WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface runoff groundwater

  1. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater-surface runoff interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall-runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, "Ernies" (control, fully forested) and "Lemon" (54% cleared) are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while "Salmon" (control, fully forested) and "Wights" (100% cleared) are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall-runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i) immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii) through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i) an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii) a transient stream zone store, (ii) a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv) a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and predicted

  2. Feedbacks Between Shallow Groundwater Dynamics and Surface Topography on Runoff Generation in Flat Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Willemijn M.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.

    2017-12-01

    In winter, saturation excess (SE) ponding is observed regularly in temperate lowland regions. Surface runoff dynamics are controlled by small topographical features that are unaccounted for in hydrological models. To better understand storage and routing effects of small-scale topography and their interaction with shallow groundwater under SE conditions, we developed a model of reduced complexity to investigate SE runoff generation, emphasizing feedbacks between shallow groundwater dynamics and mesotopography. The dynamic specific yield affected unsaturated zone water storage, causing rapid switches between negative and positive head and a flatter groundwater mound than predicted by analytical agrohydrological models. Accordingly, saturated areas were larger and local groundwater fluxes smaller than predicted, leading to surface runoff generation. Mesotopographic features routed water over larger distances, providing a feedback mechanism that amplified changes to the shape of the groundwater mound. This in turn enhanced runoff generation, but whether it also resulted in runoff events depended on the geometry and location of the depressions. Whereas conditions favorable to runoff generation may abound during winter, these feedbacks profoundly reduce the predictability of SE runoff: statistically identical rainfall series may result in completely different runoff generation. The model results indicate that waterlogged areas in any given rainfall event are larger than those predicted by current analytical groundwater models used for drainage design. This change in the groundwater mound extent has implications for crop growth and damage assessments.

  3. Groundwater Recharge Rates and Surface Runoff Response to Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Semi-arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuor, Steven; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Guzha, Alphonce; Rufino, Mariana; Pelster, David; Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Conclusive evidence and understanding of the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) on both groundwater recharge and surface runoff is critical for effective management of water resources in semi-arid region as those heavily depend on groundwater resources. However, there is limited quantitative evidence on how changes to LULC in semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions affect the subsurface components of the hydrologic cycle, particularly groundwater recharge. In this study, we reviewed a total of 27 studies (2 modelling and 25 experimental), which reported on pre- and post-land use change groundwater recharge or surface runoff magnitude, and thus allowed to quantify the response of groundwater recharge rates and runoff to LULC. Restoration of bare land induces a decrease in groundwater recharge from 42 % of precipitation to between 6 and 12 % depending on the final LULC. If forests are cleared for rangelands, groundwater recharge increases by 7.8 ± 12.6 %, while conversion to cropland or grassland results in increases of 3.4 ± 2.5 and 4.4 ± 3.3 %, respectively. Rehabilitation of bare land to cropland results in surface runoff reductions of between 5.2 and 7.3 %. The conversion of forest vegetation to managed LULC shows an increase in surface runoff from 1 to 14.1 % depending on the final LULC. Surface runoff is reduced from 2.5 to 1.1 % when grassland is converted to forest vegetation. While there is general consistency in the results from the selected case studies, we conclude that there are few experimental studies that have been conducted in tropical and subtropical semi-arid regions, despite that many people rely heavily on groundwater for their livelihoods. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase the body of quantitative evidence given the pressure of growing human population and climate change on water resources in the region.

  4. Potential Groundwater Recharge from the Infiltration of Surface Runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waichler, Scott R.

    2005-01-01

    Runoff from Cold and Dry Creeks may provide an important source of groundwater recharge on the Hanford Site. This report presents estimates of total volume and distribution of such recharge from extreme precipitation events. Estimates were derived using a simple approach that combined the Soil Conservation Service curve number runoff method and an exponential-decay channel infiltration model. Fifteen-minute streamflow data from four gaging stations, and hourly precipitation data from one climate station, were used to compute curve numbers and calibrate the infiltration model. All data were from several storms occurring during January 1995. Design storm precipitation depths ranging from 1.6 to 2.7 inches were applied with computed curve numbers to produce total runoff/recharge of 7,700 to 15,900 ac-ft, or approximately 10 times the average annual rate from this recharge source as determined in a previous study. Approximately two-thirds of the simulated recharge occurred in the lower stream reaches contained in the broad alluvial valley that parallels State Highway 240 near the Hanford 200 Area

  5. Potential Groundwater Recharge from the Infiltration of Surface Runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.

    2005-12-13

    Runoff from Cold and Dry Creeks may provide an important source of groundwater recharge on the Hanford Site. This report presents estimates of total volume and distribution of such recharge from extreme precipitation events. Estimates were derived using a simple approach that combined the Soil Conservation Service curve number runoff method and an exponential-decay channel infiltration model. Fifteen-minute streamflow data from four gaging stations, and hourly precipitation data from one climate station, were used to compute curve numbers and calibrate the infiltration model. All data were from several storms occurring during January 1995. Design storm precipitation depths ranging from 1.6 to 2.7 inches were applied with computed curve numbers to produce total runoff/recharge of 7,700 to 15,900 ac-ft, or approximately 10 times the average annual rate from this recharge source as determined in a previous study. Approximately two-thirds of the simulated recharge occurred in the lower stream reaches contained in the broad alluvial valley that parallels State Highway 240 near the Hanford 200 Area.

  6. Highway deicing salt dynamic runoff to surface water and subsequent infiltration to groundwater during severe UK winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Cuthbert, Mark O; Gamble, Richard; Connon, Lucy E; Pearson, Andrew; Shepley, Martin G; Davis, John

    2016-09-15

    groundwater resource management, highway salt application practice, surface-water - ecosystem management, and decision making on highway drainage to ground. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating the tritium input to groundwater from wine samples: Groundwater and direct run-off contribution to Central European surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roether, W.

    1967-01-01

    yearly average of precipitation. This is reflected also by river measurements, which in the absence of a direct run-off contribution, show a surprisingly low tritium content. The Weser river, which has its catchment area in the hilly districts and the lowlands of Northern Germany, is an example of dependence on large groundwater bodies and shows large fluctuations in tritium concentration correlated with rainfall. These fluctuations originate from the varying ratio of direct run-off to groundwater contribution, the direct run-off being much higher in tritium than the groundwater during the period of investigation (1963-65). The minimum tritium values for the Weser show that the groundwater contributions in 1964 had an average level as low as, or lower than 150 T.U. Fluctuations in the tritium concentration of the Alpenrhein, the main inflow of Lake Constance, are relatively small. This is obviously due to the fact that in this case the groundwater draining to the river is replaced fast enough to keep the concentrations of direct run-off and groundwater closely similar. Lake Constance, which is layered in summer and mixed in winter, was followed up in its response to the increased atmospheric tritium levels of recent years. The information on internal mixing of the lake thus obtained is compared to the mixing parameters obtained by other methods. The deep-water activity increased from 150 to 450 T.U. between 1963 and 1965. (author)

  8. GSFLOW - Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The need to assess the effects of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow requires the development of models that couple two or more components of the hydrologic cycle. An integrated hydrologic model called GSFLOW (Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The new model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW). Additional model components were developed, and existing components were modified, to facilitate integration of the models. Methods were developed to route flow among the PRMS Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) and between the HRUs and the MODFLOW finite-difference cells. This report describes the organization, concepts, design, and mathematical formulation of all GSFLOW model components. An important aspect of the integrated model design is its ability to conserve water mass and to provide comprehensive water budgets for a location of interest. This report includes descriptions of how water budgets are calculated for the integrated model and for individual model components. GSFLOW provides a robust modeling system for simulating flow through the hydrologic cycle, while allowing for future enhancements to incorporate other simulation techniques.

  9. A method of determining surface runoff by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Whelan; Lemuel E. Miller; John B. Cavallero

    1952-01-01

    To determine the effects of watershed management on flood runoff, one must make a reliable estimate of how much the surface runoff can be reduced by a land-use program. Since surface runoff is the difference between precipitation and the amount of water that soaks into the soil, such an estimate must be based on the infiltration capacity of the soil.

  10. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater–surface runoff interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall–runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, 'Ernies' (control, fully forested and 'Lemon' (54% cleared are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while 'Salmon' (control, fully forested and 'Wights' (100% cleared are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall–runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii a transient stream zone store, (ii a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and

  11. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  12. Surface runoff in the Itaim Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a work done in the Itaim watershed at Taubaté, SP, and had the objective of estimating the surface runoff based on the Curve-Number (CN method in area with vegetation cover of grassland (Brachiaria Decumbens, that prevails in this watershed. The surface runoff was estimated using three different methods: 1st values of accumulated Infiltration (IAc obtained in the field were used, considered as the Potential Infiltration (S, which varied from 15.37 mm to 51.88 mm with an average value of 23.46 mm. With those measured infiltration rates and using the maximum precipitation values for Taubaté, SP, with duration time of 3 hours: P = 54.4; 70.3; 80.8; 86.7; 90.9; 94.1 and 103.9 mm, respectively, for the return times, Tr = 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 years, the following values of surface runoff were generated: 34.83; 49.33; 59.14; 64.71; 68.69; 71.73 and 81.10 mm, respectively; In the 2nd method it was considered that the prevailing vegetation cover of the watershed was Dirty Pasture (Pasture with regrowth of natural vegetation and therefore, a value of CN = 75 was used and generated a potential infiltration, S = 84,7 mm and resulted in surface runoff values that varied from 11 to 44 mm; In the 3rd method, the value of CN was considered equal to 66.57. This value was calculated weighting the contribution of all land use cover classes of the watershed, and as a result a higher value of potential infiltration, S = 127 mm, was obtained. Consequently, the surface runoff values were 5.33; 11.64; 16.72; 19.83; 22.16; 23.98 and 29.83 mm, respectively. Therefore, the comparison with the results obtained by the two Curve-Number methods (conventional and weighted allowed to be concluded that the Curve-Number method applied in a conventional way underestimated the surface runoff in the studied area. However, results indicate that it is possible to use this method for surface runoff estimates as long as adjustments based on potential

  13. Experimental study on soluble chemical transfer to surface runoff from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juxiu; Yang, Jinzhong; Hu, Bill X; Sun, Huaiwei

    2016-10-01

    Prevention of chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff, under condition of irrigation and subsurface drainage, would improve surface water quality. In this paper, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of various soil and hydraulic factors on chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff. The factors include maximum depth of ponding water on soil surface, initial volumetric water content of soil, depth of soil with low porosity, type or texture of soil and condition of drainage. In the experiments, two soils, sand and loam, mixed with different quantities of soluble KCl were filled in the sandboxes and prepared under different initial saturated conditions. Simulated rainfall induced surface runoff are operated in the soils, and various ponding water depths on soil surface are simulated. Flow rates and KCl concentration of surface runoff are measured during the experiments. The following conclusions are made from the study results: (1) KCl concentration in surface runoff water would decrease with the increase of the maximum depth of ponding water on soil surface; (2) KCl concentration in surface runoff water would increase with the increase of initial volumetric water content in the soil; (3) smaller depth of soil with less porosity or deeper depth of soil with larger porosity leads to less KCl transfer to surface runoff; (4) the soil with finer texture, such as loam, could keep more fertilizer in soil, which will result in more KCl concentration in surface runoff; and (5) good subsurface drainage condition will increase the infiltration and drainage rates during rainfall event and will decrease KCl concentration in surface runoff. Therefore, it is necessary to reuse drained fertile water effectively during rainfall, without polluting groundwater. These study results should be considered in agriculture management to reduce soluble chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff for reducing non-point sources pollution.

  14. The development and evaluation of new runoff parameterization representations coupled with Noah Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Zhang, W.; Xu, J.

    2011-12-01

    As a key component of the global water cycle, runoff plays an important role in earth climate system by affecting the land surface water and energy balance. Realistic runoff parameterization within land surface model (LSM) is significant for accurate land surface modeling and numerical weather and climate prediction. Hence, optimization and refinement of runoff formulation in LSM can further improve model predictive capability of surface-to-atmosphere fluxes which influences the complex interactions between the land surface and atmosphere. Moreover, the performance of runoff simulation in LSM would essential to drought and flood prediction and warning. In this study, a new runoff parameterization named XXT (Xin'anjiang x TOPMODEL) was developed by introducing the water table depth into the soil moisture storage capacity distribution curve (SMSCC) from Xin'anjiang model for surface runoff calculation improvement and then integrating with a TOPMODEL-based groundwater scheme. Several studies had already found a strong correlation between the water table depth and land surface processes. In this runoff parameterization, the dynamic variation of surface and subsurface runoff calculation is connected in a systematic way through the change of water table depth. The XXT runoff parameterization was calibrated and validated with datasets both from observation and Weather Research & Forecasting model (WRF) outputs, the results with high Nash-efficiency coefficient indicated that it has reliable capability of runoff simulation in different climate regions. After model test, the XXT runoff parameterization is coupled with the unified Noah LSM 3.2 instead of simple water balance model (SWB) in order to alleviate the runoff simulating bias which may lead to poor energy partition and evaporation. The impact of XXT is investigated through application of a whole year (1998) simulation at surface flux site of Champaign, Illinois (40.01°N, 88.37°W). The results show that Noah

  15. Surface runoff and phosphorus (P) loss from bamboo (Phyllostachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... The average bioavailable phosphorus (BAP) concentration of the runoff was 0.23 mg/l and the various phosphorus ... Key words: Phyllostachys pubescens, ecosystem, surface runoff, phosphorus (P) loss. INTRODUCTION .... runoff samples were used for total P (TP) determination following perchloric acid ...

  16. Integrated simulation of runoff and groundwater in forest wetland watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-wei CHENG

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A Distributed Forest Wetland Hydrologic Model (DFWHM was constructed and used to examine water dynamics in the different climates of three different watersheds (a cold region, a sub-tropic region, and a large-scale watershed. A phenological index was used to represent the seasonal and species changes of the tree canopy while processes of snow packing, soil freezing, and snow and ice thawing were also included in the simulation. In the cold region, the simulated fall of the groundwater level in winter due to soil freezing and rise in spring due to snow and ice melting compare well with the observed data. Because the evapotranspiration and interaction of surface water and groundwater are included in the model, the modeled seasonal trend of the groundwater level in the sub-tropic region is in agreement with observations. The comparison between modeled and observed hydrographs indicates that the simulations in the large-scale watershed managed to capture the water dynamics in unsaturated and saturated zones.

  17. Integrated simulation of runoff and groundwater in forest wetland watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Genwei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A Distributed Forest Wetland Hydrologic Model (DFWHM was constructed and used to examine water dynamics in the different climates of three different watersheds (a cold region, a sub-tropic region, and a large-scale watershed. A phenological index was used to represent the seasonal and species changes of the tree canopy while processes of snow packing, soil freezing, and snow and ice thawing were also included in the simulation. In the cold region, the simulated fall of the groundwater level in winter due to soil freezing and rise in spring due to snow and ice melting compare well with the observed data. Because the evapotranspiration and interaction of surface water and groundwater are included in the model, the modeled seasonal trend of the groundwater level in the sub-tropic region is in agreement with observations. The comparison between modeled and observed hydrographs indicates that the simulations in the large-scale watershed managed to capture the water dynamics in unsaturated and saturated zones.

  18. Estimation of groundwater contribution in runoff from small agricultural dominated catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Johannes; Jansons, Viesturs; Lagzdiņš, Ainis

    2013-04-01

    Under poor natural drainage condition, agricultural land has to be provided with subsurface drainage systems to discharge excess water from the rootzone, thereby guaranteeing optimal cropping conditions during the growing season, while in addition facilitating land preparation. Subsurface drainage systems can significantly contribute in runoff and nutrient loss generation. A secondary effect of drainage systems is that it reduces surface runoff and thereby erosion and phosphorus loss. In addition to surface and subsurface runoff, a third component, being groundwater, is contributing in runoff. As only information about the total runoff at the catchment outlet is available, uncertainty exists about the contribution of the different flow processes. Agriculture is a main contributor of nutrients and sediments to surface water causing water quality problems. Knowledge about the different pathways of water and hence nutrients and sediments to open water systems is important with respect to the choice of mitigation measures in agricultural dominated catchments. Estimates of groundwater or baseflow contribution (BFI) are often based on the use of digital filters applied to average daily discharge values. When using recommended values for the digital filter, this resulted in BFI of 40 - 50 % when applied to small Norwegian agricultural catchments. When taking the poor natural drainage conditions into consideration in addition to the presence of heavy marine clay deposits at depths greater than 1 - 2 m below soil surface, these values are considered unrealistically high. Deelstra et al (2010) showed that small agricultural catchments can have rather "flashy" runoff behaviour, characterised by large diurnal variations in discharge which also contradicts high baseflow contributions. An approach to obtain a realistic filter parameter for a digital filter has been carried out, based on discharge measurements on a set of small, nested catchments in Norway and further tested in

  19. Mathematical modeling of rainwater runoff over catchment surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical modeling of rainwater runoff over catchment surface and mass transfer of contaminant incoming to water stream from soil. ... rainwater runoff along the surface catchment taking account the transport of pollution which permeates into the water flow from a porous media of soil at the certain areas of this surface.

  20. Groundwater Recharge, Evapotranspiration and Surface Runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    possible climatic change on basin hydrology and water resources (Alemaw and Chaoka, 2003). Hence ... catchment is mainly controlled by the lithologies, geological structures and geomorphology. Geological ... 2007), which has different climatic and land conditions compared to the tropics, some input parameters ...

  1. Joint variability of global runoff and global sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905-2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly temperature and precipitation data to compute time series of annual gridded runoff for the analysis period. The annual runoff time series data are combined with gridded annual sea surface temperature data, and the combined dataset is subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA) to identify the primary modes of variability. The first three components from the PCA explain 29% of the total variability in the combined runoff/SST dataset. The first component explains 15% of the total variance and primarily represents long-term trends in the data. The long-term trends in SSTs are evident as warming in all of the oceans. The associated long-term trends in runoff suggest increasing flows for parts of North America, South America, Eurasia, and Australia; decreasing runoff is most notable in western Africa. The second principal component explains 9% of the total variance and reflects variability of the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its associated influence on global annual runoff patterns. The third component explains 5% of the total variance and indicates a response of global annual runoff to variability in North Aflantic SSTs. The association between runoff and North Atlantic SSTs may explain an apparent steplike change in runoff that occurred around 1970 for a number of continental regions.

  2. Predicting Surface Runoff from Catchment to Large Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting surface runoff from catchment to large region is a fundamental and challenging task in hydrology. This paper presents a comprehensive review for various studies conducted for improving runoff predictions from catchment to large region in the last several decades. This review summarizes the well-established methods and discusses some promising approaches from the following four research fields: (1 modeling catchment, regional and global runoff using lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff models, distributed hydrological models, and land surface models, (2 parameterizing hydrological models in ungauged catchments, (3 improving hydrological model structure, and (4 using new remote sensing precipitation data.

  3. Flood damage claims reveal insights about surface runoff in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, D. B.; Prasuhn, V.; Weingartner, R.

    2015-12-01

    A few case studies in Switzerland exemplify that not only overtopping water bodies frequently cause damages to buildings. Reportedly, a large share of the total loss due to flooding in Switzerland goes back to surface runoff that is formed and is propagating outside of regular watercourses. Nevertheless, little is known about when, where and why such surface runoff occurs. The described process encompasses surface runoff formation, followed by unchannelised overland flow until a water body is reached. It is understood as a type of flash flood, has short response times and occurs diffusely in the landscape. Thus, the process is difficult to observe and study directly. A promising source indicating surface runoff indirectly are houseowners' damage claims recorded by Swiss Public Insurance Companies for Buildings (PICB). In most of Switzerland, PICB hold a monopoly position and insure (almost) every building. Consequently, PICB generally register all damages to buildings caused by an insured natural hazard (including surface runoff) within the respective zones. We have gathered gapless flood related claim records of most of all Swiss PICB covering more than the last two decades on average. Based on a subset, we have developed a methodology to differentiate claims related to surface runoff from other causes. This allows us to assess the number of claims as well as total loss related to surface runoff and compare these to the numbers of overtopping watercourses. Furthermore, with the good data coverage, we are able to analyze surface runoff related claims in space and time, from which we can infer spatial and temporal characteristics of surface runoff. Although the delivered data of PICB are heterogeneous and, consequently, time-consuming to harmonize, our first results show that exploiting these damage claim records is feasible and worthwhile to learn more about surface runoff in Switzerland.

  4. A modified slope-dependent formulation for groundwater runoff in a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Linda; Strebel, Lukas; Keller, Michael; Lüthi, Daniel; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture influences the state of the overlying atmosphere considerably and thus plays a major role in the climate system. Its spatial distribution is strongly modulated by the underlying orography. Yet, the vertical transport of soil water and especially the drainage at the bottom of the soil column is currently treated in a very crude way in most atmospheric models. This potentially leads to large biases in near-surface temperatures during summertime as the soil dries out and induces elevation-dependent biases in climate simulations. We present a modified formulation for the groundwater runoff formation in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (multi-layer soil model TERRA_ML). It is based on Darcy's law, allows for saturated aquifers and includes a slope-dependent discharge. Employing flux limiters ensures a physically consistent treatment. An implementation of this formulation into TERRA_ML is tested and validated both in idealized and real-case simulations for cloud-resolving as well as hydrostatic scales. Idealized simulations display a physically meaningful recharge and discharge of the saturated zone and exhibit a closed water budget. Decade-long climate simulations over Europe exhibit a more realistic representation of the groundwater distribution in mountainous areas, an improved annual cycle of surface latent heat fluxes and as a consequence reductions of the long-standing bias in near-surface temperatures in semi-arid regions.

  5. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    responsible for run-off generation plays a major role in run-off modelling at region scales. Remote sensing, GIS and advancement of the computer technology based evaluation of land surface prop- erties at spatial and temporal scales are very useful input data for hydrological models. Using remote sensing data is not only ...

  6. Improved simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in catchment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    teklesadik, aklilu; van Griensven, Ann; Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater storage can have a significant contribution to stream flow, therefore a thorough understanding of the groundwater surface water interaction is of prime important when doing catchment modeling. The aim of this study is to improve the simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in a catchment model of the upper Zenne River basin located in Belgium. To achieve this objective we used the "Groundwater-Surface water Flow" (GSFLOW) modeling software, which is an integration of the surface water modeling tool "Precipitation and Runoff Modeling system" (PRMS) and the groundwater modeling tool MODFLOW. For this case study, the PRMS model and MODFLOW model were built and calibrated independently. The PRMS upper Zenne River basin model is divided into 84 hydrological response units (HRUs) and is calibrated with flow data at the Tubize gauging station. The spatial discretization of the MODFLOW upper Zenne groundwater flow model consists of 100m grids. Natural groundwater divides and the Brussels-Charleroi canal are used as boundary conditions for the MODFLOW model. The model is calibrated using piezometric data. The GSFLOW results were evaluated against a SWAT model application and field observations of groundwater-surface water interactions along a cross section of the Zenne River and riparian zone. The field observations confirm that there is no exchange of groundwater beyond the Brussel-Charleroi canal and that the interaction at the river bed is relatively low. The results show that there is a significant difference in the groundwater simulations when using GSFLOW versus SWAT. This indicates that the groundwater component representation in the SWAT model could be improved and that a more realistic implementation of the interactions between groundwater and surface water is advisable. This could be achieved by integrating SWAT and MODFLOW.

  7. Development of a Consistent GIS Based Method for Estimating the Groundwater Runoff Parameter for Regional Scale Precipitation-Runoff Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerklie, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of a U. S. Geological Survey effort to (1) estimate river discharge in ungaged basins, (2) understand runoff quantity and timing for watersheds between gaging stations, and (3) estimate potential future streamflow, a national scale precipitation runoff model is in development. The effort uses the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model. The model development strategy includes methods to assign hydrologic routing coefficients a priori from national scale GIS data bases. Once developed, the model can serve as an initial baseline for more detailed and locally/regionally calibrated models designed for specific projects and purposes. One of the key hydrologic routing coefficients is the groundwater coefficient (gw_coef). This study estimates the gw_coef from continental US GIS data, including geology, drainage density, aquifer type, vegetation type, and baseflow index information. The gw_coef is applied in regional PRMS models and is estimated using two methods. The first method uses a statistical model to predict the gw_coef from weighted average values of surficial geologic materials, dominant aquifer type, baseflow index, vegetation type, and the drainage density. The second method computes the gw_coef directly from the physical conditions in the watershed including the percentage geologic material and the drainage density. The two methods are compared against the gw_coef derived from streamflow records, and tested for selected rivers in different regions of the country. To address the often weak correlation between geology and baseflow, the existence of groundwater sinks, and complexities of groundwater flow paths, the spatial characteristics of the gw_coef prediction error were evaluated, and a correction factor developed from the spatial error distribution. This provides a consistent and improved method to estimate the gw_coef for regional PRMS models that is derived from available GIS data and physical information for watersheds.

  8. The role of bedrock groundwater in rainfall-runoff response at hillslope and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, C. P.; McDonnell, J. J.; Jarvis, W. T.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryBedrock groundwater dynamics in headwater catchments are poorly understood and poorly characterized. Direct hydrometric measurements have been limited due to the logistical challenges associated with drilling through hard rock in steep, remote and often roadless terrain. We used a new portable bedrock drilling system to explore bedrock groundwater dynamics aimed at quantifying bedrock groundwater contributions to hillslope flow and catchment runoff. We present results from the Maimai M8 research catchment in New Zealand and Watershed 10 (WS10) at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon, USA. Analysis of bedrock groundwater at Maimai, through a range of flow conditions, revealed that the bedrock water table remained below the soil-bedrock interface, indicating that the bedrock aquifer has minimal direct contributions to event-based hillslope runoff. However, the bedrock water table did respond significantly to storm events indicating that there is a direct connection between hillslope processes and the underlying bedrock aquifer. WS10 groundwater dynamics were dominated by fracture flow. A highly fractured and transmissive zone within the upper one meter of bedrock conducted rapid lateral subsurface stormflow and lateral discharge. The interaction of subsurface stormflow with bedrock storage directly influenced the measured hillslope response, solute transport and computed mean residence time. This research reveals bedrock groundwater to be an extremely dynamic component of the hillslope hydrological system and our comparative analysis illustrates the potential range of hydrological and geological controls on runoff generation in headwater catchments.

  9. Numerical model of rainwater runoff over the catchment surface and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... runoff along the surface catchment and transport of impurity which permeates into the water flow from soil at the certain areas of this surface. This system consists of two types of equations: the first of them describes the changes of water layer thickness over the slope surface given the precipitation and evaporation, and the ...

  10. Surface runoff in flat terrain: How field topography and runoff generating processes control hydrological connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, W.M.; Bogaart, P.W.; Bogaart, P.W.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    In flat lowland agricultural catchments in temperate climate zones with highly permeable sandy soils, surface runoff is a rare process with a large impact on the redistribution of sediments and solutes and stream water quality. We examine hydrological data obtained on two field sites in the

  11. Assessing the effects of climate change on groundwater resources in a runoff-dominated watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, L. R.; Hevesi, J. A.; Niswonger, R. G.; Nishikawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater will play an important role for sustainable water supplies in the future. Integrated hydrologic models can be used to assess the current and future availability of the surface-water and groundwater resources. The integrated hydrologic model GSFLOW was used to simulate the transient hydrologic processes in the Santa Rosa Plain (SRP) watershed, California, USA. The 680-square-kilometer Santa Rosa Plain watershed is characterized by forested drainages in the mountains bordering a developed alluvial plain that includes a network of natural and engineered stream channels. Runoff is derived solely from rainfall and streamflow in the watershed exhibits a strong seasonal variation with the largest flows occur during November through February. Spatial variability in climate is influenced by topography, proximity to the Pacific Ocean, and storm trajectory. Groundwater flow is influenced by topography, structure, complex geology, spatial and temporal variation in recharge, and pumping for urban, agricultural, and rural demands. The model was calibrated using available daily climate and streamflow records and well hydrographs for a continuous daily simulation period from water year 1976 through 2009. Projected 100-year (2000-2100) climate conditions developed from selected available General Circulation Model results consisting of spatially distributed daily precipitation and air temperature estimates will be incorporated into the calibrated GSFLOW model. The transient simulation results from the coupled model will be used to evaluate the potential effects of climate change on water resources within the watershed. Future agricultural demand will be estimated by running GSFLOW in decoupled PRMS-mode to simulate irrigation deficiency for each of the selected future climate scenarios. Future municipal and rural water demand will be estimated from population projections in the watershed. The effects of climate change on the groundwater system will be evaluated by

  12. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphorus immobilization at the groundwater-surface water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grift, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/373433484; Rozemeijer, Joachim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838403; Griffioen, Jasper|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/091129265; van der Velde, Ype

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication of freshwater environments following diffuse nutrient loads is a widely recognized water quality problem in catchments. Fluxes of non-point P sources to surface waters originate from surface runoff and flow from soil water and groundwater into surface water. The availability of P in

  13. Patterns and signatures characterizing the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff in land surface parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. L.; Zheng, H.; Lin, P.; Wei, J.; Li, L.; Wu, W. Y.; Zhao, L.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying how climate and land surface processes drive the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff (R) is important for improving our predictive capability of climate-land interactions. To this end, this study focuses on quantifying the sensitivity of parameterizations for runoff, β-factor, turbulence, and stomatal conductance by employing the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and a 48-member ensemble from the Noah LSM with multi-parameterization (Noah-MP). All 48 Noah-MP simulations systematically overestimate ET and underestimate R in Florida, eastern Texas, and Nebraska, which precisely coincide with the sand distribution from NLDAS, suggesting a need to augment Noah-MP's sand parameters. The impacts of the selected parameterizations on the precipitation partitioning are climate-dependent. The stomatal conductance parameterizations are dominant in humid regions, while the runoff parameterizations are dominant in arid and semi-arid regions. Under snow conditions, incorporating a groundwater module significantly damps the modeled runoff peak and delays the timing. These parameterizations have a direct and seasonal influence on ET, but their influences on R are indirect and cross-seasonal.

  14. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  15. Hydrogeological controls of groundwater - land surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Etienne; Batelaan, Okke; Goderniaux, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Interaction of groundwater with the land surface impacts a wide range of climatic, hydrologic, ecologic and geomorphologic processes. Many site-specific studies have successfully focused on measuring and modelling groundwater-surface water interaction, but upscaling or estimation at catchment or regional scale appears to be challenging. The factors controlling the interaction at regional scale are still poorly understood. In this contribution, a new 2-D (cross-sectional) analytical groundwater flow solution is used to derive a dimensionless criterion that expresses the conditions under which the groundwater outcrops at the land surface (Bresciani et al., 2016). The criterion gives insights into the functional relationships between geology, topography, climate and the locations of groundwater discharge along river systems. This sheds light on the debate about the topographic control of groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interaction, as effectively the topography only influences the interaction when the groundwater table reaches the land surface. The criterion provides a practical tool to predict locations of groundwater discharge if a limited number of geomorphological and hydrogeological parameters (recharge, hydraulic conductivity and depth to impervious base) are known, and conversely it can provide regional estimates of the ratio of recharge over hydraulic conductivity if locations of groundwater discharge are known. A case study with known groundwater discharge locations located in South-West Brittany, France shows the feasibility of regional estimates of the ratio of recharge over hydraulic conductivity. Bresciani, E., Goderniaux, P. and Batelaan, O., 2016, Hydrogeological controls of water table-land surface interactions. Geophysical Research Letters 43(18): 9653-9661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016GL070618

  16. Towards an improved understanding of hillslope runoff as a supply for groundwater recharge: Assessing hillslope runoff under regional deforestation and varying climate conditions in a drainage basin in central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Beganskas, S.; Fisher, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    We use a hydrologic model to analyze hillslope runoff under a range of climate and land use conditions in the San Lorenzo River Basin (SLRB), central coastal California, including contemporary land use and incremental deforestation. The SLRB is a heavily forested watershed with chronically overdrafted aquifers; in some areas, groundwater levels have been lowered by >50 m in recent decades. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) can help mitigate declines in groundwater storage, routing excess surface flows to locations where they can infiltrate. We are especially interested in opportunities for collection of stormwater runoff, particularly where development and other changes in landuse have increased hill slope runoff. To assess hillslope runoff at the subwatershed scale (10-100 ha; 25-250 ac), we apply the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to a high-resolution, digital elevation model and populate the simulation with area- and density-weighted vegetation and soil parameters calculated from high resolution input data. We also develop and apply a catalog of dry, normal, and wet climate scenarios from the historic record (1981-2014). In addition, we simulate conditions ranging from 0 to 100 percent of redwoods harvested (representing the mid-1800s to 1930s logging era) using a historical land use data set to alter soil and vegetation conditions. Results under contemporary land use suggest there are ample opportunities to establish MAR projects during all climate scenarios; hill slope runoff generation is spatially variable and on average exceeds 23,000 ac-ft/yr (3.2 in/yr) during the driest climate scenario. Preliminary results from the deforestation scenarios show notable increases in hillslope runoff with progressive redwood harvesting. Relative to pre-logging conditions, between 1.1 in (dry climates) and 1.5 in (wet climates) more runoff is generated under contemporary conditions, with most of the runoff increase occurring in urban areas. These modeling methods

  17. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A; Criss, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (<25μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO4(2-)-S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during "first flush" events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Water erosion in surface soil conditions: runoff velocity, concentration and D50 index of sediments in runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion and contamination of water resources are influenced by concentration and diameter of sediments in runoff. This study aimed to quantify runoff velocity and concentration and the D50 index of sediments in runoff under different soil surface managements, in the following treatments: i cropped systems: no-tilled soil covered by ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. residue, with high soil cover and minimal roughness (HCR; no tilled soil covered by vetch (Vicia sativa L. residue, with high soil cover and minimal roughness (HCV; chiseled soil after ryegrass crop removing the above-ground residues and keeping only the root system, with high roughness (HRR; chiseled soil after vetch crop removing the above-ground residues and keeping only the root system, with high roughness (HRV; ii bare and chiseled soil, with high roughness (BHR. The research was conducted on a Humic Dystrupept under simulated rainfall. The design was completely randomized and each treatment was replicated twice. Eight rainfall events of controlled intensity (65 mm h−1 were applied to each treatment for 90 minutes. The D50 index, runoff velocity and sediment concentration were influenced by crop and soil management. Runoff velocity was more intensely reduced by cover crop residues than by surface roughness. Regardless of surface condition, the D50 index and concentration of sediment in runoff were lower under ryegrass than vetch crop. Runoff velocity and the D50 index were exponentially and inversely correlated with soil cover by residues and with surface roughness, while the D50 index was positively and exponentially correlated with runoff velocity.

  19. Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-28

    Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

  20. A simple model for farmland nitrogen loss to surface runoff with raindrop driven process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, J.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been widely recognized that surface runoff from the agricultural fields is an important source of non-point source pollution (NPSP). Moreover, as the agricultural country with the largest nitrogen fertilizer production, import and consumption in the world, our nation should pay greater attention to the over-application and inefficient use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, which may cause severe pollution both in surface water and groundwater. To figure out the transfer mechanism between the soil solution and surface runoff, lots of laboratory test were conducted and related models were established in this study. But little of them was carried out in field scale since a part of variables are hard to control and some uncontrollable natural factors including rainfall intensity, temperature, wind speeds, soil spatial heterogeneity etc., may affect the field experimental results. Despite that, field tests can better reflect the mechanism of soil chemical loss to surface runoff than laboratory experiments, and the latter tend to oversimplify the environmental conditions. Therefore, a physically based, nitrogen transport model was developed and tested with so called semi-field experiments (i.e., artificial rainfall instead of natural rainfall was applied in the test). Our model integrated both raindrop driven process and diffusion effect along with the simplified nitrogen chain reactions. The established model was solved numerically through the modified Hydrus-1d source code, and the model simulations closely agree with the experimental data. Furthermore, our model indicates that the depth of the exchange layer and raindrop induced water transfer rate are two important parameters, and they have different impacts on the simulation results. The study results can provide references for preventing and controlling agricultural NPSP.

  1. Significance of Bioturbated Layer (BTL) and Deep Groundwater Storage on Runoff in Steep Saprolitic Tropical Lowlands Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Ogden, F. L.; Zhu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Bioturbated soil layers (BTLs) play a significant role in hydrological response and provisioning of ecosystem services in steep, saprolitic, tropical lowlands catchments. In this study, a new physically-based model formulation was developed for testing of runoff generation hypotheses. A main feature in the model formulation is explicit simulation of hydrological processes in the BTL including macropores, which our field observations show are ubiquitous, and deep groundwater stores that provide streamflow during the dry season The numerical model developed includes two main flow paths in the BTL, including one-dimensional (1D) vertical infiltration and two-dimensional (2D) lateral flows in both macropores and the soil matrix. Hydrological processes incorporated along with the BTL processes include intercepted rainfall, evapotranspiration, 2D surface flow and 1D deep groundwater discharge. This model was first tested in a 6.5 ha secondary succession catchment, that is under study by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Agua Salud project in Panama, which is dominated by steep slopes. With the incorporation of lateral macropore flow mechanism in the BTL, the model performs better than only including soil matrix flow in the BTL especially in simulating baseflow dynamics, which illustrates the importance of preferential flow from the BTL to stream discharge dynamics. The increase in the BTL thickness promotes more flow through the BTL and increases storage in both the BTL and the deep groundwater reservoir, but decreases the total streamflow and overland flow. Lateral macropore diameter distribution influences flows more than the macropore number or distribution type. The model has thus far passed falsification tests during the early wet season. Complexity in subsurface storage and base flow generation offer a new challenge for this model. The overall objective is to develop a model formulation that is useful in practical applications related to land

  2. Surface runoff generation in a small watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since an understanding of how runoff is generated is of great importance to soil conservation, to water availability and to the management of a watershed, the objective of this study was to understand the generation of surface runoff in a watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest. Nine surface runoff plots were set up, evenly distributed on the lower, middle and upper slopes. The lower portion was covered by riparian forest. We showed that the average surface runoff coefficient along the slope in the present study was higher than in other studies under different land uses. Furthermore, the surface runoff was higher under sugarcane compared to the riparian forest, especially after sugarcane harvesting. Besides land cover, other factors such as the characteristics of rainfall events, relief and physical soil characteristics such as soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the surface runoff generation.

  3. Surface Roughness effects on Runoff and Soil Erosion Rates Under Simulated Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil surface roughness is identified as one of the controlling factors governing runoff and soil loss yet, most studies pay little attention to soil surface roughness. In this study, we analyzed the influence of random soil surface roughness on runoff and soil erosion rates. Bulk samples of a silt l...

  4. Groundwater impact on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, L.; Rozemeijer, J.; Breukelen, B.M. van; Ouboter, M.; Vlugt, C. van der; Broers, H.P.

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and

  5. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments : Monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, B.M.; Ouboter, Maarten; Van Der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage,

  6. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  7. Evaluation of alternative surface runoff accounting procedures using the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    For surface runoff estimation in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, the curve number (CN) procedure is commonly adopted to calculate surface runoff by utilizing antecedent soil moisture condition (SCSI) in field. In the recent version of SWAT (SWAT2005), an alternative approach is ava...

  8. Sensitivity-Based Modeling of Evaluating Surface Runoff and Sediment Load using Digital and Analog Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of runoff- sediment measurement and evaluation using automated and convectional runoff-meters was carried out at Meteorological and Hydrological Station of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi using two runoff plots (ABCDa and EFGHm of area 2m 2 each, depth 0.26 m and driven into the soil to the depth of 0.13m. Runoff depths and intensities were measured from each of the positioned runoff plot. Automated runoff-meter has a measuring accuracy of ±0.001l/±0.025 mm and rainfall depth-intensity was measured using tipping-bucket rainguage during the period of 14-month of experimentation. Minimum and maximum rainfall depths of 1.2 and 190.3 mm correspond to measured runoff depths (MRo of 0.0 mm for both measurement approaches and 60.4 mm and 48.9 mm respectively. Automated runoffmeter provides precise, accurate and instantaneous result over the convectional measurement of surface runoff. Runoff measuring accuracy for automated runoff-meter from the plot (ABCDa produces R 2 = 0.99; while R 2 = 0.96 for manual evaluation in plot (EFGHm. WEPP and SWAT models were used to simulate the obtained hydrological variables from the applied measurement mechanisms. The outputs of sensitivity simulation analysis indicate that data from automated measuring systems gives a better modelling index and such could be used for running robust runoff-sediment predictive modelling technique under different reservoir sedimentation and water management scenarios.

  9. Erosivity, surface runoff, and soil erosion estimation using GIS-coupled runoff-erosion model in the Mamuaba catchment, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Richarde; Guimarães Santos, Celso Augusto; Carneiro de Lima Silva, Valeriano; Pereira e Silva, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates erosivity, surface runoff generation, and soil erosion rates for Mamuaba catchment, sub-catchment of Gramame River basin (Brazil) by using the ArcView Soil and Water Assessment Tool (AvSWAT) model. Calibration and validation of the model was performed on monthly basis, and it could simulate surface runoff and soil erosion to a good level of accuracy. Daily rainfall data between 1969 and 1989 from six rain gauges were used, and the monthly rainfall erosivity of each station was computed for all the studied years. In order to evaluate the calibration and validation of the model, monthly runoff data between January 1978 and April 1982 from one runoff gauge were used as well. The estimated soil loss rates were also realistic when compared to what can be observed in the field and to results from previous studies around of catchment. The long-term average soil loss was estimated at 9.4 t ha(-1) year(-1); most of the area of the catchment (60%) was predicted to suffer from a low- to moderate-erosion risk (soil erosion was estimated to exceed > 12 t ha(-1) year(-1). Expectedly, estimated soil loss was significantly correlated with measured rainfall and simulated surface runoff. Based on the estimated soil loss rates, the catchment was divided into four priority categories (low, moderate, high and very high) for conservation intervention. The study demonstrates that the AvSWAT model provides a useful tool for soil erosion assessment from catchments and facilitates the planning for a sustainable land management in northeastern Brazil.

  10. Prairie and turf buffer strips for controlling runoff from paved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, K; Stier, J C; Kussow, W R; Thompson, A

    2007-01-01

    Eutrophication of surface waters due to nonpoint source pollution from urban environments has raised awareness of the need to decrease runoff from roads and other impervious surfaces. These concerns have led to precautionary P application restrictions on turf and requirements for vegetative buffer strips. The impacts of two plant communities and three impervious/pervious surface ratios were assessed on runoff water quality and quantity. A mixed forb/grass prairie and a Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) blend were seeded and runoff was monitored and analyzed for total volume, total P, soluble P, soluble organic P, bioavailable P, total suspended solids, and total organic suspended solids. Mean annual runoff volumes, all types of mean annual P nutrient losses, and sediment loads were not significantly affected by treatments because over 80% of runoff occurred during frozen soil conditions. Total P losses from prairie and turf were similar, averaging 1.96 and 2.12 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. Vegetation appeared to be a likely contributor of nutrients, particularly from prairie during winter dormancy. When runoff occurred during non-frozen soil conditions turf allowed significantly (P runoff volumes compared with prairie vegetation and the 1:2 and 1:4 impervious/pervious surface ratios had less runoff than the 1:1 ratio (P runoff occurs during frozen ground conditions, vegetative buffers strips alone are unlikely to dramatically reduce runoff and nutrient loading into surface waters. Regardless of vegetation type or size, natural nutrient biogeochemical cycling will cause nutrient loss in surface runoff waters, and these values may represent baseline thresholds below which values cannot be obtained.

  11. Weather Radar Adjustment Using Runoff from Urban Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2017-01-01

    Weather radar data used for urban drainage applications are traditionally adjusted to point ground references, e.g., rain gauges. However, the available rain gauge density for the adjustment is often low, which may lead to significant representativeness errors. Yet, in many urban catchments......, rainfall is often measured indirectly through runoff sensors. This paper presents a method for weather radar adjustment on the basis of runoff observations (Z-Q adjustment) as an alternative to the traditional Z-R adjustment on the basis of rain gauges. Data from a new monitoring station in Aalborg......, Denmark, were used to evaluate the flow-based weather radar adjustment method against the traditional rain-gauge adjustment. The evaluation was performed by comparing radar-modeled runoff to observed runoff. The methodology was both tested on an events basis and multiple events combined. The results...

  12. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  13. Modeling Change in Watershed Streamflow, Groundwater Recharge and Surface Water - Groundwater Interactions Due to Irrigation and Associated Diversions and Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.; Caldwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of irrigation and associated surface water (SW) diversions and groundwater (GW) pumping on instream flows, groundwater recharge and SW-GW interactions are being examined using a watershed-scale coupled SW-GW flow model. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model GSFLOW (Markstrom et al., 2008), an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW), is being utilized for this effort. Processes represented in this model include daily rain, snowfall, snowmelt, streamflow, surface runoff, interflow, infiltration, soil-zone evapotranspiration, and subsurface unsaturated and groundwater flow and evapotranspiration. The Upper Smith River watershed, an important agricultural and recreational area in west-central Montana, is being used as the basis for watershed climate, topography, hydrography, vegetation, soil properties as well as scenarios of irrigation and associated practices. The 640 square kilometer watershed area has been discretized into coincident 200 m by 200 m hydrologic response units (for climate and soil zone flow processes) and grid blocks (for unsaturated zone and GW flow processes). The subsurface GW system is discretized into 6 layers representing Quaternary alluvium, Tertiary sediments and bedrock. The model is being used to recreate natural, pre-development streamflows and GW conditions in the watershed. The results of this simulation are then compared to a simulation with flood and sprinkler irrigation supplied by SW diversion and GW pumping to examine the magnitude and timing of changes in streamflow, groundwater recharge and SW-GW interactions. Model results reproduce observed hydrologic responses to both natural climate variability and irrigation practices. Periodic irrigation creates increased evapotranspiration and GW recharge in cultivated areas of the watershed as well as SW-GW interactions that are more dynamic than under natural conditions.

  14. A regional coupled surface water/groundwater model of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gumbricht, T.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the endorheic Okavango River system in southern Africa a balance between human and environmental water demands has to be achieved. The runoff generated in the humid tropical highlands of Angola flows through arid Namibia and Botswana before forming a large inland delta and eventually being...... of a surface water flow component based on the diffusive wave approximation of the Saint- Venant equations, a groundwater component, and a relatively simple vadose zone component for calculating the net water exchange between land and atmosphere. The numerical scheme is based on the groundwater simulation...

  15. Automated Measurement for Sensitivity Analysis of Runoff-Sediment Load at Varying Surface Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanogor P.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of surface runoff is often associated with errors and inaccuracies which results to unreliable hydrological data. An automatic Runoff-meter using tipping buckets arrangement calibrated to tip 0.14 liter of runoff water per tip with an accuracy of ± 0.001 litre was used to measure surface runoff from a steel bounded soil tray of dimension (1200 mm X 900 mm X 260 mm filled with sand loamy to the depth of 130 mm and inclined at angle (0 0 , 5 0 ,12 0 and 15 0 horizontal to the instrument. The effect of varying angles of inclination on runoff intensity, sediment loss rate and sediment loss is significant at 5 % confidence level, while surface runoff is not significant at 5 % confidence level. Total highest sediment loss of 458.2 g and 313.4 g were observed at angle 15 0 and 12 0 respectively. Total surface runoff of 361.5 mm and 445.8 mm were generated at inclined angle of 0 0 and 5 0 , while at angle 12 0 and 15 0 , 564.3 mm and 590.0 mm of surface runoff were generated. In addition, runoff intensity and sediment loss rate were highest at angle 15 0 , while the lowest values of 1.5mm/min and 5.43 g/min were obtained at angle of inclination 5 0 . The results showed that strong relationship existed among the hydrological variables as a result of subjecting the steel bounded soil tray to different angles of inclination. Such results would provide useful data for the running of physics-based deterministic model of surface runoff and erosion which will be useful for the design of hydrological structures, land use planning and management.

  16. Radionuclides in surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

  17. The power of runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörman, A.; Lindström, G.; Riml, J.

    2017-05-01

    Although the potential energy of surface water is a small part of Earth's energy budget, this highly variable physical property is a key component in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle empowering geomorphological and hydrological processes throughout the hydrosphere. By downscaling of the daily hydrometeorological data acquired in Sweden over the last half-century this study quantifies the spatial and temporal distribution of the dominating energy components in terrestrial hydrology, including the frictional resistance in surface water and groundwater as well as hydropower. The energy consumed in groundwater circulation was found to be 34.6 TWh/y or a heat production of approximately 13% of the geothermal heat flux. Significant climate driven, periodic fluctuations in the power of runoff, stream flows and groundwater circulation were revealed that have not previously been documented. We found that the runoff power ranged from 173 to 260 TWh/y even when averaged over the entire surface of Sweden in a five-year moving window. We separated short-term fluctuations in runoff due to precipitation filtered through the watershed from longer-term seasonal and climate driven modes. Strong climate driven correlations between the power of runoff and climate indices, wind and solar intensity were found over periods of 3.6 and 8 years. The high covariance that we found between the potential energy of surface water and wind energy implies significant challenges for the combination of these renewable energy sources.

  18. Runoff generation processes and fraction of young water for streamflow and groundwater in a pre-alpine forested catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuecco, Giulia; Penna, Daniele; van Meerveld, Ilja; Borga, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of runoff generation mechanisms and storage dynamics is needed for sustainable management of water resources, particularly in catchments characterized by marked seasonality in rainfall. However, temporal and spatial variability of hydrological processes can hinder a detailed comprehension of catchment functioning. In this study, we use hydrometric data and stable isotope data from a 2-ha forested catchment in the Italian pre-Alps to i) identify seasonal changes in runoff generation, ii) determine the factors that affect the hysteretic relations between streamflow and soil moisture and between streamflow and shallow groundwater, and iii) estimate the fraction of young water in stream water and shallow groundwater. Streamflow, soil moisture and groundwater levels were measured continuously between August 2012 and December 2015. Soil moisture was measured at 0-30 cm depth by four time domain reflectometers installed at different locations along a riparian-hillslope transect. Depth to water table was measured in two piezometers installed at a depth of 2.0 and 1.8 m in the riparian zone. Water samples for isotopic analysis were taken monthly from bulk precipitation and approximately biweekly from stream water and groundwater. The relations between streamflow (independent variable), soil moisture and depth to water table (dependent variables) were analyzed by computing a hysteresis index that provides information on the direction, the extent and the shape of the loops for 103 rainfall-runoff events. The temporal variability of the hysteresis index was related to event characteristics (mean and maximum rainfall intensity, rainfall amount and total stormflow) and antecedent soil moisture conditions. We observed threshold-like relations between stormflow and the sum of rainfall and the antecedent soil moisture index and an exponential relation between the change in groundwater level and stormflow. Clockwise hysteretic relations were common between streamflow

  19. Runoff of pyrethroid insecticides from concrete surfaces following simulated and natural rainfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Haver, Darren; Rust, Michael; Gan, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Intensive residential use of insecticides has resulted in their ubiquitous presence as contaminants in urban surface streams. For pest eradication, urban hard surfaces such as concrete are often directly treated with pesticides, and wind/water can also carry pesticides onto hard surfaces from surrounding areas. This study expanded on previous bench-scale studies by considering pesticide runoff caused by irrigation under dry weather conditions and rain during the wet season, and evaluated the effects of pesticide residence time on concrete, single versus recurring precipitations, precipitation intensity, and concrete surface conditions, on pesticide transferability to runoff water. Runoff from concrete 1 d after pesticide treatment contained high levels of bifenthrin (82 μg/L) and permethrin (5143 μg/L for cis and 5518 μg/L for trans), indicating the importance of preventing water contact on concrete after pesticide treatments. Although the runoff transferability quickly decreased as the pesticide residence time on concrete increased, detectable residues were still found in runoff water after 3 months (89 d) exposure to hot and dry summer conditions. ANOVA analysis showed that precipitation intensities and concrete surface conditions (i.e., acid wash, silicone seal, stamping, and addition of microsilica) did not significantly affect the pesticide transferability to runoff. For concrete slabs subjected to natural rainfalls during the winter wet season, pesticide levels in the runoff decreased as the time interval between pesticide application and the rain event increased. However, bifenthrin and permethrin were still detected at 0.15-0.17 and 0.75-1.15 μg/L in the rain runoff after 7 months (221 d) from the initial treatment. In addition, pesticide concentrations showed no decrease between the two rainfall events, suggesting that concrete surfaces contaminated by pesticides may act as a reservoir for pesticide residues, leading to sustained urban runoff

  20. The quality and quantity of runoff and groundwater in two overburden dumps undergoing pyritic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.A.; Harries, J.R.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The quality and quantity of runoff and seepage water from two waste rock dumps at the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle, N.T., have been monitored over various time intervals since 1975. Both dumps contain pyrite which is oxidising and solubilising trace metals within the dumps. Results are presented for the quality and quantity of runoff from both dumps measured in the 1980-81 wet season. The rainfall/runoff characteristics of the two dumps measured during this wet season are similar and in good agreement with measurements made in previous wet seasons. Pollution loads in runoff were only a few per cent of pollution loads in water percolating through to the base of the dumps. The rainfall/runoff characteristics and the dominance of pollution loads in water percolating through the dumps are likely to apply to other similar waste rock dumps

  1. Importance of fine particles in pesticide runoff from concrete surfaces and its prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Gan, Jay

    2012-06-05

    Pesticides such as pyrethroids have been frequently found in runoff water from urban areas and the offsite movement is a significant cause for aquatic toxicities in urban streams and estuaries. To better understand the origination of pesticide residues in urban runoff, we investigated the association of pyrethroid residues with loose particles in runoff water from concrete surfaces after treatment with commercial products of bifenthrin and permethrin. In runoff water generated from simulated precipitations after 1 to 89 d exposure under dry outdoor conditions, over 80% of the pesticides was found on particles >0.7 μm for most treatments. The solid-water partitioning coefficient (K(d)) on day 1 was estimated to be 2.4 × 10(3) to 1.1 × 10(5) L/kg for permethrin and bifenthrin on these solids. Except for solid formulations, the pesticide-laden particles likely originated from dust particles preexisting on the concrete before treatment and the disintegration of the surficial concrete matter through weathering. We consequently tested a simple sponge-wipe method to collect and analyze the loose particles on concrete. Concurrent analyses (n = 30) showed an excellent linear correlation between the amount of pesticides transferrable to runoff water and that on the wipe (R(2) = 0.78, slope = 1.13 ± 0.11, P contaminating runoff water before runoff actually occurs. The importance of loose particles should be considered when developing practices to mitigate pesticide runoff contamination from urban residential areas.

  2. Groundwater and surface water flow to the Merced River, Yosemite Valley, California: 36Cl and Cl- evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Glenn D.; Conklin, Martha H.; Nimz, Gregory J.; Liu, Fengjing

    2014-03-01

    Our current understanding of water fluxes and flow paths within the mountain block is limited, and improved understanding is necessary to assess hydrology more accurately above the mountain front. Source waters and the processes controlling their mixing were characterized in the Merced River basin within Yosemite National Park, California, using 36Cl and Cl-, supported by 222Rn, δ18O, δD, and streamflow data. Streams, snow, groundwater, and springs were sampled seasonally from July 2004 to October 2007. Three source water end-members were identified: (i) near surface runoff of recent meltwater containing bomb-pulse 36Cl (36ClBP), (ii) shallow, evapotranspired groundwater, and (iii) groundwater containing Cl- derived through extended rock interaction. Both groundwater end-members mix in Yosemite Valley and then later discharge to the Merced River. Near surface runoff dominates all stream hydrographs during snowmelt, whereas the two groundwater end-members become significantly more important during base flow. Tributaries consist of mixtures of the shallow evapotranspired groundwater and near surface runoff, whereas the Merced River is composed of the mixture of all source water end-members. Snow is not an obvious end-member, and elevated 36ClBP in the near surface runoff suggests that 36ClBP was retained efficiently, and is being slowly released as meltwater interacts with the soil. The use of 36Cl as a natural tracer is important in revealing the processes controlling streamflow generation in large montane catchments and the results will be helpful in configuring and calibrating hydrologic models.

  3. Direct measurements of meltwater runoff on the Greenland ice sheet surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C.; Yang, Kang; Pitcher, Lincoln H.; Overstreet, Brandon T.; Chu, Vena W.; Rennermalm, Åsa K.; Ryan, Jonathan C.; Cooper, Matthew G.; Gleason, Colin J.; Tedesco, Marco; Jeyaratnam, Jeyavinoth; van As, Dirk; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Langen, Peter L.; Cullather, Richard I.; Zhao, Bin; Willis, Michael J.; Hubbard, Alun; Box, Jason E.; Jenner, Brittany A.; Behar, Alberto E.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet surface influences surface mass balance (SMB), ice dynamics, and global sea level rise, but is estimated with climate models and thus difficult to validate. We present a way to measure ice surface runoff directly, from hourly in situ supraglacial river discharge measurements and simultaneous high-resolution satellite/drone remote sensing of upstream fluvial catchment area. A first 72-h trial for a 63.1-km2 moulin-terminating internally drained catchment (IDC) on Greenland's midelevation (1,207–1,381 m above sea level) ablation zone is compared with melt and runoff simulations from HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, RACMO2.3, MERRA-2, and SEB climate/SMB models. Current models cannot reproduce peak discharges or timing of runoff entering moulins but are improved using synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) theory. Retroactive SUH applications to two older field studies reproduce their findings, signifying that remotely sensed IDC area, shape, and supraglacial river length are useful for predicting delays in peak runoff delivery to moulins. Applying SUH to HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, and RACMO2.3 gridded melt products for 799 surrounding IDCs suggests their terminal moulins receive lower peak discharges, less diurnal variability, and asynchronous runoff timing relative to climate/SMB model output alone. Conversely, large IDCs produce high moulin discharges, even at high elevations where melt rates are low. During this particular field experiment, models overestimated runoff by +21 to +58%, linked to overestimated surface ablation and possible meltwater retention in bare, porous, low-density ice. Direct measurements of ice surface runoff will improve climate/SMB models, and incorporating remotely sensed IDCs will aid coupling of SMB with ice dynamics and subglacial systems.

  4. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  5. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  6. Analyses of surface and groundwater flow characteristics of the Ljubljana moor and water resources vulnerability to climate and land use change and groundwater overdraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globevnik, Lidija; Bracic Zeleznik, Branka

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest water resource of Slovenian capital is groundwater of Ljubljana moor (Ljubljansko barje) aquifer. Quantity and quality of groundwater in Ljubljana moor aquifer directly depend on precipitation, surface water and riparian ecosystems of the Moor and indirectly by groundwater recharge from higher-lying mountainous karstic areas of forests and grasslands. Maintaining high groundwater level of the Ljubljana moor not only sustain stable water balance of aquifer, but also its riparian and wetland character. It also inhibit larger subsidence of the terrain. The paper addresses the vulnerability of the Ljubljana moor water resources to climate and land use change and due to groundwater overdraft. The results should help in selecting suitable mitigation measures and management of the Ljubljana moor area. We analyze surface and groundwater flow characteristics of water recharge area of one water work on the Ljubljana moor (Brest) from the point of view of climate change, changes in land use and water pumping practices. The I\\vska River, a tributary to the Ljubljanica River, recharges the area in the gravel bar, which lies just below the hills. We use existing data of meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring and simulate rainfall-runoff processes. We use a conceptual semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model HBV-Light and simulate hydrological characteristics of the Ljubljana Moor (groundwater level fluctuations and recharge, surface - groundwater interchange) with two hydrodynamic models, DHI MIKE FLOOD (surface flow, 2D simulation) and DHI MIKE SHE (groundwater flow). For a calibration of runoff model HBV Light and MIKE SHE we use measured daily discharge data of the river I\\vska (1970-2010) and groundwater level data along the river (2010-2013) respectively. In groundwater modelling, we include the data of water pumping. Daily precipitation and temperature for period 2020 - 2050 are from ESAMBLE project for two GCM climate scenarios. We

  7. Grass mulching effect on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of three agricultural soils in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekalu, K O; Olorunfemi, I A; Osunbitan, J A

    2007-03-01

    Mulching the soil surface with a layer of plant residue is an effective method of conserving water and soil because it reduces surface runoff, increases infiltration of water into the soil and retard soil erosion. The effectiveness of using elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) as mulching material was evaluated in the laboratory using a rainfall simulator set at rainfall intensities typical of the tropics. Six soil samples, two from each of the three major soil series representing the main agricultural soils in South Western Nigeria were collected, placed on three different slopes, and mulched with different rates of the grass. The surface runoff, soil loss, and apparent cumulative infiltration were then measured under each condition. The results with elephant grass compared favorably with results from previous experiments using rice straw. Runoff and soil loss decreased with the amount of mulch used and increased with slope. Surface runoff, infiltration and soil loss had high correlations (R = 0.90, 0.89, and 0.86, respectively) with slope and mulch cover using surface response analysis. The mean surface runoff was correlated negatively with sand content, while mean soil loss was correlated positively with colloidal content (clay and organic matter) of the soil. Infiltration was increased and soil loss was reduced greatly with the highest cover. Mulching the soils with elephant grass residue may benefit late cropping (second cropping) by increasing stored soil water for use during dry weather and help to reduce erosion on sloping land.

  8. Estimation of surface runoff for calculating recharge in the karstic massif of Ports of Beseit (Tarragona, Spain) combining water balance in the soil and analysis of flow hydrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Martinez, S.; Custodio, E.

    2016-01-01

    For the right estimation of aquifer recharge by precipitation surface taking into account runoff is particularly relevant. Non considering it in the estimation of the groundwater resources can overestimate them. In the Baix Ebre aquifer system, in southern Catalonia, the surface and vadose zone runoff produced in the karstified carbonate formations in the Ports de Beseit massif has to be evaluated in order to achieve a better estimation of the resources transferred from this massif to the Plana de La Galera plain. Starting from the conceptual hydrogeological model, the average annual runoff is estimated. It includes the discharge from temporal perched aquifers in the Ports de Beseit massif, in the Matarraña river basin, and in the SE watershed to the Plana de La Galera plain. This is performed by analyzing the river and tributaries hydrographs, the filling and emptying hydrographs of the Ulldecona reservoir, and the soil water balance using the Visual Balan code applied to obtain the runoff in the Ulldecona reservoir watershed. The runoff has been estimated about 105±20 mm·yr−1, which represents 20–30% of average annual recharge in the Ports, estimated with soil water balance and atmospheric chloride deposition balance, about 350–500 mm·yr−1, which is mostly transferred laterally to the Plana de La Galera plain. (Author)

  9. Earthworms and tree roots: A model study of the effect of preferential flow paths on runoff generation and groundwater recharge in steep, saprolitic, tropical lowland catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanyan; Ogden, Fred L.; Zhu, Jianting

    2017-07-01

    Preferential flow paths (PFPs) affect the hydrological response of humid tropical catchments but have not received sufficient attention. We consider PFPs created by tree roots and earthworms in a near-surface soil layer in steep, humid, tropical lowland catchments and hypothesize that observed hydrological behaviors can be better captured by reasonably considering PFPs in this layer. We test this hypothesis by evaluating the performance of four different physically based distributed model structures without and with PFPs in different configurations. Model structures are tested both quantitatively and qualitatively using hydrological, geophysical, and geochemical data both from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Agua Salud Project experimental catchment(s) in Central Panama and other sources in the literature. The performance of different model structures is evaluated using runoff Volume Error and three Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency measures against observed total runoff, stormflows, and base flows along with visual comparison of simulated and observed hydrographs. Two of the four proposed model structures which include both lateral and vertical PFPs are plausible, but the one with explicit simulation of PFPs performs the best. A small number of vertical PFPs that fully extend below the root zone allow the model to reasonably simulate deep groundwater recharge, which plays a crucial role in base flow generation. Results also show that the shallow lateral PFPs are the main contributor to the observed high flow characteristics. Their number and size distribution are found to be more important than the depth distribution. Our model results are corroborated by geochemical and geophysical observations.

  10. Glacier surface mass balance and freshwater runoff modeling for the entire Andes Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Yde, Jacob C.

    2017-04-01

    Glacier surface mass balance (SMB) observations for the Andes Cordillera are limited and, therefore, estimates of the SMB contribution from South America to sea-level rise are highly uncertain. Here, we simulate meteorological, snow, glacier surface, and hydrological runoff conditions and trends for the Andes Cordillera (1979/80-2013/14), covering the tropical latitudes in the north down to the sub-polar latitudes in the far south, including the Northern Patagonia Ice Field (NPI) and Southern Patagonia Ice Field (SPI). SnowModel - a fully integrated energy balance, blowing-snow distribution, multi-layer snowpack, and runoff routing model - was used to simulate glacier SMBs for the Andes Cordillera. The Randolph Glacier Inventory and NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications products, downscaled in SnowModel, allowed us to conduct relatively high-resolution simulations. The simulated glacier SMBs were verified against independent directly-observed and satellite gravimetry and altimetry-derived SMB, indicating a good statistical agreement. For glaciers in the Andes Cordillera, the 35-year mean annual SMB was found to be -1.13 m water equivalent. For both NPI and SPI, the mean SMB was positive (where calving is the likely reason for explaining why geodetic estimates are negative). Further, the spatio-temporal freshwater river runoff patterns from individual basins, including their runoff magnitude and change, were simulated. For the Andes Cordillera rivers draining to the Pacific Ocean, 86% of the simulated runoff originated from rain, 12% from snowmelt, and 2% from ice melt, whereas, for example, for Chile, the water-source distribution was 69, 24, and 7%, respectively. Along the Andes Cordillera, the 35-year mean basin outlet-specific runoff (L s-1 km-2) showed a characteristic regional hourglass shape pattern with highest runoff in both Colombia and Ecuador and in Patagonia, and lowest runoff in the Atacama Desert area.

  11. Critical review: Copper runoff from outdoor copper surfaces at atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Hedberg, Jonas F; Herting, Gunilla; Goidanich, Sara; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-01-01

    This review on copper runoff dispersed from unsheltered naturally patinated copper used for roofing and facades summarizes and discusses influencing factors, available literature, and predictive models, and the importance of fate and speciation for environmental risk assessment. Copper runoff from outdoor surfaces is predominantly governed by electrochemical and chemical reactions and is highly dependent on given exposure conditions (size, inclination, geometry, degree of sheltering, and orientation), surface parameters (age, patina composition, and thickness), and site-specific environmental conditions (gaseous pollutants, chlorides, rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, pH), wind direction, temperature, time of wetness, season). The corrosion rate cannot be used to assess the runoff rate. The extent of released copper varies largely between different rain events and is related to dry and wet periods, dry deposition prior to the rain event and prevailing rain and patina characteristics. Interpretation and use of copper runoff data for environmental risk assessment and management need therefore to consider site-specific factors and focus on average data of long-term studies (several years). Risk assessments require furthermore that changes in copper speciation, bioavailability aspects, and potential irreversible retention on solid surfaces are considered, factors that determine the environmental fate of copper runoff from outdoor surfaces.

  12. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The area is heavily populated with a high density of industrial activities which may pose a risk for groundwater and surface water resources. The groundwater and surface water quality was investigated as a basis for more future investigations. The results revealed highly variable water hydrochemistry. High values of ...

  13. Geophysical research results of buried relief and distribution groundwater runoff of the Aragats massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Vardanyan

    2017-03-01

    Overall, the new data concerning the structure of the buried relief of Aragats massif and the distribution of its underground runoff allow to develop effective measures for the selection of underground waters and their rational usage for the purpose of water supply and irrigation.

  14. Effect of soil surface conditions on runoff velocity and sediment mean aggregate diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    César Ramos, Júlio; Bertol, Ildegardis; Paz González, Antonio; de Souza Werner, Romeu; Marioti, Juliana; Henrique Bandeira, Douglas; Andrighetti Leolatto, Lidiane

    2013-04-01

    Soil cover and soil management are the factors that most influence soil erosion by water, because they directly affect soil surface roughness and surface cover. The main effect of soil cover by crop residues consists in dissipation of kinetic energy of raindrops and also partly kinetic energy of runoff, so that the soil disaggregation is considerably reduced but, in addition, soil cover captures detached soil particles, retains water on its surface and decreases runoff volume and velocity. In turn, soil surface roughness, influences soil surface water storage and infiltration and also runoff volume and velocity, sediment retention and subsequently water and sediment losses. Based on the above rationale, we performed a field experiment to assess the influence of soil cover and soil surface roughness on decay of runoff velocity as well as on mean diameter of transported sediments (D50 index). The following treatments were evaluated: SRR) residues of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on a smooth soil surfcace, SRV) residues of common vetch (Vicia sativa) on a smooth soil surface, SSR) scarification after cultivation of Italian ryegrass resulting in a rough surface, SSV) scarification after cultivation of common vetch resulting in a rough surface, and SBS) scarified bare soil with high roughness as a control. The field experiments was performed on an Inceptisol in South Brazil under simulated rainfall conditions during 2012. Experimental plots were 11 m long and 3.5 m wide with an area of 38.5 m2. Six successive simulated rainfall tests were applied using a rotating-boom rain simulator. During each test, rain intensity was 60 mmhr-1, whereas rain duration was 90 minutes. Runoff velocity showed no significant differences between cultivated treatments. However, when compared to bare soil treatment, SBS (0.178 m s-1) and irrespective of the presence of surface crop residues or scarification operations, cultivated soil treatments significantly reduced runoff velocity

  15. Using SWAT-MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interactions in an intensively irrigated stream-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X.; Bailey, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural irrigated watersheds in semi-arid regions face challenges such as waterlogging, high soil salinity, reduced crop yield, and leaching of chemical species due to extreme shallow water tables resulting from long-term intensive irrigation. Hydrologic models can be used to evaluate the impact of land management practices on water yields and groundwater-surface water interactions in such regions. In this study, the newly developed SWAT-MODFLOW, a coupled surface/subsurface hydrologic model, is applied to a 950 km2 watershed in the Lower Arkansas River Valley (southeastern Colorado). The model accounts for the influence of canal diversions, irrigation applications, groundwater pumping, and earth canal seepage losses. The model provides a detailed description of surface and subsurface flow processes, thereby enabling detailed description of watershed processes such as runoff, infiltration, in-streamflow, three-dimensional groundwater flow in a heterogeneous aquifer system with sources and sinks (e.g. pumping, seepage to subsurface drains), and spatially-variable surface and groundwater exchange. The model was calibrated and tested against stream discharge from 5 stream gauges in the Arkansas River and its tributaries, groundwater levels from 70 observation wells, and evapotranspiration (ET) data estimated from satellite (ReSET) data during the 1999 to 2007 period. Since the water-use patterns within the study area are typical of many other irrigated river valleys in the United States and elsewhere, this modeling approach is transferable to other regions.

  16. Urban Land: Study of Surface Run-off Composition and Its Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagin, E. D.; Gridneva, M. A.; Bykova, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    The qualitative composition of urban land surface run-off is liable to significant variations. To study surface run-off dynamics, to examine its behaviour and to discover reasons of these variations, it is relevant to use the mathematical apparatus technique of time series analysis. A seasonal decomposition procedure was applied to a temporary series of monthly dynamics with the annual frequency of seasonal variations in connection with a multiplicative model. The results of the quantitative chemical analysis of surface wastewater of the 22nd Partsjezd outlet in Samara for the period of 2004-2016 were used as basic data. As a result of the analysis, a seasonal pattern of variations in the composition of surface run-off in Samara was identified. Seasonal indices upon 15 waste-water quality indicators were defined. BOD (full), suspended materials, mineralization, chlorides, sulphates, ammonium-ion, nitrite-anion, nitrate-anion, phosphates (phosphorus), iron general, copper, zinc, aluminium, petroleum products, synthetic surfactants (anion-active). Based on the seasonal decomposition of the time series data, the contribution of trends, seasonal and accidental components of the variability of the surface run-off indicators was estimated.

  17. Heavy metal contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of Vilnius, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytautas Ignatavičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff from urbanized territories carries a wide range of pollutants. Sediments in untreated runoff from direct discharge stormwater systems significantly contribute to urban waterway pollution. In this study, heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ba, As and Fe contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of the city of Vilnius was investigated. The surface runoff sediment samples were collected from seven dischargers with the highest volume rate of water flow and concentrations of suspended solids. The geospatial analysis of the distribution of heavy metals shows that there are several active pollution sources supplying the dischargers with contaminated sediments. Most of these areas are located in the central part of the city and in old town with intense traffic. Principal components analysis and t-test results clearly depicted the significantly different chemical compositions of winter and autumn surface sediment samples. The sampling approach and assessment of results provide a useful tool to examine the contamination that is generated in urban areas, distinguish pollution sources and give a better understanding of the importance of permeable surfaces and green areas.

  18. Applying a regional hydrology model to evaluate locations for groundwater replenishment with hillslope runoff under different climate and land use scenarios in an agricultural basin, central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganskas, S.; Young, K. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Lozano, S.; Harmon, R. E.; Teo, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    We are applying a regional hydrology model, Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), to evaluate locations for groundwater replenishment with hillslope runoff in the Pajaro Valley Groundwater Basin (PVGB), central coastal California. Stormwater managed aquifer recharge (MAR) projects collect hillslope runoff before it reaches a stream and infiltrate it into underlying aquifers, improving groundwater supply. The PVGB is a developed agricultural basin where groundwater provides >85% of water for irrigation and municipal needs; stormwater-MAR projects are being considered to address chronic overdraft and saltwater intrusion. We are applying PRMS to assess on a subwatershed scale (10-100 ha; 25-250 acres) where adequate runoff is generated to supply stormwater-MAR in coincidence with suitable conditions for infiltration and recharge. Data from active stormwater-MAR projects in the PVGB provide ground truth for model results. We are also examining how basinwide hydrology responds to changing land use and climate, and the potential implications for future water management. To prepare extensive input files for PRMS models, we developed ArcGIS and Python tools to delineate a topographic model grid and incorporate high-resolution soil, vegetation, and other physical data into each grid region; we also developed tools to analyze and visualize model output. Using historic climate records, we generated dry, normal, and wet climate scenarios, defined as having approximately 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile annual rainfall, respectively. We also generated multiple land use scenarios by replacing developed areas with native vegetation. Preliminary results indicate that many parts of the PVGB generate significant runoff and have suitable infiltration/recharge conditions. Reducing basinwide overdraft by 10% would require collecting less than 5% of total hillslope runoff, even during the dry scenario; this demonstrates that stormwater-MAR could be an effective water management

  19. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater and surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, R.; Kreins, P.; Tetzlaff, B.; Wendland, F.

    2009-04-01

    reactive nitrate transport in the soil-groundwater system. Nitrogen transport by groundwater runoff, surface runoff, drainage runoff and natural interflow is considered. In a first step the model is used to analyze the present situation using N surpluses from agriculture for the year 2003. In many region of the Weser basin, particularly in the northwestern part which is characterized by high livestock densities, predicted nitrate concentrations in percolation water exceed the EU groundwater quality standard of 50 mg/L by far. In parallel, high nitrogen outputs to surface waters via the different pathways are predicted for these areas. The regional importance of a specific outtake pathway for nitrogen, however, may vary significantly depending on the individual site characteristics. Based on the results of the analysis of the present situation regionally adapted and hence effective agri-environmental reduction measures need to be derived and implemented to improve groundwater and surface water quality by 2015. These measures include both single measures and combination of measures, which will be analyzed with regard to their impact on the regional quality of percolation water and on their impacts on the regional agricultural income. In this context it is very important to distinguish between the effects of measures, which have already been implemented by current agricultural policy and measures which have to be additionally implemented to meet the environmental targets of the EU Water Framework Directive. For this purpose a baseline scenario is developed, which projects the effects of modified general conditions of the agricultural sector on the nitrogen surpluses to the year 2015. In this baseline scenario the effects of the common agricultural policy (CAP) of the EU, already implemented agri-environmental measures of the Federal States and the expected developments of agriculture are considered. According to this scenario the nitrogen surpluses for agricultural areas can

  20. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  1. Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Materials And Runoff Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  2. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores

  3. Water quality of surface runoff and lint yield in cotton under furrow irrigation in Northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of furrow irrigation in row crop production is a common practice through much of the Midsouth US. Problems with these systems arise when nutrients are transported off-site through surface runoff. A field study with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) was conducted to understand the impact of tillage...

  4. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  5. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  6. Hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater and surface water in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted on the hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater and surface water in the Ndop plain, North West Cameroon. The objectives were to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of water, controls on water chemistry and suitability for drinking and irrigation. Forty-six shallow groundwater and 26 ...

  7. The interaction between surface water and groundwater and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The relationship between surface water and groundwater not only influences the water quantity, but also affects the water quality. The stable isotopes (δD, δ18O) and hydrochemical compositions in water samples were analysed in the Second Songhua River basin. The deep groundwater is mainly recharged from shallow ...

  8. Evaluation of Surface Runoff Generation Processes Using a Rainfall Simulator: A Small Scale Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danáčová, Michaela; Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, rainfall simulators are being used by many researchers in field or laboratory experiments. The main objective of most of these experiments is to better understand the underlying runoff generation processes, and to use the results in the process of calibration and validation of hydrological models. Many research groups have assembled their own rainfall simulators, which comply with their understanding of rainfall processes, and the requirements of their experiments. Most often, the existing rainfall simulators differ mainly in the size of the irrigated area, and the way they generate rain drops. They can be characterized by the accuracy, with which they produce a rainfall of a given intensity, the size of the irrigated area, and the rain drop generating mechanism. Rainfall simulation experiments can provide valuable information about the genesis of surface runoff, infiltration of water into soil and rainfall erodibility. Apart from the impact of physical properties of soil, its moisture and compaction on the generation of surface runoff and the amount of eroded particles, some studies also investigate the impact of vegetation cover of the whole area of interest. In this study, the rainfall simulator was used to simulate the impact of the slope gradient of the irrigated area on the amount of generated runoff and sediment yield. In order to eliminate the impact of external factors and to improve the reproducibility of the initial conditions, the experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions. The laboratory experiments were carried out using a commercial rainfall simulator, which was connected to an external peristaltic pump. The pump maintained a constant and adjustable inflow of water, which enabled to overcome the maximum volume of simulated precipitation of 2.3 l, given by the construction of the rainfall simulator, while maintaining constant characteristics of the simulated precipitation. In this study a 12-minute rainfall with a constant intensity

  9. Assessment of the relation between atmospheric precipitation and rainwater runoff for various urban surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniak Alicja

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the diurnal sum of atmospheric precipitation and the diurnal volume of rainwater runoff from four experimental hardened surfaces was the subject of a pilot study conducted within the area of the Departmental Agro- and Hydrometeorology Observatory in Wrocław. The selection and the structure of the experimental surfaces were preceded with an inventory-taking of the coverage of hardened surfaces within a Wrocław housing estate with high-rise multifamily buildings. That estate was the second location, next to the area of the Observatory, at which the study presented here was conducted. The surfaces included in the experiment were roof surfaces P1 and P2 covered with heat-sealable roll roofing, surface APB made of gravel-filled openwork concrete plates, and tarmac surface AS. The pilot study was conducted during the period from April to November, 2014. During that period, depending on the type of experimental surface, from 81 to 87 days with atmospheric precipitation were analysed. The mean values of the rainwater runoff coefficients for the eightmonth period were 0.77, 0.77, 0.33 and 0.67 for surfaces P1, P2, APB and AS, respectively. The range of variability of mean values of the coefficients of rainwater runoff from the experimental surfaces in a month is presented by the following relation: APB > P1 > AS > P2. The study did not reveal any direct effect of the number of rainfall days in a month on the value of the coefficient of determination describing the correlation between the diurnal sums of precipitation and the diurnal volumes of rainwater runoff.

  10. Effect of soil surface roughness on infiltration water, ponding and runoff on tilled soils under rainfall simulation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Longshan; Hou, Rui; Wu, Faqi; Keesstra, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    Agriculture has a large effect on the properties of the soil and with that on soil hydrology. The partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff is relevant to understand runoff generation, infiltration and soil erosion. Tillage manages soil surface properties and generates soil surface

  11. Inorganic constituents in surface runoff from urbanised areas in winter: the case study of the city of Brest, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bulskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the inorganic constituents of snow and snowmelt surface runoff in a case study of the city of Brest and to indicate components that could pose a threat to the environment. Samples of snow and snowmelt runoff were analysed for the following parameters: total suspended solids, pH, the contents of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions, and of heavy metals. The concentrations of most of these pollutants were higher in the snowmelt runoff than in snow. The concentrations of pollutants in the snowmelt surface runoff exceeded the levels established by national regulations (maximum permissible concentrations.

  12. Groundwater sustainability and groundwater/surface-water interaction in arid Dunhuang Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingjing; Ma, Rui; Hu, Yalu; Sun, Ziyong; Wang, Yanxin; McCarter, Colin P. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Dunhuang Basin, a typical inland basin in northwestern China, suffers a net loss of groundwater and the occasional disappearance of the Crescent Lake. Within this region, the groundwater/surface-water interactions are important for the sustainability of the groundwater resources. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was established and calibrated using MODFLOW 2000, which was used to predict changes to these interactions once a water diversion project is completed. The simulated results indicate that introducing water from outside of the basin into the Shule and Danghe rivers could reverse the negative groundwater balance in the Basin. River-water/groundwater interactions control the groundwater hydrology, where river leakage to the groundwater in the Basin will increase from 3,114 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 11,875 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 17,039 × 104 m3/year in 2036. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the rivers will decrease from 3277 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 1857 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 510 × 104 m3/year by 2036; thus, the hydrology will switch from groundwater discharge to groundwater recharge after implementing the water diversion project. The simulation indicates that the increased net river infiltration due to the water diversion project will raise the water table and then effectively increasing the water level of the Crescent Lake, as the lake level is contiguous with the water table. However, the regional phreatic evaporation will be enhanced, which may intensify soil salinization in the Dunhuang Basin. These results can guide the water allocation scheme for the water diversion project to alleviate groundwater depletion and mitigate geo-environmental problem.

  13. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  14. The measurement of dry deposition and surface runoff to quantify urban road pollution in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunn-Jinn; Chen, Chi-Feng; Lin, Jen-Yang

    2013-10-16

    Pollutants deposited on road surfaces and distributed in the environment are a source of nonpoint pollution. Field data are traditionally hard to collect from roads because of constant traffic. In this study, in cooperation with the traffic administration, the dry deposition on and road runoff from urban roads was measured in Taipei City and New Taipei City, Taiwan. The results showed that the dry deposition is 2.01-5.14 g/m(2) · day and 78-87% of these solids are in the 75-300 µm size range. The heavy metals in the dry deposited particles are mainly Fe, Zn, and Na, with average concentrations of 34,978, 1,519 and 1,502 ppm, respectively. Elevated express roads show the highest heavy metal concentrations. Not only the number of vehicles, but also the speed of the traffic should be considered as factors that influence road pollution, as high speeds may accelerate vehicle wear and deposit more heavy metals on road surfaces. In addition to dry deposition, the runoff and water quality was analyzed every five minutes during the first two hours of storm events to capture the properties of the first flush road runoff. The sample mean concentration (SMC) from three roads demonstrated that the first flush runoff had a high pollution content, notably for suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, Pb, and Zn. Regular sweeping and onsite water treatment facilities are suggested to minimize the pollution from urban roads.

  15. Introduction of inclined open channels for the control of surface runoff of slopes in road structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hniad O.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of water erosion induced by runoff speeds at the surface of the embankments causes their instability. Particularly in road environments, gullying on the slope's surface due to runoffs causes landslides, which in turn cause considerable damage and consequent disorders to the road network. The aim of this research is to put in place a new technology for superficial water drainage on slope surfaces. Our study has developed a methodology involving the change of the geometric configuration of the water flow, aiming at velocity control of the flows by choosing slanting waterways with small slopes coupled to vertical drains. A modelling of the proposed solution will evaluate its effectiveness as to prevent the erosive factor and to identify other factors that are responsible for slope disorders.

  16. Contamination by urban superficial runoff: accumulated heavy metals on a road surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the behaviour of accumulated contamination on urban surfaces is important in designing control methods minimising the impacts of surface runoff on the environment. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on the surface of an urban road in the city of Torrelavega in northern Spain during a period of 65 days during which 132 samples were collected. Two types of sediment collection samples were obtained: vacuumed dry samples (free load and those swept up following vacuuming (fixed load. The results showed that heavy metal concentration in the collected sediment (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was inversely proportional to particle diameter. High heavy metal concentrations were found in the smaller fraction (63 pm. Regression equations were calculated for heavy metal concentration regarding particle diameter. Large heavy metal loads were found in the larger fraction (125 pm. The results provide information for analysing runoff water quality in urban areas and designing treatment strategies.

  17. Inverse modeling of hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Hou, Z.; Huang, M.; Tian, F.; Leung, L. Ruby

    2013-12-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of inverting hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Previous studies showed that surface flux and runoff calculations are sensitive to major hydrologic parameters in CLM4 over different watersheds, and illustrated the necessity and possibility of parameter calibration. Both deterministic least-square fitting and stochastic Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-Bayesian inversion approaches are evaluated by applying them to CLM4 at selected sites with different climate and soil conditions. The unknowns to be estimated include surface and subsurface runoff generation parameters and vadose zone soil water parameters. We find that using model parameters calibrated by the sampling-based stochastic inversion approaches provides significant improvements in the model simulations compared to using default CLM4 parameter values, and that as more information comes in, the predictive intervals (ranges of posterior distributions) of the calibrated parameters become narrower. In general, parameters that are identified to be significant through sensitivity analyses and statistical tests are better calibrated than those with weak or nonlinear impacts on flux or runoff observations. Temporal resolution of observations has larger impacts on the results of inverse modeling using heat flux data than runoff data. Soil and vegetation cover have important impacts on parameter sensitivities, leading to different patterns of posterior distributions of parameters at different sites. Overall, the MCMC-Bayesian inversion approach effectively and reliably improves the simulation of CLM under different climates and environmental conditions. Bayesian model averaging of the posterior estimates with different reference acceptance probabilities can smooth the posterior distribution and provide more reliable parameter estimates, but at the expense of wider uncertainty bounds.

  18. [Pollution Characteristics of Surface Runoff of Typical Town in Chongqing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-tao; Duan, Bing-zheng; Zhao, Jian-wei; Hua, Yu-mei; Zhu, Duan-wei

    2015-08-01

    Six kinds of impermeable underlying surface, cement tile roof, asbestos roof, cement flat roof, residential concrete pavement, asphalt pavement of restaurants, asphalt pavement of oil depot, and a combined sewer overflow canal in the Jiansheng town of Dadukou district in Chongqing city were chosen as sample plots to study the characteristics of nutritional pollutants and heavy metals in town runoff. The research showed that the average mass concentrations of TSS, COD, TN, TP in road runoff were (1681.2 +/- 677.2), (1154.7 +/- 415.5), (12.07 +/- 2.72), (3.32 +/- 1.15) mgL(-1), respectively. These pollutants were higher than those in roof runoff which were (13.3 +/- 6.5), (100.4 +/- 24.8), (3.58 +/- 0.70), (0.10 +/- 0.02) mg x L(-1), respectively. TDN accounted for 62.60% +/- 34.38% of TN, and TDP accounted for 42.22% +/- 33.94% of TP in the runoff of impermeable underlying surface. Compared with the central urban runoff, town runoff in our study had higher mass concentrations of these pollutants. The mass concentrations of TSS, COD, TDN, TN, TDP and TP in the combined sewer overflow were (281.57 +/- 308.38), (231.21 +/- 42.95), (8.16 +/- 2.78), (10.60 +/- 3.94), (0.38 +/- 0.23) and (1.51 +/- 0.75) mg x L(-1), respectively. The average levels of heavy metals in this kind of runoff did not exceed the class VI level of the surface water environmental quality standard. Most pollutants in the combined sewer overflow had first flush. However, this phenomenon was very rare for TSS. There was a significant positive correlation between TSS and COD, TP in the combined sewer overflow. And this correlation was significant between NH4+ -N and TP, TDP, TN, TDP. However, a negative correlation existed between NO3- -N and all other indicators.

  19. Monitoring for Pesticides in Groundwater and Surface Water in Nevada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.; Carpenter, Jon; Moses, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial pesticide applicators, farmers, and homeowners apply about 1 billion pounds of pesticides annually to agricultural land, non-crop land, and urban areas throughout the United States (Gilliom and others, 2006, p. 1). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) defines a pesticide as any substance used to kill or control insects, weeds, plant diseases, and other pest organisms. Although there are important benefits from the proper use of pesticides, like crop protection and prevention of human disease outbreaks, there are also risks. One risk is the contamination of groundwater and surface-water resources. Data collected during 1992-2001 from 51 major hydrologic systems across the United States indicate that one or more pesticide or pesticide breakdown product was detected in more than 50 percent of 5,057 shallow (less than 20 feet below land surface) wells and in all of the 186 stream sites that were sampled in agricultural and urban areas (Gilliom and others, 2006, p. 2-4). Pesticides can contaminate surface water and groundwater from both point sources and non-point sources. Point sources are from specific locations such as spill sites, disposal sites, pesticide drift during application, and application of pesticides to control aquatic pests. Non-point sources represent the dominant source of surface water and groundwater contamination and may include agricultural and urban runoff, erosion, leaching from application sites, and precipitation that has become contaminated by upwind applications. Pesticides typically enter surface water when rainfall or irrigation exceeds the infiltration capacity of soil and resulting runoff then transports pesticides to streams, rivers, and other surface-water bodies. Contamination of groundwater may result directly from spills near poorly sealed well heads and from pesticide applications through improperly designed or malfunctioning irrigation systems that also are used to apply pesticides (chemigation; Carpenter and

  20. Retrospective Analysis of Recent Flood Events With Persistent High Surface Runoff From Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S.; Hakeem, K. Abdul; Raju, P. V.; Rao, V. V.; Yadav, A.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Floods are one of the most common and widespread disasters in India, with an estimated 40Mha of land prone to this natural disaster (National Flood Commission, India). Significant loss of property, infrastructure, livestock, public utilities resulting in large economic losses due to floods are recurrent every year in many parts of India. Flood forecasting and early warning is widely recognized and adopted as non-structural measure to lower the damages caused by the flood events. Estimating the rainfall excess that results into excessive river flow is preliminary effort in riverine flood estimation. Flood forecasting models are in general, are event based and do not fully account for successive and persistent excessive surface runoff conditions. Successive high rainfall events result in saturated soil moisture conditions, favourable for high surface runoff conditions. The present study is to explore the usefulness of hydrological model derived surface runoff, running on continuous times-step, to relate to the occurrence of flood inundation due to persistent and successive high surface runoff conditions. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), a macro-scale hydrological model, was used to simulate daily runoff at systematic grid level incorporating daily meteorological data and land cover data. VIC is a physically based, semi-distributed macroscale hydrological model that represents surface and subsurface hydrologic process on spatially distributed grid cell. It explicitly represents sub-grid heterogeneity in land cover classes, taking their phenological changes into account. In this study, the model was setup for entire India using geo-spatial data available from multiple sources (NRSC, NBSS&LUP, NOAA, and IMD) and was calibrated with river discharge data from CWC at selected river basins. Using the grid-wise surface runoff estimates from the model, an algorithm was developed through a set of thresholds of successive high runoff values in order to identify grids

  1. The effect of different surface materials on runoff quality in permeable pavement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Zhifei; Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Zhuorong; Liu, Dongqing; Li, Tanghu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of different permeable pavement surface materials on the removal of pollutants from urban storm-runoff, six commonly surface materials (porous asphalt, porous concrete, cement brick, ceramic brick, sand base brick, and shale brick) were selected in this study and the research was carried out by column experiments. Except the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N), nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the influent and effluent that were measured, the removal mechanism of pollutants was discussed further. The results indicate that the surface materials influence the removal efficiency of pollutants greatly and have different effects on certain pollutant. Furthermore, the physical interception and adsorption would be the main mechanism for the removal of pollutants from runoff. For example, for all surface materials, the average removal efficiency of TSS is nearly about 90.0% because of physical interception. Due to the amount of iron oxide, the removal efficiency of COD, NO 3 -N, and TN of shale brick was 88.2, 35.1, and 17.5%, respectively. NH 4 -N and TN can be easily removed by porous asphalt due to the high content of organic matter. By lacking of useful adsorption sites, all the surface materials had little effect on the removal of TP from runoff. This research could offer useful guidelines for the better design of permeable pavement system and promote the insight into the removal mechanism of pollutants in permeable pavement system. Graphical abstract Different types of materials for the different types of pollutants in the runoff purification capacity were significantly different, overall, shale brick and porous asphalt Shale bricks and porous asphalt have a better purification effect according to the six kinds of materials.

  2. Deep Groundwater Contributions to Surface Water in a Mountainous Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, D. G.; Harding, J. J.; Wilson, J. L.; Frisbee, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    With growing concerns about declining snowpack, warmer temperatures, and land use changes, it is becoming increasingly important to determine the sources that contribute to surface water. In western states, such as New Mexico, most of the surface water is derived from mountainous watersheds. However, the interaction between the groundwater and the surface water within these mountain systems is poorly understood. Geochemical data collected from a mesoscale (~200 km2) watershed in northern New Mexico indicate there may be significant groundwater contributions to the surface water that have largely been ignored in previous studies. Stable isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H and Piper diagrams for surface water, groundwater, and spring water are not geochemically distinct. Surface water solute concentrations for most constituents increase as a function of the drainage area while the stable isotopic signature remains constant, suggesting that the water is sourced from similar areas but has undergone differing degrees of geochemical evolution along different flow paths. Plots of SiO2 vs Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, and K+ show evidence of spatial evolution of groundwater with solute concentrations from the headwaters to the watershed outlet. We hypothesize that the increasing solute concentrations in the surface water are controlled by inputs from deep, more geochemically evolved groundwater. This is similar to what Frisbee et al. (2011) saw in the Saguache Watershed, though our watershed is significantly smaller and has a different geological setting. Due to the chemical kinetics involved, this more geochemically evolved groundwater would require longer residence time along a given flow path to achieve the observed chemical compositions. Significant contributions of old groundwater to surface water could result in the surface water system having increased buffering capacity against climate change. This deep groundwater component in watersheds has largely been unexplored. Our

  3. Atmospheric deposition and storm induced runoff of heavy metals from different impermeable urban surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Daniel; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2012-01-01

    Contaminants deposited on impermeable surfaces migrate to stormwater following rainfall events, but accurately quantifying their spatial and temporal yields useful for mitigation purposes is challenging. To overcome limitations in current sampling methods, a system was developed for rapid quantification of contaminant build-up and wash-off dynamics from different impervious surfaces. Thin boards constructed of concrete and two types of asphalt were deployed at different locations of a large carpark to capture spatially distributed contaminants from dry atmospheric deposition over specified periods of time. Following experimental exposure time, the boards were then placed under a rainfall simulator in the laboratory to generate contaminant runoff under controlled conditions. Single parameter effects including surface roughness and material composition, number of antecedent dry days, rain intensity, and water quality on contaminant build-up and wash-off yields could be investigated. The method was applied to quantify spatial differences in deposition rates of contaminants (TSS, zinc, copper and lead) at two locations varying in their distance to vehicle traffic. Results showed that boards exposed at an unused part of the carpark >50 m from vehicular traffic captured similar amounts of contaminants compared with boards that were exposed directly adjacent to the access route, indicating substantial atmospheric contaminant transport. Furthermore, differences in contaminant accumulation as a function of surface composition were observed. Runoff from asphalt boards yielded higher zinc loads compared with concrete surfaces, whereas runoff from concrete surfaces resulted in higher TSS concentrations attributed to its smoother surfaces. The application of this method enables relationships between individual contaminant behaviour and specific catchment characteristics to be investigated and provides a technique to derive site-specific build-up and wash-off functions required

  4. Characterization of groundwater flow for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to provide a description of the site investigation techniques and modelling approaches that can be used to characterise the flow of subsurface water at near surface disposal facilities in relation to the various development stages of the repositories. As one of the main goals of defining groundwater flow is to establish the possible contaminant migration, certain aspects related to groundwater transport are also described. Secondary objectives are to discuss the implications of various groundwater conditions with regard to the performance of the isolation systems

  5. Hydrology of prairie wetlands: Understanding the integrated surface-water and groundwater processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers and policy makers need to make decisions based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands. This article presents an overview of the hydrology of prairie wetlands intended for managers, policy makers, and researchers new to this field (e.g., graduate students), and a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding the hydrological functions of prairie wetlands and their responses to changes in climate and land use. The existence of prairie wetlands in the semi-arid environment of the Prairie-Pothole Region (PPR) depends on the lateral inputs of runoff water from their catchments because mean annual potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the PPR. Therefore, it is critically important to consider wetlands and catchments as highly integrated hydrological units. The water balance of individual wetlands is strongly influenced by runoff from the catchment and the exchange of groundwater between the central pond and its moist margin. Land-use practices in the catchment have a sensitive effect on runoff and hence the water balance. Surface and subsurface storage and connectivity among individual wetlands controls the diversity of pond permanence within a wetland complex, resulting in a variety of eco-hydrological functionalities necessary for maintaining the integrity of prairie-wetland ecosystems.

  6. The effect of GCM biases on global runoff simulations of a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Lamprini V.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Grillakis, Manolis G.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2017-09-01

    Global climate model (GCM) outputs feature systematic biases that render them unsuitable for direct use by impact models, especially for hydrological studies. To deal with this issue, many bias correction techniques have been developed to adjust the modelled variables against observations, focusing mainly on precipitation and temperature. However, most state-of-the-art hydrological models require more forcing variables, in addition to precipitation and temperature, such as radiation, humidity, air pressure, and wind speed. The biases in these additional variables can hinder hydrological simulations, but the effect of the bias of each variable is unexplored. Here we examine the effect of GCM biases on historical runoff simulations for each forcing variable individually, using the JULES land surface model set up at the global scale. Based on the quantified effect, we assess which variables should be included in bias correction procedures. To this end, a partial correction bias assessment experiment is conducted, to test the effect of the biases of six climate variables from a set of three GCMs. The effect of the bias of each climate variable individually is quantified by comparing the changes in simulated runoff that correspond to the bias of each tested variable. A methodology for the classification of the effect of biases in four effect categories (ECs), based on the magnitude and sensitivity of runoff changes, is developed and applied. Our results show that, while globally the largest changes in modelled runoff are caused by precipitation and temperature biases, there are regions where runoff is substantially affected by and/or more sensitive to radiation and humidity. Global maps of bias ECs reveal the regions mostly affected by the bias of each variable. Based on our findings, for global-scale applications, bias correction of radiation and humidity, in addition to that of precipitation and temperature, is advised. Finer spatial-scale information is also provided

  7. Simulation of groundwater and surface-water flow in the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; Risley, John C.; Pischel, Esther M.; La Marche, Jonathan L.

    2017-10-20

    This report describes a hydrologic model for the upper Deschutes Basin in central Oregon developed using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow model (GSFLOW). The upper Deschutes Basin, which drains much of the eastern side of the Cascade Range in Oregon, is underlain by large areas of permeable volcanic rock. That permeability, in combination with the large annual precipitation at high elevations, results in a substantial regional aquifer system and a stream system that is heavily groundwater dominated.The upper Deschutes Basin is also an area of expanding population and increasing water demand for public supply and agriculture. Surface water was largely developed for agricultural use by the mid-20th century, and is closed to additional appropriations. Consequently, water users look to groundwater to satisfy the growing demand. The well‑documented connection between groundwater and the stream system, and the institutional and legal restrictions on streamflow depletion by wells, resulted in the Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD) instituting a process whereby additional groundwater pumping can be permitted only if the effects to streams are mitigated, for example, by reducing permitted surface-water diversions. Implementing such a program requires understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of effects to streams from groundwater pumping. A groundwater model developed in the early 2000s by the USGS and OWRD has been used to provide insights into the distribution of streamflow depletion by wells, but lacks spatial resolution in sensitive headwaters and spring areas.The integrated model developed for this project, based largely on the earlier model, has a much finer grid spacing allowing resolution of sensitive headwater streams and important spring areas, and simulates a more complete set of surface processes as well as runoff and groundwater flow. In addition, the integrated model includes improved

  8. Surface runoff and retention of transported pollutants in strips of riparian vegetation with and without trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, Gustavo; Laterra, Pedro; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    In this study, some aspects related to the effect of the crack willow (Salix fragilis L.) invasion on the reduction of runoff and sediment retention, glyphosate, nitrogen and phosphorus in riparian environments with herbaceous vegetation of the Austral Pampa of Argentina were analysed. In order to evaluate the influence of the willows on the filtering mechanisms, surface runoff simulation experiments were carried out in plots of 1.5 m x 2.5 m in environments characterized by the presence vs. the absence of willows. In spite of the small length of the experimental plots, glyphosate retention in the tree-less plots reached 73.6%, a higher value than that recorded in tree stands (43.8%). However, sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus retention did not vary significantly between treatments. On the other hand, the reduction of the volume of runoff in the sites with trees reached 63%, a superior value to the one registered in strips without trees (31%). The presence of trees only significantly modified the biophysical properties of hydraulic conductivity, surface roughness, aerial biomass and soil moisture, compared to areas with no trees. Partial correlation analysis for both tree and no-tree environments showed that the reduction in runoff volume increased significantly with hydraulic conductivity, soil sand content and depth at the water table, and decreased with apparent density, soil moisture and the slope of the riverbank. However, sediment retention increased significantly with aerial, mulch and root biomass and decreased with the slope of the riparian strip. Glyphosate retention increased significantly with sediment retention and decreased with the slope of the riparian strip and the mulch biomass. Nitrogen retention increased with the reduction of runoff flow, soil hydraulic conductivity and depth to the water table and decreased with slope and sediment retention. While, phosphorus retention increased with sediment retention and decreased with slope and soil content

  9. Multifactor analysis and simulation of the surface runoff and soil infiltration at different slope gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Kang, Q.; Yang, J. X.; Jin, P. W.

    2017-08-01

    The surface runoff and soil infiltration exert significant influence on soil erosion. The effects of slope gradient/length (SG/SL), individual rainfall amount/intensity (IRA/IRI), vegetation cover (VC) and antecedent soil moisture (ASM) on the runoff depth (RD) and soil infiltration (INF) were evaluated in a series of natural rainfall experiments in the South of China. RD is found to correlate positively with IRA, IRI, and ASM factors and negatively with SG and VC. RD decreased followed by its increase with SG and ASM, it increased with a further decrease with SL, exhibited a linear growth with IRA and IRI, and exponential drop with VC. Meanwhile, INF exhibits a positive correlation with SL, IRA and IRI and VC, and a negative one with SG and ASM. INF was going up and then down with SG, linearly rising with SL, IRA and IRI, increasing by a logit function with VC, and linearly falling with ASM. The VC level above 60% can effectively lower the surface runoff and significantly enhance soil infiltration. Two RD and INF prediction models, accounting for the above six factors, were constructed using the multiple nonlinear regression method. The verification of those models disclosed a high Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and low root-mean-square error, demonstrating good predictability of both models.

  10. Tritium in Precipitation, Surface and Groundwaters in the Zagreb Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatincic, N.; Baresic, J.; Sironic, A.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Obelic, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope tritium (3H) and stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) were measured in Sava River, precipitation and groundwater at 3 monitoring wells (piezometers) and 1 production well of the Petrusevec aquifer, close to the Sava River. Samples were collected monthly during 2010. The investigation is included in the Regional IAEA Project RER/8/016 Using Environmental Isotopes for Evaluation of Streamwater/Groundwater Interactions in Selected Aquifers in the Danube Basin. Sava River is a tributary of Danube River and the aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of surface stream of Sava River to the groundwater of aquifer used for water exploitation. In this work only 3H results were presented. 3H was measured by liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220, using electrolytic enrichment for all samples. 3H activity in precipitation showed slight seasonal fluctuation between 4 TU and 14 TU, with higher values in summer. 3H activity of Sava River and groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer followed 3H of precipitation till May 2010. Significant increase of 3H in Sava River was observed in June, (199 @ 20) TU, and in the next month it fell down at 6 TU. Increase of 3H was also observed in groundwater but with damped response (maximum 60 TU) and with delay of 2 - 3 months related to Sava River. Different response of different piezometers and the well indicated the different infiltration times of surface water of Sava River to groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer. The increased 3H activity in surface and groundwaters was caused by release of tritiated water from the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, 30 km upstream from Zagreb. The results of 3H, 2H/1H and 18O/16O measurements will be used to determine the infiltration time of groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer using conceptual and mathematical models. (author)

  11. Transfer of spatio-temporal multifractal properties of rainfall to simulated surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Richard, Julien; Abbes, Jean-Baptiste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Willinger, Bernard; Cardinal, Hervé; Thouvenot, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we suggest to use scaling laws and more specifically Universal Multifractals (UM) to analyse in a spatio-temporal framework both the radar rainfall and the simulated surface runoff. Such tools have been extensively used to analyse and simulate geophysical fields extremely variable over wide range of spatio-temporal scales such as rainfall, but have not often if ever been applied to surface runoff. Such novel combined analysis helps to improve the understanding of the rainfall-runoff relationship. Two catchments of the chair "Hydrology for resilient cities" sponsored by Véolia, and of the European Interreg IV RainGain project are used. They are both located in the Paris area: a 144 ha flat urban area in the Seine-Saint-Denis County, and a 250 ha urban area with a significant portion of forest located on a steep hillside of the Bièvre River. A fully distributed urban hydrological model currently under development called Multi-Hydro is implemented to represent the catchments response. It consists in an interacting core between open source software packages, each of them representing a portion of the water cycle in urban environment. The fully distributed model is tested with pixels of size 5, 10 and 20 m. In a first step the model is validated for three rainfall events that occurred in 2010 and 2011, for which the Météo-France radar mosaic with a resolution of 1 km in space and 5 min in time is available. These events generated significant surface runoff and some local flooding. The sensitivity of the model to the rainfall resolution is briefly checked by stochastically generating an ensemble of realistic downscaled rainfall fields (obtained by continuing the underlying cascade process which is observed on the available range of scales) and inputting them into the model. The impact is significant on both the simulated sewer flow and surface runoff. Then rainfall fields are generated with the help of discrete multifractal cascades and inputted in the

  12. The Measurement of Dry Deposition and Surface Runoff to Quantify Urban Road Pollution in Taipei, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yang Lin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollutants deposited on road surfaces and distributed in the environment are a source of nonpoint pollution. Field data are traditionally hard to collect from roads because of constant traffic. In this study, in cooperation with the traffic administration, the dry deposition on and road runoff from urban roads was measured in Taipei City and New Taipei City, Taiwan. The results showed that the dry deposition is 2.01–5.14 g/m2·day and 78–87% of these solids are in the 75–300 µm size range. The heavy metals in the dry deposited particles are mainly Fe, Zn, and Na, with average concentrations of 34,978, 1,519 and 1,502 ppm, respectively. Elevated express roads show the highest heavy metal concentrations. Not only the number of vehicles, but also the speed of the traffic should be considered as factors that influence road pollution, as high speeds may accelerate vehicle wear and deposit more heavy metals on road surfaces. In addition to dry deposition, the runoff and water quality was analyzed every five minutes during the first two hours of storm events to capture the properties of the first flush road runoff. The sample mean concentration (SMC from three roads demonstrated that the first flush runoff had a high pollution content, notably for suspended solid (SS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, oil and grease, Pb, and Zn. Regular sweeping and onsite water treatment facilities are suggested to minimize the pollution from urban roads.

  13. Atrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine in surface runoff from conservation tilled watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipitalo, Martin J; Owens, Lloyd B

    2003-03-01

    Atrazine and two of its metabolites, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA), are frequently detected in surface runoff. Although their health and environmental effects may be similar to that of atrazine and ratios of their concentrations are useful in delineating sources of contamination, there have been few long-term studies of the factors affecting their losses in runoff. Therefore, losses of atrazine, DEA, and DIA were monitored for six years in runoff from seven small (0.45-0.79 ha) watersheds under three tillage practices. Weather year and the timing of runoff-producing rainfall had a greater effect on atrazine, DEA, and DIA concentrations and losses than did tillage practice. DEA was the most frequently detected metabolite with an average concentration in the year of atrazine application, of 2.5 microg L(-1) compared to 0.7 microg L(-1) for DIA. Atrazine exceeded its 3 /g L(-1) maximum contaminant level (MCL) up to 100 days after application. DEA and DIA exceeded the atrazine MCL up to 50 days after atrazine application; thus, failure to monitor their presence may result in underestimation of the environmental impact of atrazine usage. The molar concentration ratio of DEA to atrazine (DAR) was affected by tillage treatment, weather year, and possibly soil type. These factors may need to be taken into account when DAR is used as an index of atrazine movement. The ratio of DIA to DEA (D2R) was fairly constant and should be useful in determining the parent compounds contributing DIA to surface waters.

  14. Surface runoff and tile drainage transport of phosphorus in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas R; King, Kevin W; Johnson, Laura; Francesconi, Wendy; Richards, Pete; Baker, Dave; Sharpley, Andrew N

    2015-03-01

    The midwestern United States offers some of the most productive agricultural soils in the world. Given the cool humid climate, much of the region would not be able to support agriculture without subsurface (tile) drainage because high water tables may damage crops and prevent machinery usage in fields at critical times. Although drainage is designed to remove excess soil water as quickly as possible, it can also rapidly transport agrochemicals, including phosphorus (P). This paper illustrates the potential importance of tile drainage for P transport throughout the midwestern United States. Surface runoff and tile drainage from fields in the St. Joseph River Watershed in northeastern Indiana have been monitored since 2008. Although the traditional concept of tile drainage has been that it slowly removes soil matrix flow, peak tile discharge occurred at the same time as peak surface runoff, which demonstrates a strong surface connection through macropore flow. On our research fields, 49% of soluble P and 48% of total P losses occurred via tile discharge. Edge-of-field soluble P and total P areal loads often exceeded watershed-scale areal loadings from the Maumee River, the primary source of nutrients to the western basin of Lake Erie, where algal blooms have been a pervasive problem for the last 10 yr. As farmers, researchers, and policymakers search for treatments to reduce P loading to surface waters, the present work demonstrates that treating only surface runoff may not be sufficient to reach the goal of 41% reduction in P loading for the Lake Erie Basin. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Future Changes in Surface Runoff over Korea Projected by a Regional Climate Model under A1B Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses future change of surface runoff due to climate change over Korea using a regional climate model (RCM, namely, the Global/Regional Integrated Model System (GRIMs, Regional Model Program (RMP. The RMP is forced by future climate scenario, namely, A1B of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4. The RMP satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of surface runoff for the current climate simulation. The distribution of monsoonal precipitation-related runoff is adequately captured by the RMP. In the future (2040–2070 simulation, it is shown that the increasing trend of temperature has significant impacts on the intra-annual runoff variation. The variability of runoff is increased in summer; moreover, the strengthened possibility of extreme occurrence is detected in the future climate. This study indicates that future climate projection, including surface runoff and its variability over Korea, can be adequately addressed on the RMP testbed. Furthermore, this study reflects that global warming affects local hydrological cycle by changing major water budget components. This study adduces that the importance of runoff should not be overlooked in regional climate studies, and more elaborate presentation of fresh-water cycle is needed to close hydrological circulation in RCMs.

  16. Surface water and groundwater interaction in Marala - Khanki area, Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Latif, Z.; Tariq, J.A.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-07-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in two selected areas of Indus Basin viz. Haripur Area and Chashma- Taunsa Area for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Haripur Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of the Haripur pocket of Tarbela Lake are higher than those of Main Lake / Indus River meaning that there is a significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Indus River appeared to be the dominant source of groundwater recharge at most of the locations in Chashma- Taunsa Area. Isotopic data of Indus River showed an increase at Taunsa as compared to Chashma in low flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  17. Surface and groundwater management in the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.G.; Barker, J.

    2004-02-01

    A study was conducted to examine the sublethal effects of oil sands constituents on gill and liver histopathology and fish reproduction. Field studies of food web dynamics were conducted using stable isotopes, including oil sands constituents degradation isotope studies. The objective was to determine changes in food web dynamics associated with reclamation methods and maturity using stable isotopes. The study related changes in toxicity to changes in ground and surface naphthenic acids concentration and composition. It also demonstrated the natural attenuation of toxic chemicals as they travel through groundwater to potential surface water receptors. A methodology was developed to assess the natural attenuation capacity for future situations involving process-affected groundwater of different chemistry with different critical potential contaminants such as sulphides, metals, and specific organics. The mobility and natural attenuation of process water chemicals migrating in groundwater was also assessed. tabs., figs

  18. Integrated assessment of climate change impact on surface runoff contamination by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Patrick; Sheedy, Claudia; Rousseau, Alain N; Bourgeois, Gaétan; Chouinard, Gérald

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide transport by surface runoff depends on climate, agricultural practices, topography, soil characteristics, crop type, and pest phenology. To accurately assess the impact of climate change, these factors must be accounted for in a single framework by integrating their interaction and uncertainty. This article presents the development and application of a framework to assess the impact of climate change on pesticide transport by surface runoff in southern Québec (Canada) for the 1981-2040 period. The crop enemies investigated were: weeds for corn (Zea mays); and for apple orchard (Malus pumila), 3 insect pests (codling moth [Cydia pomonella], plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar], and apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella]), 2 diseases (apple scab [Venturia inaequalis], and fire blight [Erwinia amylovora]). A total of 23 climate simulations, 19 sites, and 11 active ingredients were considered. The relationship between climate and phenology was accounted for by bioclimatic models of the Computer Centre for Agricultural Pest Forecasting (CIPRA) software. Exported loads of pesticides were evaluated at the edge-of-field scale using the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), simulating both hydrology and chemical transport. A stochastic model was developed to account for PRZM parameter uncertainty. Results of this study indicate that for the 2011-2040 period, application dates would be advanced from 3 to 7 days on average with respect to the 1981-2010 period. However, the impact of climate change on maximum daily rainfall during the application window is not statistically significant, mainly due to the high variability of extreme rainfall events. Hence, for the studied sites and crop enemies considered, climate change impact on pesticide transported in surface runoff is not statistically significant throughout the 2011-2040 period. Integr Environ Assess Managem 2016;12:559-571. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2015; Published 2015 SETAC. © Her Majesty the

  19. Sustainable Groundwater and Surface Water Management in the Rio Yaqui Basin, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Hernandez, A.; Mayer, A. S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to focus on a coastal basin located primarily in Northwest Mexico, the Rio Yaqui Basin. The basin has roughly 72,000 square kilometers of land and it is classified as a semi-arid climate with an average rainfall of 527 mm per year. The water to meet user demands comes from three reservoirs, in series, constructed along the river. Agriculture is the main user of water in the basin. The farmers use groundwater as a buffer when the surface water is insufficient to meet irrigation demands. However, if the extractions become greater than the natural recharge, the aquifer could suffer irreversible damage caused by overexploitation and salt water intrusion. A rainfall-runoff model for the Rio Yaqui Basin has been created and calibrated on a monthly basis for a period of thirty years. A node link network that includes the main reservoirs and the river reaches is the conceptual basis for the surface water model. A MATLAB code was developed to estimate the monthly storage in the reservoirs by solving a water balance. The program reproduces the water allocation within the basin based on water rights and also includes the maximum groundwater usage allowed to the farmers. The rainfall-runoff model was coupled with a groundwater model of the Yaqui Valley developed by Addams (2004) and modified by Schoups (2006). This model includes flow in the main canals and infiltration to the aquifer. The impacts of climate change and climate variability on the surface water and groundwater storage are assessed. A sensitivity analysis was explored in order to assess the sustainability of the basin under various water management practices. Addams L. 2004. Water resource policy evaluation using a combined hydrologic-economic-agronomic modeling framework: Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico. Ph.D.dissertation, Stanford University. Schoups G., C.L.Addams, J.L.Minjares, and S.M.Gorelick. 2006. Sustainable conjunctive water management in irrigated agriculture: Model formulation

  20. Surface freshwater from Bay of Bengal runoff and Indonesian throughflow in the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, D.; Raj, B.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    haloclines in the BoB. If a shallow halocline resists diapycnal mixing, BoB surface water should continue to stay relatively fresh as it travels to remote regions of the tropical IO. Thus it is likely that most present day models underestimate the true reach...]), to examine BoB freshwater balance. 2. Bay of Bengal Freshwater In addition to several major rivers, numerous smaller streams discharge into the Bay of Bengal. The total an- nual continental runoff into the Bay is 2950 km3, obtained by integrating the Dai...

  1. Importance of moisture determination in studies of infiltration and surface runoff for long periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Fulginiti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the natural soil moisture is essential to solve problems related to irrigation water requirements, environmental considerations, and determination of surplus water. For the determination of runoff one can adopt models that consider exclusively the infiltration as a loss or one could use computational models of infiltration to model the infiltrated water. Models based on the infiltration calculation consider well the interaction between infiltration - runoff processes and provide additional information on the phenomenon of infiltration which establishes the existing conditions of moisture in the soil before the occurrence of a new event (simulation for long periods. These models require solving Richards’s equation and for this purpose it is necessary to determine the relation between the soil moisture - suction and hydraulic conductivity - suction which require the determination of the hydraulic properties that can be obtained by measuring the water content by moisture profiles. The aim of this study was the verification of these moisture curves in loessic soils in the south of the city of Cordoba, Argentina. To do this, measurements were done and compared with results of infiltration models based on the determined hydraulic functions. The measurements were done using three probes installed at different depths. The results showed that the values obtained with NETRAIN adequately represent the behavior of wetting and drying conditions of the studied soil.The determination of these curves provided a basis for future studies that include the advancement of agricultural chemicals in the soil and its potential capacity to pollute groundwater, fundamental issue to define environmental management policies.

  2. Acid-base status of soils in groundwater discharge zones — relation to surface water acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine

    1995-08-01

    Critical load calculations have suggested that groundwater at depth of 2 m in Sweden is very sensitive to acid load. As environmental isotope studies have shown that most of the runoff in streams has passed through the soil, there is a risk in the near future of accelerated acidification of surface waters. To assess the importance of the last soil horizon of contact before discharge, the upper 0-0.2m of soils in seven discharge zones were analysed for pools of base cations, acidity and base saturation. The sites were about 3-4 m 2 in size and selected from two catchments exposed to different levels of acid deposition. The soils in the seven sites had high concentrations of exchangeable base cations and consequently high base saturation. The high correlation ( r2 = 0.74) between base saturation in the soils of the discharge zones and mean pH of the runoff waters suggested that the discharge zone is important for surface water acidification. The high pool of exchangeable base cations will buffer initially against the acid load. As the cation exchange capacity (meq dm -3) and base saturation were lower in the sites from the catchment receiving lower deposition, these streams may be more vulnerable to acidification in the near future. The high concentration of base cations in non-exchangeable fractions may also buffer against acidification as it is likely that some of these pools will become exchangeable with time.

  3. The Interplay Between Transpiration and Runoff Formulations in Land Surface Schemes Used with Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Rindal D.; Milly, P. C. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) has shown that different land surface models (LSMS) driven by the same meteorological forcing can produce markedly different surface energy and water budgets, even when certain critical aspects of the LSMs (vegetation cover, albedo, turbulent drag coefficient, and snow cover) are carefully controlled. To help explain these differences, the authors devised a monthly water balance model that successfully reproduces the annual and seasonal water balances of the different PILPS schemes. Analysis of this model leads to the identification of two quantities that characterize an LSM's formulation of soil water balance dynamics: (1) the efficiency of the soil's evaporation sink integrated over the active soil moisture range, and (2) the fraction of this range over which runoff is generated. Regardless of the LSM's complexity, the combination of these two derived parameters with rates of interception loss, potential evaporation, and precipitation provides a reasonable estimate for the LSM's simulated annual water balance. The two derived parameters shed light on how evaporation and runoff formulations interact in an LSM, and the analysis as a whole underscores the need for compatibility in these formulations.

  4. The interaction between surface water and groundwater and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. The interaction between surface water and groundwater and its effect on water quality in the Second Songhua River basin, northeast China. Bing Zhang Xianfang Song Yinghua Zhang Ying Ma Changyuan Tang Lihu Yang Zhong-Liang Wang. Volume ...

  5. Hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater and surface water in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    judevom

    The analysed water was suitable for irrigation. Key words: Water chemistry, hydrochemical controls, drinking-irrigation quality, Ndop plain, Cameroon. INTRODUCTION. Groundwater and surface water geochemical studies can provide a better understanding of potential water quality variations due to geology and land use ...

  6. Studies on groundwater recharge through surface drains | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on groundwater recharge through surface drains. ... The model gives volume of water recharged for various rainfall events under different antecedent moisture conditions for both free flow and detained flow conditions. The value of recharge rate computed by using the model for a particular depth of flow in the drain ...

  7. major ions composition of the groundwater and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: Broad hydrochemical survey has been carried out to study the spatial variation of the major ions composition of the surface and groundwater systems in the Ethiopian volcanic terrain and associated Plio-Quaternary sediments. The result revealed wide hydrochemical variations controlled by geological ...

  8. Modelling the effects of surface water flood pulses on groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, P.P.; Wassen, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Flood pulses in wetlands steer ecosystem development directly through surface water processes and indirectly through the effects of the flood pulse on groundwater. Direct effects on ecosystems are exerted by e.g. inundation and deposition of sediments containing nutrients. Indirect effects include

  9. Effect of Saturated Near Surface on Nitrate and Ammonia Nitrogen Losses in Surface Runoff at the Loess Soil Hillslope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-bin Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution from agricultural fields is a global problem and cause of eutrophication of surface waters. A laboratory study was designed to evaluate the effects of near-surface hydraulic gradients on NO3–N and NH4–N losses in surface runoff from soil boxes at 27% slope undersimulated rainfall of a loess soil hillslope. Experimental treatments included two near-surface hydraulic gradients (free drainage, FD; saturation, SA, three fertilizer application rates (control, no fertilizer input; low, 120 kg N ha-1; high, 240 kg N ha-1, and simulated rainfall of 100 mm h-1 was applied for 70 min. The results showed that saturated near-surface soil moisture had dramatic effects on NO3–N and NH4–N losses and water quality. Under the low fertilizer treatment, average NO3–N concentrations in runoff water of SA averaged 2.2 times greater than that of FD, 1.6 times greater for NH4–N. Under the high fertilizer treatment, NO3–N concentrations in runoff water from SA averaged 5.7 times greater than that of FD, 4.3 times greater for NH4–N. Nitrogen loss formed with NO3–N is dominant during the event, but not NH4–N. Under the SA condition, the total loss of NO3–N from low fertilizer treatment was 34.2 to 42.3% of applied nitrogen, while under the FD treatment that was 3.9 to 6.9%. However, the total loss of NH4–N was less than 1% of applied nitrogen. These results showed that saturated condition could make significant contribution to water quality problems.

  10. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Holt, Rebecca [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully allocated, prospective development will require minimizing water use and seeking to use water resources in the most efficient manner. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater provides just such an opportunity. Conjunctive use includes two main practices: First, integrating surface water diversions and groundwater withdrawals to maximize efficiency and minimize impacts on other resource users and ecological processes. Second, conjunctive use includes capturing surplus or unused surface water and injecting or infiltrating that water into groundwater aquifers in order to increase recharge rates. Conjunctive management holds promise as a means of addressing some of the West's most intractable problems. Conjunctive management can firm up water supplies by more effectively capturing spring runoff and surplus water, and by integrating its use with groundwater withdrawals; surface and groundwater use can be further integrated with managed aquifer recharge projects. Such integration can maximize water storage and availability, while simultaneously minimizing evaporative loss, reservoir sedimentation, and surface use impacts. Any of these impacts, if left unresolved, could derail commercial-scale unconventional fuel development. Unconventional fuel developers could therefore benefit from incorporating conjunctive use into their development plans. Despite its advantages, conjunctive use is not a panacea. Conjunctive use means using resources in harmony to maximize and stabilize long-term supplies it does not mean maximizing the use of two separate but interrelated resources for unsustainable short-term gains and it cannot resolve all problems or provide water where no unappropriated water exists. Moreover, conjunctive use may pose risks to ecological values forgone when water that would otherwise remain in a stream

  11. Regulating urban surface runoff through nature-based solutions - An assessment at the micro-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zölch, Teresa; Henze, Lisa; Keilholz, Patrick; Pauleit, Stephan

    2017-08-01

    Urban development leads to changes of surface cover that disrupt the hydrological cycle in cities. In particular, impermeable surfaces and the removal of vegetation reduce the ability to intercept, store and infiltrate rainwater. Consequently, the volume of stormwater runoff and the risk of local flooding rises. This is further amplified by the anticipated effects of climate change leading to an increased frequency and intensity of heavy rain events. Hence, urban adaptation strategies are required to mitigate those impacts. A nature-based solution, more and more promoted in politics and academia, is urban green infrastructure as it contributes to the resilience of urban ecosystems by providing services to maintain or restore hydrological functions. However, this poses a challenge to urban planners in deciding upon effective adaptation measures as they often lack information on the performance of green infrastructure to moderate surface runoff. It remains unclear what type of green infrastructure (e.g. trees, green roofs), offers the highest potential to reduce discharge volumes and to what extent. Against this background, this study provides an approach to gather quantitative evidence on green infrastructure's regulation potential. We use a micro-scale scenario modelling approach of different variations of green cover under current and future climatic conditions. The scenarios are modelled with MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological simulation tool, and applied to a high density residential area of perimeter blocks in Munich, Germany. The results reveal that both trees and green roofs increase water storage capacities and hence reduce surface runoff, although the main contribution of trees lies in increasing interception and evapotranspiration, whereas green roofs allow for more retention through water storage in their substrate. With increasing precipitation intensities as projected under climate change their regulating potential decreases due to limited water

  12. Surface runoff water quality in a managed three zone riparian buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, Richard; Sheridan, Joseph M

    2005-01-01

    Managed riparian forest buffers are an important conservation practice but there are little data on the water quality effects of buffer management. We measured surface runoff volumes and nutrient concentrations and loads in a riparian buffer system consisting of (moving down slope from the field) a grass strip, a managed forest, and an unmanaged forest. The managed forest consisted of sections of clear-cut, thinned, and mature forest. The mature forest had significantly lower flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl N (TKN), sediment TKN, total N (nitrate + TKN), dissolved molybdate reactive P (DMRP), total P, and chloride. The average buffer represented the conditions along a stream reach with a buffer system in different stages of growth. Compared with the field output, flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, DMRP, and total P decreased significantly within the buffer and flow-weighted concentrations of TKN, total N, and chloride increased significantly within the buffer. All loads decreased significantly from the field to the middle of the buffer, but most loads increased from the middle of the buffer to the sampling point nearest the stream because surface runoff volume increased near the stream. The largest percentage reduction of the incoming nutrient load (at least 65% for all nutrient forms) took place in the grass buffer zone because of the large decrease (68%) in flow. The average buffer reduced loadings for all nutrient species, from 27% for TKN to 63% for sediment P. The managed forest and grass buffer combined was an effective buffer system.

  13. Free and conjugated estrogen exports in surface-runoff from poultry litter-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sudarshan; Inamdar, Shreeram; Tso, Jerry; Aga, Diana S; Sims, J Tom

    2010-01-01

    Land application of animal manures such as poultry litter is a common practice, especially in states with surplus manure. Past studies have shown that animal manure may contain estrogens, which are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and may pose a threat to aquatic and wildlife species. We evaluated the concentrations of estrogens in surface runoff from experimental plots (5 x 12 m each) receiving raw and pelletized poultry litter. We evaluated the free (estrone, E1; 17beta-estradiol, E2beta; estriol, E3) and conjugate forms (glucuronides and sulfates) of estrogens, which differ in their toxicity. Sampling was performed for 10 natural storm events over a 4-mo period (April-July 2008). Estrogen concentrations were screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), followed by quantification using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Concentrations of estrogens from ELISA were much higher than the LC/MS/MS values, indicating crossreactivity with organic compounds. Exports of estrogens were much lower from soils amended with pelletized poultry litter than the raw form of the litter. No-tillage management practice also resulted in a lower export of estrogens with surface runoff compared with reduced tillage. The concentrations and exports of conjugate forms of estrogens were much higher than the free forms for some treatments, indicating that the conjugate forms should be considered for a comprehensive assessment of the threat posed by estrogens.

  14. A characterization of Greenland Ice Sheet surface melt and runoff in contemporary reanalyses and a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Zhao, Bin; Koenig, Lora

    2016-02-01

    For the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), large-scale melt area has increased in recent years and is detectable via remote sensing, but its relation to runoff is not known. Historical, modeled melt area and runoff from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-Replay), the Interim Re-Analysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-I), the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR), and the Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) are examined. These sources compare favorably with satellite-derived estimates of surface melt area for the period 2000-2012. Spatially, the models markedly disagree on the number of melt days in the interior of the southern part of the ice sheet, and on the extent of persistent melt areas in the northeastern GrIS. Temporally, the models agree on the mean seasonality of daily surface melt and on the timing of large-scale melt events in 2012. In contrast, the models disagree on the amount, seasonality, spatial distribution, and temporal variability of runoff. As compared to global reanalyses, time series from MAR indicate a lower correlation between runoff and melt area (r2 = 0.805). Runoff in MAR is much larger in the second half of the melt season for all drainage basins, while the ASR indicates larger runoff in the first half of the year. This difference in seasonality for the MAR and to an extent for the ASR provide a hysteresis in the relation between runoff and melt area, which is not found in the other models. The comparison points to a need for reliable observations of surface runoff.

  15. Hydrochemical characteristic of surface and groundwater Lisichansk and Almazno-Marevske geological and industrial districts Nnorth-Eastern Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udalov Y.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporates a complex of problems accompanying the operation of coal deposits of Donbass. See hydrochemical characteristics of surface and groundwater Lisichansk and Almazno-Maryevskogo geological and industrial areas of the North-Eastern Donbass. Identified the main hydrochemical features of the waste mine waters of the enterprises of the coal industry on the territory of the studies. It is established that the surface waters of the study area exposed to intensive anthropogenic influence. Set content of basic elements-pollutants in surface waters. It is revealed that this pollution is of a complex nature. Identifies key elements contained in the effluent of industrial enterprises. Analyzed that a change of the chemical composition of groundwater has led to increased hardness and mineralization of water in the main water intakes of the research area. Identifies key elements-contaminants in groundwater. It was found that as a result of mine dewatering groundwater level fell over an area of 200km2, far exceeding the area of coal mining. This operational reserves fresh underground waters in the groundwater runoff module 1.2 dm3 / sec. km2 decreased by 200 - 300 m3 / day. Within funnel depression hydraulic connection is created not only a few confined aquifers, but also located near the mine fields. For example, in the area of Stakhanov the Luhansk region in general depression funnel width of about 25 km and a depth of 600-800m were 8 mine ("Central Irmino", "Maximovska" Ilyich, named after I.V. Chesnokov, "Krivoy Rog", 11-RAD "Brjankovsky" and "Dzerzhinsk". The purpose of research is general hydrochemical characteristics and identification of key elements polluting surface and groundwater Lisichanskiy and diamond-Marevskogo geological and industrial areas of the North-East Donbas.

  16. Reducing dissolved inorganic nitrogen in surface runoff water from sugarcane production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A J; Bartley, R; Armour, J D; Brodie, J E; Thorburn, P J

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) lost from farms, especially as the highly bioavailable dissolved inorganic form, may be damaging Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR). As sugarcane is the dominant cropping system in GBR catchments, its N management practises are coming under increasing scrutiny. This study measured dissolved inorganic N lost in surface runoff water and sugarcane productivity over 3 years. The experiment compared the conventional fertiliser N application rate to sugarcane (average 180kg N/ha/year) and a rate based on replacing N exported in the previous crop (average 94kg N/ha/year). Dissolved inorganic N losses in surface water were 72%, 48% and 66% lower in the three monitored years in the reduced N fertiliser treatment. There was no significant difference in sugarcane yield between the two fertiliser N treatments, nor any treatment difference in soil mineral N - both of these results are indicators of the sustainability of the lower fertiliser N applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coupled Surface and Groundwater Hydrological Modeling in a Changing Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Venkataramana; Billah, Mirza M; Hildreth, John W

    2017-11-09

    Many current watershed modeling efforts now incorporate surface water and groundwater for managing water resources since the exchanges between groundwater and surface water need a special focus considering the changing climate. The influence of groundwater dynamics on water and energy balance components is investigated in the Snake River Basin (SRB) by coupling the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and MODFLOW models (VIC-MF) for the period of 1986 through 2042. A 4.4% increase in base flows and a 10.3% decrease in peak flows are estimated by VIC-MF compared to the VIC model in SRB. The VIC-MF model shows significant improvement in the streamflow simulation (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE] of 0.84) at King Hill, where the VIC model could not capture the effect of spring discharge in the streamflow simulation (NSE of -0.30); however, the streamflow estimates show an overall decreasing trend. Two climate scenarios representing median and high radiative-forcings such as representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 show an average increase in the water table elevations between 2.1 and 2.6 m (6.9 and 8.5 feet) through the year 2042. The spatial patterns of these exchanges show a higher groundwater elevation of 15 m (50 feet) in the downstream area and a lower elevation of up to 3 m (10 feet) in the upstream area. Broadly, this study supports results of previous work demonstrating that integrated assessment of groundwater-surface water enables stakeholders to balance pumping, recharge and base flow needs and to manage the watersheds that are subjected to human pressures more sustainably. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Evaluating the Hydrologic Sensitivities of Three Land Surface Models to Bound Uncertainties in Runoff Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, T.; Nijssen, B.; Stickel, L.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic modeling is often used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on water availability and quality. A common approach in these studies is to calibrate the selected model(s) to reproduce historic stream flows prior to the application of future climate projections. This approach relies on the implicit assumptions that the sensitivities of these models to meteorological fluctuations will remain relatively constant under climate change and that these sensitivities are similar among models if all models are calibrated to the same historic record. However, even if the models are able to capture the historic variability in hydrological variables, differences in model structure and parameter estimation contribute to the uncertainties in projected runoff, which confounds the incorporation of these results into water resource management decision-making. A better understanding of the variability in hydrologic sensitivities between different models can aid in bounding this uncertainty. In this research, we characterized the hydrologic sensitivities of three watershed-scale land surface models through a case study of the Bull Run watershed in Northern Oregon. The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), and Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) were implemented and calibrated individually to historic streamflow using a common set of long-term, gridded forcings. In addition to analyzing model performances for a historic period, we quantified the temperature sensitivity (defined as change in runoff in response to change in temperature) and precipitation elasticity (defined as change in runoff in response to change in precipitation) of these three models via perturbation of the historic climate record using synthetic experiments. By comparing how these three models respond to changes in climate forcings, this research aims to test the assumption of constant and similar hydrologic sensitivities. Our

  19. International approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff in mitigating flood and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Bridget Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts a number of international approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff from new development and redevelopment, known as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS or low impact development (LID. The paper provides a commentary on the progress and current status of national standards for SuDS in the UK to control the frequency, flow rate and volume of runoff from both frequent and extreme rainfall events, and the best practice design criteria presented in the revised UK CIRIA SuDS Manual, published in November 2015. The paper then compares these design criteria and standards with those developed and applied in China, USA, France and Germany and also looks at the drivers behind their development. The benefits of these different approaches are assessed in the context of flood risk mitigation, climate resilience and wider environmental protection objectives, including water quality, morphology and ecology. The paper also reviews the design approaches promoted by the new SuDS Manual and internationally for delivering additional benefits for urban spaces (such as recreation, visual character, education and economic growth through multi-functional urban design.

  20. Design and Season Influence Nitrogen Dynamics in Two Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands Treating Nursery Irrigation Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. White

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands (CWs are used to remediate runoff from a variety of agricultural, industrial, and urban sources. CW remediation performance is often evaluated at the laboratory scale over durations less than one year. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of CW design (cell depth and residence time on nitrogen (N speciation and fate across season and years in two free water surface wetlands receiving runoff from irrigated plant production areas at an ornamental plant nursery. Water quality (mg·L−1 of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, dissolved oxygen and oxidation reduction potential was monitored at five sites within each of two CWs each month over four years. Nitrate-N was the dominant form of ionic N present in both CWs. Within CW1, a deep cell to shallow cell design, nitrate comprised 86% of ionic N in effluent. Within CW2, designed with three sequential deep cells, nitrate comprised only 66% of total N and ammonium comprised 27% of total N in CW2 effluent. Differences in ionic N removal efficacies and shifts in N speciation in CW1 and CW2 were controlled by constructed wetland design (depth and hydraulic retention time, the concentration of nutrients entering the CW, and plant species richness.

  1. Using Data Assimilation Method Via an Ensemble Kalman Filter to Predict Adsorptive Solute Cr(Ⅵ) Transfer from Soil into Surface Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, J.

    2014-12-01

    With the development of modern agriculture, large amount of fertilizer and pesticide outflow from farming land causes great wastes and contributes to serious pollution of surface water and groundwater, which threatens ecological environment and human life. In this paper, laboratory experiments are conducted to simulate adsorbed Cr(VI) transfer from soil into runoff. A two-layer in-mixing analytical model is developed to to analyze laboratory experimental results. A data assimilation (DA) method via the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is used to update parameters and improve predictions. In comparison with the observed data, DA results are much better than forward model predictions. Based on the used rainfall and relevant physical principles, the updated value of the incomplete mixing coefficient is about 7.4 times of the value of the incomplete mixing coefficient in experiment 1 and about 14.0 times in experiment 2, which indicates the loss of Cr(VI) in soil solute is mainly due to infiltration, rather than surface runoff. With the increase of soil adsorption ability and the mixing layer depth, the loss of soil solute will decrease. These results provide information for preventing and reducing the agricultural nonpoint source pollution.

  2. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  3. Recharging California's Groundwater: Crop Suitability and Surface Water Availability for Agricultural Groundwater Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Kocis, T. N.; Brown, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater banking, the intentional recharge of groundwater from surface water for storage and recovery, is an important conjunctive use strategy for water management in California (CA). A largely unexplored approach to groundwater banking, agricultural groundwater banking (ag-GB), utilizes flood flows and agricultural lands (alfalfa/pasture) for recharging groundwater. Understanding soil suitability for ag-GB, crop health and flooding tolerance, leaching of soil nitrate and salts, the availability of surface water for recharge, and the economic costs and benefits of ag-GB is fundamental to assessing the feasibility of local-scale implementation of ag-GB. The study presented here considers both the availability of excess streamflow (e.g., the magnitude, frequency, timing, and duration of winter flood flow) for ag-GB and the risks and benefits associated with using alfalfa fields as spreading grounds for ag-GB. The availability of surface water for winter (Nov to Apr) ag-GB were estimated based on daily streamflow records for 93 stream gauges within the Central Valley, CA. Analysis focused on high-magnitude (>90thpercentile) flows because most lower flows are likely legally allocated in CA. Results based >50 years of data indicate that an average winter/spring (Nov. - Apr.) in the Sacramento River Basin could provide 7 million acre-feet (AF) (8.6 km3) of water for ag-GB from flows above the 90th percentile. These flows originate from few storm events (5-7 events) and occur on average for 25-30 days between November and April. Wintertime on-farm recharge experiments were conducted on a 9-yr old, 15-acre alfalfa field in the Scott Valley, CA, where 135 AF and 107 AF of water were recharged during the winters of 2015 and 2016, respectively. Biomass data collected indicates that pulsed application of 6-10 ft of water on dormant alfalfa results in minimal yield loss (0.5 ton/acre reduction), short-duration saturated conditions in the root-zone, and high recharge

  4. Use pattern of pesticides and their predicted mobility into shallow groundwater and surface water bodies of paddy lands in Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinna, Piyal; Priyantha, Namal; Pitawala, Amarasooriya; Yatigammana, Sudharma K

    2017-01-02

    Pesticides applied on agricultural lands reach groundwater by leaching, and move to offsite water bodies by direct runoff, erosion and spray drift. Therefore, an assessment of the mobility of pesticides in water resources is important to safeguard such resources. Mobility of pesticides on agricultural lands of Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka has not been reported to date. In this context, the mobility potential of 32 pesticides on surface water and groundwater was assessed by widely used pesticide risk indicators, such as Attenuation Factor (AF) index and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) with some modifications. Four surface water bodies having greater than 20% land use of the catchment under agriculture, and shallow groundwater table at 3.0 m depth were selected for the risk assessment. According to AF, carbofuran, quinclorac and thiamethoxam are three most leachable pesticides having AF values 1.44 × 10 -2 , 1.87 × 10 -3 and 5.70 × 10 -4 , respectively. Using PIRI, offsite movement of pesticides by direct runoff was found to be greater than with the erosion of soil particles for the study area. Carbofuran and quinclorac are most mobile pesticides by direct runoff with runoff fractions of 0.01 and 0.08, respectively, at the studied area. Thiamethoxam and novaluron are the most mobile pesticides by erosion with erosion factions of 1.02 × 10 -4 and 1.05 × 10 -4 , respectively. Expected pesticide residue levels in both surface and groundwater were predicted to remain below the USEPA health advisory levels, except for carbofuran, indicating that pesticide pollution is unlikely to exceed the available health guidelines in the Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka.

  5. The effect of leaf litter cover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter, four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (p<0.05. Average runoff yield was 29.5% and 31.3% less than bare-soil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R = 0.99, p<0.05, and the efficiency in runoff reduction by litter decreased considerably. Runoff yield and the runoff coefficient increased dramatically by 72.9 and 5.4 times, respectively. The period of time before runoff appeared decreased approximately 96.7% when rainfall intensity increased from 5.7 to 75.6 mm h-1. Broadleaf and needle leaf litter showed similarly relevant effects on runoff and soil erosion control, since no significant differences (p≤0.05 were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (p<0.05 with sediment yield. These results suggest that the protective role of leaf litter in runoff and erosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes.

  6. Multi-scale surface-groundwater interactions: Processes and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, A. I.; Harvey, J. W.; Worman, A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Schumer, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Tank, J. L.; Stonedahl, S. H.

    2009-05-01

    Site-based investigations of stream-subsurface interactions normally focus on a limited range of spatial scales - typically either very shallow subsurface flows in the hyporheic zone, or much larger scale surface- groundwater interactions - but subsurface flows are linked across this entire continuum. Broad, multi-scale surface-groundwater interactions produce complex patterns in porewater flows, and interfacial fluxes do not average in a simple fashion because of the competitive effects of flows induced at different scales. For example, reach-scale stream-groundwater interactions produce sequences of gaining and losing reaches that can either suppress or enhance local-scale hyporheic exchange. Many individual topographic features also produce long power-law tails in surface residence time distributions, and the duration of these tails is greatly extended by interactions over a wide range of spatial scales. Simultaneous sediment transport and landscape evolution further complicates the analysis of porewater flow dynamics in rivers. Finally, inhomogeneity in important biogeochemical processes, particularly microbial processes that are stimulated near the sediment- water interface, leads to a great degree of non-linearity in chemical transformation rates in stream channels. This high degree of complexity in fluvial systems requires that careful approaches be used to extend local observations of hyporheic exchange and associated nutrient, carbon, and contaminant transformations to larger spatial scales. It is important to recognize that conventional advection-dispersion models are not expected to apply, and instead anomalous transport models must be used. Unfortunately, no generally applicable model is available for stream-groundwater interactions at the present time. Alternative approaches for modeling conservative and reactive transport will be discussed, and a strategy articulated for coping with the complexity of coupled surface-subsurface dynamics in fluvial

  7. High spatial-temporal resolution and integrated surface and subsurface precipitation-runoff modelling for a small stormwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailegeorgis, Teklu T.; Alfredsen, Knut

    2018-02-01

    Reliable runoff estimation is important for design of water infrastructure and flood risk management in urban catchments. We developed a spatially distributed Precipitation-Runoff (P-R) model that explicitly represents the land cover information, performs integrated modelling of surface and subsurface components of the urban precipitation water cycle and flow routing. We conducted parameter calibration and validation for a small (21.255 ha) stormwater catchment in Trondheim City during Summer-Autumn events and season, and snow-influenced Winter-Spring seasons at high spatial and temporal resolutions of respectively 5 m × 5 m grid size and 2 min. The calibration resulted in good performance measures (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, NSE = 0.65-0.94) and acceptable validation NSE for the seasonal and snow-influenced periods. The infiltration excess surface runoff dominates the peak flows while the contribution of subsurface flow to the sewer pipes also augments the peak flows. Based on the total volumes of simulated flow in sewer pipes (Qsim) and precipitation (P) during the calibration periods, the Qsim/P ranges from 21.44% for an event to 56.50% for the Winter-Spring season, which are in close agreement with the observed volumes (Qobs/P). The lowest percentage of precipitation volume that is transformed to the total simulated runoff in the catchment (QT) is 79.77%. Computation of evapotranspiration (ET) indicated that the ET/P is less than 3% for the events and snow-influenced seasons while it is about 18% for the Summer-Autumn season. The subsurface flow contribution to the sewer pipes are markedly higher than the total surface runoff volume for some events and the Summer-Autumn season. The peakiest flow rates correspond to the Winter-Spring season. Therefore, urban runoff simulation for design and management purposes should include two-way interactions between the subsurface runoff and flow in sewer pipes, and snow-influenced seasons. The developed urban P-R model is

  8. Surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of neonicotinoids and companion herbicides at edge-of-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, François; Giroux, Isabelle; Thériault, Georges; Gagnon, Patrick; Corriveau, Julie

    2017-05-01

    With their application as seed coatings, the use of neonicotinoid insecticides increased dramatically during the last decade. They are now frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations susceptible to harm aquatic invertebrates at individual and population levels. This study intent was to document surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of two common neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and clothianidin) compared to those of companion herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate, S-metolachlor and mesotrione) at the edge of a 22.5-ha field under a corn-soybean rotation. A total of 14 surface runoff and tile drain discharge events were sampled over two years. Events and annual unit mass losses were computed using flow-weighted concentrations and total surface runoff and tile drain flow volumes. Detection frequencies close to 100% in edge-of-field surface runoff and tile drain water samples were observed for thiamethoxam and clothianidin even though only thiamethoxam had been applied in the first year. In 2014, thiamethoxam median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were respectively 0.46 and 0.16 μg/L, while respective maximum concentrations of 2.20 and 0.44 μg/L were measured in surface runoff and tile drain samples during the first post-seeding storm event. For clothianidin, median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were 0.02 and 0.01, μg/L, and respective maximum concentrations were 0.07 μg/L and 0.05 μg/L. Surface runoff and tile drain discharge were key transport mechanisms with similar contributions of 53 and 47% of measured mass losses, respectively. Even if thiamethoxam was applied at a relatively low rate and had a low mass exportation value (0.3%), the relative toxicity was one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of the other chemicals applied in 2014 and 2015. Companion herbicides, except glyphosate in tile drains, exceeded their water quality guideline during one sampling campaign after

  9. Surface and groundwater quality assessment of Marikina river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Pena, Jowell P.; Pael, Limela G.

    2009-03-01

    The study used the physico-chemical characteristics to determine the degree of pollution in different surface and groundwater sources in Marikina. The hydrogen ion concentration in all the stations for surface water was generally basic ranging from 7.24 to 7.44, while conductivity was observed to be highest in Royal Ville station that has a value of 253 μ/cm. Among the four stations in groundwater which obtained an acidic pH, Brgy. Singkamas deep-well has a neutral value. The conductivity was observed to be highest in Brgy. Conception which has a value of 1026 μ/cm. The major ions result showed that the three stations from Marikina River have conformed to the water quality criteria for fresh waters set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, while results from different deep-well stations showed that among four stations, Brgy. Singkamas and Conception deep-well have exceeded the recommended value concentration for drinking water quality standards. The multi-element results were obtained from an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Results showed that significant concentrations of metals like Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, and Pb in both surface and groundwater stations have exceeded the maximum concentrations set by both DENR and PNSDW. The significant differences in the concentrations of physico-chemical components facilitate detection of contamination from domestic and industrial wastes. (author)

  10. The Impact Of Snow Melt On Surface Runoff Of Sava River In Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, A.; Brilly, M.; Vidmar, A.; Kobold, M.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Snow remains on the ground until it melts or sublimates. Spring snow melt is a major source of water supply to areas in temperate zones near mountains that catch and hold winter snow, especially those with a prolonged dry summer. In such places, water equivalent is of great interest to water managers wishing to predict spring runoff and the water supply of cities downstream. In temperate zone like in Slovenia the snow melts in the spring and contributes certain amount of water to surface flow. This amount of water can be great and can cause serious floods in case of fast snow melt. For this reason we tried to determine the influence of snow melt on the largest river basin in Slovenia - Sava River basin, on surface runoff. We would like to find out if snow melt in Slovenian Alps can cause spring floods and how serious it can be. First of all we studied the caracteristics of Sava River basin - geology, hydrology, clima, relief and snow conditions in details for each subbasin. Furtermore we focused on snow and described the snow phenomenom in Slovenia, detailed on Sava River basin. We collected all available data on snow - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Snow water equivalent is a much more useful measurement to hydrologists than snow depth, as the density of cool freshly fallen snow widely varies. New snow commonly has a density of between 5% and 15% of water. But unfortunately there is not a lot of available data of SWE available for Slovenia. Later on we compared the data of snow depth and river runoff for some of the 40 winter seasons. Finally we analyzed the use of satellite images for Slovenia to determine the snow cover for hydrology reason. We concluded that snow melt in Slovenia does not have a greater influence on Sava River flow. The snow cover in Alps can melt fast due to higher temperatures but the water distributes

  11. Description and application of the combined surface and groundwater flow model MOGROW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    In the Netherlands shallow groundwater tables prevail in many parts, such that groundwater and surface water are closely interlinked. Thus the use of a combined groundwater and surface water model is necessary to predict the effect of certain measures on a regional scale. Therefore the model MOGROW

  12. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Simulation of groundwater flow and the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the Willamette Basin and Central Willamette subbasin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Nora B.; Burns, Erick R.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    2014-01-01

    accounted for about 80 percent of that total. The upper 180 feet of productive aquifers in the Central Willamette and Southern Willamette subbasins produced about 70 percent of the total pumped volume. In this study, the USGS constructed a three-dimensional numerical finite-difference groundwater-flow model of the Willamette Basin representing the six hydrogeologic units, defined in previous investigations, as six model layers. From youngest to oldest, and [generally] uppermost to lowermost they are the: upper sedimentary unit, Willamette silt unit, middle sedimentary unit, lower sedimentary unit, Columbia River basalt unit, and basement confining unit. The high Cascade unit is not included in the groundwater-flow model because it is not present within the model boundaries. Geographic boundaries are simulated as no-flow (no water flowing in or out of the model), except where the Columbia River is simulated as a constant hydraulic head boundary. Streams are designated as head-dependent-flux boundaries, in which the flux depends on the elevation of the stream surface. Groundwater recharge from precipitation was estimated using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a watershed model that accounts for evapotranspiration from the unsaturated zone. Evapotranspiration from the saturated zone was not considered an important component of groundwater discharge. Well pumping was simulated as specified flux and included public supply, irrigation, and industrial pumping. Hydraulic conductivity values were estimated from previous studies through aquifer slug and permeameter tests, specific capacity data, core analysis, and modeling. Upper, middle and lower sedimentary unit horizontal hydraulic conductivity values were differentiated between the Portland subbasin and the Tualatin, Central Willamette, and Southern Willamette subbasins based on preliminary model results.

  14. Influence of the Precision of LIDAR Data in Surface Water Runoff Estimation for Road Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jorge, H.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Lagüela, S.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2015-08-01

    Roads affect the natural surface and subsurface drainage pattern of a hill or a watershed. Road drainage systems are designed with the objective of reducing the energy generated by the flowing water and the presence of excess water or moisture within the road. A poorly designed drainage may affect to road maintenance causing cut or fill failures, road surface erosion and degrading the engineering properties of the materials with which it was constructed. Surface drainage pattern can be evaluated from Digital Elevation Models typically calculated from point clouds acquired with aerial LiDAR platforms. However, these systems provide low resolution point clouds especially in cases where slopes with steep grades exist. In this work, Mobile LiDAR systems (aerial and terrestrial) are combined for surveying roads and their surroundings in order to provide complete point cloud. As the precision of the point clouds obtained from these mobile systems is influenced by GNSS outages, Gaussian noise with different standard deviation values is introduced in the point cloud in order to determine its influence in the evaluation of water runoff direction. Results depict an increase in the differences of flow direction with the decrease of cell size of the raster dataset and with the increase of Gaussian noise. The last relation fits to a second-order polynomial Differences in flow direction up to 42º are achieved for a cell size of 0.5 m with a standard deviation of 0.15 m.

  15. INFLUENCE OF THE PRECISION OF LIDAR DATA IN SURFACE WATER RUNOFF ESTIMATION FOR ROAD MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. González-Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads affect the natural surface and subsurface drainage pattern of a hill or a watershed. Road drainage systems are designed with the objective of reducing the energy generated by the flowing water and the presence of excess water or moisture within the road. A poorly designed drainage may affect to road maintenance causing cut or fill failures, road surface erosion and degrading the engineering properties of the materials with which it was constructed. Surface drainage pattern can be evaluated from Digital Elevation Models typically calculated from point clouds acquired with aerial LiDAR platforms. However, these systems provide low resolution point clouds especially in cases where slopes with steep grades exist. In this work, Mobile LiDAR systems (aerial and terrestrial are combined for surveying roads and their surroundings in order to provide complete point cloud. As the precision of the point clouds obtained from these mobile systems is influenced by GNSS outages, Gaussian noise with different standard deviation values is introduced in the point cloud in order to determine its influence in the evaluation of water runoff direction. Results depict an increase in the differences of flow direction with the decrease of cell size of the raster dataset and with the increase of Gaussian noise. The last relation fits to a second-order polynomial Differences in flow direction up to 42º are achieved for a cell size of 0.5 m with a standard deviation of 0.15 m.

  16. Granulometric characterization of sediments transported by surface runoff generated by moving storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. M. P. de Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the combined effect of wind and rain, the importance of storm movement to surface flow has long been recognized, at scales ranging from headwater scales to large basins. This study presents the results of laboratory experiments designed to investigate the influence of moving rainfall storms on the dynamics of sediment transport by surface runoff. Experiments were carried out, using a rain simulator and a soil flume. The movement of rainfall was generated by moving the rain simulator at a constant speed in the upstream and downstream directions along the flume. The main objective of the study was to characterize, in laboratory conditions, the distribution of sediment grain-size transported by rainfall-induced overland flow and its temporal evolution. Grain-size distribution of the eroded material is governed by the capacity of flow that transports sediments. Granulometric curves were constructed using conventional hand sieving and a laser diffraction particle size analyser (material below 0.250 mm for overland flow and sediment deliveries collected at the flume outlet. Surface slope was set at 2%, 7% and 14%. Rainstorms were moved with a constant speed, upslope and downslope, along the flume or were kept static. The results of laboratory experiments show that storm movement, affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, has a marked influence on the grain-size characteristics of sediments transported by overland flow. The downstream-moving rainfall storms have higher stream power than do other storm types.

  17. A Study on the Surface and Subsurface Water Interaction Based on the Groundwater Recession Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. T.; Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.; Chiang, C. J.; Wang, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of surface to subsurface water is an important issue for groundwater resources assessment and management. The influences of surface water to groundwater are mainly through the rainfall recharge, river recharge and discharge and other boundary sources. During a drought period, the interaction of river and groundwater may be one of the main sources of groundwater level recession. Therefore, this study explores the interaction of surface water to groundwater via the groundwater recession. During drought periods, the pumping and river interaction together are the main mechanisms causing the recession of groundwater level. In principle, larger gradient of the recession curve indicates more groundwater discharge and it is an important characteristic of the groundwater system. In this study, to avoid time-consuming manual analysis, the Python programming language is used to develop a statistical analysis model for exploring the groundwater recession information. First, the slopes of the groundwater level hydrograph at every time step were computed for each well. Then, for each well, the represented slope to each groundwater level was defined as the slope with 90% exceedance probability. The relationship between the recession slope and the groundwater level can then be obtained. The developed model is applied to Choushui River Alluvial Fan. In most wells, the results show strong positive correlations between the groundwater levels and the absolute values of the recession slopes.

  18. Variation in glyphosate and AMPA concentrations of surface water and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprile, Ana Clara; Aparicio, Virginia; Sasal, Carolina; Andriulo, Enrique

    2017-04-01

    . Under rural land use, AMPA differences between seasons were found, being the highest concentration in spring (1.9 µg L-1). In groundwater glyphosate and AMPA concentrations were detected in 32 and 36% of the analyzed samples respectively. Medium and maximum glyphosate and AMPA concentrations were 0.7 and 1.0 µg L-1, and 2.3 and 6.0 µg L-1, respectively. In the first sampling date, glyphosate and AMPA were not detected probably associated with a dilution during a period of high groundwater recharge. On the contrary, in the second date the two molecules were detected in coincidence with a previous period with lowering water table accompanied by the first recharges. The temporal dynamics showed that herbicides are found in higher concentrations in surface water during the spring, and this is possibly associated with overlapping applications with rains that produce runoff. In groundwater, detections were associated with periods where the first small recharges are produced, which are concentrated in solutes. Loss of the environmental services retention and degradation of glyphosate of the agricultural soils was confirmed

  19. The Effect of Leaf Litter Cover on Surface Runoff and Soil Erosion in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2014-01-01

    The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter), four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (prunoff yield was 29.5% and 31.3% less than bare-soil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R = 0.99, prunoff reduction by litter decreased considerably. Runoff yield and the runoff coefficient increased dramatically by 72.9 and 5.4 times, respectively. The period of time before runoff appeared decreased approximately 96.7% when rainfall intensity increased from 5.7 to 75.6 mm h−1. Broadleaf and needle leaf litter showed similarly relevant effects on runoff and soil erosion control, since no significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (prunoff and erosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes. PMID:25232858

  20. Effect of Rock Fragment Cover on Hydraulics Properties of Surface Flows and Rill Initiation with Simulating Runoff under Natural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sara kalbali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rock fragments on soil surfaces can also have several contrasting effects on the hydraulics of overland flow and soil erosion processes. Many investigators have found that a cover of rock fragments on a soil surface can decrease its erosion potential compared to bare soil surface (1, 12 and 18. This has mainly been attributed to the protection of the soil surface by rock fragments against the beating action of rain. This leads to a decrease in the intensity of surface sealing, an increase in the infiltration rate, a decrease in the runoff volume and rate, and, hence, a decrease in sediment generation and production for soils covered by rock fragments. Parameters that have been reported to be important for explaining the degree of runoff or soil loss from soils containing rock fragments include the position and size (15, geometry (18, and percentage cover (11 and 12 of rock fragments and the structure of fine earth (16. Surface rock fragment cover is a more important factor for hydroulic properties of surface flows such as flow depth, flow velocity, Manning’s roughness coefficient (n parameter and flow shear stress and geometrics properties of formed rill such as time, location, number, length, width and depth of rill. Surface rock fragment cover is directly affected soil erosion processes in dry area specially in areas that plant can not grow because of sever dryness and salinity. Also, Surface rock fragment prevent the contact of rain drops to aggregates, decreasing physical degradation by decreasing flow velocity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface rock fragment cover on hydraulic properties of surface flows and geometrics properties of formed rill. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 36 field plots of 20 meter length and 0.5 meter width with 3% slope were established in research field of agricultural faculty, Shahrekord University. Before each erosion event, topsoil was tilled

  1. Impact of groundwater capillary rises as lower boundary conditions for soil moisture in a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Decharme, Bertrand; Habets, Florence

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a key component of the global hydrological cycle. It sustains base flow in humid climate while it receives seepage in arid region. Moreover, groundwater influences soil moisture through water capillary rise into the soil and potentially affects the energy and water budget between the land surface and the atmosphere. Despite its importance, most global climate models do not account for groundwater and their possible interaction with both the surface hydrology and the overlying atmosphere. This study assesses the impact of capillary rise from shallow groundwater on the simulated water budget over France. The groundwater scheme implemented in the Total Runoff Integrated Pathways (TRIP) river routing model in a previous study is coupled with the Interaction between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model. In this coupling, the simulated water table depth acts as the lower boundary condition for the soil moisture diffusivity equation. An original parameterization accounting for the subgrid elevation inside each grid cell is proposed in order to compute this fully-coupled soil lower boundary condition. Simulations are performed at high (1/12°) and low (0.5°) resolutions and evaluated over the 1989-2009 period. Compared to a free-drain experiment, upward capillary fluxes at the bottom of soil increase the mean annual evapotranspiration simulated over the aquifer domain by 3.12 % and 1.54 % at fine and low resolutions respectively. This process logically induces a decrease of the simulated recharge from ISBA to the aquifers and contributes to enhance the soil moisture memory. The simulated water table depths are then lowered, which induces a slight decrease of the simulated mean annual river discharges. However, the fully-coupled simulations compare well with river discharge and water table depth observations which confirms the relevance of the coupling formalism.

  2. Assessing climate change impacts on runoff from karstic watersheds: NASA/GISS land-surface model improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Reginald Alexander

    The off-line version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) land-surface hydrological model over- predicted run-off from the karstic Rio Cobre watershed in Jamaica. To assess possible climate change impacts on runoff from the watershed, the model's simulation of observed runoff was improved by adding to it a karst component that has pipe flow features. The improved model was tested on two other karstic watersheds (Yangtze - China and Rio Grande - USA) and the results were encouraging. The impacts that possible climate change may have on the three karstic watersheds were then assessed. The assessment indicates that in a doubled carbon dioxide climate, the Rio Cobre and the Rio Grande may experience decreases in runoff, especially in low flow periods. The Yangtze, on the other hand, may not experience decreases in total runoff, but its peak flow which now occurs in July may be attenuated and shifted to September. The results of the study also show that climate feedbacks convolute climate change assessments and that different results can be obtained from the same climate change scenario depending on the choice of the modeling methodology-that is, on whether the models are coupled or uncoupled.

  3. Broiler Litter × Industrial By-Products Reduce Nutrients and Microbial Losses in Surface Runoff When Applied to Forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Read, John J; Brooks, John P; Miles, Dana; Feng, Gary; Jenkins, Johnie N

    2017-03-01

    The inability to incorporate broiler litter (BL) into permanent hayfields and pastures leads to nutrient accumulation near the soil surface and increases the potential transport of nutrients in runoff. This study was conducted on Marietta silt loam soil to determine the effect of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum and lignite on P, N, C, and microbial concentrations in runoff. Treatments were (i) control (unfertilized) and (ii) BL at 13.4 Mg ha alone or (iii) treated with either FGD gypsum or lignite applied at 20% (w/w) (2.68 Mg ha). Rainfall simulators were used to produce a 5.6 cm h storm event sufficient in duration to cause 15 min of continuous runoff. Repeated rains were applied at 3-d intervals to determine how long FGD gypsum and lignite are effective in reducing loss of litter-derived N, P, and C from soil. Application of BL increased N, P, and C concentrations in runoff as compared to the control. Addition of FGD gypsum reduced ( 20%. Thus, BL treated with FGD and lignite can be considered as cost-effective management practices in the mitigation of P, N, and C and possibly microbial concentration in runoff. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Sustainable Stormwater Management: Examining the Role of Local Planning Capacity in Mitigating Peak Surface Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Woo Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is rich in natural resources. Its watershed has been impacted by excessive and degraded stormwater runoff from rapid urbanization. We used an empirical approach to investigate how local planning capacity in the Chesapeake Bay watershed affected stream flow. A multiple regression analysis was employed to examine to what extent that the planning factors and other contextual variables were associated with peak runoff. Counterintuitively, we found that sub-basins included in the sample jurisdictions with a relatively high plan quality score tend to generate higher volumes of peak runoff. Results further indicate that specific geographical, basin characteristic, and biophysical factors affected mean annual peak runoff significantly. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of local planning capacity and sustainable stormwater management concepts in mitigating excessive runoff.

  5. Modelling surface runoff and water fluxes over contrasted soils in pastoral Sahel: evaluation of the ALMIP2 land surface models over the Gourma region in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface processes play an important role in West African monsoon variability and land –atmosphere coupling has been shown to be particularly important in the Sahel. In addition, the evolution of hydrological systems in this region, and particularly the increase of surface water and runoff coeff...

  6. Modeling Watershed-Scale Surface Water - Groundwater Interactions in Mountain Meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.; Hill, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Flow processes in mountain meadows are being investigated using a coupled surface water - groundwater flow model of a Sierra Nevada watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model GSFLOW (Markstrom et al., 2008), an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW), is being utilized for this effort. This model facilitates representation of complex surface-water flow processes important for understanding meadow hydrology, such as snow-melt and soil-water dynamics, as well as groundwater flow processes. The Sagehen Creek watershed, located on the east slope of the northern Sierra Nevada near Truckee, California, USA, has been selected as the basis for the model configuration. Considerable watershed information is available from studies conducted at the Sagehen Creek Field Station and Experimental Forest, and an existing GSFLOW model for the area (Markstrom et al., 2008). The domain of the previously constructed Sagehen GSFLOW model was extended 4 km downstream increasing the modeled watershed area from 27 km2 to 37 km2. This moved the simulated watershed outlet well below the meadows of interest, allowing for assessment of upstream and downstream effects of meadow restoration on streamflow. Model discretization was decreased from 90 m to 30 m to allow for increased spatial resolution in the meadows. Layer discretization was increased from 2 to 5 layers to facilitate representation of meadow stratigraphy. The increased vertical discretization resulted in considerable drying and rewetting of model cells requiring the use of the recently developed Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005 (Niswonger et al., 2011). The model is being used to analyze the potential effects of geomorphic channel restoration on meadow groundwater discharge to streams under varying hydrologic conditions. Of specific interest is the role of low-permeability meadow strata in regulating discharge to streams, and the effects of

  7. Surface water - groundwater interactions at different spatial and temporal scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebök, Éva

    As there is a growing demand for the protection and optimal management of both the surface water and groundwater resources, the understanding of their exchange processes is of great importance. This PhD study aimed at describing the natural spatial and temporal variability of these interactions...... detected large spatial variability in SWI temperatures with scattered high-discharge sites in a stream and also in a lake where discharge fluxes were estimated by vertical temperature profiles and seepage meter measurements. On the kilometre scale DTS indicated less spatial variability in streambed...

  8. Soil aggregate stability and size-selective sediment transport with surface runoff as affected by organic residue amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu; Arter, Christian; Liu, Xingyu; Keller, Martin; Schulin, Rainer

    2017-12-31

    Aggregate breakdown influences the availability of soil particles for size-selective sediment transport with surface runoff during erosive rainfall events. Organic matter management is known to affect aggregate stability against breakdown, but little is known about how this translates into rainfall-induced aggregate fragmentation and sediment transport under field conditions. In this study, we performed field experiments in which artificial rainfall was applied after pre-wetting on three pairs of arable soil plots (1.5×0.75m) six weeks after incorporating a mixture of grass and wheat straw into the topsoil of one plot in each pair (OI treatment) but not on the other plot (NI treatment). Artificial rainfall was applied for approximately 2h on each pair at an intensity of 49.1mmh -1 . In both treatments, discharge and sediment concentration in the discharge were correlated and followed a similar temporal pattern after the onset of surface runoff: After a sharp increase at the beginning both approached a steady state. But the onset of runoff was more delayed on the OI plots, and the discharge and sediment concentration were in average only roughly half as high on the OI as on the NI plots. With increasing discharge the fraction of coarse sediment increased. This relationship did not differ between the two treatments. Thus, due to the lower discharge, the fraction of fine particles in the exported sediment was larger in the runoff from the OI plots than from the NI plots. The later runoff onset and lower discharge rate was related to a higher initial aggregate stability on the OI plots. Terrestrial laser scanning proved to be a very valuable method to map changes in the micro-topography of the soil surfaces. It revealed a much less profound decrease in surface roughness on the OI than on the NI plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Groundwater Discharge of Legacy Nitrogen to River Networks: Linking Regional Groundwater Models to Streambed Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange and Nitrogen Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, J. R.; Helton, A. M.; Briggs, M. A.; Starn, J. J.; Hunt, A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite years of management, excess nitrogen (N) is a pervasive problem in many aquatic ecosystems. More than half of surface water in the United States is derived from groundwater, and widespread N contamination in aquifers from decades of watershed N inputs suggest legacy N discharging from groundwater may contribute to contemporary N pollution problems in surface waters. Legacy N loads to streams and rivers are controlled by both regional scale flow paths and fine-scale processes that drive N transformations, such as groundwater-surface water exchange across steep redox gradients that occur at stream bed interfaces. Adequately incorporating these disparate scales is a challenge, but it is essential to understanding legacy N transport and making informed management decisions. We developed a regional groundwater flow model for the Farmington River, a HUC-8 basin that drains to the Long Island Sound, a coastal estuary that suffers from elevated N loads despite decades of management, to understand broad patterns of regional transport. To evaluate and refine the regional model, we used thermal infrared imagery paired with vertical temperature profiling to estimate groundwater discharge at the streambed interface. We also analyzed discharging groundwater for multiple N species to quantify fine scale patterns of N loading and transformation via denitrification at the streambed interface. Integrating regional and local estimates of groundwater discharge of legacy N to river networks should improve our ability to predict spatiotemporal patterns of legacy N loading to and transformation within surface waters.

  10. The effect of leaf litter cover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2014-01-01

    The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter), four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (psoil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R = 0.99, psoil erosion control, since no significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (perosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes.

  11. Prediction of hydrological reduction factor and initial loss in urban surface runoff from small ungauged catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Harremoës, P.

    1996-01-01

    An advanced runoff model is compared to a simple one employing only a runoff coefficient and a regression parameter allowing for initial loss. The present study shows that the more detailed description of the runoff processes cannot be justified due to the uncertainty from using only one gauge...... in a catchment for the description of the rain input. A significant variation of the two parameters from one catchment to another has been found and the uncertainty of the two variables are evaluated. The uncertainty of the hydrological reduction factor and the initial loss should be taken into account...

  12. Recharging infiltration of precipitation water through the light soil, in the absence of surface runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyżyk Franciszek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the value of recharging infiltration of precipitation through the light soil and its distribution over time, based on five-year of lysimetric research. The effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the infiltration was studied. In lysimeters does not occur the phenomenon of surface runoff, and thus, by analogy, the results of the research can be applied to agriculturally used lowland areas with sandy soils. The results showed that the infiltration is very changeable in time. On its value, in addition to precipitation, the greatest influence has evapotranspiration. The largest infiltration occurs in March after the spring thaws (IE = 70-81% monthly precipitation and the smallest in August (IE = 1.2-15.0% precipitation, depending on the type of fertilizer used and the level of fertilization. The soil fertilization, especially by using organic fertilizer (compost, is a factor, which has significantly influence on reduction of the recharging infiltration. The soil fertilization with compost reduced the infiltration of 7.4-9.0%, and with mineral fertilization of 5.4-7.0% of annual precipitation totals, compared with the infiltration through the soil not fertilized. The average annual index of infiltration was 21.8-25.3% of annual precipitation totals in variant of soil fertilized and 30.7% in case of the soil not fertilized.

  13. Organizing groundwater regimes and response thresholds by soils: A framework for understanding runoff generation in a headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Gannon; Scott W. Bailey; Kevin J. McGuire

    2014-01-01

    A network of shallow groundwater wells in a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, U.S. was used to investigate the hydrologic behavior of five distinct soil morphological units. The soil morphological units were hypothesized to be indicative of distinct water table regimes. Water table fluctuations in the wells were...

  14. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  15. Response of groundwater level and surface-water/groundwater interaction to climate variability: Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Raiber, Matthias; Pagendam, Dan; Gilfedder, Mat; Rassam, David

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the response of groundwater levels in alluvial and sedimentary basin aquifers to climatic variability and human water-resource developments is a key step in many hydrogeological investigations. This study presents an analysis of groundwater response to climate variability from 2000 to 2012 in the Queensland part of the sedimentary Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia. It contributes to the baseline hydrogeological understanding by identifying the primary groundwater flow pattern, water-level response to climate extremes, and the resulting dynamics of surface-water/groundwater interaction. Groundwater-level measurements from thousands of bores over several decades were analysed using Kriging and nonparametric trend analysis, together with a newly developed three-dimensional geological model. Groundwater-level contours suggest that groundwater flow in the shallow aquifers shows local variations in the close vicinity of streams, notwithstanding general conformance with topographic relief. The trend analysis reveals that climate variability can be quickly reflected in the shallow aquifers of the Clarence-Moreton Basin although the alluvial aquifers have a quicker rainfall response than the sedimentary bedrock formations. The Lockyer Valley alluvium represents the most sensitively responding alluvium in the area, with the highest declining (-0.7 m/year) and ascending (2.1 m/year) Sen's slope rates during and after the drought period, respectively. Different surface-water/groundwater interaction characteristics were observed in different catchments by studying groundwater-level fluctuations along hydrogeologic cross-sections. The findings of this study lay a foundation for future water-resource management in the study area.

  16. Response of groundwater level and surface-water/groundwater interaction to climate variability: Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Raiber, Matthias; Pagendam, Dan; Gilfedder, Mat; Rassam, David

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the response of groundwater levels in alluvial and sedimentary basin aquifers to climatic variability and human water-resource developments is a key step in many hydrogeological investigations. This study presents an analysis of groundwater response to climate variability from 2000 to 2012 in the Queensland part of the sedimentary Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia. It contributes to the baseline hydrogeological understanding by identifying the primary groundwater flow pattern, water-level response to climate extremes, and the resulting dynamics of surface-water/groundwater interaction. Groundwater-level measurements from thousands of bores over several decades were analysed using Kriging and nonparametric trend analysis, together with a newly developed three-dimensional geological model. Groundwater-level contours suggest that groundwater flow in the shallow aquifers shows local variations in the close vicinity of streams, notwithstanding general conformance with topographic relief. The trend analysis reveals that climate variability can be quickly reflected in the shallow aquifers of the Clarence-Moreton Basin although the alluvial aquifers have a quicker rainfall response than the sedimentary bedrock formations. The Lockyer Valley alluvium represents the most sensitively responding alluvium in the area, with the highest declining (-0.7 m/year) and ascending (2.1 m/year) Sen's slope rates during and after the drought period, respectively. Different surface-water/groundwater interaction characteristics were observed in different catchments by studying groundwater-level fluctuations along hydrogeologic cross-sections. The findings of this study lay a foundation for future water-resource management in the study area.

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  18. Surface Runoff Threshold Responses to Rainfall Intensity, Scale, and Land Use Type, Change and Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, A.; Kampf, S. K.; Green, T. R.; Wilson, C.; Wagenbrenner, J.; Erksine, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The dominance of infiltration-excess (Hortonian) overland flow can be determined by how well a rainfall intensity threshold predicts streamflow response. Areas in which we would expect infiltration-excess overland flow to dominate include urban, bedrock, desert pavement, and lands disturbed by vegetation removal (e.g., after a fire burn or fallow agricultural lands). Using a transferable method of identifying the existence of thresholds, we compare the following sites to investigate their hydrologic responses to 60-minute rainfall intensities: desert pavement sites in Arizona (Walnut Gulch and Yuma Proving Ground), post-fire sites in a forested, mountainous burn area in north-central Colorado (High Park Fire), an area of northeastern Colorado Plains that has transitioned from dryland agriculture to conservation reserve (Drake Farm), and watersheds in suburban Baltimore, Maryland which range from less than 5% to over 50% impervious surface cover. We observed that at desert sites, the necessary threshold of rainfall intensity to produce flow increased with watershed size. In burned watersheds, watershed size did not have a clear effect on rainfall thresholds, but thresholds increased with time after burning, with streamflow no longer exhibiting clear threshold responses after the third year post-fire. At the agricultural site, the frequency of runoff events decreased during the transition from cultivated crops to mixed perennial native grasses. In an area where the natural land cover (forested) would be not dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow, urbanization greatly lowered the rainfall thresholds needed for hydrologic response. This work contributes to building a predictive framework for identifying what naturally-occurring landscapes are dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow, and how land use change could shift the dominance of infiltration-excess overland flow. Characterizing the driving mechanism for streamflow generation will allow better

  19. Modeling detailed hydro-meteorological surfaces and runoff response in large diverse watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.; Kienzle, S.W.; MacDonald, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of local variability in climatic conditions over complex terrain is imperative to making accurate assessments of impacts from climate change on fresh water ecosystems (Daly, 2006). The derivation of representative spatial data in diverse environments poses a significant challenge to the modelling community. This presentation describes the current status of a long term ongoing hydro-climate model development program. We are developing a gridded hydroclimate dataset for diverse watersheds using SimGrid (Larson, 2008; Lapp et al., 2005; Sheppard, 1996), a model that applies the Mountain Climate Model (MTCLIM; Hungerford et al., 1989) to simulate hydro-climatic conditions over diverse terrain. The model uses GIS based terrain categories (TC) classified by slope, aspect, elevation, and soil water storage. SimGrid provides daily estimates of solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, snowpack and soil water storage over space. Earlier versions of the model have been applied in the St. Mary (Larson, 2008) and upper Oldman basins (Lapp et al., 2005), giving realistic estimates of hydro-climatic variables. The current study demonstrates improvements to the estimation of temperature, precipitation, snowpack, soil water storage and runoff from the basin. Soil water storage data for the upper drainage were derived with GIS and included in SimGrid to estimate soil water flux over the time period. These changes help improve the estimation of spatial climatic variability over the basin while accounting for topographical influence. In further work we will apply spatial hydro-climatic surfaces from the SimGrid model to assess the hydrologic response to environmental change for watersheds in Canada and beyond. (author)

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Runoff Coefficient of HiPIMS in Simulating Flood Processes in a Large Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To simulate flood processes at the basin level, the GPU-based High-Performance Integrated Hydrodynamic Modelling System (HiPIMS is gaining interest as computational capability increases. However, the difficulty of coping with rainfall input to HiPIMS reduces the possibility of acquiring a satisfactory simulation accuracy. The objective of this study is to test the sensitivity of the surface runoff coefficient in the HiPIMS source term in the Misai basin with an area of 797 km2 in south China. To achieve this, the basin was divided into 909,824 grid cells, to each of which a Manning coefficient was assigned based on its land use type interpreted from remote sensing data. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for three typical flood processes under four types of surface runoff coefficients, assumed a priori, upon three error functions. The results demonstrate the crucial role of the surface runoff coefficient in achieving better simulation accuracy and reveal that this coefficient varies with flood scale and is unevenly distributed over the basin.

  1. The interaction between surface water and groundwater and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    also affects the water quality. The stable isotopes (δD, δ18O) and hydrochemical compositions in water samples were analysed in the Second Songhua River basin. The deep groundwater is mainly recharged from shallow groundwater in the middle and upper reaches. The shallow groundwater is discharged to rivers in the ...

  2. Deuterium (2H) Distribution in surface and groundwaters in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, E.; Azevedo, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Evaporation and condensation processes cause variation in the relative concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In the case of hydrogen, variations of the order of 350 0 /oo were observed in deuterium concentrations in natural waters. In heavy water production plants, wherever possible, water with high deuterium content should be used in the first stages of the enrichment process. Taking this into consideration, work was carried out on the systematic collection of samples from surface and groundwaters for the analysis of deuterium all over Brasil. Deuterium concentration values were obtained in 458 samples collected at different regions and at different times. This project was developed together with others of hydrological interest, the final objective of which was not to cover all characteristic regions of the country. (Author) [pt

  3. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Tachiev, Georgio; Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  4. Efficiency assessment of runoff harvesting techniques using a 3D coupled surface-subsurface hydrological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbist, K.; Cronelis, W. M.; McLaren, R.; Gabriels, D.; Soto, G.

    2009-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid zones runoff harvesting techniques are often applied to increase the water retention and infiltration on steep slopes. Additionally, they act as an erosion control measure to reduce land degradation hazards. Both in literature and in the field, a large variety of runoff collecting systems are found, as well as large variations in design and dimensions. Therefore, detailed measurements were performed on a semi-arid slope in central Chile to allow identification of the effect of a simple water harvesting technique on soil water availability. For this purpose, twenty two TDR-probes were installed and were monitored continuously during and after a simulated rainfall event. These data were used to calibrate the 3D distributed flow model HydroGeoSphere, to assess the runoff components and soil water retention as influenced by the water harvesting technique, both under simulated and natural rainfall conditions. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Identification of soil P fractions that are associated with P loss from surface runoff under various cropping systems and fertilizer rates on sloped farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Li

    Full Text Available Soil phosphorus (P fractions and runoff P concentration were measured to understand the fate of soil P entering surface runoff water during summer cropping season of different double cropping systems under two fertilizer regimes. The dominant form of runoff P was particulate P (PP. Runoff total P (TP was higher at the vegetative growth stage and lower at the crop reproductive stage. TP and PP were derived mainly from soil Olsen-P, Al-P and Fe-P and amounts increased with sediment content in runoff water. Runoff P discharge was closely related to the changes in soil P forms. Soil Olsen-P, mainly consisting of some Ca2-P and Al-P, was increased by elevating fertilizer rate. Along with crop growth, there were active interconversions among Olsen-P, Org-P, Fe-P and O-Al-P in the soil, and some available P converted into Ca10-P, with O-Fe-P possibly being a transitional form for this conversion. The oilseed rape/corn system had less runoff TP at the early stage, and wheat/sweet potato system had a lower runoff P at the late stage. Intercropping corn with sweet potato in the field with oilseed rape as a previous crop may be helpful for alleviating runoff P load during the summer in this region.

  6. Identification of soil P fractions that are associated with P loss from surface runoff under various cropping systems and fertilizer rates on sloped farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Wang, Baona; Yang, Tewu; Zhu, Duanwei; Nie, Zhongnan; Xu, Junchi

    2017-01-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) fractions and runoff P concentration were measured to understand the fate of soil P entering surface runoff water during summer cropping season of different double cropping systems under two fertilizer regimes. The dominant form of runoff P was particulate P (PP). Runoff total P (TP) was higher at the vegetative growth stage and lower at the crop reproductive stage. TP and PP were derived mainly from soil Olsen-P, Al-P and Fe-P and amounts increased with sediment content in runoff water. Runoff P discharge was closely related to the changes in soil P forms. Soil Olsen-P, mainly consisting of some Ca2-P and Al-P, was increased by elevating fertilizer rate. Along with crop growth, there were active interconversions among Olsen-P, Org-P, Fe-P and O-Al-P in the soil, and some available P converted into Ca10-P, with O-Fe-P possibly being a transitional form for this conversion. The oilseed rape/corn system had less runoff TP at the early stage, and wheat/sweet potato system had a lower runoff P at the late stage. Intercropping corn with sweet potato in the field with oilseed rape as a previous crop may be helpful for alleviating runoff P load during the summer in this region. PMID:28650990

  7. Improving the representation of river-groundwater interactions in land surface modeling at the regional scale: Observational evidence and parameterization applied in the Community Land Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zampieri, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    Groundwater is an important component of the hydrological cycle, included in many land surface models to provide a lower boundary condition for soil moisture, which in turn plays a key role in the land-vegetation-atmosphere interactions and the ecosystem dynamics. In regional-scale climate applications land surface models (LSMs) are commonly coupled to atmospheric models to close the surface energy, mass and carbon balance. LSMs in these applications are used to resolve the momentum, heat, water and carbon vertical fluxes, accounting for the effect of vegetation, soil type and other surface parameters, while lack of adequate resolution prevents using them to resolve horizontal sub-grid processes. Specifically, LSMs resolve the large-scale runoff production associated with infiltration excess and sub-grid groundwater convergence, but they neglect the effect from loosing streams to groundwater. Through the analysis of observed data of soil moisture obtained from the Oklahoma Mesoscale Network stations and land surface temperature derived from MODIS we provide evidence that the regional scale soil moisture and surface temperature patterns are affected by the rivers. This is demonstrated on the basis of simulations from a land surface model (i.e., Community Land Model - CLM, version 3.5). We show that the model cannot reproduce the features of the observed soil moisture and temperature spatial patterns that are related to the underlying mechanism of reinfiltration of river water to groundwater. Therefore, we implement a simple parameterization of this process in CLM showing the ability to reproduce the soil moisture and surface temperature spatial variabilities that relate to the river distribution at regional scale. The CLM with this new parameterization is used to evaluate impacts of the improved representation of river-groundwater interactions on the simulated water cycle parameters and the surface energy budget at the regional scale. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Explore the Spatial-Temporal Interrelation between Groundwater and Surface Water by Self-Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I. T.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is one of important water resources in Taiwan. Due to the indirect impacts of changes in rainfall characteristics and geomorphological limitation on groundwater recharge, it is imperative to investigate the variation of groundwater resources for making effective management strategies on groundwater resources. This study investigated the spatio-temporal interactive mechanism between surface water and groundwater over the whole river basin by using the self-organizing map (SOM). The Gaoping River basin in Taiwan is the study case and its long-term regional data sets are used for analysis. By applying the self-organizing map (SOM) technology, the variation of groundwater level and topology distribution characteristics can distinctly appear in temporal and spatial way. The results showed: (1) The trend of groundwater movement is from the east area to the west area. In the east area, the groundwater easily recharged from precipitation and discharged to streams since its high permeability is high. There are different types of water movement in the four aquifers. (2) In the second and third aquifers, the seasonal variations of groundwater are larger than others. (3) The spatio-temporal variations of surface water and groundwater were nicely classified by using the SOM model. The level variations of spatial distribution and seasonal variations have been comprehensively linked, which visually displayed topology characteristics of each classification of groundwater level.

  9. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  10. Influence of inundation of ground surface on 222Rn concentrations in shallow groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromasa; Abenney-Mickson, Stephen; Komae, Takami

    2004-01-01

    Radon-222 ( 222 Rn) is a good indicator for analyzing the speed at which surface water infiltrates the ground and reaches groundwater. Preferential flow, which is very fast, is expected to occur when the ground surface is inundated. Piston flow, which is very slow, is expected to occur when the ground surface is not inundated but is only sprinkled with water such as during a light rainfall. We hypothesized that preferential flow would reduce the 222 Rn concentration in groundwater but that piston flow would not; our study verified this hypothesis experimentally. We then measured 222 Rn concentration in groundwater for one year in low-land and upland locations. 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater decreased at the lowland site, where the ground surface was inundated by irrigation and heavy rainfall, while 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater did not decrease at the upland site, where the ground surface was not inundated. (author)

  11. Comparison of Surface Runoff Generation, and Soil and Nutrient Loss in Kakhk Treated and Representative Watersheds, Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Davoodi Moghadam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is vital to control land degradation, for conserving precious natural treasures. Quantification of runoff production and soil and nutrient loss from wild lands under different managerial systems is one of the scientific and optimal management in agriculture and natural resources, as a major component of sustainable development. Many researches have been conducted to assess the effects of different land uses on soil erosion and runoff generation throughout the globe. Most of which, mainly verified the detrimental effects of human intervention on land degradation. However, limited comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted to consider the amount of surface runoff generation, and soil and nutrient loss from watersheds with different management patterns viz. untreated and treated small watersheds. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to compare surface runoff generation,soil and nutrient loss in Kakhk treated and untreated watersheds with an area ca. 222 ha and precipitation of some 243 mm per annum. Other physical and geological characteristics of the paired watersheds were also similar to allow assessing the effects of study measures on soil, water and nutrient losses. The area under consideration has been located in Khorasan Razavi Province in northeastern Iran. The present study was performed in plots with standard size of 22.1 × 1.8 m in treating and representative areas, with three replicates and on the storm basis occurred during early 2011 and mid-2014. The treated plots were covered by biological measures viz. seeding, bunching and exclusre. The study plots have been situated on eastern,western and northern aspects with respective slope of 55, 40 and 40 %. The entire runoff from study plots were collected in a container in 0.5×1×1 m. The sediment concentration was also measured in 2-liter samples taken from the container after a complete mixing of the entire collected runoff. The sample was

  12. Optimal designs of bioretention cells in shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Chui, T. F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Bioretention cells, as one representative low impact development practices, have been proved to be effective in controlling surface runoff, removing pollutants and recharging groundwater. However, they are often not recommended in shallow groundwater areas due to potential groundwater pollution, reduction in runoff control performance and groundwater drainage through the underdrain. Most design guidelines only require a minimum distance between bioretention cell bottom and seasonal high groundwater table without guiding the design of bioretention cells to mitigate the problem of shallow groundwater. This study therefore proposed some design recommendations of bioretention cells for different rainfall runoff loads, native soil types and initial water table depths. A variably saturated flow model was employed to conduct event-based simulations on one single hypothetical bioretention cell in shallow groundwater, which was calibrated using experimental and simulation data of an on-site bioretention cell. A wide range of climatic and geophysical factors (i.e. initial groundwater depths, native soils, rainfall runoff loads) and bioretention designs (i.e. media soil types and underdrain sizes) were considered. Surface runoff reduction, time before groundwater mound formation, as well as maximum height of groundwater mound were evaluated. Less-permeable media types (i.e. sandy loam) are recommended in areas with many extreme rainfall events (i.e. 40 - 70 mm/h or larger) and of shallower groundwater, which can better protect groundwater from mounding and possibly contamination although may slightly compromise the runoff control performance. For areas having seasonal high groundwater table of 0 - 1 m below bioretention bottom, underdrain is recommended to maintain good infiltration capacity without draining groundwater. However, underdrain is not recommended for areas of groundwater table always near or above the bioretention bottom, only if an impermeable sheet is added

  13. PREDICTING OF RISKS OF GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH DIFFERENT CLASSES OF HERBICIDES IN SOIL IN EASTERN EUROPE CLIMATE CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshun, M; Dema, O; Kucherenko, O; Korshun, O; Garkavyi, S; Pelio, I; Antonenko, A; Velikaia, N

    2016-11-01

    Application of pesticides in modern agriculture is a powerful permanent risk factor for public health and the natural environment. The aim of the study was a comparative hygienic assessment of the danger of contamination of ground and surface water sources with most widely used herbicides of different chemical classes (sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pirimidinilkarboksilovye compounds semicarbazones). Field hygienic experiments for studying of the residues dynamics of studied herbicides concentration in agrocenosis objects were made by us in different types of soils: chernozem, sod-podzolic, podzolized forest. Then the half-life periods (DT50) of the substances in the soil were calculated. It was found that according to GUS index there is a high probability of leaching into groundwater of sulfonylureas and imidazolinones; according to LEACH index all investigated substances have a high risk of run-off into groundwater and surface water.

  14. Quantification of turfgrass buffer performance in reducing transport of pesticides in surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are used to control pests in managed biological system such as agricultural crops and golf course turf. Off-site transport of pesticides with runoff and their potential to adversely affect non-target aquatic organisms has inspired the evaluation of management practices to minimize pestic...

  15. Upscaling Surface and Subsurface Runoff Process Using a Travel Time Matching Strategy: Application to the Ohio River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Beighley, E.

    2017-12-01

    While hydrologic understanding gained from model assessment and sensitivity analyses continues to grow, computational efficiency is still a challenge for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling community, especially at continental and global scales. This research presents a runoff flowpath travel-time matching method to upscale hydrologic response characteristics of surface and subsurface runoff from fine to coarse model resolutions. Five model resolutions are investigated in this study: 10, 32, 100, 320, 1000 km2, where model resolution represents the threshold areas used to define the underlying river network and catchment boundaries. Here, the 1 km2 mode resolution is set as the reference model. A case study in the Ohio River Basin (roughly 500,000 km2) is presented using a synthetic SCS 2-year flood event. The velocities of surface and subsurface runoff from Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model operating at 1 km2 resolution is determined on a high-performance computing cluster. Using these simulated velocities and 90-m Digital Elevation Model (DEM), pixel level velocities are determined separately for hillslopes (surface and subsurface) and channels. Cumulative Probability Distributions (CDFs) for surface and subsurface travel times based on the gridded 90-m velocities and conceptualized model units representing individual catchments in the HRR model are matched by adjusting surface roughness and subsurface hydraulic conductivity along HRR hillslopes in the courser model resolutions. The beta distribution is applied to approximate the CDF travel time to reduce pixel-level processing time for large model units. Simulated hydrographs at the outlet of the Ohio River Basin for the five coarser model resolutions are shown to have nearly identical peak discharge and time-to-peak discharge values as compared to the reference model. The proposed upscaling method can reduce the computation time by transferring the hydrologic characteristics captured at fine scales to

  16. Depleting groundwater resources mitigating surface freshwater scarcity - a trend in the recent past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decades, human water use more than doubled, yet available surface freshwater resources are finite. As a result, water scarcity has become prevalent in many (semi-)arid regions of the world (e.g., India, Pakistan, North East China, the MENA region). In such regions, the demand often exceeds the available surface freshwater resources primarily due to heavy irrigation which requires large volumes of water in a certain time of the year, when groundwater is additionally used to supplement the deficiency. Excessive groundwater pumping, however, often leads to overexploitation, i.e. groundwater abstraction exceeding groundwater recharge. Here, we quantified globally the impact of depleting groundwater resources on mitigating surface freshwater scarcity and the trend between 1960 and 2000 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree. We downscaled available country statistics of groundwater abstraction to 0.5 degree, while we simulated groundwater recharge with the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB at the same spatial resolution considering not only natural groundwater recharge but also artificial recharge, i.e. return flow from irrigation. Water scarcity was estimated by confronting computed water demand for livestock, irrigation, industry and households with simulated surface freshwater availability (PCR-GLOBWB) at 0.5 degree. We thus performed a simulation run with/without groundwater pumping to assess the impact on alleviating surface freshwater scarcity. The results indicated that in many of (semi-)arid regions (e.g., North Wet India, North East Pakistan, North East China, West and Central USA, Central Mexico, North Iran, Central Saudi Arabia) large amounts of groundwater abstraction significantly mitigates the intensity of surface freshwater scarcity, while depleting the resources. Our estimate of global groundwater depletion reached close to 280 km3/yr. In most of the MENA region, the intensity of surface freshwater scarcity was eased by 30% up to 50% as

  17. Identifying the regional-scale groundwater-surface water interaction on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihua; Zhang, Guangxin; Xu, Y Jun; Sun, Guangzhi

    2015-11-01

    Assessment on the interaction between groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) can generate information that is critical to regional water resource management, especially for regions that are highly dependent on groundwater resources for irrigation. This study investigated such interaction on China's Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 10(4) km(2)) and produced results to assist sustainable regional water management for intensive agricultural activities. Methods of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and statistical analysis were used in this study. One hundred two water samplings (60 from shallow groundwater, 7 from deep groundwater, and 35 from surface water) were collected and grouped into three clusters and seven sub-clusters during the analyses. The PCA analysis identified four principal components of the interaction, which explained 85.9% variance of total database, attributed to the dissolution and evolution of gypsum, feldspar, and other natural minerals in the region that was affected by anthropic and geological (sedimentary rock mineral) activities. The analyses showed that surface water in the upper region of the Sanjiang Plain gained water from local shallow groundwater, indicating that the surface water in the upper region was relatively more resilient to withdrawal for usage, whereas in the middle region, there was only a weak interaction between shallow groundwater and surface water. In the lower region of the Sanjiang Plain, surface water lost water to shallow groundwater, indicating that the groundwater was vulnerable to pollution by pesticides and fertilizers from terrestrial sources.

  18. The study of contamination of discharged runoff from surface water disposal channels of Bushehr city in 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaheid Noroozi-Karbasdehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In coastal cities, wastewater discharge into the sea is one of the options for sewage disposal that in case of non-compliance with health standards  in wastewater disposal will be led to the spread of infection and disease. On the other hand, water resources preservation and using them efficiently are the principles of sustainable development of each country. This study was aimed to investigate the contamination of discharged runoff from the surface water disposal channels of Bushehr city in 2012 - 13. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sampling was conducted by composite sampling method from output of the five main surface water disposal channels leading to the Persian Gulf located in the coastal region of Bushehr city during two seasons including wet (winter and dry (summer in 2012- 13. Then, experimental tests of BOD5, total coliform and fecal coliform were done on any of the 96 samples according to the standard method. Results: Analysis of the data showed that the BOD5, total coliform and fecal coliform of effluent runoff of the channels were more than the national standard output of disposal wastewaters into the surface waters, and the highest and lowest amount of BOD5 which obtained were 160 mg/L and 28 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: considering the fact that discharged runoff from surface water disposal channels link from shoreline to sea in close distance and they often are as natural swimming sites and even fishing sites of Bushehr city, and also according to high level of organic and bacterial load of these channels, it is urgently required to be considered by the authorities.

  19. Numerical simulation and experimental study on farmland nitrogen loss to surface runoff in a raindrop driven process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayun; Tong, Juxiu; Xia, Chuanan; Hu, Bill X.; Zhu, Hao; Yang, Rui; Wei, Wenshuo

    2017-06-01

    It has been widely recognized that surface runoff from agricultural field is an important non-point pollution source, which however, the chemical transfer amount in the process is very difficult to be quantified in field since some variables and natural factors are hard to control, such as rainfall intensity, temperature, wind speeds and soil spatial heterogeneity, which may significantly affect the field experimental results. Therefore, a physically based nitrogen transport model was developed and tested with the so called semi-field experiments (i.e., artificial rainfall was used instead of natural rainfall, but other conditions were natural) in this paper. Our model integrated the raindrop driven process and diffusion effect with the simplified nitrogen chain reactions. In this model, chemicals in the soil surface layer, or the 'exchange layer', were transformed into the surface runoff layer due to raindrop impact. The raindrops also have a significant role on the diffusion process between the exchange layer and the underlying soil. The established mathematical model was solved numerically through the modified Hydrus-1d source code, and the model simulations agreed well with the experimental data. The modeling results indicate that the depth of the exchange layer and raindrop induced water transfer rate are two important parameters for the simulation results. Variation of the water transfer rate, er, can strongly influence the peak values of the NO-3-N and NH+4-N concentration breakthrough curves. The concentration of NO-3-N is more sensitive to the exchange layer depth, de, than NH+4-N. In general, the developed model well describes the nitrogen loss into surface runoff in a raindrop driven process. Since the raindrop splash erosion process may aggravate the loss of chemical fertilizer, choosing an appropriate fertilization time and application method is very important to prevent the pollution.

  20. Building and calibrating a large-extent and high resolution coupled groundwater-land surface model using globally available data-sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, E. H.; Van Beek, L. P.; de Jong, S. M.; van Geer, F.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The current generation of large-scale hydrological models generally lacks a groundwater model component simulating lateral groundwater flow. Large-scale groundwater models are rare due to a lack of hydro-geological data required for their parameterization and a lack of groundwater head data required for their calibration. In this study, we propose an approach to develop a large-extent fully-coupled land surface-groundwater model by using globally available datasets and calibrate it using a combination of discharge observations and remotely-sensed soil moisture data. The underlying objective is to devise a collection of methods that enables one to build and parameterize large-scale groundwater models in data-poor regions. The model used, PCR-GLOBWB-MOD, has a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km and operates on a daily basis. It consists of a single-layer MODFLOW groundwater model that is dynamically coupled to the PCR-GLOBWB land surface model. This fully-coupled model accommodates two-way interactions between surface water levels and groundwater head dynamics, as well as between upper soil moisture states and groundwater levels, including a capillary rise mechanism to sustain upper soil storage and thus to fulfill high evaporation demands (during dry conditions). As a test bed, we used the Rhine-Meuse basin, where more than 4000 groundwater head time series have been collected for validation purposes. The model was parameterized using globally available data-sets on surface elevation, drainage direction, land-cover, soil and lithology. Next, the model was calibrated using a brute force approach and massive parallel computing, i.e. by running the coupled groundwater-land surface model for more than 3000 different parameter sets. Here, we varied minimal soil moisture storage and saturated conductivities of the soil layers as well as aquifer transmissivities. Using different regularization strategies and calibration criteria we compared three calibration scenarios

  1. An approximate analytical solution for describing surface runoff and sediment transport over hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wanghai; Wang, Quanjiu; Lin, Henry

    2018-03-01

    Soil and water loss from farmland causes land degradation and water pollution, thus continued efforts are needed to establish mathematical model for quantitative analysis of relevant processes and mechanisms. In this study, an approximate analytical solution has been developed for overland flow model and sediment transport model, offering a simple and effective means to predict overland flow and erosion under natural rainfall conditions. In the overland flow model, the flow regime was considered to be transitional with the value of parameter β (in the kinematic wave model) approximately two. The change rate of unit discharge with distance was assumed to be constant and equal to the runoff rate at the outlet of the plane. The excess rainfall was considered to be constant under uniform rainfall conditions. The overland flow model developed can be further applied to natural rainfall conditions by treating excess rainfall intensity as constant over a small time interval. For the sediment model, the recommended values of the runoff erosion calibration constant (cr) and the splash erosion calibration constant (cf) have been given in this study so that it is easier to use the model. These recommended values are 0.15 and 0.12, respectively. Comparisons with observed results were carried out to validate the proposed analytical solution. The results showed that the approximate analytical solution developed in this paper closely matches the observed data, thus providing an alternative method of predicting runoff generation and sediment yield, and offering a more convenient method of analyzing the quantitative relationships between variables. Furthermore, the model developed in this study can be used as a theoretical basis for developing runoff and erosion control methods.

  2. Modelling free surface aquifers to analyze the interaction between groundwater and sinuous streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Boon, W. M.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    and errors. In addition, when streams are sinuous, groundwater flow is truly 3-dimensional, with strong vertical flows and sharp changes in horizontal direction. Here 3 different approaches to simulating free surface aquifers are compared for simulating groundwater-stream interaction. The aim of the models......: a saturated-unsaturated flow model, moving mesh, and a new coordinate transformation. The saturated/unsaturated model couples the saturated groundwater flow equation with a solution of Richards equation. The moving mesh solves the saturated groundwater equation with a free surface and deformable numerical...... finite element mesh. Finally, the new coordinate transform method employs a coordinate transform so that the saturated groundwater flow equation is solved on a fixed finite element mesh with a stationary free surface. This paper describes in detail the new coordinate transform method. It employs...

  3. Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, C. F.; Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T. N.; Moncrief, M. R.; Shultz, S.; Tonkin, M.; Wendell, D.

    2006-12-01

    stream reaches, with 108 deliveries specified at 80 diversion locations. Monthly land use, agricultural crops, urban demand, precipitation, evapotranspiration, boundary stream flows and surface water diversions are specified, and the land-surface process calculates crop water demands and routes runoff to streams and deep percolation to the unsaturated zone. The stream process routes surface water flows, allocates available water to meet specified deliveries, and calculates stream-groundwater interactions. Groundwater pumping (which is not metered in California) can be specified or calculated by the model. Model calibration included automated selection of optimum hydraulic parameters using PEST, and manual selection of the areal and vertical distribution of groundwater pumping, to obtain the best match to historical groundwater heads and stream flows. The calibrated model is being used to calculate stream accretions and depletions for use in CALSIM-III, a reservoir-river simulation tool used for planning and management of the State Water Project and Central Valley Project, large surface water distribution networks in California's Central Valley.

  4. Responses of hydrochemical inorganic ions in the rainfall-runoff processes of the experimental catchments and its significance for tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, W.-Z.; Lu, J.-J.; Zhao, X.; Peters, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Aimed at the rainfall-runoff tracing using inorganic ions, the experimental study is conducted in the Chuzhou Hydrology Laboratory with special designed experimental catchments, lysimeters, etc. The various runoff components including the surface runoff, interflow from the unsaturated zone and the groundwater flow from saturated zone were monitored hydrometrically. Hydrochemical inorganic ions including Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3- + CO32-, NO3-, F-, NH4-, PO42-, SiO2 and, pH, EC, 18O were measured within a one month period for all processes of rainfall, various runoff components and groundwater within the catchment from 17 boreholes distributed in the Hydrohill Catchment, few soil water samples were also included. The results show that: (a) all the runoff components are distinctly identifiable from both the relationships of Ca2+ versus Cl-/SO42-, EC versus Na+/(Na+ + Ca2+) and, from most inorganic ions individually; (b) the variation of inorganic ions in surface runoff is the biggest than that in other flow components; (c) most ions has its lowermost concentration in rainfall process but it increases as the generation depths of runoff components increased; (d) quantitatively, ion processes of rainfall and groundwater flow display as two end members of that of other runoff components; and (e) the 18O processes of rainfall and runoff components show some correlation with that of inorganic ions. The results also show that the rainfall input is not always the main source of inorganic ions of various runoff outputs due to the process of infiltration and dissolution resulted from the pre-event processes. The amount and sources of Cl- of runoff components with various generation mechanisms challenge the current method of groundwater recharge estimation using Cl-.

  5. Approaches to characterizing biogeochemistry effects of groundwater and surface water interaction at the riparian interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater-surface water interaction (GSI) in riparian ecosystems strongly influences biological activity that controls nutrient flux and processes. Shallow groundwater in riparian zones is a hot spot for nitrogen removal processes, a storage zone for solutes, and a target for ...

  6. Available content, surface runoff and leaching of phosphorus forms in a typic hapludalf treated with organic and mineral nutrient sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of animal manure to soil can increase phosphorus availability to plants and enhance transfer of the nutrient solution drained from the soil surface or leached into the soil profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of successive applications of organic and mineral nutrient sources on the available content, surface runoff and leaching of P forms in a Typic Hapludalf in no-tillage systems. Experiment 1 was set up in 2004 in the experimental area of UFSM, in Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: control (without nutrient application and application of pig slurry (PS, pig deep-litter (PL, cattle slurry (CS, and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The rates were determined to meet the N crop requirements of no-tillage black oat and maize, grown in the 2010/2011 growing season. The soil solution was collected after each event (rain + runoff or leaching and the soluble, particulate and total P contents were measured. In November 2008, soil was collected in 2 cm intervals to a depth of 20 cm, in 5 cm intervals to a depth of 40 cm, and in 10 cm intervals to a depth of 70 cm. The soil was dried and ground, and P determined after extraction by anion exchange resin (AER. In experiment 2, samples collected from the Typic Hapludalf near experiment 1 were incubated for 20, 35, 58, 73 and 123 days after applying the following treatments: soil, soil + PS, soil + PL, soil + CS and soil + NPK. Thereafter, the soil was sampled and P was analyzed by AER. The applications of nutrient sources over the years led to an increase in available P and its migration in the soil profile. This led to P transfer via surface runoff and leaching, with the largest transfer being observed in PS and PL treatments, in which most P was applied. The soil available P and P transfer via surface runoff were correlated with the amounts applied, regardless of the P source. However, P transfer by leaching was not correlated with the applied nutrient

  7. Effects of road salts on groundwater and surface water ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road salts are a growing environmental concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na+ and Cl− in Minebank Run (MBR), an urban stream in Maryland, USA. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current baseflow salinity does not exceed water quality recommendations, but rapid “first flush” storm flow was approximately one-third that of seawater. Comparisons between the upstream and downstream study reaches suggest that a major interstate highway is the primary road salt source. A heavily used road parallels most of MBR and was an additional source to GW concentrations, especially the downstream right bank. A baseflow synoptic survey identified zones of increased salinity. Downstream piezometer wells exhibited increases in salt concentrations and there was evidence that Na+ is exchanging Ca2+ and Mg2+ on soils. SW salt concentrations were generally elevated above GW concentrations. Salinity levels persisted at MBR throughout the year and were above background levels at Bynum Run, a nearby reference stream not bisected by a major highway, suggesting that GW is a long-term reservoir for accumulating road salts. Chronic salinity levels may be high enough to damage vegetation and salinity peaks could impact other biota. Beneficial uses and green infrastructure investments may be at risk from salinity driven degradation. Therefore, road salt may represent an environmental risk that could af

  8. Evaluation of the operation of Yermasoyia surface and groundwater reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovides, I.S.

    1988-07-01

    The environmental isotope technique has been used in conjunction with hydrochemical methods to study the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater in the Yermasoyia area of Cyprus. The isotopes used in this study are 18 O, 2 H and 3 H. The isotopically enriched water in the Yermasoyia dam is released periodically in order to study the movement of the released water. From the stable isotopes and tritium data, it became evident that two regions can be distinguished in the aquifer, the Upper part and the Delta area. The secondary aquifer on either side of the river valley does not appear to receive any water from the seepage of the dam. The overall tracer average velocity in the aquifer was computed to be 16±3m per day and this is equivalent to a permeability of 160m per day. Water bodies originating from low frequency spills have been identified at the coast on the basis of oxygen-18 and tritium. A successful simulation of the reservoir for 1985 increased the confidence in the water balance and was used to verify the quantities estimated for evaporation and seepage. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Geophysical characterisation of the groundwater-surface water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, P. J.; Chambers, J. E.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Binley, A.

    2017-11-01

    Interactions between groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) have important implications for water quantity, water quality, and ecological health. The subsurface region proximal to SW bodies, the GW-SW interface, is crucial as it actively regulates the transfer of nutrients, contaminants, and water between GW systems and SW environments. However, geological, hydrological, and biogeochemical heterogeneity in the GW-SW interface makes it difficult to characterise with direct observations. Over the past two decades geophysics has been increasingly used to characterise spatial and temporal variability throughout the GW-SW interface. Geophysics is a powerful tool in evaluating structural heterogeneity, revealing zones of GW discharge, and monitoring hydrological processes. Geophysics should be used alongside traditional hydrological and biogeochemical methods to provide additional information about the subsurface. Further integration of commonly used geophysical techniques, and adoption of emerging techniques, has the potential to improve understanding of the properties and processes of the GW-SW interface, and ultimately the implications for water quality and environmental health.

  10. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2011 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2011 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2011 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  11. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2007-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2008 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2008 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2008 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2010 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  13. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  14. Initial site characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume discharging to a surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, S.J.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Land and Water, Wembley, WA; Davis, G.B.; Rayner, J.L.; Fisher, S.J.; Clement, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume flowing towards a tidally- and seasonally-forced estuarine system has been completed at a site in Perth, Western Australia. Installation and sampling of multiport boreholes enabled fine scale (0.5-m) vertical definition of hydrocarbon concentrations. Vertical electrical conductivity profiles from multiport and spear probe sampling into the river sediments indicated that two groundwater/river water interfaces or dispersion zones are present: (a) an upper dispersion zone between brackish river water and groundwater, and (b) a lower interface between groundwater and deeper saline water. On-line water level loggers show that near-shore groundwater levels are also strongly influence by tidal oscillation. Results from the initial site characterisation will be used to plan further investigations of contaminated groundwater/surface water interactions and the biodegradation processes occurring at the site

  15. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  16. Coupling a groundwater model with a land surface model to improve water and energy cycle simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water and energy cycles interact, making these two processes closely related. Land surface models (LSMs can describe the water and energy cycles on the land surface, but their description of the subsurface water processes is oversimplified, and lateral groundwater flow is ignored. Groundwater models (GWMs describe the dynamic movement of the subsurface water well, but they cannot depict the physical mechanisms of the evapotranspiration (ET process in detail. In this study, a coupled model of groundwater flow with a simple biosphere (GWSiB is developed based on the full coupling of a typical land surface model (SiB2 and a 3-D variably saturated groundwater model (AquiferFlow. In this coupled model, the infiltration, ET and energy transfer are simulated by SiB2 using the soil moisture results from the groundwater flow model. The infiltration and ET results are applied iteratively to drive the groundwater flow model. After the coupled model is built, a sensitivity test is first performed, and the effect of the groundwater depth and the hydraulic conductivity parameters on the ET are analyzed. The coupled model is then validated using measurements from two stations located in shallow and deep groundwater depth zones. Finally, the coupled model is applied to data from the middle reach of the Heihe River basin in the northwest of China to test the regional simulation capabilities of the model.

  17. Simulating groundwater-surface water interactions in the Canadian Prairies using a coupled land-atmosphere model (ParFlow-CLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. A.; Ireson, A. M.; Keim, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian prairies are cold and dry. Surface depressions are ubiquitous, and contain permanent or ephemeral ponds. The ponds are filled by snowmelt and precipitation on the ponds and lose a significant portion of their water to evaporation, but also, depending on their landscape position, may spill to other ponds or channels, recharge groundwater, or received groundwater discharge. Since precipitation and actual evaporation are closely balanced, the pond water balances are very sensitive to change in climate, and the prairies in general have been subject to damaging floods and droughts, in particular in the last decade or two. A 2.25 km2 field site at St Denis, central Saskatchewan, contains over 100 ponds, some permanent, some ephemeral, some saline, some fresh, some recharging groundwater, some receiving groundwater discharge. The site has been extensively studied for almost 50 years, with about one decade of continuous meteorological data, and three years of detailed pond level, soil moisture and temperature, and groundwater data. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of PARFLOW-CLM (a coupled land-atmosphere model) in simulating the pond-groundwater interactions at this site. Our conceptual model of the site includes soil properties that are progressively weathered with depth, and we implement this in a simplified dual permeability mathematical model of the soil hydraulic properties, whereby storage is dominated by the matrix and flow is dominated by macropores. The model performance was surprisingly good, doing quite a good job of capturing the observed groundwater and pond level dynamics. The soil freezing regime is also captured reasonably well, though the timing and pattern of the zero degree isotherm during soil thaw, which is critically important for runoff generation processes, was not captured as well. The model provides credible insights into the spatial patterns of evapotranspiration, and the seasonal dynamics of subsurface

  18. GSFLOW model simulations used to evaluate the impact of irrigated agriculture on surface water - groundwater interaction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Watershed-scale coupled surface water (SW) – groundwater (GW) flow modeling was used to examine changes in streamflow and SW – GW interaction resulting from...

  19. Seasonal variability of near surface soil water and groundwater tables in Florida : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal high groundwater table (SHGWT) is a critical measure for design projects requiring : surface water permits including roadway design and detention or retention pond design. Accurately : measuring and, more importantly, predicting water ta...

  20. Simulation of torrential rain as a means for assessment of surface runoff coefficients and calculation of recurrent design events in alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markart, Gerhard; Kohl, Bernhard; Sotier, Bernadette; Klebinder, Klaus; Schauer, Thomas; Bunza, Günther

    2010-05-01

    Simulation of heavy rain is an established method for studying infiltration characteristics, runoff and erosion behaviour in alpine catchments. Accordingly for characterization and differentiation of various runoff producing areas in alpine catchments transportable spray irrigation installations for large plots have been developed at the BFW, Department of Natural Hazards and Alpine Timberline, in Innsbruck, Austria. One installation has been designed for assessment of surface runoff coefficients under convective torrential rain with applicable precipitation intensities between 30 and 120 mm*h-1 and a plot size between 50 and 100 m2. The second device is used for simulation of persistent rain events (rain intensity about 10 mm*h-1, plot size: 400-1200 m2). Very reasonable results have been achieved during the comparison with spray irrigations from other institutions (e.g. Bavarian Environmental Agency in Munich) in the field. Rain simulations at BFW are mostly combined with comprehensive additional investigations on land-use, vegetation cover, soil physical characteristics, soil humidity, hydrogeology and other features of the test-sites. This allows proper interpretation of the achieved runoff data. At the moment results from more than 280 rain simulations are available from about 25 catchments / regions of the Eastern Alps at the BFW. Results show that the surface runoff coefficient, when runoff is constant at the test site (φconst) increases only slightly between rain intensities from 30 to 120 mm*h-1 (increment is 6%). Therefore φconst shall be used for assessment of runoff behaviour of runoff contributing areas, because it is less dependent form system conditions than φtot. BFW-data have been consolidated with results of the LfU (Bavarian Environmental Agency in Munich) in a data base and formed the basis for the development of a simple code of practice for assessment of surface runoff coefficients in torrential rain. The manual is freely available under

  1. Surface water and groundwater water interaction model in catastrophic floods and mudslides in the beds of mountain rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulenev, Nikita

    2014-05-01

    Catastrophic floods and mudslides / mudflows are very dangerous disaster. Water volumes appear suddenly and continuously increasing in intensity and can spread with great speed, leading to catastrophic consequences - destruction and casualties [1]. These phenomena are typically nonlinear processes occurring in an open system with spatially distributed feedback [2]. Currently, most researchers consider as causes of such powerful water flows seasonal rapid melting of glaciers and intense rain showers. However, their localization is often in line with a separate small mountain river and dynamics of development raises a number of issues, primarily in connection with the justification of the amounts of water that are distributed on the surface and demonstrate the complex hydrodynamic behavior with obvious elements of self-organization. Highlights in this project we consider the interaction of groundwater and surface water by means of the transport system 3D - cracks. In this case there are, two types of emissions to the surface of groundwater - the flash and relatively protracted continuous replenishment of surface runoff due to smooth outpouring of underground streams. We rely on the concept, in which groundwater and surface water are not isolated systems, and is closely related to each other in the territory of a single watershed in the functioning of the overall transport system - 3D-network of cracks in the rock (visible manifestation of which is on the surface and the riverbed itself [3]). Evaluative analysis of groundwater discharge into the river channel can hold a first approximation, by analogy with the artesian well, working in a mode of self-flowing. And in a similar way as it is possible to calculate the pressure at the bottom of the well based on its flow rate, we can estimate the pressure in the aquifer based on the amount obtained by mudflow or flood. In the case of a violent release according to our calculations, such pressure can reach tens of

  2. USE OF MICRO-DAMS IN POTATO FURROWS TO REDUCE EROSION AND RUNOFF AND MINIMISE SURFACE WATER CONTAMINATION THROUGH PESTICIDES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, C; Goffart, J P; Baets, D; Xanthoulis, D; Fonder, N; Lognay, G; Barthélemy, J P; Lebrun, P

    2014-01-01

    The use of micro-dams in potato furrows is an interesting technology to reduce erosion and runoff in hilly areas. These phenomena are major sources of surface water contamination by nutrients and plant protection products (Gillijns et al., 2005). In 2011 Bayer CropScience set up a trial in collaboration with the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) and ULg-Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech in Huldenberg (Belgium) to demonstrate this technique in potatoes. Micro-dams create barriers between furrows in order to encourage rainwater to infiltrate in the soil rather than to run off. The results from the trial over this year confirm that the application of micro-dams is effective in reducing erosion and runoff significantly. The total loss of plant protection products (PPP) to surface water is dramatically reduced and also strongly depends on the physic-chemical characteristics of the active ingredients. In addition, the technique tends to produce a higher yield of potato tubers as an effect of an optimised utilisation of the available rainwater and nutrients.

  3. Urban Runoff and Nutrients Loading Control from Sustainable BMPs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change alters hydrodynamic and nutrient dynamic in both large and small geographic scales. These changes in our freshwater system directly affect drinking water, food production, business, and all aspects of our life. Along with climate change is increasing urbanization which alters natural landscape. Urban runoff has been identified as one of many potential drivers of the decline of pelagic fishes in san Francisco Bay-Delta region. Recent found of Pyrethroids in American River has increased scientists, public, and policy makers’ concern about our fresh water system. Increasing our understanding about the fundamental hydrodynamic, nutrient dynamics, and the transport mechanics of runoff and nutrients are important for future water resource and ecosystem management. Urbanization has resulted in significantly increasing the amount of impervious land cover. Most impervious land covers are hydrophobic that alters surface runoff because of the effects on surface retention storage, rainfall interception, and infiltration. Large volumes of excess storm runoff from urbanized areas cause flooding, water pollution, groundwater recharge deficits, destroyed habitat, beach closures, and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Parking lot alone accounts for more than 11% of these impervious surfaces. Contrast to impervious parking lot, turfgrass can accouter for 12% of urban land in California. Irrigated urban landscapes create considerable benefits to our daily living. However, the use of fertilizers and pesticides has caused environmental problems. Preventing fertilizers and pesticides from entering storm drains is an important goal for both landscape and storm runoff managers. Studies of urban runoff have found that the most fertilizers and pesticides are from dry weather runoff which conveys pollutants to sidewalks, streets, and storm drains. Controlling surface runoff is critical to preventing these pollutants from entering storm drains and water bodies. Large scale

  4. The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 2. Surface waters and groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Darling

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The utility of stable isotopes as tracers of the water molecule has a long pedigree. The study reported here is part of an attempt to establish a comprehensive isotopic 'baseline' for the British Isles as background data for a range of applications. Part 1 of this study (Darling and Talbot, 2003 considered the isotopic composition of rainfall in Britain and Ireland. The present paper is concerned with the composition of surface waters and groundwater. In isotopic terms, surface waters (other than some upland streams are poorly characterised in the British Isles; their potential variability has yet to be widely used as an aid in hydrological research. In what may be the first study of a major British river, a monthly isotopic record of the upper River Thames during 1998 was obtained. This shows high damping of the isotopic variation compared to that in rainfall over most of the year, though significant fluctuations were seen for the autumn months. Smaller rivers such as the Stour and Darent show a more subdued response to the balance between runoff and baseflow. The relationship between the isotopic composition of rainfall and groundwater is also considered. From a limited database, it appears that whereas Chalk groundwater is a representative mixture of weighted average annual rainfall, for Triassic sandstone groundwater there is a seasonal selection of rainfall biased towards isotopically-depleted winter recharge. This may be primarily the result of physical differences between the infiltration characteristics of rock types, though other factors (vegetation, glacial history could be involved. In the main, however, groundwaters appear to be representative of bulk rainfall within an error band of 0.5‰ δ18O. Contour maps of the δ18O and δ2H content of recent groundwaters in the British Isles show a fundamental SW-NE depletion effect modified by topography. The range of measured values, while much smaller than those for rainfall, still covers

  5. [Distribution Characteristics of Fluoroquinolones Antibiotics in Surface Water and Groundwater from Typical Areas in A City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ya-feng; He, Jiang-tao; Su, Si-hui; Yang, Lei; Qiao, Xiao-cui

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of 5 typical kinds of fluoroquinolones (FQs) pollution in waters from a city, surface water and groundwater samples from main drainage rivers and typical areas were collected, respectively. The conventional test and FQs concentrations analysis of the water samples were conducted. The results showed the concentration and composition of FQs in groundwater differed substantially from those in surface water. The average concentration of FQs in surface water was 789.1 ng x L(-1) with the main components of ofloxacin (OFL) and lomefloxacin (LOM). This value was higher than the average concentration of FQs in groundwater: 342.7 ng x L(-1) with the main components of norfloxacin (NOR) and lomefloxacin (LOM). The enrofloxacin (ENR) exhibited relatively lower levels in both surface water and groundwater as compared to others. The highest FQs concentrations in surface water were found in trenches, followed by tributaries and the main stream. For groundwater, FQs concentrations were relatively higher in the sewage riverside. A decreasing trend of FQs concentration was monitored with the increasing distance of sampling points to the drainage rivers and all components mentioned above showed similar changing trends. The results of this study preliminarily indicated that FQs in groundwater along the riverside probably came from the surface water.

  6. Simulation of groundwater flow and interaction of groundwater and surface water on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Indian Health Service are interested in improving the understanding of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interaction on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation (Reservation) in southwest Vilas County and southeast Iron County, Wisconsin, with particular interest in an understanding of the potential for contamination of groundwater supply wells and the fate of wastewater that is infiltrated from treatment lagoons on the Reservation. This report describes the construction, calibration, and application of a regional groundwater flow model used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system of the Reservation and water-quality results for groundwater and surface-water samples collected near a system of waste-water-treatment lagoons. Groundwater flows through a permeable glacial aquifer that ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 200 feet (ft). Seepage and drainage lakes are common in the area and influence groundwater flow patterns on the Reservation. A two-dimensional, steady-state analytic element groundwater flow model was constructed using the program GFLOW. The model was calibrated by matching target water levels and stream base flows through the use of the parameter-estimation program, PEST. Simulated results illustrate that groundwater flow within most of the Reservation is toward the Bear River and the chain of lakes that feed the Bear River. Results of analyses of groundwater and surface-water samples collected downgradient from the wastewater infiltration lagoons show elevated levels of ammonia and dissolved phosphorus. In addition, wastewater indicator chemicals detected in three downgradient wells and a small downgradient stream indicate that infiltrated wastewater is moving southwest of the lagoons toward Moss Lake. Potential effects of extended wet and dry periods (within historical ranges) were evaluated by adjusting precipitation and groundwater recharge in the model and comparing the

  7. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 14 Appendix M - Historical Surface Runoff.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  8. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 15 Appendix N - Forecast Surface Runoff.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  9. Surface water and groundwater interaction in selected areas of Indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Latif, Z.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-08-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in Marala-Khanki Area of Punjab for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water (Chenab River) samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no significant contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Marala-Khanki Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of Tarbala lake are higher than those of main lake. Indus river meaning that there is significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Isotopic data of Indus river showed an increase at Tunsa as compared to Chashma in flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  10. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Qiuying [Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Li, Jing [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious

  11. Origin of hexavalent chromium in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazakis, N.; Kantiranis, N.; Kalaitzidou, K.

    2017-01-01

    in the groundwater of the unconfined porous aquifer situated near the temporary fly ash disposal site. Recharge of the porous aquifer is related mainly to precipitation infiltration and occasional surface run-off. Nevertheless, a hydraulic connection between the porous and neighboring karst aquifers could...

  12. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater ... bility of runoff, the attitude of water divide, and the rate of pumping causing sea ...... environmental implications for future sustainable devel- opment of the northwestern coastal ...

  13. Ephemeral and intermittent runoff generation processes in a low relief, highly weathered catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Margaret A.; McGlynn, Brian L.

    2017-08-01

    Most field-based approaches that address runoff generation questions have been conducted in steep landscapes with shallow soils. Runoff generation processes in low relief landscapes with deep soils remain less understood. We addressed this by characterizing dominant runoff generating flow paths by monitoring the timing and magnitude of precipitation, runoff, shallow soil moisture, and shallow and deep groundwater dynamics in a 3.3 ha ephemeral-to-intermittent drainage network in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, USA. This Piedmont region is gently sloped with highly weathered soils characterized by shallow impeding layers due to decreases in saturated hydraulic conductivity with depth. Our results indicated two dominant catchment storage states driven by seasonal evapotranspiration. Within these states, distinct flow paths were activated, resulting in divergent hydrograph recessions. Groundwater dynamics during precipitation events with different input characteristics and contrasting storage states showed distinct shallow and deep groundwater flow path behavior could produce similar runoff magnitudes. During an event with low antecedent storage, activation of a shallow, perched, transient water table dominated runoff production. During an event with high antecedent storage, the deeper water table activated shallow flow paths by rising into the shallow transmissive soil horizons. Despite these differing processes, the relationship between active surface drainage length (ASDL) and runoff was consistent. Hysteretic behavior between ASDL and runoff suggested that while seasonal ASDLs can be predicted based on runoff, the mechanisms and source areas producing flow can be highly variable and not easily estimated from runoff alone. These processes and flow paths have significant implications for stream chemistry across seasons and storage states.

  14. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program: Groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis plan for Calendar Year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1998 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These monitoring activities are managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmental Compliance Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed during CY 1998 to comply with: (1) requirements specified in Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) post-closure permits regarding RCRA corrective action monitoring and RCRA detection monitoring; (2) Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste management facilities; and (3) DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway monitoring. Data from some of the sampling locations in each regime will be used to meet the requirements of more than one of the monitoring drivers listed above. Modifications to the CY 1998 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  15. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  16. Long term, non-anthropogenic groundwater storage changes simulated by a global land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Rodell, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is crucial for meeting agricultural, industrial and municipal water needs, especially in arid, semi-arid and drought impacted regions. Yet, knowledge on groundwater response to climate variability is not well understood due to lack of systematic and continuous in situ measurements. In this study, we investigate global non-anthropogenic groundwater storage variations with a land surface model driven by a 67-year (1948-204) meteorological forcing data set. Model estimates were evaluated using in situ groundwater data from the central and northeastern U.S. and terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites and found to be reasonable. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed to examine modes of variability of groundwater storage and their relationship with atmospheric effects such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. The result shows that the leading mode in global groundwater storage reflects the influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Consistent with the EOF analysis, global total groundwater storage reflected the low frequency variability of ENSO and decreased significantly over 1948-2014 while global ET and precipitation did not exhibit statistically significant trends. This study suggests that while precipitation and ET are the primary drivers of climate related groundwater variability, changes in other forcing fields than precipitation and temperature are also important because of their influence on ET. We discuss the need to improve model physics and to continuously validate model estimates and forcing data for future studies.

  17. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  18. Major ions composition of the groundwater and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total ionic concentration increases dramatically from the highlands towards the rift valley following the regional groundwater flow directions to low-lying regions characterized by low annual rainfall and high evapotranspiration. In the rift the total dissolved solids (TDS) variation is dramatic (in places more than 50 fold).

  19. Informing groundwater models with near-surface geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan

    CHI-approach was developed, called CHI-P (Parameter), which applies coupling constraints between the geophysical and hydrologic model parameters. A CHI-P was used to estimate hydraulic conductivities and geological layer elevations for a synthetic groundwater model using Time-Domain Electromagnetic...

  20. Surface water - groundwater interactions at different spatial and temporal scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebök, Éva

    temperatures but similarly to differential gauging and temperature-based flux estimates, also a heterogeneous discharge pattern with several concentrated discharge sites. Catchment scale variability in groundwater discharge was detected by δ2H and electrical conductivity-based hydrograph separation...

  1. Physico-chemical characteristics of surface and groundwater in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    musa kizito ojochenemi

    and bicarbonate water type which represents recently recharged water of meteoric origin that resulted from the dissolution of alluminosilicate minerals. Comparison of the chemical characteristic of groundwater in Obajana and its environs, and the. WHO/SON baseline standard for drinking water quality confirms that at the ...

  2. Metamodeling as a tool to size vegetative filter strips for surface runoff pollution control in European watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvernet, Claire; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Carluer, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, a significant presence of contaminants is found in surface water, partly due to pesticide applications. Vegetative filter strips or buffer zones (VFS), often located along rivers, are a common best management practice (BMP) to reduce non point source pollution of water by reducing surface runoff. However, they need to be adapted to the agro-ecological and climatic conditions, both in terms of position and size, in order to be efficient. The TOPPS-PROWADIS project involves European experts and stakeholders to develop and recommend BMPs to reduce pesticide transfer by drift or runoff in several European countries. In this context, IRSTEA developed a guide accompanying the use of different tools, which allows designing site-specific VFS by simulating their efficiency to limit transfers using the mechanistic model VFSMOD. This method which is very complete assumes that the user provides detailed field knowledge and data, which are not always easily available. The aim of this study is to assist the buffer sizing by using a unique tool with a reduced set of parameters, adapted to the available information from the end-users. In order to fill in the lack of real data in many practical applications, a set of virtual scenarios was selected to encompass a large range of agro-pedo-climatic conditions in Europe, considering both the upslope agricultural field and the VFS characteristics. As a first step first, in this work we present scenarios based on North-West of France climate consisting of different rainfall intensities and durations, hillslope lengths and slopes, humidity conditions, a large set of field rainfall/runoff characteristics for the contributing area, and several shallow water table depths and soil types for the VFS. The sizing method based on the mechanistic model VFSMOD was applied for all these scenarios, and a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) of the VFS optimal length was performed for all the input parameters in order to understand their

  3. Modeling groundwater/surface-water interactions in an Alpine valley (the Aosta Plain, NW Italy): the effect of groundwater abstraction on surface-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefania, Gennaro A.; Rotiroti, Marco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Simonetto, Fulvio; Capodaglio, Pietro; Zanotti, Chiara; Bonomi, Tullia

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow model of the Alpine valley aquifer in the Aosta Plain (NW Italy) showed that well pumping can induce river streamflow depletions as a function of well location. Analysis of the water budget showed that ˜80% of the water pumped during 2 years by a selected well in the downstream area comes from the baseflow of the main river discharge. Alluvial aquifers hosted in Alpine valleys fall within a particular hydrogeological context where groundwater/surface-water relationships change from upstream to downstream as well as seasonally. A transient groundwater model using MODFLOW2005 and the Streamflow-Routing (SFR2) Package is here presented, aimed at investigating water exchanges between the main regional river (Dora Baltea River, a left-hand tributary of the Po River), its tributaries and the underlying shallow aquifer, which is affected by seasonal oscillations. The three-dimensional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer was obtained by means of a specific coding system within the database TANGRAM. Both head and flux targets were used to perform the model calibration using PEST. Results showed that the fluctuations of the water table play an important role in groundwater/surface-water interconnections. In upstream areas, groundwater is recharged by water leaking through the riverbed and the well abstraction component of the water budget changes as a function of the hydraulic conditions of the aquifer. In downstream areas, groundwater is drained by the river and most of the water pumped by wells comes from the base flow component of the river discharge.

  4. Cadmium removal from urban stormwater runoff via bioretention technology and effluent risk assessment for discharge to surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlong; Zhang, Pingping; Yang, Liqiong; Huang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Bioretention technology, a low-impact development stormwater management measure, was evaluated for its ability to remove heavy metals (specifically cadmium, Cd) from urban stormwater runoff. Fine sand, zeolite, sand and quartz sand were selected as composite bioretention media. The effects of these materials on the removal efficiency, chemical forms, and accumulation and migration characteristics of Cd were examined in laboratory scale bioretention columns. Heretofore, few studies have examined the removal of Cd by bioretention. A five-step sequential extraction method, a single-contamination index method, and an empirical migration equation were used in the experiments. The average Cd removal efficiency of quartz sand approached 99%, and removal by the other media all exceeded 90%. The media types markedly affected the forms of Cd found in the columns as well as its vertical migration rate. The Cd accumulated in the four media was mainly in residual form; moreover, accumulation of Cd occurred mainly in the surface layer of the bioretention column. The migration depth of Cd in the four media increased with elapsed time, in the following sequence: zeolite > quartz sand > fine sand > sand. In contrast, the migration rate decreased with elapsed time, and the migration rate of Cd was lowest in sand (0.015 m per annum over the first ten years). The comprehensive risk index analysis indicated that the risk arising from Cd discharge to surface water was "intermediate", and that the degree of risk was lowest in sand, then quartz sand, zeolite, and fine sand in sequence. These results indicate that the adsorption and accumulation of Cd in the four media are more significant than the migration of Cd. In addition, the results of Cd risk assessment for the effluent indicate that each of the four media can serve as long-term adsorption material in a bioretention facility for purifying stormwater runoff.

  5. Cadmium removal from urban stormwater runoff via bioretention technology and effluent risk assessment for discharge to surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlong; Zhang, Pingping; Yang, Liqiong; Huang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Bioretention technology, a low-impact development stormwater management measure, was evaluated for its ability to remove heavy metals (specifically cadmium, Cd) from urban stormwater runoff. Fine sand, zeolite, sand and quartz sand were selected as composite bioretention media. The effects of these materials on the removal efficiency, chemical forms, and accumulation and migration characteristics of Cd were examined in laboratory scale bioretention columns. Heretofore, few studies have examined the removal of Cd by bioretention. A five-step sequential extraction method, a single-contamination index method, and an empirical migration equation were used in the experiments. The average Cd removal efficiency of quartz sand approached 99%, and removal by the other media all exceeded 90%. The media types markedly affected the forms of Cd found in the columns as well as its vertical migration rate. The Cd accumulated in the four media was mainly in residual form; moreover, accumulation of Cd occurred mainly in the surface layer of the bioretention column. The migration depth of Cd in the four media increased with elapsed time, in the following sequence: zeolite>quartz sand>fine sand>sand. In contrast, the migration rate decreased with elapsed time, and the migration rate of Cd was lowest in sand (0.015 m per annum over the first ten years). The comprehensive risk index analysis indicated that the risk arising from Cd discharge to surface water was "intermediate", and that the degree of risk was lowest in sand, then quartz sand, zeolite, and fine sand in sequence. These results indicate that the adsorption and accumulation of Cd in the four media are more significant than the migration of Cd. In addition, the results of Cd risk assessment for the effluent indicate that each of the four media can serve as long-term adsorption material in a bioretention facility for purifying stormwater runoff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Shallow groundwater effect on land surface temperature and surface energy balance under bare soil conditions: modeling and description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alkhaier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding when and how groundwater affects surface temperature and energy fluxes is significant for utilizing remote sensing in groundwater studies and for integrating aquifers within land surface models. To investigate the shallow groundwater effect under bare soil conditions, we numerically exposed two soil profiles to identical metrological forcing. One of the profiles had shallow groundwater. The different responses that the two profiles manifested were inspected regarding soil moisture, temperature and energy balance at the land surface. The findings showed that the two profiles differed in three aspects: the absorbed and emitted amounts of energy, the portioning out of the available energy and the heat fluency in the soil. We concluded that due to their lower albedo, shallow groundwater areas reflect less shortwave radiation and consequently get a higher magnitude of net radiation. When potential evaporation demand is sufficiently high, a large portion of the energy received by these areas is consumed for evaporation. This increases the latent heat flux and reduces the energy that could have heated the soil. Consequently, lower magnitudes of both sensible and ground heat fluxes are caused to occur. The higher soil thermal conductivity in shallow groundwater areas facilitates heat transfer between the top soil and the subsurface, i.e. soil subsurface is more thermally connected to the atmosphere. For the reliability of remote sensors in detecting shallow groundwater effect, it was concluded that this effect can be sufficiently clear to be detected if at least one of the following conditions occurs: high potential evaporation and high contrast between day and night temperatures. Under these conditions, most day and night hours are suitable for shallow groundwater depth detection.

  7. Global drivers effect in multi-annual variability of runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fendeková Miriam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in runoff parameters are very important for Slovakia, where stream-flow discharges, being supplied by precipitation and groundwater runoff, are preferentially influenced by climatic conditions. Therefore, teleconnections between runoff parameters, climate parameters and global atmospheric drivers such as North Atlantic Oscillation, Southern Pacific Oscillation, Quasi-biennial oscillation and solar activity were studied in the Nitra River Basin, Slovakia. Research was mostly based on records of 80 years (1931-2010 for discharges and baseflow, and 34 years for groundwater heads. Methods of autocorrelation, spectral analysis, cross-correlation and coherence function were used. Results of auto- correllograms for discharges, groundwater heads and base flow values showed a very distinct 11-year and 21-year periodicity. Spectrogram analysis documented the 11-year, 7.8-year, 3.6-year and 2.4-year periods in the discharge, precipitation and air temperature time series. The same cycles except of 11-years were also identified in the long-term series of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Pacific Oscillation indices. The cycle from approximately 2.3 to 2.4-years is most likely connected with Quasi-biennial oscillation. The close negative correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation winter index and the hydrological surface and groundwater parameters can be used for their prediction within the same year and also for one year in advance.

  8. Radioisotope tracer application in surface and groundwater flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monev, E.

    1983-01-01

    The ''peak to peak'' method for measurement of water flow with the use of radioactive tracer was investigated. The theoretical basis for this method has been established. The experiments in the open channel have shown the applicability of the method. Groundwater flow was studied by injection of radioactive tracer into the bore-hole followed by gamma-logging in three different time intervals. Interpretation of gamma lows in terms of filtration velocity in various depths proved to be possible

  9. Runoff and windblown vehicle spray from road surfaces, risks and measures for soil and water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, P.N.M.; Comans, R.N.J.; Dijkstra, J.J.; Vergouwen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and surface water along roads are exposed to pollution from motorways. The main pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mineral oil, heavy metals and salt. These pollutants originate from vehicles (fuel, wires, leakage), wear and degradation of road surfaces and road furniture

  10. Computer modeling of pesticide fate at the hillslope scale. Influence of vegetated filter strips on surface runoff pesticides transfer and partitioning between surface and subsurface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djabelkhir, K.; Carluer, N.; Lauvernet, C.

    2012-04-01

    In France, agriculture uses large quantities of fertilizer and pesticides. Water contamination by pesticides is highlighted by monitoring networks, at local and national levels. Control and reduction of contamination are major issues, for the protection of drinking water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Thus, understanding and quantifying the mechanisms involved in mobilization, transfer and dissipation of these substances can help to perform risk of water contamination diagnosis, and to estimate the effectiveness of corrective solutions. In this context, landscape elements, like buffer zones, can be an effective way to reduce diffuse contamination of pesticides carried by surface runoff. They protect the water ressources of the drift of the products applied to crops and contribute to the reduction of the transfer of pesticides in surface runoff from the plots to the river. We are interested in our study to the vegetative filter strips. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a model simulating the processes governing the transfer and dissipation of pesticides from plots to surface water, on surface and subsurface, along a slope. This will be done by taking into account the influence of vegetative filter strips between plots and rivers on the transfer, by changing the flow paths and retention time of these products via several mechanisms (infiltration, filtration of runoff -sedimentation of MES-, adsorption and degradation of products on the surface of the vegetative filter strips or infiltrated). Several models describing the mechanisms of transfer of water and solutes (sometimes) at a hillslope scale exist, in particular : POLA (Pinheiro and al., 1995), Openfluid (LISAH), J2000-JAMS (Krause and al., 2006), CatFlow (Zehe and al., 2000), tRIBS (Ivanov and al., 2004), Cathy 3D (Bixio and al., 2000) and CMF (Kraft and al., 2011). It was decided to choose a spatially distributed and object-oriented model, allowing to couple hydrological processes occuring

  11. Arsenic transport between surface and groundwater in a moderately reducing zone: Geochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Verdoux, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic contamination represents a major risk to human health as one of the most prominent environmental causes of cancer mortality. Mining activities, particularly those involving arsenic rich ores have an impact on the environment and on human health that may persist for many decades after mine closure. The relationships between As released from alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of the sulfide-rich mine dumps was demonstrated with geochemical and isotopic tracers (major and traces elements, 87Sr/86Sr, 18O, 2H). Strontium isotopes were used to trace the transport of As downstream from a As rich tailing dam. Increasing As and Fe concentrations in surface water are explained by As release associated with alluvial groundwater discharge to the stream. This process occurs in a moderately reduced section of the stream downgradient from the sulfide-rich tailing dam. High As, total Fe and low Eh in groundwater confirm the discharge of alluvial groundwater and explain its impact on surface water. Transport of As between surface and groundwater can be described as follows: 1- Subsurface moderately reducing conditions prevail in groundwater downgradient from the tailing dams. This suggests a flux of reduced water from sulfide-rich tailing dams which is characterized by its high As and Fe content resulting from the reduction of Fe-sulfides. 2- Upon mixing with surface water, oxidizing conditions prevails and precipitate as Fe hydroxide on the stream bed. As and Sr subsequently adsorbed on the Fe -oxyhydroxide surface. This process contributes to the immobilization of As in surface water. Remaining dissolved As in surface water can be re-introduced in alluvial groundwater downstream of the reducing zone.

  12. Linking crop structure, throughfall, soil surface conditions, runoff and soil detachment: 10 land uses analyzed in Northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Guillaume; Valentin, Christian; Sounyafong, Phabvilay; de Rouw, Anneke; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Silvera, Norbert; Pierret, Alain; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    In Montane Southeast Asia, deforestation and unsuitable combinations of crops and agricultural practices degrade soils at an unprecedented rate. Typically, smallholder farmers gain income from "available" land by replacing fallow or secondary forest by perennial crops. We aimed to understand how these practices increase or reduce soil erosion. Ten land uses were monitored in Northern Laos during the 2015 monsoon, using local farmers' fields. Experiments included plots of the conventional system (food crops and fallow), and land uses corresponding to new market opportunities (e.g. commercial tree plantations). Land uses were characterized by measuring plant cover and plant mean height per vegetation layer. Recorded meteorological variables included rainfall intensity, throughfall amount, throughfall kinetic energy (TKE), and raindrop size. Runoff coefficient, soil loss, and the percentage areas of soil surface types (free aggregates and gravel; crusts; macro-faunal, vegetal and pedestal features; plant litter) were derived from observations and measurements in 1-m 2 micro-plots. Relationships between these variables were explored with multiple regression analyses. Our results indicate that TKE induces soil crusting and soil loss. By reducing rainfall infiltration, crusted area enhances runoff, which removes and transports soil particles detached by splash over non-crusted areas. TKE is lower under land uses reducing the velocity of raindrops and/or preventing an increase in their size. Optimal vegetation structures combine minimum height of the lowest layer (to reduce drop velocity at ground level) and maximum coverage (to intercept the largest amount of rainfall), as exemplified by broom grass (Thysanolaena latifolia). In contrast, high canopies with large leaves will increase TKE by enlarging raindrops, as exemplified by teak trees (Tectona grandis), unless a protective understorey exists under the trees. Policies that ban the burning of multi-layered vegetation

  13. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  14. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of surface water and groundwater in Songnen plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Tang, Changyuan; Yu, Yilei; Ma, Ying

    2012-05-15

    Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Songnen plain is one of the grain bases in China, as well as one of the three major distribution regions of soda saline-alkali soil in the world. To assess the water quality, surface water and groundwater were sampled and analyzed by fuzzy membership analysis and multivariate statistics. The surface water were gather into class I, IV and V, while groundwater were grouped as class I, II, III and V by fuzzy membership analysis. The water samples were grouped into four categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA. Most water samples distributed in category C1-S1, C2-S2 and C3-S3. Three groups were generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. Four principal components were extracted from principal component analysis. The indicators to water quality assessment were Na, HCO(3), NO(3), Fe, Mn and EC from principal component analysis. We conclude that surface water and shallow groundwater are suitable for irrigation, the reservoir and deep groundwater in upstream are the resources for drinking. The water for drinking should remove of the naturally occurring ions of Fe and Mn. The control of sodium and salinity hazard is required for irrigation. The integrated management of surface water and groundwater for drinking and irrigation is to solve the water issues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    of contamination. In particular, adaptive management tools designed to work with sparse data sets from preliminary site assessments are needed which can explicitly link contaminant point sources with groundwater, surface water and ecological impacts. Here, a novel integrated modelling approach was employed...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...... for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical...

  16. Using SDP to optimize conjunctive use of surface and groundwater in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Mo, X; Liu, S.

    2014-01-01

    A hydro-economic modelling approach to optimize conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater resources under uncertainty is presented. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from allocations of surface water, head-dependent groundwater...... pumping costs, water allocations from the South-North Water Transfer Project and water curtailments of the users. Each water user group (agriculture, industry, domestic) is characterized by fixed demands and fixed water allocation and water supply curtailment costs. The non-linear one step-ahead sub......-problems are solved using a genetic algorithm (GA) that minimizes the sum of the immediate and future costs for given surface water reservoir and groundwater aquifer end storages. The immediate costs are found by solving a simple linear allocation sub-problem, and the future costs are assessed by cubic interpolation...

  17. Plains hydrology and reclamation project: Spoil ground-water chemistry and its impacts on surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Description of the chemical makeup of spoil groundwater at Diplomat and Vesta mines in the Battle River mining area, 200 km southeast of Edmonton within the Lower Horseshoe Canyon coal zone; and at Highvale and Whitewood Mines in the Lake Wabamun mining area, 100 km west of Edmonton within the Ardley coal zone. This report compares the chemical characteristics of the spoil groundwater for each mine to those of the principal premining aquifer that is disrupted by surface mining. The characterization of spoil groundwater chemistry is based on the sampling and analyses of groundwater from piezometers installed in reclaimed areas. Forty-three samples were collected from 23 piezometers at Vesta Mine, and 54 samples were collected from 32 piezometers at Diplomat Mine. At Highvale Mine, 29 samples were collected from 13 piezometers installed in the reclaimed area at Pit 01. Eleven samples were also collected from piezometers installed in spoil at Whitewood Mine to augment a study of that site.

  18. Reconnoitering the effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and surface energy balance using MODIS and SEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alkhaier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of observing shallow groundwater depth and areal extent using satellite measurements can support groundwater models and vast irrigation systems management. Moreover, these measurements can help to include the effect of shallow groundwater on surface energy balance within land surface models and climate studies, which broadens the methods that yield more reliable and informative results. To examine the capacity of MODIS in detecting the effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and the surface energy balance in an area within Al-Balikh River basin in northern Syria, we studied the interrelationship between in-situ measured water table depths and land surface temperatures measured by MODIS. We, also, used the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS to calculate surface energy fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation, and inspected their relationships with water table depths. We found out that the daytime temperature increased while the nighttime temperature decreased when the depth of the water table increased. And, when the water table depth increased, net radiation, latent and ground heat fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation decreased, while sensible heat flux increased. This concords with the findings of a companion paper (Alkhaier et al., 2012. The observed clear relationships were the result of meeting both conditions that were concluded in the companion paper, i.e. high potential evaporation and big contrast in day-night temperature. Moreover, the prevailing conditions in this study area helped SEBS to yield accurate estimates. Under bare soil conditions and under the prevailing weather conditions, we conclude that MODIS is suitable for detecting the effect of shallow groundwater because it has proper imaging times and adequate sensor accuracy; nevertheless, its coarse spatial resolution is disadvantageous.

  19. Reconnoitering the effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and surface energy balance using MODIS and SEBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaier, F.; Su, Z.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2012-07-01

    The possibility of observing shallow groundwater depth and areal extent using satellite measurements can support groundwater models and vast irrigation systems management. Moreover, these measurements can help to include the effect of shallow groundwater on surface energy balance within land surface models and climate studies, which broadens the methods that yield more reliable and informative results. To examine the capacity of MODIS in detecting the effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and the surface energy balance in an area within Al-Balikh River basin in northern Syria, we studied the interrelationship between in-situ measured water table depths and land surface temperatures measured by MODIS. We, also, used the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) to calculate surface energy fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation, and inspected their relationships with water table depths. We found out that the daytime temperature increased while the nighttime temperature decreased when the depth of the water table increased. And, when the water table depth increased, net radiation, latent and ground heat fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation decreased, while sensible heat flux increased. This concords with the findings of a companion paper (Alkhaier et al., 2012). The observed clear relationships were the result of meeting both conditions that were concluded in the companion paper, i.e. high potential evaporation and big contrast in day-night temperature. Moreover, the prevailing conditions in this study area helped SEBS to yield accurate estimates. Under bare soil conditions and under the prevailing weather conditions, we conclude that MODIS is suitable for detecting the effect of shallow groundwater because it has proper imaging times and adequate sensor accuracy; nevertheless, its coarse spatial resolution is disadvantageous.

  20. Groundwater/Surface-Water Interaction in the Context of South African Water Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J.; Xu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater/surface-water interaction is receiving increasing focus in Africa due to its importance to ecologic systems and sustainability. South Africa’s 1998 National Water Act (NWA) recognized water as a basic human right and its importance for ecological sustainability. Ecological integrity of water resources was considered an important component in redressing past social inequities, eliminating poverty, and encouraging economic development. Under the NWA, groundwater-use licenses are granted only after setting aside the groundwater Reserve, the amount of water needed to supply basic human needs and preserve a minimum degree of ecological integrity. One challenge to successful implementation of the NWA, therefore, is the accurate quantification of groundwater contributions to aquatic ecosystems. This is especially true considering that so many of South Africa’s aquifers are in highly heterogeneous and anisotropic fractured-rock settings. The most common approach taken in South Africa is estimation of average annual flux rates at the regional scale of quaternary catchments with baseflow separation techniques and then applying a water-budget approach, subtracting the groundwater discharge rate from the recharge rate. The water-balance approach might be a good first step, but it ignores spatial and temporal variability, potentially missing the local impacts associated with placement of production boreholes. Identification of discrete areas of groundwater discharge could be achieved with stable-isotopic and geochemical analyses and vegetative mapping. Groundwater-flow modeling should be used where possible as it holistically incorporates available data and can predict impacts of groundwater extraction and development based on the relative positions of boreholes and surface-water bodies. Sustainable development entails recognition of the trade-offs between preservation and development. There will always be scientific uncertainty associated with estimation and

  1. Surface and Groundwater Contribution in Convening with High Crop Water Demand in Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Mohsin; Ullah, Kaleem; Hanjra, Munir Ahmad; Ullah Bodla, Habib; Niaz Ahmad, Rai

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Indus Basin, Pakistan are mostly exploited, however the demand for water is on a permanent rise due to population growth and associated urbanization and industrialization process. Owing to rapidly increasing population, the available surface water resources are not able to cope up with people's needs. The cropping intensities and cropping patterns have changed for meeting the increased demand of food and fiber in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Cumulative effect of all sources water i.e rainfall, irrigation and groundwater resulted in the high cropping intensities in the Basin. Presently rainfall, surface irrigation and river supplies have been unsuccessful to convene irrigation water requirements in most areas. Such conditions due to high cropping intensities in water scarce areas have diverted pressure on groundwater, which has inconsistent potential across the Indus Basin both in terms of quality and quantity. Farmers are over exploiting the groundwater to meet the high crop water demand in addition to surface water supplies. The number of private tubewells has increased more than four-fold in the last 25 years. This increasing trend of tubewell installation in the basin, along with the uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has started showing aquifer stress in most of the areas. In some parts, especially along the tail of canal systems, water levels are showing a steady rate of decline and hence - the mining of aquifer storage. Fresh groundwater areas have higher tubewell density as compared to saline groundwater zones. Even in fresh groundwater areas, uncontrolled groundwater abstraction has shown sign of groundwater quality deterioration. Under such aquifer stress conditions, there is a need to understand groundwater usage for sustainable irrigated agriculture on long term basis. In this paper the contribution of groundwater in the irrigated agriculture of Lower Chenb Canal (LCC) East, Punjab, Pakistan is explored using a nodal network

  2. Application of new point measurement device to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremeans, Mackenzie; Devlin, J.F.; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2018-01-01

    hydraulic head and temperature gradient data collected at similar scales. Spatial relationships of water flow through the streambed were found to be similar by all three methods, and indicated a heterogeneous pattern of groundwater-surface water exchange. The magnitudes of estimated flow varied to a greater......The Streambed Point Velocity Probe (SBPVP) measures in situ groundwater velocities at the groundwater-surface water interface without reliance on hydraulic conductivity, porosity, or hydraulic gradient information. The tool operates on the basis of a mini-tracer test that occurs on the probe...... degree. It was found that pollutants enter the stream in localized regions of high flow which do not always correspond to the locations of highest pollutant concentration. The results show the combined influence of flow and concentration on contaminant discharge and illustrate the advantages of adopting...

  3. Impacts of Future Climate Change and Baltic Sea Level Rise on Groundwater Recharge, Groundwater Levels, and Surface Leakage in the Hanko Aquifer in Southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrit Luoma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change and Baltic Sea level rise on groundwater resources in a shallow, unconfined, low-lying coastal aquifer in Hanko, southern Finland, was assessed using the UZF1 model package coupled with the three-dimensional groundwater flow model MODFLOW to simulate flow from the unsaturated zone through the aquifer. The snow and PET models were used to calculate the surface water availability for infiltration from the precipitation data used in UZF1. Infiltration rate, flow in the unsaturated zone and groundwater recharge were then simulated using UZF1. The simulation data from climate and sea level rise scenarios were compared with present data. The results indicated changes in recharge pattern during 2071–2100, with recharge occurring earlier in winter and early spring. The seasonal impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge were more significant, with surface overflow resulting in flooding during winter and early spring and drought during summer. Rising sea level would cause some parts of the aquifer to be under sea level, compromising groundwater quality due to intrusion of sea water. This, together with increased groundwater recharge, would raise groundwater levels and consequently contribute more surface leakage and potential flooding in the low-lying aquifer.

  4. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Delineating groundwater/surface water interaction in a karst watershed: Lower Flint River Basin, southwestern Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Rugel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Karst watershed in Lower Flint River Basin (LFRB, southwestern Georgia, USA. Study focus: Baseflow discharges in the LFRB have declined for three decades as regional irrigation has increased; yet, the location and nature of connectivity between groundwater and surface water in this karstic region are poorly understood. Because growing water demands will likely be met by further development of regional aquifers, an important management concern is the nature of interactions between groundwater and surface water components under natural and anthropogenic perturbations. We conducted coarse and fine-scale stream sampling on a major tributary of the Lower Flint River (Ichawaynochaway Creek in southwestern Georgia, USA, to identify locations and patterns of enhanced hydrologic connectivity between this stream and the Upper Floridan Aquifer. New hydrological insights for the region: Prior water resource studies in the LFRB were based on regional modeling that neglected local heterogeneities in groundwater/surface water connectivity. Our results demonstrated groundwater inputs were concentrated around five of fifty sampled reaches, evidenced by increases in multiple groundwater indicators at these sites. These five reaches contributed up to 42% of the groundwater detected along the entire 50-km sampling section, with ∼24% entering through one groundwater-dominated tributary, Chickasawhatchee Creek. Intermittent flows occurred in two of these upstream reaches during extreme drought and heavy groundwater pumping, suggesting reach-scale behaviors should be considered in resource management and policy. Keywords: Karst hydrogeology, Hydrologic connectivity, Groundwater/surface water interaction, Upper Floridan Aquifer, Groundwater Irrigation

  6. Runoff of pesticides from rice fields in the Ile de Camargue (Rhone river delta, France): Field study and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comoretto, Laetitia; Arfib, Bruno; Talva, Romain; Chauvelon, Philippe; Pichaud, Marc; Chiron, Serge; Hoehener, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    A field study on the runoff of pesticides was conducted during the cultivation period in 2004 on a hydraulically isolated rice farm of 120 ha surface with one central water outlet. Four pesticides were studied: Alphamethrin, MCPA, Oxadiazon, and Pretilachlor. Alphamethrin concentrations in runoff never exceeded 0.001 μg L -1 . The three other pesticides were found in concentrations between 5.2 and 28.2 μg L -1 in the runoff water shortly after the application and decreased thereafter. The data for MCPA compared reasonably well with predictions by an analytical runoff model, accounting for volatilization, degradation, leaching to groundwater, and sorption to soil. The runoff model estimated that runoff accounted for as much as 18-42% of mass loss for MCPA. Less runoff is observed and predicted for Oxadiazon and Pretilachlor. It was concluded that runoff from rice paddies carries important loads of dissolved pesticides to the wetlands in the Ile de Camargue, and that the model can be used to predict this runoff. - Runoff of dissolved pesticides was measured on a rice farm in the Camargue (France) and modeled with an analytical model

  7. Groundwater and surface-water interaction within the upper Smith River Watershed, Montana 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The 125-mile long Smith River, a tributary of the Missouri River, is highly valued as an agricultural resource and for its many recreational uses. During a drought starting in about 1999, streamflow was insufficient to meet all of the irrigation demands, much less maintain streamflow needed for boating and viable fish habitat. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Meagher County Conservation District, initiated a multi-year hydrologic investigation of the Smith River watershed. This investigation was designed to increase understanding of the water resources of the upper Smith River watershed and develop a detailed description of groundwater and surface-water interactions. A combination of methods, including miscellaneous and continuous groundwater-level, stream-stage, water-temperature, and streamflow monitoring was used to assess the hydrologic system and the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater and surface-water interactions. Collectively, data are in agreement and show: (1) the hydraulic connectedness of groundwater and surface water, (2) the presence of both losing and gaining stream reaches, (3) dynamic changes in direction and magnitude of water flow between the stream and groundwater with time, (4) the effects of local flood irrigation on groundwater levels and gradients in the watershed, and (5) evidence and timing of irrigation return flows to area streams. Groundwater flow within the alluvium and older (Tertiary) basin-fill sediments generally followed land-surface topography from the uplands to the axis of alluvial valleys of the Smith River and its tributaries. Groundwater levels were typically highest in the monitoring wells located within and adjacent to streams in late spring or early summer, likely affected by recharge from snowmelt and local precipitation, leakage from losing streams and canals, and recharge from local flood irrigation. The effects of flood irrigation resulted in increased hydraulic gradients

  8. Groundwater-surface water interactions in a large semi-arid floodplain: implications for salinity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Sébastien; Leaney, Fred W.; Herczeg, Andrew L.

    2005-10-01

    Flow regulation and water diversion for irrigation have considerably impacted the exchange of surface water between the Murray River and its floodplains. However, the way in which river regulation has impacted groundwater-surface water interactions is not completely understood, especially in regards to the salinization and accompanying vegetation dieback currently occurring in many of the floodplains. Groundwater-surface water interactions were studied over a 2 year period in the riparian area of a large floodplain (Hattah-Kulkyne, Victoria) using a combination of piezometric surface monitoring and environmental tracers (Cl-, 2H, and 18O). Despite being located in a local and regional groundwater discharge zone, the Murray River is a losing stream under low flow conditions at Hattah-Kulkyne. The discharge zone for local groundwater, regional groundwater and bank recharge is in the floodplain within 1 km of the river and is probably driven by high rates of transpiration by the riparian Eucalyptus camaldulensis woodland. Environmental tracers data suggest that the origin of groundwater is principally bank recharge in the riparian zone and a combination of diffuse rainfall recharge and localized floodwater recharge elsewhere in the floodplain. Although the Murray River was losing under low flows, bank discharge occurred during some flood recession periods. The way in which the water table responded to changes in river level was a function of the type of stream bank present, with point bars providing a better connection to the alluvial aquifer than the more common clay-lined banks. Understanding the spatial variability in the hydraulic connection with the river channel and in vertical recharge following inundations will be critical to design effective salinity remediation strategies for large semi-arid floodplains.

  9. Modeling the time-varying interaction between surface water and groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliege, Steffen; Steidl, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar; Merz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The countless kettle holes (small lakes) in the Late Pleistocene landscapes of Northern Europe have important ecological and hydrological functions. On the one hand they act as depressions in which water and solutes of mainly agriculturally used catchments accumulate. On the other hand they operate as biochemical reactors with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, and as major sinks for nutrients and contaminants. Even small kettle holes often are hydraulically connected to the uppermost groundwater system: Groundwater discharges into the kettle hole on one side, and the aquifer is recharged from the kettle hole water body on the other side. Thus kettle hole biogeochemical processes are both affected by groundwater and vice versa. Groundwater flow direction and velocity into and out of the kettle hole often is not stable over time. Groundwater flow direction might reverse at the downstream part, resulting in repeated recycling of groundwater and corresponding solute turnover within the kettle holes. A sound understanding of this intricate interplay is a necessary prerequisite for better understanding of the biogeochemistry of this terrestrial-aquatic interface. A numerical experiment was used to quantify the lateral solute exchange between a kettle hole and the surrounding groundwater. A vertical cross section through the real existing catchment of a kettle hole was chosen. Glacial till represents the lower boundary. The heterogeneity of the subsurface was reproduced by various parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties as well as varying the thickness of the unconfined aquifer or the lateral boundary conditions. In total 24 different parameterizations were implemented in the modeling software HydroGeoSphere (HGS). HGS is suitable to calculate the fluid exchange between surface and subsurface simultaneously and in a physically based way. The simulation runs were done for the period from November 1994 to October 2014. All results were

  10. Project test plan for runoff and erosion on fine-soil barrier surfaces and rock-covered side slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company are working together to develop protective barriers to isolate near-surface radioactive waste. The purpose of the barriers is to protect defense wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site from infiltration of precipitation, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years without the need for long-term monitoring, maintenance, or institutional control. The barriers will be constructed of layered earth and rock material designed to direct surface and groundwater pathways away from the buried waste. To address soil erosion as it applies to barrier design and long-term stability, a task designed to study this problem has been included in the Protective Barriers Program at PNL. The barrier soil-erosion task will investigate the ability of the soil cover and side slopes to resist the erosional and destabilizing processes from externally applied water. The study will include identification and field testing of the dominant processes contributing to erosion and barrier failure. The effects of rock mulches, vegetation cover on the top fine-grained soil surface, as well as the stability of rock armoring on the side slopes, will be evaluated. Some of the testing will include the effects of animal intrusion on barrier erosion, and these will be coordinated with other animal intrusion studies. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake, Minnesota, through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Bode, Jenifer A.; O'Grady, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the White Bear Lake Conservation District, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and other State, county, municipal, and regional planning agencies, watershed organizations, and private organizations, conducted a study to characterize groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake through 2011. During 2010 and 2011, White Bear Lake and other lakes in the northeastern part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area were at historically low levels. Previous periods of lower water levels in White Bear Lake correlate with periods of lower precipitation; however, recent urban expansion and increased pumping from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer have raised the question of whether a decline in precipitation is the primary cause for the recent water-level decline in White Bear Lake. Understanding and quantifying the amount of groundwater inflow to a lake and water discharge from a lake to aquifers is commonly difficult but is important in the management of lake levels. Three methods were used in the study to assess groundwater and surface-water interactions on White Bear Lake: (1) a historical assessment (1978-2011) of levels in White Bear Lake, local groundwater levels, and their relation to historical precipitation and groundwater withdrawals in the White Bear Lake area; (2) recent (2010-11) hydrologic and water-quality data collected from White Bear Lake, other lakes, and wells; and (3) water-balance assessments for White Bear Lake in March and August 2011. An analysis of covariance between average annual lake-level change and annual precipitation indicated the relation between the two variables was significantly different from 2003 through 2011 compared with 1978 through 2002, requiring an average of 4 more inches of precipitation per year to maintain the lake level. This shift in the linear relation between annual lake-level change and annual precipitation

  12. Coupled surface water and groundwater modeling over the White Volta Basin, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittinger, S. T.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alfa, B.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable livelihood in the semiarid White Volta Basin in Northern Ghana is dependent on the availability and sustainable development and management of water resources for agricultural activities. Currently, almost all agricultural activities are rain-fed and thus depend on the frequency, spatial, and temporal distribution of rainfall. Recent erratic patterns in the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall in the basin—largely consistent with the effects of a warming climate—have led to dwindling fortunes in the rain-fed agricultural enterprise. On the other hand, surface water bodies in the forms of rivers and streams are ephemeral and therefore do not serve the immediate irrigation needs of the populations especially in the dry seasons. The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources to support local irrigation schemes in the basin has been suggested as a possible buffer against the effects of dwindling rainfall on agriculture in the basin and has the potential of raising the standard of living of the communities dwelling there. Conjunctive surface water/groundwater use involves the balanced application of both groundwater and surface water resources for maximal socio-economic benefit whilst ensuring ecological integrity. However, a detailed assessment of the potentials of the aquifers for commercial development has been constrained by the limited or no understanding of the surface water-groundwater interactions in the basin within the context of climate change/evolving patterns of climate variability and human activities. Here, we present preliminary results from simulations of coupled surface water and groundwater availability and flow over the Volta Basin using an integrated hydrological model.

  13. Surface mass balance and runoff modeling using HIRHAM4 RCM at Kangerlussuaq (Søndre Strømfjord), West Greenland, 1950-2080

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Greenland's Kangerlussuaq drainage. Projected changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) and runoff are relevant for potential hydropower production and prediction of ecosystem changes in sensitive Kangerlussuaq Fjord systems. Mean annual surface air temperatures and precipitation...... in the Kangerlussuaq area were simulated to increase by 3.4°C and 95 mm water equivalent (w.eq.), respectively, between 1950 and 2080. The local Kangerlussuaq warming was less than the average warming of 4.8°C simulated for the entire GrIS. The Kangerlussuaq SMB loss increased by an average of 0.3 km3 because of a 0.......4 km3 rise in precipitation, 0.1 km3 rise in evaporation and sublimation, and 0.6 km3 gain in runoff (1950-2080). By 2080, the spring runoff season begins approximately three weeks earlier. The average modeled SMB and runoff is approximately -0.1 and 1.2 km3 yr-1, respectively, indicating that ~10...

  14. Analysing surface runoff and erosion responses to different land uses from the NE of Iberian Peninsula through rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regüés, David; Arnáez, José; Badía, David; Cerdà, Artemi; Echeverría, María Teresa; Gispert, María; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Lasanta, Teodoro; León, Javier; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Pardini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall simulation experiments are being used by soil scientists, geomorphologists, and hydrologist to study runoff generation and erosion processes. The use of different apparatus with different rainfall intensities and size of the wetted area contribute to determine the most vulnerable soils and land uses (Cerdá, 1998; Cerdà et al., 2009; Nadal-Romero et al., 2011; Martínez-Murillo et al., 2013; León et al., 2014). This research aims to determine the land uses that yield more sediments and water and to know the factors that control the differences. The information from 152 experiments of rainfall simulation was jointly analysed. Experiments were done in 17 land uses (natural forest, tree plantation, burned forest, scrub, meadows, crops and badlands), with contrasted exposition (north-south), and vegetation cover variety and/or density. These situations were selected from four geographic contexts (NE of Catalonia, high and medium lands from the Ebro valley and Southern range of central Pyrenees) with significant altitude variations, between 90 and 1000 meters above sea level, which represent the heterogeneity of the Mediterranean climate. The use of similar rainfall simulation apparatus, with the same spray nozzle, spraying components and plot size, favours the comparison of the results. A wide spectrum of precipitation intensities was applied, in order to reach surface runoff generation in all cases. Results showed significant differences in runoff amounts and erosion rates, which were mainly associated with land uses, even more than precipitation differences. Runoff coefficient shows an inversed exponential relationship with rainfall intensity, which is the opposite what could be previously expected (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013). This may be only justified by land use characteristics because a direct effect between runoff generation intensity and soil degradation conditions, with respect vegetation covers features and density, was observed. In fact, even though

  15. Hydro engineering Feasibility Study of Surface Runoff Water Harvesting in Al-Ajeej Basin, North West Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair M. Al-Taiee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydro engineering  characteristics of Al-Ajeej basin which was located within south Sinjar plain north west Iraq was analyzed to predict the possibility of surface runoff harvesting during rainfall season in the upstream sites in this basin using watershed modeling system (WMS. The hydrological feasibility of constructing small dam on Al-Ajeej valley with some preliminary design calculations were presented. The best optimum dam site was selected to be located (3.95 km downstream the confluence of Al-Badee branch with Al-Ajeej valley (35° 46¢ 6² Latitude and Longitude 41° 36¢ 11² having a catchment's area of (3043km2. The proposed dam  height was (12.5 meter with a dam length of (1277m, while the normal storage volume of the reservoir is (38.8 million m3. Construction a dams in such sites characterized by water shortage during all  around the year will give an aid in the sustainable development of such area by increasing  the cultivation lands, the agricultural products and also modify the income of the villagers living  in this area leading to prevent them leaving their lands to other places

  16. Measured and simulated effects of sophisticated drainage techniques on groundwater level and runoff hydrochemistry in areas of boreal acid sulphate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BÄRLUND

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To abate the environmental problems caused by the severe acidity and high metal concentrations in rivers draining acid sulphate (AS soils of Western Finland, control drainage (CD and lime filter drainage (LFD, and their combination, were investigated. The effectiveness of these best management practices (BMP’s on drainage water quality was studied on plot scale in two locations. In Ilmajoki, where the sulphidic materials are more than 2 m below the soil surface, CD efficiently reduced the concentrations of sulphate, aluminium, manganese and iron concentrations and to some extent also increased the pH of the drainage waters. LFD, in contrast, effectively reduced the drainage water acidity and raised the pH level. Decrease of the groundwater level owing to strong evapotranspiration in summer could, however, not be properly prevented by CD. In Mustasaari where sulphidic materials were as shallow as 1 m below soil surface, the positive effects of LFD recognised in Ilmajoki were hardly seen. This shows, that the tested BMP’s work properly, and can thus be recommended, for intensively artificially drained AS soils like in Ilmajoki where most of the acidity has already been transported to watercourses. LFD can, however, not be recommended for as yet poorly leached and thus particularly problematic AS soils like in Mustasaari. This is, of course, a drawback of the tested BMP, as it is not effective for the soils which would need it most. The field data were tentatively utilised to test the performance of the HAPSU (Ionic Flow Model for Acid Sulphate Soils simulation model developed to estimate the loads of harmful substances from AS soils.;

  17. Integrated Modeling of Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions in a Manmade Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobiao Huang Gour-Tsyh Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A manmade pilot wetland in south Florida, the Everglades Nutrient Removal (ENR project, was modeled with a physics-based integrated approach using WASH123D (Yeh et al. 2006. Storm water is routed into the treatment wetland for phosphorus removal by plant and sediment uptake. It overlies a highly permeable surficial groundwater aquifer. Strong surface water and groundwater interactions are a key component of the hydrologic processes. The site has extensive field measurement and monitoring tools that provide point scale and distributed data on surface water levels, groundwater levels, and the physical range of hydraulic parameters and hydrologic fluxes. Previous hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling studies have treated seepage losses empirically by some simple regression equations and, only surface water flows are modeled in detail. Several years of operational data are available and were used in model historical matching and validation. The validity of a diffusion wave approximation for two-dimensional overland flow (in the region with very flat topography was also tested. The uniqueness of this modeling study is notable for (1 the point scale and distributed comparison of model results with observed data; (2 model parameters based on available field test data; and (3 water flows in the study area include two-dimensional overland flow, hydraulic structures/levees, three-dimensional subsurface flow and one-dimensional canal flow and their interactions. This study demonstrates the need and the utility of a physics-based modeling approach for strong surface water and groundwater interactions.

  18. Evaluation of the relation between groundwater pollution and the pollutant load on surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.; Roest, C.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of the relation between groundwater and surface water is demonstrated by the impact of water quality standards on permissible nitrogen losses at farm level. The effects of the intended fertilization reduction measures on agricultural production justify a thorough examination of the

  19. MIKE-SHE integrated groundwater and surface water model used to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... INTRODUCTION. Physically-based, distributed-parameter integrated hydrologic codes, such as MIKE SHE/MIKE11, that simulate fully coupled groundwater and surface water flows, represent the best available tools to simulate hydrologic flow systems for EWR studies and water management, because they ...

  20. Pharmaceutical occurrence in groundwater and surface waters in forests land-applied with municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachran, Andrew D; Shea, Damian; Bodnar, Wanda; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment are of increasing public importance because of their ubiquitous nature and documented effects on wildlife, ecosystems, and potentially humans. One potential, yet undefined, source of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment is via the land application of municipal wastewater onto permitted lands. The objective of the present study is to determine the extent to which pharmaceuticals are mitigated by or exported from managed tree plantations irrigated with municipal wastewater. A specific focus of the present study is the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater and surface water discharge. The study site is a municipality that land-applies secondary treated wastewater onto 930 hectares of a 2000-hectare managed hardwood and pine plantation. A suite of 33 pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones was targeted in the analysis, which consisted of monthly grab sampling of groundwater, surface water, and wastewater, followed by concentration and cleanup via solid phase extraction and separation, detection, and quantification via liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. More than one-half of all compounds detected in irrigated wastewater were not present in groundwater and subsequent surface water. However, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, caffeine, and other prescription and over-the-counter drugs remained in groundwater and were transported into surface water at concentrations up to 10 ng/L. These results provide important documentation for pharmaceutical fate and transport in forest systems irrigated with municipal wastewater, a previously undocumented source of environmental entry. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Seasonal surface layer dynamics and sensitivity to runoff in a high Arctic fjord (Young Sound/Tyrolerfjord, 74°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Jørgen; Mortensen, John; Rysgaard, Søren

    2014-09-01

    Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet, local glaciers, and snowmelt along the northeastern Greenland coastline has a significant impact on coastal water masses flowing south toward Denmark Strait. Very few direct measurements of runoff currently exist in this large area, and the water masses near the coast are also difficult to measure due to the presence of icebergs and sea ice. Measurements from the Zackenberg Research station, located in Young Sound/Tyrolerfjord in northeast Greenland (74°N), provide some of the few observations of hydrographic, hydrologic, and atmospheric parameters from this remote area. Here we analyze measurements from the fjord and also measurements in the ambient water masses, which are found in the outer fjord and between the fjord and the East Greenland Current and validate and apply a numerical model of the fjord. A model sensitivity study allows us to constrain runoff estimates for the area. We also show that a total runoff between 0.9 and 1.4 km3 in 2006 is in accordance with observed surface salinities and calculated freshwater content in the fjord. This indicates that earlier reported runoff to the area is significantly underestimated and that melt from glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet in this region may be up to 50% larger than the current estimate. Model simulations indicate the presence of a cold low-saline coastal water mass formed by runoff from fjords north of the Young Sound/Tyrolerfjord system. Simulations of passive and age tracers show that residence time of river water during the summer period is about 1 month in the inner part of the fjord. This article was corrected on 10 OCT 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  2. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  3. Groundwater and surface-water interactions and impacts of human activities in the Hailiutu catchment, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wenninger, Jochen; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Wang, Xusheng; Wan, Li

    2017-08-01

    The interactions between groundwater and surface water have been significantly affected by human activities in the semi-arid Hailiutu catchment, northwest China. Several methods were used to investigate the spatial and temporal interactions between groundwater and surface water. Isotopic and chemical analyses of water samples determined that groundwater discharges to the Hailiutu River, and mass balance equations were employed to estimate groundwater seepage rates along the river using chemical profiles. The hydrograph separation method was used to estimate temporal variations of groundwater discharges to the river. A numerical groundwater model was constructed to simulate groundwater discharges along the river and to analyze effects of water use in the catchment. The simulated seepage rates along the river compare reasonably well with the seepage estimates derived from a chemical profile in 2012. The impacts of human activities (river-water diversion and groundwater abstraction) on the river discharge were analyzed by calculating the differences between the simulated natural groundwater discharge and the measured river discharge. Water use associated with the Hailiutu River increased from 1986 to 1991, reached its highest level from 1992 to 2000, and decreased from 2001 onwards. The reduction of river discharge might have negative impacts on the riparian ecosystem and the water availability for downstream users. The interactions between groundwater and surface water as well as the consequences of human activities should be taken into account when implementing sustainable water resources management in the Hailiutu catchment.

  4. Exploring the spatio-temporal interrelation between groundwater and surface water by using the self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we propose a soft-computing methodology to visibly explore the spatio-temporal groundwater variations of the Kuoping River basin in southern Taiwan. The self-organizing map (SOM) is implemented to investigate the interactive mechanism between surface water and groundwater over the river basin based on large high-dimensional data sets coupled with their occurrence times. We find that extracting the occurrence time from each 30-day moving average data set in the clustered neurons of the SOM is a crucial step to learn the spatio-temporal interaction between surface water and groundwater. We design 2-D Topological Bubble Map to summarize all the groundwater values of four aquifers in a neuron, which can visibly explore the major features of the groundwater in the vertical direction. The constructed SOM topological maps nicely display that: (1) the groundwater movement, in general, extends from the eastern area to the western, where groundwater in the eastern area can be easily recharged from precipitation in wet seasons and discharged into streams during dry seasons due to the high permeability in this area; (2) the water movements in the four aquifers of the study area are quite different, and the seasonal variations of groundwater in the second and third aquifers are larger than those of the others; and (3) the spatial distribution and seasonal variations of groundwater and surface water are comprehensively linked together over the constructed maps to present groundwater characteristics and the interrelation between groundwater and surface water. The proposed modeling methodology not only can classify the large complex high-dimensional data sets into visible topological maps to effectively facilitate the quantitative status of regional groundwater resources but can also provide useful elaboration for future groundwater management.

  5. Using Historical Precipitation, Temperature, and Runoff Observations to Evaluate Evaporation Formulations in Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Mahanama, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Key to translating soil moisture memory into subseasonal precipitation and air temperature forecast skill is a realistic treatment of evaporation in the forecast system used - in particular, a realistic treatment of how evaporation responds to variations in soil moisture. The inherent soil moisture-evaporation relationships used in today's land surface models (LSMs), however, arguably reflect little more than guesswork given the lack of evaporation and soil moisture data at the spatial scales represented by regional and global models. Here we present a new approach for evaluating this critical aspect of LSMs. Seasonally averaged precipitation is used as a proxy for seasonally-averaged soil moisture, and seasonally-averaged air temperature is used as a proxy for seasonally-averaged evaporation (e.g., more evaporative cooling leads to cooler temperatures) the relationship between historical precipitation and temperature measurements accordingly mimics in certain important ways nature's relationship between soil moisture and evaporation. Additional information on the relationship is gleaned from joint analysis of precipitation and streamflow measurements. An experimental framework that utilizes these ideas to guide the development of an improved soil moisture-evaporation relationship is described and demonstrated.

  6. Eco-hydrological process simulations within an integrated surface water-groundwater model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Michael; Loinaz, Maria Christina; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Integrated water resources management requires tools that can quantify changes in groundwater, surface water, water quality and ecosystem health, as a result of changes in catchment management. To address these requirements we have developed an integrated eco-hydrological modelling framework...... that allows hydrologists and ecologists to represent the complex and dynamic interactions occurring between surface water, ground water, water quality and freshwater ecosystems within a catchment. We demonstrate here the practical application of this tool to two case studies where the interaction of surface...... water and ground water are important for the ecosystem. In the first, simulations are performed to understand the importance of surface water-groundwater interactions for a restored riparian wetland on the Odense River in Denmark as part of a larger investigation of water quality and nitrate retention...

  7. Quantifying the Impact of Seasonal and Short-term Manure Application Decisions on Phosphorus Loss in Surface Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Peter A; Good, Laura W; Jokela, William E; Karthikeyan, K G; Arriaga, Francisco J; Stock, Melanie

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) management is a research and policy issue due to P loss from fields and water quality degradation. Better information is needed on the risk of P loss from dairy manure applied in winter or when runoff is imminent. We used the SurPhos computer model and 108 site-years of weather and runoff data to assess the impact of these two practices on dissolved P loss. Model results showed that winter manure application can increase P loss by 2.5 to 3.6 times compared with non-winter applications, with the amount increasing as the average runoff from a field increases. Increased P loss is true for manure applied any time from late November through early March, with a maximum P loss from application in late January and early February. Shifting manure application to fields with less runoff can reduce P loss by 3.4 to 7.5 times. Delaying manure application when runoff is imminent can reduce P loss any time of the year, and sometimes quite significantly, but the number of times that application delays will reduce P loss is limited to only 3 to 9% of possible spreading days, and average P loss may be reduced by only 15% for winter-applied manure and 6% for non-winter-applied manure. Overall, long-term strategies of shifting manure applications to low runoff seasons and fields can potentially reduce dissolved P loss in runoff much more compared with near-term, tactical application decisions of avoiding manure application when runoff is imminent. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Groundwater management options in North district of Delhi, India: A groundwater surplus region in over-exploited aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Shekhar

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights in the region: Three distinct hydrogeological domains are identified with subtle differences in groundwater occurrence. Insights are obtained in stream–aquifer interaction and baseflow to the Yamuna River is quantified. The salinity enrichment in groundwater has been attributed to water logging in clay rich formations under semi arid condition. The viability of limited dewatering of shallow aquifers and its replenishment by enhanced recharge from surface runoff and flood waters during the monsoon period have been established.

  9. A conceptual model for the analysis of multi-stressors in linked groundwater-surface water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, Vince P; Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Andersen, Hans E; Bloomfield, John P; Kuijper, Martina J M; de Louw, Perry G B

    2018-02-02

    Groundwater and surface water are often closely coupled and are both under the influence of multiple stressors. Stressed groundwater systems may lead to a poor ecological status of surface waters but to date no conceptual framework to analyse linked multi-stressed groundwater - surface water systems has been developed. In this paper, a framework is proposed showing the effect of groundwater on surface waters in multiple stressed systems. This framework will be illustrated by applying it to four European catchments, the Odense, Denmark, the Regge and Dinkel, Netherlands, and the Thames, UK, and by assessing its utility in analysing the propagation or buffering of multi-stressors through groundwater to surface waters in these catchments. It is shown that groundwater affects surface water flow, nutrients and temperature, and can both propagate stressors towards surface waters and buffer the effect of stressors in space and time. The effect of groundwater on drivers and states depends on catchment characteristics, stressor combinations, scale and management practises. The proposed framework shows how groundwater in lowland catchments acts as a bridge between stressors and their effects within surface waters. It shows water managers how their management areas might be influenced by groundwater, and helps them to include this important, but often overlooked part of the water cycle in their basin management plans. The analysis of the study catchments also revealed a lack of data on the temperature of both groundwater and surface water, while it is an important parameter considering future climate warming. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Surface water and groundwater are integral components of the hydrologic continuum and the interaction between them affects both their quantity and quality. However, surface water and groundwater are often considered as two separate systems and are analysed independently. This separation is partly due to the different time scales, which apply in surface water and groundwater flows and partly due to the difficulties in measuring and modelling their interactions (Winter et al., 1998). Coastal areas in particular are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes. Accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands, for example, requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades a large number of mathematical models and field methods have been developed in order to quantify the interaction between groundwater and hydraulically connected surface water bodies. Field studies may provide the best data (Hughes, 1995) but are usually expensive and involve too many parameters. In addition, the interpretation of field measurements and linking with modelling tools often proves to be difficult. In contrast, experimental studies are less expensive and provide controlled data. However, experimental studies of surface water-groundwater interaction are less frequently encountered in the literature than filed studies (e.g. Ebrahimi et al., 2007; Kuan et al., 2012; Sparks et al., 2013). To this end, an experimental model has been constructed at the Hyder Hydraulics Laboratory at Cardiff University to enable measurements to be made of groundwater transport through a sand embankment between a tidal water body such as an estuary and a non-tidal water body such as a wetland. The transport behaviour of a conservative tracer was studied for a constant water level on the wetland side of the embankment, while running a

  11. Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Bartles, Michael D.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Streams crossing underground coal mines may lose flow, while abandoned mine drainage (AMD) restores flow downstream. During 2005-12, discharge from the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel, the largest AMD source in the upper Schuylkill River Basin, had near-neutral pH and elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. Discharge from the tunnel responded rapidly to recharge but exhibited a prolonged recession compared to nearby streams, consistent with rapid infiltration and slow release of groundwater from the mine. Downstream of the AMD, dissolved iron was attenuated by oxidation and precipitation while dissolved CO2 degassed and pH increased. During high-flow conditions, the AMD and downstream waters exhibited decreased pH, iron, and sulfate with increased acidity that were modeled by mixing net-alkaline AMD with recharge or runoff having low ionic strength and low pH. Attenuation of dissolved iron within the river was least effective during high-flow conditions because of decreased transport time coupled with inhibitory effects of low pH on oxidation kinetics. A numerical model of groundwater flow was calibrated using groundwater levels in the Pine Knot Mine and discharge data for the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel and the West Branch Schuylkill River during a snowmelt event in January 2012. Although the calibrated model indicated substantial recharge to the mine complex took place away from streams, simulation of rapid changes in mine pool level and tunnel discharge during a high flow event in May 2012 required a source of direct recharge to the Pine Knot Mine. Such recharge produced small changes in mine pool level and rapid changes in tunnel flow rate because of extensive unsaturated storage capacity and high transmissivity within the mine complex. Thus, elimination of stream leakage could have a small effect on the annual discharge from the tunnel, but a large effect on peak discharge and associated water quality in streams.

  12. Groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Bad River Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Andrew T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-23

    A groundwater-flow model was developed for the Bad River Watershed and surrounding area by using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference code MODFLOW-NWT. The model simulates steady-state groundwater-flow and base flow in streams by using the streamflow routing (SFR) package. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop an improved understanding of the groundwater-flow system in the Bad River Watershed at the regional scale, including the sources of water to the Bad River Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation (Reservation) and groundwater/surface-water interactions; (2) provide a quantitative platform for evaluating future impacts to the watershed, which can be used as a starting point for more detailed investigations at the local scale; and (3) identify areas where more data are needed. This report describes the construction and calibration of the groundwater-flow model that was subsequently used for analyzing potential locations for the collection of additional field data, including new observations of water-table elevation for refining the conceptualization and corresponding numerical model of the hydrogeologic system.

  13. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  14. A Coupled Groundwater-Surface Water Modeling Framework for Simulating Transition Zone Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugunthan, Pradeep; Russell, Kevin T; Gong, Binglei; Riley, Michael J; Chin, Arthur; McDonald, Blair G; Eastcott, Linda J

    2017-05-01

    There is an identified need for fully representing groundwater-surface water transition zone (i.e., the sediment zone that connects groundwater and surface water) processes in modeling fate and transport of contaminants to assist with management of contaminated sediments. Most existing groundwater and surface water fate and transport models are not dynamically linked and do not consider transition zone processes such as bioturbation and deposition and erosion of sediments. An interface module is developed herein to holistically simulate the fate and transport by coupling two commonly used models, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and SEAWAT, to simulate surface water and groundwater hydrodynamics, while providing an enhanced representation of the processes in the transition zone. Transition zone and surface water contaminant processes were represented through an enhanced version of the EFDC model, AQFATE. AQFATE also includes SEDZLJ, a state-of-the-science surface water sediment transport model. The modeling framework was tested on a published test problem and applied to evaluate field-scale two- and three-dimensional contaminant transport. The model accurately simulated concentrations of salinity from a published test case. For the field-scale applications, the model showed excellent mass balance closure for the transition zone and provided accurate simulations of all transition zone processes represented in the modeling framework. The model predictions for the two-dimensional field case were consistent with site-specific observations of contaminant migration. This modeling framework represents advancement in the simulation of transition zone processes and can help inform risk assessment at sites where contaminant sources from upland areas have the potential to impact sediments and surface water. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Quantifying phosphorus levels in soils, plants, surface water, and shallow groundwater associated with bahiagrass-based pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Hubbard, Robert K; Coleman, Samuel W

    2010-01-01

    Recent assessments of water quality status have identified eutrophication as one of the major causes of water quality 'impairment' not only in the USA but also around the world. In most cases, eutrophication has accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus due to intensification of crop and animal production systems since the early 1990 s. Despite substantial measurements using both laboratory and field techniques, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of phosphorus dynamics across landscapes, especially in agricultural landscapes with cow-calf operations. Critical to determining environmental balance and accountability is an understanding of phosphorus excreted by animals, phosphorus removal by plants, acceptable losses of phosphorus within the manure management and crop production systems into soil and waters, and export of phosphorus off-farm. Further research effort on optimizing forage-based cow-calf operations to improve pasture sustainability and protect water quality is therefore warranted. We hypothesized that properly managed cow-calf operations in subtropical agroecosystem would not be major contributors to excess loads of phosphorus in surface and ground water. To verify our hypothesis, we examined the comparative concentrations of total phosphorus among soils, forage, surface water, and groundwater beneath bahiagrass-based pastures with cow-calf operations in central Florida, USA. Soil samples were collected at 0-20; 20-40, 40-60, and 60-100 cm across the landscape (top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope) of 8 ha pasture in the fall and spring of 2004 to 2006. Forage availability and phosphorus uptake of bahiagrass were also measured from the top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope. Bi-weekly (2004-2006) groundwater and surface water samples were taken from wells located at top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope, and from the runoff/seepage area. Concentrations of phosphorus in soils, forage, surface water, and shallow

  16. Distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benhua; Chen, Liang; Huang, Linxian; Wang, Yongseng; Li, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the surface water, soil, and groundwater within a chemical industry park in Eastern China. At least one VOC was detected in each of the 20 sampling sites, and the maximum number of VOCs detected in the surface water, groundwater, and soil were 13, 16, and 14, respectively. Two of the 10 VOCs with elevated concentrations detected in surface water, groundwater, and soil were chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane. The characteristics of VOCs, which include volatility, boiling point, and solubility, could significantly affect their distribution in surface water, soil, and groundwater. However, due to the direct discharging of chemical industry wastewater into surface water, higher concentrations of VOCs (except chloroform) were detected in surface water than in soil and groundwater. Fortunately, the higher volatility of VOCs prevents the VOCs from impacting groundwater, which helps to maintain a lower concentration of VOCs in the groundwater than in both surface water and soil. This is because pollutants with relatively higher boiling points and lower solubilities have higher detection frequencies in soil, and contaminants with relatively lower boiling points and higher solubilities have higher detection frequencies in water, notably in surface water.

  17. Mobility of major and trace elements in a coupled groundwater-surface water system: Merced River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, R. A.; Domagalski, J. L.; Hering, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Trace element transport in coupled surface water/groundwater systems is controlled not only by advective flow, but also by redox reactions that affect the partitioning of various elements between mobile and immobile phases. These processes have been examined in the context of a field project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The Merced River flows out of Yosemite National Park and the Sierra Nevada foothills and into California's Central Valley, where it joins the San Joaquin River. Our field site is approximately twenty river kilometers from the confluence with the San Joaquin River. This deep alluvial plain has minimal topography. Agricultural development characterizes the land surrounding this reach of river; consequently, the hydrology is heavily influenced by irrigation. Riverbed groundwater samples were collected from ten wells aligned in two transects across the river located approximately 100 m apart. The wells were sampled from depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, and 3 m below the sediment-water interface. Groundwater flowpath samples were taken from wells positioned on a path perpendicular to the river and located 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m from the river. The saturated groundwater system exists from 7 to 40 m below the surface and is confined below by a clay layer. Each well location samples from 3-5 depths in this surface aquifer. Samples were collected in December 2003, March-April, June-July, and October 2004. This served to provide an evenly-spaced sampling frequency over the course of a year, and also to allow observation of trends coinciding with the onset of winter, the spring runoff, and early and late summer irrigation. An initial survey of the elements in the riverbed samples was conducted using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements for further study were selected based on variability in this survey, either with respect to depth or location, as well as to

  18. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  19. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found.

  20. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sodium, sulphate, chloride reflecting more mineralized than surface water. The results also showed that water in the study ..... EC: electrical conductivity, DO: dissolved oxygen, SAR: sodium adsorption ratio, SI: saturation index. .... carbonate, bicarbonate for carbonate hardness. Hard water is not a health hazard, but it may ...

  1. Surface water, groundwater and unified 3D-crack network as a triple coupling dynamic system for a river watershed functioning - manifestation in catastrophic floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Tulenev, Nikita; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Arakelian, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    1. Surface water and groundwater interaction model under conditions of huge level of precipitation in catastrophic floods and mudflows for mountain river watershed is introduced. Seismic processes and volcanic activity impact on the formation of disastrous floods due to dramatic change of the pressure field in groundwater horizons, is under discussion for such a triple coupling system, i.e. surface water - groundwater - crack network. Under the conception we analyze recent (2013) catastrophic water events: the catastrophic floods in Western Europe (May-June, 2013), in the Amur river basin, Russia/China (Aug.-Sept, 2013) and in Colorado, USA (Sept. 12-15,2013). In addition, a separate analysis is carried out for debris event in the Krimsk-city, Caucasus (Krasnodar) region, Russia (July 06-07, 2012). 2. There is a group of problems determined by dramatic discrepancies in water mass balance and other vital parameters, on the one hand, by estimation for different types of atmospheric precipitation (both torrential rain and continuous precipitations) and, on the other hand, for observable natural water events (i.e. catastrophic floods and/or mudflows/debris) on concrete territory. Analysis of many facts result in conclusion that we have the hard comparable/coincidence parameters under traditional conception for discussed events as an isolated/closed (river + rain) runoff-system. In contrast, the reasonable point of view does exist if we take into account the contribution of extra water source, which should be localized in river channel, i.e. functioning of open [(river + rain) + groundwater] flow-system has a principal meaning to understand the events occurrence. 3. The analysis and modeling for the events are carried out by us taking into account the following databases: (i) groundwater map dislocation, it resources and flow balance in studied areas, especially near the land surface being unstable in hydrological sense by many reasons, as well due to heavy rain

  2. Integrated Landsat Image Analysis and Hydrologic Modeling to Detect Impacts of 25-Year Land-Cover Change on Surface Runoff in a Philippine Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Paringit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Landsat MSS and ETM+ images were analyzed to detect 25-year land-cover change (1976–2001 in the critical Taguibo Watershed in Mindanao Island, Southern Philippines. This watershed has experienced historical modifications of its land-cover due to the presence of logging industries in the 1950s, and continuous deforestation due to illegal logging and slash-and-burn agriculture in the present time. To estimate the impacts of land-cover change on watershed runoff, land-cover information derived from the Landsat images was utilized to parameterize a GIS-based hydrologic model. The model was then calibrated with field-measured discharge data and used to simulate the responses of the watershed in its year 2001 and year 1976 land-cover conditions. The availability of land-cover information on the most recent state of the watershed from the Landsat ETM+ image made it possible to locate areas for rehabilitation such as barren and logged-over areas. We then created a “rehabilitated” land-cover condition map of the watershed (re-forestation of logged-over areas and agro-forestation of barren areas and used it to parameterize the model and predict the runoff responses of the watershed. Model results showed that changes in land-cover from 1976 to 2001 were directly related to the significant increase in surface runoff. Runoff predictions showed that a full rehabilitation of the watershed, especially in barren and logged-over areas, will be likely to reduce the generation of a huge volume of runoff during rainfall events. The results of this study have demonstrated the usefulness of multi-temporal Landsat images in detecting land-cover change, in identifying areas for rehabilitation, and in evaluating rehabilitation strategies for management of tropical watersheds through its use in hydrologic modeling.

  3. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truini, Margot; Baum, B. M; Littin, G. R; Shingoitewa-Honanie, Gayl

    2000-01-01

    ...) flowmeter tests, and (5) ground-water and surface-water chemistry. In 1998 ,ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,060 acre-feet, which is less than a 1 percent decrease from 1997...

  4. Tile Drainage Management Influences on Surface-Water and Groundwater Quality following Liquid Manure Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Ed; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Zoski, Erin; Lapen, David R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for controlled tile drainage (CD) to reduce bacteria and nutrient loading to surface water and groundwater from fall-season liquid manure application (LMA) on four macroporous clay loam plots, of which two had CD and two had free-draining (FD) tiles. Rhodamine WT (RWT) was mixed into the manure and monitored in the tile water and groundwater following LMA. Tile water and groundwater quality were influenced by drainage management. Following LMA on the FD plots, RWT, nutrients, and bacteria moved rapidly via tiles to surface water; at the CD plots, tiles did not flow until the first post-LMA rainfall, so the immediate risk of LMA-induced contamination of surface water was abated. During the 36-d monitoring period, flow-weighted average specific conductance, redox potential, and turbidity, as well as total Kjeldahl N (TKN), total P (TP), NH-N, reactive P, and RWT concentrations, were higher in the CD tile effluent; however, because of lower tile discharge from the CD plots, there was no significant ( ≤ 0.05) difference in surface water nutrient and RWT loading between the CD and FD plots when all tiles were flowing. The TKN, TP, and RWT concentrations in groundwater also tended to be higher at the CD plots. Bacteria behaved differently than nutrients and RWT, with no significant difference in total coliform, , fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus, and concentrations between the CD and FD tile effluent; however, for all but , hourly loading was higher from the FD plots. Results indicate that CD has potential for mitigating bacteria movement to surface water. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Groundwater control of mangrove surface elevation: shrink and swell varies with soil depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.; Anderson, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    We measured monthly soil surface elevation change and determined its relationship to groundwater changes at a mangrove forest site along Shark River, Everglades National Park, Florida. We combined the use of an original design, surface elevation table with new rod-surface elevation tables to separately track changes in the mid zone (0?4 m), the shallow root zone (0?0.35 m), and the full sediment profile (0?6 m) in response to site hydrology (daily river stage and groundwater piezometric pressure). We calculated expansion and contraction for each of the four constituent soil zones (surface [accretion and erosion; above 0 m], shallow zone [0?0.35 m], middle zone [0.35?4 m], and bottom zone [4?6 m]) that comprise the entire soil column. Changes in groundwater pressure correlated strongly with changes in soil elevation for the entire profile (Adjusted R2 5 0.90); this relationship was not proportional to the depth of the soil profile sampled. The change in thickness of the bottom soil zone accounted for the majority (R2 5 0.63) of the entire soil profile expansion and contraction. The influence of hydrology on specific soil zones and absolute elevation change must be considered when evaluating the effect of disturbances, sea level rise, and water management decisions on coastal wetland systems.

  6. What surface water tells about groundwater in lowlands - and what it does not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar; Kalettka, Thomas; Dannowski, Ralf; Merz, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Lowland regions often exhibit a high density streams, lakes, ponds and wetlands. This holds, e.g., for Northeast Europe. As a consequence of heterogeneous sedimentation during and after glaciation, and temporarily dead ice blocks left behind in the late stage of the last glaciation, the landscape is now spotted by small depressions that are often filled with water, called kettle holes. Tight coupling between groundwater and surface water with non-stationary gradients and flow directions is often considered rather complex and surely is a challenge for hydrological models. However, on the other hand, close links imply that the one system bears information about the other and vice versa. For example, for the 170 km2 Quillow catchment in Northeast Germany a detailed groundwater map was generated from airborne remote sensing data exclusively, that is, from laser scan data of water level elevation in streams and kettle holes. On average, about 12 points of support per km2 were used. Such a high density can hardly be achieved at that scale based on groundwater wells. The resulting map was checked for consistency and plausibility. The groundwater map allowed delineating the catchments of the single kettle holes in order to assess the impact of land use of water quality. These catchments differed substantially from those determined based on topography. In general, the former usually exhibited a clearly elongated shape of up to some km length, resembling more single groundwater flowpaths rather than exhibiting the typical shape of stream catchments. Analysis of water quality monitoring data revealed that kettle hole water reflected the concentration of earth and alkaline earth metals of the shallow groundwater. However, this did not hold for nutrients and redox sensitive solutes due to rapid biogeochemical turnover in the eutrophic to hypertrophic small lentic systems.

  7. Groundwater-Surface water interaction in agricultural watershed that encompasses dense network of High Capacity wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, A.; Desai, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Sands region of Wisconsin is characterized by productive trout streams, lakes, farmland and forest. However, stream channelization, past wetland drainage, and ground water withdrawals have disrupted the hydrology of this Central Sands region. Climatically driven conditions in last decade (2000-2008) alone are unable to account for the severely depressed water levels. Increased interception and evapotranspiration from afforested areas in central sand Wisconsin may also be culprit for reduced water recharge. Hence, there is need to study the cumulative effects of changing precipitation patterns, groundwater withdrawals, and forest evapotranspiration to improve projections of the future of lake levels and water availability in this region. Here, the SWAT-MODFLOW coupled model approach was applied at large spatio-temporal scale. The coupled model fully integrates a watershed model (SWAT) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). Surface water and ground water flows were simulated integratively at daily time step to estimate the groundwater discharge to the stream network in Central Sands that encompasses high capacity wells. The model was calibrated (2010-2013) and validated (2014-2017) based on streamflow, groundwater extraction, and water table elevation. As the long-term trends in some of the primary drivers is presently ambiguous in Central Sands under future climate, as is the case for total precipitation or timing of precipitation, we relied on a sensitivity student to quantitatively access how primary and secondary drivers may influence future net groundwater recharge. We demonstrate how such an approach could then be coupled with decision-making models to evaluate the effectiveness of groundwater withdrawal policies under a changing climate.

  8. A Future Estimation of the Surface Runoff in the Greek Region: A Case Study of one of the Main Catchments Areas (Aravissos - Central Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, C.; Tolika, K.; Vafiadis, M.

    2010-09-01

    According to the IPCC latest report (IPCC, 2007) many semi-arid and arid areas, as the Mediterranean basin, are particularly exposed to the impacts of climate change and may suffer a decrease of water resources in the future. By the middle of the 21st century it is estimated that the annual average river runoff and water availability will decrease over these dry regions at mid-latitudes. So, it is of great importance the study of the future changes in the hydrological cycle, due to the increasing freshwater demands. The main scope of the present study is to estimate the future changes of the surface runoff in the Aravissos area (central Macedonia - Greece) due to the enhanced greenhouse effect until the end of the 21st century. The selection of Aravissos was based to the fact that the water needs of the second largest in population city in Greece (Thessaloniki) are covered mainly by the selected catchments area. Daily precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and sunlight duration data derived from updated regional climate models, are used for selected grid points covering the domain of study. The main two climatological parameters (precipitation -temperature) are on a first step evaluated in comparison to re-analysis data (E-Obs -Ensembles project) for the same grid points. On a second step, utilizing several different evapotranspiration methods we calculated the surface runoff for two different time periods: the first in the middle and the second at the end of the 21st century. The first results of the study showed that the surface runoff depends on the methodology used for the calculation of the evapotranspiration but also from the regional model. Acknowledgements: This study has been supported by the CC-WaterS project (Contract number SEE/A/022/2.1/X)

  9. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the Chehalis River basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    The Chehalis River has the largest drainage basin of any river entirely contained within the State of Washington with a watershed of approximately 2,700 mi2 and has correspondingly diverse geology and land use. Demands for water resources have prompted the local citizens and governments of the Chehalis River basin to coordinate with Federal, State and Tribal agencies through the Chehalis Basin Partnership to develop a long-term watershed management plan. The recognition of the interdependence of groundwater and surface-water resources of the Chehalis River basin became the impetus for this study, the purpose of which is to describe the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the Chehalis River basin. Surficial geologic maps and 372 drillers' lithostratigraphic logs were used to generalize the basin-wide hydrogeologic framework. Five hydrogeologic units that include aquifers within unconsolidated glacial and alluvial sediments separated by discontinuous confining units were identified. These five units are bounded by a low permeability unit comprised of Tertiary bedrock. A water table map, and generalized groundwater-flow directions in the surficial aquifers, were delineated from water levels measured in wells between July and September 2009. Groundwater generally follows landsurface-topography from the uplands to the alluvial valley of the Chehalis River. Groundwater gradients are highest in tributary valleys such as the Newaukum River valley (approximately 23 cubic feet per mile), relatively flat in the central Chehalis River valley (approximately 6 cubic feet per mile), and become tidally influenced near the outlet of the Chehalis River to Grays Harbor. The dynamic interaction between groundwater and surface-water was observed through the synoptic streamflow measurements, termed a seepage run, made during August 2010, and monitoring of water levels in wells during the 2010 Water Year. The seepage run revealed an overall gain of 56

  10. Investigating the effect of surface water - groundwater interactions on stream temperature using Distributed temperature sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Blemmer, Morten; Mortensen, Julie Flor

    2011-01-01

    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using...... the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system and instream temperature modelling. Locations of surface water–groundwater interactions were identified from the temperature data collected over a 2-km stream reach using a DTS system with 1-m spatial and 5-min temporal resolution. The stream under consideration...... surface water–groundwater interactions on heterogeneous behaviour of stream temperature....

  11. Revealing textural variations at the groundwater-surface water interface using induced polarisation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, P.; Binley, A. M.; Chambers, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interface actively governs the transfer of water, nutrients and contaminants between groundwater systems and surface water environments. It is capable of mitigating environmental pollution by attenuating and transforming contaminants transported by groundwater discharging to the surface or by surface water recharging to the subsurface. The ability of the GW-SW interface to mitigate pollution is linked to its hydrological and physiochemical properties, the presence of grain surfaces, and its consequent ability to host diverse microbial populations. Despite its importance, characterising the GW-SW interface remains a challenge as traditional methods are often intrusive, environmentally damaging or labour intensive and so they often provide spatially sparse, or spatially restricted, information. There is therefore a requirement for methods which can provide information about the GW-SW interface at high spatial resolution and over large areas. In recent years there has been increased interest in using induced polarisation in field based exploration to characterise grain surface properties of unconsolidated geological materials. Induced polarisation may offer the potential to interrogate textural properties of the GW-SW interface, such as cation exchange and grain surface area which are important for determining the biogeochemical properties of the subsurface. Here we demonstrate the ability of induced polarisation measurements to reveal contrasts in the textural properties of two sites on a 200 m river meander (River Leith, Cumbria, UK). Previous work has revealed that both sites are distinctive in terms of their hydrology, fluvial deposits and biogeochemistry. We present in-stream induced polarisation measurements in addition to lab based measurements of induced polarisation, cation exchange capacity, grain size distribution and surface area on samples obtained from drilling.

  12. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xinguo

    2014-01-01

    . A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) approach is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocations and water curtailments. Dynamic allocation problems with inclusion of groundwater resources proved to be more complex to solve with SDP than pure surface water allocation problems due...... to head-dependent pumping costs. These dynamic pumping costs strongly affect the total costs and can lead to non-convexity of the future cost function. The water user groups (agriculture, industry, domestic) are characterized by inelastic demands and fixed water allocation and water supply curtailment...... and future costs for given surface water reservoir and groundwater aquifer end storages. The immediate cost is found by solving a simple linear allocation sub-problem, and the future costs are assessed by interpolation in the total cost matrix from the following time step. Total costs for all stages...

  13. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

  14. Quantifying saline groundwater seepage to surface waters in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Gibson, John J.; Jean Birks, S.; Yi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Western Canadian oil sands contain over 170 billion barrels of proven unconventional petroleum reserves currently extracted at 1.8 million barrels per day by either surface mining, or by in situ techniques that require subsurface injection of steam and hydrocarbon solvents. Natural high-salinity springs are known to add water and entrained inorganic and organic constituents to the Athabasca River and its tributaries in the region of ongoing bitumen production. However, the magnitude and synoptic distribution of these saline inputs has remained unquantified. Here, a chloride mass balance is used to estimate saline groundwater discharge to the Athabasca River from 1987 to 2010. Results show that the highest saline water discharge rate to the Athabasca River occurs between Ft. McMurray and the Peace-Athabasca Delta, supported by subcrop exposure of lower Cretaceous- and Devonian-aged formations bearing saline waters. Further, the input of saline groundwater is found to be an important control on the chemistry of the lower Athabasca River, despite comprising 10 −1 to 3% of the Athabasca River’s discharge. The flux of natural saline groundwater entering the Athabasca does not appear to have increased or decreased from 1987 to 2010. The origin of seep salinity is interpreted as relict subglacial meltwater that has dissolved Devonian-aged evaporites, supported by saline Na-Cl type waters with low 18 O/ 16 O and 2 H/ 1 H ratios relative to modern precipitation. The magnitude of groundwater discharge and its impact on the Athabasca River’s chemistry in the area of ongoing bitumen development warrants the incorporation of natural groundwater seepages into surface water quality monitoring networks.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of the surface water- groundwater interaction for the sandy area of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez del Campo, E.; Jousma, G.; Massop, H.T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The "Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Water- Groundwater Interaction for the Sandy Area of the Netherlands" was carried out in the framework of a bilateral research project in support of the implementation of a nationwide geohydrological information system (REGIS) in the Netherlands. This project, conducted in cooperation between the TNO Institute for Applied Scientific Research (IGG-TNO) and !he Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research (SC-DLO), is aimed at defin...

  16. Sources of pesticide losses to surface waters and groundwater at field and landscape scales

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Anna M. L.

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide residues in groundwater and surface waters may harm aquatic ecosystems and result in a deterioration of drinking water quality. EU legislation and policy emphasize risk management and risk reduction for pesticides to ensure long-term, sustainable use of water across Europe. Different tools applicable at scales ranging from farm to national and EU scales are required to meet the needs of the various managers engaged with the task of protecting water resources. The use of computer-bas...

  17. Application of new point measurement device to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans, M. M.; Devlin, J. F.; McKnight, U. S.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2018-04-01

    The streambed point velocity probe (SBPVP) measures in situ groundwater velocities at the groundwater-surface water interface without reliance on hydraulic conductivity, porosity, or hydraulic gradient information. The tool operates on the basis of a mini-tracer test that occurs on the probe surface. The SBPVP was used in a meander of the Grindsted Å (stream), Denmark, to determine the distribution of flow through the streambed. These data were used to calculate the contaminant mass discharge of chlorinated ethenes into the stream. SBPVP data were compared with velocities estimated from hydraulic head and temperature gradient data collected at similar scales. Spatial relationships of water flow through the streambed were found to be similar by all three methods, and indicated a heterogeneous pattern of groundwater-surface water exchange. The magnitudes of estimated flow varied to a greater degree. It was found that pollutants enter the stream in localized regions of high flow which do not always correspond to the locations of highest pollutant concentration. The results show the combined influence of flow and concentration on contaminant discharge and illustrate the advantages of adopting a flux-based approach to risk assessment at the groundwater-surface water interface. Chlorinated ethene mass discharges, expressed in PCE equivalents, were determined to be up to 444 kg/yr (with SBPVP data) which compared well with independent estimates of mass discharge up to 438 kg/yr (with mini-piezometer data from the streambed) and up to 372 kg/yr crossing a control plane on the streambank (as determined in a previous, independent study).

  18. Validation of a new device to quantify groundwater-surface water exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans, Mackenzie M; Devlin, J F

    2017-11-01

    Distributions of flow across the groundwater-surface water interface should be expected to be as complex as the geologic deposits associated with stream or lake beds and their underlying aquifers. In these environments, the conventional Darcy-based method of characterizing flow systems (near streams) has significant limitations, including reliance on parameters with high uncertainties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity), the common use of drilled wells in the case of streambank investigations, and potentially lengthy measurement times for aquifer characterization and water level measurements. Less logistically demanding tools for quantifying exchanges across streambeds have been developed and include drive-point mini-piezometers, seepage meters, and temperature profiling tools. This project adds to that toolbox by introducing the Streambed Point Velocity Probe (SBPVP), a reusable tool designed to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions (GWSWI) at the interface with high density sampling, which can effectively, rapidly, and accurately complement conventional methods. The SBPVP is a direct push device that measures in situ water velocities at the GWSWI with a small-scale tracer test on the probe surface. Tracer tests do not rely on hydraulic conductivity or gradient information, nor do they require long equilibration times. Laboratory testing indicated that the SBPVP has an average accuracy of ±3% and an average precision of ±2%. Preliminary field testing, conducted in the Grindsted Å in Jutland, Denmark, yielded promising agreement between groundwater fluxes determined by conventional methods and those estimated from the SBPVP tests executed at similar scales. These results suggest the SBPVP is a viable tool to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions in high definition in sandy streambeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of a new device to quantify groundwater-surface water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans, Mackenzie M.; Devlin, J. F.

    2017-11-01

    Distributions of flow across the groundwater-surface water interface should be expected to be as complex as the geologic deposits associated with stream or lake beds and their underlying aquifers. In these environments, the conventional Darcy-based method of characterizing flow systems (near streams) has significant limitations, including reliance on parameters with high uncertainties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity), the common use of drilled wells in the case of streambank investigations, and potentially lengthy measurement times for aquifer characterization and water level measurements. Less logistically demanding tools for quantifying exchanges across streambeds have been developed and include drive-point mini-piezometers, seepage meters, and temperature profiling tools. This project adds to that toolbox by introducing the Streambed Point Velocity Probe (SBPVP), a reusable tool designed to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions (GWSWI) at the interface with high density sampling, which can effectively, rapidly, and accurately complement conventional methods. The SBPVP is a direct push device that measures in situ water velocities at the GWSWI with a small-scale tracer test on the probe surface. Tracer tests do not rely on hydraulic conductivity or gradient information, nor do they require long equilibration times. Laboratory testing indicated that the SBPVP has an average accuracy of ± 3% and an average precision of ± 2%. Preliminary field testing, conducted in the Grindsted Å in Jutland, Denmark, yielded promising agreement between groundwater fluxes determined by conventional methods and those estimated from the SBPVP tests executed at similar scales. These results suggest the SBPVP is a viable tool to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions in high definition in sandy streambeds.

  20. Surface Runoff and Snowmelt Infiltration into the Soil on Plowlands in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of the East European Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanov, A. T.; Dolgov, S. V.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Panov, V. I.; Petel'ko, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term series of observations over the spring water balance elements on fields with hydrologically contrasting agricultural backgrounds―a loose soil after fall moldboard plowing and a plowland compacted by 12-16% compared to the former soil (perennial grasses, winter crops, stubble)―have been analyzed. The values of surface runoff and water infiltration into the soil in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have been calculated for the spring (flooding) period and the entire cold season. The hydrological role of fall plowing has been shown, and water balance elements for the current (1981-2016) and preceding (1957-1980) periods have been compared. A significant decrease in runoff and an increase of water reserve in the soil have been revealed on all plowland types. Consequences of changes in the spring water balance on plowland have been analyzed.

  1. PAHs behavior in surface water and groundwater of the Yellow River estuary: Evidence from isotopes and hydrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong; Liu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale irrigation projects have impacted the regional surface-groundwater interactions in the North China Plain (NCP). Given this concern, the aim of this study is to evaluate levels of PAH pollution, identify the sources of the PAHs, analyze the influence of surface-groundwater interactions on PAH distribution, and propose urgent management strategies for PAHs in China's agricultural areas. PAH concentrations, hydrochemical indicators and stable isotopic compositions (δ 18 O and δ 2 H) were determined for surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) samples. PAHs concentrations in surface water and groundwater varied from 11.84 to 393.12 ng/L and 8.51-402.84 ng/L, respectively, indicating mild pollution. The seasonal variations showed the following trend: PAHs in surface water at the low-water phase > PAHs in groundwater at the low-water phase > PAHs in surface water at the high-water phase > PAHs in groundwater at the high-water phase. Hydrochemical and δ 18 O value of most groundwater samples distributed between the Yellow River and seawater. The mean value of mixture ratio of the Yellow River water recharge to the groundwater was 65%, few anomalous sites can reach to 90%. Surface-groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of PAHs in the study area. In light of the ongoing serious pollution, management practices for source control, improved control technologies, and the construction of a monitoring network to warn of increased risk are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface-Water to Groundwater Transport of Pharmaceuticals in a Wastewater-Impacted Stream in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. M.; Barber, L. B.; Duris, J. W.; Foreman, W. T.; Furlong, E. T.; Hubbard, L. E.; Hutchinson, K. J.; Keefe, S. H.; Kolpin, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater pharmaceutical contamination of shallow groundwater is a substantial concern in effluent-dominated streams, due to aqueous mobility and designed bioactivity of pharmaceuticals and due to effluent-driven hydraulic gradients. Improved understanding of the environmental fate and transport of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals is essential for effective protection of vital aquatic ecosystem services, environmental health, and drinking-water supplies. Substantial longitudinal (downstream) transport of pharmaceutical contaminants has been documented in effluent-impacted streams. The comparative lack of information on vertical and lateral transport (infiltration) of wastewater contaminants from surface-water to hyporheic and shallow groundwater compartments is a critical scientific data gap, given the potential for contamination of groundwater supplies in effluent-impacted systems. Growing dependencies on bank filtration and artificial recharge applications for release of wastewater to the environment and for pretreatment of poor-quality surface-water for drinking water emphasize the critical need to better understand the exchange of wastewater contaminants, like pharmaceuticals, between surface-water and groundwater compartments. The potential transport of effluent-derived pharmaceutical contaminants from surface-water to hyporheic-water and shallow groundwater compartments was examined in a wastewater-treatment-facility (WWTF) impacted stream in Ankeny, Iowa under effluent-dominated (71-99% of downstream flow) conditions. Strong hydraulic gradients and hydrologic connectivity were evident between surface-water and shallow-groundwater compartments in the vicinity of the WWTF outfall. Carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, and immunologically-related compounds were detected in groundwater 10-20 meters from the stream bank. Direct aqueous-injection HPLC-MS/MS revealed high percentage detections of pharmaceuticals (110 total analytes) in surface-water and groundwater

  3. Effects of native perennial vegetation buffer strips on dissolved organic carbon in surface runoff from an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomorra E. Smith; Randall K. Kolka; Xiaobo Zhou; Matthew J. Helmers; Richard M. Cruse; Mark D. Tomer

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a small yet important part of a watershed's carbon budget because it is mobile and biologically active. Agricultural conservation practices such as native perennial vegetation (NPV) strips will influence carbon cycling of an upland agroecosystem, and could affect how much DOC enters streams in runoff, potentially...

  4. Xenobiotics in groundwater and surface water of the city of Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, A.; Leschik, S.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Schirmer, M.; Möder, M.

    2007-09-01

    Xenobiotics are increasingly being considered as ecotoxicologically relevant for the aquatic environment and human health. Their behaviour and the effects on the environment have not yet been comprehensively investigated and, therefore, are currently the subject of the project WASSER Leipzig initiated by the UFZ. The results of this article are based on groundwater and surface water analyses of a watershed within the town of Leipzig. Here the industrial chemicals bisphenol-A and t-nonylphenol, the polycyclic fragrances galaxolide and tonalide, the antiepileptic drug carbamacepine and caffeine where investigated. Xenobiotics showed ubiquitous occurrence in the rivers, which were contaminated from treated and untreated sewage, as well as in groundwater, contaminated by leaky sewers. Mean concentrations up to several hundred ng/l were found in the rivers, while groundwater concentrations, except for bisphenol-A, tended to be lower. Applying the statistical factor analysis on the hydrochemical measurements, a differentiation of the xenobiotics with regard to their hydrochemical behaviour in groundwater was performed.

  5. Shallow groundwater investigations at Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (MDNR-DGLS) conducted investigations of the upper aquifer in the vicinity of the abandoned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant in southwest St. Charles County, Missouri. The objective of the investigation was to better define the relationships between precipitation, surface runoff, groundwater recharge and shallow groundwater discharge within the study area, thereby assisting the Department of Energy in designing an appropriate groundwater monitoring plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The results of the investigations indicate that the upper aquifer has been affected by karst development but that well developed karst does not exist on or around the site. Dye traces conducted during the study have shown that surface water which leaves the site enters the subsurface in losing streams around the site and travels rapidly to one or more local springs. Upper aquifer recharge areas, constructed from dye trace and potentiometric data, generally follow surface water drainage patterns on the south side of the site, but cross surface-water drainage divides north of the site. Nine springs may receive recharge from site runoff, depending upon the amount of runoff. In addition to these springs, one perennial spring and two intermittent springs to the southwest of the site may receive recharge from site infiltration. 25 refs., 13 figs

  6. Coupling surface water (Delft3D) to groundwater (MODFLOW) in the Bay-Delta community model: the effect of major abstractions in the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, D.; Ball, S. M.; Van der Wegen, M.; Verkaik, J.; van Dam, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a coupled groundwater-surface water model for the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento Valley that consists of a combination of a spatially-distributed groundwater model (Modflow) based on the USGS Central Valley model(1) and the Flexible Mesh (FM) surface water model of the Bay Area(2). With this coupled groundwater-surface water model, we assessed effects of climate, surface water abstractions and groundwater pumping on surface water and groundwater levels, groundwater-surface water interaction and infiltration/seepage fluxes. Results show that the effect of climate (high flow and low flow) on surface water and groundwater is significant and most prominent in upstream areas. The surface water abstractions cause significant local surface water levels decrease (over 2 m), which may cause inflow of bay water during low flow periods, resulting in salinization of surface water in more upstream areas. Groundwater level drawdown due to surface water withdrawal is moderate and limited to the area of the withdrawals. The groundwater pumping causes large groundwater level drawdowns (up to 0.8 m) and significant changes in seepage/infiltration fluxes in the model. However, the effect on groundwater-surface water exchange is relatively small. The presented model instrument gives a sound first impression of the effects of climate and water abstraction on both surface water and groundwater. The combination of Modflow and Flexible Mesh has potential for modelling of groundwater-surface water exchange in deltaic areas, also in other parts of the world. However, various improvements need to be made in order to make the simulation results useful in practice. In addition, a water quality aspect could be added to assess salinization processes as well as groundwater-surface water aspects of water and soil pollution. (1) http://ca.water.usgs.gov/projects/central-valley/central-valley-hydrologic-model.html (2) www.d3d-baydelta.org

  7. Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water - groundwater model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori

    2015-04-01

    Integrated hydrologic models characterize catchment responses by coupling the subsurface flow with land surface processes. One of the major areas of uncertainty in such models is the specification of the initial condition and its influence on subsequent simulations. A key challenge in model initialization is that it requires spatially distributed information on model states, groundwater levels and soil moisture, even when such data are not routinely available. Here, the impact of uncertainty in initial condition was explored across a 208 km2 catchment in Denmark using the ParFlow.CLM model. The initialization impact was assessed under two meteorological conditions (wet vs dry) using five depth to water table and soil moisture distributions obtained from various equilibrium states (thermal, root zone, discharge, saturated and unsaturated zone equilibrium) during the model spin-up. Each of these equilibrium states correspond to varying computation times to achieve stability in a particular aspect of the system state. Results identified particular sensitivity in modelled recharge and stream flow to the different initializations, but reduced sensitivity in modelled energy fluxes. Analysis also suggests that to simulate a year that is wetter than the spin-up period, an initialization based on discharge equilibrium is adequate to capture the direction and magnitude of surface water–groundwater exchanges. For a drier or hydrologically similar year to the spin-up period, an initialization based on groundwater equilibrium is required. Variability of monthly subsurface storage changes and discharge bias at the scale of a hydrological event show that the initialization impacts do not diminish as the simulations progress, highlighting the importance of robust and accurate initialization in capturing surface water–groundwater dynamics.

  8. Hyper-Resolution Global Land Surface Model at Regional-to-Local Scales with observed Groundwater data assimilation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Raj Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Modeling groundwater is challenging: it is not readily visible and is difficult to measure, with limited sets of observations available. Even though groundwater models can reproduce water table and head variations, considerable drift in modeled land surface states can nonetheless result from partially known geologic structure, errors in the input forcing fields, and imperfect Land Surface Model (LSM) parameterizations. These models frequently have biased results that are very different from o...

  9. Surface deformation in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan after removal of groundwater withdrawal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Ching, K.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of widespread groundwater pumping has been proposed to be able to obscure the tectonic signals resulted from the movement of blind thrust faults, such as the metropolitan Los Angeles. In Taiwan, the tip of westward-propagating frontal blind thrust has been suggested to be located beneath the Western Coastal Plain by analyses of the horizontal GPS velocities and the geological uplift rates due to the convergence between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. However, the serious land subsidence has been consistently occurred in the Western Coastal Plain because of the artificial groundwater pumping for the development of agriculture. The most significant subsidence rate is observed up to 109.4 mm/yr. This effect may disturb the pattern of the surface horizontal velocities caused by the movement of blind thrust. As a result, ignoring the groundwater withdrawal effects will make misunderstandings on the assessment of location and kinematic characteristics of the blind thrust in western Taiwan by analysis of horizontal velocities only. In this study, to obtain a reasonable horizontal velocity field for evaluating the fault behavior in western Taiwan, we therefore used more than 704 precise leveling measurements and 20 continuous GPS observations between 2000 and 2008 in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan to estimate and correct the effects of groundwater pumping from horizontal velocities. The distribution of subsidence rates in this area shows a concentric-circle-like pattern with the peak subsidence rates of over 80 and 90 mm/yr at the northeastern and center area of the plain. Next, we will invert the vertical velocities for the land subsidence rate resulted from the groundwater withdrawal, using a dislocation model and a tentative mogi-source model in an elastic half-space material. The accuracy of these tentative models will also be assessed in this study. Then the corrections of horizontal velocities will be provided from this model to help us

  10. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Comerio, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    sewer ejectors, clogged and leaking sewage pipes, septic tank leakage, unfenced livestock, runoff from livestock pens, and seepage from pits containing animal wastes. Long-term fecal coliform data at two sampling stations on the Rio de la Plata indicate that since 1984, the geometric mean of five consecutive samples commonly has been at or below 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters (established as the sanitary quality goal in Puerto Rico for Class SD type waters). At the sampling station upstream of Comerio, the geometric mean concentration has been near 500 colonies per 100 milliliters; downstream of the town of Comerio, the geometric mean concentration has been near 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters concentration. The data at these stations also indicate that fecal coliform concentrations increase commonly above 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters during storm-runoff events, ranging from 1,000 to 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters at both stations. Geologic, topographic, soil, hydrogeologic, and streamflow data were used to divide the municipio of Comerio into five hydrogeologic terranes. The integrated database was then used to evaluate the ground-water development potential of each hydrogeologic terrane. Analysis suggests that areas with slopes greater than 15 degrees have relatively low ground-water development potential. Fractures may be important locally in enhancing the water-bearing properties in the hydrogeologic terranes containing igneous rocks. The integrated hydrogeologic approach used in this study can serve as an important tool for regulatory agencies of Puerto Rico and the municipio of Comerio to evaluate the ground-water resource development potential, examine ground- and surface-water interaction, and determine the effect of land-use practices on ground-water quantity and quality. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land and water uses. Low-flow characteristics may substantially change as a re

  11. Emergy assessment of ecological compensation of groundwater overexploitation in Xuchang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, C.; Ling, M.; Cao, Q.; Guo, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent 30 years, the amount of groundwater extraction in China is increasing at a rate of 2.5 billion m3 per year. And the growing amount led to form a predatory exploitation in many parts, and caused serious exploitation problems, such as land subsidence, sea water intrusion, surface runoff reduction, vegetation decline, groundwater pollution, and so on. Ecological compensation of overexploitation has become an important mean to adjust the environmental benefits distribution relationship related to the groundwater system and to alleviate the problem of groundwater overexploitation. Based on the ecological economics emergy value theory and analysis method, the emergy loss value calculation method of eco-environmental problems caused by groundwater overexploitation, such as environmental land subsidence (collapse), salt (sea) water intrusion, surface runoff reduction, vegetation deterioration and groundwater pollution, is established, and the assessment method, which takes emergy loss value as the quantity of ecological compensation of groundwater overexploitation, is put forward. This method can reflect the disaster loss degree of groundwater overexploitation more intuitively, and it helps to improve, manage and restore a series of problems caused by groundwater overexploitation, construct a scientific and reasonable groundwater ecological compensation mechanism, and provide good ecological security for the sustainable and healthy development of national economy in our country. Taking Xuchang city as an application example, the results showed that the ecological economic loss of groundwater overexploitation was 109 million in 2015, accounting for 0.3% of the total GDP. Among them, the ecological economic loss of land subsidence is the largest, which was 77 million, accounting for 70.3% of the total loss, the second one is surface runoff reducing loss, which was 27 million, accounting for 24.7% of the total loss, and underground water pollution loss is the

  12. Screening of pharmaceuticals and hormones at the regional scale, in surface and groundwaters intended to human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques - UMR5280, Departement Service Central d' Analyse, Echangeur de Solaize, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Cren-Olive, Cecile [Institut des Sciences Analytiques - UMR5280, Departement Service Central d' Analyse, Echangeur de Solaize, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2011-10-15

    As part of a regional screening to evaluate the risk, for the health of populations, to certain classes of emerging substances, several families of pharmaceuticals and hormones were looked for in waters intended to drinking. Thus, 52 substances were investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. Results indicate that no water was free of pollutants, regardless of its origin (surface or groundwater) and the season of collect. The pharmaceuticals most frequently detected and with the highest concentration levels were salicylic acid, carbamazepine and acetaminophen. Among hormones, testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were detected in almost all the samples. Globally the groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals frequencies and levels. On the other side, androgens and progestagens were present with comparable frequencies and levels in both compartments. The risk linked to the presence of these substances on human health is discussed. - Highlights: > Traces of 52 substances investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. > No water was free of pollutants, whatever its origin and the season of collect. > Globally groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals. > Hormones were present with comparable frequencies and levels in two compartments. - 52 pharmaceuticals and hormones investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters intended to human consumption.

  13. Tool for assessment of process importance at the groundwater/surface water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakodeti, Ravi C; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Clarke, James H

    2009-10-01

    The groundwater/surface water interface (GWSWI) represents an important transition zone between groundwater and surface water environments that potentially changes the nature and flux of contaminants exchanged between the two systems. Identifying dominant and rate-limiting contaminant transformation processes is critically important for estimating contaminant fluxes and compositional changes across the GWSWI. A new, user-friendly, spreadsheet- and Visual Basic-based analytical screening tool that assists in evaluating the dominance of controlling kinetic processes across the GWSWI is presented. Based on contaminant properties, first-order processes that may play a significant role in solute transport/transformation are evaluated in terms of a ratio of process importance (P(i)) that relates the process rate to the rate of fluid transfer. Besides possessing several useful compilations of contaminant and process data, the screening tool also includes 1-D analytical models that assist users in evaluating contaminant transport across the GWSWI. The tool currently applies to 29 organics and 10 inorganics of interest within the context of the GWSWI. Application of the new screening tool is demonstrated through an evaluation of natural attenuation at a site with trichloroethylene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane contaminated groundwater discharging into wetlands.

  14. Assessing irrigated agriculture's surface water and groundwater consumption by combining satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L; Mainuddin, Mohammed; Kirby, John M; Chiew, Francis H S; McVicar, Tim R; Vaze, Jai

    2016-01-15

    Globally, irrigation accounts for more than two thirds of freshwater demand. Recent regional and global assessments indicate that groundwater extraction (GWE) for irrigation has increased more rapidly than surface water extraction (SWE), potentially resulting in groundwater depletion. Irrigated agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is usually from a combination of stored surface water and groundwater. This paper assesses the usefulness of remotely-sensed (RS) derived information on both irrigation dynamics and rates of actual evapotranspiration which are both input to a river-reach water balance model in order to quantify irrigation water use and water provenance (either surface water or groundwater). The assessment is implemented for the water-years 2004/05-2010/11 in five reaches of the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia); a heavily regulated basin with large irrigated areas and periodic droughts and floods. Irrigated area and water use are identified each water-year (from July to June) through a Random Forest model which uses RS vegetation phenology and actual evapotranspiration as predicting variables. Both irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration from irrigated areas were compared against published estimates of irrigated areas and total water extraction (SWE+GWE).The river-reach model determines the irrigated area that can be serviced with stored surface water (SWE), and the remainder area (as determined by the Random Forest Model) is assumed to be supplemented by groundwater (GWE). Model results were evaluated against observed SWE and GWE. The modelled SWE generally captures the observed interannual patterns and to some extent the magnitudes, with Pearson's correlation coefficients >0.8 and normalised root-mean-square-error<30%. In terms of magnitude, the results were as accurate as or better than those of more traditional (i.e., using areas that fluctuate based on water resource availability and prescribed crop factors) irrigation modelling. The RS

  15. Quantifying the regional groundwater/surface water interaction based on 18O and Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christoph; Lischeid, Gunnar; Nitzsche, Kai; Kayler, Zachary Eric

    2017-04-01

    Small, non-permanent ponds of glaciofluvial origin, called cattle holes, are widely spread in the younger Pleistocene landscapes of the northern hemisphere. New investigations show that much more of the kettle holes in NE Germany are more closely connected to the groundwater than expected. Thus kettle holes reflect a free groundwater surface at the interface between the aquifer and the topography. They are not isolated hydrological depressions and can be viewed as linked components of a hydrologic continuum. Therefore, these kettle holes have a high informative value regarding changing behavior of the regional groundwater system functioning as a suitable indicator for changes of a regionally connected hydrological system. The unsolved challenge of this approach is the complexity and high abundance of kettle holes which requires an elaborate hydrological monitoring of a large number of small lakes. Therefore, an alternative approach was used to record the dynamic behavior of the hydrological system. Measurements of the stable isotopes 18O and Deuterium enables the quantitative estimation of the individual water flux and evapotranspiration rates. An isotope-mass-balance model was used to quantify lake water balances during a one year sampling period. The approach after Skrzypek et al. 2015 based on the global relationship between the d18O and dD values of the precipitation - described by the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) and the kinetic isotopic fractionation during evaporation which leads to a deviation from the GMWL indicated by a decrease of the slope of this relationship. Assuming that the lake is hydrostatically connected to the groundwater the applied isotope mass-balance model accounts for the quantification of the evapotranspiration rate considering the groundwater inflow compensating the evaporation loss. Due to the low effort of isotopic sampling, the isotopic monitoring of a large number of kettle holes is possible, even regarding a longer period of

  16. Documentation of a restart option for the U.S. Geological Survey coupled Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow (GSFLOW) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steve; Niswonger, Richard G.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2015-10-02

    A new option to write and read antecedent conditions (also referred to as initial conditions) has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow (GSFLOW) numerical, hydrologic simulation code. GSFLOW is an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and USGS Modular Groundwater-Flow Model (MODFLOW), and provides three simulation modes: MODFLOW-only, PRMS-only, and GSFLOW (or coupled). The new capability, referred to as the restart option, can be used for all three simulation modes, such that the results from a pair (or set) of spin-up and restart simulations are nearly identical to results produced from a continuous simulation for the same time period. The restart option writes all results to files at the end of a spin-up simulation that are required to initialize a subsequent restart simulation. Previous versions of GSFLOW have had some capability to save model results for use as antecedent condiitions in subsequent simulations; however, the existing capabilities were not comprehensive or easy to use. The new restart option supersedes the previous methods. The restart option was developed in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service as part of the Integrated Water Resources Science and Services Partnership. The primary focus for the development of the restart option was to support medium-range (7- to 14-day) forecasts of low streamflow conditions made by the National Weather Service for critical water-supply basins in which groundwater plays an important role.

  17. Effects of Fertilization on Surface Runoff Loss of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Mulberry in the Northern Zhejiang Plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Yan-ping

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, the situ experimental plots in mulberry under two different kinds of treatment(control fertilization and farmer's conventional fertilization were conducted, and the runoff water in each plot were collected and tested in a period of two years to investigate the law of runoff, the regular pattern and the influential factors of nitrogen and phosphorus losses, and to study the coefficient of fertilizer losses from mulberry in northern Zhejiang plain. The results showed that the annual rainfall runoff coefficient was about 0.253 in mulberry field in northern Zhejiang plain. In those two years, TN and TP cumulative loss load in the conventional fertilization area reached 36.13 kg·hm-2 and 3.49 kg·hm-2, of which the N, P nutrient losses of fertilizer reached 6.415 kg·hm-2 and 1.090 kg·hm-2, respectively. N, P loss coefficients of fertilizer (the difference of nitrogen or phosphorus loss in the conventional fertilization area and the control area was divided by the total amount of fertilizer application were 0.744% and 3.047%. Nitrogen loss were mainly in soluble form, in which the NO3-N and NH4-N, accounting for about 38.3% and 14.4% respectively; while the phosphorus loss were in particulate form, accounting for about 68.9%. The larger amount of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient loss, were within the first year of the fertilization period, and the P loss was more serious than N. Within a period of fertilization, the cumulative loss of nitrogen and phosphorus caused by rainfall and the occurrence times of runoff increased with power function(R2>0.95.

  18. Runoff of particle bound pollutants from urban impervious surfaces studied by analysis of sediments from stormwater traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartun, Morten; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Steinnes, Eiliv; Volden, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Runoff sediments from 68 small stormwater traps around the harbor of urban Bergen, Norway, were sampled and the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in addition to grain size. Our study provides empirical data from a large area in the interface between the urban and marine environment, studying the active transport of pollutants from land-based sources. The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. The concentrations of different pollutants in urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the sewage systems with PCBs, PAHs and heavy metals such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The concentration of PCB 7 in the urban runoff sediments ranged between 16 , the concentration range was < 0.2-80 mg/kg, whereas the concentration ranges of Pb, Zn and Cd were 9-675, 51.3-4670 and 0.02-11.1 mg/kg respectively. Grain size distribution in 21 selected samples varied from a median particle diameter of 13 to 646 μm. However, several samples had very fine-grained particles even up to the 90 percentile of the samples, making them available for stormwater dispersion in suspended form. The sampling approach proposed in this paper will provide environmental authorities with a useful tool to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients

  19. New Module to Simulate Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Small-Scale Alluvial Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, L.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow depletion can occur when groundwater pumping wells lower water table elevations adjacent to a nearby stream. Being able to accurately model the severity of this process is of critical importance in semi-arid regions where groundwater-surface water interactions affect water rights and the sustainability of water resource practices. The finite-difference flow model MODFLOW is currently the standard for estimating groundwater-surface water interactions in many regions in the western United States. However, certain limitations of the model persist when highly-resolved spatial scales are used to represent the stream-aquifer system, e.g. when the size of computational grid cells is much less than the river width. In this study, an external module is developed and linked with MODFLOW that (1) allows for multiple computational grid cells over the width of the river; (2) computes streamflow and stream stage along the length of the river using the one-dimensional (1D) steady (over a stress period) shallow water equations, which allows for more accurate stream stages when normal flow cannot be assumed or a rating curve is not available; and (3) incorporates a process for computing streamflow loss when an unsaturated zone develops under the streambed. Use of the module not only provides highly-resolved estimates of streamflow depletion, but also of streambed hydraulic conductivity. The new module is applied to the stream-aquifer alluvial system along the South Platte River south of Denver, Colorado, with results tested against field-measured groundwater levels, streamflow, and streamflow depletion.

  20. Escoamento superficial em diferentes sistemas de manejo em um Nitossolo Háplico típico Surface runoff in different soil management systems on Typic Hapudox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O preparo mecânico do solo influencia o seu manejo e danifica a estrutura, diminui a porosidade e a infiltração de água e aumenta o escoamento superficial. Utilizando-se simulador de chuvas, estudaram-se os tratamentos, preparo convencional (PC; semeadura direta em resíduo queimado (SQ; semeadura direta em resíduo dessecado (SD; e semeadura direta tradicional em resíduo dessecado (ST, cultivados, além de um preparo convencional sem cultivo do solo (SC - testemunha e de um campo nativo (CN, em um Nitossolo Háplico no Planalto Sul Catarinense, entre março de 2001 e fevereiro de 2004, com o objetivo de quantificar o escoamento superficial. Ao milho e feijão se aplicaram três testes de chuva em cada um e à soja cinco testes. Quantificaram-se os tempos de início (TI e pico (TP de enxurrada, a taxa constante (TE e o volume de enxurrada (VE e o coeficiente C da Equação Racional. Os TI, TP e TE, coeficiente C e VE, foram influenciados pelo preparo e cultivo do solo. O TI e o TP foram menores nos tratamentos PC e SC, enquanto a TE, o coeficiente C e o VE, também foram menores, mas nos tratamentos SD e ST. A TE variou de 18 mm h-1 na ST a 44 mm h-1 no SC, enquanto o coeficiente C variou de 0,29 na ST a 0,71 no SC. A variação do VE foi de 106 m³ ha-1 na ST a 434 m³ ha-1 no SC, na média dos cultivos.Soil tillage influences soil management and damages structure, reduces the porosity and water infiltration and increases surface runoff. A rotating-boom rainfall simulator was used to investigate the treatments: conventional tillage (CT, no-tillage in burn residue (NB, no-tillage in desiccated residue (ND, and traditional no-tillage in desiccated residue (NT, both cropped, as well as conventional tillage without crop (bare soil - BS, and native pasture treatment (NP, in a Typic Hapludox soil, in the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from March, 2001 to February, 2004, with the objective of quantifying surface runoff. Three

  1. Water runoff vs modern climatic warming in mountainous cryolithic zone in North-East Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, V. E.; Glotova, L. P.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying the effects of current climatic warming for both surface and subsurface water runoffs in North-East Russia, where the Main Watershed of the Earth separates it into the Arctic and Pacific continental slopes. The process of climatic warming is testified by continuous weather records during 80-100 years and longer periods. Over the Arctic slope and in the northern areas of the Pacific slope, climatic warming results in a decline in a total runoff of rivers whereas the ground-water recharge becomes greater in winter low-level conditions. In the southern Pacific slope and in the Sea of Okhotsk basin, the effect of climatic warming is an overall increase in total runoff including its subsurface constituents. We believe these peculiar characters of river runoff there to be related to the cryolithic zone environments. Over the Arctic slope and the northern Pacific slope, where cryolithic zone is continuous, the total runoff has its subsurface constituent as basically resulting from discharge of ground waters hosted in seasonally thawing rocks. Warmer climatic conditions favor growth of vegetation that needs more water for the processes of evapotranspiration and evaporation from rocky surfaces in summer seasons. In the Sea of Okhotsk basin, where the cryolithic zone is discontinuous, not only ground waters in seasonally thawing layers, but also continuous taliks and subpermafrost waters participate in processes of river recharges. As a result, a greater biological productivity of vegetation cover does not have any effect on ground-water supply and river recharge processes. If a steady climate warming is provided, a continuous cryolithic zone can presumably degrade into a discontinuous and then into an island-type permafrost layer. Under such a scenario, there will be a general increase in the total runoff and its subsurface constituent. From geoecological viewpoints, a greater runoff will have quite positive effects, whereas some

  2. An initial research on solute migration model coupled with adsorption of surface complexation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Tianwei; Chen Fanrong

    2003-01-01

    The influence of solution chemical action in groundwater on solute migration has attracted increasing public attention, especially adsorption action occurring on surface of solid phase and liquid phase, which has play a great role in solute migration. There are various interpretations on adsorption mechanism, in which surface complexion is one of successful hypothesis. This paper first establishes a geochemical model based on surface complexion and then coupled it with traditional advection-dispersion model to constitute a solute migration model, which can deal with surface complexion action. The simulated results fit very well with those obtained by the precursors, as compared with a published famous example, which indicates that the model set up by this paper is successful. (authors)

  3. Mass transfer of CO2 to groundwaters from a near-surface waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, F.; Wilkinson, S.R.; Manni, G.; Torok, J.

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous 14 CO 2 originating from buried low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) in a near-surface disposal site can be released to the environment via two major paths: gas-phase diffusion through soils to the atmosphere, and dissolution in groundwater, followed by aqueous migration. Aqueous migration would give the highest dose to an individual, especially if C-14 was converted to an organic form and ingested. Gaseous diffusion would give a lower dose, largely because of atmospheric dispersion and dilution. The objective of this study was to develop the capability to estimate which of the two paths will likely be dominant for typical near-surface disposal facilities. The main missing parameter for making this estimate was a mass-transfer coefficient (K L ) of 14 CO 2 to groundwaters, which was determined experimentally using a large sand box. The K L thus determined was approximately 10 to 20 times smaller than for an open liquid surface. This suggests that there is a potential resistance to mass transfer, probably caused by the capillary fringe. The value obtained was incorporated into a simple model of CO 2 transport around a typical near-surface disposal site. The model suggests that CO 2 transport via both gaseous release and aqueous migration paths are of similar magnitude for a repository located ∼2 m above the water table. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Contribution of groundwater to the discharge and quality of surface flow: example of the Garonne river upstream of its confluence with the Tarn river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danneville, L.

    1998-01-01

    Very few studies have been made of the contribution of groundwater to the discharge and quality of surface flow at regional scale, such as that of the catchment area of the Garonne river upstream of its confluence with the Tarn river (15.000 km 2 ). Three main types of groundwater reservoir exist in the area: karstic aquifers, alluvial aquifers, and colluvial and local aquifers that are still poorly understood. The contribution from the karstic aquifers to surface flow varies seasonally depending on the nature, hydraulic behaviour and elevation of the karst. Minor exchange occurs between the alluvial aquifers and rivers, mainly during flooding. The Garonne river, which has an average flow of 199 m 3 /s, is mainly replenished by the Salat and Ariege tributaries, regardless of the season. Study of the low-water stage using Maillet's formula has given a good estimate of the groundwater storage of certain tributaries, and the role played by the groundwater is demonstrated by correlation and spectrum analysis of discharge time series. For example, during 1985, the main storage was shown to be in the river basins of Ariege (142 million m 3 ), Salat (111 million m 3 ) and Ger (21 million m 3 ). The Ger, which is the smallest tributary, has the highest specific storage (224 I/m 2 ) and presents an important buffer effect related to numerous karstic springs. The total groundwater storage of the entire recharge area is estimated at 2.1-2.9 billion m 3 for 1993. It is the largest water storage of the basin, greater than the snow cover (371 million m 3 ) and the artificial storage for electric power plants, discharge buffering and irrigation. The groundwater contribution to the total flow of the Garonne river at the Portet gauging station has been estimated at 46-60% of total discharge in 1993 by extrapolating the low-water stage from the residual hydrograph (hydrograph without the influence of dam reservoirs and snow cover), Direct runoff is estimated at 34-48% and the snow

  5. Assessing the influence of groundwater and land surface scheme in the modelling of land surface-atmosphere feedbacks over the FIFE area in Kansas, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Højmark Rasmussen, Søren; Drews, Martin

    2016-01-01

    by HIRHAM simulated precipitation. The last two simulations include iv) a standard HIRHAM simulation, and v) a fully coupled HIRHAM-MIKE SHE simulation locally replacing the land surface scheme by MIKE SHE for the FIFE area, while HIRHAM in standard configuration is used for the remaining model area......The land surface-atmosphere interaction is described differently in large scale surface schemes of regional climate models and small scale spatially distributed hydrological models. In particular, the hydrological models include the influence of shallow groundwater on evapotranspiration during dry...... experiments include five simulations. First MIKE SHE is forced by observed climate data in two versions i) with groundwater at a fixed uniform depth, and ii) with a dynamical groundwater component simulating shallow groundwater conditions in river valleys. iii) In a third simulation MIKE SHE is forced...

  6. Multiscale soil moisture measurement for mapping surface runoff generation on torrential headwater catchments (Draix-Bléone field observatory, South Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Mallet; Vincent, Marc; Johnny, Douvinet; Philippe, Rossello; Bouteiller Caroline, Le; Jean-Philippe, Malet; Julien, Gance

    2015-04-01

    soilwater flow of from the surface to - 30 cm. Another distributed approach will be carried out from a measurement of cosmic neutrons mitigation (Cosmic ray sensor) to estimate a soil moisture averaged value over 40 ha (Zreda et al., 2012). Finally, the smallest scale (slope and catchment) will be approached using remote sensing with a drone and/or satellite imagery (IR, passive and active microwave). This concatenation of scales with different combinations of time steps should enable us to better understand the hydrological dynamics in torrential environments. It aims at mapping the stormflow generation on a catchment at the flood scale and defining the main determinants of surface runoff. These results may contribute to the improvement of runoff simulation and flood prediction. References : Uhlenbrook S., J.J. McDonnell and C. Leibundgut, 2003. Preface: Runoff generation implications for river basin modelling. Hydrological Processes, Special Issue, 17: 197-198. Andrew W. Western, Sen-Lin Zhou, Rodger B. Grayson, Thomas A. MacMahon, Günter Blöshl, David J. Wilson, 2004. Spatial correlation of soil moisture in small catchments and its relationship to dominant spatial hydrological processes. Journal of Hydrology 286. Zreda, M., Shuttleworth WJ., Zeng X., Zweck C., Desilets D., Franz TE. et al., 2012. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(11): 4079-4099.

  7. The use and re-use of unsustainably mined groundwater: A global budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, D. S.; Prousevitch, A.; Wisser, D.; Lammers, R. B.; Frolking, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the world's major groundwater aquifers are rapidly depleting due to unsustainable groundwater pumping, while demand for food production - and therefore demand for irrigation water ­- is increasing. While it is likely that groundwater users will be impacted by the future's inevitable reduction in groundwater availability, there is a major gap in our understanding of potential impacts downstream of pumping sites. Due to inefficiencies in irrigation systems, significant amounts of abstracted groundwater become runoff, entering surface waters and flowing downstream to be re-abstracted and used again. In this study, we use a gridded water balance model to calculate the amount of unsustainably pumped groundwater that enters surface water systems by way of irrigation runoff, and quantify the additional irrigation water supplied by the re-use of this water. We assess the global budget of unsustainable groundwater sources and sinks, including downstream re-use, groundwater recharge, and flow to the oceans. Globally, we find that 80% of unsustainable groundwater is re-abstracted for irrigation either downstream or locally from groundwater recharge. This re-abstracted water contributes the water equivalent needed to irrigate 200,000 km2 of cropland globally. Including irrigation runoff reuse in an assessment of irrigation efficiency, we see that the traditional concept of irrigation efficiency (net irrigation/gross irrigation) significantly overestimates water "waste". We define a basin efficiency for unsustainable groundwater use that includes re-use, and see that while global irrigation efficiency is often estimated at 50%, global average unsustainable water use efficiency is > 60%. Losing this re-use resource by increasing irrigation efficiency does little to alleviate unsustainable groundwater demands.

  8. Application of numerical modelling in order to estimate the interaction between surface water and thermal groundwater use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzl, Gregor; Hoyer, Stefan; Bruestle, Anna Katharina

    2014-05-01

    In Vienna the thermal use of shallow groundwater usage for heating and cooling purposes is of increasing interest during the past years. In this context the focal areas are located in the vicinity of the Danube River, which intersects the urban area of Vienna. This is a consequence of excellent aquifers, which predominately consist of poorly consolidated gravels of Holocene age deposited by the Danube River. Of course these shallow aquifer systems are hydraulically connected to the Danube. In addition most of the focal areas in Vienna are affected by abandoned meanders and ponds, which correspond the groundwater and eventually to the Danube River. These wide spread ponds remain from abandoned gravel pits, which are directly alimented by the groundwater. Focusing on these abandoned meanders and ponds the intensity of hydraulic correspondence to groundwater variations is strongly governed by the degree of colmatation. As thermal groundwater utilization is influencing the local hydraulic regime by means of well fields, enforced interflow between surface- and ground water have to be expected at the nearby surrounding of abandoned rivers, abandoned meanders and groundwater ponds. This leads to an attenuation of the capacity of the thermal utilizations as surface water and ground water show different annual temperature variations. Depending on the total pumping rate of a geothermal well field as well as on the spatially varying colmatation of surface waters restricted zones for thermal groundwater use have to be defined in order to avoid inefficient utilizations. Based on two presented case studies in the city of Vienna we aim to show methods based on numerical modelling and empirical studies (observation of gauges) in order to estimate the degree of colmatation of surface waters and to predict the interaction between thermal groundwater use and surface waters. As the heat budget of shallow surface waters (e.g. small ponds or lentic meanders) is affected by various

  9. Recharge and discharge of near-surface groundwater in Forsmark. Comparison of classification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Johansson, Per-Olof; Brydsten, Lars; Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten

    2007-03-01

    This report presents and compares data and models for identification of near-surface groundwater recharge and discharge (RD) areas in Forsmark. The general principles of groundwater recharge and discharge are demonstrated and applied to interpret hydrological and hydrogeological observations made in the Forsmark area. 'Continuous' RD classification methods considered in the study include topographical modelling, map overlays, and hydrological-hydrogeological flow modelling. 'Discrete' (point) methods include field-based and hydrochemistry-based RD classifications of groundwater monitoring well locations. The topographical RD modelling uses the digital elevation model as the only input. The map overlays use background maps of Quaternary deposits, soils, and ground- and field layers of the vegetation/land use map. Further, the hydrological-hydrogeological modelling is performed using the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 software packages, taking into account e.g. topography, meteorology, hydrogeology, and geometry of watercourses and lakes. The best between-model agreement is found for the topography-based model and the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 model. The agreement between the topographical model and the map overlays is less good. The agreement between the map overlays on the one hand, and the MIKE SHE and field-based RD classifications on the other, is thought to be less good, as inferred from the comparison made with the topography-based model. However, much improvement of the map overlays can likely be obtained, e.g. by using 'weights' and calibration (such exercises were outside the scope of the present study). For field-classified 'recharge wells', there is a good agreement to the hydrochemistry-based (Piper plot) well classification, but less good for the field-classified 'discharge wells'. In addition, the concentration of the age-dating parameter tritium shows low variability among recharge wells, but a large spread among discharge wells. The usefulness of hydrochemistry-based RD

  10. Recharge and discharge of near-surface groundwater in Forsmark. Comparison of classification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden); Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report presents and compares data and models for identification of near-surface groundwater recharge and discharge (RD) areas in Forsmark. The general principles of groundwater recharge and discharge are demonstrated and applied to interpret hydrological and hydrogeological observations made in the Forsmark area. 'Continuous' RD classification methods considered in the study include topographical modelling, map overlays, and hydrological-hydrogeological flow modelling. 'Discrete' (point) methods include field-based and hydrochemistry-based RD classifications of groundwater monitoring well locations. The topographical RD modelling uses the digital elevation model as the only input. The map overlays use background maps of Quaternary deposits, soils, and ground- and field layers of the vegetation/land use map. Further, the hydrological-hydrogeological modelling is performed using the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 software packages, taking into account e.g. topography, meteorology, hydrogeology, and geometry of watercourses and lakes. The best between-model agreement is found for the topography-based model and the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 model. The agreement between the topographical model and the map overlays is less good. The agreement between the map overlays on the one hand, and the MIKE SHE and field-based RD classifications on the other, is thought to be less good, as inferred from the comparison made with the topography-based model. However, much improvement of the map overlays can likely be obtained, e.g. by using 'weights' and calibration (such exercises were outside the scope of the present study). For field-classified 'recharge wells', there is a good agreement to the hydrochemistry-based (Piper plot) well classification, but less good for the field-classified 'discharge wells'. In addition, the concentration of the age-dating parameter tritium shows low variability among recharge wells, but a large spread among discharge

  11. Characterizing groundwater/surface-water interactions in the interior of Jianghan Plain, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yao; Ma, Teng; Deng, Yamin; Shen, Shuai; Lu, Zongjie

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying groundwater/surface-water interactions is essential for managing water resources and revealing contaminant fate. There has been little concern on the exchange between streams and aquifers through an extensive aquitard thus far. In this study, hydrogeologic calculation and tritium modeling were jointly applied to characterize such interactions through an extensive aquitard in the interior of Jianghan Plain, an alluvial plain of Yangtze River, China. One groundwater simulation suggested that the lateral distance of influence from the river was about 1,000 m; vertical flow in the aquitard followed by lateral flow in the aquifer contributed significantly more ( 90%) to the aquifer head change near the river than lateral bank storage in the aquitard followed by infiltration. The hydrogeologic calculation produced vertical fluxes of the order 0.01 m/day both near and farther from the river, suggesting that similar shorter-lived (half-monthly) vertical fluxes occur between the river and aquitard near the river, and between the surface end members and aquitard farther from the river. Tritium simulation based on the OTIS model produced an average groundwater residence time of about 15 years near the river and a resulting vertical flux of the order 0.001 m/day. Another tritium simulation based on a dispersion model produced a vertical flux of the order 0.0001 m/day away from the river, coupled with an average residence time of around 90 years. These results suggest an order of magnitude difference for the longer-lived (decadal) vertical fluxes between surface waters and the aquifer near and away from the river.

  12. Groundwater/surface-water interaction in central Sevier County, Tennessee, October 2015–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, John K.; Johnson, Gregory C.

    2017-12-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the central part of Sevier County, Tennessee, from October 2015 through October 2016. Stream base flow was surveyed in December 2015 and in July and October 2016 to evaluate losing and gaining stream reaches along three streams in the area. During a July 2016 synoptic survey, groundwater levels were measured in wells screened in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer to define the potentiometric surface in the area. The middle and lower reaches of the Little Pigeon River and the middle reaches of Middle Creek and the West Prong Little Pigeon River were gaining streams at base-flow conditions. The lower segments of the West Prong Little Pigeon River and Middle Creek were losing reaches under base-flow conditions, with substantial flow losses in the West Prong Little Pigeon River and complete subsurface diversion of flow in Middle Creek through a series of sinkholes that developed in the streambed and adjacent flood plain beginning in 2010. The potentiometric surface of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer showed depressed water levels in the area where loss of flow occurred in the lower reaches of West Prong Little Pigeon River and Middle Creek. Continuous dewatering activities at a rock quarry located in this area appear to have lowered groundwater levels by as much as 180 feet, which likely is the cause of flow losses observed in the two streams, and a contributing factor to the development of sinkholes at Middle Creek near Collier Drive.

  13. Interaction and Relationship Between Groundwater and Surface Water at Keystone Heritage Park EL Paso Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, B.

    2012-12-01

    Belinda Gonzalez1, Joshua Villalobos1, Marissa Cameron 2 1Department of Geological Sciences, El Paso Community College, El Paso, TX 79925, USA 2Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA beli_72764@yahoo.com Historically the floodplain of the Rio Grande River was dotted with shifting wetlands and ponds.The increasing population throughout the United States and Mexico has made it necessary to put the Rio Grande floodplain under till for cultivation. Along with cultivation, the river was channelized and dammed to prevent flooding and to stabilize the Mexico/U.S. border.The loss of wetland ecosystems in the area changed migration patterns of water fowl and destroyed priceless aquatic habitats.The area of our study, Keystone Heritage Park, is the last remaining open wetlands in El Paso County. Before efforts of restoration to reestablish wetlands associated with the Rio Grande can begin, there must be an in-depth, and complete, understanding of the surface and subsurface hydrological system which created and sustains this last remaining wetland. Studies of the wetland's soil properties and their effect on groundwater flow have indicated regions on the periphery of the wetlands where soils are saturated with moisture.These subsurface regions of saturated soils are semi-linear in shape and lead toward the wetland indicating that they are possible loci for groundwater flow for the wetland.These subsurface soil layers are possibly composed of mountain front alluvium that is being feed with meteoric water entering faults that bound the nearby Franklin Mountains.The primary goals of this study are 1) initiate a systematic data acquisition from 9 piezometers and 2 water level loggers of temporal variations in the depth of the groundwater due to regional pumping or rain fall and 2) generate a depth and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) profile of the wetland pond to locate regions where groundwater maybe entering the lake.

  14. Tracking natural and anthropogenic origins of dissolved arsenic during surface and groundwater interaction in a post-closure mining context: Isotopic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Verdoux, Patrick; Boutin, René

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of stream waters and groundwater is a real issue in Au-As mine environments. At the Salsigne Au-As mine, southern France, arsenic contamination persists after closure and remediation of the site. In this study, natural and anthropogenic arsenic inputs in surface water and groundwater are identified based on (87)Sr/(86)Sr, and δ(18)O and δ(2)H isotopic composition of water. In the wet season, downstream of the remediated zone, the arsenic contents in stream water and alluvial aquifer groundwater are high, with values in the order of 36 μg/L and 40 μg/L respectively, while upstream natural background average concentrations are around 4 μg/L. Locally down-gradient of the reclaimed area, arsenic concentrations in stream water showed 2 peaks, one during an important rainy event (101 mm) in the wet season in May, and a longer one over the dry period, reaching 120 and 110 μg/L respectively. The temporal variations in arsenic content in stream water can be explained i) during the dry season, by release of arsenic stored in the alluvial sediments through increased contribution from base flow and decreased stream flow and ii) during major rainy events, by mobilization of arsenic associated with important surface runoff. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios associated with increasing arsenic content in stream waters downstream of the reclaimed area are significantly lower than that of the natural Sr inherited from Variscan formations. These low (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are likely to be associated with the decontaminating water treatment processes, used in the past and still at present, where CaO, produced from marine limestone and therefore showing a low (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, is used to precipitate Ca3(AsO4)2. The low Sr isotope signatures will then impact on the Sr isotope ratio of (1) the Ca-arsenate stored in tailing dams, (2) effluent currently produced by water treatment process and (3) groundwater draining from the overall site. Furthermore, Δ(2)H shows

  15. Tracking natural and anthropogenic origins of dissolved arsenic during surface and groundwater interaction in a post-closure mining context: Isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Verdoux, Patrick; Boutin, René

    2015-06-01

    Arsenic contamination of stream waters and groundwater is a real issue in Au-As mine environments. At the Salsigne Au-As mine, southern France, arsenic contamination persists after closure and remediation of the site. In this study, natural and anthropogenic arsenic inputs in surface water and groundwater are identified based on 87Sr/86Sr, and δ18O and δ2H isotopic composition of water. In the wet season, downstream of the remediated zone, the arsenic contents in stream water and alluvial aquifer groundwater are high, with values in the order of 36 μg/L and 40 μg/L respectively, while upstream natural background average concentrations are around 4 μg/L. Locally down-gradient of the reclaimed area, arsenic concentrations in stream water showed 2 peaks, one during an important rainy event (101 mm) in the wet season in May, and a longer one over the dry period, reaching 120 and 110 μg/L respectively. The temporal variations in arsenic content in stream water can be explained i) during the dry season, by release of arsenic stored in the alluvial sediments through increased contribution from base flow and decreased stream flow and ii) during major rainy events, by mobilization of arsenic associated with important surface runoff. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios associated with increasing arsenic content in stream waters downstream of the reclaimed area are significantly lower than that of the natural Sr inherited from Variscan formations. These low 87Sr/86Sr ratios are likely to be associated with the decontaminating water treatment processes, used in the past and still at present, where CaO, produced from marine limestone and therefore showing a low 87Sr/86Sr ratios, is used to precipitate Ca3(AsO4)2. The low Sr isotope signatures will then impact on the Sr isotope ratio of (1) the Ca-arsenate stored in tailing dams, (2) effluent currently produced by water treatment process and (3) groundwater draining from the overall site. Furthermore, Δ2H shows that the low 87Sr/86Sr

  16. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  17. 1DTempPro: analyzing temperature profiles for groundwater/surface-water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, Emily B.; Drenkelfuss, Anja; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Healy, Richard; Lane, John W.; Werkema, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    A new computer program, 1DTempPro, is presented for the analysis of vertical one-dimensional (1D) temperature profiles under saturated flow conditions. 1DTempPro is a graphical user interface to the U.S. Geological Survey code Variably Saturated 2-Dimensional Heat Transport (VS2DH), which numerically solves the flow and heat-transport equations. Pre- and postprocessor features allow the user to calibrate VS2DH models to estimate vertical groundwater/surface-water exchange and also hydraulic conductivity for cases where hydraulic head is known.

  18. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Rick [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  19. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (SE)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (SE))

    2007-10-15

    mineral has a central role in the forming of today's hydrochemistry in surface systems, and probably also on the composition of the dilute, non-brackish, groundwater in the upper parts of the fractured bedrock. The rich supply of calcium and the high alkalinity affects the structure of the whole ecosystem, for example by forming the oligotrophic hardwater lakes which are characteristic for the area. One major issue in the report is if there can be found any indications on deep groundwater discharge in the surface system. According to observations in surface water and shallow groundwater, and to the hydrological/hydrochemical conceptual model, there is probably no ongoing deep discharge into the freshwater surface system. In restricted areas there are, however, indications that relict marine remnants, which also includes deep saline signatures, prevail in the groundwater at relatively shallow depths in the Quaternary deposits, but not reach the surface due to the downwards directed groundwater flow pattern that generally prevail in the area. This hydrochemical pattern could according to the conceptual model probably be explained by influence from marine remnants formed under a previous hydrological regime and these signatures are preserved because of stagnant conditions in some areas

  20. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Johansson, Per-Olof

    2007-10-01

    mineral has a central role in the forming of today's hydrochemistry in surface systems, and probably also on the composition of the dilute, non-brackish, groundwater in the upper parts of the fractured bedrock. The rich supply of calcium and the high alkalinity affects the structure of the whole ecosystem, for example by forming the oligotrophic hardwater lakes which are characteristic for the area. One major issue in the report is if there can be found any indications on deep groundwater discharge in the surface system. According to observations in surface water and shallow groundwater, and to the hydrological/hydrochemical conceptual model, there is probably no ongoing deep discharge into the freshwater surface system. In restricted areas there are, however, indications that relict marine remnants, which also includes deep saline signatures, prevail in the groundwater at relatively shallow depths in the Quaternary deposits, but not reach the surface due to the downwards directed groundwater flow pattern that generally prevail in the area. This hydrochemical pattern could according to the conceptual model probably be explained by influence from marine remnants formed under a previous hydrological regime and these signatures are preserved because of stagnant conditions in some areas

  1. Groundwater Surface Water Interactions in a Gold-Mined Dredged Floodplain of the Merced River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, L.; Conklin, M. H.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Merced River, originating in the Sierra Nevada, California, drains a watershed with an area of ~3,305 km2. Merced River has been highly altered due to diversions, mechanically dredged mining, and damming. A year of groundwater-surface water interactions were studied to elucidate the hydrological connection between the Main Canal, an unlined canal that contains Merced River water flows parallel to the river with an average elevation of 89m, the highly conductive previously dredged floodplain, and the Merced River with an average elevation of 84m. Upstream of the study reach, located in an undredged portion, of the floodplain are two fish farms that have been operating for approximately 40 years. This study reach has been historically important for salmon spawning and rearing, where more than 50% of the Chinook salmon of the Merced River spawn. Currently salmon restoration is focusing gravel augmentation and adding side channel and ignoring groundwater influences. Exchanges between the hyporheic and surrounding surface, groundwater, riparian, and alluvial floodplain habitats occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Pressure transducers were installed in seven wells and four ponds located in the dredged floodplain. All wells were drilled to the Mehrten Formation, a confining layer, and screened for last 3m. These groundwater well water levels as well as the surface water elevations of the Main Canal and the Merced River were used to determine the direction of sublateral surface flows using Groundwater Vistas as a user interface for MODFLOW. The well and pond waters and seepage from the river banks were sampled for anion/cation, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, and total dissolved iron concentrations to determine water sources and the possibility of suboxic water. Field analysis indicated that water in all wells and ponds exhibit low dissolved oxygen, high conductivity rates, and oxidation/reduction potentials that switched from

  2. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps. The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961–1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3

  3. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

    2008-05-01

    Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3

  4. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Carolina, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    concentrations above the water-quality goal established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include: illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunctioning sanitary sewer ejectors, clogged and leaking sewage pipes, septic tank leakage, unfenced livestock, and runoff from livestock pens. Long-term fecal coliform data at two sampling stations, Quebrada Blasina in Carolina and the Rio Grande de Loiza, downstream from the town of Trujillo Alto, indicate that the sanitary quality of Quebrada Blasina is and has generally been poor for more than a decade. The sanitary quality of the Rio Grande de Loiza has generally been in compliance with the water-quality goal standard fecal coliform concentrations established in July 1990 by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board. Geologic, topographic, soil, hydrogeologic, and streamflow data were used to divide the municipio of Carolina into five hydrogeologic terranes. This integrated database was then used to evaluate the ground-water potential of each hydrogeologic terrane. Analysis suggests that areas with slopes greater than 15 degrees have relatively low ground-water development potential. Fractures may be locally important in enhancing the water-bearing properties in the hydrogeologic terranes containing igneous rocks. Potentiometric-surface elevations recorded in piezometers installed in the coastal area during this study were used to define ground-water flow directions in the hydrogeologic terranes composed of coastal plain clastic and limestone units. The resultant potentiometric map indicates that the coastal plain aquifer and streams in the lowland parts of the municipio of Carolina are hydraulically connected. The potentiometric map also indicates that ground-water discharge to the Rio Grande de Loiza, downstream from highway PR-3, has been enhanced by dredging of the streambed for

  5. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the upper Yakima River Basin, Kittitas County, central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Ely, D. Matthew; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology, hydrology, and geochemistry of groundwater and surface water in the upper (western) 860 square miles of the Yakima River Basin in Kittitas County, Washington, were studied to evaluate the groundwater-flow system, occurrence and availability of groundwater, and the extent of groundwater/surface-water interactions. The study area ranged in altitude from 7,960 feet in its headwaters in the Cascade Range to 1,730 feet at the confluence of the Yakima River with Swauk Creek. A west-to-east precipitation gradient exists in the basin with the western, high-altitude headwaters of the basin receiving more than 100 inches of precipitation per year and the eastern, low-altitude part of the basin receiving about 20 inches of precipitation per year. From the early 20th century onward, reservoirs in the upper part of the basin (for example, Keechelus, Kachess, and Cle Elum Lakes) have been managed to store snowmelt for irrigation in the greater Yakima River Basin. Canals transport water from these reservoirs for irrigation in the study area; additional water use is met through groundwater withdrawals from wells and surface-water withdrawals from streams and rivers. Estimated groundwater use for domestic, commercial, and irrigation purposes is reported for the study area. A complex assemblage of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous bedrock underlies the study area. In a structural basin in the southeastern part of the study area, the bedrock is overlain by unconsolidated sediments of glacial and alluvial origin. Rocks and sediments were grouped into six hydrogeologic units based on their lithologic and hydraulic characteristics. A map of their extent was developed from previous geologic mapping and lithostratigraphic information from drillers’ logs. Water flows through interstitial space in unconsolidated sediments, but largely flows through fractures and other sources of secondary porosity in bedrock. Generalized groundwater-flow directions within the

  6. A web platform for integrated surface water - groundwater modeling and data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatkhutdinov, Aybulat; Stefan, Catalin; Junghanns, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Model-based decision support systems are considered to be reliable and time-efficient tools for resources management in various hydrology related fields. However, searching and acquisition of the required data, preparation of the data sets for simulations as well as post-processing, visualization and publishing of the simulations results often requires significantly more work and time than performing the modeling itself. The purpose of the developed software is to combine data storage facilities, data processing instruments and modeling tools in a single platform which potentially can reduce time required for performing simulations, hence decision making. The system is developed within the INOWAS (Innovative Web Based Decision Support System for Water Sustainability under a Changing Climate) project. The platform integrates spatially distributed catchment scale rainfall - runoff, infiltration and groundwater flow models with data storage, processing and visualization tools. The concept is implemented in a form of a web-GIS application and is build based on free and open source components, including the PostgreSQL database management system, Python programming language for modeling purposes, Mapserver for visualization and publishing the data, Openlayers for building the user interface and others. Configuration of the system allows performing data input, storage, pre- and post-processing and visualization in a single not disturbed workflow. In addition, realization of the decision support system in the form of a web service provides an opportunity to easily retrieve and share data sets as well as results of simulations over the internet, which gives significant advantages for collaborative work on the projects and is able to significantly increase usability of the decision support system.

  7. Nitrate dynamics in agricultural catchments deduced from groundwater dating and long-term nitrate monitoring in surface- and groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, L; Vergnaud-Ayraud, V; Labasque, T; Bour, O; Molénat, J; Ruiz, L; de Montety, V; De Ridder, J; Roques, C; Longuevergne, L

    2012-10-01

    Although nitrate export in agricultural catchments has been simulated using various types of models, the role of groundwater in nitrate dynamics has rarely been fully taken into account. We used groundwater dating methods (CFC analyses) to reconstruct the original nitrate concentrations in the groundwater recharge in Brittany (Western France) from 1950 to 2009. This revealed a sharp increase in nitrate concentrations from 1977 to 1990 followed by a slight decrease. The recharge concentration curve was then compared with past chronicles of groundwater concentration. Groundwater can be interpreted as resulting from the annual dilution of recharge water in an uncontaminated aquifer. Two aquifers were considered: the weathered aquifer and the deeper fractured aquifer. The nitrate concentrations observed in the upper part of the weathered aquifer implied an annual renewal rate of 27 to 33% of the reservoir volume while those in the lower part indicated an annual renewal rate of 2-3%. The concentrations in the deep fractured aquifer showed an annual renewal rate of 0.1%. The river concentration can be simulated by combining these various groundwater reservoirs with the recharge. Winter and summer waters contain i) recharge water, or water from the variably saturated zone with rapid transfer and high nitrate concentrations, and ii) a large contribution (from 35 to 80% in winter and summer, respectively) from the lower part of the aquifer (lower weathered aquifer and deep fractured aquifer). This induces not only a relatively rapid response of the catchment to variations in agricultural pressure, but also a potential inertia which has to be taken into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial and temporal variability of N2O in the surface groundwater: a detailed analysis from a sandy aquifer in northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, C.; Böttcher, J.; Deurer, M.; Duijnisveld, W.; Weymann, D.; Well, R.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of N2O concentrations in surface groundwater is the first step towards upscaling of potential indirect N2O emissions from the scale of localized samples to aquifers. This study aimed to investigate the spatial and the temporal variability of N2O concentrations at different scales in the surface groundwater of a denitrifying aquifer in northern Germany. The spatial variability of N2O concentrations in the surface groundwater was analysed at...

  9. Estimation of groundwater recharge via percolation outputs from a rainfall/runoff model for the Verlorenvlei estuarine system, west coast, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Miller, Jodie; Fleischer, Melanie; de Clercq, Willem

    2018-03-01

    Wetlands are conservation priorities worldwide, due to their high biodiversity and productivity, but are under threat from agricultural and climate change stresses. To improve the water management practices and resource allocation in these complex systems, a modelling approach has been developed to estimate potential recharge for data poor catchments using rainfall data and basic assumptions regarding soil and aquifer properties. The Verlorenvlei estuarine lake (RAMSAR #525) on the west coast of South Africa is a data poor catchment where rainfall records have been supplemented with farmer's rainfall records. The catchment has multiple competing users. To determine the ecological reserve for the wetlands, the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge had to be well constrained using the J2000 rainfall/runoff model. The majority of rainfall occurs in the mountains (±650 mm/yr) and considerably less in the valley (±280 mm/yr). Percolation was modelled as ∼3.6% of rainfall in the driest parts of the catchment, ∼10% of rainfall in the moderately wet parts of the catchment and ∼8.4% but up to 28.9% of rainfall in the wettest parts of the catchment. The model results are representative of rainfall and water level measurements in the catchment, and compare well with water table fluctuation technique, although estimates are dissimilar to previous estimates within the catchment. This is most likely due to the daily timestep nature of the model, in comparison to other yearly average methods. These results go some way in understanding the fact that although most semi-arid catchments have very low yearly recharge estimates, they are still capable of sustaining high biodiversity levels. This demonstrates the importance of incorporating shorter term recharge event modeling for improving recharge estimates.

  10. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  11. Nutrient, metal and microbial loss in surface runoff following treated sludge and dairy cattle slurry application to an Irish grassland soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, D.P. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Healy, M.G. [Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fleming, G.T.A. [Microbiology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Grant, J. [Teagasc, Ashtown, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Wall, D. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Morrison, L. [Earth and Ocean Sciences and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Cormican, M. [School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fenton, O., E-mail: owen.fenton@teagasc.ie [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland)

    2016-01-15

    Treated municipal sewage sludge (“biosolids”) and dairy cattle slurry (DCS) may be applied to agricultural land as an organic fertiliser. This study investigates losses of nutrients in runoff water (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)), metals (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)), and microbial indicators of pollution (total and faecal coliforms) arising from the land application of four types of treated biosolids and DCS to field micro-plots at three time intervals (24, 48, 360 h) after application. Losses from biosolids-amended plots or DCS-amended plots followed a general trend of highest losses occurring during the first rainfall event and reduced losses in the subsequent events. However, with the exception of total and faecal coliforms and some metals (Ni, Cu), the greatest losses were from the DCS-amended plots. For example, average losses over the three rainfall events for dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from DCS-amended plots were 5 and 11.2 mg L{sup −1}, respectively, which were in excess of the losses from the biosolids plots. When compared with slurry treatments, for the parameters monitored biosolids generally do not pose a greater risk in terms of losses along the runoff pathway. This finding has important policy implications, as it shows that concern related to the reuse of biosolids as a soil fertiliser, mainly related to contaminant losses upon land application, may be unfounded. - Highlights: • This study investigated surface runoff of contaminants from biosolids in field plots. • Contaminants investigated were nutrients, metals, microbes and trace elements. • Compared to slurry, biosolids do not pose a greater risk of contaminant losses. • Fears concerning contaminant losses from land applied biosolids may be unfounded.

  12. Perfluorinated compounds in soil, surface water, and groundwater from rural areas in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu; Jiao, Xing-Chun; Gai, Nan; Li, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Guo-Hui; Piao, Hai-Tao; Rao, Zhu; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Little research on perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been conducted in rural areas, although rural PFC sources are less complicated than in urban and industrial areas. To determine the levels and geographical distribution of 17 PFC compounds, samples of soil, surface water, and groundwater were collected from eight rural areas in eastern China. The total PFC concentrations (∑PFCs) in soils ranged from 0.34 to 65.8 ng/g ∑PFCs in surface waters ranged from 7.0 to 489 ng/L and ∑PFCs in groundwater ranged from 5.3 to 615 ng/L. Ratios of perfluorononanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFNA/PFOA), perfluoro-n-butyric acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFBA/PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFHpA/PFOA) in rainwater increased due to the fluorine chemical plants in the surrounding rural and urban areas, suggesting that atmospheric precipitation may carry PFCs and their precursors from the fluorochemical industrial area to the adjacent rural areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A 3-step framework for understanding the added value of surface soil moisture measurements for large-scale runoff prediction via data assimilation - a synthetic study in the Arkansas-Red River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Crow, W. T.; Nijssen, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) plays an important role in runoff generation both by partitioning infiltration and surface runoff during rainfall events and by controlling the rate of subsurface flow during inter-storm periods. Therefore, more accurate SM state estimation in hydrologic models is potentially beneficial for streamflow prediction. Various previous studies have explored the potential of assimilating SM data into hydrologic models for streamflow improvement. These studies have drawn inconsistent conclusions, ranging from significantly improved runoff via SM data assimilation (DA) to limited or degraded runoff. These studies commonly treat the whole assimilation procedure as a black box without separating the contribution of each step in the procedure, making it difficult to attribute the underlying causes of runoff improvement (or the lack thereof). In this study, we decompose the overall DA process into three steps by answering the following questions (3-step framework): 1) how much can assimilation of surface SM measurements improve surface SM state in a hydrologic model? 2) how much does surface SM improvement propagate to deeper layers? 3) How much does (surface and deeper-layer) SM improvement propagate into runoff improvement? A synthetic twin experiment is carried out in the Arkansas-Red River basin ( 600,000 km2) where a synthetic "truth" run, an open-loop run (without DA) and a DA run (where synthetic surface SM measurements are assimilated) are generated. All model runs are performed at 1/8 degree resolution and over a 10-year period using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model at a 3-hourly time step. For the DA run, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method is applied. The updated surface and deeper-layer SM states with DA are compared to the open-loop SM to quantitatively evaluate the first two steps in the framework. To quantify the third step, a set of perfect-state runs are generated where the "true" SM states are directly inserted

  14. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (Sweden)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Kalinowski, Birgitta (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    elevated areas, meteoric recharge has a great influence on the observed hydrochemistry, which is usually characterised by dilute fresh waters of low ionic strength. In lower areas close to the coast, there are indications of ongoing flushing of marine relicts since the area was covered by sea water. At most locations in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, this flushing is more or less completed and concentrations of marine ions may be explained by deposition and anthropogenic sources. As much as 2/3 of the Cl input to the surface system has been estimated to originate from anthropogenic sources as road salt. One important question in the hydrochemical evaluation is whether there are any indications of deep groundwater discharge in the surface system. It can be concluded from observations in shallow groundwater that deep groundwater signatures are present in the Quaternary deposits in potential deep discharge areas beneath lakes and brackish bays. On land, no deep signatures have been detected neither in surface water nor in groundwater, which indicates that shallow meteoric recharge/discharge patterns dominate and that potential regional deep discharge is too dilute to be detected in surface water

  15. Agricultural contamination in soil-groundwater-surface water systems in the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje

    of China’s main agricultural production zones, accounting for about one third of the national grain output. The dominant crop system is a winter wheat and summer maize rotation. Beginning in the 1980s, in an effort to increase agricultural productivity, China’s government heavily promoted the use....... Additionally, nitrate was infiltrating from the surface of the field into the aquifer. Anammox, denitrification, and cation exchange were the suggested dominant removal processes in the soil-surface water-groundwater system examined in this study, which showed a very high nitrogen removal capacity. However......, if the composition of the river water were to change (if, for instance, the ammonium concentration were to decrease) the removal processes in the system would also be altered. Consequently, further monitoring of nitrate pollution is suggested. Regarding pesticides, a literature review and data assessment revealed...

  16. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Kalinowski, Birgitta

    2008-10-01

    elevated areas, meteoric recharge has a great influence on the observed hydrochemistry, which is usually characterised by dilute fresh waters of low ionic strength. In lower areas close to the coast, there are indications of ongoing flushing of marine relicts since the area was covered by sea water. At most locations in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, this flushing is more or less completed and concentrations of marine ions may be explained by deposition and anthropogenic sources. As much as 2/3 of the Cl input to the surface system has been estimated to originate from anthropogenic sources as road salt. One important question in the hydrochemical evaluation is whether there are any indications of deep groundwater discharge in the surface system. It can be concluded from observations in shallow groundwater that deep groundwater signatures are present in the Quaternary deposits in potential deep discharge areas beneath lakes and brackish bays. On land, no deep signatures have been detected neither in surface water nor in groundwater, which indicates that shallow meteoric recharge/discharge patterns dominate and that potential regional deep discharge is too dilute to be detected in surface water

  17. Improving groundwater predictions utilizing seasonal precipitation forecasts from general circulation models forced with sea surface temperature forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanaseer, Naser; Sankarasubramanian, A.; Bales, Jerad

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have found a significant association between climatic variability and basin hydroclimatology, particularly groundwater levels, over the southeast United States. The research reported in this paper evaluates the potential in developing 6-month-ahead groundwater-level forecasts based on the precipitation forecasts from ECHAM 4.5 General Circulation Model Forced with Sea Surface Temperature forecasts. Ten groundwater wells and nine streamgauges from the USGS Groundwater Climate Response Network and Hydro-Climatic Data Network were selected to represent groundwater and surface water flows, respectively, having minimal anthropogenic influences within the Flint River Basin in Georgia, United States. The writers employ two low-dimensional models [principle component regression (PCR) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA)] for predicting groundwater and streamflow at both seasonal and monthly timescales. Three modeling schemes are considered at the beginning of January to predict winter (January, February, and March) and spring (April, May, and June) streamflow and groundwater for the selected sites within the Flint River Basin. The first scheme (model 1) is a null model and is developed using PCR for every streamflow and groundwater site using previous 3-month observations (October, November, and December) available at that particular site as predictors. Modeling schemes 2 and 3 are developed using PCR and CCA, respectively, to evaluate the role of precipitation forecasts in improving monthly and seasonal groundwater predictions. Modeling scheme 3, which employs a CCA approach, is developed for each site by considering observed groundwater levels from nearby sites as predictands. The performance of these three schemes is evaluated using two metrics (correlation coefficient and relative RMS error) by developing groundwater-level forecasts based on leave-five-out cross-validation. Results from the research reported in this paper show that using

  18. Documentation of the Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process for modeling surface-water flow with the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Chartier, Kevin L.; White, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    A flexible Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process that solves the continuity equation for one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface-water flow routing has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater model, MODFLOW-2005. Simple level- and tilted-pool reservoir routing and a diffusive-wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equations have been implemented. Both methods can be implemented in the same model and the solution method can be simplified to represent constant-stage elements that are functionally equivalent to the standard MODFLOW River or Drain Package boundary conditions. A generic approach has been used to represent surface-water features (reaches) and allows implementation of a variety of geometric forms. One-dimensional geometric forms include rectangular, trapezoidal, and irregular cross section reaches to simulate one-dimensional surface-water features, such as canals and streams. Two-dimensional geometric forms include reaches defined using specified stage-volume-area-perimeter (SVAP) tables and reaches covering entire finite-difference grid cells to simulate two-dimensional surface-water features, such as wetlands and lakes. Specified SVAP tables can be used to represent reaches that are smaller than the finite-difference grid cell (for example, isolated lakes), or reaches that cannot be represented accurately using the defined top of the model. Specified lateral flows (which can represent point and distributed flows) and stage-dependent rainfall and evaporation can be applied to each reach. The SWR1 Process can be used with the MODFLOW Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF1) Package to permit dynamic simulation of runoff from the land surface to specified reaches. Surface-water/groundwater interactions in the SWR1 Process are mathematically defined to be a function of the difference between simulated stages and groundwater levels, and the specific form of the reach conductance equation used in each reach. Conductance can be

  19. Sources, pathways, and relative risks of contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a perspective prepared for the Walkerton inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Len; Solomon, Keith; Sibley, Paul; Hall, Ken; Keen, Patricia; Mattu, Gevan; Linton, Beth

    2002-01-11

    initiatives, remediation, monitoring, and management. Our discussion is divided into two primary themes. First we discuss the major sources of contaminants from anthropogenic activities to aquatic surface and groundwater and the pathways along which these contaminants move to become incorporated into drinking water supplies. Second, we assess the health significance of the contaminants reported and identify uncertainties associated with exposures and potential effects. Loading of contaminants to surface waters, groundwater, sediments, and drinking water occurs via two primary routes: (1) point-source pollution and (2) non-point-source pollution. Point-source pollution originates from discrete sources whose inputs into aquatic systems can often be defined in a spatially explicit manner. Examples of point-source pollution include industrial effluents (pulp and paper mills, steel plants, food processing plants), municipal sewage treatment plants and combined sewage-storm-water overflows, resource extraction (mining), and land disposal sites (landfill sites, industrial impoundments). Non-point-source pollution, in contrast, originates from poorly defined, diffuse sources that typically occur over broad geographical scales. Examples of non-point-source pollution include agricultural runoff (pesticides, pathogens, and fertilizers), storm-water and urban runoff, and atmospheric deposition (wet and dry deposition of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and mercury). Within each source, we identify the most important contaminants that have either been demonstrated to pose significant risks to human health and/or aquatic ecosystem integrity, or which are suspected of posing such risks. Examples include nutrients, metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), chlorination by-products, and pharmaceuticals. Due to the significant number of toxic contaminants in the environment, we have necessarily restricted our discussion to those chemicals

  20. Modeling the Surface Water-Groundwater Interaction in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Impacted by Agricultural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In many semi-arid and arid regions, interaction between surface water and groundwater plays an important role in the eco-hydrological system. The interaction is often complicated by agricultural activities such as surface water diversion, groundwater pumping, and irrigation. In existing surface water-groundwater integrated models, simulation of the interaction is often simplified, which could introduce significant simulation uncertainty under certain circumstance. In this study, GSFLOW, a USGS model coupling PRMS and MODFLOW, was improved to better characterize the surface water-groundwater interaction. The practices of water diversion from rivers, groundwater pumping and irrigation are explicitly simulated. In addition, the original kinematic wave routing method was replaced by a dynamic wave routing method. The improved model was then applied in Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe River Baisn), China, where the famous 'Silk Road' came through. It is a typical semi-arid region of the western China, with extensive agriculture in its oasis. The model was established and calibrated using the data in 2000-2008. A series of numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of those improvements. It has been demonstrated that with the improvements, the observed streamflow and groundwater level were better reproduced by the model. The improvements have a significant impact on the simulation of multiple fluxes associated with the interaction, such as groundwater discharge, riverbed seepage, infiltration, etc. Human activities were proved to be key elements of the water cycle in the study area. The study results have important implications to the water resources modeling and management in semi-arid and arid basins.

  1. Response of surface and groundwater on meteorological drought in Topla River catchment, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Vrablikova, Dana; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Slivova, Valeria; Horvat, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Continuously increasing number of drought studies published in scientific journals reflects the attention of the scientific community paid to drought. The fundamental works among many others were published by Yevjevich (1967), Zelenhasic and Salvai (1987), later by Tallaksen and van Lanen Eds. (2004). The aim of the paper was to analyze the response of surface and groundwater to meteorological drought occurrence in the upper and middle part of the Topla River Basin, Slovakia. This catchment belongs to catchments with unfavourable hydrogeological conditions, being built of rocks with quite low permeability. The basin is located in the north-eastern part of Slovakia covering the area of 1050.05 km2. The response was analyzed using precipitation data from the Bardejov station (long-term annual average of 662 mm in 1981 - 2012) and discharge data from two gauging stations - Bardejov and Hanusovce nad Toplou. Data on groundwater head from eight observation wells, located in the catchment, were also used, covering the same observation period. Meteorological drought was estimated using characterisation of the year humidity and SPI index. Hydrological drought was evaluated using the threshold level method and method of sequent peak algorithm, both with the fixed and also variable thresholds. The centroid method of the cluster analysis with the squared Euclidean distance was used for clustering data according to occurrence of drought periods, lasting for 100 days and more. Results of the SPI index showed very good applicability for drought periods identification in the basin. The most pronounced dry periods occurred in 1982 - 1983, 1984, 1998 and 2012 being classified as moderately dry, and also in 1993 - 1994, 2003 - 2004 and 2007 evolving from moderately to severely dry years. Short-term drought prevailed in discharges, only three periods of drought longer than 100 days occurred during the evaluated period in 1986 - 1987, 1997 and 2003 - 2004. Discharge drought in the

  2. Sources of groundwater and characteristics of surface-water recharge at Bell, White, and Suwannee Springs, Florida, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; McBride, W. Scott

    2016-12-21

    Discharge from springs in Florida is sourced from aquifers, such as the Upper Floridan aquifer, which is overlain by an upper confining unit that locally can have properties of an aquifer. Water levels in aquifers are affected by several factors, such as precipitation, recharge, and groundwater withdrawals, which in turn can affect discharge from springs. Therefore, identifying groundwater sources and recharge characteristics can be important in assessing how these factors might affect flows and water levels in springs and can be informative in broader applications such as groundwater modeling. Recharge characteristics include the residence time of water at the surface, apparent age of recharge, and recharge water temperature.The groundwater sources and recharge characteristics of three springs that discharge from the banks of the Suwannee River in northern Florida were assessed for this study: Bell Springs, White Springs, and Suwannee Springs. Sources of groundwater were also assessed for a 150-foot-deep well finished within the Upper Floridan aquifer, hereafter referred to as the UFA well. Water samples were collected for geochemical analyses in November 2012 and October 2013 from the three springs and the UFA well. Samples were analyzed for a suite of major ions, dissolved gases, and isotopes of sulfur, strontium, oxygen, and hydrogen. Daily means of water level and specific conductance at White Springs were continuously recorded from October 2012 through December 2013 by the Suwannee River Water Management District. Suwannee River stage at White Springs was computed on the basis of stage at a U.S. Geological Survey streamgage about 2.4 miles upstream. Water levels in two wells, located about 2.5 miles northwest and 13 miles southeast of White Springs, were also used in the analyses.Major ion concentrations were used to differentiate water from the springs and Upper Floridan aquifer into three groups: Bell Springs, UFA well, and White and Suwannee Springs. When

  3. Perched groundwater-surface interactions and their consequences in stream flow generation in a semi-arid headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenat, Jerome; Bouteffeha, Maroua; Raclot, Damien; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2013-04-01

    In semi-arid headwater catchment, it is usually admitted that stream flow comes predominantly from Hortonian overland flow (infiltration excess overland flow). Consequently, subsurface flow processes, and especially perched or shallow groundwater flow, have not been studied extensively. Here we made the assumption that perched groundwater flow could play a significant role in stream flow generation in semi-arid catchment. To test this assumption, we analyzed stream flow time series of a headwater catchment in the Tunisian Cap Bon region and quantified the flow fraction coming from groundwater discharge and that from overland flow. Furthermore, the dynamics of the perched groundwater was analyzed, by focusing on the different perched groundwater-surface interaction processes : diffuse and local infiltration, diffuse exfiltration, and direct groundwater discharge to the stream channel. This work is based on the 2.6 km² Kamech catchment (Tunisia), which belongs to the long term Mediterranean hydrological observatory OMERE (Voltz and Albergel, 2002). Results show that even though Hortonian overland flow was the main hydrological process governing the stream flow generation, groundwater discharge contribution to the stream channel annually accounted for from 10% to 20 % depending on the year. Furthermore, at some periods, rising of groundwater table to the soil surface in bottom land areas provided evidences of the occurrence of saturation excess overland flow processes during some storm events. Reference Voltz , M. and Albergel , J., 2002. OMERE : Observatoire Méditerranéen de l'Environnement Rural et de l'Eau - Impact des actions anthropiques sur les transferts de masse dans les hydrosystèmes méditerranéens ruraux. Proposition d'Observatoire de Recherche en Environnement, Ministère de la Recherche.

  4. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model for total coliforms and E. coli in surface runoff following application of biosolids to grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Rachel; Peyton, Dara; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Cummins, Enda

    2017-05-01

    In Ireland, the land application of biosolids is the preferred option of disposing of municipal sewage waste. Biosolids provide nutrients in the form of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and increases organic matter. It is also an economic way for a country to dispose of its municipal waste. However, biosolids may potentially contain a wide range of pathogens, and following rainfall events, may be transported in surface runoff and pose a potential risk to human health. Thus, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed to estimate potential pathogens in surface water and the environmental fate of the pathogens following dilution, residence time in a stream, die-off rate, drinking water treatment and human exposure. Surface runoff water quality data was provided by project partners. Three types of biosolids, anaerobically digested (AD), lime stabilised (LS), and thermally dried (TD)) were applied on micro plots. Rainfall was simulated at three time intervals (24, 48 and 360 h) following land application. It was assumed that this water entered a nearby stream and was directly abstracted for drinking water. Consumption data for drinking water and body weight was obtained from an Irish study and assigned distributions. Two dose response models for probability of illness were considered for total and faecal coliform exposure incorporating two different exposure scenarios (healthy populations and immuno-compromised populations). The simulated annual risk of illness for healthy populations was below the US EPA and World Health Organisation tolerable level of risk (10 -4 and 10 -6 , respectively). However, immuno-compromised populations may still be at risk as levels were greater than the tolerable level of risk for that subpopulation. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of residence time in a stream on the bacterial die-off rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ground Surface Deformation around Tehran due to Groundwater Recharge: InSAR Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Peyret, M.; Fritz, J. F.; Cherry, J.

    2003-04-01

    Tehran is located on an active tectonic and seismic zone. The surface deformation monitoring provides a powerful tool for getting a better understanding of faults kinematics and mechanisms. Used in conjunction with GPS networks, InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) provides dense and precise deformation measurements which are essential for mapping complex heterogeneous deformation fields. Moreover, urban and arid areas preserve interferometric phase coherence. The archived acquisitions of ERS that span 9 months between September 1998 and June 1999 reveal wide areas of surface uplift (by as much as 9 cm). This vertical deformation (gradual in time) has probably no tectonic meaning but is rather the ground response to ground water recharge. These zones are all located dowstream of large alluvial fans like the one of Karaj. The variation of effective stress caused by intersticial water draining could explain such surface deformation. It can also be noticed that some faults act as boundary for these deformation zones and fluid motion. The understanding of this deformation is relevant for groundwater monitoring and urban developement management. It is also necessary for discriminating it from tectonic deformation that also occurs on this zone. Due to the lack of attitude control of satellite ERS-2 since February 2001, the last images acquired could not be combined with the former acquisitions. Nevertheless, we expect to be able to enrich our set of images in order to map tectonic deformation on a longer period and to monitor in a more continuous way the deformation due to groundwater evolution. This would allow to quantify the permanent and reversible part of this signal.

  6. Occurrence of perchloroethylene in surface water and fish in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlingerová, Zdena; Macháčková, Jiřina; Petruželková, Anna; Zimová, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Long-term monitoring of the content of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination was performed at a site in the Czech Republic. The quality of surface water was monitored quarterly between 1994 and 2013, and fish were collected from the affected ecosystem to analyse the content of PCE in their tissue in 1998, 2011 and 2012. Concentrations of PCE (9-140 μg/kg) in the tissue of fish collected from the contaminated part of the river were elevated compared to the part of the river unaffected by the contamination (ND to 5 μg/kg PCE). The quality of surface water has improved as a result of groundwater remediation during the evaluated period. Before the remedial action, PCE concentrations ranged from 30 to 95 μg/L (1994-1997). Following commencement of remedial activities in September 1997, a decrease in the content of PCE in the surface water to 7.3 μg/L (1998) and further to 1 μg/L (2011) and 1.1 μg/L (2012) led to a progressive decrease in the average concentration of PCE in the fish muscle tissue from 79 μg/kg (1998) to 24 (2011) and 30 μg/kg (2012), respectively. It was determined that the bioconcentration of PCE does not have a linear dependence because the decrease in contamination in the fish muscle tissue is not directly proportional to the decrease in contamination in the river water. The observed average bioconcentration factors were 24 and 28 for the lower concentrations of PCE and 11 for the higher concentrations of PCE in the river. In terms of age, length and weight of the collected fish, weight had the greatest significance for bioconcentration, followed by the length, with age being evaluated as a less significant factor.

  7. Arsenic Removal from Natural Groundwater by Electrocoagulation Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. García-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of natural groundwater by arsenic (As is a serious problem that appears in some areas of Northern Central Mexico (NCM. In this research, As was removed from NCM wells groundwater by the electrocoagulation (EC technique. Laboratory-scale arsenic electroremoval experiments were carried out at continuous flow rates between 0.25 and 1.00 L min−1 using current densities of 5, 10, and 20 A m−2. Experiments were performed under galvanostatic conditions during 5 min, at constant temperature and pH. The response surface methodology (RSM was used for the optimization of the processing variables (flow rate and current density, response modeling, and predictions. The highest arsenic removal efficiency from underground water (99% was achieved at low flow rates (0.25 L min−1 and high current densities (20 A m−2. The response models developed explained 93.7% variability for As removal efficiency.

  8. Surface-Water, Water-Quality, and Ground-Water Assessment of the Municipio of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Oliveras-Feliciano, Mario L.

    2004-01-01

    The surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers, because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated at one continuous-record gaging station based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency curves. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for 20 partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics for the continuous- and partial-record stations were estimated using the relation curves developed for the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land use, water-use, and climatic conditions. A survey of streams and rivers utilized 37 sampling stations to evaluate the sanitary quality of about 165 miles of stream channels. River and stream samples for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus analyses were collected on two occasions at base-flow conditions. Bacteriological analyses indicate that a significant portion of the stream reaches within the municipio of Mayaguez may have fecal coliform bacteria concentrations above the water-quality goal (standard) established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include: illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunctioning sanitary sewer ejectors, clogged and leaking sewage pipes, septic tank leakage, unfenced livestock, and runoff from livestock pens. Long-term fecal coliform data from five sampling stations located within or in the vicinity of the municipio of Mayaguez have been in compliance with the water-quality goal for fecal coliform concentration established in July 1990. Geologic, topographic, soil, hydrogeologic, and streamflow data were compiled into a database and used to divide the municipio of Mayaguez into

  9. Human health risk assessment of dissolved metals in groundwater and surface waters in the Melen watershed, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Ahmet; Sengörür, Bülent; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Determination of metal risk levels in potable water and their effects on human health are vital in assessment of water resources. Risk assessment of metals to human health in a watershed, which has not been studied before, is the main objective of the present study. Surface and groundwater sampling was carried out between September 2010 and August 2011 in the Melen Watershed, Turkey, an important drinking water resource for millions of people. Metals were analyzed in the laboratory using inductively coupled plasma. Of the 26 different metals monitored, Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and V were found in surface water and As, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, V and Zn in groundwater. In groundwater, unitless hazard quotient (HQ) values were 6 for As, 2.7 for Mn and 1 for Zn, while in surface water all metals were below the risk level (HQ groundwater. The As carcinogenic risk (CR) value was higher than the internationally accepted risk level (10(-4)) and with maximum ingestion of groundwater the carcinogenic risk was found to be higher in adults than children. These results show that even unpolluted watersheds can pose a risk to human health and that potential carcinogenic impacts should receive more attention.

  10. Drivers and Effects of Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction in the Karstic Lower Flint River Basin, Southwestern Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugel, K.; Golladay, S. W.; Jackson, C. R.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Dowd, J. F.; Mcdowell, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater provides the majority of global water resources for domestic and agricultural usage while contributing vital surface water baseflows which support healthy aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the extent and magnitude of hydrologic connectivity between groundwater and surface water components in karst watersheds is essential to the prudent management of these hydraulically-interactive systems. We examined groundwater and surface water connectivity between the Upper Floridan Aquifer (UFA) and streams in the Lower Flint River Basin (LFRB) in southwestern Georgia where development of agricultural irrigation intensified over the past 30 years. An analysis of USGS streamflow data for the pre- and post-irrigation period showed summer baseflows in some Lower Flint River tributaries were reduced by an order of magnitude in the post-irrigation period, reiterating the strong hydraulic connection between these streams and the underlying aquifer. Large and fine-scale monitoring of calcium, nitrate, specific conductance and stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) on 50 km of Ichawaynochaway Creek, a major tributary of the Lower Flint, detected discrete groundwater-surface water flow paths which accounted for 42% of total groundwater contributions in the 50 km study reach. This presentation will highlight a new analysis using the metadata EPA Reach File (1) and comparing stream reach and instream bedrock joint azimuths with stream geochemical results from previous field study. Our findings suggested that reaches with NNW bearing may be more likely to display enhanced groundwater-surface water connectivity. Our results show that local heterogeneity can significantly affect water budgets and quality within these watersheds, making the use of geomorphological stream attributes a valuable tool to water resource management for the prediction and protection of vulnerable regions of hydrologic connectivity in karst catchments.

  11. The assessment of the required groundwater quantity for the conservation of ecosystems and the achievement of a good ecological status of surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Janža

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the available quantity of groundwater is of essential importance for its sustainable use. Modern approaches for estimation of groundwater availability take into account all potential impacts of abstractions, including impacts on groundwater dependent ecosystems and impacts on surface waters ecological status. Groundwater body is in good quantitative status if groundwater abstractions do not cause signifiant damages to groundwater dependent ecosystems and signifiant diminution in the ecological status of surface water bodies. The methodology presented in this paper was developed as an integral part of the assessment of the quantitative status of groundwater bodies in Slovenia and is tailored to the characteristics of the groundwater dependent ecosystems as well as hydrological and hydrogeological conditions in the Slovenian territory. Two different approaches were implemented; for forest habitats on alluvial aquifers, and habitats of amphibians and molluscs in karst areas. Estimates of the required quantity of groundwater for groundwater dependent ecosystems conservation were performed at the level of groundwater bodies and annual averages of temporal variables of the water balance, calculated with the regional water balance model GROWA-SI. In the areas of groundwater bodies with groundwater dependent ecosystems estimated quantity present 0.1 % - 12.4 % of the groundwater recharge. The estimated share of annual renewable quantity of groundwater to maintain the ecological status of surface waters for the entire territory of Slovenia is 23.2 %. The largest share, 30 % is in north-eastern Slovenia and the lowest in the north-west part of Slovenia with a 16.6 % average annual renewable quantity.

  12. Development of a portable membrane contactor sampler for noble gas analyses of surface and groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.; Han, L. H.; Jaklitsh, M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2012-04-01

    Noble gas isotopes dissolved in groundwater provide valuable information about climatic conditions during air-water exchange, as well as the residence time of groundwater and its renewal rate. The isotope composition of noble gases can also serve as geochemical fingerprints to decipher the origin of groundwater and its flow system. Conventionally, groundwater is sampled using a copper tube, which is subsequently degassed using a vacuum extraction system for isotope analysis by a mass spectrometer. Although this conventional and well-established way of sampling is widely recognised as being reliable and robust, a major drawback to this method is its size and weight. For example, our sampler consists of a copper tube of 10 mm diameter x 1000 mm length and a metal casing with pinch-off clamps with its total weight to be 2 kg each. A box of 24 samplers well exceeds 40 kg. Considering that sampling fields are not necessarily easily accessible by vehicle, taking hundreds of samples in the field is generally a tough task for everyone. There is a different type of sampler, which is comprised of a much smaller copper tube (6 mm in diameter and 100 mm long for our case) with clamps and a semi-permeable membrane filter. It is sunk into water and left there for dissolved gases to diffuse into the sampler until their concentrations in water become equilibrated with those in the tube. This diffusion sampler is small and easy to handle in the field; it has an advantage over conventional copper tubes, as the diffusion sampler collects gases so that there is no gas extraction process needed before isotope analysis. However, this method requires an equilibration time of 24 hours or more, which could result in lower time-efficiency for sampling work. In order to enable time-efficient and less-painstaking sampling of noble gases dissolved in surface and groundwater, we have developed a portable and self-powered sampling device specified to noble gas analysis by mass spectrometer

  13. Characterization of Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in the Lower Tano River Basin Using Statistical and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjah, Adwoba; Stenni, Barbara; Cozzi, Giulio; Turetta, Clara; Dreossi, Giuliano; Tetteh Akiti, Thomas; Yidana, Sandow

    2017-04-01

    Adwoba Kua- Manza Edjaha, Barbara Stennib,c,Giuliano Dreossib, Giulio Cozzic, Clara Turetta c,T.T Akitid ,Sandow Yidanae a,eDepartment of Earth Science, University of Ghana Legon, Ghana West Africa bDepartment of Enviromental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca Foscari University of Venice, Italy cInstitute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes, CNR, Venice, Italy dDepartment of Nuclear Application and Techniques, Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences University of Ghana Legon This research is part of a PhD research work "Hydrogeological Assessment of the Lower Tano river basin for sustainable economic usage, Ghana, West - Africa". In this study, the researcher investigated surface water and groundwater quality in the Lower Tano river basin. This assessment was based on some selected sampling sites associated with mining activities, and the development of oil and gas. Statistical approach was applied to characterize the quality of surface water and groundwater. Also, water stable isotopes, which is a natural tracer of the hydrological cycle was used to investigate the origin of groundwater recharge in the basin. The study revealed that Pb and Ni values of the surface water and groundwater samples exceeded the WHO standards for drinking water. In addition, water quality index (WQI), based on physicochemical parameters(EC, TDS, pH) and major ions(Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, HCO3-,NO3-, CL-, SO42-, K+) exhibited good quality water for 60% of the sampled surface water and groundwater. Other statistical techniques, such as Heavy metal pollution index (HPI), degree of contamination (Cd), and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI), based on trace element parameters in the water samples, reveal that 90% of the surface water and groundwater samples belong to high level of pollution. Principal component analysis (PCA) also suggests that the water quality in the basin is likely affected by rock - water interaction and anthropogenic activities (sea water intrusion). This

  14. Evaluation of drought impact on groundwater recharge rate using SWAT and Hydrus models on an agricultural island in western Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Clarifying the variations of groundwater recharge response to a changing non-stationary hydrological process is important for efficiently managing groundwater resources, particularly in regions with limited precipitation that face the risk of water shortage. However, the rate of aquifer recharge is difficult to evaluate in terms of large annual-variations and frequency of flood events. In our research, we attempt to simulate related groundwater recharge processes under variable climate conditions using the SWAT Model, and validate the groundwater recharge using the Hydrus Model. The results show that annual average groundwater recharge comprised approximately 33% of total precipitation, however, larger variation was found for groundwater recharge and surface runoff compared to evapotranspiration, which fluctuated with annual precipitation variations. The annual variation of groundwater resources is shown to be related to precipitation. In spatial variations, the upstream is the main surface water discharge area; the middle and downstream areas are the main groundwater recharge areas. Validation by the Hydrus Model shows that the estimated and simulated groundwater levels are consistent in our research area. The groundwater level shows a quick response to the groundwater recharge rate. The rainfall intensity had a great impact on the changes of the groundwater level. Consequently, it was estimated that large spatial and temporal variation of the groundwater recharge rate would be affected by precipitation uncertainty in future.

  15. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  16. Definition of groundwater recharge and discharge zones through surface indicators: Centre-South of the Mesa Central, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Andrea Peñuela Arévalo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the delimitation of groundwater recharge and discharge zones in the centresouth portion of the Mesa Central. This was achieved using groundwater flow systems theory, which has proved to be a valuable tool since it considers a systemic perspective of the environment, integrating several natural elements. There are various physical, chemical and biological processes generated in the subsoil within which groundwater is incorporated. This involvement is caused by the natural gravitational movement of groundwater which is manifested on the surface by contrasting evidences in the recharge and discharge zones. Therefore, the objective of this paper includes the demonstration of the usefulness of the analysis of those indicators to locate priority areas and also provides an approximation of groundwater functioning. The definition of recharge and discharge zones included the analysis of maps describing soil type, vegetation, topographic elevation, groundwater flowpath direction, springs, and presence of natural water bodies. Such analysis was carried out through the overlaying tool of ArcMap™ software. The results suggest that the highlands of Fría, San Miguelito and Santa Bárbara as recharge zones. Natural discharge zones were originally present in the plain of the Aguascalientes tectonic depression, and some flat and topographic low zones in the vicinity of Altos de Jalisco, Santa María del Río and Ojuelos.

  17. Using radon-222 to study coastal groundwater/surface-water interaction in the Crau coastal aquifer (southeastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Adriano; Nguyen, Bach Thao; Banton, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Radon has been used to determine groundwater velocity and groundwater discharge into wetlands at the southern downstream boundary of the Crau aquifer, southeastern France. This aquifer constitutes an important high-quality freshwater resource exploited for agriculture, industry and human consumption. An increase in salinity occurs close to the sea, highlighting the need to investigate the water balance and groundwater behavior. Darcy velocity was estimated using radon activities in well waters according to the Hamada "single-well method" (involving comparison with radon in groundwater in the aquifer itself). Measurements done at three depths (7, 15 and 21 m) provided velocity ranging from a few mm/day to more than 20 cm/day, with highest velocities observed at the 15-m depth. Resulting hydraulic conductivities agree with the known geology. Waters showing high radon activity and high salinity were found near the presumed shoreline at 3,000 years BP, highlighting the presence of ancient saltwater. Radon activity has also been measured in canals, rivers and ponds, to trace groundwater discharges and evaluate water balance. A model of the radon spatial evolution explains the observed radon activities. Groundwater discharge to surface water is low in pond waters (4 % of total inputs) but significant in canals (55 l/m2/day).

  18. Assessment of groundwater/surface-water interaction and simulation of potential streamflow depletion induced by groundwater withdrawal, Uinta River near Roosevelt, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, P.M.; Marston, T.; Kimball, B.A.; Stolp, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Roosevelt City, Utah, asserts a need for an additional supply of water to meet municipal demands and has identified a potential location for additional groundwater development at the Sprouse well field near the West Channel of the Uinta River. Groundwater is commonly hydraulically linked to surface water and, under some conditions, the pumpage of groundwater can deplete water in streams and other water bodies. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Roosevelt City, the Utah Department of Natural Resources, and the Ute Indian Tribe, began a study to improve understanding of the local interconnection between groundwater and surface water and to assess the potential for streamflow depletion from future groundwater withdrawals at a potential Roosevelt City development location—the Sprouse well field near the West Channel of the Uinta River.In the study, streamflow gains and losses at the river/aquifer boundary near the well field and changes in those conditions over time were assessed through (1) synoptic measurement of discharge in the stream at multiple sites using tracer-dilution methods, (2) periodic measurement of the vertical hydraulic gradient across the streambed, and (3) continuous measurement of stream and streambed water temperature using heat as a tracer of flow across the streambed. Although some contradictions among the results of the three assessment methods were observed, results of the approaches generally indicated (1) losing streamflow conditions on the West Channel of the Uinta River north of and upstream from the Sprouse well field within the study area, (2) gaining streamflow conditions south of and downstream from the well field, and (3) some seasonal changes in those conditions that correspond with seasonal changes in stream stage and local water-table altitudes.A numerical groundwater flow model was developed on the basis of previously reported observations and observations made during this study, and was used to estimate

  19. Variability of pesticides and nitrates concentrations along a river transect: chemical and isotopic evidence of groundwater - surface water interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Saplairoles, Maritxu

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality is increasingly monitored in Europe where various levels of nitrate and pesticide and/or metabolite contamination have been demonstrated (Loos et al., 2010, Stuart et al., 2012). The Groundwater Daughter Directive (2006/118/EC) to Water Framework Directive (WFD) particularly requires measures to prevent or limit inputs of pollutants into groundwater and compliance with good chemical status criteria (based on EU standards of nitrate and pesticides). The WFD mentioned the need to protect groundwater but also to have a particular regard to its impact and interrelationship with associated surface waters and directly dependent terrestrial Ecosystems. The Ariège river basin (SW France - 538 km²) is an alluvial plain under high agricultural pressure leading to a contamination of the aquifer by several pesticides and metabolites (Amalric et al., 2013). The Crieu is an allochtone river, crossing the plain (~ 10 km length) before joining the Ariège River. The Crieu is often dry in its middle section suggesting water leakage from surface water towards groundwater. At the opposite, the permanent flow observed downstream suggests an input of groundwater into surface water. In May 2014, while the Crieu flow was continuous through the plain, 7 river samples were collected and analyzed for pesticides, major ions, strontium concentration and isotopes. In situ measurements of electric conductivity were also performed as well as flow gauging. Two groundwaters close to the river were also sampled. The flow gauging measurements show a decreasing river discharge in the central area of the Crieu River, suggesting surface water leakage towards groundwater. Nevertheless, the electric conductivity increases along the river flow as well as some pesticides and nitrates concentrations. This chemical evolution of the river water is thus inconsistent with a simple water infiltration and another source of dissolved solutes is required to explain the increased of

  20. Occurrence of molybdenum in British surface water and groundwater: Distributions, controls and implications for water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, P.L.; Cooper, D.M.; Ander, E.L.; Milne, C.J.; Lapworth, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mo concentrations in British surface water and groundwater are typically low: <2 μg/L. • Urban/industry contamination can increase concentrations above WHO health-based value. • Highest concentrations are consistent with release by oxidation of sulphides. • Highs in mildly reducing groundwaters are consistent with release from metal oxides. • Mo in water is unlikely to pose a major problem for the British water supply industry. - Abstract: Data for Mo in British surface water and groundwater collated from a number of databases show that concentrations are in most cases low, of the order of 2 μg/L or less. However, variability is large and sporadic high values are found in both streamwaters and groundwaters. Data for some 11,600 British streamwater samples indicate a 10–90th percentile range of 0.08–2.44 μg/L with a median of 0.57 μg/L and maximum observation of 230 μg/L. High values tend to be from streams on clay-rich formations and sulphide-mineralised bedrock and streams affected by localised urban and industrial contamination. Monitored lowland river waters also typically have median concentrations <1 μg/L although higher values are present in a number of urban/industrialised English rivers. Highest observed concentrations (median 20 μg/L), occur under low-flow conditions in a river system from an urban, industrial area of NE England and are likely the products of industrial contamination and mine drainage. Concentrations in 96 upland lakewater samples from NW England are universally 0.1 μg/L or less. Data for 1735 groundwater samples from across Britain have a 10–90th percentile range for Mo of 0.035–1.80 μg/L with a median of 0.20 μg/L and maximum observation of 89 μg/L. Relatively high values derive from some Lower Cretaceous greensand, Carboniferous limestone and mudstone (Coal Measures) aquifers, particularly under anaerobic conditions. Release from Fe oxides and possibly Mn oxides by reductive dissolution is a

  1. Overflow and microbiological contamination in surface and groundwaters in La Costa city (Canelones department, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmisolle, J.; Goso Aguilar, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the results of a geological risk study made during 2005 related to overflow and microbiological water contamination at Ciudad de la Costa City (Canelones department) are shown. This city has been showed a great urban growth for the last three decades. New hydrogeological studies looking forward the phreatic level and its bacteriological quality allow to know the level of the risk along 2005´s first semester. The top of the phreatic table in 40% of the studied area is below than 0.50 meter depth. The results of fourteen bacteriologic analyses in groundwater samples show extreme contamination values in faecal colliform, Pseudomona sp. and Aeruginosa content. Both surface drainage and beach water bacteriologic analyses did not show contamination values except those corresponding to Carrasco creek

  2. Important radionuclides and their sensitivity for groundwater pathway of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Chang, K.; Kim, C. L. [Nuclear Enviroment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    A radiological safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical near-surface radioactive waste repository as a simple screening calculation to identify important nuclides and to provide insights on the data needs for a successful demonstration of compliance. Individual effective doses were calculated for a conservative groundwater pathway scenario considering well drilling near the site boundary. Sensitivity of resulting ingestion dose to input parameter values was also analyzed using Monte Carlo sampling. Considering peak dose rate and assessment timescale, C-14 and I-129 were identified as important nuclides and U-235 and U-238 as potentially important nuclides. For C-14, the does was most sensitive to Darcy velocity in aquifer. The distribution coefficient showed high degree of sensitivity for I-129 release.

  3. Important radionuclides and their sensitivity for groundwater pathway of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Chang, K.; Kim, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    A radiological safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical near-surface radioactive waste repository as a simple screening calculation to identify important nuclides and to provide insights on the data needs for a successful demonstration of compliance. Individual effective doses were calculated for a conservative groundwater pathway scenario considering well drilling near the site boundary. Sensitivity of resulting ingestion dose to input parameter values was also analyzed using Monte Carlo sampling. Considering peak dose rate and assessment timescale, C-14 and I-129 were identified as important nuclides and U-235 and U-238 as potentially important nuclides. For C-14, the does was most sensitive to Darcy velocity in aquifer. The distribution coefficient showed high degree of sensitivity for I-129 release

  4. Fate of Uranium During Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-30

    Discharge of contaminated groundwater to surface waters is of concern at many DOE facilities. For example, at F-Area and TNX-Area on the Savannah River Site, contaminated groundwater, including uranium, is already discharging into natural wetlands. It is at this interface where contaminants come into contact with the biosphere. These this research addressed a critical knowledge gap focusing on the geochemistry of uranium (or for that matter, any redox-active contaminant) in wetland systems. Understanding the interactions between hydrological, microbial, and chemical processes will make it possible to provide a more accurate conceptual and quantitative understanding of radionuclide fate and transport under these unique conditions. Understanding these processes will permit better long-term management and the necessary technical justification for invoking Monitored Natural Attenuation of contaminated wetland areas. Specifically, this research did provide new insights on how plant-induced alterations to the sediment biogeochemical processes affect the key uranium reducing microorganisms, the uranium reduction, its spatial distribution, the speciation of the immobilized uranium, and its long-term stability. This was achieved by conducting laboratory mesocosm wetland experiments as well as field measurements at the SRNL. Results have shown that uranium can be immobilized in wetland systems. To a degree some of the soluble U(VI) was reduced to insoluble U(IV), but the majority of the immobilized U was incorporated into iron oxyhydroxides that precipitated onto the root surfaces of wetland plants. This U was immobilized mostly as U(VI). Because it was immobilized in its oxidized form, results showed that dry spells, resulting in the lowering of the water table and the exposure of the U to oxic conditions, did not result in U remobilization.

  5. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  6. Impact of water diversion on the hydrogeochemical characterization of surface water and groundwater in the Yellow River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Qiuying; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Tu, Chun; Ouyang, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the response of different ecosystems to the water diversion. • We characterized the interaction between surface water and groundwater. • We use the Piper and HFE-D to illustrate the salinization process. - Abstract: The Yellow River Delta is undergoing severe ecosystem degradation through salinization caused mainly by seawater intrusion. The Yellow River diversion project, in operation since 2008, aims to mitigate a projected ecosystem disaster. We conducted field investigations across three ecosystems (Farmland, Wetland and Coast) in the delta to assess the effectiveness of the annual water pulse and determine the relationships between surface water and groundwater. The chemical characteristics of the groundwater in Farmland exclude the possibility of seawater intrusion. The Wetland is vulnerable to pollution by groundwater discharge from Farmland and to secondary salinization caused by rising water tables. The salinity values of groundwater at Coast sites likely reflect the presence of seawater trapped in the clay sediments, a premise corroborated through measurements of groundwater levels, stable isotopes and major ion signatures. Our δD–δ 18 O two-dimensional graphic plot demonstrated that groundwaters of Farmland and Wetland changed toward more depleted isotopic compositions following water diversion, but this was not the case in the Coast sites, where the water table varied little year-round. A hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D) demonstrated that freshening is taking place in the largest portions of the aquifers and that, without sustained water diversion recharge, these underground water bodies may switch from freshening to salinization on a seasonal time scale. Thus, the qualities of waters in coastal aquifers in the Yellow River Delta are substantially influenced by the process of ecological water diversion, and also by land use practices and by the lithological properties of the drainage landscape

  7. ArcNLET: A GIS-based software to simulate groundwater nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, J. Fernando; Ye, Ming; Wang, Liying; Lee, Paul Z.; Davis, Hal; Hicks, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, can be a significant source of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. The adverse effects that nitrates have on human and environmental health have given rise to the need to estimate the actual or potential level of nitrate contamination. With the goal of reducing data collection and preparation costs, and decreasing the time required to produce an estimate compared to complex nitrate modeling tools, we developed the ArcGIS-based Nitrate Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET) software. Leveraging the power of geographic information systems (GIS), ArcNLET is an easy-to-use software capable of simulating nitrate transport in groundwater and estimating long-term nitrate loads from groundwater to surface water bodies. Data requirements are reduced by using simplified models of groundwater flow and nitrate transport which consider nitrate attenuation mechanisms (subsurface dispersion and denitrification) as well as spatial variability in the hydraulic parameters and septic tank distribution. ArcNLET provides a spatial distribution of nitrate plumes from multiple septic systems and a load estimate to water bodies. ArcNLET's conceptual model is divided into three sub-models: a groundwater flow model, a nitrate transport and fate model, and a load estimation model which are implemented as an extension to ArcGIS. The groundwater flow model uses a map of topography in order to generate a steady-state approximation of the water table. In a validation study, this approximation was found to correlate well with a water table produced by a calibrated numerical model although it was found that the degree to which the water table resembles the topography can vary greatly across the modeling domain. The transport model uses a semi-analytical solution to estimate the distribution of nitrate within groundwater, which is then used to estimate a nitrate load using a mass balance argument. The estimates given by ArcNLET are

  8. Assessment of hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopes of surface and groundwaters in the Kütahya Plain, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi Berhe, Berihu; Erdem Dokuz, Uğur; Çelik, Mehmet

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine the geochemical processes that control the nature of the groundwater and assess the quality of water for drinking and public health purposes. Surface and groundwater samples of Kütahya plain were analyzed for their physio-chemical and environmental isotope properties. The relative concentrations of the water ions were found to occur in the order of Ca2+>Mg2+>(K+ + Na+) and HCO3->SO42->Cl-. Piper diagram shows that Ca-Mg/Mg-Ca-HCO3 was the dominant water types. Waters in the area were super-saturated with respect to carbonates. However, they were under-saturated with respect to sulphate minerals. The groundwaters had a mean isotopic composition of -67.32 δ2H and -9.72 δ18O and were comparatively lower than surface waters -64.64 δ2H and -9.25 δ18O. Tritium activities in groundwater from the wells ranged from 1.00 to 8.38 TU with a mean value of 4.37 TU. The impact of agricultural practices and poor sanitation conditions is indicated by the positive correlation between K+ - NO3-, K+- NO2- and HCO3- - Cl- ions as well as Na+ and Mg2+ ions with SO42-ion. The groundwater quality of Kütahya plain is influenced by various natural and anthropogenic factors.

  9. Radionuclides as natural tracers of the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the River Andarax, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Martinez, Francisco; Salas Garcia, Alejandro; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Baeza Espasa, Antonio; Molina Sánchez, Luis; Rodríguez Perulero, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The identification of specific aquifers that supply water to river systems is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the rivers' hydrochemistry, particularly in arid and semiarid environments where river flow may be discontinuous. There are multiple methods to identify the source of river water. In this study of the River Andarax, in the Southeast of Spain, an analysis of natural tracers (physico-chemical parameters, uranium, radium and radon) in surface water and groundwater indicates that chemical parameters and uranium clearly identify the areas where there is groundwater-surface water interaction. The concentration of uranium found in the river defines two areas: the headwaters with U concentrations of 2 μg L -1 and the lower reaches, with U of 6 μg L -1 . Furthermore, variation in the 234 U/ 238 U isotopic ratio allowed us to detect the influence that groundwater from the carbonate aquifer has on surface water in the headwaters of the river, where the saline content is lower and the water has a calcium bicarbonate facies. The concentration of 226 Ra and 222 Rn are low in the surface waters: water has a permanent flow, greater salinity and a calcium-magnesium-sulphate facies. All this is favoured by the influence of groundwater from the detritic aquifer on the surface waters. The results of this study indicate the utility in the use of physico-chemical and radiological data conjointly as tracers of groundwater-surface water interaction in semiarid areas where the lithology of aquifers is diverse (carbonate and detritic) and where evaporitic rocks are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of low-impact-development (LID) practices on streamflow, runoff quantity, and runoff quality in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts-A Summary of field and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Sorenson, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    Low-impact-development (LID) approaches are intended to create, retain, or restore natural hydrologic and water-quality conditions that may be affected by human alterations. Wide-scale implementation of LID techniques may offer the possibility of improving conditions in river basins, such as the Ipswich River Basin in Massachusetts, that have run dry during the summer because of groundwater withdrawals and drought. From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative funding agreement with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, monitored small-scale installations of LID enhancements designed to diminish the effects of storm runoff on the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Funding for the studies also was contributed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Targeted Watersheds Grant Program through a financial assistance agreement with Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. The monitoring studies examined the effects of * replacing an impervious parking-lot surface with a porous surface on groundwater quality, * installing rain gardens and porous pavement in a neighborhood of 3 acres on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, and * installing a 3,000-ft2 (square-foot) green roof on the quantity and quality of rainfall-generated roof runoff. In addition to these small-scale installations, the U.S. Geological Survey's Ipswich River Basin model was used to simulate the basin-wide effects on streamflow of several changes: broad-scale implementation of LID techniques, reduced water-supply withdrawals, and water-conservation measures. Water-supply and conservation scenarios for application in model simulations were developed with the assistance of two technical advisory committees that included representatives of State agencies responsible for water resources, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, water suppliers, and non-governmental organizations. From June

  11. Water quality responses to the interaction between surface water and groundwater along the Songhua River, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yanguo; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Jieqiong; Wang, Jinsheng; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Zhu, Chen

    2018-03-01

    Investigation of surface water and groundwater interaction (SW-GW interaction) provides basic information for regional water-resource protection, management, and development. In this survey of a 10-km-wide area along both sides of the Songhua River, northeast China, the hydrogeochemical responses to different SW-GW interactions were studied. Three types of SW-GW interactions were identified—"recharge", "discharge", and "flow-through"—according to the hydraulic connection between the surface water and groundwater. The single factor index, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis of the hydrogeochemistry and pollutant data illuminated the hydrogeochemical response to the various SW-GW interactions. Clear SW-GW interactions along the Songhua River were revealed: (1) upstream in the study area, groundwater usually discharges into the surface water, (2) groundwater is recharged by surface water downstream, and (3) discharge and flow-through coexist in between. Statistical analysis indicated that the degree of hydrogeochemical response in different types of hydraulic connection varied, being clear in recharge and flow-through modes, and less obvious in discharge mode. During the interaction process, dilution, adsorption, redox reactions, nitrification, denitrification, and biodegradation contributed to the pollutant concentration and affected hydrogeochemical response in the hyporheic zone.

  12. Effects of road salts on groundwater and surface water dynamics of socium and chloride in an urban restored stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road salts are a growing environmental concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na+ and Cl− in Minebank Run (MBR), an urban stream in Maryland, USA. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current basef...

  13. Groundwater and surface water dynamics of Na and Cl in an urban stream: effects of road salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractRoad salts are a growing environmental and health concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na and Cl in an urban stream, Minebank Run (MBR), MD. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current b...

  14. Fate and Transport of Nutrients in Groundwater and Surface Water in an Urban Slum Catchment Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyenje, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the generation, transport and fate of sanitation-related nutrients in groundwater and surface water in an urban slum area in sub-Saharan Africa. In excess, nutrients can cause eutrophication of downstream water bodies. The study argues that nitrogen-containing rains and

  15. ECO Update / Groundwater Foum Issue Paper: Evaluating Ground-Water/Surface-Water Transition Zones in Ecological Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ECO Update builds on the standard approach to ERA (U.S. EPA 1997), by providing a framework for incorporating groundwater/surface-water (GW/SW) interactions into existing ERAs (see U.S. EPA 1997 and 2001a for an introduction to ecological risk....

  16. Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality : from field-scale processes to catchment-scale monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Clean water is essential for our existence on earth. In areas with intensive agricultural land use, such as The Netherlands, groundwater and surface water resources are threatened. The leaching of agrochemicals from agricultural fields leads to contamination of drinking water resources and toxic

  17. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  19. Multi-dimensional Inversion Modeling of Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR Data for Groundwater Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is an important economic source of water supply for drinking water and irrigation water for agriculture. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR sounding is a relatively new geophysical method that can be used to determine the presence of culturally and economically important substances, such as subsurface water or hydrocarbon distribution. SNMR sounding allows the determination of water content and pore size distribution directly from the surface. The SNMR method is performed by stimulating an alternating current pulse through an antenna at the surface in order to confirm the existence of water in the subsurface. This paper reports the development of a 3-D forward modeling code for SNMR amplitudes and decay times, after which an improved 2-D and 3-D inversion algorithm is investigated, consisting of schemes for regularizing model parameterization. After briefly reviewing inversion schemes generally used in geophysics, the special properties of SNMR or magnetic resonance sounding (MRS inversion are evaluated. We present an extension of MRS to magnetic resonance tomography (MRT, i.e. an extension for 2-D and 3-D investigation, and the appropriate inversions.

  20. Measures to reduce glyphosate runoff from hard surfaces, 2: effect of time interval between application and first precipitation event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, C.D.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Smidt, R.A.; Pas, van der L.J.T.; Kempenaar, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this research the effect of moisture conditions of hard surfaces on emission of herbicides from hard surfaces was quantified. In addition the dissipation of glyphosate applied on brick-pavement is determined in time. The outdoor experiment was carried out on 3 and 17 June 2003. In previous

  1. Relations between total phosphorus and orthophosphorus concentrations and rainfall, surface-water discharge, and groundwater levels in Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation, Florida, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, W. Scott; Sifuentes, Dorothy F.

    2018-02-06

    nearby sites during the same period. Differences in concentrations can likely be explained by differences in sample collection methods, sampling locations, sample collection time, and the hydrology during sampling or by the number of samples collected. A major limitation of this study was the short duration of sample collection, which covers a limited range of hydrologic conditions within the BCSIR.The effect of surface-water and groundwater hydrologic conditions on TP and OP concentrations was assessed by using rainfall data and surface-water stage and discharge records. The highest TP and OP concentrations occurred during peak surface-water flows in the canals following long dry periods. Concentrations of TP and OP increased internal to the BCSIR in the western half of the BCSIR during wet periods, but increased concentrations tended to lag behind rainfall events, likely because control structures upstream of sampling sites do not release flows until the water levels in the canals reach predetermined levels. This pattern may indicate that bed sediments in the canals contain high concentrations of phosphorus that becomes resuspended during high flows or that phosphorus salts that had accumulated on dry land during dry periods are carried into the canals by runoff. The largest TP spikes usually occurred at the beginning of high-flow events, but then quickly tapered off even when flows remained high.Groundwater flows were assessed in the BCSIR by using groundwater level observations from two preexisting USGS monitoring well clusters, each characterized by a shallow well installed in the surficial aquifer system and a deeper well installed in the intermediate aquifer system. Groundwater levels were evaluated with respect to surface-water levels and discharge in the BCSIR during the period of surface-water sampling. During dry conditions water levels in canals were often higher than groundwater levels in the surficial aquifer, indicating the potential for surface water to

  2. ESCORRENTÍA SUPERFICIAL EN BOSQUES MONTANOS NATURALES Y PLANTADOS DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA SURFACE RUNOFF IN NATURAL MONTANE FORESTS AND FOREST PLANTATIONS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés Ruiz Suescún

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 mm año-1 (1,07 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de roble; 35,13 mm año-1 (1,61 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de pino pátula y 230,64 mm año-1 (11,05 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de ciprés. Mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP se identificaron las relaciones existentes entre las variables hidrológicas y los flujos de ES, y por medio de análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos para los flujos de ES por cobertura en función de la precipitación, la precipitación en el bosque y la intensidad de lluvia promedio, variables que mostraron alta relación con la ES según el ACP.In natural montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., in pine (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, surface runoff flows (SRF were measured over 16 months. Runoff was measured using 10 m long x 2 m wide runoff bounded plots, collector tanks and a volumetric counter system. SRF were 23,19 mm year -1 (1,07 % of rainfall for oak forest; 35,13 mm year -1 (1,61 % of rainfall for pine and 230,64 mm year-1 (11,05 % of rainfall for cypress plantations. Relationships between hydrological variables and SRF were identified by a principal components analysis (PCA. For each one of the stands, multiple regression analysis was used to fit models of SRF on rainfall, throughfall and mean intensity of rainfall, variables that, according to the PCA

  3. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  4. A biogeochemical transport model to simulate the attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant fluxes across the groundwater-surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons originating from point sources are amongst the most prevalent contaminants of ground water and surface water resources. Riparian zones may play an important role in the attenuation of contaminant concentrations when contaminant plumes flow from groundwater to surface water...... because of the occurrence of redox gradients, strongly reductive conditions and high biological activity. In order to meet the expectations of the EU Water Framework Directive, an evaluation of the impact of such plumes on surface water is needed. The aim of this work is to develop a groundwater transport...... number of geochemical processes, allows the simulation of soil geochemical transformations when microbial by-products are released to surface water, and the consideration of non-linear feedbacks on bacterial growth and pollutant transformations. Sensitivity analysis is performed through Monte Carlo...

  5. Quality of groundwater and surface water, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, July and August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Residents and resource managers of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho are concerned about the effects that population growth might have on the quality of groundwater and surface water. As part of a multi-phase assessment of the groundwater resources in the study area, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the quality of water at 45 groundwater and 5 surface-water sites throughout the Wood River Valley during July and August 2012. Water samples were analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity), major ions, boron, iron, manganese, nutrients, and Escherichia coli (E.coli) and total coliform bacteria. This study was conducted to determine baseline water quality throughout the Wood River Valley, with special emphasis on nutrient concentrations. Water quality in most samples collected did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. E. coli bacteria, used as indicators of water quality, were detected in all five surface-water samples and in two groundwater samples collected. Some analytes have aesthetic-based recommended drinking water standards; one groundwater sample exceeded recommended iron concentrations. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations varied, but tended to be higher near population centers and in agricultural areas than in tributaries and less populated areas. These higher nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not correlated with boron concentrations or the presence of bacteria, common indicators of sources of nutrients to water. None of the samples collected exceeded drinking-water standards for nitrate or nitrite. The concentration of total dissolved solids varied considerably in the waters sampled; however a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type was dominant (43 out of 50 samples) in both the groundwater and surface water. Three constituents that may be influenced by anthropogenic activity (chloride, boron, and nitrate plus nitrite) deviate from this

  6. Presence, distribution, and diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria at a landfill leachate-impacted groundwater surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, R.; Gan, P.; Mackay, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) at a groundwater surface water interface (GSI) impacted by reduced groundwater originating as leachate from an upgradient landfill. IOB enrichments and quantifications were obtained, at high vertical resolution, by an iron/oxygen opposing...... gradient cultivation method. The depth-resolved soil distribution profiles of water content, Fe2+, and total Fe indicated sharp gradients within the top 10 cm sediments of the GSI, where the IOB density was the highest. In addition, the vertical distribution of iron-reducing bacteria at the same sampling...

  7. Field evidence of groundwater ridging in a slope of a granite watershed without the capillary fringe effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Shin'ya; Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Yamakawa, Yosuke; Mizuyama, Takahisa

    2014-04-01

    The controls on the rapid mobilization and runoff of pre-event water are an important issue in hillslope hydrology. One of the mechanisms involved is groundwater ridging, based on the capillary fringe effect. The typical conditions for groundwater ridging to occur are as follows: (1) the slope consists of fine- to medium-textured materials with a large extent of the tension-saturated zone, (2) the slope gradient is low, and (3) the initial groundwater level is high. Where these three conditions are met, a further condition, (4) a small amount of rainwater, would then be enough to trigger groundwater ridging. In this study, we detail groundwater ridge formation in the bedrock layers of Akakabe Watershed (Japan) as recorded by detailed field observations using tensiometers and bedrock boreholes under conditions violating the above. The study site consisted of materials showing almost no tension-saturated zone and had a relatively high gradient (22°). Moreover, the initially high groundwater level did not always generate a groundwater ridge, and a large total rainfall (>160 mm) was required to trigger groundwater ridging. Hence the conventional mechanism cannot explain the groundwater ridging at the field site studied here. It seems that the smaller distance from the groundwater table to the ground