silicon wafer; (2) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition as mask for 4” silicon wafer etching and subsequent nickel electroplating; (3) using the anodizing process to produce Ø500 nm structures on a 30x80 mm2...

  13. Inservice teachers' implementation of the Science Writing Heuristic as a tool for professional growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Sozan H.

    According to the National Science Standards, science educators have been calling for the inclusion of inquiry-based approaches in science classrooms as a reform for science instruction. Teachers' reluctance to implement inquiry-based approaches may be attributed to the different interpretations of the underpinning theory. Any efforts to help teachers implement effective teaching approaches, therefore, should not target merely additive skills; rather, such efforts should foster fundamental changes of beliefs, knowledge, and habits of practice that teachers deeply hold. This study is a part of a bigger project known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) Partnership Professional Development Project, conducted at Iowa State University in association with the Iowa Department of Education to help improve science teaching. The aim of the project is to help in service science teachers understand and apply a student-oriented instructional approach, using the SWH. The framework of the SWH emphasizes the role of classroom dialogical discussion in students' learning. The role of the teacher when implementing constructivist approaches represented in a student-oriented instruction, differs markedly from traditional approaches, and hence there is a need to study the changes in teaching practice when using this specific tool. The methodological framework of this study combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Interpretative case studies for 18 science teachers are presented. A triangulation strategy was used to provide support for the qualitative findings using three different data collection approaches: observation, questionnaire, and interviews. Quantitative data in the form of student performance on higher order conceptual questions and total test scores were collected. Teachers varied in their implementation of the SWH. Three criteria were constructed to define teachers' levels of implementation: epistemological belief, pedagogical practice, and teacher content knowledge

  14. A RESTful API for Access to Phylogenetic Tools via the CIPRES Science Gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark A; Schwartz, Terri; Pickett, Brett E; He, Sherry; Klem, Edward B; Scheuermann, Richard H; Passarotti, Maria; Kaufman, Seth; O'Leary, Maureen A

    2015-01-01

    The CIPRES Science Gateway is a community web application that provides public access to a set of parallel tree inference and multiple sequence alignment codes run on large computational resources. These resources are made available at no charge to users by the NSF Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) project. Here we describe the CIPRES RESTful application programmer interface (CRA), a web service that provides programmatic access to all resources and services currently offered by the CIPRES Science Gateway. Software developers can use the CRA to extend their web or desktop applications to include the ability to run MrBayes, BEAST, RAxML, MAFFT, and other computationally intensive algorithms on XSEDE. The CRA also makes it possible for individuals with modest scripting skills to access the same tools from the command line using curl, or through any scripting language. This report describes the CRA and its use in three web applications (Influenza Research Database - www.fludb.org, Virus Pathogen Resource - www.viprbrc.org, and MorphoBank - www.morphobank.org). The CRA is freely accessible to registered users at https://cipresrest.sdsc.edu/cipresrest/v1; supporting documentation and registration tools are available at https://www.phylo.org/restusers.

  15. SpacePy - a Python-based library of tools for the space sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, Steven K.; Welling, Daniel T.; Koller, Josef; Larsen, Brian A.; Henderson, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Space science deals with the bodies within the solar system and the interplanetary medium; the primary focus is on atmospheres and above - at Earth the short timescale variation in the the geomagnetic field, the Van Allen radiation belts and the deposition of energy into the upper atmosphere are key areas of investigation. SpacePy is a package for Python, targeted at the space sciences, that aims to make basic data analysis, modeling and visualization easier. It builds on the capabilities of the well-known NumPy and MatPlotLib packages. Publication quality output direct from analyses is emphasized. The SpacePy project seeks to promote accurate and open research standards by providing an open environment for code development. In the space physics community there has long been a significant reliance on proprietary languages that restrict free transfer of data and reproducibility of results. By providing a comprehensive, open-source library of widely used analysis and visualization tools in a free, modern and intuitive language, we hope that this reliance will be diminished. SpacePy includes implementations of widely used empirical models, statistical techniques used frequently in space science (e.g. superposed epoch analysis), and interfaces to advanced tools such as electron drift shell calculations for radiation belt studies. SpacePy also provides analysis and visualization tools for components of the Space Weather Modeling Framework - currently this only includes the BATS-R-US 3-D magnetohydrodynamic model and the RAM ring current model - including streamline tracing in vector fields. Further development is currently underway. External libraries, which include well-known magnetic field models, high-precision time conversions and coordinate transformations are wrapped for access from Python using SWIG and f2py. The rest of the tools have been implemented directly in Python. The provision of open-source tools to perform common tasks will provide openness in the

  16. Experimental Investigation of Surface Layer Properties of High Thermal Conductivity Tool Steel after Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Świercz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing complex shape parts. One of the modern materials widely used in the tool industry for injection molds or hot stamping dies is high conductivity tool steel (HTCS 150. Due to its hardness (55 HRC and thermal conductivity at 66 W/mK, this material is difficult to machine by conventional treatment and is being increasingly manufactured by nonconventional technology such as electrical discharge machining (EDM. In the EDM process, material is removed from the workpiece by a series of electrical discharges that cause changes to the surface layers properties. The final state of the surface layer directly influences the durability of the produced elements. This paper presents the influence of EDM process parameters: discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on surface layer properties. The experimental investigation was carried out with an experimental methodology design. Surface layers properties including roughness 3D parameters, the thickness of the white layer, heat affected zone, tempered layer and occurring micro cracks were investigated and described. The influence of the response surface methodology (RSM of discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on the thickness of the white layer and roughness parameters Sa, Sds and Ssc were described and established.

  17. IsoNose - Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - A new Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John

    2015-04-01

    The Marie Curie Initial Training Network »Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - IsoNose« is an alliance of eight international partners and five associated partners from science and industry. The project is coordinated at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and will run until February 2018. In the last 15 years advances in novel mass-spectrometric methods have opened opportunities to identify "isotopic fingerprints" of virtually all metals and to make use of the complete information contained in these fingerprints. The understanding developed with these new tools will ultimately guide the exploitation of Earth surface environments. However, progress in bringing these methods to end-users depends on a multi transfer of knowledge between (1) isotope Geochemistry and Microbiology, Environmental Sciences (2), Economic Geology and (3) instrument developers and users in the development of user-friendly and new mass spectrometric methods. IsoNose will focus on three major Earth surface resources: soil, water and metals. These resources are currently being exploited to an unprecedented extent and their efficient management is essential for future sustainable development. Novel stable isotope techniques will disclose the processes generating (e.g. weathering, mineral ore formation) and destroying (e.g. erosion, pollution) these resources. Within this field the following questions will be addressed and answered: - How do novel stable isotope signatures characterize weathering processes? - How do novel stable isotope signatures trace water transport? - How to use novel stable isotope as environmental tracers? - How to use novel stable isotope for detecting and exploring metal ores? - How to improve analytical capabilities and develop robust routine applications for novel stable isotopes? Starting from the central questions mentioned above the IsoNose activities are organized in five scientific work packages: 1

  18. Tool for assessment of process importance at the groundwater/surface water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakodeti, Ravi C; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Clarke, James H

    2009-10-01

    The groundwater/surface water interface (GWSWI) represents an important transition zone between groundwater and surface water environments that potentially changes the nature and flux of contaminants exchanged between the two systems. Identifying dominant and rate-limiting contaminant transformation processes is critically important for estimating contaminant fluxes and compositional changes across the GWSWI. A new, user-friendly, spreadsheet- and Visual Basic-based analytical screening tool that assists in evaluating the dominance of controlling kinetic processes across the GWSWI is presented. Based on contaminant properties, first-order processes that may play a significant role in solute transport/transformation are evaluated in terms of a ratio of process importance (P(i)) that relates the process rate to the rate of fluid transfer. Besides possessing several useful compilations of contaminant and process data, the screening tool also includes 1-D analytical models that assist users in evaluating contaminant transport across the GWSWI. The tool currently applies to 29 organics and 10 inorganics of interest within the context of the GWSWI. Application of the new screening tool is demonstrated through an evaluation of natural attenuation at a site with trichloroethylene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane contaminated groundwater discharging into wetlands.

  19. Rotary ultrasonic elliptical machining for side milling of CFRP: tool performance and surface integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Daxi; Zhang, Deyuan; Xu, Yonggang; He, Fengtao; Liu, Dapeng; Duan, Zuoheng

    2015-05-01

    The rotary ultrasonic elliptical machining (RUEM) has been recognized as a new effective process to machining circular holes on CFRP materials. In CFRP face machining, the application of grinding tools is restricted for the tool clogging and the machined surface integrity. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach to extend the RUEM process to side milling of CFRP for the first time, which kept the effect of elliptical vibration in RUEM. The experiment apparatus was developed, and the preliminary experiments were designed and conducted, with comparison to conventional grinding (CG). The experimental results showed that when the elliptical vibration was applied in RUEM, a superior cutting process can be obtained compared with that in CG, including providing reduced cutting forces (2-43% decrement), an extended tool life (1.98 times), and improved surface integrity due to the intermittent material removal mechanism and the excellent chip removal conditions achieved in RUEM. It was concluded that the RUEM process is suitable to mill flat surface on CFRP composites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mars in Motion: An online Citizen Science platform looking for changes on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinks, James Christopher; Wardlaw, Jessica; Houghton, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Marsh, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    The European FP7 iMars project has developed tools and 3D models of the Martian surface through the co-registration of NASA and ESA mission data dating from the Viking missions of the 1970s to the present day, for a much more comprehensive interpretation of the geomorphological and climatic processes that have taken and do take place. We present the Citizen Science component of the project, 'Mars in Motion', created through the Zooniverse's Panoptes framework to allow volunteers to look for and identify changes on the surface of Mars over time. 'Mars in Motion', as with many other current citizen science platforms of a planetary or other disciplinary focus, has been developed to compliment the results of automated data mining analysis software, both by validation through the creation of training data and by adding context - gathering more in-depth data on the type and metrics of change initially detected.Through the analysis of initial volunteer results collected in the second half of 2016, the accuracy and ability of untrained participants to identify geomorphological changes is considered, as well as the impact of their position in the system. Volunteer contribution, either as a filter for poor quality imagery pre-algorithm, validation of algorithmic analysis, or adding context to pre-detected change, and their awareness and interpretation of its importance, can directly influence engagement with the platform and therefore ultimately its success. Understanding the effect of the volunteer and software's role in the system on both the results of and engagement with planetary science citizen science platforms will be an important lesson for the future, especially as the next generation of planetary missions will likely collect data orders of magnitude greater in volume. To deal with the data overload, it is likely that human or software solutions alone will not be sufficient, and that a combination of the two working together in a complimentary system that combines

  1. GoPros™ as an underwater photogrammetry tool for citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Peter A.; Dupont, Sally F.; Mathewson, Ciaran P.; O’Neill, Samuel J.; Powell, Nicholas N.; Williamson, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science can increase the scope of research in the marine environment; however, it suffers from necessitating specialized training and simplified methodologies that reduce research output. This paper presents a simplified, novel survey methodology for citizen scientists, which combines GoPro imagery and structure from motion to construct an ortho-corrected 3D model of habitats for analysis. Results using a coral reef habitat were compared to surveys conducted with traditional snorkelling methods for benthic cover, holothurian counts, and coral health. Results were comparable between the two methods, and structure from motion allows the results to be analysed off-site for any chosen visual analysis. The GoPro method outlined in this study is thus an effective tool for citizen science in the marine environment, especially for comparing changes in coral cover or volume over time. PMID:27168973

  2. The National Eclipse Weather Experiment: use and evaluation of a citizen science tool for schools outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, Antonio M; Barnard, Luke; Scott, Chris; Harrison, R Giles

    2016-09-28

    The National Eclipse Weather Experiment (NEWEx) was a citizen science project for atmospheric data collection from the partial solar eclipse of 20 March 20. Its role as a tool for schools outreach is discussed here, in seeking to bridge the gap between self-identification with the role of a scientist and engagement with science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects. (The science data generated have had other uses beyond this, explored elsewhere.) We describe the design of webforms for weather data collection, and the use of several external partners for the dissemination of the project nationwide. We estimate that up to 3500 pupils and teachers took part in this experiment, through the 127 schools postcodes identified in the data submission. Further analysis revealed that 43.3% of the schools were primary schools and 35.4% were secondary. In total, 96.3% of participants reported themselves as 'captivated' or 'inspired' by NEWEx. We also found that 60% of the schools that took part in the experiment lie within the highest quintiles of engagement with higher education, which emphasizes the need for the scientific community to be creative when using citizen science projects to target hard-to-reach audiences.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Season Spotter: Using Citizen Science to Validate and Scale Plant Phenology from Near-Surface Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kosmala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a rapidly changing climate on the biosphere is an urgent area of research for mitigation policy and management. Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change and regulates the seasonality of carbon, water, and energy fluxes between the land surface and the climate system, making it an important tool for studying biosphere–atmosphere interactions. To monitor plant phenology at regional and continental scales, automated near-surface cameras are being increasingly used to supplement phenology data derived from satellite imagery and data from ground-based human observers. We used imagery from a network of phenology cameras in a citizen science project called Season Spotter to investigate whether information could be derived from these images beyond standard, color-based vegetation indices. We found that engaging citizen science volunteers resulted in useful science knowledge in three ways: first, volunteers were able to detect some, but not all, reproductive phenology events, connecting landscape-level measures with field-based measures. Second, volunteers successfully demarcated individual trees in landscape imagery, facilitating scaling of vegetation indices from organism to ecosystem. And third, volunteers’ data were used to validate phenology transition dates calculated from vegetation indices and to identify potential improvements to existing algorithms to enable better biological interpretation. As a result, the use of citizen science in combination with near-surface remote sensing of phenology can be used to link ground-based phenology observations to satellite sensor data for scaling and validation. Well-designed citizen science projects targeting improved data processing and validation of remote sensing imagery hold promise for providing the data needed to address grand challenges in environmental science and Earth observation.

  4. Building a Massive Volcano Archive and the Development of a Tool for the Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linick, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has traditionally housed one of the world's largest databases of volcanic satellite imagery, the ASTER Volcano Archive (10Tb), making these data accessible online for public and scientific use. However, a series of changes in how satellite imagery is housed by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data Information System has meant that JPL has been unable to systematically maintain its database for the last several years. We have provided a fast, transparent, machine-to-machine client that has updated JPL's database and will keep it current in near real-time. The development of this client has also given us the capability to retrieve any data provided by NASA's Earth Observing System Clearinghouse (ECHO) that covers a volcanic event reported by U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). We will also provide a publicly available tool that interfaces with ECHO that can provide functionality not available in any of ECHO's Earth science discovery tools.

  5. Fifteen years SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics: life science databases, tools and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Heinz; Altenhoff, Adrian M; Arnold, Konstantin; Bairoch, Amos; Bastian, Frederic; Bergmann, Sven; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bucher, Philipp; Delorenzi, Mauro; Lane, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Lisacek, Frédérique; Michielin, Olivier; Palagi, Patricia M; Rougemont, Jacques; Schwede, Torsten; von Mering, Christian; van Nimwegen, Erik; Walther, Daniel; Xenarios, Ioannis; Zavolan, Mihaela; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zoete, Vincent; Appel, Ron D

    2014-07-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) was created in 1998 as an institution to foster excellence in bioinformatics. It is renowned worldwide for its databases and software tools, such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PROSITE, SWISS-MODEL, STRING, etc, that are all accessible on ExPASy.org, SIB's Bioinformatics Resource Portal. This article provides an overview of the scientific and training resources SIB has consistently been offering to the life science community for more than 15 years. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. [The stimulated recall method: a research tool applicable to learning at science museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Douglas; Gilbert, John

    2005-01-01

    The article reports on preliminary research aimed at developing a methological tool applicable to studies of learning in informal educational settings. The study was conducted at two science museums, using a modified version of the stimulated recall method. Digital photographs replaced the traditional video in the final phase, during which eight interviews were conducted, with satisfactory results. The digital photos efficaciously and efficiently stimulated visitors to narrate their experiences and to convey the meanings they took with them from their interactions with the exhibits.

  7. Reading comprehension as an alternative tool for teaching science and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H. R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, the vast amount of information originated in the production of knowledge and its applications, has highlighted the importance of being independent readers, critics, and able to interpret written material circulating referred to scientific and technological issues, that invade the people's daily life. Moreover, in the last stage of education system of all future citizens of the country, the results of many diagnoses have highlighted the difficulties of young students to understand the texts related to science and technology. However, simultaneously with these weaknesses, students permanently express the need to relate science and technology to everyday life, and are interested in the discussion of the news related to atomic energy spread by the mass media. This duality lack of interest in reading vs interest in knowledge in certain subjects, is what has been taken into account when proposing this pedagogical approach that simultaneously involves several aspects. From the need to find a trigger for the treatment of a particular issue, to familiarization of students with the vocabulary and methodology of science ill the debate on the characteristics of specific technological applications of nuclear technology. Considering particularly the last of these factors, since 2011 has been developed in Jose Maria Paz School of Cordoba, Reading Comprehension Experience, using texts with scientific and technological contents published by Institute for Energy and Development (IEDS) of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Knowledge Leaves Series, as a methodological tool, to bring students to the physics of the atom and matter. The reading strategy used is based on the hypothesis of the type of questions being asked about the contents, can help students to develop reading strategies for comprehension and thus contribute positively to his learning. With this proposal it has been observed an increased on student interest in learning natural science

  8. Novel Tools for Climate Change Learning and Responding in Earth Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Elena; Brunacini, Jessica; Pfirman, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    Several innovative, polar focused activities and tools including a polar hub website (http://thepolarhub.org) have been developed for use in formal and informal earth science or STEM education by the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership (consisting of climate scientists, experts in the learning sciences and education practitioners). In seeking to inform understanding of and response to climate change, these tools and activities range from increasing awareness to informing decisions about climate change, from being used in classrooms (by undergraduate students as well as by pre-college students or by teachers taking online climate graduate courses) to being used in the public arena (by stakeholders, community members and the general public), and from using low technology (card games such as EcoChains- Arctic Crisis, a food web game or SMARTIC - Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change, an Arctic marine spatial planning game) to high technology (Greenify Network - a mobile real world action game that fosters sustainability and allows players to meaningfully address climate change in their daily lives, or the Polar Explorer Data Visualization Tablet App that allows individuals to explore data collected by scientists and presented for the everyday user through interactive maps and visualizations, to ask questions and go on an individualized tour of polar regions and their connections to the rest of the world). Games are useful tools in integrative and applied learning, in gaining practical and intellectual skills, and in systems thinking. Also, as part of the PoLAR Partnership, a Signs of the Land Climate Change Camp was collaboratively developed and conducted, that can be used as a model for engaging and representing indigenous communities in the co-production of climate change knowledge, communication tools and solutions building. Future camps are planned with Alaska Native Elders, educators including classroom

  9. Modelling and analysis of tool wear and surface roughness in hard turning of AISI D2 steel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Junaid Mir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with some machinability studies on tool wear and surface roughness, in finish hard turning of AISI D2 steel using PCBN, Mixed ceramic and coated carbide inserts. The machining experiments are conducted based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Combined effects of three cutting parameters viz., cutting speed, cutting time and tool hardness on the two performance outputs (i.e. VB and Ra, are explored employing the analysis of variance (ANOVA.The relationship(s between input variables and the response parameters are determined using a quadratic regression model. The results show that the tool wear was influenced principally by the cutting time and in the second level by the cutting tool hardness. On the other hand, cutting time was the dominant factor affecting workpiece surface roughness followed by cutting speed. Finally, the multiple response optimizations of tool wear and surface roughness were carried out using the desirability function approach (DFA.

  10. Surface modification of AISI H13 tool steel by laser cladding with NiTi powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafzan, B.; Aqida, S. N.; Chikarakara, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents laser cladding of NiTi powder on AISI H13 tool steel surface for surface properties enhancement. The cladding process was conducted using Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 laser system with wavelength of 10.6 µm. NiTi powder was pre-placed on H13 tool steel surface. The laser beam was focused with a spot size of 90 µm on the sample surface. Laser parameters were set to 1515 and 1138 W peak power, 18 and 24 % duty cycle and 2300-3500 Hz laser pulse repetition frequency. Hardness properties of the modified layer were characterized by Wilson Hardness tester. Metallographic study and chemical composition were conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDXS) analysis. Results showed that hardness of NiTi clad layer increased three times that of the substrate material. The EDXS analysis detected NiTi phase presence in the modified layer up to 9.8 wt%. The metallographic study shows high metallurgical bonding between substrate and modified layer. These findings are significant to both increased hardness and erosion resistance of high-wear-resistant components and elongating their lifetime.

  11. Science Teachers' Use of a Concept Map Marking Guide as a Formative Assessment Tool for the Concept of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Mihye; Krabbe, Heiko; Ley, Siv Ling; Treagust, David F.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the value of a concept map marking guide as an alternative formative assessment tool for science teachers to adopt for the topic of energy. Eight high school science teachers marked students' concept maps using an itemized holistic marking guide. Their marking was compared with the researchers' marking and the scores…

  12. The Use of Internet-Based Social Media as a Tool in Enhancing Student's Learning Experiences in Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Cruz, Maribel; Cruz, Shannen Belle B.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the use of social media as a tool in enhancing student's learning experiences, by using online instruction as a supplement to a face-to-face general education course, such as biological sciences. Survey data were collected from 186 students who were enrolled in a Biological Sciences course. The course was taught in a blended…

  13. Developing and testing multimedia educational tools to teach Polar Sciences in the Italian school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Maddalena; Cattadori, Matteo; Bianchi, Cristiana; Zattin, Massimiliano; Talarico, Franco Maria

    2013-04-01

    In the last few years science education moved forward rapidly by connecting the expertise and enthusiasm of polar educators worldwide. The interest in Polar Sciences determined the creation of a global professional network for those that educate in, for, and about the Polar Regions. In Italy, this cooperation is well represented by APECS-Italy, the Italian section of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) that is composed by young researchers and teachers of the Italian School. The Polar Regions represent one of the best natural environments where students can investigate directly on global changes. In this sense, the working group UNICAMearth of the Geology Division of School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino (Italy), promotes the arrangement of instructional resources based on real data coming from the research world. Our project aims to develop innovative teaching resources and practices designed to bring the importance of the Polar Regions closer to home. Consequently, Polar Sciences could become a focus point in the new national school curricula, where Earth Sciences have to be thought and learnt in an integrated way together with other sciences. In particular, M. Macario is producing a teaching tool package, starting from a case study, which includes a dozen of full lesson plans based on multimedia tools (images, smart board lessons and videos of lab experiments) as well as on hands-on activities about polar issues and phenomena. Among the resources the teaching tool package is referring to, there is also an App for tablet named CLAST (CLimate in Antartica from Sediments and Tectonics). This App has been designed by a team made up of polar scientists belonging to the University of Siena and University of Padova, two science teachers of the Museo delle Scienze (MUSE) of Trento other than M. Macario. CLAST has been funded by two Research Projects, CLITEITAM ("CLImate-TEctonics Interactions along the TransAntarctic Mountains

  14. Realist Ontology and Natural Processes: A Semantic Tool to Analyze the Presentation of the Osmosis Concept in Science Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli Barria, Michele; Morales, Cecilia; Merino, Cristian; Quiroz, Waldo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we developed an ontological tool, based on the scientific realism of Mario Bunge, for the analysis of the presentation of natural processes in science textbooks. This tool was applied to analyze the presentation of the concept of osmosis in 16 chemistry and biology books at different educational levels. The results showed that more…

  15. Showing Up Is Half the Battle: Assessing Different Contextualized Learning Tools to Increase the Performance in Introductory Computer Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolka, Christine; Remshagen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Contextualized learning is considered beneficial for student success. In this article, we assess the impact of context-based learning tools on student grade performance in an introductory computer science course. In particular, we investigate two central questions: (1) does the use context-based learning tools, robots and animations, affect…

  16. Science synergism study for EOS on evolution of desert surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Tom G.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of EOS data as a basis for the study of desert surfaces' evolution is presently evaluated for both long and short term geomorphic evolution. Attention is given to the usefulness of such sensor systems planned for EOS as MODIS for regional vegetation distribution/variability monitoring, HIRIS for visible-near IR observations, TIMS for lithological identification, HMMR and SSMI for soil characteristics, LASA for atmospheric profiles, SAR for surface roughness, ALT for two-dimensional topography, ACR for the calibration of imaging sensors, and ERBE for climate modeling and regional surface albedo variation determinations.

  17. Surface science studies on titania for solar fuel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadsell, Courtney Sara Mathews

    Titanium dioxide (titania) is a well-studied material for various applications including but not limited to, paint, sunscreen, pharmaceuticals and solar cell applications (photocatalysis.) It can be found in three main crystal forms; rutile, anatase, and brookite and this work will focus on the anatase form which has been heavily studied for its potential in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs.) I propose that aqueous and photo dye stability can be improved by taking special care to the exposed surface of anatase. Additionally, the theoretical maximum open circuit voltage of a DSSC is dependent upon which surface is exposed to the electrolyte. Previous works in this area have not been rigorous with respect to the surface and morphology of titania being used. Standard synthesis techniques of anatase lead to a crystal that generally has 94% of the titania (101) surface exposed, and the other 6% is the higher energy (001) surface. The (101) surface has 5 & 6-fold coordinated titania whereas the (001) surface only has 5-fold (under) coordinated titania. This under-coordination leads to enhanced reactivity of the (001) surface which has been demonstrated by dissassociative adsorption of water, and catalysis applications. Much theoretical work has focused on the minority (001) surface because up until recently synthesizing anatase with enhanced exposure of the (001) surface has been difficult. The initial materials for this study will be multilayer titania nanotubes (TiNTs) and nanosheets (TiNS) which have been previously characterized by my predecessor. The TiNTs and TiNS have 100% exposed (001)-like surface. Both of these materials show enhanced stability of phosphonated dye binding as compared to the current standard of anatase nanoparticles (NPs) however, due to their limited thermal stability the potential of incorporating the TiNTs and TiNSs into devices has been eliminated in this study. To overcome the device limitations I will synthesis a novel titania nanotile

  18. Addiction Science: A Rationale and Tools for a Public Health Response to Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A; Rieckmann, Traci; Gust, Steven W

    New scientific knowledge and effective, evidence-based interventions have provided health leaders and policymakers a remarkable paradigm to guide the development of addiction treatment services around the world. The definition of addiction as a brain disease, validated screening and assessment tools, medication-assisted treatment, and effective behavioral treatments have served as vehicles for both the United States and other countries to guide the transformation of their substance abuse treatment systems. Seeking to expand international research and infrastructure, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)'s International Program has engaged international investigators and institutions in addiction research to promote dissemination of addiction science globally. This paper presents three mixed-methods case studies to exemplify the use of advancements in evidence-based practice in addiction treatment as guides and tools for the creation or further development of treatment systems in three countries, Vietnam, Lebanon, and Abu Dhabi. Results indicate that a framework of evidence-based medicine and empirical science creates a necessary platform from which objective conversations about addictions may begin. Other facilitative factors that help create treatment programs internationally include: a receptive and supportive government, support from international donors and technical experts, networking and interest from other international organizations, and often a synergistic and concerted effort by multiple entities and partners. Despite substantial differences in the circumstances that generated these initiatives and the varying scope of the services, common themes across these efforts have been the implementation of science-based approaches to systems transformation and support for a public health approach to addressing drug abuse and addiction.

  19. Robotic education, a tool for the theaching-learning of the science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathia Pittí Patiño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 113 649 Universidad de Salamanca 5 1 797 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper presents and analyzes the educational robotics as a tool to support teaching and learning process at the level of pre-media, primarily engaged in complex subjects such as mathematics, physics and computer science, among others. The study was limited to high schools in the province of Chiriqui, Panama, took a sample of six schools in the province and for each school involved both students and teachers. The main objective of the project was to demonstrate how robotics education, facilitates and encourages teaching and learning of science and technology. The results showed that robotics could become an excellent tool to understand abstract concepts and complex subjects in the area of science and technology, as well as allowing developing basic skills such as teamwork.

  20. An engineering paradigm in the biomedical sciences: Knowledge as epistemic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Mieke

    2017-10-01

    In order to deal with the complexity of biological systems and attempts to generate applicable results, current biomedical sciences are adopting concepts and methods from the engineering sciences. Philosophers of science have interpreted this as the emergence of an engineering paradigm, in particular in systems biology and synthetic biology. This article aims at the articulation of the supposed engineering paradigm by contrast with the physics paradigm that supported the rise of biochemistry and molecular biology. This articulation starts from Kuhn's notion of a disciplinary matrix, which indicates what constitutes a paradigm. It is argued that the core of the physics paradigm is its metaphysical and ontological presuppositions, whereas the core of the engineering paradigm is the epistemic aim of producing useful knowledge for solving problems external to the scientific practice. Therefore, the two paradigms involve distinct notions of knowledge. Whereas the physics paradigm entails a representational notion of knowledge, the engineering paradigm involves the notion of 'knowledge as epistemic tool'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using food as a tool to teach science to 3 grade students in Appalachian Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-04-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007-2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3(rd)-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk and cheese; meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; fats; grains; and meal management. Students in four other classrooms served as the control group. Mainstream 3(rd)-grade students were targeted because of their receptiveness to the subject matter, science standards for upper elementary grades, and testing that the students would undergo in 4(th) grade. Teachers and students alike reported that the hands-on FoodMASTER curriculum experience was worthwhile and enjoyable. Our initial classroom observation indicated that the majority of students, girls and boys included, were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations.

  2. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a tool for source inference in forensic science: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Natacha; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Esseiva, Pierre; Doyle, Sean; Zollinger, Kurt; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used in numerous fields of forensic science in a source inference perspective. This review compiles the studies published on the application of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to the traditional fields of forensic science so far. It completes the review of Benson et al. [1] and synthesises the extent of knowledge already gathered in the following fields: illicit drugs, flammable liquids, human provenancing, microtraces, explosives and other specific materials (packaging tapes, safety matches, plastics, etc.). For each field, a discussion assesses the state of science and highlights the relevance of the information in a forensic context. Through the different discussions which mark out the review, the potential and limitations of IRMS, as well as the needs and challenges of future studies are emphasized. The paper elicits the various dimensions of the source which can be obtained from the isotope information and demonstrates the transversal nature of IRMS as a tool for source inference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and Testing of Tailored Tool Surfaces for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin

    This thesis describes measures taken to minimize or substitute environmentally hazardous lubricants applied in sheet metal forming processes by less harmful lubricants or not applying lubricant at all. The breakdown of lubricant film often leads to galling, and therefore application of the hazard......This thesis describes measures taken to minimize or substitute environmentally hazardous lubricants applied in sheet metal forming processes by less harmful lubricants or not applying lubricant at all. The breakdown of lubricant film often leads to galling, and therefore application......; compressibility of lubricants, application of structured tool surfaces and application of anti-seizure tool coatings. In order to analyze the mechanisms of lubricant entrapment and escape, knowledge of the lubricant bulk modulus characterizing the compressibility of lubricant is required. Two methods were studied...... ironing production of deep drawn, stainless steel cans, Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coating were deposited on SRT tools. The DLC coated tools with multi-, double- and single-layer coating structures were tested under severe tribological conditions, i.e, high normal pressure and temperature. A screening test...

  4. Effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted EDM of tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendee, A. M.; Saifuldin, M.; Gebremariam, MA; Azhari, A.

    2018-04-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the non-traditional machining techniques where the process offers wide range of parameters manipulation and machining applications. However, surface roughness, material removal rate, electrode wear and operation costs were among the topmost issue within this technique. Alteration of magnetic device around machining area offers exciting output to be investigated and the effects of magnetic polarity on EDM remain unacquainted. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted electrical discharge machining (MFAEDM) on tool steel material (AISI 420 mod.) using graphite electrode. A Magnet with a force of 18 Tesla was applied to the EDM process at selected parameters. The sparks under magnetic field assisted EDM produced better surface finish than the normal conventional EDM process. At the presence of high magnetic field, the spark produced was squeezed and discharge craters generated on the machined surface was tiny and shallow. Correct magnetic polarity combination of MFAEDM process is highly useful to attain a high efficiency machining and improved quality of surface finish to meet the demand of modern industrial applications.

  5. Density functional theory in surface science and heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Scheffler, M.; Toulhoat, H.

    2006-01-01

    Solid surfaces are used extensively as catalysts throughout the chemical industry, in the energy sector, and in environmental protection. Recently, density functional theory has started providing new insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of heterogeneous catalysis, helping to interpret the large...... amount of experimental data gathered during the last decades. This article shows how density functional theory can be used to describe the state of the surface during reactions and the rate of catalytic reactions. It will also show how we are beginning to understand the variation in catalytic activity...

  6. Stromal surface topography-guided custom ablation as a repair tool for corneal irregular astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Gobbe, Marine; Archer, Timothy J; Youssefi, Gerhard; Sutton, Hugo F S

    2015-01-01

    To illustrate the concept of using a stromal surface topography-guided procedure for therapeutic repair after a complication following primary laser refractive surgery. One case example of therapeutic retreatment for short nasal flap after primary LASIK performed in September 2000 is presented. The Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound arc-scanner (Arc-Scan, Inc., Morrison, CO) was used to obtain layered corneal thickness including epithelial thickness profile. Corneal front surface elevation was measured with the Orbscan II (Bausch & Lomb, Salt Lake City, UT). Stromal surface height was then calculated by subtracting epithelial thickness data from corneal front surface elevation data and used to calculate the ablation profile applied to the eye. The treatment was performed using the Ultralink system (ArcScan, Inc.), linking the ultrasound corneal thickness data with the Technolas 217c laser (Bausch & Lomb). Postoperative data were available at 30 days and 13 years. One month after treatment, the epithelial thickness map demonstrated that the difference in thickness between the thinnest and thickest points located 2.5-mm nasally was reduced by 26 µm (from 56 to 30 µm). The axial difference map demonstrated an increase in corneal curvature of approximately 4 diopters where the cornea was the flattest nasally, thereby reducing the corneal asymmetry. The anterior elevation map also showed a reduced depression nasally. The patient reported significant improvement of her night vision. This case example of stromal surface topography-guided treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in the irregularity of the stromal surface and an improvement in the topography, and the visual quality. Stromal surface topography-guided ablation might become the tool of the future for therapeutic repairs because it offers advantages over the current alternative of transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. NASA Life Sciences Data Repositories: Tools for Retrospective Analysis and Future Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Wear, M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Fitts, M.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle era into the next phase of space exploration, the need to ensure the capture, analysis, and application of its research and medical data is of greater urgency than at any other previous time. In this era of limited resources and challenging schedules, the Human Research Program (HRP) based at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) recognizes the need to extract the greatest possible amount of information from the data already captured, as well as focus current and future research funding on addressing the HRP goal to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. To this end, the Science Management Office and the Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch within the HRP and the Space Medicine Division have been working to make both research data and clinical data more accessible to the user community. The Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA), the research repository housing data and information regarding the physiologic effects of microgravity, and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH-R), the clinical repository housing astronaut data, have joined forces to achieve this goal. The task of both repositories is to acquire, preserve, and distribute data and information both within the NASA community and to the science community at large. This is accomplished via the LSDA s public website (http://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov), which allows access to experiment descriptions including hardware, datasets, key personnel, mission descriptions and a mechanism for researchers to request additional data, research and clinical, that is not accessible from the public website. This will result in making the work of NASA and its partners available to the wider sciences community, both domestic and international. The desired outcome is the use of these data for knowledge discovery, retrospective analysis, and planning of future

  8. Mineral Surface Reactivity in teaching of Science Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In the last fifty years, science materials issues has required the study of air pollution, water and soil to prevent and remedy the adverse effects of waste originating from anthropogenic activity and the development of new energies and new materials. The teaching of this discipline has been marked by lectures on general lines, materials, disciplines, who explained biased objects of reality, but often forgot the task of reconstruction and integration of such visions. Moving from that model, otherwise quite static, to a dynamic relational model, would in our view, a real revolution in education. This means taking a systematic approach to complex both in interpreting reality and in favor when learning. Children relationships are as important or more than single objects, and it is to discover fundamental organizational principles of phenomena we seek to interpret or in other words, find the pattern that connects. Thus, we must work on relationships and also take into account the relation between the observer and the observed. Educate about relationships means that studies should always be considered within a framework of probabilities, not absolute certainties. This model of systemic thinking, dealing with complexity, is a possibility to bring coherence to our educational work, because the complexity is not taught, complexity is live, so that complex thinking is extended (and fed) in a form educate complex. It is the task of teaching to help people move from level to level of decision reviews. This means that systems thinking should be extended in a local action, action that engages the individual and the environment. Science Materials has emerged as a discipline of free choice for pupils attending chemical engineering which has been assigned 6.0 credits. The chemical engineer's professional profile within the current framework is defined as a professional knowledge as a specialization technical / functional, working in a learning organization and the formation of

  9. Thermochemical Surface Engineering: A Playground for Science and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Surface engineering by thermochemical processing is the intentional change of the composition of a material at elevated temperature with the purpose to improve materials performance. In thermochemical processing components from the starting material are essential in the development of the phases ...... hardening of titanium alloys, as well as thermo-reactive diffusion for extreme wear resistance...

  10. Surface science studies of model fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, N. M.; Ross, P. N.

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss progress in the understanding of electrocatalytic reactions through the study of model systems with surface spectroscopies. Pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys have been used quite successfully as models for real (commercial) electrocatalysts. Given the sheer volume of all work in electrocatalysis that is on fuel cell reactions, we will focus on electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Since Pt is the model fuel cell electrocatalyst, we will focus entirely on studies of pure Pt and Pt bimetallic alloys. The electrode reactions discussed include hydrogen oxidation/evolution, oxygen reduction, and the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide, formic acid, and methanol. Surface spectroscopies emphasized are FTIR, STM/AFM and surface X-ray scattering (SXS). The discussion focuses on the relation between the energetics of adsorption of intermediates and the reaction pathway and kinetics, and how the energetics and kinetics relate to the extrinsic properties of the model system, e.g. surface structure and/or composition. Finally, we conclude by discussing the limitations that are reached by using pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys as models for real catalysts, and suggest some directions for developing more realistic systems.

  11. Modeling of edge effect in subaperture tool influence functions of computer controlled optical surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Songlin; Zhang, Xiangchao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2016-12-20

    Computer controlled optical surfacing requires an accurate tool influence function (TIF) for reliable path planning and deterministic fabrication. Near the edge of the workpieces, the TIF has a nonlinear removal behavior, which will cause a severe edge-roll phenomenon. In the present paper, a new edge pressure model is developed based on the finite element analysis results. The model is represented as the product of a basic pressure function and a correcting function. The basic pressure distribution is calculated according to the surface shape of the polishing pad, and the correcting function is used to compensate the errors caused by the edge effect. Practical experimental results demonstrate that the new model can accurately predict the edge TIFs with different overhang ratios. The relative error of the new edge model can be reduced to 15%.

  12. Effect of Tip Shape of Frictional Stir Burnishing Tool on Processed Layer’s Hardness, Residual Stress and Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Takada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir burnishing (FSB is a surface-enhancement method used after machining, without the need for an additional device. The FSB process is applied on a machine that uses rotation tools (e.g., machining center or multi-tasking machine. Therefore, the FSB process can be applied immediately after the cutting process using the same machine tool. Here, we apply the FSB to the shaft materials of 0.45% C steel using a multi-tasking machine. In the FSB process, the burnishing tool rotates at a high-revolution speed. The thin surface layer is rubbed and stirred as the temperature is increased and decreased. With the FSB process, high hardness or compressive residual stress can be obtained on the surface layer. However, when we applied the FSB process using a 3 mm diameter sphere tip shape tool, the surface roughness increased substantially (Ra = 20 µm. We therefore used four types of tip shape tools to examine the effect of burnishing tool tip radius on surface roughness, hardness, residual stress in the FSB process. Results indicated that the surface roughness was lowest (Ra = 10 µm when the tip radius tool diameter was large (30 mm.

  13. Consistency of Lower-Body Dimensions Using Surface Landmarks and Simple Measurement Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caia, Johnpaul; Weiss, Lawrence W; Chiu, Loren Z F; Schilling, Brian K; Paquette, Max R

    2016-09-01

    Caia, J, Weiss, LW, Chiu, LZF, Schilling, BK, and Paquette, MR. Consistency of lower-body dimensions using surface landmarks and simple measurement tools. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2600-2608, 2016-Body dimensions may influence various types of physical performance. This study was designed to establish the reliability and precision of bilateral lower-body dimensions using surface anatomic landmarks and either sliding calipers or goniometry. Fifty university students (25 men and 25 women) were measured on 2 separate occasions separated by 48 or 72 hours. A small digital caliper was used to acquire longitudinal dimensions of the feet, whereas a larger broad-blade caliper was used to measure lower-limb, hip, and pelvic dimensions. Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) was determined through surface goniometry. Data for all foot and lower-limb dimensions were both reliable and precise (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥0.72, SEM 0.1-0.5 cm). Measures of Q-angle were also reliable and precise (ICC ≥0.85, SEM 0.2-0.4°). Findings from this investigation demonstrate that lower-body dimensions may be reliably and precisely measured through simple practical tests, when surface anatomic landmarks and standardized procedures are used. Although intertester reliability remains to be established, meticulous adherence to specific measurement protocols is likely to yield viable output for lower-body dimensions when more sophisticated methods are unavailable or inappropriate.

  14. Surface Chemistry of CWAs for Decon Enabling Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Ultraviolet and Visible Photochemistry of Methanol at 3D Mesoporous Networks: TiO, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, (07 2013): 15035. doi...A for none) Presentations since most recent interim report for this project: " Photochemistry of Methanol at 3-D Networked Aerogels of TiO2 and...evaporation • Studied the uptake, thermal, and photochemistry of agent simulants on TiO2 surfaces • Initiated experiments on the uptake and

  15. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitler, J. D.; Culling, J. R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  16. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Y.; Formosa D.; Fernandez J.; Li X.; Fuentes G.; Zoltan K.; Dong H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tr...

  17. Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Michal; Matz, Sandra C; Gosling, Samuel D; Popov, Vesselin; Stillwell, David

    2015-09-01

    Facebook is rapidly gaining recognition as a powerful research tool for the social sciences. It constitutes a large and diverse pool of participants, who can be selectively recruited for both online and offline studies. Additionally, it facilitates data collection by storing detailed records of its users' demographic profiles, social interactions, and behaviors. With participants' consent, these data can be recorded retrospectively in a convenient, accurate, and inexpensive way. Based on our experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining multiple Facebook-based psychological studies that attracted over 10 million participants, we demonstrate how to recruit participants using Facebook, incentivize them effectively, and maximize their engagement. We also outline the most important opportunities and challenges associated with using Facebook for research, provide several practical guidelines on how to successfully implement studies on Facebook, and finally, discuss ethical considerations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences Chaos, Fractals, Selforganization and Disorder: Concepts and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2006-01-01

    Concepts, methods and techniques of statistical physics in the study of correlated, as well as uncorrelated, phenomena are being applied ever increasingly in the natural sciences, biology and economics in an attempt to understand and model the large variability and risks of phenomena. This is the first textbook written by a well-known expert that provides a modern up-to-date introduction for workers outside statistical physics. The emphasis of the book is on a clear understanding of concepts and methods, while it also provides the tools that can be of immediate use in applications. Although this book evolved out of a course for graduate students, it will be of great interest to researchers and engineers, as well as to post-docs in geophysics and meteorology.

  19. Tool flank wear model and parametric optimization in end milling of metal matrix composite using carbide tool: Response surface methodology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arokiadass

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly automated CNC end milling machines in manufacturing industry requires reliable model for prediction of tool flank wear. This model later can be used to predict the tool flank wear (VBmax according to the process parameters. In this investigation an attempt was made to develop an empirical relationship to predict the tool flank wear (VBmax of carbide tools while machining LM25 Al/SiCp incorporating the process parameters such as spindle speed (N, feed rate (f, depth of cut (d and various % wt. of silicon carbide (S. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimizing the end milling process parameters to attain the minimum tool flank wear. Predicted values obtained from the developed model and experimental results are compared, and error <5 percent is observed. In addition, it is concluded that the flank wear increases with the increase of SiCp percentage weight in the MMC.

  20. Surface science. Adhesion and friction in mesoscopic graphite contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Elad; Lörtscher, Emanuel; Rawlings, Colin; Knoll, Armin W; Duerig, Urs

    2015-05-08

    The weak interlayer binding in two-dimensional layered materials such as graphite gives rise to poorly understood low-friction characteristics. Accurate measurements of the adhesion forces governing the overall mechanical stability have also remained elusive. We report on the direct mechanical measurement of line tension and friction forces acting in sheared mesoscale graphite structures. We show that the friction is fundamentally stochastic in nature and is attributable to the interaction between the incommensurate interface lattices. We also measured an adhesion energy of 0.227 ± 0.005 joules per square meter, in excellent agreement with theoretical models. In addition, bistable all-mechanical memory cell structures and rotational bearings have been realized by exploiting position locking, which is provided solely by the adhesion energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. EPA Leadership on Science, Innovation, and Decision Support Tools for Addressing Current and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D; Ferster, Aaron; Summers, Kevin

    2017-10-16

    When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established nearly 50 years ago, the nation faced serious threats to its air, land, and water, which in turn impacted human health. These threats were effectively addressed by the creation of EPA (in 1970) and many subsequent landmark environmental legislations which in turn significantly reduced threats to the Nation's environment and public health. A key element of historic legislation is research aimed at dealing with current and future problems. Today we face national and global challenges that go beyond classic media-specific (air, land, water) environmental legislation and require an integrated paradigm of action and engagement based on (1) innovation based on science and technology, (2) stakeholder engagement and collaboration, and (3) public education and support. This three-pronged approach recognizes that current environmental problems, include social as well as physical and environmental factors, are best addressed through collaborative problem solving, the application of innovation in science and technology, and multiple stakeholder engagement. To achieve that goal, EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is working directly with states and local communities to develop and apply a suite of accessible decision support tools (DST) that aim to improve environmental conditions, protect human health, enhance economic opportunity, and advance a resilient and sustainability society. This paper showcases joint EPA and state actions to develop tools and approaches that not only meet current environmental and public health challenges, but do so in a way that advances sustainable, healthy, and resilient communities well into the future. EPA's future plans should build on current work but aim to effectively respond to growing external pressures. Growing pressures from megatrends are a major challenge for the new Administration and for cities and states across the country. The recent hurricanes hitting

  2. The notes from nature tool for unlocking biodiversity records from museum records through citizen science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Legacy data from natural history collections contain invaluable and irreplaceable information about biodiversity in the recent past, providing a baseline for detecting change and forecasting the future of biodiversity on a human-dominated planet. However, these data are often not available in formats that facilitate use and synthesis. New approaches are needed to enhance the rates of digitization and data quality improvement. Notes from Nature provides one such novel approach by asking citizen scientists to help with transcription tasks. The initial web-based prototype of Notes from Nature is soon widely available and was developed collaboratively by biodiversity scientists, natural history collections staff, and experts in citizen science project development, programming and visualization. This project brings together digital images representing different types of biodiversity records including ledgers , herbarium sheets and pinned insects from multiple projects and natural history collections. Experts in developing web-based citizen science applications then designed and built a platform for transcribing textual data and metadata from these images. The end product is a fully open source web transcription tool built using the latest web technologies. The platform keeps volunteers engaged by initially explaining the scientific importance of the work via a short orientation, and then providing transcription “missions” of well defined scope, along with dynamic feedback, interactivity and rewards. Transcribed records, along with record-level and process metadata, are provided back to the institutions. While the tool is being developed with new users in mind, it can serve a broad range of needs from novice to trained museum specialist. Notes from Nature has the potential to speed the rate of biodiversity data being made available to a broad community of users.

  3. Performance improvement studies for cutting tools with perforated surface in turning of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charitha Rao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In turning process, the cutting tool is essential for shaping materials. The cutting tools with various perforated surfaces help to increase the cutting tool life. Also, advances in CNC machining technologies have enhanced the productivity of machining process. One of the best or futuristic approaches in modern manufacturing engineering is the use of FEM Simulation for the metal cutting process. FEM simulation helps in understanding the metal deformation process and also helps in the reduction of experiments. The simulation helps the researchers to predict the major influencing cutting variable values without carrying out any experiment which is time-consuming and expensive. This research presents the simulation study of the performance of micro-hole patterned Polycrystalline Diamond cutting insert in machining Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V. Micro-holes are drilled using Electrical Discharge Wire Drilling machine on the rake face of Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD cutting inserts. FEM analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of perforations on the mechanical integrity of insert. The micro-hole patterned insert is modeled in PRO-E modeler and simulated using DEFORM-3D software. The effective stress, strain, and temperature distribution are analyzed and the results are compared with the normal insert.

  4. EarthCache as a Tool to Promote Earth-Science in Public School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, E. E.; Rose, W. I.; Klawiter, M.; Vye, E. C.; Engelmann, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscientists often find it difficult to bridge the gap in communication between university research and what is learned in the public schools. Today's schools operate in a high stakes environment that only allow instruction based on State and National Earth Science curriculum standards. These standards are often unknown by academics or are written in a style that obfuscates the transfer of emerging scientific research to students in the classroom. Earth Science teachers are in an ideal position to make this link because they have a background in science as well as a solid understanding of the required curriculum standards for their grade and the pedagogical expertise to pass on new information to their students. As part of the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP), teachers from Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Jackson school districts participate in 2 week field courses with Michigan Tech University to learn from earth science experts about how the earth works. This course connects Earth Science Literacy Principles' Big Ideas and common student misconceptions with standards-based education. During the 2011 field course, we developed and began to implement a three-phase EarthCache model that will provide a geospatial interactive medium for teachers to translate the material they learn in the field to the students in their standards based classrooms. MiTEP participants use GPS and Google Earth to navigate to Michigan sites of geo-significance. At each location academic experts aide participants in making scientific observations about the locations' geologic features, and "reading the rocks" methodology to interpret the area's geologic history. The participants are then expected to develop their own EarthCache site to be used as pedagogical tool bridging the gap between standards-based classroom learning, contemporary research and unique outdoor field experiences. The final phase supports teachers in integrating inquiry based, higher-level learning student

  5. A Software Tool for Atmospheric Correction and Surface Temperature Estimation of Landsat Infrared Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tardy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important variable involved in the Earth’s surface energy and water budgets and a key component in many aspects of environmental research. The Landsat program, jointly carried out by NASA and the USGS, has been recording thermal infrared data for the past 40 years. Nevertheless, LST data products for Landsat remain unavailable. The atmospheric correction (AC method commonly used for mono-window Landsat thermal data requires detailed information concerning the vertical structure (temperature, pressure and the composition (water vapor, ozone of the atmosphere. For a given coordinate, this information is generally obtained through either radio-sounding or atmospheric model simulations and is passed to the radiative transfer model (RTM to estimate the local atmospheric correction parameters. Although this approach yields accurate LST data, results are relevant only near this given coordinate. To meet the scientific community’s demand for high-resolution LST maps, we developed a new software tool dedicated to processing Landsat thermal data. The proposed tool improves on the commonly-used AC algorithm by incorporating spatial variations occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere composition. The ERA-Interim dataset (ECMWFmeteorological organization was used to retrieve vertical atmospheric conditions, which are available at a global scale with a resolution of 0.125 degrees and a temporal resolution of 6 h. A temporal and spatial linear interpolation of meteorological variables was performed to match the acquisition dates and coordinates of the Landsat images. The atmospheric correction parameters were then estimated on the basis of this reconstructed atmospheric grid using the commercial RTMsoftware MODTRAN. The needed surface emissivity was derived from the common vegetation index NDVI, obtained from the red and near-infrared (NIR bands of the same Landsat image. This permitted an estimation of LST for the entire

  6. Towards a New Generation of Time-Series Visualization Tools in the ESA Heliophysics Science Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, H.; Martinez, B.; Cook, J. P.; Herment, D.; Fernandez, M.; De Teodoro, P.; Arnaud, M.; Middleton, H. R.; Osuna, P.; Arviset, C.

    2017-12-01

    During the last decades a varied set of Heliophysics missions have allowed the scientific community to gain a better knowledge on the solar atmosphere and activity. The remote sensing images of missions such as SOHO have paved the ground for Helio-based spatial data visualization software such as JHelioViewer/Helioviewer. On the other hand, the huge amount of in-situ measurements provided by other missions such as Cluster provide a wide base for plot visualization software whose reach is still far from being fully exploited. The Heliophysics Science Archives within the ESAC Science Data Center (ESDC) already provide a first generation of tools for time-series visualization focusing on each mission's needs: visualization of quicklook plots, cross-calibration time series, pre-generated/on-demand multi-plot stacks (Cluster), basic plot zoom in/out options (Ulysses) and easy navigation through the plots in time (Ulysses, Cluster, ISS-Solaces). However, as the needs evolve and the scientists involved in new missions require to plot multi-variable data, heat maps stacks interactive synchronization and axis variable selection among other improvements. The new Heliophysics archives (such as Solar Orbiter) and the evolution of existing ones (Cluster) intend to address these new challenges. This paper provides an overview of the different approaches for visualizing time-series followed within the ESA Heliophysics Archives and their foreseen evolution.

  7. New tools, technology and techniques applied in geological sciences: current situation and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Technological tools and work methodologies most used in the area of geological sciences are reviewed and described. The various electronic devices such as laptops, palmtops or PDA (personal digital assistant), tablets and smartphones have allowed to take field geological data and store them efficiently. Tablets and smartphones have been convenient for data collection of scientific data by the diversity of sensors that present, portability, autonomy and the possibility to install specific applications. High precision GPS in conjunction with LIDAR technology and sonar technology have been more accessible and used for geological research, generating high resolution three-dimensional models to complement geological studies. Remote sensing techniques such as high penetration radar are used to perform models of the ice thickness and topography in Antarctic. Modern three-dimensional scanning and printing techniques are used in geological science research and teaching. Currently, the advance in the computer technology has allowed to handle three-dimensional models on personal computers efficiently way and with different display options. Some, of the new areas of geology, emerged recently, are mentioned to generate a broad panorama toward where can direct geological researches in the next years [es

  8. The FEMM Package: A Simple, Fast, and Accurate Open Source Electromagnetic Tool in Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Baltzis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite element method (FEM is one of the most successful computational techniques for obtaining approximate solutions to the partial differential equations that arise in many scientific and engineering applications. Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM is a software package for solving electromagnetic problems using FEM. The program addresses 2D planar and 3D axisymmetric linear and nonlinear harmonic low frequency magnetic and magnetostatic problems and linear electrostatic problems. It is a simple, accurate, and low computational cost open source product, popular in science, engineering, and education. In this paper the main characteristics and functions of the package are presented. In order to demonstrate its use and exhibit the aid it offers in the study of electromagnetics a series of illustrative examples are given. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the capability of FEMM to meet as a complementary tool the needs of science and technology especially when factors like the economic cost or the software complexity do not allow the use of commercial products.

  9. Development of a tool to evaluate health science students' experiences of an interprofessional education (IPE) programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Quynh; Spencer, Judy; Whelan, Jessica

    2008-12-01

    The Rural Interprofessional Programme Emergency Retreat (RIPPER) is an educational programme collaboratively developed and evaluated by an interprofessional team from Schools within Faculty of Health Science (FHS), University of Tasmania (UTAS), Australia. The aims of RIPPER are to foster and facilitate positive and productive interprofessional learning experiences for undergraduate students in a rural setting; and to develop a firmly embedded and sustainable interprofessional healthcare module within the health science curriculum. This paper reports on the development of a reliable and valid survey tool to evaluate students' understandings and experiences of this interprofessional learning programme. Twenty-nine students from the Schools of Nursing, Medicine and Pharmacy of the FHS, UTAS participated in the RIPPER programme which offers a number of interactive rural emergency healthcare scenarios using high- and low-fidelity simulation. To evaluate the programme a survey which consisted of 2 main components was developed and implemented before and after the programme. The first component was designed to gather students' demographic information, their understanding of the interprofessional practice concepts, and their expectations of the RIPPER programme using open-ended questions. The second component consisted of a 5-point Likert scale for students to rank their level of agreement pre- and post- intervention with 12 statements about team working, programme evaluation and collaborative learning. Three processes were used to establish the validity and reliability of the survey. Content validity was assessed by academics and experts in health science education. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency and reliability of the survey was checked using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Factor analysis of the 12 statements identified 3 main factors including appreciation of professional roles and responsibilities, improved

  10. CONDITIONS FOR STABLE CHIP BREAKING AND PROVISION OF MACHINED SURFACE QUALITY WHILE TURNING WITH ASYMMETRIC TOOL VIBRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Sheleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a process of turning structural steel with asymmetric tool vibrations directed along feeding. Asymmetric vibrations characterized by asymmetry coefficient of vibration cycle, their frequency and amplitude are additionally transferred to the tool in the turning process with the purpose to crush chips. Conditions of stable chip breaking and obtaining optimum dimensions of chip elements have been determined in the paper. In order to reduce a negative impact of the vibration amplitude on a cutting process and quality of the machined surfaces machining must be carried out with its minimum value. In this case certain ratio of the tool vibration frequency to the work-piece rotation speed has been ensured in the paper. A formula has been obtained for calculation of this ratio with due account of the expected length of chip elements and coefficient of vibration cycle asymmetry.Influence of the asymmetric coefficient of the tool vibration cycle on roughness of the machined surfaces and cutting tool wear has been determined in the paper. According to the results pertaining to machining of work-pieces made of 45 and ШХ15 steel the paper presents mathematical relationships of machined surface roughness with cutting modes and asymmetry coefficient of tool vibration cycle. Tool feeding being one of the cutting modes exerts the most significant impact on the roughness value and increase of the tool feeding entails increase in roughness. Reduction in coefficient of vibration cycle asymmetry contributes to surface roughness reduction. However, the cutting tool wear occurs more intensive. Coefficient of the vibration cycle asymmetry must be increased in order to reduce wear rate. Therefore, the choice of the coefficient of the vibration cycle asymmetry is based on the parameters of surface roughness which must be obtained after machining and intensity of tool wear rate.The paper considers a process of turning structural steel with asymmetric

  11. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weidian

    2013-09-27

    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  12. Intense positron beam and its application to surface science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Hirose, M.; Kanazawa, I.; Sueoka, O.; Takamura, S.; Okada, S.

    1992-01-01

    Intense pulsed slow positron beam has been produced using the 100 MeV electron LINAC of JAERI · Tokai. In order to use the beam for surface studies such as positron diffraction and positron microscopy, it was transferred from the solenoid magnetic field to field free region and then was brightness-enhanced. The beam size was reduced from 10 mmφ (in the magnetic field) to 0.5 mmφ after two stages of re-moderation. Using the intense brightness-enhanced positron beam we have observed for the first time RHEPD (Reflection High-Energy Positron Diffraction) patterns. A design of re-emission positron microscopy is also described. (author)

  13. Synthesis of laser beam rapidly solidified novel surfaces on D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.A.; Rizwan, K.F.; Minhas, J.A.; Waheed-ul-Haq, S.; Shahid, M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface layer of D2 tool steel was subjected to laser surface melting using continuous wave 2.5 kW CO/sub 2/ laser in point source melting mode. The processing parameters were varied to achieve a uniform depth of around 2 mm. Microstructural study revealed epitaxial growth of fine dendritic structure with secondary dendrite arm spacing in the range of 20-25 mu m. The phases in the parent annealed sample were BCC ferrite and chromium rich M7C3 carbide. The major phase after laser treatment was austenite and M7C3. The average hardness of annealed sample was 195 HV which increased to 410 HV after laser melting. Corrosion studies in 2% HCl solution exhibited a drastic improvement in corrosion resistance in laser treated samples. Improvement in properties is attributed to the refinement and uniformity of microstructure in the rapidly solidified surface. The case of a moving heat source was subjected to computer aided simulation to predict the melt depth at different processing conditions in point source melting mode. The calculated depths using the model, in ABAQUS software was found in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  14. Content Development, Presentation and Delivery for eLearning in Nuclear Science and Engineering: Experiences with Emerging Authoring Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.; Afriyie, P.; Comlan, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Transference of explicit knowledge starts from content development, and proceeds with packaging and delivery. A comparative study of some selected authoring tools for knowledge creation in Nuclear Sciences and Engineering education is being carried out at the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences in Accra, Ghana. These authoring tools include commercial software (Macromedia Suite CS6, Learning 6.0) as well as freeware software (Xerte, eXe). A course, X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (NSAP 603), at the postgraduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), has been selected for migration onto an eLearning platform. Different authoring tools have been employed to create some ICT-based modules for teaching and learning. This paper therefore shares the experiences realized in moving from course syllabus to digitized modules, integrating pedagogical considerations, the strengths and weakness of the selected authoring tools, user-interactivity and usability of the modules produced. The need and the basis for the adoption of an appropriate authoring tool for creation of scientific, mathematical, and engineering documents and learning materials has also been discussed. Leveraging on ICT to produce pedagogically sound learning materials for eLearning platforms promotes interests of students in nuclear sciences, and ensures continuity in producing qualified professionals. (author

  15. Towards a Systematic Screening Tool for Quality Assurance and Semiautomatic Fraud Detection for Images in the Life Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Koppers, Lars; Wormer, Holger; Ickstadt, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The quality and authenticity of images is essential for data presentation, especially in the life sciences. Questionable images may often be a first indicator for questionable results, too. Therefore, a tool that uses mathematical methods to detect suspicious images in large image archives can be a helpful instrument to improve quality assurance in publications. As a first step towards a systematic screening tool, especially for journal editors and other staff members who are responsible for ...

  16. Surface science study of selective ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by the Ag(110) surface: Structural sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    The selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene epoxide (C 2 H 4 +1/2O 2 →C 2 H 4 O) over Ag is the simplest example of kinetically controlled, selective heterogeneous catalysis. We have studied the steady-state kinetics and selectivity of this reaction for the first time on a clean, well-characterized Ag(110) surface by using a special apparatus which allows rapid (approx.20 s) transfer between a high-pressure catalytic microreactor and an ultrahigh vacuum surface analysis (AES, XPS, LEED, TDS) chamber. The effects of temperature and reactant pressures upon the rate and selectivity are virtually identical on Ag(110) and supported, high surface area Ag catalysts. The absolute specific rate (per Ag surface atom) is, however, some 100-fold higher for Ag(110) than for high surface area catalysts. This is related to the well-known structural sensitivity of this reaction. It is postulated that a small percentage of (110) planes (or [110]-like sites) are responsible for most of the catalytic activity of high surface area catalysts. The high activity of the (110) plane is attributed to its high sticking probability for dissociative oxygen adsorption, since the rate of ethylene epoxidation is shown in a related work [Ref. 1: C. T. Campbell and M. T. Paffett, Surf. Sci. (in press)] to be proportional to the coverage of atomically adsorbed oxygen at constant temperature and ethylene pressure

  17. Effect of cutting fluids and cutting conditions on surface integrity and tool wear in turning of Inconel 713C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, R.

    2018-01-01

    The trend toward downsizing of engines helps to increase the number of turbochargers around Europe. As for the turbocharger, the temperature of the exhaust gas is so high that the parts made of nickel base super alloy Inconel 713C are used as high temperature strength metals. External turning of Inconel 713C which is used as the actual automotive parts was carried out. The effect of the cutting fluids and cutting conditions on the surface integrity and tool wear was investigated, considering global environment and cost performance. As a result, in the range of the cutting conditions used this time, when the depth of cut was small, the good surface integrity and tool life were obtained. However, in the case of the large corner radius, it was found that the more the cutting length increased, the more the tool wear increased. When the cutting length is so large, the surface integrity and tool life got worse. As for the cutting fluids, it was found that the synthetic type showed better performance in the surface integrity and tool life than the conventional emulsion. However, it was clear that the large corner radius made the surface roughness and tool life good, but it affected the size error etc. in machining the workpiece held in a cantilever style.

  18. Effect of electrical discharge machining on surface characteristics and machining damage of AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guu, Y.H.; Hocheng, H.; Chou, C.Y.; Deng, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of AISI D2 tool steel was investigated. The surface characteristics and machining damage caused by EDM were studied in terms of machining parameters. Based on the experimental data, an empirical model of the tool steel was also proposed. A new damage variable was used to study the EDM damage. The workpiece surface and re-solidified layers were examined by a scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness was determined with a surface profilometer. The residual stress acting on the EDM specimen was measured by the X-ray diffraction technique. Experimental results indicate that the thickness of the recast layer, and surface roughness are proportional to the power input. The EDM process introduces tensile residual stress on the machined surface. The EDM damage leads to strength degradation

  19. An approach based on tool mode control for surface roughness reduction in high-frequency vibration cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostasevicius, V.; Gaidys, R.; Rimkeviciene, J.; Dauksevicius, R.

    2010-11-01

    The presented research work, aimed at deeper understanding of vibrational process during high-frequency vibration cutting, is accomplished by treating cutting tool as an elastic structure which is characterized by several modes of natural vibrations. An approach for surface quality improvement is proposed in this paper by taking into account that quality of machined surface is related to the intensity of tool-tip (cutting edge) vibrations. It is based on the excitation of a particular higher vibration mode of a turning tool, which leads to the reduction of deleterious vibrations in the machine-tool-workpiece system through intensification of internal energy dissipation in the tool material. The combined application of numerical analysis with accurate finite element model as well as different experimental methods during investigation of the vibration turning process allowed to determine that the most favorable is the second flexural vibration mode of the tool in the direction of vertical cutting force component. This mode is excited by means of piezoelectric transducer vibrating in axial tool direction at the corresponding natural frequency, thereby enabling minimization of surface roughness and tool wear.

  20. Earth Science Data Analytics: Bridging Tools and Techniques with the Co-Analysis of Large, Heterogeneous Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve; Mathews, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The continuum of ever-evolving data management systems affords great opportunities to the enhancement of knowledge and facilitation of science research. To take advantage of these opportunities, it is essential to understand and develop methods that enable data relationships to be examined and the information to be manipulated. This presentation describes the efforts of the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster to understand, define, and facilitate the implementation of ESDA to advance science research. As a result of the void of Earth science data analytics publication material, the cluster has defined ESDA along with 10 goals to set the framework for a common understanding of tools and techniques that are available and still needed to support ESDA.

  1. QMRAspot: a tool for Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment from surface water to potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack F; Teunis, Peter F M; Rutjes, Saskia A; Bouwknegt, Martijn; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2011-11-01

    In the Netherlands, a health based target for microbially safe drinking water is set at less than one infection per 10,000 persons per year. For the assessment of the microbial safety of drinking water, Dutch drinking water suppliers must conduct a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) at least every three years for the so-called index pathogens enterovirus, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In order to collect raw data in the proper format and to automate the process of QMRA, an interactive user-friendly computational tool, QMRAspot, was developed to analyze and conduct QMRA for drinking water produced from surface water. This paper gives a description of the raw data requirements for QMRA as well as a functional description of the tool. No extensive prior knowledge about QMRA modeling is required by the user, because QMRAspot provides guidance to the user on the quantity, type and format of raw data and performs a complete analysis of the raw data to yield a risk outcome for drinking water consumption that can be compared with other production locations, a legislative standard or an acceptable health based target. The uniform approach promotes proper collection and usage of raw data and, warrants quality of the risk assessment as well as enhances efficiency, i.e., less time is required. QMRAspot may facilitate QMRA for drinking water suppliers worldwide. The tool aids policy makers and other involved parties in formulating mitigation strategies, and prioritization and evaluation of effective preventive measures as integral part of water safety plans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Parameter Adjustments in CNC Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hsien Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly covers a research intended to improve the circular accuracy of CNC machine tools and the adjustment and analysis of the main controller parameters applied to improve accuracy. In this study, controller analysis software was used to detect the adjustment status of the servo parameters of the feed axis. According to the FANUC parameter manual, the parameter address, frequency, response measurements, and the one-fourth corner acceleration and deceleration measurements of the machine tools were adjusted. The experimental design (DOE was adopted in this study for taking circular measurements and engaging in the planning and selection of important parameter data. The Minitab R15 software was adopted to predict the experimental data analysis, while the seminormal probability map, Plato, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were adopted to determine the impacts of the significant parameter factors and the interactions among them. Additionally, based on the response surface map and contour plot, the optimal values were obtained. In addition, comparison and verification were conducted through the Taguchi method, regression analysis to improved machining accuracy and efficiency. The unadjusted error was 7.8 μm; through the regression analysis method, the error was 5.8 μm and through the Taguchi analysis method, the error was 6.4 μm.

  3. The optimization study on the tool wear of carbide cutting tool during milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced (CFRP) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Khairusshima, M. K.; Hafiz Zakwan, B. Muhammad; Suhaily, M.; Sharifah, I. S. S.; Shaffiar, N. M.; Rashid, M. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite has become one of famous materials in industry, such as automotive, aeronautics, aerospace and aircraft. CFRP is attractive due to its properties, which promising better strength and high specification of mechanical properties other than its high resistance to corrosion. Other than being abrasive material due to the carbon nature, CFRP is an anisotropic material, which the knowledge of machining metal and steel cannot be applied during machining CFRP. The improper technique and parameters used to machine CFRP may result in high tool wear. This paper is to study the tool wear of 8 mm diameter carbide cutting tool during milling CFRP. To predict the suitable cutting parameters within range of 3500-6220 (rev/min), 200-245 (mm/min), and 0.4-1.8 (mm) for cutting speed, speed, feed rate and depth of cut respectively, which produce optimized result (less tool wear), Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used. Based on the developed mathematical model, feed rate was identified as the primary significant item that influenced tool wear. The optimized cutting parameters are cutting speed, feed and depth of cut of 3500 rev/min, 200 mm/min and 0.5 mm, respectively, with tool wear of 0.0267 mm. It is also can be observed that as the cutting speed and feed rate increased the tool wear is increasing.

  4. Developing health science students into integrated health professionals: a practical tool for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Madeleine

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An integrated sense of professionalism enables health professionals to draw on relevant knowledge in context and to apply a set of professional responsibilities and ethical principles in the midst of changing work environments 12. Inculcating professionalism is therefore a critical goal of health professional education. Two multi-professional courses for first year Health Science students at the University of Cape Town, South Africa aim to lay the foundation for becoming an integrated health professional 3. In these courses a diagram depicting the domains of the integrated health professional is used to focus the content of small group experiential exercises towards an appreciation of professionalism. The diagram serves as an organising framework for conceptualising an emerging professional identity and for directing learning towards the domains of 'self as professional' 45. Objective This paper describes how a diagrammatic representation of the core elements of an integrated health professional is used as a template for framing course content and for organising student learning. Based on the assumption that all health care professionals should be knowledgeable, empathic and reflective, the diagram provides students and educators with a visual tool for investigating the subjective and objective dimensions of professionalism. The use of the diagram as an integrating point of reference for individual and small group learning is described and substantiated with relevant literature. Conclusion The authors have applied the diagram with positive impact for the past six years with students and educators reporting that "it just makes sense". The article includes plans for formal evaluation. Evaluation to date is based on preliminary, informal feedback on the value of the diagram as a tool for capturing the domains of professionalism at an early stage in the undergraduate education of health professional students.

  5. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

    2014-09-01

    The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  6. Tools to Assess Behavioral and Social Science Competencies in Medical Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Patricia A.; Palmer, Ryan T.; Miller, Marissa Fuqua; Thayer, Erin K.; Estroff, Sue E.; Litzelman, Debra K.; Biagioli, Frances E.; Teal, Cayla R.; Lambros, Ann; Hatt, William J.; Satterfield, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Behavioral and social science (BSS) competencies are needed to provide quality health care, but psychometrically validated measures to assess these competencies are difficult to find. Moreover, they have not been mapped to existing frameworks, like those from the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate the quality of assessment tools used to measure BSS competencies. Method The authors searched the literature published between January 2002 and March 2014 for articles reporting psychometric or other validity/reliability testing, using OVID, CINAHL, PubMed, ERIC, Research and Development Resource Base, SOCIOFILE, and PsycINFO. They reviewed 5,104 potentially relevant titles and abstracts. To guide their review, they mapped BSS competencies to existing LCME and ACGME frameworks. The final, included articles fell into three categories: instrument development, which were of the highest quality; educational research, which were of the second highest quality; and curriculum evaluation, which were of lower quality. Results Of the 114 included articles, 33 (29%) yielded strong evidence supporting tools to assess communication skills, cultural competence, empathy/compassion, behavioral health counseling, professionalism, and teamwork. Sixty-two (54%) articles yielded moderate evidence and 19 (17%) weak evidence. Articles mapped to all LCME standards and ACGME core competencies; the most common was communication skills. Conclusions These findings serve as a valuable resource for medical educators and researchers. More rigorous measurement validation and testing and more robust study designs are needed to understand how educational strategies contribute to BSS competency development. PMID:26796091

  7. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eriyagma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term "Environmental Flows (EF" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  8. Development of feedback-speed-control system of fixed-abrasive tool for mat-surface fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, K.; Kita, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study deals with the new method to fabricate a mat-surface by using fixed-abrasive tool. Mat-surface is a surface with microscopic irregularities whose dimensions are close to the wavelengths of visible light (400-700 nanometers). In order to develop the new method to fabricate mat-surface without pre-masking and large scale back up facility, utilization of fixed-abrasive tool is discussed. The discussion clarifies that abrasives in shot blasting are given kinetic energy along to only plunge-direction while excluding traverse-direction. If the relative motion between tool and work in fixed-abrasive process can be realized as that in blasting, mat-surface will be accomplished with fixed-abrasive process. To realize the proposed idea, new surface-fabrication system to which is adopted feedback-speed-control of abrasive wheel has been designed. The system consists of micro-computer unit (MPU), work-speed sensor, fixed-abrasive wheel, and wheel driving unit. The system can control relative speed between work and wheel in optimum range to produce mat-surface. Finally experiment to verify the developed system is carried out. The results of experiments show that the developed system is effective and it can produce the surface from grinding to mat-surface seamlessly.

  9. An investigation of force, surface roughness and chip in surface grinding of SKD 11 tool steel using minimum quantity lubrication-MQL technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soepangkat, Bobby O. P.; Agustin, H. C. Kis; Subiyanto, H.

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed to analyze the viability of the minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL) technique towards normal force, tangential force, surface roughness and chip formation in surface grinding of SKD 11 tool steel. The three surface grinding parameters were varied including the type of cooling method (MQL and dry), table speed, and depth of cut. Based on statistical analysis, depth of cut is the most influential factor which affects the four responses in both dry and MQL grinding. MQL could reduce normal force and tangential force considerably, but produce higher surface roughness. In MQL grinding, the chips removal took place mostly by shearing and fracturing.

  10. GEOQUIMICO : an interactive tool for comparing sorption conceptual models (surface complexation modeling versus K[D])

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Within reactive geochemical transport, several conceptual models exist for simulating sorption processes in the subsurface. Historically, the K D approach has been the method of choice due to ease of implementation within a reactive transport model and straightforward comparison with experimental data. However, for modeling complex sorption phenomenon (e.g. sorption of radionuclides onto mineral surfaces), this approach does not systematically account for variations in location, time, or chemical conditions, and more sophisticated methods such as a surface complexation model (SCM) must be utilized. It is critical to determine which conceptual model to use; that is, when the material variation becomes important to regulatory decisions. The geochemical transport tool GEOQUIMICO has been developed to assist in this decision-making process. GEOQUIMICO provides a user-friendly framework for comparing the accuracy and performance of sorption conceptual models. The model currently supports the K D and SCM conceptual models. The code is written in the object-oriented Java programming language to facilitate model development and improve code portability. The basic theory underlying geochemical transport and the sorption conceptual models noted above is presented in this report. Explanations are provided of how these physicochemical processes are instrumented in GEOQUIMICO and a brief verification study comparing GEOQUIMICO results to data found in the literature is given

  11. Temporal aspects of surface water quality variation using robust statistical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan

    2012-01-01

    Robust statistical tools were applied on the water quality datasets with the aim of determining the most significance parameters and their contribution towards temporal water quality variation. Surface water samples were collected from four different sampling points during dry and wet seasons and analyzed for their physicochemical constituents. Discriminant analysis (DA) provided better results with great discriminatory ability by using five parameters with (P < 0.05) for dry season affording more than 96% correct assignation and used five and six parameters for forward and backward stepwise in wet season data with P-value (P < 0.05) affording 68.20% and 82%, respectively. Partial correlation results revealed that there are strong (r(p) = 0.829) and moderate (r(p) = 0.614) relationships between five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS) and dissolved solids (DS) controlling for the linear effect of nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)) and conductivity for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Multiple linear regression identified the contribution of each variable with significant values r = 0.988, R(2) = 0.976 and r = 0.970, R(2) = 0.942 (P < 0.05) for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Repeated measure t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between the seasons with significant value P < 0.05.

  12. Temporal Aspects of Surface Water Quality Variation Using Robust Statistical Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust statistical tools were applied on the water quality datasets with the aim of determining the most significance parameters and their contribution towards temporal water quality variation. Surface water samples were collected from four different sampling points during dry and wet seasons and analyzed for their physicochemical constituents. Discriminant analysis (DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability by using five parameters with (P<0.05 for dry season affording more than 96% correct assignation and used five and six parameters for forward and backward stepwise in wet season data with P-value (P<0.05 affording 68.20% and 82%, respectively. Partial correlation results revealed that there are strong (rp=0.829 and moderate (rp=0.614 relationships between five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS and dissolved solids (DS controlling for the linear effect of nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH3 and conductivity for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Multiple linear regression identified the contribution of each variable with significant values r = 0.988, R2 = 0.976 and r = 0.970, R2 = 0.942 (P<0.05 for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Repeated measure t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between the seasons with significant value P<0.05.

  13. Modern Functions of a Textbook on Social Sciences and Humanities as an Informational Management Tool of University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, Elina I.; Sharonov, Ivan A.; Sorokoumova, Svetlana N.; Suvorova, Olga V.; Sorokoumova, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the changes in the content of socio-humanitarian education, aimed at the acquisition of knowledge, the development of tolerance, civic and moral education. The purpose of the paper is to identify the modern functions of a textbook on social sciences and humanities as an informational management tool of…

  14. Correction Notice: Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JMBE Production Editor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Correction for Sarah E. Council and Julie E. Horvath, “Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom,” which appeared in the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, volume 17, number 1, March 2016, pages 38–40.

  15. Analogies as Tools for Meaning Making in Elementary Science Education: How Do They Work in Classroom Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Ramos, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper there is a critical overview of the role of analogies as tools for meaning making in science education, their advantages and disadvantages. Two empirical studies on the use of analogies in primary classrooms are discussed and analysed. In the first study, the "string circuit" analogy was used in the teaching of electric circuits with…

  16. Redefining roles of science in planning and management: ecology as a planning and management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Mason; Stephen Murphy

    2002-01-01

    Science as a way of knowing has great value to decision-making but there is need to consider all its attributes and assess how science ought to be informing decision-making. Consideration of the critiques of science can make science stronger and more useful to decision-making in an environmental and ecological context. Scientists, planners, and managers need to...

  17. Laser surface modification of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on AISI H13 tool steel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M. S.; Aqida, S. N.; Ismail, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents laser surface modification of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating to seal porosity defect. Laser surface modification on plasma sprayed YSZ was conducted using 300W JK300HPS Nd: YAG laser at different operating parameters. Parameters varied were laser power and pulse frequency with constant residence time. The coating thickness was measured using IM7000 inverted optical microscope and surface roughness was analysed using two-dimensional Mitutoyo Surface Roughness Tester. Surface roughness of laser surface modification of YSZ H-13 tool steel decreased significantly with increasing laser power and decreasing pulse frequency. The re-melted YSZ coating showed higher hardness properties compared to as-sprayed coating surface. These findings were significant to enhance thermal barrier coating surface integrity for dies in semi-solid processing.

  18. Evaluation on machined surface of hardened stainless steel generated by hard turning using coated carbide tools with wiper geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, M.Y.; Kurniawan, D.; Sharif, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hard turning has been explored to be the finish machining operation for parts made of hardened steel. Its feasibility is determined partially by the quality of the resulting machined surface. This study evaluates the surface integrity of martensitic stainless steel (48 HRC) resulting from hard turning using coated carbide tool with wiper geometry at various cutting speed and feed and compares to that obtained using coated carbide tool with conventional geometry. The wiper coated carbide tool is able to produce machined surface which is of finer finish (Ra is finer than 0.4 μm at most cutting parameters) and yet is similarly inducing only minor microstructural alteration compared to its conventional counterpart. From the view of the chip morphology where continuous type of chip is desired rather than sawtooth chip type, the wiper tool generates continuous chip at almost similar range of cutting parameters compared to the case when using conventional tool. Additionally, the use of wiper tool also induces the preferred compressive residual stress at the machined surface. (author)

  19. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  20. The Media as an Invaluable Tool for Informal Earth System Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, E.; Gautier, C.

    2001-12-01

    One of the most widely utilized avenues for educating the general public about the Earth's environment is the media, be it print, radio or broadcast. Accurate and effective communication of issues in Earth System Science (ESS), however, is significantly hindered by the public's relative scientific illiteracy. Discussion of ESS concepts requires the laying down of a foundation of complex scientific information, which must first be conveyed to an incognizant audience before any strata of sophisticated social context can be appropriately considered. Despite such a substantial obstacle to be negotiated, the environmental journalist is afforded the unique opportunity of providing a broad-reaching informal scientific education to a largely scientifically uninformed population base. This paper will review the tools used by various environmental journalists to address ESS issues and consider how successful each of these approaches has been at conveying complex scientific messages to a general audience lacking sufficient scientific sophistication. Different kinds of media materials used to this effect will be analyzed for their ideas and concepts conveyed, as well as their effectiveness in reaching the public at large.

  1. How Mockups, a Key Engineering Tool, Help to Promote Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    The United States ranking among the world in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is decreasing. To counteract this problem NASA has made it part of its mission to promote STEM education among the nation s youth. Mockups can serve as a great tool when promoting STEM education in America. The Orion Cockpit Working Group has created a new program called Students Shaping America s Next Space Craft (SSANS) to outfit the Medium Fidelity Orion Mockup. SSANS will challenge the students to come up with unique designs to represent the flight design hardware. There are two main types of project packages created by SSANS, those for high school students and those for university students. The high school projects will challenge wood shop, metal shop and pre-engineering classes. The university projects are created mainly for senior design projects and will require the students to perform finite element analysis. These projects will also challenge the undergraduate students in material selection and safety requirements. The SSANS program will help NASA in its mission to promote STEM education, and will help to shape our nations youth into the next generation of STEM leaders.

  2. Enhancing interest in statistics among computer science students using computer tool entrepreneur role play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judi, Hairulliza Mohamad; Sahari @ Ashari, Noraidah; Eksan, Zanaton Hj

    2017-04-01

    Previous research in Malaysia indicates that there is a problem regarding attitude towards statistics among students. They didn't show positive attitude in affective, cognitive, capability, value, interest and effort aspects although did well in difficulty. This issue should be given substantial attention because students' attitude towards statistics may give impacts on the teaching and learning process of the subject. Teaching statistics using role play is an appropriate attempt to improve attitudes to statistics, to enhance the learning of statistical techniques and statistical thinking, and to increase generic skills. The objectives of the paper are to give an overview on role play in statistics learning and to access the effect of these activities on students' attitude and learning in action research framework. The computer tool entrepreneur role play is conducted in a two-hour tutorial class session of first year students in Faculty of Information Sciences and Technology (FTSM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, enrolled in Probability and Statistics course. The results show that most students feel that they have enjoyable and great time in the role play. Furthermore, benefits and disadvantages from role play activities were highlighted to complete the review. Role play is expected to serve as an important activities that take into account students' experience, emotions and responses to provide useful information on how to modify student's thinking or behavior to improve learning.

  3. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences: Chaos, Fractals, Selforganization and Disorder: Concepts and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, S.

    2004-10-01

    Since the discovery of the renormalization group theory in statistical physics, the realm of applications of the concepts of scale invariance and criticality has pervaded several fields of natural and social sciences. This is the leitmotiv of Didier Sornette's book, who in Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences reviews three decades of developments and applications of the concepts of criticality, scale invariance and power law behaviour from statistical physics, to earthquake prediction, ruptures, plate tectonics, modelling biological and economic systems and so on. This strongly interdisciplinary book addresses students and researchers in disciplines where concepts of criticality and scale invariance are appropriate: mainly geology from which most of the examples are taken, but also engineering, biology, medicine, economics, etc. A good preparation in quantitative science is assumed but the presentation of statistical physics principles, tools and models is self-contained, so that little background in this field is needed. The book is written in a simple informal style encouraging intuitive comprehension rather than stressing formal derivations. Together with the discussion of the main conceptual results of the discipline, great effort is devoted to providing applied scientists with the tools of data analysis and modelling necessary to analyse, understand, make predictions and simulate systems undergoing complex collective behaviour. The book starts from a purely descriptive approach, explaining basic probabilistic and geometrical tools to characterize power law behaviour and scale invariant sets. Probability theory is introduced by a detailed discussion of interpretative issues warning the reader on the use and misuse of probabilistic concepts when the emphasis is on prediction of low probability rare---and often catastrophic---events. Then, concepts that have proved useful in risk evaluation, extreme value statistics, large limit theorems for sums of independent

  5. Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences: Chaos, Fractals, Selforganization and Disorder: Concepts and Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, S

    2004-01-01

    Since the discovery of the renormalization group theory in statistical physics, the realm of applications of the concepts of scale invariance and criticality has pervaded several fields of natural and social sciences. This is the leitmotiv of Didier Sornette's book, who in Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences reviews three decades of developments and applications of the concepts of criticality, scale invariance and power law behaviour from statistical physics, to earthquake prediction, ruptures, plate tectonics, modelling biological and economic systems and so on. This strongly interdisciplinary book addresses students and researchers in disciplines where concepts of criticality and scale invariance are appropriate: mainly geology from which most of the examples are taken, but also engineering, biology, medicine, economics, etc. A good preparation in quantitative science is assumed but the presentation of statistical physics principles, tools and models is self-contained, so that little background in this field is needed. The book is written in a simple informal style encouraging intuitive comprehension rather than stressing formal derivations. Together with the discussion of the main conceptual results of the discipline, great effort is devoted to providing applied scientists with the tools of data analysis and modelling necessary to analyse, understand, make predictions and simulate systems undergoing complex collective behaviour. The book starts from a purely descriptive approach, explaining basic probabilistic and geometrical tools to characterize power law behaviour and scale invariant sets. Probability theory is introduced by a detailed discussion of interpretative issues warning the reader on the use and misuse of probabilistic concepts when the emphasis is on prediction of low probability rare - and often catastrophic - events. Then, concepts that have proved useful in risk evaluation, extreme value statistics, large limit theorems for sums of independent

  6. Study on Surface Integrity of AISI 1045 Carbon Steel when machined by Carbide Cutting Tool under wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin N. Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of surface roughness and roughness profiles when machining carbon steel under wet conditions with low and high cutting speeds. The workpiece materials and cutting tools selected in this research were AISI 1045 carbon steel and canela carbide inserts graded PM25, respectively. The cutting tools undergo machining tests by CNC turning operations and their performances were evaluated by their surface roughness value and observation of the surface roughness profile. The machining tests were held at varied cutting speeds of 35 to 53 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 to 0.50 mm/rev and a constant depth of cut of 1 mm. From the analysis, it was found that surface roughness increased as the feed rate increased. Varian of surface roughness was suspected due to interaction between cutting speeds and feed rates as well as nose radius conditions; whether from tool wear or the formation of a built-up edge. This study helps us understand the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on surface integrity, when machining AISI 1045 carbon steel using carbide cutting tools, under wet cutting conditions.

  7. Earth System Science at NASA: Teleconnections Between Sea Surface Temperature and Epidemics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    2000-01-01

    The research carried out in the Earth Sciences in NASA and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will be the focus of the presentations. In addition, one research project that links sea surface temperature to epidemics in Africa will be highlighted. At GSFC research interests span the full breath of disciplines in Earth Science. Branches and research groups focus on areas as diverse as planetary geomagnetics and atmospheric chemistry. These organizations focus on atmospheric sciences (atmospheric chemistry, climate and radiation, regional processes, atmospheric modeling), hydrological sciences (snow, ice, oceans, and seasonal-to-interannual prediction), terrestrial physics (geology, terrestrial biology, land-atmosphere interactions, geophysics), climate modeling (global warming, greenhouse gases, climate change), on sensor development especially using lidar and microwave technologies, and on information technologies, that enable support of scientific and technical research.

  8. Student use of Web 2.0 tools to support argumentation in a high school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.

    This ethnographic study is an investigation into how two classes of chemistry students (n=35) from a low-income high school with a one-to-one laptop initiative used Web 2.0 tools to support participation in the science practice of argumentation (i.e., sensemaking, articulating understandings, and persuading an audience) during a unit on alternative energy. The science curriculum utilized the Technology-Enhanced Inquiry Tools for Science Education as a pedagogical framework (Kim, Hannafin, & Bryan, 2007). Video recordings of the classroom work, small group discussions, and focus group interviews, documents, screen shots, wiki evidence, and student produced multi-media artifacts were the data analyzed for this study. Open and focused coding techniques, counts of social tags and wiki moves, and interpretive analyses were used to find patterns in the data. The study found that the tools of social bookmarking, wiki, and persuasive multimedia artifacts supported participation in argumentation. In addition, students utilized the affordances of the technologies in multiple ways to communicate, collaborate, manage the work of others, and efficiently complete their science project. This study also found that technologically enhanced science curriculum can bridge students' everyday and scientific understandings of making meaning, articulating understandings, and persuading others of their point of view. As a result, implications from this work include a set of design principles for science inquiry learning that utilize technology. This study suggests new consideration of analytical methodology that blends wiki data analytics and video data. It also suggests that utilizing technology as a bridging strategy serves two roles within classrooms: (a) deepening students' understanding of alternative energy science content and (b) supporting students as they learn to participate in the practices of argumentation.

  9. Project BudBurst and FieldScope: Piloting continental-scale citizen science data visualization tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Newman, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the National Geographic Society's (NGS) Education program are developing and testing data analysis and visualization tools for use in citizen science programs. Many ecology-based citizen science programs engage participants in data collection. However, limited resources, in the form of GIS or data analysis software and time to learn associated data processing skills often preclude further analysis of the data. There is a need for both applications that simplify the toolsets required to perform data analysis and visualization and associated educational materials that guide educators in using these tools in formal and informal educational settings. Project BudBurst, NEON's citizen science program, is collaborating with the NGS FieldScope project to create a suite of free, online data mapping and analysis tools that will increase the impact of public participation in scientific research. These tools will support citizen scientists and the informal education community in answering relevant research questions such as: "What is the geographic pattern of the onset of phenological events?", "How has the timing of phenological events changed over time?" and "How does landuse influence the timing of phenological events?". During the pilot period of the Project BudBurst and NGS FieldScope collaboration, detailed reviews of observation and data collection protocols were conducted to determine a suite of data analysis tools appropriate for use by citizen scientists to answer research questions. To facilitate user exploration of phenological event timing throughout the seasons, a dynamic, online web-mapping tool, supported by the ArcGIS server, Flex API was developed which animated phenophase event timing throughout the course of a year, highlighting seasonal change. This tool provides the user with an intuitive way of observing patterns such as green-up and brown-down. A time-series plotting tool was developed to explore

  10. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  11. Near-Surface Geophysics: Advancing Earth Science Through Advances in Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.

    2006-05-01

    The near-surface of Earth (the top ~100 m) is the region that supports human infrastructure, provides water and mineral resources, and is the interface between solid Earth and atmosphere for many of the biogeochemical cycles that sustain life. Developing an understanding of the processes and properties that occur here is essential for advancing our understanding of many parts of the Earth system. Yet our ability to study, sample, or probe this zone is remarkably primitive. Many investigations rely on drilling, trenching, and direct sampling. But given the pervasive spatial heterogeneity of the region, such methods yield information that is inadequate in terms of the spatial extent and density of sampling. As a result, the Earth science community is turning to geophysical imaging. The area of research that is focused on developing and applying geophysical methods to study this region of Earth is referred to as near-surface geophysics. Near-surface geophysics, as an area of research, includes many types of research, and many types of researchers. Some researchers are drawn to near-surface geophysics due to an interest in specific properties, processes, or applications, which can range from applied to basic science. As examples, near-surface geophysical methods are used for resource exploration and extraction, for the characterization of contaminated sites, for the assessment and design of built infrastructure; and to address scientific questions in neotectonics, volcanology, glaciology, hydrology, sedimentology, archaeology, geochemistry and biogeochemistry. Other researchers are drawn to near-surface geophysics due to an interest in the science of imaging as the driving scientific question. Advances in imaging require investigating the ways in which physical sensors can (or cannot) capture the complexity of a natural system, determining how best to quantify and enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of a measurement, developing new methods for the inversion of

  12. Evaluation of Tool Path Strategy and Cooling Condition Effects on the Cutting Force and Surface Quality in Micromilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Koklu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Compared to milling on a macro scale, the micromilling process has several cumbersome points that need to be addressed. Rapid tool wear and fracture, severe burr formation, and poor surface quality are the major problems encountered in the micromilling process. This study aimed to reveal the effect of cutting path strategies on the cutting force and surface quality in the micromilling of a pocket. The hatch zigzag tool path strategy and the contour climb tool path strategy under different cooling conditions (e.g., dry, air blow, and flood coolant at fixed cutting parameters. The micromilling tests revealed that better results were obtained with the use of the contour tool path strategy in terms of cutting forces (by up to ~43% compared to the dry condition and surface quality (by up to ~44% compared to the air blow condition when compared to the hatch tool path strategy. In addition, the flood coolant reduces the cutting temperature and eliminates chips to significantly enhance the quality of the micro milled surface.

  13. The Cavendish Experiment as a Tool for Historical Understanding of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Following an ever growing literature which takes serious the relevance of case-studies in the history of science for science education and understanding of science, I provide a detailed historical reconstruction of the Cavendish Experiment, which remains as close as possible to the original. In this paper, I call attention to three educational…

  14. An engineering paradigm in the biomedical sciences: Knowledge as epistemic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    In order to deal with the complexity of biological systems and attempts to generate applicable results, current biomedical sciences are adopting concepts and methods from the engineering sciences. Philosophers of science have interpreted this as the emergence of an engineering paradigm, in

  15. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  16. Estimation of the solubility parameters of model plant surfaces and agrochemicals: a valuable tool for understanding plant surface interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Khayet, Mohamed; Fernandez Fernandez, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background Most aerial plant parts are covered with a hydrophobic lipid-rich cuticle, which is the interface between the plant organs and the surrounding environment. Plant surfaces may have a high degree of hydrophobicity because of the combined effects of surface chemistry and roughness. The physical and chemical complexity of the plant cuticle limits the development of models that explain its internal structure and interactions with surface-applied agrochemicals. In this article we int...

  17. SWToolbox: A surface-water tool-box for statistical analysis of streamflow time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Julie E.; Flynn, Kate; Zhai, Tong; Hummel, Paul; Granato, Gregory

    2018-03-07

    This report is a user guide for the low-flow analysis methods provided with version 1.0 of the Surface Water Toolbox (SWToolbox) computer program. The software combines functionality from two software programs—U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) SWSTAT and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DFLOW. Both of these programs have been used primarily for computation of critical low-flow statistics. The main analysis methods are the computation of hydrologic frequency statistics such as the 7-day minimum flow that occurs on average only once every 10 years (7Q10), computation of design flows including biologically based flows, and computation of flow-duration curves and duration hydrographs. Other annual, monthly, and seasonal statistics can also be computed. The interface facilitates retrieval of streamflow discharge data from the USGS National Water Information System and outputs text reports for a record of the analysis. Tools for graphing data and screening tests are available to assist the analyst in conducting the analysis.

  18. The influence of tool path strategies on cutting force and surface texture during ball end milling of low curvature convex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajari, Shaghayegh; Sadeghi, Mohammad Hossein; Hassanpour, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in machining technology of curved surfaces for various engineering applications is increasing. Various methodologies and computer tools have been developed by the manufacturers to improve efficiency of freeform surface machining. Selection of the right sets of cutter path strategies and appropriate cutting conditions is extremely important in ensuring high productivity rate, meeting the better quality level, and lower cutting forces. In this paper, cutting force as a new decision criterion for the best selection of tool paths on convex surfaces is presented. Therefore, this work aims at studying and analyzing different finishing strategies to assess their influence on surface texture, cutting forces, and machining time. Design and analysis of experiments are performed by means of Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. In addition, the significant parameters affecting the cutting force in each strategy are introduced. Machining strategies employed include raster, 3D-offset, radial, and spiral. The cutting parameters were feed rate, cutting speed, and step over. The experiments were carried out on low curvature convex surfaces of stainless steel 1.4903. The conclusion is that radial strategy provokes the best surface texture and the lowest cutting forces and spiral strategy signifies the worst surface texture and the highest cutting forces.

  19. Mathematical Modelling and Optimization of Cutting Force, Tool Wear and Surface Roughness by Using Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology in Milling of Ti-6242S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kilickap

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of different cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear in the milling of Ti-6242S alloy using the cemented carbide (WC end mills with a 10 mm diameter. Data obtained from experiments were defined both Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Response Surface Methodology (RSM. ANN trained network using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM and weights were trained. On the other hand, the mathematical models in RSM were created applying Box Behnken design. Values obtained from the ANN and the RSM was found to be very close to the data obtained from experimental studies. The lowest cutting force and surface roughness were obtained at high cutting speeds and low feed rate and depth of cut. The minimum tool wear was obtained at low cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut.

  20. Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: Balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Hanley, Nick D; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Rabinovici, Sharyl J M; Kinzelman, Julie L; Fleming, Lora E; Porter, Jonathan; Shaikh, Sabina; Fish, Rob; Chilton, Sue; Hewitt, Julie; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; Glenk, Klaus; McPhail, Calum; McRory, Eric; McVittie, Alistair; Giles, Amanna; Roberts, Suzanne; Simpson, Katherine; Tinch, Dugald; Thairs, Ted; Avery, Lisa M; Vinten, Andy J A; Watts, Bill D; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-02-01

    The use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science-policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2 h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96 h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations.

  1. Effect of the Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface Modification (UNSM on Bulk and 3D-Printed AISI H13 Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sik Cho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the microstructure, hardness, and tribological properties of two different AISI H13 tool steels—classified as the bulk with no heat treatment steel or the 3D-printed steel—was undertaken. Both samples were subjected to ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM to further enhance their mechanical properties and improve their tribological behavior. The objective of this study was to compare the mechanical properties and tribological behavior of these tool steels since steel can exhibit a wide variety of mechanical properties depending on different manufacturing processes. The surface hardness of the samples was measured using a micro-Vickers hardness tester. The hardness of the 3D-printed AISI H13 tool steel was found to be much higher than that of the bulk one. The surface morphology of the samples was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD in order to analyze the grain size and number of fractions with respect to the misorientation angle. The results revealed that the grain size of the 3D-printed AISI H13 tool steel was less than 0.5 μm, whereas that of the bulk tool steel was greater than 4 μm. The number of fractions of the bulk tool steel was about 0.5 μm at a low misorientation angle, and it decreased gradually with increasing misorientation angle. The low-angle grain boundary (LAGB and high-angle grain boundary (HAGB of the bulk sample were about 21% and 79%, respectively, and those of the 3D-printed sample were about 8% and 92%, respectively. Moreover, the friction and wear behavior of the UNSM-treated AISI H13 tool steel specimen was better than those of the untreated one. This study demonstrated the capability of 3D-printed AISI H13 tool steel to exhibit excellent mechanical and tribological properties for industrial applications.

  2. Improvement of the surface finish obtained by laser ablation with a Nd: YAG laser on pre-ablated tool steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface finish is an important requirement for tool and die makers and remains a challenge with conventional machining technologies. Nd: YAG lasers have been utilised for many years in the area of laser marking, engraving and micro machining...

  3. Friction Surface Cladding of AA1050 on AA2024-T351; influence of clad layer thickness and tool rotation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaojie; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Akkerman, Remko

    2015-01-01

    Friction Surfacing Cladding (FSC) is a recently developed solid state process to deposit thin metallic clad layers on a substrate. The process employs a rotating tool with a central opening to supply clad material and support the distribution and bonding of the clad material to the substrate. The

  4. Surface wear of TiN coated nickel tool during the injection moulding of polymer micro Fresnel lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Limited tool life of nickel mould inserts represents an issue for the mass-production of polymer optics with complex micro three-dimensional geometries by injection moulding. TiN coating was applied to a nickel insert for the injection moulding of polycarbonate micro Fresnel lenses. Surface wear ...

  5. Designing and implementing web-based tools to assess information competences of social science students at Spanish universities

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Molina, María; Gómez-Hernández, José-Antonio; Cuevas-Cerveró, Aurora; Puertas, Susana; Gómez-Camarero, Carmen; Granell, Ximo; Palomares, Rocío; Guerrero, David

    2013-01-01

    We describe the process of designing and applying four web-based tools that assess information competences, focused on Social Science students at Spanish universities. We draw on our previous experience in developing web resources, tests and tutorials for learning information skills (E-coms, Alfamedia, Alfineees, Infolitrans, IL-HUMASS). The toolkit includes: 1) a corpus of texts with a controlled degree of difficulty to be used by students when acquiri...

  6. EPA's science blog: "It All Starts with Science"; Article title: "EPA's Solvent Substitution Software Tool, PARIS III"

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's solvent substitution software tool, PARIS III is provided by the EPA for free, and can be effective and efficiently used to help environmentally-conscious individuals find better and greener solvent mixtures for many different common industrial processes. People can downlo...

  7. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION DEVELOPING NONINVASIVE TOOLS TO MONITOR PAST LEAKS AROUND HANFORD TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; LEVITT MT; CUBBAGE B; NOONAN GE; MCNEILL M; HENDERSON C

    2011-06-17

    A characterization program has been developed at Hanford to image past leaks in and around the underground storage tank facilities. The program is based on electrical resistivity, a geophysical technique that maps the distribution of electrical properties of the subsurface. The method was shown to be immediately successful in open areas devoid of underground metallic infrastructure, due to the large contrast in material properties between the highly saline waste and the dry sandy host environment. The results in these areas, confirmed by a limited number of boreholes, demonstrate a tendency for the lateral extent of the underground waste plume to remain within the approximate footprint of the disposal facility. In infrastructure-rich areas, such as tank farms, the conventional application of electrical resistivity using small point-source surface electrodes initially presented a challenge for the resistivity method. The method was then adapted to directly use the buried infrastructure as electrodes for both transmission of electrical current and measurements of voltage. For example, steel-cased wells that surround the tanks were used as long electrodes, which helped to avoid much of the infrastructure problems. Overcoming the drawbacks of the long electrode method has been the focus of our work over the past seven years. The drawbacks include low vertical resolution and limited lateral coverage. The lateral coverage issue has been improved by supplementing the long electrodes with surface electrodes in areas devoid of infrastructure. The vertical resolution has been increased by developing borehole electrode arrays that can fit within the small-diameter drive casing of a direct push rig. The evolution of the program has led to some exceptional advances in the application of geophysical methods, including logistical deployment of the technology in hazardous areas, development of parallel processing resistivity inversion algorithms, and adapting the processing tools

  8. "This Is a Tool for You to Use": Expansive Framing and Adaptive Transfer in Two PBL Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherer, Kendall

    This dissertation is a qualitative, comparative case study investigating productive disciplinary engagement, framing for transfer, and tool use in two high school science classrooms. My goal was to investigate the implementation of material resources that were developed to support students' engagement, driven by my primary research question: How does the implementation of material tools as a learning resource support or impede students' productive disciplinary engagement in a project-based learning setting? Using a grounded theory approach, I analyzed video transcriptions and interviews of two teachers and their students at the same school as they enacted a coordinated project-based, advanced placement curriculum as part of a design-based implementation research project. Findings suggest that intentional framing and use of tools may help teachers support students in making connections across multiple parts of a project in ways that facilitate productive engagement in the discipline of science as well as students building on and adapting their knowledge over time. Keywords: Project-based learning, advanced placement, environmental science, scientific practices, dialogic discourse, grammar of schooling, situative theory, student engagement, productive disciplinary engagement, material resources, student authorship, framing for transfer, expansive framing, near transfer, adaptive transfer.

  9. Cocaine in surface waters: a new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccato, Ettore; Chiabrando, Chiara; Castiglioni, Sara; Calamari, Davide; Bagnati, Renzo; Schiarea, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Background Cocaine use seems to be increasing in some urban areas worldwide, but it is not straightforward to determine the real extent of this phenomenon. Trends in drug abuse are currently estimated indirectly, mainly by large-scale social, medical, and crime statistics that may be biased or too generic. We thus tested a more direct approach based on 'field' evidence of cocaine use by the general population. Methods Cocaine and its main urinary metabolite (benzoylecgonine, BE) were measured by mass spectrometry in water samples collected from the River Po and urban waste water treatment plants of medium-size Italian cities. Drug concentration, water flow rate, and population at each site were used to estimate local cocaine consumption. Results We showed that cocaine and BE are present, and measurable, in surface waters of populated areas. The largest Italian river, the Po, with a five-million people catchment basin, steadily carried the equivalent of about 4 kg cocaine per day. This would imply an average daily use of at least 27 ± 5 doses (100 mg each) for every 1000 young adults, an estimate that greatly exceeds official national figures. Data from waste water treatment plants serving medium-size Italian cities were consistent with this figure. Conclusion This paper shows for the first time that an illicit drug, cocaine, is present in the aquatic environment, namely untreated urban waste water and a major river. We used environmental cocaine levels for estimating collective consumption of the drug, an approach with the unique potential ability to monitor local drug abuse trends in real time, while preserving the anonymity of individuals. The method tested here – in principle extendable to other drugs of abuse – might be further refined to become a standardized, objective tool for monitoring drug abuse. PMID:16083497

  10. Cocaine in surface waters: a new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnati Renzo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine use seems to be increasing in some urban areas worldwide, but it is not straightforward to determine the real extent of this phenomenon. Trends in drug abuse are currently estimated indirectly, mainly by large-scale social, medical, and crime statistics that may be biased or too generic. We thus tested a more direct approach based on 'field' evidence of cocaine use by the general population. Methods Cocaine and its main urinary metabolite (benzoylecgonine, BE were measured by mass spectrometry in water samples collected from the River Po and urban waste water treatment plants of medium-size Italian cities. Drug concentration, water flow rate, and population at each site were used to estimate local cocaine consumption. Results We showed that cocaine and BE are present, and measurable, in surface waters of populated areas. The largest Italian river, the Po, with a five-million people catchment basin, steadily carried the equivalent of about 4 kg cocaine per day. This would imply an average daily use of at least 27 ± 5 doses (100 mg each for every 1000 young adults, an estimate that greatly exceeds official national figures. Data from waste water treatment plants serving medium-size Italian cities were consistent with this figure. Conclusion This paper shows for the first time that an illicit drug, cocaine, is present in the aquatic environment, namely untreated urban waste water and a major river. We used environmental cocaine levels for estimating collective consumption of the drug, an approach with the unique potential ability to monitor local drug abuse trends in real time, while preserving the anonymity of individuals. The method tested here – in principle extendable to other drugs of abuse – might be further refined to become a standardized, objective tool for monitoring drug abuse.

  11. French citizens monitoring ordinary birds provide tools for conservation and ecological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent; Julliard, Romain; Couvet, Denis

    2012-10-01

    Volunteer-based standardized monitoring of birds has been widely implemented in Europe and North America. In France, a breeding bird survey is running since 1989 and offers keen birdwatchers to count spring birds annually during 5 min exactly on 10 fix points within a randomly selected square. The first goal of such breeding bird surveys is to measure temporal trends in order to detect possible species declines. Combining annual indices of species sharing ecological affinities or a protected/red list status further provides biodiversity indicators for policy makers. Because the sampling effort is similar among sites, and because the initial selection of monitored sites is random, the temporal trends can be considered representative of national trends, and spatial comparisons of the obtained metrics are possible. Species abundance, community richness but also community specialization and average trophic level can be estimated for each site and each year and further related to the wide range of habitat and landscape characteristics and to agricultural or forestry practices. The large number of sites allows overcoming the opposition between adaptive and passive monitoring, making such schemes fitted to adaptive monitoring. This provides opportunities to determine which type of management or practices favour biodiversity. The comparison of population fate or community dynamics across a wide range of climates and temperatures, e.g. from southern to northern Europe, revealed how European birds are already affected by climate change. Bird communities are shifting northwards, but at a slower rate than temperatures, while bird populations have larger growth rates away from their hot thermal limit. Finally, such large-scale long-term monitoring data on a complete taxonomic group (Aves) is original and offers the opportunity to compare different measures of biological diversity, such as taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity. Such a citizen science scheme is an

  12. Science Fiction Movies as a Tool for Revealing Students' Knowledge and Alternative Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongel-Erdal, Sevinc; Sonmez, Duygu; Day, Rob

    2004-01-01

    According to renowned physicist Stephen Hawking, "science fiction is useful both for stimulating the imagination and for diffusing fear of the future." Indeed, several studies suggest that using science fiction movies as a teaching aid can improve both motivation and achievement. However, if a movie's plot crosses the line between good…

  13. Bringing the Tools of Big Science to Bear on Local Environmental Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Scott; Jones, Keith W.; Brown, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We describe an interactive collaborative environmental education project that makes advanced laboratory facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory accessible for one-year or multi-year science projects for the high school level. Cyber-enabled Environmental Science (CEES) utilizes web conferencing software to bring multi-disciplinary,…

  14. The Effectiveness of Traditional and 21st Century Teaching Tools on Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellflower, Julie V.

    2012-01-01

    Any student seeking a high school diploma from the public school system in one U.S. state must pass the state's high school graduation test. In 2009, only 88% of students at one high school in the state met the basic proficiency requirements on the science portion of the test. Because improved science education has been identified as an explicit…

  15. Science overlay maps: a new tool for research policy and library management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafols, I.; Porter, A.L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to visually locate bodies of research within the sciences, both at each moment of time and dynamically. This article describes how this approach fits with other efforts to locally and globally map scientific outputs. We then show how these science overlay maps help

  16. Measuring Science Instructional Practice: A Survey Tool for the Age of NGSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.; Lee, Christine S.; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn; Seitz, Jeffery C.

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious efforts are taking place to implement a new vision for science education in the United States, in both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-adopted states and those states creating their own, often related, standards. In-service and pre-service teacher educators are involved in supporting teacher shifts in practice toward the new…

  17. Questions as a tool for bridging science and everyday language games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown how students can shift between different ways of communicating about natural phenomena. The point of departure in this text is that school science comprises science ways to communicate as well as everyday ways to communicate. In school science activities transitions, from for example everyday ways to explain to science ways to explain, occur and the purpose of this paper is to show what role questions play in these transitions. Data consists of video observations of a group of 24 students, 15 years of age, doing their ordinary school science work without my interference in their planning. Relevant conversations including questions were transcribed. The analysis was made by examining the establishment of relations between utterances in the transcribed conversations. Relations that bridge science and everyday language games are described in the results. Questions that were formulated in an everyday language game illustrate the difficulties of making transitions to a science language game. Without teacher guidance, students' questions are potential promoters for making the topic drift and to develop into something totally different from the topic as planned by the teacher. However, questions promote transitions to an everyday language game. These can be used by teachers for example to adjust an everyday explanation and guide students in making science knowledge useful in daily life.

  18. Students' Reactions to the Use of Animals as Instructional Tools for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzau, Vickie Anne

    2013-01-01

    Teaching science to students with special needs requires different approaches. A program at the study site supplemented packaged science kits with animal-assisted instruction, but such an approach was never evaluated. The purpose of this study was to provide a formative program evaluation documenting students' reactions to the use of animals…

  19. Citizen Science as a Tool for Scientific Research and Societal Benefit at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Amy

    2018-01-01

    NASA's strategic goals include advancing knowledge and opportunity in space and improving life on Earth. We support these goals through extensive programs in space and Earth science research accomplished via space-based missions and research funding. NASA's "system" is configured to conduct science using (1) in-house personnel and (2) grants, contracts, and agreements with external entities (academia, industry, international space agencies.

  20. Using Twitter for Demographic and Social Science Research: Tools for Data Collection and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Tyler H.; Lee, Hedwig; Cesare, Nina; Shojaie, Ali; Spiro, Emma S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent and growing interest in using Twitter to examine human behavior and attitudes, there is still significant room for growth regarding the ability to leverage Twitter data for social science research. In particular, gleaning demographic information about Twitter users--a key component of much social science research--remains a…

  1. Reinforcement Toolbox, a Parametric Reinforcement Modelling Tool for Curved Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauppe, J.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computational strategy and parametric modelling toolbox which aim at enhancing the design- and production process of reinforcement in freeform curved surface structures. The computational strategy encompasses the necessary steps of raising an architectural curved surface model

  2. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  3. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  4. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A; Mohamed, Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  5. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khidhir, Basim A; Mohamed, Bashir, E-mail: Basim@student.uniten.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University Tenaga Nasional, 43009 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  6. Influence of minimum quantity lubrication parameters on tool wear and surface roughness in milling of forged steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lutao; Yuan, Songmei; Liu, Qiang

    2012-05-01

    The minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL) technique is becoming increasingly more popular due to the safety of environment. Moreover, MQL technique not only leads to economical benefits by way of saving lubricant costs but also presents better machinability. However, the effect of MQL parameters on machining is still not clear, which needs to be overcome. In this paper, the effect of different modes of lubrication, i.e., conventional way using flushing, dry cutting and using the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique on the machinability in end milling of a forged steel (50CrMnMo), is investigated. The influence of MQL parameters on tool wear and surface roughness is also discussed. MQL parameters include nozzle direction in relation to feed direction, nozzle elevation angle, distance from the nozzle tip to the cutting zone, lubricant flow rate and air pressure. The investigation results show that MQL technique lowers the tool wear and surface roughness values compared with that of conventional flood cutting fluid supply and dry cutting conditions. Based on the investigations of chip morphology and color, MQL technique reduces the cutting temperature to some extent. The relative nozzle-feed position at 120°, the angle elevation of 60° and distance from nozzle tip to cutting zone at 20 mm provide the prolonged tool life and reduced surface roughness values. This fact is due to the oil mists can penetrate in the inner zones of the tool edges in a very efficient way. Improvement in tool life and surface finish could be achieved utilizing higher oil flow rate and higher compressed air pressure. Moreover, oil flow rate increased from 43.8 mL/h to 58.4 mL/h leads to a small decrease of flank wear, but it is not very significant. The results obtained in this paper can be used to determine optimal conditions for milling of forged steel under MQL conditions.

  7. The application of surface science in the solution of aircraft materials problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: There is now a tendency for both commercial and military aircraft to be maintained and operated for several decades. Indeed some of our front-line defence aircraft have programme withdrawal lives approaching half a century. This places significant demands on the materials used in engines and airframes. The properties and performance of the materials can degrade with time leading to an increase in the importance of repair and maintenance technologies. As most materials problems start at a surface or an interface, it is not surprising that surface sensitive tools are used to resolve many degradation problems. In some cases, the resolution of problems can lead to life-enhancing improvements for the aircraft. This paper will examine some of the practical issues in the use of surface analytical tools for the examination and resolution of practical aircraft problems. Illustrations will be drawn from the application of surface analysis in the areas of corrosion, fracture and adhesive bonding. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  8. Using the AGsploration: the Science of Maryland Agriculture Curriculum as a Tool to Increase Youth Appreciation and Understanding of Agriculture and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Hall Barczewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AGsploration: The Science of Maryland Agriculture is a 24-lesson, peer-reviewed curriculum that includes experiential hands-on activities and built-in pre-/post-evaluation tools. Lesson topics include production agriculture, the environment and nutrition with emphasis on how science relates to each topic. Student pre-/post- evaluation data reflects participation in AGsploration positively affects students’ attitudes about agriculture and science. Separate evaluations were developed to survey two groups of trained teen teachers about the curriculum immediately following their training, 1-2 years after using the curriculum and another 3-4 years post involvement. The results demonstrated that teen teachers were an effective way to disseminate the curriculum and these same teens increased their agriculture knowledge, life skills and interest in agriculture science education and careers. A similar evaluation was conducted with adult educators following a training session and another 1-2 years after actively using the curriculum. This data suggests that the curriculum is well received and valued.

  9. Monitoring Building Energy Systems at NASA Centers Using NASA Earth Science data, CMIP5 climate data products and RETScreen Expert Clean Energy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Ganoe, R. E.; Westberg, D. J.; Leng, G. J.; Teets, E.; Hughes, J. M.; De Young, R.; Carroll, M.; Liou, L. C.; Iraci, L. T.; Podolske, J. R.; Stefanov, W. L.; Chandler, W.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigator team is devoted to building linkages between NASA Earth Science and those within NASA responsible for infrastructure assessment, upgrades and planning. One of the focus areas is assessing NASA center infrastructure for energy efficiency, planning to meet new energy portfolio standards, and assessing future energy needs. These topics intersect at the provision of current and predicted future weather and climate data. This presentation provides an overview of the multi-center effort to access current building energy usage using Earth science observations, including those from in situ measurements, satellite measurement analysis, and global model data products as inputs to the RETScreen Expert, a clean energy decision support tool. RETScreen® Expert, sponsored by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), is a tool dedicated to developing and providing clean energy project analysis software for the feasibility design and assessment of a wide range of building projects that incorporate renewable energy technologies. RETScreen Expert requires daily average meteorological and solar parameters that are available within less than a month of real-time. A special temporal collection of meteorological parameters was compiled from near-by surface in situ measurements. These together with NASA data from the NASA CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiance Energy System)/FLASHFlux (Fast Longwave and SHortwave radiative Fluxes) provides solar fluxes and the NASA GMAO (Global Modeling and Assimilation Office) GEOS (Goddard Earth Observing System) operational meteorological analysis are directly used for meteorological input parameters. Examples of energy analysis for a few select buildings at various NASA centers are presented in terms of the energy usage relationship that these buildings have with changes in their meteorological environment. The energy requirements of potential future climates are then surveyed for a range of changes using the most

  10. AstrodyToolsWeb an e-Science project in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; San-Juan, J. F.

    2013-05-01

    Astrodynamics Web Tools, AstrodyToolsWeb (http://tastrody.unirioja.es), is an ongoing collaborative Web Tools computing infrastructure project which has been specially designed to support scientific computation. AstrodyToolsWeb provides project collaborators with all the technical and human facilities in order to wrap, manage, and use specialized noncommercial software tools in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics fields, with the aim of optimizing the use of resources, both human and material. However, this project is open to collaboration from the whole scientific community in order to create a library of useful tools and their corresponding theoretical backgrounds. AstrodyToolsWeb offers a user-friendly web interface in order to choose applications, introduce data, and select appropriate constraints in an intuitive and easy way for the user. After that, the application is executed in real time, whenever possible; then the critical information about program behavior (errors and logs) and output, including the postprocessing and interpretation of its results (graphical representation of data, statistical analysis or whatever manipulation therein), are shown via the same web interface or can be downloaded to the user's computer.

  11. Elaborate analogies in science text: Tools for enhancing preservice teachers' knowledge and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Nita A.

    2000-11-01

    The present study consisted of two experiments in which the learners read and studied texts about three fundamentally important science concepts. The learners, who were preservice teachers, read a control text with no analogy, a text with a simple analogy, and a text with an elaborate analogy. An elaborate analogy is one that consists of text and pictorial components in which similarities between the analog and the target concept are made explicit. The findings support the use of elaborate analogies in text for improving the science knowledge and attitudes of preservice teachers by relating familiar ideas to new ideas, thereby increasing the relevance and the comprehensibility of the new ideas. Increasing the relevancy of science text by inclusion of an elaborate analogy had an affective, cognitive, and metacognitive impact on learning. Data were examined either by a univariate analysis of variance for repeated measures or a Friedman's test for related samples. These data were supplemented by participants' qualitative responses which were categorized. The results indicated that elaborate analogies in text increased learners' interest in both the conceptual topic of the text and the text itself. Furthermore, the elaborate analogies enhanced learners' science concept learning and inference-making as well. In addition, elaborate analogies increased learners' metacognitive ability to accurately assess their knowledge of science concepts. Finally, elaborate analogies enhanced preservice teachers' self-efficacy for teaching science. The results are consistent with the view that use of analogies to enhance science attitudes and knowledge is inherently constructive in nature. The present findings suggest that current practices of how preservice teachers learn science should be adapted to take advantage of analogies in a more systematic way. Future researchers should investigate the usefulness of elaborate analogies for enhancing metacognition in domain novices and domain

  12. Using the Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform to Assist Earth Science Model Development and Optimization on High Performance Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Development and optimization of computational science models, particularly on high performance computers, and with the advent of ubiquitous multicore processor systems, practically on every system, has been accomplished with basic software tools, typically, command-line based compilers, debuggers, performance tools that have not changed substantially from the days of serial and early vector computers. However, model complexity, including the complexity added by modern message passing libraries such as MPI, and the need for hybrid code models (such as openMP and MPI) to be able to take full advantage of high performance computers with an increasing core count per shared memory node, has made development and optimization of such codes an increasingly arduous task. Additional architectural developments, such as many-core processors, only complicate the situation further. In this paper, we describe how our NSF-funded project, "SI2-SSI: A Productive and Accessible Development Workbench for HPC Applications Using the Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform" (WHPC) seeks to improve the Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform, an environment designed to support scientific code development targeted at a diverse set of high performance computing systems. Our WHPC project to improve Eclipse PTP takes an application-centric view to improve PTP. We are using a set of scientific applications, each with a variety of challenges, and using PTP to drive further improvements to both the scientific application, as well as to understand shortcomings in Eclipse PTP from an application developer perspective, to drive our list of improvements we seek to make. We are also partnering with performance tool providers, to drive higher quality performance tool integration. We have partnered with the Cactus group at Louisiana State University to improve Eclipse's ability to work with computational frameworks and extremely complex build systems, as well as to develop educational materials to incorporate into

  13. Organization of lasers with particle accelerators to create new tools for frontier sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Kando, Masaki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Masuda, Shinichi; Honma, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    Recently great advances of ultraintense ultrashort pulse lasers have brought about tremendous experimental and theoretical progress in maturity of laser-driven particle accelerator concepts. In near future creation of new tools for frontier sciences is forseen, which will be combined and organized from ultraintense lasers and particle accelerators. Here we report research activities on the laser acceleration at JAERI - APR as well as the outlook for developments of laser-driven particle injectors, accelerators and radiation sources. Recent world-wide experiments have successfully demonstrated that the self-modulated LWFA mechanism is capable of generating ultrahigh accelerating gradient of the order of 100 GeV/m, while the maximum energy gain is limited at most to 200 MeV with energy spread of 100% because of dephasing and wavebreaking effects in plasmas. The first high energy gain acceleration 300 MeV has been opened with the injection of an electron beam at an energy matched to a wakefield phase velocity in a fairly underdense plasma by our group. Our activities on laser acceleration research have focused on the laser wakefield accelerator developments for high energy electron acceleration achieving more than 1 GeV with channel-guided scheme, and on high quality beam generation with both conventional and advanced technologies. The main task has been devoted to completion of the Laser Acceleration Test Facility (LATF) consisting of the photocathode RF gun, the 150 MeV microtron accelerator and the test beam line as well as the estimation of radiation doses produced by LATF for the radiation safety clearance. With the use of LATF, we plan to demonstrate the channel-guided LWFA in which both the driving laser pulses and particle beams can be guided through the capillary discharge plasmas with a cm-scale length. The development of the plasma waveguide is underway after the first demonstration of propagating a 2 TW, 90 fs laser pulse through a stable 2 cm plasma

  14. Using Web 2.0 tools to connect shore-based users to live science from the wide blue ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S. K.; Peart, L.; Collins, J.

    2009-12-01

    The fast-expanding use of social networking tools, combined with improved connectivity available through satellite-provided internet on board the scientific ocean drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution (the JR), has allowed for a whole new kind of interaction. Unlike in the not-so-distant past, when non-participants were forced to wait for months to read about the results of ongoing research, web tools allow almost instantaneous participation in ship-based ocean science. Utilizing a brand new portal, joidesresolution.org, scientists and educators at sea can post daily blogs about their work and respond to questions and comments on those blogs, update the JR’s Facebook and Twitter pages, and post videos and photos to YouTube and Flickr regularly. Live video conferencing tools also allow for direct interaction with scientists and a view into the work being done on board in real time. These tools have allowed students, teachers and families, groups and individuals on shore to follow along with the expeditions of the ship and its exciting scientific explorations -- and become a part of them. Building this community provides a whole range of rich interactions and brings seafloor research and the real process of science to those who would never before have had access to it. This presentation will include an overview of the web portal and its associated social networking sites, as well as a discussion of the challenges and lessons learned over nearly a year of utilizing these new tools. The web portal joidesresolution.org home page.

  15. Citizen Science as a Tool in Biological Recording—A Case Study of Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sladonja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native invasive species frequently appear in urban and non-urban ecosystems and may become a threat to biodiversity. Some of these newcomers are introduced accidentally, and others are introduced through a sequence of events caused by conscious human decisions. Involving the general public in biodiversity preservation activities could prevent the negative consequences of these actions. Accurate and reliable data collecting is the first step in invasive species management, and citizen science can be a useful tool to collect data and engage the public in science. We present a case study of biological recording of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle using a participatory citizen model. The first goal in this case study was to develop a cheap, widely accessible, and effective inventory method, and to test it by mapping tree of heaven in Croatia. A total of 90.61 km of roads and trails was mapped; 20 single plants and 19 multi-plant clusters (mapped as polygons were detected. The total infested area was 2610 m2. The second goal was to educate citizens and raise awareness of this invasive species. The developed tool and suggested approach aided in improving invasive risk management in accordance with citizen science principles and can be applied to other species or areas.

  16. Case Studies in Exercise and Sport Sciences: A Powerful Tool to Bridge the Science-Practice Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Israel

    2018-03-27

    Despite the progress made by the scientific exercise community in collaborating and communicating with non-scientist coaches, there is room for improvement. Coaches find research difficult to understand, feel that their interests are not being addressed by exercise research, and rely on peer-discussion to further their coaching knowledge base while consuming little peer-reviewed articles. One useful strategy to bridge the science-practice gap is with case-studies. In addition to furthering our understanding of the physiology, psychology, and training schedules of elite athletes, case studies can serve 1) as a useful communication channel with coaches if presented as narratives and 2) to establish and strengthen relationships between scientists and coaches leading to fruitful research collaborations. The purpose of this invited commentary is to discuss these two less-recognized benefits of case-studies, and propose a way to incorporate case-studies more frequently alongside group-based studies.

  17. Effects of Educational Blogging on Perceptions of Science and Technology Education Students toward Web as a Learning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Tekinarslan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of educational blogging on perceptions (e.g., attitude, self-efficacy of undergraduate students in Science and Technology Education program toward Web as a learning tool. In addition, this study examines opinions of the Science and Technology Education students about contribution of educational blogging to the students’ perceptions toward Web as a learning tool, knowledge in the field, and advantages and disadvantages of educational blogging. The methodological frame of this study is based on both one group pre-test and post-test design, and qualitative approaches including observations, interviews and document analyses. A total of 32 undergraduate students voluntarily participated in the pre-test and post-test sections, and 25 students participated in the interviews. The findings indicate that educational blogging have positive effects over the students’ attitudes on the usability, selfefficacy, affective and Web-based learning subscales. In addition, the qualitative findings reveal positive contributions of educational blogging to the students’ knowledge in the field, and to the perceptions and thoughts of the students toward Web as a learning tool

  18. The Effects of a Web-Based Vocabulary Development Tool on Student Reading Comprehension of Science Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Thompson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of reading comprehension have received increasing recognition in recent years. In this realm, the power of vocabulary in predicting cognitive challenges in phonological, orthographic, and semantic processes is well documented. In this study, we present a web-based vocabulary development tool that has a series of interactive displays, including a list of the 50 most frequent words in a particular text, Google image and video results for any combination of those words, definitions, and synonyms for particular words from the text, and a list of sentences from the text in which particular words appear. Additionally, we report the results of an experiment that was performed working collaboratively with middle school science teachers from a large urban district in the United States. While this experiment did not show a significant positive effect of this tool on reading comprehension in science, we did find that girls seem to score worse on a reading comprehension assessment after using our web-based tool. This result could reflect prior research that suggests that some girls tend to have a negative attitude towards technology due to gender stereotypes that give girls the impression that they are not as good as boys in working with computers.

  19. Parametric Optimization and Prediction Tool for Lunar Surface Systems Excavation Tasks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a software tool for facilitating lunar excavation system trades in support of selecting an optimal architecture. This will...

  20. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tribological behaviour of aluminium differed great from that of steel regardless of the counterpart material. Highly reactive aluminium had a strong tendency to solder with tool surfaces during dry sliding. However, the lubricity of gray cast irons can be significantly improved by Ni-BN and DLC coatings. The coefficient of friction reduced from about 0.5 for untreated cast irons to about 0.2 sliding against aluminium. Duplex treatment combining plasma nitrocarburising with low-friction coatings showed superior durability than both DLC and Ni-BN coatings.

  1. Microstructural characterization of laser surface melted AISI M2 tool steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, J; Cabeza, M; Castro, G; Feijoo, I; Merino, P; Pena, G

    2010-09-01

    We describe the microstructure of Nd:YAG continuous wave laser surface melted high-speed steel, namely AISI M2, treated with different laser scanning speeds and beam diameters on its surface. Microstructural characterization of the remelted surface layer was performed using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The combination of the three techniques provided new insights into the substantial changes induced by laser surface melting of the steel surface layer. The advantage of the method is that it avoids the difficult and tedious work of preparing samples of this hard material for transmission electron microscopy, which is the technique normally used to study these fine microstructures. A melted zone with a dendritic structure and a partially melted zone with a heterogeneous cellular structure were observed. M(2)C carbides with different morphologies were identified in the resolidified surface layer after laser melting.

  2. SU-F-E-08: Medical Physics as a Teaching Tool for High School Science Curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Delivering high school science curriculum in a timely manner and in way that is accessible to all students is a challenge for teachers. Although many high schools offer career workshops, these are typically directed at senior students and do not relate directly to details of the curriculum. The objective of this initiative was to create a series of lectures that use medical physics to relate many aspects of the high school science curriculum to tangible clinical applications and to introduce students to alternate pathways into a career in health sciences. Methods: A series of lectures has been developed based on the Ontario High School Science Curriculum. Each lecture uses a career in radiotherapy medical physics as the framework for discussion of topics specific to the high school course being addressed. Results: At present, these lectures have been delivered in five area high schools to students ranging from sophomores to seniors. Survey documents are given to the students before and after the lecture to assess their awareness of careers in health care, applications of physics and their general interest in the subject areas. As expected, students have limited up front awareness of the wide variety of health related career paths. The idea of combining a career lecture with topics specific to the classroom curriculum has been well-received by teachers and students alike. Conclusion: Career talks for high school students are useful for students contemplating their post- secondary career path. Relating career discussion with direct course curriculum makes their studies more relevant and engaging. Students aspiring to a career in health sciences often focus their studies on life sciences due to limited knowledge of potential careers. An early introduction to medical physics presents them with an alternate path through the physical sciences into health care.

  3. SU-F-E-08: Medical Physics as a Teaching Tool for High School Science Curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Ctr., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Delivering high school science curriculum in a timely manner and in way that is accessible to all students is a challenge for teachers. Although many high schools offer career workshops, these are typically directed at senior students and do not relate directly to details of the curriculum. The objective of this initiative was to create a series of lectures that use medical physics to relate many aspects of the high school science curriculum to tangible clinical applications and to introduce students to alternate pathways into a career in health sciences. Methods: A series of lectures has been developed based on the Ontario High School Science Curriculum. Each lecture uses a career in radiotherapy medical physics as the framework for discussion of topics specific to the high school course being addressed. Results: At present, these lectures have been delivered in five area high schools to students ranging from sophomores to seniors. Survey documents are given to the students before and after the lecture to assess their awareness of careers in health care, applications of physics and their general interest in the subject areas. As expected, students have limited up front awareness of the wide variety of health related career paths. The idea of combining a career lecture with topics specific to the classroom curriculum has been well-received by teachers and students alike. Conclusion: Career talks for high school students are useful for students contemplating their post- secondary career path. Relating career discussion with direct course curriculum makes their studies more relevant and engaging. Students aspiring to a career in health sciences often focus their studies on life sciences due to limited knowledge of potential careers. An early introduction to medical physics presents them with an alternate path through the physical sciences into health care.

  4. Infrared Surface-Plasmon-Resonance -- a novel biophysical tool for studying living cell

    OpenAIRE

    Golosovsky, M.; Lirtsman, V.; Yashunsky, V.; Davidov, D.; Aroeti, B.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the Surface-Plasmon-Resonance (SPR) technique based on Fourier -Transform - InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry. We explore the potential of the infrared surface plasmon resonance technique for biological studies in aqueous solutions and compare it to the conventional surface plasmon technique operating in the visible range. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of the SPR technique in the infrared range is not lower and in fact is even higher. We show several examples of applying FTIR-SPR ...

  5. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  6. Science literacy in Nigeria: Veritable tool for development by the year 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folashade Afolabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has changed in such a way that science has become necessary for everyone not just a privileged few. In developing countries like Nigeria, the Federal government of Nigeria seems to have realised these by making frantic efforts over the years to make science literacy compulsory and relevant to all his citizenry. This paper examined the effects of two instructional strategies on the cognitive achievement of villagers in science literacy curriculum. It also looked at the effect of gender on cognitive achievement in science literacy curriculum. Fifty-seven (57 villagers participated in the study. A random sampling technique was used to select the participants from six (6 villages in Baruteen local government area of Kwara state. The research design adopted for the study was quasi- experimental design. Science Literacy Achievement Test (SLAT which was designed by the researcher has reliability coefficient of 0.75 using Kuder-Richardson-21. T-test was used to analyse the data collected. The results showed that villagers taught with entertainment strategy performed significantly better than those taught using expository strategy. In the same vein, male villagers performed significantly better than their female counterparts. Discussions were stated according to results, and recommendations were given.

  7. PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

    2013-06-01

    The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these

  8. Effects of surface treatment on the diamond deposition and performance of ceramic cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.L.; Guidoboni, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon nitride cutting tool inserts with tool geometry TPGN 433 were pre-treated ultrasonically with different procedures before diamond deposition by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. The nucleation densities and deposition rates were compared with those of untreated inserts and inserts polished with diamond paste. An increase in diamond nucleation density was observed for samples with different pre-treatments relative to untreated substrates. A continuous diamond coating was obtained after deposition for 1 h for the sample polished with diamond paste before deposition while only discrete diamond crystals were obtained for samples without any pre-treatment. However, no significant differences in diamond crystal size, morphology and deposition rates were observed for different pre-treatments after long periods of deposition time. No significant difference in tool life was observed for the diamond-coated inserts with and without pre-treatment when tested with an Al-Si alloy. (orig.)

  9. High-rate production of micro- and nanostructured surfaces: Injection molding and novel process for metal tooling manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus Vega, Marisely

    Devices containing micro and nanostructured surfaces are developing and constantly finding new applications, especially for medical diagnostics, point-of-care applications, and microneedles. They are also employed in the functionalization of surfaces for superhydrophobicity, drag reduction, or reversible adhesion by mimicking bio-inspired surfaces. This research provides a thorough investigation on the effects of different polymeric materials and processing conditions on the replication of micro and nanostructured surfaces via injection molding. In addition, this dissertation also presents a novel approach for the production of durable microstructured metal tooling to be used for the production of surfaces with microchannels via injection molding. Materials such as thermoplastic vulcanizates are substituting regular thermoplastic materials and vulcanized elastomers in many applications due to their outstanding properties and ease of processability. These material properties broaden the scope of applications for microstructured surfaces. However, there is a need for understanding how these materials behave in microinjection molding since thermoplastic elastomers' behavior during injection molding have been shown to differ from that of the widely understood behavior of thermoplastics. Replication of microstructured surfaces using thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) was studied in the first part of this thesis. TPVs with different hardness's were molded using microinjection molding with various processing conditions and the replication and surface details of 20 microm pillars (aspect ratio of 1:1) were characterized. In the second part of this research liquid silicone rubber (LSR) was studied as a material for the production of micro and nanostructured surfaces. LSR is a silicone based material such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is widely used for research and development of micro and nanostructured devices, and thus provides all the benefits of PDMS but can be

  10. Big Data in Plant Science: Resources and Data Mining Tools for Plant Genomics and Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, George V; Noutsos, Christos; Popescu, Sorina C

    2016-01-01

    In modern plant biology, progress is increasingly defined by the scientists' ability to gather and analyze data sets of high volume and complexity, otherwise known as "big data". Arguably, the largest increase in the volume of plant data sets over the last decade is a consequence of the application of the next-generation sequencing and mass-spectrometry technologies to the study of experimental model and crop plants. The increase in quantity and complexity of biological data brings challenges, mostly associated with data acquisition, processing, and sharing within the scientific community. Nonetheless, big data in plant science create unique opportunities in advancing our understanding of complex biological processes at a level of accuracy without precedence, and establish a base for the plant systems biology. In this chapter, we summarize the major drivers of big data in plant science and big data initiatives in life sciences with a focus on the scope and impact of iPlant, a representative cyberinfrastructure platform for plant science.

  11. Lyrical language and nursing discourse: can science be the tool of love?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, William K

    2002-04-01

    Lyricism is a quality of discourse expressing intensely personal feeling or emotion. It is historically associated with romanticism, which involves the imagination and emotions, the use of autobiographical material, the exaltation of a common humanity, and an appreciation of nature. The language of a science conveys the meaning, significance, and utility of concepts among scholars, practitioners, and the general public. It is incumbent upon nurses to attempt to represent in our disciplinary language the realities lived by people, that is, to apprehend, describe, and explain the full breadth and diversity of human phenomena, guided by the discipline-wide focus on the wholeness of the human being. The language of objectivistic science cannot do this. Even in contemporary qualitative research there are limitations in achieving such a representation. This column therefore calls for greater attention to lyrical discourse in nursing science and outlines the potential benefits in nursing theory development, research, and practice. Encouragement of lyrical discourse in nursing science is consistent with the contemporary movement toward a dialogical rationality. It is posited that, if the ethos of nursing is rooted in love of humanity, lyrical discourse may be one way for nursing to pursue its mission to serve humankind.

  12. Educational Impact of Digital Visualization Tools on Digital Character Production Computer Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Langeveld, Mark Christensen

    2009-01-01

    Digital character production courses have traditionally been taught in art departments. The digital character production course at the University of Utah is centered, drawing uniformly from art and engineering disciplines. Its design has evolved to include a synergy of computer science, functional art and human anatomy. It gives students an…

  13. Web 2.0 Tools and the Reflections of Preservice Secondary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lori; Matkins, Juanita Jo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of using blogs as reflective journals during a methods course and practicum period on preservice science teacher reflections. The researchers investigated blogging and commenting as potential catalysts for critical reflection using an action research approach. The participants were 10 graduate preservice secondary…

  14. “Underground Safari” and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, N.; Riffel, H.; D'Odorico, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with Botswana high school teachers and students, and collaborate with scientists to develop web-based science teacher education modules on the topic of roots and belowground carbon storage. The “Underground Safari” website for K-12 teachers and students was constructed to infuse middle and high school level standards-based soil science curricula with outdoor activities, international field research videos, lab demos, printable handouts, and stimulating real-world applications. This presentation highlights the “Underground Safari” website design, the wiki page used by the RET teacher to communicate with her students on-line and take them on science adventures during the international field research, and other educational outreach activities resulting from this international research experience. Figure 1. Wiki page used by RET teacher to communicate with her students while in the field in Botswana, Africa.

  15. Concept Mapping as a Tool to Develop and Measure Students' Understanding in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sema; Erdimez, Omer; Zimmerman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Concept maps measured a student's understanding of the complexity of concepts, and interrelationships. Novak and Gowin (1984) claimed that the continuous use of concept maps increased the complexity and interconnectedness of students' understanding of relationships between concepts in a particular science domain. This study has two purposes; the…

  16. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Ou Yang, Fang-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements…

  17. The Broad Application of Data Science and Analytics: Essential Tools for the Liberal Arts Graduate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Navia, Isabel; Fitzgerald, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    New technologies and data science are transforming a wide range of organizations into analytics-intensive enterprises. Despite the resulting demand for graduates with experience in the application of analytics, though, undergraduate education has been slow to change. The academic and policy communities have engaged in a decade-long conversation…

  18. Science Learning with Information Technologies as a Tool for "Scientific Thinking" in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Eugeny; Bogun, Vitali

    2011-01-01

    New methodologies in science (or mathematics) learning process and scientific thinking in the classroom activity of engineer students with ICT (information and communication technology), including graphic calculator are presented: visual modelling with ICT, action research with graphic calculator, insight in classroom and communications and…

  19. Metacognition: An Effective Tool to Promote Success in College Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ningfeng; Wardeska, Jeffrey G.; McGuire, Saundra Y.; Cook, Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Metacognition has been shown to lead to deeper, more durable, and more transferable learning (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000). This article describes a case study in which metacognition was introduced to undergraduate science (chemistry) classrooms. Students came to understand the difference between superficial memorization and real…

  20. Fluorescent proteins as efficient tools for evaluating the surface PEGylation of silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Minyan; Zhang, Xiao-ai; Zhang, Ze-yu; Saleh, Sayed M.; Wang, Xu-dong

    2017-06-01

    Surface PEGylation is essential for preventing non-specific binding of biomolecules when silica nanoparticles are utilized for in vivo applications. Methods for installing poly(ethylene glycol) on a silica surface have been widely explored but varies from study to study. Because there is a lack of a satisfactory method for evaluating the properties of silica surface after PEGylation, the prepared nanoparticles are not fully characterized before use. In some cases, even non-PEGylated silica nanoparticles were produced, which is unfortunately not recognized by the end-user. In this work, a fluorescent protein was employed, which acts as a sensitive material for evaluating the surface protein adsorption properties of silica nanoparticles. Eleven different methods were systematically investigated for their reaction efficiency towards surface PEGylation. Results showed that both reaction conditions (including pH, catalyst) and surface functional groups of parent silica nanoparticles play critical roles in producing fully PEGylated silica nanoparticles. Great care needs to be taken in choosing the proper coupling chemistry for surface PEGylation. The data and method shown here will guarantee high-quality PEGylated silica nanoparticles to be produced and guide their applications in biology, chemistry, industry and medicine.

  1. The ESWN webpage as a tool to increase international collaboration in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessmer, Mirjam S.; Adams, Manda; de Boer, Agatha M.; Hastings, Meredith; Kontak, Rose

    2013-04-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN; ESWNonline.org) is an international peer-mentoring network of women in the Earth Sciences, many in the early stages of their careers. ESWN's mission is to promote career development, build community, provide opportunities for informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations. This has been accomplished via email and a listserv, on Facebook, at in-person networking events, and at professional development workshops. Over the last 10 years, ESWN has grown by word of mouth to include more than 1600 members working on all 7 continents. In an effort to facilitate international connections among women in the Earth Sciences, ESWN has developed a password protected community webpage where members can create an online presence and interact with each other. For example, regional groups help women to connect with co-workers at the same employer, in the same city or the same country, or with women at the place where they are considering taking a new job, will attend a conference or will start working soon. Topical groups center around a vast array of topics ranging from research interests, funding opportunities, work-life balance, teaching, scientific methods, and searching for a job to specific challenges faced by women in the earth sciences. Members can search past discussions and share documents like examples of research statements, useful interview materials, or model recommendation letters. The new webpage also allows for more connectivity among other online platforms used by our members, including LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter. Built in Wordpress with a Buddypress members-only section, the new ESWN website is supported by AGU and a National Science Foundation ADVANCE grant. While the ESWN members-only community webpage is focused on providing a service to women geoscientists, the content on the public site is designed to be useful for institutions and individuals interested in helping to increase, retain

  2. "Socratic Circles are a Luxury": Exploring the Conceptualization of a Dialogic Tool in Three Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelin, Michelle Renee

    Research has shown that dialogic instruction promotes learning in students. Secondary science has traditionally been taught from an authoritative stance, reinforced in recent years by testing policies requiring coverage. Socratic Circles are a framework for student-led dialogic discourse, which have been successfully used in English language arts and social studies classrooms. The purpose of this research was to explore the implementation process of Socratic Circles in secondary science classes where they have been perceived to be more difficult. Focusing on two physical science classes and one chemistry class, this study described the nature and characteristics of Socratic Circles, teachers' dispositions toward dialogic instruction, the nature and characteristics of student discussion, and student motivation. Socratic Circles were found to be a dialogic support that influenced classroom climate, social skills, content connections, and student participation. Teachers experienced conflict between using traditional test driven scripted teaching, and exploring innovation through dialogic instruction. Students experienced opportunities for peer interaction, participation, and deeper discussions in a framework designed to improve dialogic skills. Students in two of the classrooms showed evidence of motivation for engaging in peer-led discussion, and students in one class did not. The class that did not show evidence of motivation had not been given the same scaffolding as the other two classes. Two physical science teachers and one chemistry teacher found that Socratic Circles required more scaffolding than was indicated by their peers in other disciplines such as English and social studies. The teachers felt that student's general lack of background knowledge for any given topic in physical science or chemistry necessitated the building of a knowledge platform before work on a discussion could begin. All three of the teachers indicated that Socratic Circles were a

  3. Citizen Science as a Tool for Augmenting Museum Collection Data from Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakota M. Spear

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Museum collections are critical to contemporary biological research, but museum acquisitions have declined in recent decades, hampering researchers' ability to use collections to assess species responses to habitat modification, urbanization, and global climate change. Citizen science may be a key method to bolster museum collections data, particularly from urban regions, where ongoing data collection is critical to our understanding of ecosystem dynamics in a highly modified and variable landscape. In this study, we compare data collected as part of the citizen-science project Reptiles and Amphibians of Southern California (RASCals, hosted on the platform iNaturalist (www.inaturalist.org, to data in the VertNet database (www.vertnet.org, which houses millions of museum collection records from over 250 natural-history collections, for four focal species, including a native lizard of conservation concern that has declined with urbanization, a native lizard that is widespread in urban areas, and two invasive aquatic species. We compared numbers of VertNet records over time to modern RASCals records, and the number of records collected from urban, suburban, and protected areas from both databases. For all species, citizen-science records were generated much more rapidly than museum records. For three of our four focal species, RASCals participants over 27 months documented from 70 to 750% more records than were added to the VertNet database after 1990. For the urban-tolerant southern alligator lizard, RASCals participants collected nearly 45 times more modern urban records than are contained in the VertNet database. For all other species, the majority of RASCals records were collected within suburban or other highly modified landscapes, demonstrating the value of citizen science for collecting data within urban and suburban ecosystems. As new museum acquisitions decline, citizen-science projects like RASCals may become critical to the maintenance

  4. An Examination of the Changes in Science Teaching Orientations and Technology-Enhanced Tools for Student Learning in the Context of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Zuwallack, Rebecca; Longhurst, Max; Shelton, Brett E.; Wolf, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how science teaching orientations and beliefs about technology-enhanced tools change over time in professional development (PD). The primary data sources for this study came from learning journals of 8 eighth grade science teachers at the beginning and conclusion of a year of PD. Based on the analysis completed, Information…

  5. Cognitive Interviewing: A Qualitative Tool for Improving Questionnaires in Sport Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Hanno; Ehrlenspiel, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive models postulate that respondents to a questionnaire follow a four-stage process when answering a question: comprehension, memory retrieval, decision, and response. Cognitive interviewing is a qualitative tool to gain insight into this process by means of letting respondents think aloud or asking them specific questions (Willis, 2005).…

  6. Methodologies and Tools for Tuning Parallel Programs: 80% Art, 20% Science, and 10% Luck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Bailey, David (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The need for computing power has forced a migration from serial computation on a single processor to parallel processing on multiprocessors. However, without effective means to monitor (and analyze) program execution, tuning the performance of parallel programs becomes exponentially difficult as program complexity and machine size increase. In the past few years, the ubiquitous introduction of performance tuning tools from various supercomputer vendors (Intel's ParAide, TMC's PRISM, CRI's Apprentice, and Convex's CXtrace) seems to indicate the maturity of performance instrumentation/monitor/tuning technologies and vendors'/customers' recognition of their importance. However, a few important questions remain: What kind of performance bottlenecks can these tools detect (or correct)? How time consuming is the performance tuning process? What are some important technical issues that remain to be tackled in this area? This workshop reviews the fundamental concepts involved in analyzing and improving the performance of parallel and heterogeneous message-passing programs. Several alternative strategies will be contrasted, and for each we will describe how currently available tuning tools (e.g. AIMS, ParAide, PRISM, Apprentice, CXtrace, ATExpert, Pablo, IPS-2) can be used to facilitate the process. We will characterize the effectiveness of the tools and methodologies based on actual user experiences at NASA Ames Research Center. Finally, we will discuss their limitations and outline recent approaches taken by vendors and the research community to address them.

  7. Human-Centered Design of Adaptive Planning Tools for Airport Surface Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two critical requirements for an effective airport surface management system are: • The need to adapt plans both strategically and tactically because of time-varying...

  8. Cutting force analysis as a tool for evaluating the surface quality of machined parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Carrilero, M.; Marcos, M.; Alvarez-Alcon, M.; Sanchez-Corbacho, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Surface quality is one of the most important criteria for establishing the optimum cutting parameters needed to perform a machining process. Usually, the evaluation of the degree of the surface finishing requires to apply metrological techniques which involve times out in the production. As a consequence of this, a loss in both the economy of the process and the fiability of the tests reproducibility can be produced. In this work a relation between cutting force and surface roughness has been studied for the turning process of an Al-Cu alloy. From this relation, the surface quality of the machined samples can be evaluated by using the cutting forces values acquired during the cutting process. (Author) 8 refs

  9. GlaRe, a GIS tool to reconstruct the 3D surface of palaeoglaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellitero, R.; Rea, B.R.; Spagnolo, M.; Bakke, J.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Frew, C.R.; Hughes, P.; Ribolini, A.; Lukas, S.; Renssen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier reconstructions are widely used in palaeoclimatic studies and this paper presents a new semi-automated method for generating glacier reconstructions: GlaRe, is a toolbox coded in Python and operating in ArcGIS. This toolbox provides tools to generate the ice thickness from the bed topography

  10. Online characterization of planetary surfaces: PlanetServer, an open-source analysis and visualization tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Figuera, R.; Pham Huu, B.; Rossi, A. P.; Minin, M.; Flahaut, J.; Halder, A.

    2018-01-01

    The lack of open-source tools for hyperspectral data visualization and analysis creates a demand for new tools. In this paper we present the new PlanetServer, a set of tools comprising a web Geographic Information System (GIS) and a recently developed Python Application Programming Interface (API) capable of visualizing and analyzing a wide variety of hyperspectral data from different planetary bodies. Current WebGIS open-source tools are evaluated in order to give an overview and contextualize how PlanetServer can help in this matters. The web client is thoroughly described as well as the datasets available in PlanetServer. Also, the Python API is described and exposed the reason of its development. Two different examples of mineral characterization of different hydrosilicates such as chlorites, prehnites and kaolinites in the Nili Fossae area on Mars are presented. As the obtained results show positive outcome in hyperspectral analysis and visualization compared to previous literature, we suggest using the PlanetServer approach for such investigations.

  11. Towards an atomic level understanding of niobia based catalysts and catalysis by combining the science of catalysis with surface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The science of catalysis and surface science have developed, independently, key information for understanding catalytic processes. One might argue: is there anything fundamental to be discovered through the interplay between catalysis and surface science? Real catalysts of monometallic and bimetallic Co/Nb2O5 and Pd-Co/Nb2O5 catalysts showed interesting selectivity results on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Noronha et al. 1996, Rosenir et al. 1993. The presence of a noble metal increased the C+5 selectivity and decreased the methane formation depending of the reduction temperature. Model catalyst of Co-Pd supported on niobia and alumina were prepared and characterized at the atomic level, thus forming the basis for a comparison with "real" support materials. Growth, morphology and structure of both pure metal and alloy particles were studied. It is possible to support the strong metal support interaction suggested by studies on real catalysts via the investigation of model systems for niobia in comparison to alumina support in which this effect does not occur. Formation of Co2+ penetration into the niobia lattice was suggested on the basis of powder studies and can be fully supported on the basis of model studies. It is shown for both real catalysts and model systems that oxidation state of Co plays a key role in controlling the reactivity in Fischer-Tropsch reactions systems and that the addition of Pd is a determining factor for the stability of the catalyst. It is demonstrated that the interaction with unsaturated hydrocarbons depends strongly on the state of oxidation.As ciências da catálise e da superfície têm desenvolvido independentemente temas básicos para o entendimento de processos catalíticos. Pode-se até questionar se há ainda algo fundamental para ser descoberto através da interface entre catálise eciência da superfície? Catalisadores mono e bimetálicos de Co/Nb2O5 e Pd-Co/ Nb2O5 apresentaram resultados interessantes de

  12. The Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT): A Discipline-Specific Rubric for Utilizing Bloom's Taxonomy in the Design and Evaluation of Assessments in the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2015-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy is a resource commonly used to assess the cognitive level associated with course assignments and examination questions. Although widely utilized in educational research, Bloom's taxonomy has received limited attention as an analytical tool in the anatomical sciences. Building on previous research, the Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT)…

  13. Ground Data System Analysis Tools to Track Flight System State Parameters for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Dan; Deforrest, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Flight software parameters enable space mission operators fine-tuned control over flight system configurations, enabling rapid and dynamic changes to ongoing science activities in a much more flexible manner than can be accomplished with (otherwise broadly used) configuration file based approaches. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), Curiosity, makes extensive use of parameters to support complex, daily activities via commanded changes to said parameters in memory. However, as the loss of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in 2006 demonstrated, flight system management by parameters brings with it risks, including the possibility of losing track of the flight system configuration and the threat of invalid command executions. To mitigate this risk a growing number of missions have funded efforts to implement parameter tracking parameter state software tools and services including MSL and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. This paper will discuss the engineering challenges and resulting software architecture of MSL's onboard parameter state tracking software and discuss the road forward to make parameter management tools suitable for use on multiple missions.

  14. Teaching Spatial Thinking in Undergraduate Geology Courses Using Tools and Strategies from Cognitive Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T. A.; Tikoff, B.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial visualization is an essential skill in the STEM disciplines, including the geological sciences. Undergraduate students, including geoscience majors in upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. Students with weak spatial skills may struggle to understand fundamental concepts and to solve geological problems with a spatial component. However, spatial thinking skills are malleable. Using strategies that have emerged from cognitive science research, we developed a set of curricular materials that improve undergraduate geology majors' abilities to reason about 3D concepts and to solve spatially complex geological problems. Cognitive science research on spatial thinking demonstrates that predictive sketching, making visual comparisons, gesturing, and the use of analogy can be used to develop students' spatial thinking skills. We conducted a three-year study of the efficacy of these strategies in strengthening the spatial skills of students in core geology courses at three universities. Our methodology is a quasi-experimental quantitative design, utilizing pre- and post-tests of spatial thinking skills, assessments of spatial problem-solving skills, and a control group comprised of students not exposed to our new curricular materials. Students taught using the new curricular materials show improvement in spatial thinking skills. Further analysis of our data, to be completed prior to AGU, will answer additional questions about the relationship between spatial skills and academic performance, spatial skills and gender, spatial skills and confidence, and the impact of our curricular materials on students who are struggling academically. Teaching spatial thinking in the context of discipline-based exercises has the potential to transform undergraduate education in the geological sciences by removing one significant barrier to success.

  15. Citizen Science as a Tool for Augmenting Museum Collection Data from Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Dakota M. Spear; Gregory B. Pauly; Gregory B. Pauly; Kristine Kaiser; Kristine Kaiser; Kristine Kaiser

    2017-01-01

    Museum collections are critical to contemporary biological research, but museum acquisitions have declined in recent decades, hampering researchers' ability to use collections to assess species responses to habitat modification, urbanization, and global climate change. Citizen science may be a key method to bolster museum collections data, particularly from urban regions, where ongoing data collection is critical to our understanding of ecosystem dynamics in a highly modified and variable lan...

  16. Ground Radiometric Method as a Tool for Determining the Surface Boundary of a Buried Bauxitic Karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kareem Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty two ground radiometric measurements along nine traverses within a rectangular network area were taken across a bauxitic karst within the Ubaid Formation (Lower Jurassic in the Western Desert of Iraq. A 4-Channel Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GAD-6 with sodium iodide NaI (Tl crystal (GSP-4S was used in the field to measure the total radioactivity of the surface soil. Soil samples collected from the surface at each measurement point and core samples collected from a test well penetrating the karst were analyzed by Gamma ray spectrometer. The main objective of this study was to detect the hidden bauxitic karst and determine its surface boundary. The radioactivity on the surface of the karst was ranging between 60 and 80 count per second (c/s, while the background radioactivity of the Ubaid Formation, which hosts the karst, was ranging between 100 and150 c/s. Chemical weathering, especially dissolution and leaching moved uranium (238U and thorium(232Th from the overburden downward. Accordingly, these elements have been adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and bauxite buried at a depth of about 5m causing enrichment with radioactivity. The leached overburden lack radioelements, so its radioactivity was less than background radioactivity level. The gamma ray spectroanalysis showed that the radioactivity of 238U and 232Th in the overburden was 0.5 and 3 Bq/Kg, whereas, in the bauxite and flint clay bed, it was 240 and 160 Bq/Kg respectively. Based on the radioactivity anomaly contrast on the surface, an isorad map was plotted and the karst diameter which represents low anomaly was determined to be ranging from 150 to 200m. The current study demonstrates that the ground radiometric method is quite useful for detecting the bauxitic karst and inferring its surface boundaries.

  17. Using Twitter for Demographic and Social Science Research: Tools for Data Collection and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Tyler H; Lee, Hedwig; Cesare, Nina; Shojaie, Ali; Spiro, Emma S

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent and growing interest in using Twitter to examine human behavior and attitudes, there is still significant room for growth regarding the ability to leverage Twitter data for social science research. In particular, gleaning demographic information about Twitter users-a key component of much social science research-remains a challenge. This article develops an accurate and reliable data processing approach for social science researchers interested in using Twitter data to examine behaviors and attitudes, as well as the demographic characteristics of the populations expressing or engaging in them. Using information gathered from Twitter users who state an intention to not vote in the 2012 presidential election, we describe and evaluate a method for processing data to retrieve demographic information reported by users that is not encoded as text (e.g., details of images) and evaluate the reliability of these techniques. We end by assessing the challenges of this data collection strategy and discussing how large-scale social media data may benefit demographic researchers.

  18. Raman Under Water - Nonlinear and Nearfield Approaches for Electrochemical Surface Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sabanés, Natalia; Domke, Katrin F

    2017-08-01

    Electrochemistry is re-gaining attention among scientists because the complex interplay between electronic and chemical interfacial processes lies at the bottom of a broad range of important research disciplines like alternative energy conversion or green catalysis and synthesis. While rapid progress has been made in recent years regarding novel technological applications, the community increasingly recognizes that the understanding of the molecular processes that govern macroscopic device properties is still rather limited - which hinders a systematic and more complete exploration of novel material and functionality space. Here, we discuss advanced Raman spectroscopies as valuable analysis tools for electrochemists. The chemical nature of a material and its interaction with the environment is contained in the label-free vibrational fingerprint over a broad energy range so that organic species, solid-state materials, and hybrids thereof can be investigated alike. For surface studies, the inherently small Raman scattering cross sections can be overcome with advanced nonlinear or nearfield-based approaches that provide signal enhancements between three and seven orders of magnitude, sufficient to detect few scatterers in nano-confined spaces or adsorbate (sub)monolayers. Our article highlights how advanced Raman techniques with extreme chemical, spatial and temporal resolution constitute valuable alternative surface analysis tools and provide otherwise inaccessible information about complex interfacial (electro)chemical processes.

  19. Application of multidimensional scaling to preformulation sciences: a discriminatory tool to group microcrystalline celluloses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Celine Valeria; Soh, Josephine Lay Peng; Chen, Fei; Shi, Daming; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2005-10-01

    Pre-formulation studies constitute the first step of any pharmaceutical product development and manufacture. Establishment of a comprehensive library of critical physical, chemical, biological and mechanical properties of all materials used for a formulation can be costly, tedious and time consuming, despite its importance in quality manufacturing management. This study seeks to demonstrate the pharmaceutical application of multidimensional scaling (MDS) by incorporating it as a pre-formulation tool for grouping an expanded range of microcrystalline celluloses (MCC). MDS presents the various MCC grades in two-dimensional space based on their torque rheological properties; thus conferring an extra dimension to the pre-formulation tool to facilitate the visualization of the relative positions of each MCC grade. Through this work, the utility of MDS for expediting pre-formulation studies, in particular, grouping of excipients that are available in different brands and grades can be amply exemplified.

  20. MEDICAL INFORMATICS: AN ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR HEALTH SCIENCES RESEARCH IN ACUTE CARE

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Man; Pickering, Brian W.; Smith, Vernon D.; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Gajic, Ognjen; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2009-01-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and adminis...

  1. Medical Informatics: An Essential Tool for Health Sciences Research in Acute Care

    OpenAIRE

    Man Li; Brian W. Pickering; Vernon D. Smith; Mirsad Hadzikadic; Ognjen Gajic; Vitaly Herasevich

    2009-01-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and adminis...

  2. Nanopatterning of tools for replication of non-planar polymer surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri

    to facilitate de-molding of the nanopatterned parts. We analyzed the coated surfaces of aluminum, titanium, and nickel molds before and after 500 molding cycles, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, AFM and contact angle measurements. We show that the contact angle and that the fluorine concentration...... flat nickel masters and double-curved spherical surfaces. The mean pattern period was measured as a function of radial distance and found to be in good agreement with the foil strain computed with a finite element (FE) method. Moreover, this FE method was able to predict the contact pressure...... at those pressures, and used it to transfer the precise nanopattern with a period of 426 nm onto HSQ films on spherical surfaces with radii of curvature as low as 500 μm. With the pattern transferred onto a curved substrate, we investigated the pattern distortion, resulting from contact between inherently...

  3. Simulation-Based e-Learning Tools for Science,Engineering, and Technology Education(SimBeLT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Doyle V.; Cherner, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The focus of Project SimBeLT is the research, development, testing, and dissemination of a new type of simulation-based integrated e-learning set of modules for two-year college technical and engineering curricula in the areas of thermodynamics, fluid physics, and fiber optics that can also be used in secondary schools and four-year colleges. A collection of sophisticated virtual labs is the core component of the SimBeLT modules. These labs will be designed to enhance the understanding of technical concepts and underlying fundamental principles of these topics, as well as to master certain performance based skills online. SimBeLT software will help educators to meet the National Science Education Standard that "learning science and technology is something that students do, not something that is done to them". A major component of Project SimBeLT is the development of multi-layered technology-oriented virtual labs that realistically mimic workplace-like environments. Dynamic data exchange between simulations will be implemented and links with instant instructional messages and data handling tools will be realized. A second important goal of Project SimBeLT labs is to bridge technical skills and scientific knowledge by enhancing the teaching and learning of specific scientific or engineering subjects. SimBeLT builds upon research and outcomes of interactive teaching strategies and tools developed through prior NSF funding (http://webphysics.nhctc.edu/compact/index.html) (Project SimBeLT is partially supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-0603277)

  4. Oximetry: a reflective tool for the detection of physiological expression of emotions in a science education classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Olga

    2016-09-01

    The pulse oximeter is a device that measures the oxygen concentration (or oxygen saturation—SpO2); heart rate, and heartbeat of a person at any given time. This instrument is commonly used in medical and aerospace fields to monitor physiological outputs of a patient according to health conditions or physiological yields of a flying pilot according to changes in altitude and oxygen availability in the atmosphere. Nonetheless, the uses for pulse oximetry may expand to other fields where there is human interaction and where physiological outputs reflect fluctuations mediated by arising emotions. A classroom, for instance is filled with a plethora of emotions, but very often participants in this space are unaware of others' or their own sentiments as these arise as a result of interactions and responses to class discussions. In this paper I describe part of a larger study-taking place at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York. The focus is on the exploration of emotions and mindfulness in the science classroom. The oximeter is used in this study as a reflexive tool to detect emotions emerging among participants of a graduate History and Philosophy of Science Education course offered in the spring of 2012. Important physiological information of class participants provided by the oximeter is used to analyze the role of emotions in the classroom as sensitive and controversial topics in science education are discussed every week.

  5. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity as an ultra sensitive tool for ligand binding analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim

    2007-01-01

    The Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity (SERROA) spectra of myoglobin and the myoglobin-azide complex were measured on very dilute samples (100 nM protein) in order to analyze the sensitivity of SERROA spectroscopy when inducing...... upon azide complexation. Application of this method allows for rapid analysis of ligand binding in metalloproteins in dilute aqueous solution and could in the future, when combined with theoretical studies, increase the obtainable structural resolution of proteins beyond that of X-ray analysis....

  6. Analysis of the Forming Process of Conical-Like Helical Surfaces with Roller Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacalak W.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a methodology of an analysis and modeling of technological systems and the grinding process of conical-like helical surfaces with the use of modern CAD/CAE systems and calculations in the Matlab system. The methodology developed allows one to carry out simulation tests for the accuracy of the grinding process of helical surfaces taking into consideration the deviations of the location and shape of the system’s elements, axial and radial striking the spindle of the workpiece machined and the grinding wheel as well as the tool’s geometrical features.

  7. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; hide

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  8. Bio-electrosprays: from bio-analytics to a generic tool for the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2011-03-07

    Electrosprays or electrospraying is a process by which an aerosol is generated between two charged electrodes. This aerosol generation methodology has been known for well over a century, and has undergone exploration in aerosol and materials sciences, to many other areas of research and development. In one such exploration, electrosprays were partnered with mass spectrometry for the accurate characterisation of molecules. This technology now widely referred to as electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI MS) significantly contributes to molecular analysis and cancer biology to name a few. In fact these findings were recognised by the Chemistry Nobel Committee in 2002, and have catapulted electrosprays to many areas of research and development. In this review, the author wishes to introduce and discuss another such recent discovery, where electrosprays have been investigated for directly handling living cells and whole organisms. Over the past few years these electrosprays now referred to as "bio-electrosprays" have undergone rigorous developmental studies both in terms of understanding all the associate physical, chemical and biological sciences for completely assessing their effects, if any on the direct handling of living biological materials. Therefore, the review will bring together all the work that has contributed to fully understanding that bio-electrosprays are an inert technology for directly handling living biological materials, while elucidating some unique features they possess over competing technologies. Hence, demonstrating this approach as a flexible methodology for a wide range of applications spanning bio-analytics, diagnostics to the possible creation of synthetic tissues, for repairing and replacing damaged/ageing tissues, to the targeted and controlled delivery of personalised medicine through experimental and/or medical cells and/or genes. Therefore, elucidating the far reaching ramifications bio-electrosprays have to our health sciences

  9. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy as an identification tool in column liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifar, R.M.; Altelaar, M.A.F.; Dijkstra, R.J.; Ariese, F.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Gooijer, C.

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility of ion-pair reversed-phase column liquid chromatography and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) for separation and identification of anionic dyes has been investigated, with emphasis on the at-line coupling via a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate. SERR spectra

  10. Medical Informatics: An Essential Tool for Health Sciences Research in Acute Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU. We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and administrative data from heterogeneous sources within the EMR to support research and practice improvement in the ICUs. Examples of intelligent alarms – “sniffers”, administrative reports, decision support and clinical research applications are presented.

  11. Medical informatics: an essential tool for health sciences research in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Pickering, Brian W; Smith, Vernon D; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Gajic, Ognjen; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and administrative data from heterogeneous sources within the EMR to support research and practice improvement in the ICUs. Examples of intelligent alarms -- "sniffers", administrative reports, decision support and clinical research applications are presented.

  12. Exploring the Construct of Pedagogical Discontentment: A Tool to Understand Science Teachers' Openness to Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Sherry A.; Sowell, Scott; Blanchard, Margaret; Granger, E. M.

    2011-05-01

    It is well established that many teachers are resistant to take up the messages of reform if these messages require them to substantially shift their teaching practices. What accounts for this resistance? One well established explanation is that teachers lacks the self-efficacy required to attempt something new in their teaching—they simply do not feel capable of effectively enacting the messages. However, there are a host of studies describing teachers with high self—efficacy who remain resistant to messages of change. The purpose of this article is to address the gap in the application of self-efficacy to understand the change or lack of change of science teachers' practice through the introduction of a related construct, pedagogical discontentment. This construct reflects a state of cognitive conflict that exists when an individual recognizes a mismatch between her/his science teaching pedagogical goals and classroom practices. One potential result of this mismatch is that a teacher problematizes her teaching practices, prompting an increased receptivity to reform messages. Building on existing literature, we present vignettes of four hypothetical teachers who exemplify variations of pedagogical discontentment. When combined with self-efficacy, pedagogical discontentment provides a useful lens to understand teachers' consideration and adoption of messages of reform.

  13. The World Space Observatory–UV Project as a Tool for Exoplanet Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, Boris M.; Sachkov, Mikhail E.; Bisikalo, Dmitry V.; de Castro, Ana-Ines Gómez

    During last three decades, astronomers have had practically continuous access to the 100-300 nm spectral range that is unreachable with ground-based instruments but where astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied with unprecedented capability. The successful International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observatory, Russian ASTRON mission and successor instruments such as the COS and STIS spectrographs on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) demonstrate the major impact that observations in the UV wavelength range have had on modern astronomy. Many exoplanetary studies have been performed in the UV domain, both Far-UV and Near-UV. This spectral region contains many resonance lines of common elements, including Ly α, which provided a unique possibility to study physical and chemical properties of planetary atmospheres. Future access to space-based observatories is expected to be very limited. For the next decade, the post-HST era, the World Space Observatory UltraViolet (WSO-UV) will be the only large telescope class mission for UV observations, both spectroscopic and imaging. In its potential, the WSO-UV mission is similar to the HST, but all the observing time will be available for UV astronomy. In this chapter, we briefly outline the WSO-UV mission model, instrumentation description, science management plan as well as some of the key science issues that WSO-UV will address during its lifetime. This information should help exoplanet researchers to start to prepare their future observations with WSO-UV.

  14. Effect of TiC addition on surface oxidation behavior of SKD11 tool steel composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungchan; Jo, Ilguk; Kim, Heebong; Kwon, Hyuk-Tae; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Lee, Sang-Bok

    2017-09-01

    Titanium carbide (TiC) reinforced tool steel matrix composites were successfully fabricated by a liquid pressing infiltration process and research was subsequently conducted to investigate the composites' oxidation resistance. The mass gain of the tested TiC-SKD11 composite held at 700 °C for 50 h in an air environment decreased by about 60%, versus that of the SKD11, which indicates improved oxidation resistance. Improved oxidation resistance of the TiC-SKD11 composite originates from uniformly reinforced TiC, with a phase transition to thermodynamically stable, volume-expanded TiO2.

  15. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  16. A simulation tool for integrating climate change and Canadian surface transport : towards assessing impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaroglou, P.; Maoh, H.; Woudsma, C.; Marshall, S.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme weather events resulting from climate change will have a significant impact of the performance of the Canadian transportation system. This presentation described a simulation tool designed to investigate the potential ramifications of future climate change on transportation and the economy. The CLIMATE-C tool was designed to simulate future weather scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050 using weather parameters obtained from a global general circulation model. The model accounted for linkages between weather, transportation, and economic systems. A random utility-based multi-regional input-output model was used to predict inter-regional trade flows by truck and rail in Canada. Simulated weather scenarios were used to describe predicted changes in demographic, social, economic, technological and environmental developments to 2100. Various changes in population and economic growth were considered. Six additional scenarios were formulated to consider moderate and high rainfall events, moderate, high and extreme snowfall, and cold temperatures. Results of the preliminary analysis indicated that the model is sensitive to changes in weather events. Future research is needed to evaluate future weather scenarios and analyze weather-transport data in order to quantify travel speed reduction parameters. tabs., figs.

  17. The Curriculum Customization Service: A Tool for Customizing Earth Science Instruction and Supporting Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhado, L. C.; Devaul, H.; Sumner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Accelerating demographic trends in the United States attest to the critical need to broaden access to customized learning: reports refer to the next decade as the era of “extreme diversity” in K-12 classrooms, particularly in large urban school districts. This diverse student body possesses a wide range of knowledge, skills, and abilities in addition to cultural differences. A single classroom may contain students with different levels of quantitative skills, different levels of English language proficiency, and advanced students preparing for college-level science. A uniform curriculum, no matter how well designed and implemented, cannot possibly serve the needs of such diverse learners equally well. Research has shown positive learning outcomes when pedagogical strategies that customize instruction to address specific learner needs are implemented, with under-achieving students often benefiting most. Supporting teachers in the effective adoption and use of technology to meet these instructional challenges is the underlying goal of the work to be presented here. The Curriculum Customization Service (CCS) is an integrated web-based platform for middle and high school Earth science teachers designed to facilitate teachers’ instructional planning and delivery; enhancing existing curricula with digital library resources and shared teacher-contributed materials in the context of articulated learning goals. The CCS integrates interactive resources from the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) with an inquiry-based curriculum component developed by the American Geological Institute (EarthComm and Investigating Earth Systems). The digital library resources emphasize visualizations and animations of Earth processes that often challenge students’ understanding, offering multiple representations of phenomena to address different learning styles, reading abilities, and preconceived ideas. Teachers can access these materials, as well as those created or

  18. Micro-arc oxidation as a tool to develop multifunctional calcium-rich surfaces for dental implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.R.; Oliveira, F.; Boldrini, L.C.; Leite, P.E.; Falagan-Lotsch, P.; Linhares, A.B.R.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is commonly used in dental implant applications. Surface modification strategies are being followed in last years in order to build Ti oxide-based surfaces that can fulfill, simultaneously, the following requirements: induced cell attachment and adhesion, while providing a superior corrosion and tribocorrosion performance. In this work micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was used as a tool for the growth of a nanostructured bioactive titanium oxide layer aimed to enhance cell attachment and adhesion for dental implant applications. Characterization of the surfaces was performed, in terms of morphology, topography, chemical composition and crystalline structure. Primary human osteoblast adhesion on the developed surfaces was investigated in detail by electronic and atomic force microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. Also an investigation on the early cytokine production was performed. Results show that a relatively thick hybrid and graded oxide layer was produced on the Ti surface, being constituted by a mixture of anatase, rutile and amorphous phases where calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were incorporated. An outermost nanometric-thick amorphous oxide layer rich in Ca was present in the film. This amorphous layer, rich in Ca, improved fibroblast viability and metabolic activity as well as osteoblast adhesion. High-resolution techniques allowed to understand that osteoblasts adhered less in the crystalline-rich regions while they preferentially adhere and spread over in the Ca-rich amorphous oxide layer. Also, these surfaces induce higher amounts of IFN-γ cytokine secretion, which is known to regulate inflammatory responses, bone microarchitecture as well as cytoskeleton reorganization and cellular spreading. These surfaces are promising in the context of dental implants, since they might lead to faster osseointegration. - Highlights: • A nanometric-structured calcium-rich amorphous layer with improved bioactivity was produced on titanium surfaces.

  19. Micro-arc oxidation as a tool to develop multifunctional calcium-rich surfaces for dental implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A.R., E-mail: arribeiro@inmetro.gov.br [Department of Periodontology, Araraquara Dental School, University Estadual Paulista, Rua Humaitá 1680, 14801-903 Araraquara, São Paulo (Brazil); Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brazilian Branch of Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (IBTN/Br) (Brazil); Oliveira, F., E-mail: fernando@dem.uminho.pt [Brazilian Branch of Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (IBTN/Br) (Brazil); Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Boldrini, L.C., E-mail: lcboldrini@inmetro.gov.br [Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leite, P.E., E-mail: leitepec@gmail.com [Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Falagan-Lotsch, P., E-mail: prifalagan@gmail.com [Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Linhares, A.B.R., E-mail: adrianalinhares@hotmail.com [Clinical Research Unit, Antonio Pedro Hospital, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói (Brazil); and others

    2015-09-01

    Titanium (Ti) is commonly used in dental implant applications. Surface modification strategies are being followed in last years in order to build Ti oxide-based surfaces that can fulfill, simultaneously, the following requirements: induced cell attachment and adhesion, while providing a superior corrosion and tribocorrosion performance. In this work micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was used as a tool for the growth of a nanostructured bioactive titanium oxide layer aimed to enhance cell attachment and adhesion for dental implant applications. Characterization of the surfaces was performed, in terms of morphology, topography, chemical composition and crystalline structure. Primary human osteoblast adhesion on the developed surfaces was investigated in detail by electronic and atomic force microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. Also an investigation on the early cytokine production was performed. Results show that a relatively thick hybrid and graded oxide layer was produced on the Ti surface, being constituted by a mixture of anatase, rutile and amorphous phases where calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were incorporated. An outermost nanometric-thick amorphous oxide layer rich in Ca was present in the film. This amorphous layer, rich in Ca, improved fibroblast viability and metabolic activity as well as osteoblast adhesion. High-resolution techniques allowed to understand that osteoblasts adhered less in the crystalline-rich regions while they preferentially adhere and spread over in the Ca-rich amorphous oxide layer. Also, these surfaces induce higher amounts of IFN-γ cytokine secretion, which is known to regulate inflammatory responses, bone microarchitecture as well as cytoskeleton reorganization and cellular spreading. These surfaces are promising in the context of dental implants, since they might lead to faster osseointegration. - Highlights: • A nanometric-structured calcium-rich amorphous layer with improved bioactivity was produced on titanium surfaces.

  20. Inferring past land use-induced changes in surface albedo from satellite observations: a useful tool to evaluate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Boisier

    2013-03-01

    . Our methodology is a useful tool not only to infer observations-based historical changes in land surface variables impacted by LCC, but also to point out deficiencies of the models. We therefore suggest that it could be more widely developed and used in conjunction with other tools in order to evaluate LSMs.

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Photophysical and Photochemical Tools in Polymer Science : Conformation, Dynamics, Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    In 1980 the New York Academy of Sciences sponsored a three-day conference on luminescence in biological and synthetic macromolecules. After that meeting, Professor Frans DeSchryver and I began to discuss the possibility of organizing a different kind of meeting, with time for both informal and in-depth discussions, to examine certain aspects of the application of fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy to polymers. Our ideas developed through discussions with many others, particularly Professor Lucien Monnerie. By 1983, when we submitted our proposal to NATO for an Advanced Study Institute, the area had grown enormous ly. It is interesting in retrospect to look back on the points which emerged from these discussions as the basis around which the scientific program would be organized and the speakers chosen. We decided early on to focus on applications of these methods to provide information about polymer molecules and polymer systems: The topics would all relate to the conformation and dynamics of macro...

  2. Control theory in physics and other fields of science concepts, tools and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This book covers systematically and in a simple language the mathematical and physical foundations of controlling deterministic and stochastic evolutionary processes in systems with a high degree of complexity. Strong emphasis is placed on concepts, methods and techniques for modelling, assessment and the solution or estimation of control problems in an attempt to understand the large variability of these problems in several branches of physics, chemistry and biology as well as in technology and economics. The main focus of the book is on a clear physical and mathematical understanding of the dynamics and kinetics behind several kinds of control problems and their relation to self-organizing principles in complex systems. The book is a modern introduction and a helpful tool for researchers, engineers as well as post-docs and graduate students interested in an application oriented control theory and related topics.

  3. Exploring science with sound: sonification and the use of sonograms as data analysis tool

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Williams, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Resonances, periodicity, patterns and spectra are well-known notions that play crucial roles in particle physics, and that have always been at the junction between sound/music analysis and scientific exploration. Detecting the shape of a particular energy spectrum, studying the stability of a particle beam in a synchrotron, and separating signals from a noisy background are just a few examples where the connection with sound can be very strong, all sharing the same concepts of oscillations, cycles and frequency. This seminar will focus on analysing data and their relations by translating measurements into audible signals and using the natural capability of the ear to distinguish, characterise and analyse waveform shapes, amplitudes and relations. This process is called data sonification, and one of the main tools to investigate the structure of the sound is the sonogram (sometimes also called a spectrogram). A sonogram is a visual representation of how the spectrum of a certain sound signal changes with time...

  4. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Tools for a Medical Science Based on Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedicine focuses on the biochemistry of the body, while consciousness-based medicine — holistic medicine — focuses on the individual's experiences and conscious whole (Greek: holos, whole. Biomedicine perceives diseases as mechanical errors at the micro level, while consciousness-based medicine perceives diseases as disturbances in attitudes, perceptions, and experiences at the macro level — in the organism as a whole. Thus, consciousness-based medicine is based on the whole individual, while biomedicine is based on its smallest parts, the molecules. These two completely different points of departure make the two forms of medicine very different; they represent two different mind sets and two different frames of reference or medical paradigms. This paper explains the basic tools of clinical holistic medicine based on the life mission theory and holistic process theory, with examples of holistic healing from the holistic medical clinic.

  5. Saliva as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide and immune markers in sport and exercise science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of saliva analysis as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide, and immune markers of sports training. Salivary gland physiology, regarding the regulation and stimulation of saliva secretion, as well as methodological issues including saliva collection, storage and analysis are addressed in this paper. The effects of exercise on saliva composition are then considered. Exercise elicits changes in salivary levels of steroid hormones, immunoglobulins, antimicrobial proteins and enzymes. Cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone can be assessed in saliva, providing a non-invasive option to assess the catabolic and anabolic effects of exercise. Validation studies using blood and salivary measures of steroid hormones are addressed in this paper. Effects of acute exercise and training on salivary immunoglobulins (SIgA, SIgM, SIgG) and salivary antimicrobial proteins, including α-amylase, lysozyme and lactoferrin, are also discussed. Analysis of cortisol and testosterone in saliva may help detect the onset of non-functional overreaching and subsequently may help to prevent the development of overtraining syndrome. Assessment of salivary immunoglobulins and antimicrobial proteins has been shown to successfully represent the effects of exercise on mucosal immunity. Increases in SIgA and antimicrobial proteins concentration and/or secretion rate are associated with acute exercise whereas conversely, decreases have been reported in athletes over a training season leaving the athlete susceptible for upper respiratory tract infections. The measurement of physiological biomarkers in whole saliva can provide a significant tool for assessing the immunological and endocrinological status associated with exercise and training. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface science and electrochemical studies of metal-modified carbides for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas Glenn

    Carbides of the early transition metals have emerged as low-cost catalysts that are active for a wide range of reactions. The surface chemistry of carbides can be altered by modifying the surface with small amounts of admetals. These metal-modified carbides can be effective replacements for Pt-based bimetallic systems, which suffer from the drawbacks of high cost and low thermal stability. In this dissertation, metal-modified carbides were studied for reactions with applications to renewable energy technologies. It is demonstrated that metal-modified carbides possess high activity for alcohol reforming and electrochemical hydrogen production. First, the surface chemistry of carbides towards alcohol decomposition is studied using density functional theory (DFT) and surface science experiments. The Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) was used to calculate the binding energies of alcohols and decomposition intermediates on metal-modified carbides. The calculated binding energies were then correlated to reforming activity determined experimentally using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the case of methanol decomposition, it was found that tungsten monocarbide (WC) selectively cleaved the C-O bond to produce methane. Upon modifying the surface with a single layer of metal such as Ni, Pt, or Rh, the selectivity shifted towards scission of the C-H bonds while leaving the C-O bond intact, producing carbon monoxide (CO) and H2. High resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to examine the bond breaking sequence as a function of temperature. From HREELS, it was shown that the surfaces followed an activity trend of Rh > Ni > Pt. The Au-modified WC surface possessed too low of a methanol binding energy, and molecular desorption of methanol was the most favorable pathway on this surface. Next, the ability of Rh-modified WC to break the C-C bond of C2 and C3 alcohols was demonstrated. HREELS showed that ethanol decomposed through an acetaldehyde

  7. Blogs as learning tools in a high school science class for at-risk learners: An ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Wilson, Cyndy J.

    Learners become at-risk of failure for myriad reasons. Absenteeism and the resulting missed learning is one major reason students become at-risk of failure. Learners consistently in the classroom often participate in conversations about the relevance and/or application of the lessons but high absenteeism, coupled with frequent moves, means losing valuable classroom experiences. Changing schools usually results in different curriculums, books and study sequences. An Internet blog can be a virtual learning tool where learners post questions, thoughts, reflections and new learning, all in the same virtual space they have been using. The familiar blog spot becomes a virtual backpack, never lost in a move. This ethnography will describe the effects of mediated, subject-specific blogging in a high school science class with at-risk learners.

  8. Games As Educational Tools in eARTh Science: MAREOPOLI and THE ENERGY CHALLENGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvani, Sara; Locritani, Marina; di Laura, Francesca; Stroobant, Mascha; Merlino, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    Research and researchers do have an important role in sustainable green and blue economy. It is also clear that outreach activities are fundamental to improve societal perception of Science past and present results and future insights or consequences and that is primary to change people's mentality. This is one of the main goals of the Scientific Dissemination Group (SDG) "La Spezia Gulf of Science", made up by Research Centres, Schools and Cultural associations located in La Spezia (Liguria, Italy). However, communicating scientific results means also improving educational methods: introducing tight relationship with artists (especially graphic designers), can produce unusual approaches and translate concepts in images which everyone can understand also under an emotional point of view. Images have a fundamental role for understanding and learning simple and less simple concepts, for example general public and high School students can be reached by interactive conferences with live speed painting (Locritani et al., 2016), and kids can be involved in interactive games. And games, especially, can reduce learning curves, since playing itself creates a natural forum for exchanging ideas and reflecting on natural phenomena and human impacts outside of class hours. Games, and the entertainment value of play, have the ability to teach and transform (Gobet et al., 2004). In this work we'll present two different games that raised from the collaboration between researchers and artists: MAREOPOLI and THE ENERGY CHALLENGE. MAREOPOLI (The City of Tides) is a simplified adaptation of the famous board game Monopoly, and consist of 36 spaces: 16 important historical and coastal cities having relevant tide phenomena, 8 Unexpected Events spaces (questions are asked on Modern Oceanography), 8 Curious Facts spaces (players receive information on historical records) and 4 corner squares: GO, (Blocked) in Limestone Grotto/Just Visiting, Free Beach Club, and Go to Limestone Grotto

  9. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on tool steel by multiple picosecond laser pulses of different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorčič, Peter, E-mail: peter.gregorcic@fs.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sedlaček, Marko; Podgornik, Bojan [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Reif, Jürgen [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet – BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Low number of differently polarized ps laser pulses is superimposed on tool steel. • Last pulses determine the ripples orientation for single spot and coherent traces. • Previously formed structures are overridden by later incident pulses. • Ripples contrast depends on total exposure, independent on pulses’ polarization. • Weak role of pre-formed structures makes interference scenarios questionable. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are produced on cold work tool steel by irradiation with a low number of picosecond laser pulses. As expected, the ripples, with a period of about 90% of the laser wavelength, are oriented perpendicular to the laser polarization. Subsequent irradiation with the polarization rotated by 45° or 90° results in a corresponding rotation of the ripples. This is visible already with the first pulse and becomes almost complete – erasing the previous orientation – after as few as three pulses. The phenomenon is not only observed for single-spot irradiation but also for writing long coherent traces. The experimental results strongly defy the role of surface plasmon-polaritons as the predominant key to LIPSS formation.

  10. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  11. Biofilm removal technique using sands as a research tool for accessing microbial attachment on surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms have profound impacts on improved survival of the constituent microorganisms in nature. Biofilms were believed to protect constituent microorganisms from sanitizer treatment, provide a more suitable habitat for microorganisms, and become a site for genetic material exchanges between microorganisms. As we realize more about the significance of biofilm, methods used for biofilm study should be consistently developed and evaluated. To determine microbial attachment on surfaces, usually biofilms are grown on substratum surfaces and removed by vortexing with glass beads or scraping. However, scraping is not as effective as vortexing with glass beads. Another approach is direct-agar overlaying which cannot be used with high density biofilm. In this experiment, we compared effectiveness of glass beads (298±28 μm in diameter and sands (width: 221±55 μm and length: 329±118 μm in removing biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by vortexing method. The results suggested that acid-washed sands, which are significantly less inexpensive than glass beads, were as effective as (P>0.05 analytical grade glass beads in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm removal without inhibiting growth of the organism.

  12. New Functional Tools for Antithrombogenic Activity Assessment of Live Surface Glycocalyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrievska, Sashka; Gui, Liqiong; Weyers, Amanda; Lin, Tylee; Cai, Chao; Wu, Wei; Tuggle, Charles T; Sundaram, Sumati; Balestrini, Jenna L; Slattery, David; Tchouta, Lise; Kyriakides, Themis R; Tarbell, John M; Linhardt, Robert J; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-09-01

    It is widely accepted that the presence of a glycosaminoglycan-rich glycocalyx is essential for endothelialized vasculature health; in fact, a damaged or impaired glycocalyx has been demonstrated in many vascular diseases. Currently, there are no methods that characterize glycocalyx functionality, thus limiting investigators' ability to assess the role of the glycocalyx in vascular health. We have developed novel, easy-to-use, in vitro assays that directly quantify live endothelialized surface's functional heparin weights and their anticoagulant capacity to inactivate Factor Xa and thrombin. Using our assays, we characterized 2 commonly used vascular models: native rat aorta and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayer. We determined heparin contents to be ≈10 000 ng/cm(2) on the native aorta and ≈10-fold lower on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Interestingly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrated a 5-fold lower anticoagulation capacity in inactivating both Factor Xa and thrombin relative to native aortas. We verified the validity and accuracy of the novel assays developed in this work using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Our assays are of high relevance in the vascular community because they can be used to establish the antithrombogenic capacity of many different types of surfaces such as vascular grafts and transplants. This work will also advance the capacity for glycocalyx-targeting therapeutics development to treat damaged vasculatures. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Single domain antibodies as a powerful tool for high quality surface plasmon resonance studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio Della Pia

    Full Text Available Single domain antibodies are recombinantly expressed functional antibodies devoid of light chains. These binding elements are derived from heavy chain antibodies found in camelids and offer several distinctive properties for applications in biotechnology such as small size, stability, solubility, and expression in high yields. In this study we demonstrated the potential of using single domain antibodies as capturing molecules in biosensing applications. Single domain antibodies raised against green fluorescent protein were anchored onto biosensor surfaces by using several immobilization strategies based on Ni2+:nitrilotriacetic acid-polyhistidine tag, antibody-antigen, biotin-streptavidin interactions and amine-coupling chemistry. The interaction with the specific target of the single domain antibodies was characterized by surface plasmon resonance. The immobilized single domain antibodies show high affinities for their antigens with KD = 3-6 nM and outperform other antibody partners as capturing molecules facilitating also the data analysis. Furthermore they offer high resistance and stability to a wide range of denaturing agents. These unique biophysical properties and the production of novel single domain antibodies against affinity tags make them particularly attractive for use in biosensing and diagnostic assays.

  14. Tracking changes of river morphology in Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar using earth observations and surface water mapping tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piman, T.; Schellekens, J.; Haag, A.; Donchyts, G.; Apirumanekul, C.; Hlaing, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    River morphology changes is one of the key issues in Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar which cause impacts on navigation, riverine habitats, agriculture lands, communities and livelihoods near the bank of the river. This study is aimed to track the changes in river morphology in the middle reach of Ayeyarwady River over last 30 years from 1984-2014 to improve understanding of riverbank dynamic, erosion and deposition procress. Earth observations including LandSat-7, LandSat-8, Digital Elevation Model from SRTM Plus and, ASTER-2 GoogleMap and Open Street Map were obtained for the study. GIS and remote sensing tools were used to analyze changes in river morphology while surface water mapping tool was applied to determine how the dynamic behaviour of the surface river and effect of river morphology changes. The tool consists of two components: (1) a Google Earth Engine (GEE) javascript or python application that performs image analysis and (2) a user-friendly site/app using Google's appspot.com that exposes the application to the users. The results of this study shown that the fluvial morphology in the middle reach of Ayeyarwady River is continuously changing under the influence of high water flows in particularly from extreme flood events and land use change from mining and deforestation. It was observed that some meandering sections of the riverbank were straightened, which results in the movement of sediment downstream and created new sections of meandering riverbank. Several large islands have formed due to the stabilization by vegetation and is enforced by sedimentation while many small bars were formed and migrated dynamically due to changes in water levels and flow velocity in the wet and dry seasons. The main channel was changed to secondary channel in some sections of the river. This results a constant shift of the navigation route. We also found that some villages were facing riverbank erosion which can force villagers to relocate. The study results demonstrated

  15. Metallic glasses: viable tool materials for the production of surface microstructures in amorphous polymers by micro-hot-embossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henann, David L; Srivastava, Vikas; Taylor, Hayden K; Hale, Melinda R; Hardt, David E; Anand, Lallit

    2009-01-01

    Metallic glasses possess unique mechanical properties which make them attractive materials for fabricating components for a variety of applications. For example, the commercial Zr-based metallic glasses possess high tensile strengths (≈2.0 GPa), good fracture toughnesses (≈10–50 MPa√m) and good wear and corrosion resistances. A particularly important characteristic of metallic glasses is their intrinsic homogeneity to the nanoscale because of the absence of grain boundaries. This characteristic, coupled with their unique mechanical properties, makes them ideal materials for fabricating micron-scale components, or high-aspect-ratio micro-patterned surfaces, which may in turn be used as dies for the hot-embossing of polymeric microfluidic devices. In this paper we consider a commercially available Zr-based metallic glass which has a glass transition temperature of T g ≈ 350 °C and describe the thermoplastic forming of a tool made from this material, which has the (negative) microchannel pattern for a simple microfluidic device. This tool was successfully used to produce the microchannel pattern by micro-hot-embossing of the amorphous polymers poly(methyl methacrylate) (T g ≈ 115 °C) and Zeonex-690R (T g ≈ 136 °C) above their glass transition temperatures. The metallic glass tool was found to be very robust, and it was used to produce hundreds of high-fidelity micron-scale embossed patterns without degradation or failure

  16. Surface and interface sciences of Li-ion batteries. -Research progress in electrode-electrolyte interface-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The application potential of Li-ion batteries is growing as demand increases in different fields at various stages in energy systems, in addition to their conventional role as power sources for portable devices. In particular, applications in electric vehicles and renewable energy storage are increasing for Li-ion batteries. For these applications, improvements in battery performance are necessary. The Li-ion battery produces and stores electric power from the electrochemical redox reactions between the electrode materials. The interface between the electrodes and electrolyte strongly affects the battery performance because the charge transfer causing the electrode redox reaction begins at this interface. Understanding of the surface structure, electronic structure, and chemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface is necessary to improve battery performance. However, the interface is located between the electrode and electrolyte materials, hindering the experimental analysis of the interface; thus, the physical properties and chemical processes have remained poorly understood until recently. Investigations of the physical properties and chemical processes at the interface have been performed using advanced surface science techniques. In this review, current knowledge and future research prospects regarding the electrode-electrolyte interface are described for the further development of Li-ion batteries.

  17. Innovations from the “ivory tower”: Wilhelm Barthlott and the paradigm shift in surface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neinhuis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly about borders that have tremendous influence on our daily life, although many of them exist and act mostly unrecognized. In this article the first objective will be to address more generally the relation between university and society or industry, borders within universities, borders in thinking and the huge amount of misunderstandings and losses resulting from these obvious or hidden borders. In the second part and in more detail, the article will highlight the impact of the research conducted by Wilhelm Barthlott throughout his scientific career during which not only one border was removed, shifted or became more penetrable. Among the various fields of interest not mentioned here (e.g., systematics of Cactaceae, diversity and evolution of epiphytes, the unique natural history of isolated rocky outcrops called inselbergs, or the global distribution of biodiversity, plant surfaces and especially the tremendous diversity of minute structures on leaves, fruits, seeds and other parts of plants represent a common thread through 40 years of scientific career of Wilhelm Barthlott. Based on research that was regarded already old-fashioned in the 1970s and 1980s, systematic botany, results and knowledge were accumulated that, some 20 years later, initiated a fundamental turnover in how surfaces were recognized not only in biology, but even more evident in materials science.

  18. Surface science approach to Pt/carbon model catalysts: XPS, STM and microreactor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, Abdul Md.; Haunold, Thomas; Bukhtiyarov, Andrey V.; Bera, Abhijit; Rameshan, Christoph; Rupprechter, Günther

    2018-05-01

    Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon are an important technological catalyst. A corresponding model catalyst was prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Pt on sputtered HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite). The carbon substrate before and after sputtering as well as the Pt/HOPG system before and after Pt deposition and annealing were examined by XPS and STM. This yielded information on the surface density of defects, which serve as nucleation centres for Pt, and on the size distribution (mean size/height) of the Pt nanoparticles. Two different model catalysts were prepared with mean sizes of 2.0 and 3.6 nm, both turned out to be stable upon UHV-annealing to 300 °C. After transfer into a UHV-compatible flow microreactor and subsequent cleaning in UHV and under mbar pressure, the catalytic activity of the Pt/HOPG model system for ethylene hydrogenation was examined under atmospheric pressure flow conditions. This enabled to determine temperature-dependent conversion rates, turnover frequencies (TOFs) and activation energies. The catalytic results obtained are in line with the characteristics of technological Pt/C, demonstrating the validity of the current surface science based model catalyst approach.

  19. Surface contamination of counting tools after mock dispensing of cyclophosphamide in a simulated outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Bruce W; Lander, Michael J; Christen, Catherine; Redic, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim was to determine if dispensing of cyclophosphamide tablets resulted in accumulated residue on pharmacy counting tools during a simulated outpatient dispensing process. Secondary objectives included determining if cyclophosphamide contamination exceeded a defined threshold level of 1 ng/cm 2 and if a larger number of prescriptions dispensed resulted in increased contamination. Methods Mock prescriptions of 40 cyclophosphamide 50 mg tablets were counted on clean trays in three scenarios using a simulated outpatient pharmacy after assaying five cleaned trays as controls. The three scenarios consisted of five simulated dispensings of one, three, or six prescriptions dispensed per scenario. Wipe samples of trays and spatulas were collected and assayed for all trays, including the five clean trays used as controls. Contamination was defined as an assayed cyclophosphamide level at or above 0.001 ng/cm 2 and levels above 1 ng/cm 2 were considered sufficient to cause risk of human uptake. Mean contamination for each scenario was calculated and compared using one-way analysis of variance. P-values of contamination on trays used to count one, three, and six cyclophosphamide prescriptions was 0.51 ± 0.10 (p=0.0003), 1.02 ± 0.10 (p contamination. Increasing the number of prescriptions dispensed from 1 to 3, 1 to 6, and 3 to 6 counts increased contamination by 0.51 ± 0.15 (p = 0.0140), 1.31 + 0.15 (p contaminates pharmacy counting tools, and an increased number of prescriptions dispensed correlates with increased level of contamination. Counting out three or more prescriptions leads to trays having contamination that surpasses the threshold at which worker exposure may be increased. Pharmacies should consider devoting a separate tray to cyclophosphamide tablets, as cross-contamination could occur with other drugs and the efficacy of decontamination methods is unclear. Employee exposure could be minimized with the use

  20. Advanced Online Survival Analysis Tool for Predictive Modelling in Clinical Data Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Torres, Julio; Subirats, José Luis; Ribelles, Nuria; Urda, Daniel; Franco, Leonardo; Alba, Emilio; Jerez, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    One of the prevailing applications of machine learning is the use of predictive modelling in clinical survival analysis. In this work, we present our view of the current situation of computer tools for survival analysis, stressing the need of transferring the latest results in the field of machine learning to biomedical researchers. We propose a web based software for survival analysis called OSA (Online Survival Analysis), which has been developed as an open access and user friendly option to obtain discrete time, predictive survival models at individual level using machine learning techniques, and to perform standard survival analysis. OSA employs an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based method to produce the predictive survival models. Additionally, the software can easily generate survival and hazard curves with multiple options to personalise the plots, obtain contingency tables from the uploaded data to perform different tests, and fit a Cox regression model from a number of predictor variables. In the Materials and Methods section, we depict the general architecture of the application and introduce the mathematical background of each of the implemented methods. The study concludes with examples of use showing the results obtained with public datasets.

  1. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-12-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  2. Micro patterned surfaces: an effective tool for long term digital holographic microscopy cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mues, Sarah; Lilge, Inga; Schönherr, Holger; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    The major problem of Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) long term live cell imaging is that over time most of the tracked cells move out of the image area and other ones move in. Therefore, most of the cells are lost for the evaluation of individual cellular processes. Here, we present an effective solution for this crucial problem of long-term microscopic live cell analysis. We have generated functionalized slides containing areas of 250 μm per 200 μm. These micropatterned biointerfaces consist of passivating polyaclrylamide brushes (PAAm). Inner areas are backfilled with octadecanthiol (ODT), which allows cell attachment. The fouling properties of these surfaces are highly controllable and therefore the defined areas designed for the size our microscopic image areas were effective in keeping all cells inside the rectangles over the selected imaging period.

  3. Towards a Systematic Screening Tool for Quality Assurance and Semiautomatic Fraud Detection for Images in the Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers, Lars; Wormer, Holger; Ickstadt, Katja

    2017-08-01

    The quality and authenticity of images is essential for data presentation, especially in the life sciences. Questionable images may often be a first indicator for questionable results, too. Therefore, a tool that uses mathematical methods to detect suspicious images in large image archives can be a helpful instrument to improve quality assurance in publications. As a first step towards a systematic screening tool, especially for journal editors and other staff members who are responsible for quality assurance, such as laboratory supervisors, we propose a basic classification of image manipulation. Based on this classification, we developed and explored some simple algorithms to detect copied areas in images. Using an artificial image and two examples of previously published modified images, we apply quantitative methods such as pixel-wise comparison, a nearest neighbor and a variance algorithm to detect copied-and-pasted areas or duplicated images. We show that our algorithms are able to detect some simple types of image alteration, such as copying and pasting background areas. The variance algorithm detects not only identical, but also very similar areas that differ only by brightness. Further types could, in principle, be implemented in a standardized scanning routine. We detected the copied areas in a proven case of image manipulation in Germany and showed the similarity of two images in a retracted paper from the Kato labs, which has been widely discussed on sites such as pubpeer and retraction watch.

  4. Supporting Beginning Teacher Planning and Enactment of Investigation-based Science Discussions: The Design and Use of Tools within Practice-based Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kademian, Sylvie M.

    Current reform efforts prioritize science instruction that provides opportunities for students to engage in productive talk about scientific phenomena. Given the challenges teachers face enacting instruction that integrates science practices and science content, beginning teachers need support to develop the knowledge and teaching practices required to teach reform-oriented science lessons. Practice-based teacher education shows potential for supporting beginning teachers while they are learning to teach in this way. However, little is known about how beginning elementary teachers draw upon the types of support and tools associated with practice-based teacher education to learn to successfully enact this type of instruction. This dissertation addresses this gap by investigating how a practice-based science methods course using a suite of teacher educator-provided tools can support beginning teachers' planning and enactment of investigation-based science lessons. Using qualitative case study methodologies, this study drew on video-records, lesson plans, class assignments, and surveys from one cohort of 22 pre-service teachers (called interns in this study) enrolled in a year-long elementary education master of the arts and teaching certification program. Six focal interns were also interviewed at multiple time-points during the methods course. Similarities existed across the types of tools and teaching practices interns used most frequently to plan and enact investigation-based discussions. For the focal interns, use of four synergistic teaching practices throughout the lesson enactments (including consideration of students' initial ideas; use of open-ended questions to elicit, extend, and challenge ideas; connecting across students' ideas and the disciplinary core ideas; and use of a representation to organize and highlight students' ideas) appeared to lead to increased opportunities for students to share their ideas and engage in data analysis, argumentation and

  5. Surface Layer States of Worn Uncoated and TiN-Coated WC/Co-Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools after Dry Plain Turning of Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kümmel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing wear mechanisms and developments of surface layers in WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts is of great importance for metal-cutting manufacturing. By knowing relevant processes within the surface layers of cutting tools during machining the choice of machining parameters can be influenced to get less wear and high tool life of the cutting tool. Tool wear obviously influences tool life and surface integrity of the workpiece (residual stresses, surface quality, work hardening, etc., so the choice of optimised process parameters is of great relevance. Vapour-deposited coatings on WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts are known to improve machining performance and tool life, but the mechanisms behind these improvements are not fully understood. The interaction between commercial TiN-coated and uncoated WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts and a normalised SAE 1045 steel workpiece was investigated during a dry plain turning operation with constant material removal under varied machining parameters. Tool wear was assessed by light-optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and EDX analysis. The state of surface layer was investigated by metallographic sectioning. Microstructural changes and material transfer due to tribological processes in the cutting zone were examined by SEM and EDX analyses.

  6. 'Citizen science' recording of fossils by adapting existing computer-based biodiversity recording tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    Biodiversity recording activities have been greatly enhanced by the emergence of online schemes and smartphone applications for recording and sharing data about a wide variety of flora and fauna. As a palaeobiologist, one of the areas of research I have been heavily involved in is the question of whether the amount of rock available to sample acts as a bias on our estimates of biodiversity through time. Although great progress has been made on this question over the past ten years by a number of researchers, I still think palaeontology has not followed the lead offered by the 'citizen science' revolution in studies of extant biodiversity. By constructing clearly structured surveys with online data collection support, it should be possible to collect field data on the occurrence of fossils at the scale of individual exposures, which are needed to test competing hypotheses about these effects at relatively small spatial scales. Such data collection would be hard to justify for universities and museums with limited personnel but a co-ordinated citizen science programme would be capable of delivering such a programme. Data collection could be based on the MacKinnon's Lists method, used in rapid conservation assessment work. It relies on observers collecting lists of a fixed length (e.g. 10 species long) but what is important is that it focuses on getting observers to ignore sightings of the same species until that list is complete. This overcomes the problem of 'common taxa being commonly recorded' and encourages observers to seek out and identify the rarer taxa. This gives a targeted but finite task. Rather than removing fossils, participants would be encouraged to take photographs to share via a recording website. The success of iSpot, which allows users to upload photos of plants and animals for other users to help with identifications, offers a model for overcoming the problems of identifying fossils, which can often look nothing like the examples illustrated in

  7. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou

    2013-05-01

    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements of this complexity, but to many students, these elements can be akin to locked doors. This study presents MyVLS-Reader, which focuses on unlocking the first of these doors-vocabulary-while assisting in reading. With explicit vocabulary learning, students learn and memorize individual vocabulary, but the context is lost if the depth of learning discards context. In implicit vocabulary learning, students acquire vocabulary through repeated exposure to contexts, but repeated encounters with new words are required. Few e-learning systems combine both vocabulary-learning approaches. MyVLS-Reader achieves such synergy by (1) using a keyword setting to provide context-matched vocabulary explanation while reading and (2) embedding multiple learning choices, such as keyword setting, the review and memorization of explicit vocabulary, and the option to ask instructors. This study includes two rounds of evaluations: (1) an evaluation of the learning achievements of control and treatment groups and (2) a quantitative and qualitative investigation of perceptions regarding the use of MyVLS-Reader. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment group developed a better vocabulary than the control group in significantly less time. The use of MyVLS-Reader also slightly improved higher-order thinking skills. This result suggests that MyVLS-Reader can effective assist students in building their vocabulary while reading.

  8. “ Metabolic Ride” - One Concept Evaluation Tool For Metabolic Biochemistry Teaching For Graduate Students In Biological Sciences And Related Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Gaeta et al.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry subject in general has a high degree of difficulty and complexity. Therefore, application of playful and creative games as teaching methodology has spread in various disciplines of life sciences. "METABOLIC RIDE" board game is a conceptual and perceptual evaluation tool for metabolic biochemistry teaching, aiming to review concepts transmitted in classroom, promoting a competitive challenge to students without denying tools that are at their disposal, stimulating their skills. OBJECTIVES. Correlate metabolic routes importance and their interconnections to establish that metabolic pathways are interconnected, such as a railway map. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This game was developed based on a board game Ticket to Ride. Players purchase enzyme cards, which must be used to claim metabolic routes. The goal is to complete the route previously drawn to earn points and the player who builds the longest continuous route will also earn bonus points. In each turn, players can: buy more card, claim a route or pick up additional destination tickets. The game should be played in groups of 5 to 6 students in 6 to 8 groups. Previously there will be theoretical classes. The activity was designed to last 4 hours. Use of didatic books and internet by players are encouraged. RESULTS. This game proved to be an excellent tool for student’s complementary evaluation, which stimulated teamwork and competitiveness within classroom, which allowed to analyze student’s perception regarding metabolic subjects. On the other hand, for teacher and students participating in compulsory traineeship program this game demonstrated to students new ways to approach complex subjects in biochemistry using creativity. CONCLUSION: Overall, students had a good impression of “Metabolic Ride” game since it helped to secure and administer metabolism subject in a competitive and team work way.

  9. Enhancing Access to and Use of NASA Earth Sciences Data via CUAHSI-HIS (Hydrologic Information System) and Other Hydrologic Community Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, H.; Strub, R.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B.; Mocko, D. M.; Maidment, D. R.; Whiteaker, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    The way NASA earth sciences data are typically archived (by time steps, one step per file, often containing multiple variables) is not optimal for their access by the hydrologic community, particularly if the data volume and/or number of data files are large. To enhance the access to and use of these NASA data, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) adopted two approaches, in a project supported by the NASA ACCESS Program. The first is to optimally reorganize two large hydrological data sets for more efficient access, as time series, and to integrate the time series data (aka 'data rods') into hydrologic community tools, such as CUAHSI-HIS, EPA-BASINS, and Esri-ArcGIS. This effort has thus far resulted in the reorganization and archive (as data rods) of the following variables from the North American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS and GLDAS, respectively): precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, runoff, near-surface specific humidity, potential evaporation, soil temperature, near surface air temperature, and near-surface wind. The second approach is to leverage the NASA Simple Subset Wizard (SSW), which was developed to unite data search and subsetters at various NASA EOSDIS data centers into a single, simple, seamless process. Data accessed via SSW are converted to time series before being made available via Web service. Leveraging SSW makes all data accessible via SSW potentially available to HIS users, which increases the number of data sets available as time series beyond those available as data rods. Thus far, a set of selected variables from the NASA Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Land Surface (MERRA-Land) data set has been integrated into CUAHSI-HIS, including evaporation, land surface temperature, runoff, soil moisture, soil temperature, precipitation, and transpiration. All data integration into these tools has been conducted in collaboration with their

  10. How Philadelphia is Integrating Climate Science and Policy: Changing Capital Planning Processes and Developing Flood-Depth Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, C.; Dix, B.; Choate, A.; Wong, A.; Asam, S.; Schultz, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    Policy makers can implement more effective climate change adaptation programs if they are provided with two tools: accessible information on the impacts that they need to prepare for, and clear guidance on how to integrate climate change considerations into their work. This presentation will highlight recent and ongoing efforts at the City of Philadelphia to integrate climate science into their decision-making. These efforts include developing a climate change information visualization tool, climate change risk assessments across the city, and processes to integrate climate change into routine planning and budgeting practices. The goal of these efforts is to make climate change science highly targeted to decision maker needs, non-political, easily accessible, and actionable. While sea level rise inundation maps have been available to communities for years, the maps do not effectively communicate how the design of a building or a piece of infrastructure would need to be modified to protect it. The Philadelphia Flood Risk Viewer is an interactive planning tool that allows Philadelphia to identify projected depths of flooding for any location within the City, for a variety of sea level rise and storm surge scenarios. Users can also determine whether a location is located in a FEMA floodplain. By having access to information on the projected depth of flooding at a given location, the City can determine what flood protection measures may be effective, or even inform the long-term viability of developing a particular area. With an understanding of climate vulnerabilities, cities have the opportunity to make smart, climate-resilient investments with their capital budgets that will yield multiple benefits for years to come. Few, however, have established protocols for doing so. Philadelphia, with support from ICF, developed a guidance document that identifies recommendations for integrating climate change considerations throughout the Capital Program and capital budgeting

  11. Cytopede: a three-dimensional tool for modeling cell motility on a flat surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herant, Marc; Dembo, Micah

    2010-12-01

    When cultured on flat surfaces, fibroblasts and many other cells spread to form thin lamellar sheets. Motion then occurs by extension of the sheet at the leading edge and retraction at the trailing edge. Comprehensive quantitative models of these phenomena have so far been lacking and to address this need, we have designed a three-dimensional code called Cytopede specialized for the simulation of the mechanical and signaling behavior of plated cells. Under assumptions by which the cytosol and the cytoskeleton are treated from a continuum mechanical perspective, Cytopede uses the finite element method to solve mass and momentum equations for each phase, and thus determine the time evolution of cellular models. We present the physical concepts that underlie Cytopede together with the algorithms used for their implementation. We then validate the approach by a computation of the spread of a viscous sessile droplet. Finally, to exemplify how Cytopede enables the testing of ideas about cell mechanics, we simulate a simple fibroblast model. We show how Cytopede allows computation, not only of basic characteristics of shape and velocity, but also of maps of cell thickness, cytoskeletal density, cytoskeletal flow, and substratum tractions that are readily compared with experimental data.

  12. LASSO-ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  13. LASSO—ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S.; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-06-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  14. EPOS Multi-Scale Laboratory platform: a long-term reference tool for experimental Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Tesei, Telemaco; Funiciello, Francesca; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Rosenau, Matthias; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Lange, Otto; Calignano, Elisa; Spiers, Chris; Drury, Martin; Willingshofer, Ernst; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    With continuous progress on scientific research, a large amount of datasets has been and will be produced. The data access and sharing along with their storage and homogenization within a unique and coherent framework is a new challenge for the whole scientific community. This is particularly emphasized for geo-scientific laboratories, encompassing the most diverse Earth Science disciplines and typology of data. To this aim the "Multiscale Laboratories" Work Package (WP16), operating in the framework of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), is developing a virtual platform of geo-scientific data and services for the worldwide community of laboratories. This long-term project aims at merging the top class multidisciplinary laboratories in Geoscience into a coherent and collaborative network, facilitating the standardization of virtual access to data, data products and software. This will help our community to evolve beyond the stage in which most of data produced by the different laboratories are available only within the related scholarly publications (often as print-version only) or they remain unpublished and inaccessible on local devices. The EPOS multi-scale laboratory platform will provide the possibility to easily share and discover data by means of open access, DOI-referenced, online data publication including long-term storage, managing and curation services and to set up a cohesive community of laboratories. The WP16 is starting with three pilot cases laboratories: (1) rock physics, (2) palaeomagnetic, and (3) analogue modelling. As a proof of concept, first analogue modelling datasets have been published via GFZ Data Services (http://doidb.wdc-terra.org/search/public/ui?&sort=updated+desc&q=epos). The datasets include rock analogue material properties (e.g. friction data, rheology data, SEM imagery), as well as supplementary figures, images and movies from experiments on tectonic processes. A metadata catalogue tailored to the specific communities

  15. Imaging techniques in clay sciences: a key tool to go a step further

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinet, J.C.; Michau, N.; Schaefer, T.

    2012-01-01

    the need to study microstructure of clay-rocks and clay based materials from multi-scale techniques and multiple scientific disciplines. Nevertheless at the end of the 90's, several scientific and/or technological bottlenecks, like the imaging the clays in 3D, limited our capacity to bridge small scale processes to macro-scale behaviors and properties. Over the last decade, R and D programs on nuclear waste disposal have tackled many issues to go further in our understanding of clays. Through different results and current studies, we have reviewed various developments and improvements on imaging techniques and their applications on clay-rocks and clay based materials currently under investigations. The presentation will address successively the different questions asked at each step, from the acquisition to the use of the data: - improvement and development of sampling and microstructure preservation methods to image undisturbed samples, - emergence of 3D techniques (X-ray microtomography, FIB/SEM...) and their application to clay based materials and clay rocks, - improvement of image acquisition and treatment of 2D/3D images, - development of multi-scale methodologies, - cross-cutting between imaging and analytical techniques to get quantitative information on pore and mineral spatial distribution, - imaging in 2D/3D the microstructure of clay materials under THMC conditions and environmental conditions, - extraction of quantitative information from image analysis using statistical approaches or cross-correlation to quantitative techniques, - correlation between microstructure characteristic parameters and macroscopic properties, - modeling of multi-scale THMC processes using data extracted from images. Conclusions drawn up from this review show up that imaging techniques have progressively turned into an essential tool to support THMC experimental or numerical studies in a sense that they have gradually evolved from a qualitative observation mean to a quantitative

  16. Controlled source radiomagnetotellurics: A tool for near surface investigations in remote regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraev, Alexander; Simakov, Alexander; Shlykov, Arseny; Tezkan, Bülent

    2017-11-01

    In the course of near surface measurements, we investigated the application of the controlled source radiomagnetotelluric (CSRMT) sounding method. The used equipment RMT-C includes a five-channel recorder (frequency range 1-1000 kHz), two electric and three magnetic sensors, and a transmitter (1 kW) with a horizontal electric dipole as a source. The electric field measurements are carried out with ungrounded lines thus enabling surveys in the wintertime on snow and ice, and in the summertime in conditions adverse to the groundings. The use of electric dipole as a source ensures operating in a wide frequency range at a significant distance (up to 3-4 km) from the source. Measurements of basic signals and their odd sub harmonics raise the efficiency of the field surveys. For the covering of the full frequency range 1-1000 kHz, three basic frequencies are usually transmitted; each one is accompanied by 8-12 sub harmonics. This provides a high rate of measurements, i.e. about 70 sounding stations per day - 10 times faster than by the vertical electric sounding (VES) method. The CSRMT method offers the possibility to work in the far-field zone of the controlled source where the plane wave approximation of the primary field can be used. For the analysis of the high-frequency field of the electric dipole, an approach is used considering quasi-stationary and wave zones of the source. Features of the electromagnetic field are analyzed by taking into account displacement currents in the air. In the wave zone, at a certain distance from the source (tens to hundreds of meters), field components are characterized by a number of differences compared to a quasi-stationary zone (slower drop of the field's amplitudes, change of the directional diagram of the source, appearance of the ellipticity of polarization of electric and magnetic fields). The CSRMT method is intended for the application in remote regions where surveys by the standard RMT method could only use Very Low

  17. Combining Field and Modeling Tools As an Approach to Assess Cumulative Surface Erosion in Alberta Eastern Slopes and Foothills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A.; Wagner, M. J.; Hirshfield, F.; Howard, M.; Silins, U.; Benda, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is a large province with diverse forested landscapes and heavy industrial, range and recreation use. Hillslopes are generally stable but the cumulative surface erosion from bare areas (e.g. roads, well pad, trails, burns and pipelines) is a major concern for downstream water users, aquatic ecology and stream habitat. Most streams are not exhibiting issues from additional coarse soil (e.g. obvious changes to geomorphology) however, soils with high proportion of fines and phosphorus have been attributed to long lasting aquatic ecology impacts and associated downstream water quality issues. For this project we take a watershed scale approach to determine if we can reduce field effort by using high quality digital terrain data available for most of Alberta combined with tools such as the Geomorphic Road Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) and landscape scale GIS assessment and modeling tools such as NetMap. We examine two contrasting regions of Alberta: (1) a tributary of the Oldman River in southwest Alberta that has steep topography, intense storms and heavy motorized recreation from the neighboring 1.5 Million people, and (2) the Foothills area that has fine lacustrine soil, low topography and extremely heavy industrial activity from energy, mining and forestry. We present the initial results of field data combined with GIS analysis for the eastern slopes as part of a larger project that is assessing these tools in represented end member watersheds for forested areas within the foothills and eastern slopes region (area of Alberta where watersheds have meaningful topography). Initial results suggest that GIS and associated modeling are very useful in providing rapid direction for field campaigns to refine the level of uncertainty, make prescriptive field plans and will likely be platforms that can track changes in predicated watershed scale erosion rates through time.

  18. Microstructure and selected properties of hot-work tool steel with PVD coatings after laser surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiak, Marcin; Dobrzanski, Leszek A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the effect of HPD laser treatment on the microstructure and selected properties of the PVD CrN, (Ti,Al) and Ti(C,N) coatings deposited onto hot-work tool steel substrates. The microstructure and surface topography of the investigated samples are characteristic of the diversified morphology connected with the applied laser beam power. Employment of laser beam at 0.7 kW power to the laser treatment of samples with Ti(C,N) coatings causes clear coating adhesion growth because of the diffusive processes induced by heat release. Because of the higher value of the (Ti,Al)N absorption coefficient one can state that the observed substrate materials change and finally coatings destruction in case of those samples is the most noticeable. The moderate effect of the laser beam treatment of the hot-work tool steel with the PVD coating was observed for CrN coatings. However, for laser beam power above 0.5 kW differences in the thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate materials and coatings generate coating crackings

  19. The analysis of mass and energy transfer from a surface by means of a physical model conceived as a teaching tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peressotti, A.; Zerbi, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Ham, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    A physical model representing an evapotranspirating field on a scale 1:100 is described. The model, having a moderate cost, was devised as a teaching tool for agronomy and agrometeorology classes; it permits the measurement and the continuous monitoring of the parameters involved in mass and energy transfer over an evaporating surface (radiation, turbulence, temperature of the air and of the surface, heat fluxes, vapor pressure gradients). The physical characteristics of the surface can be changed to simulate different situations of a cultivated field. The surface resistance is calculated by the measurement of the Bowen ratio and directly from the measurement of the surface temperature [it

  20. PECULIAR FEATURES OF MACHINING MARKS FORMATION ON SURFACE ОF TITANIUM SPECIMEN WITH SINGLE ELECTRO CONTACT ACTION OF WIRE ELECTRODE-TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of shape and geometry parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen with a single electro contact action of a wire electrode-tool. A description of the developed unit and methodology for execution of experimental investigations has been given in the paper. The paper provides and analyzes experimentally obtained data showing the effect of conditions and modes of single electro contact action of wire tool-electrode on the shape and geometrical parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen. It is shown that the formation of these traces occurs in the context of joint action of both the electrical erosion and mechanical action of the working part of the wire electrode-tool on the surface of the titanium specimen that expands technological capabilities of electro contact treatment while  solving problems associated with targeted modification of the original work-piece surfaces.