WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface relief accompanying

  1. Surface Relief of Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Almeida, Jose B.

    1989-02-01

    We will describe in this communication a noncont act method of measuring surface profile, it does not require any surface preparation, and it can be used with a very large range of surfaces from highly reflecting to non reflecting ones and as complex as textile surfaces. This method is reasonably immune to dispersion and diffraction, which usually make very difficult the application of non contact profilometry methods to a wide range of materials and situations, namely on quality control systems in industrial production lines. The method is based on the horizontal shift of the bright spot on a horizontal surface when this is illuminated with an oblique beam and moved vertically. in order to make the profilometry the sample is swept by an oblique light beam and the bright spot position is compared with a reference position. The bright spot must be as small as possible, particularly in very irregular surfaces; so the light beam diameter must be as small as possible and the incidence angle must not be too small. The sensivity of a system based on this method will be given, mostly, by the reception optical system.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE QUALITY FOR CHOSEN MILLING STRATEGIES WHEN PRODUCING RELIEF SURFACES

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Varga; Jozef Stahovec; Jozef Beno; Marek Vrabeľ

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with design and modeling of the relief surfaces that are produced in milling. Modeled and real surface quality is presented for the chosen fragments of the relief surfaces. Fragmentation of the relief surfaces has been made by the surface sampling. Milling strategies are compared with regard to surface formation. Surface quality was checked with regard to applied cutting conditions.

  3. STM study on surface relief, ultra-fine structure and transformation mechanism of bainite in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, H.S.; Yang, Z.G.; Wang, J.J.; Zheng, Y.K.

    1995-01-01

    The surface reliefs accompanying lower bainite transformation in steels have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). With the exclusive vertical resolution of STM, we observed that the surface relief associated with bainite is a group of surface reliefs related to subplates, subunits and sub-subunits. From the bainite plate to the sub-subunit in it, the reliefs are in a tent shape, not of invariant plane strain (IPS) type. The fine structure of bainite in a steel has also been shown by STM and TEM that bainite plate is composed of subplates, subunits and sub-subunits. On the basis of the fine structure inside a bainitic ferrite plate observed under STM, sympathetic-ledgewise mechanism of bainite formation is proposed. (orig.)

  4. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M; Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  5. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M [Laboratoire POMA, Universite d' Angers, CNRS FRE 2988, 2, Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S, E-mail: herve.leblond@univ-angers.f [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-10-28

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  6. Topology-optimized broadband surface relief transmission grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob; Ryder, Christian P.; Nielsen, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a design methodology for systematic design of surface relief transmission gratings with optimized diffraction efficiency. The methodology is based on a gradient-based topology optimization formulation along with 2D frequency domain finite element simulations for TE and TM polarized plane...

  7. Diffraction efficiency calculations of polarization diffraction gratings with surface relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, D.; Sharlandjiev, P.; Berberova, N.; Blagoeva, B.; Stoykova, E.; Nedelchev, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the optical response of a stack of two diffraction gratings of equal one-dimensional periodicity. The first one is a surface-relief grating structure; the second, a volume polarization grating. This model is based on our experimental results from polarization holographic recordings in azopolymer films. We used films of commercially available azopolymer (poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo) benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt]), shortly denoted as PAZO. During the recording process, a polarization grating in the volume of the material and a relief grating on the film surface are formed simultaneously. In order to evaluate numerically the optical response of this “hybrid” diffraction structure, we used the rigorous coupled-wave approach (RCWA). It yields stable numerical solutions of Maxwell’s vector equations using the algebraic eigenvalue method.

  8. Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, NCR; Nikolova, Ludmila; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Azobenzene polymers and oligomers show intriguing surface relief features when irradiated with polarized laser light. We show through atomic force microscopic investigation of side-chain azobenzene polymers after irradiation through an amplitude mask that large peaks or trenches result depending...... on the architecture of the polymer. Extensive mass transport over long distances has been observed, paving the way for easy replication of nanostructures. We also show that it is possible to store microscopic images as topographic features in the polymers just through polarized light irradiation. (C) 1999 American...... Institute of Physics....

  9. A Surface Relief Meter Based on Trinocular Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, V.G.S.; Sablik, P.W.; Balendonck, J.; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for the relief meter being developed, appears to function well, when used with the artificial images. The described matching criterion leads to high matching percentages, and accurate results. The percentage of mismatches is reduced to practically zero for the tested scenes. Future work

  10. Modelling the Influence of Ground Surface Relief on Electric Sounding Curves Using the Integral Equations Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgaisha Mukanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of electrical sounding of a medium with ground surface relief is modelled using the integral equations method. This numerical method is based on the triangulation of the computational domain, which is adapted to the shape of the relief and the measuring line. The numerical algorithm is tested by comparing the results with the known solution for horizontally layered media with two layers. Calculations are also performed to verify the fulfilment of the “reciprocity principle” for the 4-electrode installations in our numerical model. Simulations are then performed for a two-layered medium with a surface relief. The quantitative influences of the relief, the resistivity ratios of the contacting media, and the depth of the second layer on the apparent resistivity curves are established.

  11. Modeling of normal contact of elastic bodies with surface relief taken into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryacheva, I. G.; Tsukanov, I. Yu

    2018-04-01

    An approach to account the surface relief in normal contact problems for rough bodies on the basis of an additional displacement function for asperities is considered. The method and analytic expressions for calculating the additional displacement function for one-scale and two-scale wavy relief are presented. The influence of the microrelief geometric parameters, including the number of scales and asperities density, on additional displacements of the rough layer is analyzed.

  12. Effects of surface relief on the high-dose sputtering of amorphous silicon and graphite by Ar ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulga, V.I.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ion-induced surface relief on high-dose sputtering of amorphous silicon and graphite targets have been studied using binary-collision computer simulation. The relief was modeled as a wavelike surface along two mutually perpendicular surface axes (a 3D hillock-and-valley relief). Most simulations were carried out for normally-incident 30-keV Ar ions. It was shown that the surface relief can both increase and decrease the sputtering yield compared to that for a flat surface. The results of simulations suggest that stabilization of the surface relief is possible even in the absence of any smoothing processes such as surface diffusion of atoms. Effects of a surface relief on the experimentally measurable angular and energy distributions of sputtered atoms are also considered. The fitting parameters of these distributions are shown to be non-monotonic functions of the relief aspect ratio. The angular distribution of atoms sputtered from a relief surface is modulated to a great extent by the shape of the relief. For a rough surface, azimuthal isotropy of the angular distribution of sputtered atoms was found, but at high bombarding energies only

  13. Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Johansen, Per Michael; Holme, N.C.R.

    1998-01-01

    A mean-field model of photoinduced surface reliefs in dye containing side-chain polymers is presented. It is demonstrated that photoinduced ordering of dye molecules subject to anisotropic intermolecular interactions leads to mass transport even when the intensity of the incident light is spatially...... uniform. Theoretical profiles are obtained using a simple variational method and excellent agreement with experimental surface reliefs recorded under various polarization configurations is found. The polarization dependence of both period and shape of the profiles is correctly reproduced by the model....

  14. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... filometry [7–9] and monitoring of surface self-diffusion of solids under ultrahigh vacuum conditions [10]. In the present work, recording parameters, i.e. exposure time and deve- lopment time for fabrication of such holographic gratings have been optimized to obtain nearly perfect sinusoidal profiles in the ...

  15. Ubiquitous Creation of Bas-Relief Surfaces with Depth-of-Field Effects Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Sohn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new method to automatically generate digital bas-reliefs with depth-of-field effects from general scenes. Most previous methods for bas-relief generation take input in the form of 3D models. However, obtaining 3D models of real scenes or objects is often difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. From this motivation, we developed a method that takes as input a set of photographs that can be quickly and ubiquitously captured by ordinary smartphone cameras. A depth map is computed from the input photographs. The value range of the depth map is compressed and used as a base map representing the overall shape of the bas-relief. However, the resulting base map contains little information on details of the scene. Thus, we construct a detail map using pixel values of the input image to express the details. The base and detail maps are blended to generate a new depth map that reflects both overall depth and scene detail information. This map is selectively blurred to simulate the depth-of-field effects. The final depth map is converted to a bas-relief surface mesh. Experimental results show that our method generates a realistic bas-relief surface of general scenes with no expensive manual processing.

  16. Holographic recording of surface relief gratings in stilbene azobenzene derivatives at 633 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozols, A; Saharov, D; Kokars, V; Kampars, V; Maleckis, A; Mezinskis, G; Pludons, A

    2010-01-01

    Holographic recording in stilbene azobenzene derivatives by He-Ne 633 nm laser light has been experimentally studied. It was found that surface relief gratings (SRG) can be recorded by red light. Usually shorter wavelengths are used to induce the trans-cis photo-isomerization in organic materials. SRG with 2 μm period and an amplitude of 130 nm have been recorded with 0.88 W/cm 2 light in about 20 minutes in amorphous films of 3-(4-(bis(2-(trityloxy)ethyl)amino)phenyl)-2-(4-(2-bromo-4-nitrophenyl) diazenyl)phenyl)acrylonitrile spin-coated on glass substrates. Self-diffraction efficiency up to 17.4% and specific recording energy down to 114 J/(cm 2 %) were measured. The recorded SRG were stable as proved by subsequent AFM measurements. The photo-induced changes in absorption spectra did not reveal noticeable signs of trans-cis transformations. Rather, spectrally uniform bleaching of the films took place. We conclude that a photothermally stimulated photo-destruction of chromophores is responsible for the SRG recording. The recording of stable SRG in the stilbene azobenzene derivatives we studied is accompanied by the recording of relaxing volume-phase gratings due to the photo-orientation of chromophores by the linearly polarized recording light. It should also be noted that holographic recording efficiency in stilbene azobenzene derivatives exhibit an unusual non-monotonic sample storage-time dependence presumably caused by the peculiarities of structural relaxation of the films.

  17. An influence of ion and sputtered atom flows inhomogeneity on time evolution of the target surface relief in glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, G G; Kristya, V I

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of ion and sputtered atom transport in the vicinity of the target with a periodical surface relief in glow discharge in pure gas is developed. Under the assumption that the relief amplitude is small, analytical expressions for their flows are found by the perturbation method and an equation describing the relief amplitude time evolution is derived. It is shown that intensity of sputtering exceeds intensity of sputtered material re-deposition at the relief tops, and relief smoothing always takes place in the process of homogeneous target treatment in glow discharge in pure gas

  18. Development of surface relief on polycrystalline metals due to sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsenya, V.S. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Bardamid, A.F. [Taras Shevchenko National University, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Bondarenko, V.N. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Davis, J.W., E-mail: jwdavis@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, Canada M3H5T6 (Canada); Konovalov, V.G.; Ryzhkov, I.V.; Skoryk, O.O.; Solodovchenko, S.I. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhang-jian, Zhou [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100 083 (China)

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics of surface microrelief that appear in sputtering experiments with polycrystalline metals of various grain sizes have been studied. Specimens with grain sizes varying from 30–70 nm in the case of crystallized amorphous alloys, to 1–3 μm for technical tungsten grade and 10–100 μm for recrystallized tungsten were investigated. A model is proposed for the development of roughness on polycrystalline metals which is based on the dependence of sputtering rate on crystal orientation. The results of the modeling are in good agreement with experiments showing that the length scale of roughness is much larger than the grain size.

  19. Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Todorov, T

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the polarization properties of holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters in which an anisotropic grating that is due to photoinduced linear and circular birefringence is recorded in the volume of the material and a relief grating appears on the surface. A theoretical...... model is proposed to explain the experimental results, making it possible to understand the influence of the different photoinduced effects. It is shown that at low intensity the polarization properties of the diffraction at these gratings are determined by the interaction of the linear and circular...... photobirefringences, and at larger intensity the influence of the surface relief dominates the effect of the circular anisotropy. Owing to the high recording efficiency of the polyesters, the +/-1-order diffracted waves change the polarization interference pattern during the holographic recording, resulting...

  20. Surface Relief and Internal Structure in Fatigued Stainless Sanicro 25 Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Kuběna, Ivo; Mazánová, Veronika; Heczko, Milan; Man, Jiří

    47A, č. 5 (2016), s. 1907-1911 ISSN 1073-5623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32665S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : surface relief * dislocation structure * Sanicro 25 * extrusion * intrusion Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.874, year: 2016

  1. Study of Surface Relief Evolution in Cyclically Strained Superalloy IN738LC Using Advanced Experimental Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juliš, M.; Kusmič, D.; Pospíšilová, S.; Průša, S.; Obrtlík, Karel; Dluhoš, J.; Podrábský, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, S (2011), s. 814-815 ISSN 0009-2770. [Lokálne mechanické vlastnosti 2010. Smolenice, 10.11.2010-12.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/2065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Inconel 738LC * low cycle fatigue * surface relief Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2011

  2. Modelling Periglacial Processes on Low-Relief High-Elevation Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, D.L.

    history in many regions of the world. The glacial buzzsaw concept suggests that intense glacial erosion focused at the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) leads to a concentration in surface area close to the ELA. However, even in predominantly glacial landscapes, such as the Scandinavian Mountains, the high...... as a function of mean annual air temperature and sediment thickness. This allows us to incorporate periglacial processes into a long-term landscape evolution model where surface elevation, sediment thickness, and climate evolve over time. With this model we are able to explore the slow feedbacks between...... evolution model can be used for obtaining more insight into the conditions needed for formation of low-relief surfaces at high elevation. Anderson, R. S. Modeling the tor-dotted crests, bedrock edges, and parabolic profiles of high alpine surfaces of the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Geomorphology, 46, 35...

  3. Surface relief of α doubleprime martensite in a Ti-Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, H.; Okuda, K.; Enomoto, M.

    2000-01-01

    The surface relief of αdouble p rime martensite plates in a polycrystalline Ti-4.74 at. pct Mo alloy was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The orientation of matrix grains was measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and measured surface tilt angles were compared with calculation by the crystallographic theory of martensite transformation. The observed maximum tilt angle was close to the predicted value of 7.57 deg. The overall agreement between measured and calculated tilt angles was improved significantly by taking into account not only the inclination of habit plane to the specimen surface, but also the shear direction predicted from the theory. The tile angle may vary with the moving direction of the interface unless the habit plane is perpendicular to the specimen surface. However, this effect was small in this transformation

  4. Biphotonic holographic gratings in azobenzene polyesters: Surface relief phenomena and polarization effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, C.; Alcalá, R.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Biphotonic holographic gratings have been recorded in a side-chain azobenzene liquid crystalline polyester using a blue incoherent source and a He-Ne laser. Intensity gratings and the appearance of surface relief have been observed when two linearly polarized beams from a He-Ne laser are made...... to interfere on a film illuminated with blue light. Polarized holographic gratings are also created with two orthogonally circularly polarized He-Ne beams. All these gratings are stable in darkness but can be erased with blue light. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  5. Molecularly oriented surface relief formation in polymethacrylates comprising N-benzylideneaniline derivative side groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Hosoda, Risa; Kondo, Mizuho; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Molecularly oriented surface relief (SR) formation in polymethacrylates with N-benzylideneaniline (NBA) derivative side groups is investigated by holographic exposure using a 325 nm He-Cd laser. Because the NBA moieties show a photoinduced orientation perpendicular to the polarization of light, polarization holography successfully forms a molecularly oriented SR structure in accordance with the polarization distribution that includes p-polarized components. Although intensity holography induces molecular orientation, it does not generate a satisfactory SR structure. In all the holographic modes, the SR depth depends on the direction of the C=N bonds in the NBA moieties and the photoproducts affect the SR formation ability.

  6. Surface relief grating formation on a single crystal of 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hideyuki; Tanino, Takahiro; Shirota, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Surface relief grating (SRG) formation on an organic single crystal by irradiation with two coherent laser beams has been demonstrated by using 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene (DAAB). It was found that the SRG formation was greatly depending upon both the coordination of the crystal and the polarization of the writing beams. The dependence of the polarization of writing beams on the SRG formation using the single crystal was found to be quite different from that reported for amorphous polymers and photochromic amorphous molecular materials, suggesting that the mechanism of the SRG formation on the organic crystal is somewhat different from that on amorphous materials

  7. The Backscattering Phase Function for a Sphere with a Two-Scale Relief of Rough Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    The backscattering of light from spherical surfaces characterized by one and two-scale roughness reliefs has been investigated. The analysis is performed using the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo program POKS-RG (geometrical-optics approximation), which makes it possible to take into account the roughness of objects under study by introducing local geometries of different levels. The geometric module of the program is aimed at describing objects by equations of second-order surfaces. One-scale roughness is set as an ensemble of geometric figures (convex or concave halves of ellipsoids or cones). The two-scale roughness is modeled by convex halves of ellipsoids, with surface containing ellipsoidal pores. It is shown that a spherical surface with one-scale convex inhomogeneities has a flatter backscattering phase function than a surface with concave inhomogeneities (pores). For a sphere with two-scale roughness, the dependence of the backscattering intensity is found to be determined mostly by the lower-level inhomogeneities. The influence of roughness on the dependence of the backscattering from different spatial regions of spherical surface is analyzed.

  8. Electrostatic mechanism of shaping the wave micro-relief on the surface of a semiconductor, sputtered by an ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the electric field formed due to the surface charging, is not accounted for in the weakly-developed theoretical models for the ordered micro-relief formation on the surface of a semiconductor under the impact of an ion beam. It is shown, that the problem on modeling the physical mechanism of forming the ordered wave micro-relief on the semiconductor surface under the impact of a high-energy ion beam may be interpreted as an electrostatic one [ru

  9. Surface relief gratings: experiments, physical scenarios, and photoinduced (anomalous) dynamics of functionalized polymer chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitus, A. C.; Radosz, W.; Wysoczanski, T.; Pawlik, G.

    2017-10-01

    Surface Relief Gratings (SRG) were demonstrated experimentally more than 20 years ago. Despite many years of research efforts the underlying physical mechanisms remain unclear. In this paper we present a short overview of the main concepts related to SRG - photofluidization and its counterpart, the orientational approach - based on a seminal paper by Saphiannikova et al. Next, we summarize the derivation of the cos2 θ potential, following the lines of recent paper of this group. Those results validate the generic Monte Carlo model for the photoinduced build-up of the density and SRG gratings in a model polymer matrix functionalized with azo-dyes, presented in another part of the paper. The characterization of the photoinduced motion of polymer chains, based on our recent paper, is briefly discussed in the last part of the paper. This discussion offers a sound insight into the mechanisms responsible for inscription of SRG as well as for single functionalized nanoparticle studies.

  10. Coseismic landslides reveal near-surface rock strength in a high-relief tectonically active setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Sean F.; Clark, Marin K.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    We present quantitative estimates of near-surface rock strength relevant to landscape evolution and landslide hazard assessment for 15 geologic map units of the Longmen Shan, China. Strength estimates are derived from a novel method that inverts earthquake peak ground acceleration models and coseismic landslide inventories to obtain material proper- ties and landslide thickness. Aggregate rock strength is determined by prescribing a friction angle of 30° and solving for effective cohesion. Effective cohesion ranges are from 70 kPa to 107 kPa for 15 geologic map units, and are approximately an order of magnitude less than typical laboratory measurements, probably because laboratory tests on hand-sized specimens do not incorporate the effects of heterogeneity and fracturing that likely control near-surface strength at the hillslope scale. We find that strength among the geologic map units studied varies by less than a factor of two. However, increased weakening of units with proximity to the range front, where precipitation and active fault density are the greatest, suggests that cli- matic and tectonic factors overwhelm lithologic differences in rock strength in this high-relief tectonically active setting.

  11. The role of dynamic surface water-groundwater exchange on streambed denitrification in a first-order, low-relief agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mina; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Wilson, John T.

    2015-12-01

    The role of temporally varying surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) exchange on nitrate removal by streambed denitrification was examined along a reach of Leary Weber Ditch (LWD), Indiana, a small, first-order, low-relief agricultural watershed within the Upper Mississippi River basin, using data collected in 2004 and 2005. Stream stage, GW heads (H), and temperatures (T) were continuously monitored in streambed piezometers and stream bank wells for two transects across LWD accompanied by synoptic measurements of stream stage, H, T, and nitrate (NO3) concentrations along the reach. The H and T data were used to develop and calibrate vertical two-dimensional, models of streambed water flow and heat transport across and along the axis of the stream. Model-estimated SW-GW exchange varied seasonally and in response to high-streamflow events due to dynamic interactions between SW stage and GW H. Comparison of 2004 and 2005 conditions showed that small changes in precipitation amount and intensity, evapotranspiration, and/or nearby GW levels within a low-relief watershed can readily impact SW-GW interactions. The calibrated LWD flow models and observed stream and streambed NO3 concentrations were used to predict temporal variations in streambed NO3 removal in response to dynamic SW-GW exchange. NO3 removal rates underwent slow seasonal changes, but also underwent rapid changes in response to high-flow events. These findings suggest that increased temporal variability of SW-GW exchange in low-order, low-relief watersheds may be a factor contributing their more efficient removal of NO3.

  12. Surface relief and refractive index gratings patterned in chalcogenide glasses and studied by off-axis digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazac, V; Meshalkin, A; Achimova, E; Abashkin, V; Katkovnik, V; Shevkunov, I; Claus, D; Pedrini, G

    2018-01-20

    Surface relief gratings and refractive index gratings are formed by direct holographic recording in amorphous chalcogenide nanomultilayer structures As 2 S 3 -Se and thin films As 2 S 3 . The evolution of the grating parameters, such as the modulation of refractive index and relief depth in dependence of the holographic exposure, is investigated. Off-axis digital holographic microscopy is applied for the measurement of the photoinduced phase gratings. For the high-accuracy reconstruction of the wavefront (amplitude and phase) transmitted by the fabricated gratings, we used a computational technique based on the sparse modeling of phase and amplitude. Both topography and refractive index maps of recorded gratings are revealed. Their separated contribution in diffraction efficiency is estimated.

  13. Antiphase Fermi-surface modulations accompanying displacement excitation in a parent compound of iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kozo; Suzuki, Hakuto; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Someya, Takashi; Ogawa, Yu; Okada, Masaru; Fujisawa, Masami; Kanai, Teruto; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Itatani, Jiro; Nakajima, Masamichi; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Shin, Shik

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the transient electronic structure of BaFe2As2 , a parent compound of iron-based superconductors, by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In order to probe the entire Brillouin zone, we utilize extreme ultraviolet photons and observe photoemission intensity oscillation with the frequency of the A1 g phonon which is antiphase between the zone-centered hole Fermi surfaces (FSs) and zone-cornered electron FSs. We attribute the antiphase behavior to the warping in one of the zone-centered hole FSs accompanying the displacement of the pnictogen height and find that this displacement is the same direction as that induced by substitution of P for As, where superconductivity is induced by a structural modification without carrier doping in this system.

  14. Theoretical modeling and design of photonic structures in zeolite nanocomposites for gas sensing. Part I: surface relief gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, D; Naydenova, I

    2017-12-01

    The suitability of holographic structures fabricated in zeolite nanoparticle-polymer composite materials for gas sensing applications has been investigated. Theoretical modeling of the sensor response (i.e., change in hologram readout due to a change in refractive index modulation or thickness as a result of gas adsorption) of different sensor designs was carried out using Raman-Nath theory and Kogelnik's coupled wave theory. The influence of a range of parameters on the sensor response of holographically recorded surface and volume photonic grating structures has been studied, namely the phase difference between the diffracted and probe beam introduced by the grating, grating geometry, thickness, spatial frequency, reconstruction wavelength, and zeolite nanoparticle refractive index. From this, the optimum fabrication conditions for both surface and volume holographic gas sensor designs have been identified. Here, in part I, results from theoretical modeling of the influence of design on the sensor response of holographically inscribed surface relief structures for gas sensing applications is reported.

  15. Tectonics, climate and mountain building in the forearc of southern Peru recorded in the 10Be chronology of low-relief surface abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. R.; Farber, D.; Audin, L.; Finkel, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Regional low-relief surfaces have long been recognized as key features to understanding the response of landscapes to surface uplift. The canonical models of low-relief surface formation involve an extended period of tectonic quiescence during which, the fluvial systems bevel the landscape to a uniform elevation. This quiescent period is punctuated by a period(s) of surface uplift, which causes fluvial incision thereby abandoning the low-relief landscape. Over time, as rivers continue to incise in response to changes in sediment supply, river discharge, and base level fall, pieces of the relict low-relief landscape are left as abandoned remnants stranded above active channels. By determining the age of abandoned surfaces, previous workers have identified the onset of a change in the tectonic or climatic setting. One key assumption of this model is that the low-relief surfaces are truly abandoned with no current processes further acting on the surface. To improve our understanding of the underlying assumptions and problems of low-relief surface formation, we have used detailed mapping and absolute dating with cosmogenic 10Be to investigate surfaces in the hyperarid forearc region of southern Peru between ~14° and 18°S. Within this region, marine terraces and strath terraces reflect Plio-Pleistocene surface uplift, and together with the hyperarid climate, ongoing surface uplift provides a perfect natural laboratory to examine the processes affecting low-relief surface abandonment and preservation. With our new chronology we address: 1) the space and time correlations of surfaces, 2) incision rates of streams in response to base-level fall, and 3) surface erosion rates. Multiple surfaces have yielded 10Be surface abandonment ages that span >2 Ma - ~35 ka. While most of the surfaces we have dated are considerably less than 1 Ma, we have located two surfaces which are likely older than 2 Ma and constrain regional erosion rates to be chronology of Pleistocene surface

  16. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded-relief

  17. Temporal formation of optical anisotropy and surface relief during polarization holographic recording in polymethylmethacrylate with azobenzene side groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Izawa, Masahiro; Noda, Kohei; Nishioka, Emi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The formation of polarization holographic gratings with both optical anisotropy and surface relief (SR) deformation was studied for polymethylmethacrylate with azobenzene side groups. Temporal contributions of isotropic and anisotropic phase gratings were simultaneously determined by observing transitional intensity and polarization states of the diffraction beams and characterizing by means of Jones calculus. To clarify the mechanism of SR deformation, cross sections of SR were characterized based on the optical gradient force model; experimental observations were in good agreement with the theoretical expectation. We clarified that the anisotropic phase change originating in the reorientation of the azobenzene side groups was induced immediately at the beginning of the holographic recording, while the response time of the isotropic phase change originating in the molecular migration due to the optical gradient force was relatively slow.

  18. Dendritic azo compounds as a new type amorphous molecular material with quick photoinduced surface-relief-grating formation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaning; Gu, Xinyu; Guo, Miaocai; Wang, Xiaogong

    2008-09-01

    A series of dendritic azobenzene-containing compounds have been synthesized as a new type amorphous molecular material, which can show quick surface-relief-grating (SRG) formation ability upon light irradiation. For the synthesis, the dendritic precursor tris(2-(ethyl(phenyl)amino)ethyl)benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate and tris(3,5-bis(2-(ethyl(phenyl)amino)ethoxy)benzyl)benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate were prepared by esterification reactions between 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride and N-ethyl- N-hydroxyethyl-aniline and 3,5-bis[2-( N-ethylanilino)ethoxy] benzylalcohol. The precursors were, respectively reacted with the diazonium salts of 4-nitroaniline, 4-aminobenzoic acid, and 4-aminobenzonitrile to introduce different types of donor-acceptor azo chromophores at the peripheral positions. The structure and properties of the dendritic azo compounds were characterized by the spectroscopic methods and thermal analysis. The surface-relief-grating (SRG) formation behavior of the dendritic azo compounds was studied by exposing the spin-coated thin films to an interference pattern of laser beams (532 nm) at modest intensity (100 mW/cm 2). The results show that the azo compounds can form stable amorphous glasses in a broad temperature range. The glass transition temperatures ( Tgs) depend on the backbone structures and the type of the peripheral azo chromophors. The type of the electron withdrawing groups in the p-positions of the terminal azobenzene units shows a significant influence on the SRG inscription rate. For the compounds containing the same type azo chromophores, the SRG inscription rate is also affected by the backbone structure.

  19. Recrystallization and modification of the stainless-steel surface relief under photonic heat load in powerful plasma discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru; Martynenko, Yu. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. N. [Project Center ITER (Russian Federation); Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Klimov, N. S. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Pitts, R. A. [ITER Organization (France); Linke, J. [EURATOM Association, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Bazylev, B. [IHM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Belova, N. E.; Karpov, A. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Yaroshevskaya, A. D. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Targets made of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG stainless steel and Russian-grade 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel with a close composition were exposed at the QSPA-T plasma gun to plasma photonic radiation pulses simulating conditions of disruption mitigation in ITER. After a large number of pulses, modification of the stainless-steel surface was observed, such as the formation of a wavy structure, irregular roughness, and cracks on the target surface. X-ray and optic microscopic analyses of targets revealed changes in the orientation and dimensions of crystallites (grains) over a depth of up to 20 μm for 316L(N)-IG stainless steel after 200 pulses and up to 40 μm for 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel after 50 pulses, which is significantly larger than the depth of the layer melted in one pulse (∼10 μm). In a series of 200 tests of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG ITER stainless steel, a linear increase in the height of irregularity (roughness) with increasing number of pulses at a rate of up to ∼1 μm per pulse was observed. No alteration in the chemical composition of the stainless-steel surface in the series of tests was revealed. A model is developed that describes the formation of wavy irregularities on the melted metal surface with allowance for the nonlinear stage of instability of the melted layer with a vapor/plasma flow above it. A decisive factor in this case is the viscous flow of the melted metal from the troughs to tops of the wavy structure. The model predicts saturation of the growth of the wavy structure when its amplitude becomes comparable with its wavelength. Approaches to describing the observed stochastic relief and roughness of the stainless-steel surface formed in the series of tests are considered. The recurrence of the melting-solidification process in which mechanisms of the hill growth compete with the spreading of the material from the hills can result in the formation of a stochastic relief.

  20. Simulating the Surface Relief of Nanoaerosols Obtained via the Rapid Cooling of Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.; Zaitseva, E. S.; Rabinovich, A. B.

    2018-03-01

    An approach is formulated that theoretically describes the structure of a rough surface of small aerosol particles obtained from a liquid droplet upon its rapid cooling. The problem consists of two stages. In the first stage, a concentration profile of the droplet-vapor transition region is calculated. In the second stage, local fractions of vacant sites and their pairs are found on the basis of this profile, and the rough structure of a frozen droplet surface transitioning to the solid state is calculated. Model parameters are the temperature of the initial droplet and those of the lateral interaction between droplet atoms. Information on vacant sites inside the region of transition allows us to identify adsorption centers and estimate the monolayer capacity, compared to that of the total space of the region of transition. The approach is oriented toward calculating adsorption isotherms on real surfaces.

  1. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  2. An ecological mechanism to create regular patterns of surface dissolution in a low-relief carbonate landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Osborne, T.; Murray, A.; Watts, A. C.; Watts, D.; Heffernan, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Development of karst landscapes is controlled by focused delivery of water undersaturated with respect to the soluble rock minerals. As that water comes to equilibrium with the rock, secondary porosity is incrementally reinforced creating a positive feedback that acts to augment the drainage network and subsequent water delivery. In most self-organizing systems, spatial positive feedbacks create features (in landscapes: patches; in karst aquifers: conduits) whose size-frequency relationship follows a power function, indicating a higher probability of large features than would occur with a random or Gaussian genesis process. Power functions describe several aspects of secondary porosity in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in north Florida. In contrast, a different pattern arises in the karst landscape in southwest Florida (Big Cypress National Preserve; BICY), where low-relief and a shallow aquiclude govern regional hydrology. There, the landscape pattern is highly regular (Fig. 1), with circular cypress-dominated wetlands occupying depressions that are hydrologically isolated and distributed evenly in a matrix of pine uplands. Regular landscape patterning results from spatially coupled feedbacks, one positive operating locally that expands patches coupled to another negative that operates at distance, eventually inhibiting patch expansion. The positive feedback in BICY is thought to derive from the presence of surface depressions, which sustain prolonged inundation in this low-relief setting, and facilitate wetland development that greatly augments dissolution potential of infiltrating water in response to ecosystem metabolic processes. In short, wetlands "drill" into the carbonate leading to both vertical and lateral basin expansion. Wetland expansion occurs at the expense of surrounding upland area, which is the local catchment that subsidizes water availability. A distal inhibitory feedback on basin expansion thus occurs as the water necessary to sustain prolonged

  3. Shadow analysis of soil surface roughness compared to the chain set method and direct measurement of micro-relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García Moreno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil surface roughness (SSR expresses soil susceptibility to wind and water erosion and plays an important role in the development and the maintenance of soil biota. Several methods have been developed to characterise SSR based on different methods of acquiring data. Because the main problems related to these methods involve the use and handling of equipment in the field, the present study aims to fill the need for a method for measuring SSR that is more reliable, low-cost and convenient in the field than traditional field methods. Shadow analysis, which interprets micro-topographic shadows, is based on the principle that there is a direct relationship between the soil surface roughness and the shadows cast by soil structures under fixed sunlight conditions. SSR was calculated with shadows analysis in the laboratory using hemispheres of different diameter with a diverse distribution of known altitudes and a surface area of 1 m2.

    Data obtained from the shadow analysis were compared to data obtained with the chain method and simulation of the micro-relief. The results show a relationship among the SSR calculated using the different methods. To further improve the method, shadow analysis was used to measure the SSR in a sandy clay loam field using different tillage tools (chisel, tiller and roller and in a control of 4 m2 surface plots divided into subplots of 1 m2. The measurements were compared to the data obtained using the chain set and pin meter methods. The SSR measured was the highest when the chisel was used, followed by the tiller and the roller, and finally the control, for each of the three methods. Shadow analysis is shown to be a reliable method that does not disturb the measured surface, is easy to handle and analyse, and shortens the time involved in field operations by a factor ranging from 4 to 20 compared to well known techniques such as the chain set and pin meter methods.

  4. In-situ study of surface relief due to cubic-tetragonal martensitic transformation in Mn_6_9_._4Fe_2_6_._0Cu_4_._6 antiferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Yuan, F.; Gen, Z.; Wang, L.; Cui, Y.G.; Wan, J.F.; Zhang, J.H.; Rong, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature-dependence surface relief during cubic↔tetragonal martensitic transformation (MT) in Mn_6_9_._4Fe_2_6_._0Cu_4_._6 antiferromegnetic shape memory alloy was studied by means of in-situ atomic force microscopy. The surface morphology memory effect was found and the crystallography reversibility of the transformation and its shearing characters were directly verified. Twin shearing is suggested as the main mechanism of formation of tent-type surface relief. The surface relief angle (θ_α|θ_β)<0.5° was firstly measured and might be the smallest compared with that in other shape memory alloys. A Landau model was proposed to consider the shearing strain related with surface relief of MT varying with the coupling effect between second-order antiferromagnetic transition and first-order MT. According to this model, the Mn_6_9_._4Fe_2_6_._0Cu_4_._6 alloy belongs to the weak coupling system and this kind of weak coupling effect makes the main contribution to the small relief angle. - Highlights: • Temperature-dependence surface relief in Mn-Fe-Cu alloy was firstly studied. • The surface morphology memory effect in Mn-Fe-Cu alloy was found. • Smallest surface relief angle (θ_α|θ_β).

  5. The effect of bridge exercise accompanied by the abdominal drawing-in maneuver on an unstable support surface on the lumbar stability of normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study sought to investigate the influence on static and dynamic lumbar stability of bridge exercise accompanied by an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) performed on an uneven support surface. [Subjects] A total of 30 participants were divided into an experimental group (15 participants) and a control group (15 participants). [Methods] The experimental group performed bridge exercise on an unstable surface, whereas the control group performed bridge exercise on a stable surface. The respective bridge exercises were performed for 30 minutes, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks. The static lumbar stability (SLS) and dynamic lumbar stability (DLS) of both the experimental group and the control group were measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Results] In the comparison of the initial and final results of the experimental and control groups, only the SLS and DLS of the experimental group were found to be statistically significant. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show that when using bridge exercise to improve SLS and DLS, performing the bridge exercise accompanied by ADIM on an uneven surface is more effective than performing the exercise on a stable surface.

  6. Calculation of the dependence on the Moon and Mars γ-quantum flux on the relief and distance to the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Noskaleva, L.P.; Manvelyan, O.S.

    1978-01-01

    The dependence of the gamma quantum flux on height over a planet, area over which the gamma radiation is ''collected'', and surface relief is calculated. The effect of the planet atmosphere on detected gamma radiation is considered. If the specific power of gamma-quantum sources is known, the results obtained allow to determine for any height over a planet the gamma-quantum flux due to the planet rock and its atmosphere radiations, as well as the detector spatial resolution

  7. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acupuncture - pain relief; Hypnosis - pain relief; Guided imagery - pain relief ... neck, shoulder, knee, or elbow) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Hypnosis is a focused state of concentration. With self- ...

  8. Transformations accompanying a shift from surface to drip irrigation in the Cànyoles Watershed, Valencia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sese-Minguez, Saioa; Boesveld, Harm; Asins-Velis, Sabina; Kooij, van der Saskia; Maroulis, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is widely promoted in Spain to increase agricultural production and to save water. In the Cànyoles watershed, Valencia, we analysed the consequences of change from surface irrigation to drip irrigation over the past 25 years. There were a number of transformations resulting from,

  9. Ultrafast changes in the optical properties of a titanium surface and femtosecond laser writing of one-dimensional quasi-periodic nanogratings of its relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosov, E. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Kolobov, Yu. R.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Ligachev, A. E.; Novoselov, Yu. N.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional quasi-periodic nanogratings with spacings in the range from 160 to 600 nm are written on a dry or wet titanium surface exposed to linearly polarized femtosecond IR and UV laser pulses with different surface energy densities. The topological properties of the obtained surface nanostructures are studied by scanning electron microscopy. Despite the observation of many harmonics of the one-dimensional surface relief in its Fourier spectra, a weak decreasing dependence of the first-harmonic wavenumber (nanograting spacing) on the laser fluence is found. Studies of the instantaneous optical characteristics of the material during laser irradiation by measuring the reflection of laser pump pulses and their simulation based on the Drude model taking into account the dominant interband absorption allowed us to estimate the length of the excited surface electromagnetic (plasmon-polariton) wave for different excitation conditions. This wavelength is quantitatively consistent with the corresponding nanograting spacings of the first harmonic of the relief of the dry and wet titanium surfaces. It is shown that the dependence of the first-harmonic nanograting spacing on the laser fluence is determined by a change in the instantaneous optical characteristics of the material and the saturation of the interband absorption along with the increasing role of intraband transitions. Three new methods are proposed for writing separate subwave surface nanogratings or their sets by femtosecond laser pulses using the near-threshold nanostructuring, the forced adjustment of the optical characteristics of the material or selecting the spectral range of laser radiation, and also by selecting an adjacent dielectric.

  10. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  11. Implementation and analysis of relief patterns of the surface of benign and malignant lesions of the skin by microtopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Pacheco, Maria del Carmen Lopez; Martins-Costa, Manuel Filipe Pereira da Cunha; Zapata, Aura Judith Perez; Cherit, Judith DomInguez; Gallegos, Eva Ramon

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to be able to distinguish between healthy skin tissue and malignant ones, furthermore determining a unique pattern of roughness for each skin lesion by microtopographic analysis of the skin surface of Mexican patients during the period from April to October 2002. The standard technique used in this study for the diagnosis of skin cancer and the comparison of the results was the haematoxylin-eosin histopathological technique. Latex impressions were taken from skin lesions as well as from the healthy skin of each patient to serve as control samples. These impressions were analysed by the MICROTOP.03.MFC microtopographic system inspection. It was observed that when the tumour becomes rougher, more malign will be the lesion. On average, the melanoma present an increase of roughness of 67% compared to healthy skin, obtaining a roughness relation of 1:2.54. The percentage decreases to 49% (49%, 1:60) in the case of basal cell carcinoma and to 40% in pre-malignant lesions such as melanocytic nevus (40%, 1:150). In benign lesions such as the seborrhoea keratosis only a small increase in roughness was noted (4%, 1:0.72). Microtopographic inspection of the skin surface can be considered as a complementary diagnostic technique for skin cancer

  12. Implementation and analysis of relief patterns of the surface of benign and malignant lesions of the skin by microtopography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Pacheco, Maria del Carmen Lopez [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico); Martins-Costa, Manuel Filipe Pereira da Cunha [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad do Minho, Escola de Ciencias Campus de Gualtar-PT-4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Zapata, Aura Judith Perez [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico); Cherit, Judith DomInguez [Departamento de DermatologIa, Hospital General Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Calzada de Tlalpan No 4800, 14000 (Mexico); Gallegos, Eva Ramon [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico)

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this study was to be able to distinguish between healthy skin tissue and malignant ones, furthermore determining a unique pattern of roughness for each skin lesion by microtopographic analysis of the skin surface of Mexican patients during the period from April to October 2002. The standard technique used in this study for the diagnosis of skin cancer and the comparison of the results was the haematoxylin-eosin histopathological technique. Latex impressions were taken from skin lesions as well as from the healthy skin of each patient to serve as control samples. These impressions were analysed by the MICROTOP.03.MFC microtopographic system inspection. It was observed that when the tumour becomes rougher, more malign will be the lesion. On average, the melanoma present an increase of roughness of 67% compared to healthy skin, obtaining a roughness relation of 1:2.54. The percentage decreases to 49% (49%, 1:60) in the case of basal cell carcinoma and to 40% in pre-malignant lesions such as melanocytic nevus (40%, 1:150). In benign lesions such as the seborrhoea keratosis only a small increase in roughness was noted (4%, 1:0.72). Microtopographic inspection of the skin surface can be considered as a complementary diagnostic technique for skin cancer.

  13. Physicochemical modifications accompanying UV laser induced surface structures on poly(ethylene terephthalate) and their effect on adhesion of mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, Esther; Pérez, Susana; Hernández, Margarita; Domingo, Concepción; Martín, Margarita; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; García-Ruiz, Josefa P; Castillejo, Marta

    2014-09-07

    This work reports on the formation of different types of structures on the surface of polymer films upon UV laser irradiation. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) was irradiated with nanosecond UV pulses at 193 and 266 nm. The polarization of the laser beam and the irradiation angle of incidence were varied, giving rise to laser induced surface structures with different shapes and periodicities. The irradiated surfaces were topographically characterized by atomic force microscopy and the chemical modifications induced by laser irradiation were inspected via micro-Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies. Contact angle measurements were performed with different liquids, and the results evaluated in terms of surface free energy components. Finally, in order to test the influence of surface properties for a potential application, the modified surfaces were used for mesenchymal stem cell culture assays and the effect of nanostructure and surface chemistry on cell adhesion was evaluated.

  14. Accompanied consultations in occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J; Hobson, H; Sharp, R

    2016-04-01

    Accompanied consultations are often reported as difficult by occupational physicians but have not been studied in the occupational health setting. To collect information about accompanied consultations and the impact of the companion on the consultation. We collected data on all accompanied consultations by two occupational physicians working in a private sector occupational health service over the course of 16 months. Accompanied consultations were matched to non-accompanied consultations for comparison. We collected data on 108 accompanied consultations. Accompanied consultations were more likely to be connected with ill health retirement (P Occupational health practitioners may benefit from better understanding of accompanied consultations and guidance on their management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Paper relief architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latka, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which

  16. Relief valve testing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROMM, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Reclosing pressure-actuated valves, commonly called relief valves, are designed to relieve system pressure once it reaches the set point of the valve. They generally operate either proportional to the differential between their set pressure and the system pressure (gradual lift) or by rapidly opening fully when the set pressure is reached (pop action). A pop action valve allows the maximum fluid flow through the valve when the set pressure is reached. A gradual lift valve allows fluid flow in proportion to how much the system pressure has exceeded the set pressure of the valve (in the case of pressure relief) or has decreased below the set pressure (vacuum relief). These valves are used to protect systems from over and under pressurization. They are used on boilers, pressure vessels, piping systems and vacuum systems to prevent catastrophic failures of these systems, which can happen if they are under or over pressurized beyond the material tolerances. The construction of these valves ranges from extreme precision of less than a psi tolerance and a very short lifetime to extremely robust construction such as those used on historic railroad steam engines that are designed operate many times a day without changing their set pressure when the engines are operating. Relief valves can be designed to be immune to the effects of back pressure or to be vulnerable to it. Which type of valve to use depends upon the design requirements of the system

  17. Direct Magnetic Relief Recording Using As40S60: Mn-Se Nanocomposite Multilayer Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski, A; Achimova, E; Paiuk, O; Meshalkin, A; Prisacar, A; Triduh, G; Oleksenko, P; Lytvyn, P

    2017-12-01

    Processes of holographic recording of surface relief structures using As 2 S 3 :Mn-Se multilayer nanostructures as registering media were studied in this paper. Optical properties of As 2 S 3 :Mn, Se layers, and As 2 S 3 :Mn-Se multilayer nanostructures were investigated. Values of optical bandgaps were obtained from Tauc dependencies. Surface relief diffraction gratings were recorded. Direct one-stage formation of surface relief using multilayer nanostructures is considered. For the first time, possibility of direct formation of magnetic relief simultaneous with surface relief formation under optical recording using As 2 S 3 :Mn-Se multilayer nanostructures is shown.

  18. Music for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M S; Carr, D B; Lau, J; Alvarez, H

    2006-04-19

    The efficacy of music for the treatment of pain has not been established. To evaluate the effect of music on acute, chronic or cancer pain intensity, pain relief, and analgesic requirements. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and the references in retrieved manuscripts. There was no language restriction. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of music on any type of pain in children or adults. We excluded trials that reported results of concurrent non-pharmacological therapies. Data was extracted by two independent review authors. We calculated the mean difference in pain intensity levels, percentage of patients with at least 50% pain relief, and opioid requirements. We converted opioid consumption to morphine equivalents. To explore heterogeneity, studies that evaluated adults, children, acute, chronic, malignant, labor, procedural, or experimental pain were evaluated separately, as well as those studies in which patients chose the type of music. Fifty-one studies involving 1867 subjects exposed to music and 1796 controls met inclusion criteria. In the 31 studies evaluating mean pain intensity there was a considerable variation in the effect of music, indicating statistical heterogeneity ( I(2) = 85.3%). After grouping the studies according to the pain model, this heterogeneity remained, with the exception of the studies that evaluated acute postoperative pain. In this last group, patients exposed to music had pain intensity that was 0.5 units lower on a zero to ten scale than unexposed subjects (95% CI: -0.9 to -0.2). Studies that permitted patients to select the music did not reveal a benefit from music; the decline in pain intensity was 0.2 units, 95% CI (-0.7 to 0.2). Four studies reported the proportion of subjects with at least 50% pain relief; subjects exposed to music had a 70% higher likelihood of having pain relief than unexposed subjects (95% CI: 1.21 to 2.37). NNT = 5 (95% CI: 4 to 13). Three

  19. Atomic structure of surface defects in alumina studied by dynamic force microscopy: strain-relief-, translation- and reflection-related boundaries, including their junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, G H; König, T; Heinke, L; Lichtenstein, L; Heyde, M; Freund, H-J

    2011-01-01

    We present an extensive atomic resolution frequency modulation dynamic force microscopy study of ultrathin aluminium oxide on a single crystalline NiAl(110) surface. One-dimensional surface defects produced by domain boundaries have been resolved. Images are presented for reflection domain boundaries (RDBs), four different types of antiphase domain boundaries, a nucleation-related translation domain boundary and also domain boundary junctions. New structures and aspects of the boundaries and their network are revealed and merged into a comprehensive picture of the defect arrangements. The alumina film also covers the substrate completely at the boundaries and their junctions and follows the structural building principles found in its unit cell. This encompasses square and rectangular groups of surface oxygen sites. The observed structural elements can be related to the electronic signature of the boundaries and therefore to the electronic defects associated with the boundaries. A coincidence site lattice predicted for the RDBs is in good agreement with experimental data. With Σ = 19 it can be considered to be of low-sigma type, which frequently coincides with special boundary properties. Images of asymmetric RDBs show points of good contact alternating with regions of nearly amorphous disorder in the oxygen sublattice. (paper)

  20. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  1. 23rd May 2011 - University of Liverpool Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Public Orator K. Everest (UK) Mrs Everest in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, in LHCb surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Golutvin, accompanied throughout by P. Wells and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and M. Klein.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilen Brice

    2011-01-01

    23rd May 2011 - University of Liverpool Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Public Orator K. Everest (UK) Mrs Everest in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, in LHCb surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Golutvin, accompanied throughout by P. Wells and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and M. Klein.

  2. 30 January 2012 - Ecuadorian Ambassador Gallegos Chiriboga, Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office and other International Organisations at Geneva and San Francisco de Quito University Vice Chancellor C. Montùfar visiting CMS surface facilities and underground experimental area with CMS Collaboration L. Sulak and Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi, throughout accompanied by Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michael Hoch

    2012-01-01

    30 January 2012 - Ecuadorian Ambassador Gallegos Chiriboga, Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office and other International Organisations at Geneva and San Francisco de Quito University Vice Chancellor C. Montùfar visiting CMS surface facilities and underground experimental area with CMS Collaboration L. Sulak and Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi, throughout accompanied by Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

  3. Groundbreaking approach to disaster relief

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The humanitarian response to Cyclone Nargis, which struck Myanmar on 2 and 3 May, heralds a fundamentally new approach to relief coordination. As a result, a unique survey showed what really happened to the survivors. Sarah Cumberland reports.

  4. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  5. Decongestants: OTC Relief for Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  6. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... at the FDA. Avoid Pollen, Mold and Other Allergy Triggers If your child has seasonal allergies, pay ...

  7. 850-nm Zn-diffusion vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with with oxide-relief structure for high-speed and energy-efficient optical interconnects from very-short to medium (2km) reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jason (Jyehong); Yang, Ying-Jay

    2015-03-01

    High-speed and "green" ~850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have lately attracted lots of attention due to their suitability for applications in optical interconnects (OIs). To further enhance the speed and its maximum allowable linking distance of VCSELs are two major trends to meet the requirement of OI in next generation data centers. Recently, by use of the advanced 850 nm VCSEL technique, data rate as high as 64 Gbit/sec over 57m and 20 Gbit/sec over 2km MMF transmission have been demonstrated, respectively. Here, we will review our recent work about 850 nm Zn-diffusion VCSELs with oxide-relief apertures to further enhance the above-mentioned performances. By using Zn-diffusion, we can not only reduce the device resistance but also manipulate the number of optical modes to benefit transmission. Combing such device, which has excellent single-mode (SMSR >30 dB) and high-power (~7mW) performance, with advanced modulation format (OFDM), record-high bit-rate-distance-product through MMF (2.3 km×28 Gbit/sec) has been demonstrated. Furthermore, by selective etching away the oxide aperture inside Zn-diffusion VCSEL, significant enhancement of device speed, D-factor, and reliability can be observed. With such unique VCSEL structure, >40 Gbit/sec energy-efficient transmission over 100m MMF under extremely low-driving current density (<10kA/cm2) has been successfully demonstrated.

  8. Single-mode 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with Zn-diffusion and oxide-relief apertures for > 50 Gbit/sec OOK and 4-PAM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jyehong; Ledentsov, N. N.; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2017-02-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) has become the most important light source in the booming market of short-reach (targeted at 56 Gbit/sec data rate per channel (CEI-56G) with the total data rate up to 400 Gbit/sec. However, the serious modal dispersion of multi-mode fiber (MMF), limited speed of VCSEL, and its high resistance (> 150 Ω) seriously limits the >50 Gbit/sec linking distance (50 Gbit/sec transmission due to that it can save one-half of the required bandwidth. Nevertheless, a 4.7 dB optical power penalty and the linearity of transmitter would become issues in the 4-PAM linking performance. Besides, in the modern OI system, the optics transreceiver module must be packaged as close as possible with the integrated circuits (ICs). The heat generated from ICs will become an issue in speed of VSCEL. Here, we review our recent work about 850 nm VCSEL, which has unique Zn-diffusion/oxide-relief apertures and special p- doping active layer with strong wavelength detuning to further enhance its modulation speed and high-temperature (85°C) performances. Single-mode (SM) devices with high-speed ( 26 GHz), reasonable resistance ( 70 Ω) and moderate output power ( 1.5 mW) can be achieved. Error-free 54 Gbit/sec OOK transmission through 1km MMF has been realized by using such SM device with signal processing techniques. Besides, the volterra nonlinear equalizer has been applied in our 4-PAM 64 Gbit/sec transmission through 2-km OM4 MMF, which significantly enhance the linearity of device and outperforms fed forward equalization (FFE) technique. Record high bit-rate distance product of 128.km is confirmed for optical-interconnect applications.

  9. Stress relief of transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment

  10. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  11. Pictorial relief for equiluminant images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, A.J.; De Ridder, H.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Pictorial relief depends strongly on “cues” in the image. For isoluminant renderings some cues are missing, namely all information that is related to luminance contrast (e.g., shading, atmospheric perspective). It has been suggested that spatial discrimination and especially pictorial space suffer

  12. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the articles...

  13. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200

  14. Diffraction from relief gratings on a biomimetic elastomer cast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Raphael A.; Aranas, Erika B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic optical elements combine the optimized designs of nature with the versatility of materials engineering. We employ a beetle carapace as the template for fabricating relief gratings on an elastomer substrate. Biological surface features are successfully replicated by a direct casting procedure. Far-field diffraction effects are discussed in terms of the Fraunhofer approximation in Fourier space.

  15. 28 CFR 36.504 - Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.504 Relief. (a) Authority of court. In a civil action under § 36.503, the court— (1) May grant any equitable relief that such court considers to be appropriate, including... disabilities; (2) May award other relief as the court considers to be appropriate, including monetary damages...

  16. Effectiveness of Property Tax Relief in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.; Hwang, C. S.

    This study examines the effects of the 1979 Oregon Property Tax Relief Plan on 1980-81 school district budget decisions by comparing the available tax relief, the school expenditures, and the tax levies in the state for the years 1975-81. The history of direct and indirect property tax relief in Oregon is sketched for the years prior to 1979; the…

  17. Service Learning Through Disaster Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Duerst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.

  18. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging

  19. Secondary atomic effects accompanying nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walen, R.J.; Briancon, C.

    1975-01-01

    Some consequences of the production of inner-shell vacancies in γ-ray internal conversion are considered and internal ionization or shakeoff accompanying β decay and nuclear electron capture are discussed

  20. Remembering reliefs that have disappeared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, N.

    1998-01-01

    Natural radioactivity can give information about age but also about thermal evolution of rocks. The accumulation of decay products in a material can be disturbed by temperature rising. Over a certain temperature called opening temperature the decay products are migrating due to atomic diffusion. The decay reactions used usually are K 40 /Ar 40 , Sm 143 /Nd 144 , C 14 /N 14 and the successive disintegrations of uranium leading to lead. A method known as thermo-chronology studies these isotopic ratios and links them to temperatures. The application of this method to the understanding of the tectonic slab collision between India and Asia is described and some conclusions about the relief are drawn. (A.C.)

  1. Exercise Based- Pain Relief Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein

    in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...

  2. Impact of Tax Relief on Public Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikas Egidijus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax reliefs are optional, but a very important element of the taxation system. This element is used for different purposes by a country’s government institutions. Tax reliefs are a form of tax expenditure that helps to reduce budget revenues. Tax reliefs influence individual and corporate financial behaviour and can have positive or negative effects on the economic and social factors. In the last few years, expansion of tax relief has attracted worldwide attention because of the fact that, after the global financial crisis, many countries are still suffering from fiscal deficits, and expansion of tax relief has not contributed to solving this problem. Tax reliefs are presupposed to be a fiscal policy tool of significance in various subsystems of public finances. The main aim of this article is to examine the impact of personal income tax reliefs on Lithuanian public finances. To achieve this aim, statistical information was systemized; Monte Carlo method was used to group data by horizontal rows and logical links analysed, which helped to evaluate the influence of tax reliefs on public finances. In the simulations, the Monte Carlo method helped to simulate random samples, which were then examined by adapting the conclusions of the theory of probability and mathematical statistics methods.

  3. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ''Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,'' of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task

  4. Analysis of residual stress relief mechanisms in post-weld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Pingsha; Song, Shaopin; Zhang, Jinmiao

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a recent study on weld residual stress relief mechanisms associated with furnace-based uniform post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). Both finite element and analytical methods are used to quantitatively examine how plastic deformation and creep relaxation contribute to residual stress relief process at different stages of PWHT process. The key contribution of this work to an improved understanding of furnace based uniform PWHT can be summarized as follows: (1)Plastic deformation induced stress relief during PWHT can be analytically expressed by the change in material elastic deformation capacity (or elastic deformation limit) measured in terms of material yield strength to Young's modulus ratio, which has a rather limited role in overall residual stress relief during furnace based uniform PWHT. (2)The most dominant stress relief mechanism is creep strain induced stress relaxation, as expected. However, a rapid creep strain development accompanied by a rapid residual stress reduction during heating stage before reaching PWHT temperature is shown to contribute to most of the stress relief seen in overall PWHT process, suggesting PWHT hold time can be significantly reduced as far as residual stress relief is concerned. (3)A simple engineering scheme for estimating residual stress reduction is proposed based on this study by relating material type, PWHT temperature, and component wall thickness. - Highlights: • The paper clarified effects of plastic deformation and creep relaxation on weld residual stress relief during uniform PWHT. • Creep strain development is far more important than plastic strain, mostly completed even before hold time starts. • Plastic strain development is insignificant and be analytically described by a material elastic deformation capacity parameter. • An engineering estimation scheme is proposed for determining residual stress reduction resulted from furnace based PWHT

  5. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect

  6. Pictorial relief for equiluminant images

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Andrea J.; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J.

    2005-03-01

    Pictorial relief depends strongly on "cues" in the image. For isoluminant renderings some cues are missing, namely all information that is related to luminance contrast (e.g., shading, atmospheric perspective). It has been suggested that spatial discrimination and especially pictorial space suffer badly in isoluminant conditions. We have investigated the issue through quantitative measurement of pictorial depth-structure under normal and isoluminant conditions. As stimuli we used monochrome halftone photographs, either as such, or "transposed" to Red/Green or Green/Red hue modulations. We used two distinct methods, one to probe pictorial pose (by way of correspondences settings between pictures of an object in different poses), the other to probe pictorial depth (by way of attitude settings of a gauge figure to a perceptual "fit"). In both experiments the depth reconstructions for Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions were very similar. Moreover, observers performed equally well in Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions. Thus, the general conclusion is that observers did not do markedly worse with the isoluminant Red/Green and Green/Red transposed images. Whereas the transposed images certainly looked weird, they were easily interpreted. Much of the structure of pictorial space was apparently preserved. Thus the notion that spatial representations are not sustained under isoluminant conditions should be applied with caution.

  7. Performance of balanced bellows safety relief valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.S.

    1992-01-01

    By the nature of its design, the set point and lift of a conventional spring loaded safety relief valve are sensitive to back pressure. One way to reduce the adverse effects of the back pressure on the safety relief valve function is to install a balanced bellows in a safety relief valve. The metallic bellows has a rather wide range of manufacturing tolerance which makes the design of the bellows safety relief valve very complicated. The state-of-the-art balanced bellows safety relief valve can only substantially minimize, but cannot totally eliminate the back pressure effects on its set point and relieving capacity. Set point change is a linear function of the back pressure to the set pressure ratio. Depending on the valve design, the set point correction factor can be either greater or smaller than unity. There exists an allowable back pressure and critical back pressure for each safety relief valve. When total back pressure exceeds the R a , the relieving capacity will be reduced mainly resulting from the valve lift being reduced by the back pressure and the capacity reduction factor should be applied in valve sizing. Once the R c is exceeded, the safety relief valve becomes unstable and loses its over pressure protection capability. The capacity reduction factor is a function of system overpressure, but their relationship is non-linear in nature. (orig.)

  8. Laparoscopic Adhesiolysis and Relief of Chronic Pelvic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Nezhat, Farr R.; Crystal, Ruth Ann; Nezhat, Ceana H.; Nezhat, Camran R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic enterolysis in patients with chronic pelvic pain following hysterectomy. Methods: Forty-eight patients were evaluated at time intervals from 2 weeks to 5 years after laparoscopic enterolysis. Patients were asked to rate postoperative relief of their pelvic pain as complete/near complete relief (80-100% pain relief), significant relief (50-80% pain relief), or less than 50% or no pain relief. Results: We found that after 2...

  9. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  10. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  11. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain.

  12. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...

  13. Supply Chain Management in Humanitarian Relief Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodman, William

    2004-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations...

  14. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  15. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  16. Lake Bathymetric DEM Shaded Relief Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geo-referenced, shaded relief image of lake bathymetry classified at 5-foot depth intervals. This dataset has a cell resolution of 5 meters (occasionally 10m) as...

  17. The Team Approach to Pain Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

  18. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    -accompaniment relationship. Results of interaction data and video analysis show that 1) teams related to each other through their experience with verbal conversation, 2) users searched for harmonic relations and 3) were able to establish rhythmical grounding. The paper concludes with some design guidelines for future solo...... in order to understand how future shared electronic music instruments can be de-signed to encourage non-musicians to engage in social action through music improvisation. A combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis was used to find characteristics in co-expression found in a solo......-accompaniment shared improvisation interfaces: How real time analysis of co-expression can be mapped to ad-ditional sound feedback that supports, strengthens and evolves co-expression in improvisation....

  19. Pigmentary glaucoma accompanied by Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucheki, Behrooz; Jalali, Kamran Hodjat

    2012-08-01

    To report a case of pigmentary glaucoma (PG) accompanied by Usher syndrome. Case report. The results were presented after standard ocular examination, visual field test, anterior segment and fundus photography, electroretinography, and otolaryngology consultation were conducted. Typical retinitis pigmentosa, flat electroretinography, congenital sensorineural hearing loss, high intraocular pressure, Krukenberg spindle, iris concavity, radial iris transillumination defect, severe pigment deposition on the trabecular meshwork, and glaucomatous optic nerve damage were indicative of PG accompanied by Usher syndrome. In some rare cases, PG may coexist with Usher syndrome. Common findings of Usher syndrome, including night blindness, impaired vision, visual field defects, and retinal changes may distract the clinician from considering the diagnosis of glaucoma. Such association should be borne in mind to make a timely diagnosis and treatment possible.

  20. Cases to accompany contemporary strategy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R. Grant

    2007-01-01

    This volume represents an ongoing committment to examining the concepts and techniques of business strategy analysis in the context of real business situations. The cases have been written to accompany Contemporary Strategy Analysis textbook. Each case presents issues that illuminate the ideas, concepts, and analytical techniques contained in one or more chapters of the textbook. Most important, the cases promote deep learning by students of strategic management by requiring the application o...

  1. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  2. Mechanical behavior of multipass welded joint during stress relief annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Fukuda, Keiji; Nakacho, Keiji; Takahashi, Eiji; Sakamoto, Koichi.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation into mechanical behavior of a multipass welded joint of a pressure vessel during stress relief annealing was conducted. The study was performed theoretically and experimentally on idealized research models. In the theoretical analysis, the thermal elastic-plastic creep theory developed by the authors was applied. The behavior of multipass welded joints during the entire thermal cycle, from welding to stress relief annealing, was consistently analyzed by this theory. The results of the analysis show a good, fundamentally coincidence with the experimental findings. The outline of the results and conclusions is as follows. (1) In the case of the material (2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel) furnished in this study, the creep strain rate during stress relief annealing below 575 0 C obeys the strain-hardening creep law using the transient creep and the one above 575 0 C obeys the power creep law using the stational creep. (2) In the transverse residual stress (σsub(x)) distribution after annealing, the location of the largest tensile stress on the top surface is about 15 mm away from the toe of weld, and the largest at the cross section is just below the finishing bead. These features are similar to those of welding residual stresses. But the stress distribution after annealing is smoother than one from welding. (3) The effectiveness of stress relief annealing depends greatly on the annealing temperature. For example, most of residual stresses are relieved at the heating stage with a heating rate of 30 0 C/hr. to 100 0 C/hr. if the annealing temperature is 650 0 C, but if the annealing temperature is 550 0 C, the annealing is not effective even with a longer holding time. (4) In the case of multipass welding residual stresses studied in this paper, the behaviors of high stresses during annealing are approximated by ones during anisothermal relaxation. (auth.)

  3. Management of penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekim, H.; Basel, H.; Odabasi, D.; Tuncer, M.; Gumrukcuoglu, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Penetrating heart injury is potentially a life threatening condition due to cardiac tamponade or exsanguinating hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to evaluate victims who were referred to our hospital with penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries and to review our overall outcome with this type of combined injuries. Methodology: Twenty patients with combined penetrating heart and lung injuries were operated at Yuzuncu Yil University Research Hospital, between May 1999 and January 2010. The diagnosis of combined heart and lung injuries was proved by surgical exploration in all cases. The surgical procedures mainly included the relief of cardiac tamponade, control of bleeding, repair of cardiac and pulmonary lacerations, and coronary artery bypass grafting if required. Results: In this series of 20 patients; there were 18 males and two females between the age of 14 to 60 years, with a mean age of 34.8+-13.5 years. Seventeen victims sustained stab wounds, and the remaining three were injured by a gunshot wounds. In 20 patients there were 22 cardiac chamber injuries. The most commonly injured cardiac chamber was the right ventricle followed by the left ventricle. In addition to the injuries to heart muscle, injuries to the coronary arteries were found in two patients. The most commonly injured lung lobe was the left upper lobe. Conclusion: Our experience shows that early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention are the main factors affecting patient survival after penetrating heart and lung injuries. Therefore, heart injury should always be kept in mind in victims with penetrating thoracic injuries. (author)

  4. Severe Hypoglycemia Accompanied with Thyroid Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakatani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 32-year-old Japanese women with severe hypoglycemia accompanied with thyroid crisis. She complained of dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism with congestive heart failure and liver dysfunction. Soon after admission, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred. She was then transferred to the intensive care unit. Her serum glucose level was 7 mg/dl. Intravenous glucose, hydrocortisone, diuretics, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF saved her. We considered that hypoglycemia occurred due to heart failure and liver dysfunction due to thyroid crisis.

  5. Effects of Herbal Acupuncture(Soyeum on Cancer Patients Accompanied by Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Seung Yoo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was designed to evaluate effects of "Soyeum" on cancer patients accompanied by pain. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 9 patients accompanied by pain who had been injected with "Soyeum" for over 14 days continuously in East-West Cancer Center of Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University from June 2002 through August 2002. Results : The statistical significance between the pre-treatment and post-treatment results (Changes of Cytokine Level, QOL, BPQ and Pain relief after pain management were analyzed. Analysis of cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ level showed that the percentage of increase of IL-12 is 60.0%, IFN-γ is 60.0%. Analysis of QOL showed that the percentage of maintenance and improvement is 77.8%. 55.5% of the patients reported a "worst pain" intensity score of 3 or greater, 44.5% reported a "least pain" intensity score of 2 or greater, and 66.7% reported "average pain" intensity score of 2 or greater. 33.3% of the patients were in pain at the time of interview and 22.2% had a current intensity score of 2 or greater. Analysis of pain relief after pain management showed that the percentage of pain relief score of 2 and 3 is 55.6%. The data was expressed as Mean±SE by using descriptive statistics. Statistical significance examined by using paired t-test. Conclusions : It is suggested that "Soyeum" has effects on pain of cancer patients, also expected that "Soyeum" is useful to improve immunoactivity and for cancer patients.

  6. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury

  7. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  8. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  9. Quantifying relief on alluvial fans using airborne lidar to reveal patterns of sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a method of quantifying detailed surface relief on alluvial fans from high-resolution topography. Average slope and curvature of the fan are used together to empirically derive an idealized, radially symmetric fan surface, from which we compute residual topography. Maps produced using this technique highlight spatial patterns of fan deposition and avulsion. Regions of high residual topography reveal active and abandoned sediment lobes accumulated from recent depositional events, often with well-defined channels at their apex. Preliminary observations suggest that surface relief is uniform across a collection of fans in a given region and source lithology. Alluvial fans with granitic catchment lithologies in eastern California (n=12), each with varying source catchment size and mean fan slope, all show relief of around 4 meters. A collection of fans from the Carrizo Plain in central California (n=12), with source catchments set within Miocene marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks, show significantly lower relief values around 2 meters. We hypothesize that particle grain size determines this contrasting relief through its control on the thickness of fan-building debris flows. In both settings we find that sediment lobes tend to extend toward the fan toe. This pattern supports a process, observed in analog experiments, of fan deposition dominated by back-filling and overtopping of distributary channels by debris-flows.

  10. Optimal Laser Phototherapy Parameters for Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Rohit J; Rubatt, Sarah; Enwemeka, Chukuka S; Huddleston, Wendy E

    2018-03-27

    Studies on laser phototherapy for pain relief have used parameters that vary widely and have reported varying outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal parameter ranges of laser phototherapy for pain relief by analyzing data aggregated from existing primary literature. Original studies were gathered from available sources and were screened to meet the pre-established inclusion criteria. The included articles were then subjected to meta-analysis using Cohen's d statistic for determining treatment effect size. From these studies, ranges of the reported parameters that always resulted into large effect sizes were determined. These optimal ranges were evaluated for their accuracy using leave-one-article-out cross-validation procedure. A total of 96 articles met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis and yielded 232 effect sizes. The average effect size was highly significant: d = +1.36 (confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.04-1.68). Among all the parameters, total energy was found to have the greatest effect on pain relief and had the most prominent optimal ranges of 120-162 and 15.36-20.16 J, which always resulted in large effect sizes. The cross-validation accuracy of the optimal ranges for total energy was 68.57% (95% CI = 53.19-83.97). Fewer and less-prominent optimal ranges were obtained for the energy density and duration parameters. None of the remaining parameters was found to be independently related to pain relief outcomes. The findings of meta-analysis indicate that laser phototherapy is highly effective for pain relief. Based on the analysis of parameters, total energy can be optimized to yield the largest effect on pain relief.

  11. Bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Kocak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a rare hereditary retinal disease characterized by a tangential splitting of the neurosensory retina which may cause early-onset visual impairment. Existence of the retinal neurosensory layer splitting on cross-sectional images of optical coherance tomography (OCT and the absence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA help confirming the diagnosis. Such diagnostic tests are also helpful in determining the management of the disease. However, most of the retinoschisis cavities remain stable and rarely extend to the posterior pole, many authors suggest laser prophylaxis to avoid the potential risk of retinal detachment due to holes in the outer retinal layer. Herein, we report a case with bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis who was evaluated with detailed ophthalmologic examination. Visual acuity, fundoscopy, OCT, and FA remained stable in the second year of follow-up after prophylactic argon laser treatment.

  12. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.508 Individual...

  13. Emergency networking: famine relief in ant colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sendova-Franks, A.B.; Hayward, R.; Wulf, B.; Klimek, T.; James, R.; Planque, R.; Britton, N.F.; Franks, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Resource distribution is fundamental to social organization, but it poses a dilemma. How to facilitate the spread of useful resources but restrict harmful substances? This dilemma reaches a zenith in famine relief. Survival depends on distributing food fast but that could increase vulnerability to

  14. 32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General. Plaintiffs...). Because these actions can quickly impede military functions, immediate and decisive action must be taken...

  15. 78 FR 19136 - Emergency Relief Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... issuing this interim final rule in order to comply with the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013... FTA-2013-0004. All electronic submissions must be made to the U.S. Government electronic site at http... operating costs in the event of a catastrophic event, such as a natural disaster, that affects a wide area...

  16. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  17. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  18. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  19. Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.; Burbey, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of groundwater can generate land subsidence by causing the compaction of susceptible aquifer systems, typically unconsolidated alluvial or basin-fill aquifer systems comprising aquifers and aquitards. Various ground-based and remotely sensed methods are used to measure and map subsidence. Many areas of subsidence caused by groundwater pumping have been identified and monitored, and corrective measures to slow or halt subsidence have been devised. Two principal means are used to mitigate subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal—reduction of groundwater withdrawal, and artificial recharge. Analysis and simulation of aquifer-system compaction follow from the basic relations between head, stress, compressibility, and groundwater flow and are addressed primarily using two approaches—one based on conventional groundwater flow theory and one based on linear poroelasticity theory. Research and development to improve the assessment and analysis of aquifer-system compaction, the accompanying subsidence and potential ground ruptures are needed in the topic areas of the hydromechanical behavior of aquitards, the role of horizontal deformation, the application of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry, and the regional-scale simulation of coupled groundwater flow and aquifer-system deformation to support resource management and hazard mitigation measures.

  20. Inner shell ionization accompanying nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Selected phenomena leading to inner shell ionization and being of relevance for nuclear physics are discussed. The selection emphasizes the K-shell ionization induced in head-on collisions by fast light and medium-heavy ions. Cross-sections are reviewed. Effects of multiple inner shell ionization on the K X-ray spectra are illustrated with recent results. Implications for nuclear experiments are noted. Use of atomic observables as clocks for proton induced nuclear reactions is reviewed. Prospects for H.I. reactions are discussed. Preliminary experimental results on the direct K-shell ionization accompanying H.I. fusion reactions are presented. The post-collisional K-shell ionization due to internal conversion of γ-rays is discussed as the dominating contribution to the ionization for residues of dissipative nuclear reactions with Z > 40. Systematics of the corresponding K X-ray multiplicities are presented for rotational nuclei. These multiplicity values can be used for determining cross-sections for e.g. incomplete fusion reactions. Examples of such applications are given. Also discussed is the use of target K X-rays for normalization purposes and of the post-collisional, residue K X-rays in the studies of high spin phenomena. 96 references, 35 figures, 3 tables

  1. BRIDGING THE STRATEGIC TO OPERATIONAL GAP: AIR MOBILTY IN NATURAL DISASTER RELIEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    adequate resources are tasked for the operation. Disaster relief, by nature, is not afforded the same luxury as a traditional military operation... exclusion zone around the plant. The establishment of the exclusion zone substantially hindered operations into Sendai, the nearest mobility-capable...additional infrastructure consideration for the airspace was the nuclear exclusion zone. Ultimately, aircraft and surface vessels, unless specifically

  2. Teaching with AR as a Tool for Relief Visualization: Usability and Motivation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Carlos Carbonell; Perez, Jose Luis Saorin; Cantero, Jorge de la Torre

    2018-01-01

    In the field of geographical and environmental education, maps and geo-referenced information are frequently used, in which the earth's surfaces are represented in a two-dimensional (2D) way. Students have difficulty interpreting the relief representation and switching between 2D and 3D scenarios. Digital terrain modelling is added to the…

  3. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...

  4. Mechanical Designs for Relief Valves for Cryogenic Apparatuses and Installations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    There are also pressure relief valves with warm seat available on which the set pressure is based on an adjustment of forces by permanent magnets. Pressure vessel rules allows also the choice for an active triggered pressure relief valve (Cont...

  5. Auroral pulsations and accompanying VLF emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Tagirov

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous TV observations of pulsating auroral patches and ELF-VLF-emissions in the morning sector carried out in Sodankylä (Finland on February 15, 1991 are presented. Auroral pulsating activity was typical having pulsating patches with characteristic periods of about 7 s. Narrow-band hiss emissions and chorus elements at intervals of 0.3–0.4 s formed the main ELF-VLF activity in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 kHz at the same time. The analysis of auroral images with time resolution of 0.04 s allowed perfectly separate analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the auroral luminosity. Mutual correspondence between the behaviour of the luminous auroral patches and the appearance of ELF noise type hiss emissions and VLF chorus trains was found in two intervals chosen for analysis. While the hiss emissions were associated with the appearance of luminosity inside a limited area close to the zenith, the structured VLF emissions were accompanied by rapid motion of luminosity inside the area. The spatial dimension of the pulsating area was about 45–50 km and luminosity propagated inside it with velocity of about 10–12 kms. We discuss a new approach to explain the 5–15 s auroral pulsation based on the theory of flowing cyclotron maser and relaxation characteristics of ionosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  6. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Champagnac Jean Daniel; Valla Pierre G.; Herman Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present review paper is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief. Different meanings of the word "relief" as it is commonly used and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily low temperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides) and analyze published evidence for different regions.Our review first shows that relief changes and rates of changes a...

  7. 16 CFR 1500.125 - Labeling requirements for accompanying literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. 1500.125 Section 1500.125 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.125 Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. When any accompanying literature...

  8. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN 1997) (a) Prices set forth in this contract are exclusive of all taxes and duties from which the United...

  10. 19 CFR 210.52 - Motions for temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....52 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.52 Motions for temporary relief... issuance of temporary relief, the Commission will be guided by practice under Rule 65 of the Federal Rules...

  11. Photobiomodulation: Implications for Anesthesia and Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Roberta T; Armati, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    This review examines the evidence of neural inhibition as a mechanism underlying pain relief and anesthetic effect of photobiomodulation (PBM). PBM for pain relief has also been used for more than 30 years; however, the mechanism of its effectiveness has not been well understood. We review electrophysiological studies in humans and animal models and cell culture studies to examine neural responses to PBM. Evidence shows that PBM can inhibit nerve function in vivo, in situ, ex vivo, and in culture. Animal studies using noxious stimuli indicate nociceptor-specific inhibition with other studies providing direct evidence of local conduction block, leading to inhibited translation of pain centrally. Evidence of PBM-disrupted neuronal physiology affecting axonal flow, cytoskeleton organization, and decreased ATP is also presented. PBM changes are reversible with no side effects or nerve damage. This review provides strong evidence in neuroscience identifying inhibition of neural function as a mechanism for the clinical application of PBM in pain and anesthesia.

  12. Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    eventually guide vehicles in cooperation with its Operator(s), but in this paper we assume static mission goals, a fixed number of vehicles, and a...is tedious and error prone. Kress-Gazit et al. (2009) instead synthesize an FSA from an LTL specification using a game theory approach (Bloem et al...helping an Operator coordinate a team of vehicles in Disaster Relief. Acknowledgements Thanks to OSD ASD (R&E) for sponsoring this research. The

  13. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  14. Venting of gas deflagrations through relief pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safety locations by means of relief pipes for the discharge of hot combustion products or blast waves (NFPA 68, 2002). The presence of the duct is likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to simply vented vessels posing a problem for the proper design of this venting configuration. The phenomenology of the vented explosion is complicated as the interaction of combustion in the duct with primary combustion in...

  15. Anthropogenic transformation of the relief of the Aegean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsermegas Irena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the role of human impact in the forming and transformation of the relief of the Aegean Islands. The most significant changes (with a displacement of more than 10 bln m3 of rock material are related to the creation of road infrastructure and the construction of agricultural terraces. In order to create stone buildings, 20 mln m3 of rock material was used; for the purposes of air transport a surface area of nearly 2.5 km2 was levelled; many kilometres of artificial shorelines were created and at least 4.5 mln m3 of material was displaced for the purposes of the construction of artificial reservoirs of a total capacity of more than 25 mln m3. A huge amount of material was removed as a result of mining activities. The indirect impact of economic activities on the relief of the discussed area includes mainly slope, fluvial and coastal processes.

  16. Fertility reduction programmes should accompany land reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiku, J

    1994-01-01

    health and welfare. Fertility reduction programs should be accompanied by economic policies, such as land reform. Uganda's proposed policy promotes intervention programs in health, nutrition, education, and the environment. To succeed, local support must be mobilized, and population problems should be addressed in a way that integrates gender equity, empowerment of women, sustained economic growth, eradication of poverty, and international cooperation.

  17. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  18. Fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation of spring-loaded pressure relief valves under seismic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dongwei; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Xinhai

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation method of spring-loaded pressure relief valve was established. The dynamic performances of the fluid regions and the stress and strain of the structure regions were calculated at the same time by accurately setting up the contact pairs between the solid parts and the coupling surfaces between the fluid regions and the structure regions. A two way fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation of a simplified pressure relief valve model was carried out. The influence of vertical sinusoidal seismic waves on the performance of the pressure relief valve was preliminarily investigated by loading sine waves. Under vertical seismic waves, the pressure relief valve will flutter, and the reseating pressure was affected by the amplitude and frequency of the seismic waves. This simulation method of the pressure relief valve under vertical seismic waves can provide effective means for investigating the seismic performances of the valves, and make up for the shortcomings of the experiment.

  19. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area. The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water. The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of

  20. The accompanying adult: authority to give consent in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Seema Madhur Lata; Parekh, Susan; Mason, Carol; Roberts, Graham

    2007-05-01

    Children may be accompanied by various people when attending for dental treatment. Before treatment is started, there is a legal requirement that the operator obtain informed consent for the proposed procedure. In the case of minors, the person authorized to give consent (parental responsibility) is usually a parent. To ascertain if accompanying persons of children attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the Eastman Dental Hospital, London were empowered to give consent for the child's dental treatment. A total of 250 accompanying persons of children attending were selected, over a 6-month period. A questionnaire was used to establish whether the accompanying person(s) were authorized to give consent. The study showed that 12% of accompanying persons had no legal authority to give consent for the child's dental treatment. Clinicians need to be aware of the status of persons accompanying children to ensure valid consent is obtained.

  1. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice

  2. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.

    1978-01-18

    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice.

  3. Pain relief in labour: tramadol versus pentazocine

    OpenAIRE

    Kavita Chandnani; H. B. Sainee

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of 100 mg intramuscular tramadol to 30 mg intramuscular Pentazocine for labour analgesia. Methods: A total of 60 cases with 37-40 weeks pregnancy in labour, without any foetal or maternal complications were selected. Out of them Inj. Tramadol was given to 30 cases while rest of the 30 patients received injection Pentazocine. Results: In Tramadol group pain relief was observed in 80% cases, effect started as early as 7-8 min an...

  4. Targinact--opioid pain relief without constipation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Targinact (Napp Pharmaceuticals Ltd) is a modified-release combination product containing the strong opioid oxycodone plus the opioid antagonist naloxone. It is licensed for "severe pain, which can be adequately managed only with opioid analgesics".1 The summary of product characteristics (SPC) states that "naloxone is added to counteract opioid-induced constipation by blocking the action of oxycodone at opioid receptors locally in the gut". Advertising for the product claims "better pain relief", "superior GI [gastrointestinal] tolerability" and "improved quality of life" "compared to previous treatment in a clinical practice study (n=7836)". Here we consider whether Targinact offers advantages over using strong opioids plus laxatives where required.

  5. [Body integrity identity disorder, relief after amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, R M; Braam, A W; de Boer-Kreeft, N; Sonnen, M P A M

    2014-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare condition in which a person, for no apparent physical reason, is tormented by the experience that a body-part, such as a limb, does not really belong to the body. Patients experience an intense desire for the limb to be amputated (a 'desire' formerly referred to as 'apotemnophilia'). We report on a 58-year-old male patient with BIID who froze one of his legs so that he could amputate it himself. A surgeon ultimately intervened and amputated the leg professionally. The patient was extremely relieved and was still experiencing relief at a follow-up three years later.

  6. Pain relief by Cyberknife radiosurgery for spinal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyoung; Chun, Mison

    2012-01-01

    To report pain relief effect in patients with spinal metastases treated with Cyberknife® and to analyze the factors associated with pain relapse after initial pain relief. We retrospectively analyzed patients with spinal metastasis treated with stereotactic body radiosurgery between April 2007 and June 2009. A total of 57 patients with 73 lesions were available for analysis with a median follow-up of 6.8 months (range, 1-30). Pain was assessed by a verbal/visual analogue scale at each visit: from 0 to 10. Pain relief was defined as a decrease of at least three levels of the pain score without an increase in analgesic use. Complete relief was defined as no analgesics or a score 0 or 1. Pain relief was achieved in 88% of the lesions, with complete relief in 51% within 7 days from the start of radiosurgery. The median duration of pain relief was 3.2 months (range, 1-30). Pain reappeared in 16 patients (27%). Spinal cord compression (P = 0.001) and performance status (P = 0.01) were predictive of pain relapse by multivariate Cox analysis. All 6 patients treated with solitary spinal metastasis experienced pain relief; 5 of them were alive without evidence of disease at a median of 16 months (range, 7-30). As previous studies have shown, our study confirms that pain relief with spinal radiosurgery is around 90%. In particular, long-term pain relief and disease control was observed in patients with solitary spinal metastasis.

  7. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    .... Reducing this debt to a sustainable level has been a priority of the U.S. government. Since 2003, debt relief negotiations have taken place in a variety of fora and led to the cancellation of a significant amount of Iraq's external debt...

  9. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyars, W. M. [Fermilab

    1999-01-01

    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  10. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  11. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93.409 Section 93.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants...

  12. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  13. 49 CFR 591.6 - Documents accompanying declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) IMPORTATION OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS § 591.6 Documents accompanying... be accompanied by a statement substantiating that the vehicle was not manufactured for use on the...

  14. [About the last transit. Accompaniment of the soul and the personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar Fenés, María

    2013-03-01

    "Death and its approach represent a field of study for nurses": thus ended his article Montserrat Salvador Borrell in Revista ROL de Enfermería in November 2010. Address it also from the point of view of the soul brings perspective and gives horizon in the sense of one greater understanding. Death, contemplated and lived exclusively from the material side, flees from as a not only traumatic event for which the experience but also unsurpassed for loved ones. Paradoxically, it's a more natural and frequent phenomenon. Why humans so hard that naturalness? Because we have not cultivated, sometimes not even recognized, other spiritual nature which forms us and who has the key to give sense to the decisive events. For many spiritual traditions, death is birth to another world that, from here, we call beyond. In accompaniment of soul seminars, based on the teachings transmitted by Elisabeth Kübler Ros and Marie Lise Labonte, patterns are learned to accompany the personality and soul--which does not always go according to the time of split--and to help the soul to rediscover his way toward the light, toward the origin. The soul knows it well, but the emotional ties forged during his earthly journey can retain it and hinder the process, which becomes slow and painful. The accompaniment of the soul is a "service" human, social and spiritual. Guides in a forgotten and often feared territory is a relief. You have guides to prepare the great journey allows, especially, make peace with himself with others I with the world. The Egyptians used the symbol of the solar boat, which waits for the deceased to cross the great waters. Nurses are, unknowingly, barqueras of small and large transits of existence.

  15. 19 CFR 210.56 - Notice accompanying service copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 210.56 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES... temporary relief will be filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission in Washington, DC on ____, 20... Investigations, U.S. International Trade Commission, 500 E Street SW., Room 401, Washington, DC 20436, telephone...

  16. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Kwan, Saskia; Ahmed, Alysha-Karima; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

  17. Sharing Information among Various Organizations in Relief Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costur, Gurkan

    2005-01-01

    .... An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations...

  18. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  19. Reward, motivation and emotion of pain and its relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Frank; Navratilova, Edita

    2016-01-01

    The experience of pain depends on interpretation of context and past experience that guide the choice of an immediate behavioral response and influence future decisions of actions to avoid harm. The aversive qualities of pain underlie its physiological role in learning and motivation. In this review, we highlight findings from human and animal investigations that suggest that both pain, and the relief of pain, are complex emotions that are comprised of feelings and their motivational consequences. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. How relief of pain aversiveness occurs is not well understood. Termination of aversive states can directly provide relief as well as reinforce behaviors that result in avoidance of pain. Emerging preclinical data also suggests that relief may elicit a positive hedonic value that results from activation of neural cortical and mesolimbic brain circuits that may also motivate behavior. Brain circuits mediating the reward of pain relief, as well as relief-induced motivation are significantly impacted as pain becomes chronic. In chronic pain states, the negative motivational value of nociception may be increased while the value of the reward of pain relief may decrease. As a consequence, the impact of pain on these ancient, and conserved brain limbic circuits suggest a path forward for discovery of new pain therapies. PMID:28106670

  20. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What relief will MMS grant? 203.53 Section 203.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE...-Life Leases § 203.53 What relief will MMS grant? (a) If we approve your application and you meet...

  1. Bas-Relief Modeling from Normal Images with Intuitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhongping; Ma, Weiyin; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-05-01

    Traditional 3D model-based bas-relief modeling methods are often limited to model-dependent and monotonic relief styles. This paper presents a novel method for digital bas-relief modeling with intuitive style control. Given a composite normal image, the problem discussed in this paper involves generating a discontinuity-free depth field with high compression of depth data while preserving or even enhancing fine details. In our framework, several layers of normal images are composed into a single normal image. The original normal image on each layer is usually generated from 3D models or through other techniques as described in this paper. The bas-relief style is controlled by choosing a parameter and setting a targeted height for them. Bas-relief modeling and stylization are achieved simultaneously by solving a sparse linear system. Different from previous work, our method can be used to freely design bas-reliefs in normal image space instead of in object space, which makes it possible to use any popular image editing tools for bas-relief modeling. Experiments with a wide range of 3D models and scenes show that our method can effectively generate digital bas-reliefs.

  2. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  3. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3...

  4. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... meetings to which the telecommunications industry and the public are invited on area code relief for a... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING...

  5. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W; Seymour, Ben

    2018-02-27

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty ('associability') signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. © 2018, Zhang et al.

  6. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W

    2018-01-01

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty (‘associability’) signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. PMID:29482716

  7. Between History and Myth: The Figure of Ramesses II against Enemies in Reliefs and Texts of the Battle of Kadesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Horacio Gerván

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to what has been called “history of sense” (Assmann, 2005, every society has a cultural form that is inherent and it is precisely in here where historical events become meaningful, understandable only through the discourses produced. The reliefs and inscriptions from Battle of Kadesh, during the reign of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC are a clear example of remembrance and manifestation of these discourses. In this paper, we propose to analyze them as examples of the construction process of the “cultural memory” (Assmann, 2008, taking as categories of analysis the postulates of semiotics of Umberto Eco (1994 [1973]; 2013 [1968] and the image analysis of Martine Joly (2012 [1993]. As a basic premise, we consider the reliefs and inscriptions accompanying them as a narrative total unity, as speeches complete and complement, to be effective.

  8. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment

    OpenAIRE

    BY Uys; SM Meyer

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-rela...

  9. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Shaded relief, color as height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  10. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF RELIEF INFLUENCE ON EUCALYPTUS FORESTS: INTERACTION BETWEEN SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhasmin Paiva Rody

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the differences in radiation intensity as a function of distinct relief exposure surfaces and to quantify these effects on the leaf area index (LAI and other variables expressing eucalyptus forest productivity for simulations in a process-based growth model. The study was carried out at two contrasting edaphoclimatic locations in the Rio Doce basin in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two stands with 32-year-old plantations were used, allocating fixed plots in locations with northern and southern exposure surfaces. The meteorological data were obtained from two automated weather stations located near the study sites. Solar radiation was corrected for terrain inclination and exposure surfaces, as it is measured based on the plane, perpendicularly to the vertical location. The LAI values collected in the field were used. For the comparative simulations in productivity variation, the mechanistic 3PG model was used, considering the relief exposure surfaces. It was verified that during most of the year, the southern surfaces showed lower availability of incident solar radiation, resulting in up to 66% losses, compared to the same surface considered plane, probably related to its geographical location and higher declivity. Higher values were obtained for the plantings located on the northern surface for the variables LAI, volume and mean annual wood increase, with this tendency being repeated in the 3PG model simulations.

  11. Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending Aδ pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of reward from pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The human experience of pain is multidimensional and comprises sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. Preclinical assessment of pain has been largely focused on the sensory features that contribute to nociception. The affective (aversive) qualities of pain are clinically significant but have received relatively less mechanistic investigation in preclinical models. Recently, operant behaviors such as conditioned place preference, avoidance, escape from noxious stimulus, and analgesic drug self-administration have been used in rodents to evaluate affective aspects of pain. An important advance of such operant behaviors is that these approaches may allow the detection and mechanistic investigation of spontaneous neuropathic or ongoing inflammatory/nociceptive (i.e., nonevoked) pain that is otherwise difficult to assess in nonverbal animals. Operant measures may allow the identification of mechanisms that contribute differentially to reflexive hypersensitivity or to pain affect and may inform the decision to progress novel mechanisms to clinical trials for pain therapy. Additionally, operant behaviors may allow investigation of the poorly understood mechanisms and neural circuits underlying motivational aspects of pain and the reward of pain relief. PMID:23496247

  13. Technology and Information Sharing in Disaster Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerge, Benedikte; Clark, Nathan; Fisker, Peter; Raju, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA). The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led to increases in user activity. We supplement the data-driven approach with evidence from semi-structured interviews with administrators and key users, as well as a survey among all users specifically designed to capture and assess the elements highlighted by both interviews and data analysis.

  14. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries.

  15. Technology and Information Sharing in Disaster Relief.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikte Bjerge

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS under the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA. The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led to increases in user activity. We supplement the data-driven approach with evidence from semi-structured interviews with administrators and key users, as well as a survey among all users specifically designed to capture and assess the elements highlighted by both interviews and data analysis.

  16. Occlusal relief changes with molar wear in Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'kirera, Francis; Ungar, Peter S

    2003-06-01

    Most research on primate tooth form-function relationships has focused on unworn teeth. This study presents a morphological comparison of variably worn lower second molars (M(2)s) of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla; n=47) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes; n=54) using dental topographic analysis. High-resolution replicas of occlusal surfaces were prepared and scanned in 3D by laser scanning. The resulting elevation data were used to create a geographic information system (GIS) for each tooth. Occlusal relief, defined as the ratio of 3D surface area to 2D planometric area of the occlusal table, was calculated and compared between wear stages, taxa, and sexes. The results failed to show a difference in occlusal relief between males and females of a given taxon, but did evince differences between wear stages and between taxa. A lack of significant interaction between wear stage and taxon factors suggests that differences in occlusal relief between chimpanzees and gorillas are maintained throughout the wear sequence. These results add to a growing body of information on how molar teeth change with wear, and how differences between primate species are maintained at comparable points throughout the wear sequence. Such studies provide new insights into form-function relationships, which will allow us to infer certain aspects of diet in fossils with worn teeth.

  17. Glacial erosion of high-elevation low-relief summits on passive continental margins constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    We present a new, extensive in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al dataset from high-elevation low-relief summits along Sognefjorden in Norway. Contrary to previous studies of high-elevation low-relief summits in cold regions, we find only limited cosmogenic nuclide inheritance in bedrock surfaces......, indicating that warm-based ice eroded the summits during the last glacial period. From the isotope concentrations we model denudation histories using a recently developed Monte Carlo Markov Chain inversion model (Knudsen et al, 2015). The model relies on the benthic d18O curve (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005...

  18. Ultrasonic evaluation of heat treatment for stress relief in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Goncalves Filho, Orlando J.A.; Payao Filho, Joao da C.

    2000-01-01

    Residual stresses in materials arise due to the manufacturing processes. As a consequence, in the nuclear area some components must suffer a stress relief treatment according to strict criteria. Although these treatments are carefully carried on, concern with nuclear safety is constantly growing. This work proposes a nondestructive ultrasonic method to guarantee the efficiency of the heat treatment. It was used a short peened steel plate with tensile and compressive stresses which was submitted to a stress relief treatment. The results show that the proposed ultrasonic method could be used to confirm the efficiency of the stress relief heat treatment. (author)

  19. Proceedings: The Appendix 'K' relief workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The licensing and operation of commercial LWRs were impacted significantly when Appendix 'K' requirements for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) analyses were implemented in 1974. The Appendix K requirements included both criteria and mandatory assumptions for LOCA analysis. Plants must meet these criteria, using analysis methods that have included very conservative assumptions, such as estimating decay heat energy as 20% greater than the 1971 American Nuclear Society standard. Additional constraints were placed on the application of specific models and correlations. The Appendix K requirements had a significant impact on licensing, analysis, fuel design, reload management, plant operation, and some supporting equipment. The overall impact of Appendix K could be translated into increased costs of millions of dollars per year to utilities. The Appendix 'K' Relief Workshop provided an improved understanding of the trade-offs -- both benefits and efforts required -- inherent in continuing to use existing analysis methods or adopting BE analysis under revised NRC rule. A range of options is available to each utility. The workshop explored options and benefits to the utility industry from LOCA/ECCS rule change. A forum for complete and open discussion of the issues germaine to the question of BE methodology versus existing methodology in view of LOCA/ECCS rule changes was incorporated. Both regulatory and utility perspectives on the implementation of proposed changes were discussed. Existing and planned efforts in developing and implementing BE uncertainty methodologies for plant-licensing application have been included. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  20. Safety relief valve alternate analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.H.; Javid, A.; Khatua, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental test program was started in the United States in 1976 to define and quantify Safety Relief Valve (SRV) phenomena in General Electric Mark I Suppression Chambers. The testing considered several discharged devices and was used to correlate SRV load prediction models. The program was funded by utilities with Mark I containments and has resulted in a detailed SRV load definition as a portion of the Mark I containment program Load Definition Report (LDR). The (USNRC) has reviewed and approved the LDR SRV load definition. In addition, the USNRC has permitted calibration of structural models used for predicting torus response to SRV loads. Model calibration is subject to confirmatory in-plant testing. The SRV methodology given in the LDR requires that transient dynamic pressures be applied to a torus structural model that includes a fluid added mass matrix. Preliminary evaluations of torus response have indicated order of magnitude conservatisms, with respect to test results, which could result in unrealistic containment modifications. In addition, structural response trends observed in full-scale tests between cold pipe, first valve actuation and hot pipe, subsequent valve actuation conditions have not been duplicated using current analysis methods. It was suggested by others that an energy approach using current fluid models be utilized to define loads. An alternate SRV analysis method is defined to correct suppression chamber structural response to a level that permits economical but conservative design. Simple analogs are developed for the purpose of correcting the analytical response obtained from LDR analysis methods. Analogs evaluated considered forced vibration and free vibration structural response. The corrected response correlated well with in-plant test response. The correlation of the analytical model at test conditions permits application of the alternate analysis method at design conditions. (orig./HP)

  1. Brain's reward circuits mediate itch relief. a functional MRI study of active scratching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    Full Text Available Previous brain imaging studies investigating the brain processing of scratching used an exogenous intervention mimicking scratching, performed not by the subjects themselves, but delivered by an investigator. In real life, scratching is a conscious, voluntary, controlled motor response to itching, which is directed to the perceived site of distress. In this study we aimed to visualize in real-time by brain imaging the core mechanisms of the itch-scratch cycle when scratching was performed by subjects themselves. Secondly, we aimed to assess the correlations between brain patterns of activation and psychophysical ratings of itch relief or pleasurability of scratching. We also compared the patterns of brain activity evoked by self-scratching vs. passive scratching. We used a robust tridimensional Arterial Spin Labeling fMRI technique that is less sensitive to motion artifacts: 3D gradient echo and spin echo (GRASE--Propeller. Active scratching was accompanied by a higher pleasurability and induced a more pronounced deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex and insula, in comparison with passive scratching. A significant involvement of the reward system including the ventral tegmentum of the midbrain, coupled with a mechanism deactivating the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG, suggests that itch modulation operates in reverse to the mechanism known to suppress pain. Our findings not only confirm a role for the central networks processing reward in the pleasurable aspects of scratching, but also suggest they play a role in mediating itch relief.

  2. Temperature effect on the formation of a relief of diamond-like carbon coatings and its modification by ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubshtein, A.P.; Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.; Yugov, V.A.; Vladimirov, A.B.; Plotnikov, S.A.; Ponosov, Yu.S

    2006-01-01

    Using the method of pulsed arc sputtering of a graphite target the diamond-like coatings (DLC) ∼1.5 μm thick are deposited on a steel R6M5 substrate. The relief of the coatings obtained under various temperature conditions is investigated. Variations of carbon DLC surfaces are followed after their bombardment with accelerated argon or chemically active oxygen ions. Argon ion bombardment is established to be preferred for producing a smoothed-out DLC relief. It is shown that a DLC relief should be taken into account when measuring microhardness. It is recommended that transformation of interatomic bonds in irradiated subsurface layers be taken into consideration if information index of methods applied constitutes several monolayers [ru

  3. A novel and effective acupuncture modality as a complementary therapy to acute pain relief in inpatients with rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Chao-Wei; Li, Ming-Chieh; Hsu, Yu-Pao; Kang, Shih-Ching; Liu, Erh-Hao; Lee, Ko-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Pain control has been emphasized as a priority for both practitioners and inpatients with rib fractures, since analgesia could only offer limited relief from severe pain. A prospective and randomized controlled trial was conducted to analyze the efficacy and efficiency of acupuncture in acute pain relief for inpatients with rib fractures. A total of 58 inpatients were recruited and allocated to two groups, receiving identical doses of conventional oral analgesics as well as filiform needles as treatment and thumbtack intradermal (TI) needles placed upon the skin surface as a control, respectively, via novel acupuncture modality once daily for three consecutive days. The effect of pain relief was evaluated during activities that induce pain, and sustained maximal inspiration (SMI) lung volumes and sleep quality were assessed. The patients treated with filiform needles had more effective pain relief than those in the TI needle group during deep breathing, coughing, and turning over the body (p pain relief via acupuncture. The active evaluation could provide a more adaptive model for assessing pain intensity due to rib fractures. This novel acupuncture modality in which the needle insertion sites are corresponding to the pain spots can be a safe and viable therapy for relieving pain in inpatients with rib fractures.

  4. A novel and effective acupuncture modality as a complementary therapy to acute pain relief in inpatients with rib fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Ho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain control has been emphasized as a priority for both practitioners and inpatients with rib fractures, since analgesia could only offer limited relief from severe pain. A prospective and randomized controlled trial was conducted to analyze the efficacy and efficiency of acupuncture in acute pain relief for inpatients with rib fractures. Methods: A total of 58 inpatients were recruited and allocated to two groups, receiving identical doses of conventional oral analgesics as well as filiform needles as treatment and thumbtack intradermal (TI needles placed upon the skin surface as a control, respectively, via novel acupuncture modality once daily for three consecutive days. The effect of pain relief was evaluated during activities that induce pain, and sustained maximal inspiration (SMI lung volumes and sleep quality were assessed. Results: The patients treated with filiform needles had more effective pain relief than those in the TI needle group during deep breathing, coughing, and turning over the body (p < 0.05, and the effect persisted for at least 6 h in most patients. Sustained maximal inspiration lung volumes and sleep quality did not show improvement through every acupuncture intervention, and they could not respond accurately to pain relief via acupuncture. Conclusion: The active evaluation could provide a more adaptive model for assessing pain intensity due to rib fractures. This novel acupuncture modality in which the needle insertion sites are corresponding to the pain spots can be a safe and viable therapy for relieving pain in inpatients with rib fractures.

  5. Surgical management of complete penile duplication accompanied by multiple anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Irfan; Turk, Erdal; Ucan, A Basak; Yayla, Derya; Itirli, Gulcin; Ercal, Derya

    2014-09-01

    Diphallus (penile duplication) is very rare and seen once every 5.5 million births. It can be isolated, but is usually accompanied by other congenital anomalies. Previous studies have reported many concurrent anomalies, such as bladder extrophy, cloacal extrophy, duplicated bladder, scrotal abnormalities, hypospadias, separated symphysis pubis, intestinal anomalies and imperforate anus; no penile duplication case accompanied by omphalocele has been reported. We present the surgical management of a patient with multiple anomalies, including complete penile duplication, hypo-gastric omphalocele and extrophic rectal duplication.

  6. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northwest Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  7. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Western Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  8. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  9. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  10. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  11. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  12. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  13. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  14. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides a comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a seamless...

  15. Knowledge of and attitude towards pain relief during labour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined women's knowledge of and attitudes to pain relief during labour. Methods ... Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa .... Breathing exercises. 25.

  16. Antiemetic Medicines: OTC Relief for Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  17. Anti-Seizure Medications: Relief from Nerve Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti-seizure medications: Relief from nerve pain Anti-seizure drugs often are used to help control the type of ... by damaged nerves. By Mayo Clinic Staff Anti-seizure medications were originally designed to treat people with ...

  18. Engineering and Design. Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Relief Wells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide guidance and information on the design, construction, and maintenance of pressure relief wells installed for the purpose of relieving subsurface hydrostatic...

  19. 29 CFR 1601.23 - Preliminary or temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or political subdivision. (b) In a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political... private individuals from exercising their rights to seek temporary or preliminary relief on their own...

  20. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY... region of origin, or if exported from Mexico, shall be accompanied either by such a certificate or by a certificate issued by a veterinarian accredited by the National Government of Mexico and endorsed by a full...

  1. Accompanied driving in The Netherlands : who do participate and why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Craen, S. de

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a six year accompanied driving experiment started in the Netherlands. This questionnaire study investigated which youngsters (intend to) participate and why, with the purpose of assessing whether there is a potential self-selection bias that can be relevant for the oncoming evaluation of

  2. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  3. Automotive Mechanics: Handbook to Accompany VESL Vocabulary Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Gail; Lenhart, Debra

    This manual is one of four self-contained components of a larger handbook designed to assist secondary and postsecondary instructors and support staff in meeting the needs of limited-English-proficiency (LEP) students in vocational training programs. Together with an accompanying set of vocational English as a second language (VESL) vocabulary…

  4. A CASE OF COR BILOCULARE ACCOMPANIED BY POLYSPLENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. ROJHAN

    1972-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical history and necroscopic fi ndings of a 3 -} year old girl - involved in cor biloculare was reported. In th is case dextrotransposition of the great a rteries and polysplenia was observed. The majority of cor biloculare cases appearing in the literature being accompanied by asplenia, the present case of polysplenia is relatively rare

  5. Bias in Examination Test Banks that Accompany Cost Accounting Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clute, Ronald C.; McGrail, George R.

    1989-01-01

    Eight text banks that accompany cost accounting textbooks were evaluated for the presence of bias in the distribution of correct responses. All but one were found to have considerable bias, and three of eight were found to have significant choice bias. (SK)

  6. Reversal deterioration of renal function accompanied with primary hypothyrodism

    OpenAIRE

    Dragović Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Hypothyroidism is often accompanied with decline of kidney function, or inability to maintain electrolyte balance. These changes are usually overlooked in everyday practice. Early recognition of this association eliminates unnecessary diagnostic procedures that postpone the adequate treatment. Case report. Two patients with elevated serum creatinine levels due to primary autoimmune hypothyroidism, with complete recovery of creatinine clearance after thyroid hormone substit...

  7. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, B Y; Meyer, S M

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators' perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts 'critical thinking' and 'facilitation' were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.

  8. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BY Uys

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.

  9. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  10. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-01-01

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT(reg s ign) model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is ∼37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  11. Selecting boundary conditions in physiological strain analysis of the femur: Balanced loads, inertia relief method and follower load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Mark; Trepczynski, Adam; Duda, Georg N; Zehn, Manfred; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Märdian, Sven

    2015-12-01

    Selection of boundary constraints may influence amount and distribution of loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential of inertia relief and follower load to maintain the effects of musculoskeletal loads even under large deflections in patient specific finite element models of intact or fractured bone compared to empiric boundary constraints which have been shown to lead to physiological displacements and surface strains. The goal is to elucidate the use of boundary conditions in strain analyses of bones. Finite element models of the intact femur and a model of clinically relevant fracture stabilization by locking plate fixation were analyzed with normal walking loading conditions for different boundary conditions, specifically re-balanced loading, inertia relief and follower load. Peak principal cortex surface strains for different boundary conditions are consistent (maximum deviation 13.7%) except for inertia relief without force balancing (maximum deviation 108.4%). Influence of follower load on displacements increases with higher deflection in fracture model (from 3% to 7% for force balanced model). For load balanced models, follower load had only minor influence, though the effect increases strongly with higher deflection. Conventional constraints of fixed nodes in space should be carefully reconsidered because their type and position are challenging to justify and for their potential to introduce relevant non-physiological reaction forces. Inertia relief provides an alternative method which yields physiological strain results. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Problems with radiation protection concerning volunteers accompanying radiological patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian Daoud

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to point out, within the framework of the Radiation Protection guidelines, the irregular situation of the 'volunteer' or 'accompanying person' who accompanies anyone requiring medical treatment with ionising radiation, as well as to suggest a possible justification for such role. It should be noted that most of these persons are subject to ionising radiation without knowing anything about the effects that it could cause on them, so that their condition could be hardly considered as 'voluntary'. There are several circumstances under which the presence of accompanying persons is required, being different among them. Several examples could be mentioned such as: those who are accompanying a direct relative (family bonds), those who are acting in service during their normal work (social workers, policemen) and even those who are forced by unusual under an accidental situation. The qualitative classification that radiological protection established in society concerning radiation risks for people in general enables to set mechanisms of justification, optimisation and dose limitation for each category, being perfectly identified which of them each person belongs to. But the figure of 'accompanying person' has been excluded from such characterisation. They are subject to radiation exposure without knowing it, or without having any information concerning the potential risks. For them, no balance between the net benefit of an adequate medical treatment versus potential health detriment may be applied as for the case of a patient. Thus, their exposure could be not justified. It is not the purpose of this work to question radiological medicine or its practices, but to clarify certain aspects involving members of the public in general, patients and members of the radiological community, as well as to propose lines of action concerning this subject. We conclude that it is not the volunteer who should decide about medical actions, a role

  13. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This shaded relief image of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth.Most of the peninsula is visible here, along with the island of Cozumel off the east coast. The Yucatan is a plateau composed mostly of limestone and is an area of very low relief with elevations varying by less than a few hundred meters (about 500 feet.) In this computer-enhanced image the topography has been greatly exaggerated to highlight a semicircular trough, the darker green arcing line at the upper left corner of the peninsula. This trough is only about 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) deep and is about 5 km. wide (3 miles), so subtle that if you walked across it you probably would not notice it, and is a surface expression of the crater's outer boundary. Scientists believe the impact, which was centered just off the coast in the Caribbean, altered the subsurface rocks such that the overlying limestone sediments, which formed later and erode very easily, would preferentially erode on the vicinity of the crater rim. This formed the trough as well as numerous sinkholes (called cenotes) which are visible as small circular depressions.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwestern slopes appear bright and southeastern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 1.5 m

  14. 30 CFR 204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) To take cumulative reports and payments relief...

  15. 30 CFR 204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You may obtain accounting and auditing relief under...

  16. 30 CFR 204.211 - When may MMS rescind relief for a property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS rescind relief for a property? 204... MMS rescind relief for a property? (a) MMS may retroactively rescind the relief for your property if MMS determines that your property was not eligible for the relief obtained under this subpart because...

  17. “Can LUSI be stopped? - A case study and lessons learned from the relief wells”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisna, E.

    2009-12-01

    Since May 2006, in East Java, Indonesia, the LUSI mud volcano has been erupting huge volumes of mixture of predominately mud and water, with little sign of slowing down. It has disrupted social and economic life in this highly populated region. Most geologists believe LUSI is a naturally-occurring mud volcano (MV), like other MV in the Java island of particular interest are the MV along the Watukosek fault, such as, Kalang Anyar, Pulungan, Gunung Anyar, and Socah MV. All of these MV lie in the vicinity of the SSW/NNE trending Watukosek fault that passes through LUSI. The Porong collapse structure is an ancient MV closest to LUSI approx. 7 km away, which on seismic sections demonstrate its complex multi-branching plumbing system. Assuming that the mudflow passed through the wellbore due to an underground blowout, relief wells (RW) were planned to kill the mudflow and carried out in 3 stages, these were: 1. Re-entering the original Banjarpanji-1 (BJP-1) well to obtain accurate survey data so the relief wells could be steered into intersect this original well. 2. Drilling a monitoring well (M-1) to ascertain whether the soil had sufficient strength to support relief wells. 3. Drilling RW-1 and RW-2. Both RW-1 and RW-2 suffered of surface and subsurface problems never achieved their objectives and had to be aborted. Numbers of good lessons were learned from the relief well initiative, such as: 1. No gas or liquid flowed from the wellhead area when it was excavated one month after the eruption started. The wellhead remained intact and totally dead suggesting that the mud flowed to surface through a fault zone or a fracture network instead of up the wellbore. 2. The ‘fish’ in BJP-1 wellbore was found at its original location and not eroded away. This suggests that the mud flow did not pass through the wellbore. 3. The Temperature log showed lower temp. than surface mud temp. The Sonan log response was quiet. These results suggest that there was no near casing mudflow

  18. Spectral distribution of solo voice and accompaniment in pop music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Daniel Zangger; Sundberg, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Singers performing in popular styles of music mostly rely on feedback provided by monitor loudspeakers on the stage. The highest sound level that these loudspeakers can provide without feedback noise is often too low to be heard over the ambient sound level on the stage. Long-term-average spectra of some orchestral accompaniments typically used in pop music are compared with those of classical symphonic orchestras. In loud pop accompaniment the sound level difference between 0.5 and 2.5 kHz is similar to that of a Wagner orchestra. Long-term-average spectra of pop singers' voices showed no signs of a singer's formant but a peak near 3.5 kHz. It is suggested that pop singers' difficulties to hear their own voices may be reduced if the frequency range 3-4 kHz is boosted in the monitor sound.

  19. Rectal duplications accompanying rectovestibular fistula: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampal, Arzu; Ozbayoglu, Asli; Kaya, Cem; Pehlivan, Yildiz; Poyraz, Aylar; Ozen, I Onur; Percin, Ferda E; Demirogullari, Billur

    2013-08-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) cysts are rare congenital anomalies that can be diagnosed with the presence of another opening in the perineum. They seldom accompany anorectal malformations (ARM). Two cases of RD accompanying ARM at opposite ends of the phenotypic spectrum, are described. A 3-month-old baby and a 2-year-old girl with ARM were scheduled for posterior sagittal anorectoplasty. The infant had an orifice at the anal dimple and the other had an orifice at the vestibulum posterior to the rectovestibular fistula. The infant presented with no other anomalies whereas the older one presented with an unusual coexistence of caudal duplication and caudal regression syndromes. Perioperatively both orifices were found to be related to retrorectal cysts, and were excised. Clinicians should always be alert when dealing with complex malformations. Because these malformations have variable anatomical and clinical presentations, they can represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Treatment of root fracture with accompanying resorption using cermet cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, J L

    1992-02-01

    A method of treating an apical root fracture with accompanying resorption at the junction of the fracture fragments using glass-cermet cement is described. Endodontically, the material had previously been used for repair of lateral resorptive root defects and retrograde root fillings. Complete bone regeneration was observed three years post-operatively following treatment of the root fracture in the conventional manner. The various advantages of glass-cermet cement as a root filling material used in the technique described are discussed.

  1. Menetrier's disease accompanied thrombosis of the iiac vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Il; Lee, Young Joong; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup; Park, Young E [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    Menetrier's disease is a rare cause of thickened gastric wall. The differential diagnosis of diffuse gastric wall thickening such as lymphoma and adenocarcinoma should be expanded to include Menetrier's disease. The authors experienced a case of Menetrier's disease accompanied deep vein thrombosis, which was proved by operation and pathology. We carried out double contrast upper G-I series and computed tomography, and report with review of literatures.

  2. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Tomoya; Nishijima, Haruo; Haga, Rie; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Ueno, Tatsuya; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2015-10-15

    We report a case of idiopathic cerebral hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. No other identifiable cause of pachymeningitis was detected. Corticosteroid therapy was effective for both diseases. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is closely related to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This case supports the hypothesis that hypertrophic pachymeningitis can be a rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Inner bremsstrahlung accompanying beta decay of 170Tm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjeeviah, H.; Venkataramaiah, P.; Gundu Rao, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The inner bremmsstrahlung (IB) spectrum accompanying beta decay of 170 Tm was measured using magnetic deflection technique. The raw spectrum was unfolded using the procedure of Liden and Starfelt. The unfolded IB spectrum was compared with the theories of Knipp and Uhlenbeck and Bloch; Lewis and Ford. Comparison was made with Ford and Martin theory in order to estimate the contribution of detour transitions to the IB spectrum of 170 Tm. (author)

  4. Real-time implementation of an interactive jazz accompaniment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nikhil

    Modern computational algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) are able to combine with human performers without forced or predetermined structure in order to create dynamic and real-time accompaniment systems. With modern computing power and intelligent algorithm layout and design, it is possible to achieve more detailed auditory analysis of live music. Using this information, computer code can follow and predict how a human's musical performance evolves, and use this to react in a musical manner. This project builds a real-time accompaniment system to perform together with live musicians, with a focus on live jazz performance and improvisation. The system utilizes a new polyphonic pitch detector and embeds it in an Ableton Live system - combined with Max for Live - to perform elements of audio analysis, generation, and triggering. The system also relies on tension curves and information rate calculations from the Creative Artificially Intuitive and Reasoning Agent (CAIRA) system to help understand and predict human improvisation. These metrics are vital to the core system and allow for extrapolated audio analysis. The system is able to react dynamically to a human performer, and can successfully accompany the human as an entire rhythm section.

  5. Peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rull James; Lin, Darius; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Ellington, J Kent; Strasser, Nicholas; Kwon, John Y

    2014-02-19

    Peroneal tendon displacement (subluxation or dislocation) accompanying an intra-articular calcaneal fracture is often undetected and under-treated. The goals of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures, (2) the association of tendon displacement with fracture classifications, (3) the association of tendon displacement with heel width, and (4) the rate of missed diagnosis of the tendon displacement on radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans and the resulting treatment rate. A retrospective radiographic review of all calcaneal fractures presenting at three institutions from June 30, 2006, to June 30, 2011, was performed. CT imaging of 421 intra-articular calcaneal fractures involving the posterior facet was available for review. The prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement was noted and its associations with fracture classification and heel width were evaluated. Peroneal tendon displacement was identified in 118 (28.0%) of the 421 calcaneal fracture cases. The presence of tendon displacement was significantly associated with joint-depression fractures compared with tongue-type fractures (p displacement had been identified in the radiology reports. Although sixty-five (55.1%) of the fractures with tendon displacement had been treated with internal fixation, the tendon displacement was treated surgically in only seven (10.8%) of these cases. Analysis of CT images showed a 28% prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Surgeons and radiologists are encouraged to consider this association.

  6. Inventory slack routing application in emergency logistics and relief distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianfeng; Hao, Wei; Lu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Various natural and manmade disasters during last decades have highlighted the need of further improving on governmental preparedness to emergency events, and a relief supplies distribution problem named Inventory Slack Routing Problem (ISRP) has received increasing attentions. In an ISRP, inventory slack is defined as the duration between reliefs arriving time and estimated inventory stock-out time. Hence, a larger inventory slack could grant more responsive time in facing of various factors (e.g., traffic congestion) that may lead to delivery lateness. In this study, the relief distribution problem is formulated as an optimization model that maximize the minimum slack among all dispensing sites. To efficiently solve this problem, we propose a two-stage approach to tackle the vehicle routing and relief allocation sub-problems. By analyzing the inter-relations between these two sub-problems, a new objective function considering both delivery durations and dispensing rates of demand sites is applied in the first stage to design the vehicle routes. A hierarchical routing approach and a sweep approach are also proposed in this stage. Given the vehicle routing plan, the relief allocation could be easily solved in the second stage. Numerical experiment with a comparison of multi-vehicle Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) has demonstrated the need of ISRP and the capability of the proposed solution approaches.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  8. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief is in general use, and has proved to be very efficient in adults. The epidural technique and the use of epidural morphine are much less frequent in children. For 2 years we have prospectively followed 76 children who had epidural morphine...... for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  9. Bridging the sanitation gap between disaster relief and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka-Man; Ramirez, Claudia; Liu, Weilong; Kirilova, Darina; Vick, David; Mari, Joe; Smith, Rachel; Lam, Ho-Yin; Ostovari, Afshin; Shibakawa, Akifumi; Liu, Yang; Samant, Sidharth; Osaro, Lucky

    2015-10-01

    By interpreting disasters as opportunities to initiate the fulfilment of development needs, realise the vulnerability of the affected community and environment, and extend the legacy of relief funds and effort, this paper builds upon the concept linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) in the sanitation sector. It aims to use a composite of case studies to devise a framework for a semi-hypothetical scenario to identify critical components and generic processes for a LRRD action plan. The scenario is based on a latrine wetland sanitation system in a Muslim community. Several sub-frameworks are developed: (i) latrine design; (ii) assessment of human waste treatment; (iii) connective sanitation promotion strategy; and (iv) ecological systems and environmental services for sanitation and development. This scenario illustrates the complex issues involved in LRRD in sanitation work and provides technical notes and references for a legacy plan for disaster relief and development. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  10. Experiences from tsunami relief activity: implications for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam Manni; Mohan, Yogesh; Roy, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    A tsunami struck the coast of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry on 26 December 2004. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, (JIPMER) in Pondicherry played a vital role in providing medical relief. The experiences from the relief activities revealed areas of deficiency in medical education in regards to disaster preparedness. A qualitative study using focus group discussion was employed to find the lacunae in skills in managing medical relief measures. Many skills were identified; the most important of which was addressing the psychological impact of the tsunami on the victims. Limited coordination and leadership skills were also identified. It is recommended that activity-based learning can be included in the curriculum to improve these skills.

  11. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  12. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude (about 111 by 111 kilometers or 69 by 69 miles) Location: 12.5 degrees South latitude, 67.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image: Elevation data, colored height with shaded relief Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  13. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-05-13

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training ("forward conditioning" of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training ("backward conditioning" of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2015 Niewalda et al.

  14. Synapsin Determines Memory Strength after Punishment- and Relief-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: “negative” memories for stimuli preceding them and “positive” memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of “relief.” Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training (“forward conditioning” of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training (“backward conditioning” of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. PMID:25972175

  15. Pain relief and clinical outcome: from opioids to balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1996-01-01

    If it is generally accepted that adequate postoperative pain relief will improve outcome from surgery, several controlled trials demonstrated this only for lower body surgical procedures with epidural and spinal anesthetics. Important effects on outcome were not shown when postoperative opioids...... were administered with patient controlled (PCA) or epidural techniques. However, the most optimal pain relief seems to be best achieved with balanced analgesia techniques using combinations of epidural opioids and local anesthetics and systemic non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Future efforts...... should aim at including physical rehabilitation programs in the pain treatment regimen....

  16. Acupucture as pain relief during delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery...... with respect to pain intensity, birth experience, and obstetric outcome. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 607 healthy women in labor at term who received acupuncture, TENS, or traditional analgesics. Primary outcomes were the need for pharmacological and invasive methods, level of pain...... to existing pain relief methods. (BIRTH 36:1 March 2009)...

  17. Experimental investigation of processes in primary circuit relief system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Z.; Simo, T.; Konecny, A.

    1989-01-01

    The protective condenser (direct contact condenser) is one of the basic components of the primary circuit relief system of WWER power plants. The steam flowing from the surge tank through relief valves into the subcooled water condensates in the protective condenser vessel. Two simple physical models were designed and constructed for investigation of bubbling through (contact condensation). An experimental program was performed with the aim of determining the distribution of temperatures in the axis of the steam jet and its vicinity, determining the velocity field of water into vicinity of steam jets, observing the geometrical shape of jets and their interaction and determining important values for mathematical model. (orig.)

  18. Value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Beukes

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of students with regard to value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in the community nursing environment. An exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Interactions between community nurses and students during clinical accompaniment were explored for value sensitivity by means of video recordings,participant observation and focus group interviews. Data were collected by means of video recordings, participant observation and focus group interviews. The data were analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using an inductive descriptive method to identify important segments of the regularity of behaviour. The focus group interviews were transcribed, analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using Tesch’s steps of analysis (Creswell 1994:155–156.Lincoln and Guba’s criteria (1985:290 for trustworthiness were applied to the study. The general findings indicate that clinical accompaniment in community nursing is not value sensitive and, as a result, guidelines for value-sensitive clinical accompaniment need to be developed for undergraduate students in the community nursing environment. The following values (values for which guidelines need to be developed were identified: respect during clinical accompaniment,value-sensitive communication and sensitivity to the quality of clinical accompaniment. Opsomming Kliniese gemeenskapsgesondheidsfasiliteite waar voorgraadse studente geplaas word vir gemeenskapsverpleegkundepraktika is dinamies en het groot veranderinge oor die laaste paar jare ondergaan. In die kliniese veld verteenwoordig gemeenskapsverpleegkundiges en voorgraadse studente verskillende rasse en taal- en etniese groepe in die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking, elkeen met verskillende waardes. Albei partye – studente en gemeenskapsverpleegkundiges – het gerapporteer dat waardekonflik weens verskillende kulture en waardes tydens kliniese begeleiding

  19. Study guide to accompany computers data and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Study Guide to Accompany Computer and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of computers and computer technology. This book presents the key benefits of using computers.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. This text then introduces computer hardware and describes the processor. Other chapters describe how microprocessors are made and describe the physical operation of computers. This book discusses as w

  20. Test bank to accompany Computers data and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1980-01-01

    Test Bank to Accompany Computers and Data Processing provides a variety of questions from which instructors can easily custom tailor exams appropriate for their particular courses. This book contains over 4000 short-answer questions that span the full range of topics for introductory computing course.This book is organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters. This text provides a very large number of questions so that instructors can produce different exam testing essentially the same topics in succeeding semesters. Three types of questions are included in this book, including multiple ch

  1. Instructor's manual to accompany calculus with analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong

    1978-01-01

    Instructor's Manual to Accompany Calculus with Analytic Geometry is an instructor's manual on calculus with analytic geometry. It contains answers to even-numbered exercises and solutions of selected even- and odd-numbered exercises. Comments on selected exercises are included.Comprised of 18 chapters, this book first presents answers and solutions to exercises relating to functions and graphs. The next chapter is about derivatives and covers topics ranging from the slope problem to limits, sums and products, and quotients and square roots, along with limits and continuity. Subsequent chapters

  2. Challenging the norm? International election accompaniment in Nicaragua and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley MCCONNEL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available International election monitoring has been touted as a regional norm in the Western hemisphere, but recent reforms in Venezuela and Nicaragua substituted a diminished international role of electoral accompaniment. This article traces the initial acceptance and later limitation of international election monitoring in those countries to explore whether the change constitutes norm localization or norm defection. It concludes that the norm is not as well institutionalized in the hemisphere as conventionally thought, and that models need to assess together national and international monitoring capacities.

  3. Solutions manual to accompany finite mathematics models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications In order to emphasize the main concepts of each chapter, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications features plentiful pedagogical elements throughout such as special exercises, end notes, hints, select solutions, biographies of key mathematicians, boxed key principles, a glossary of important terms and topics, and an overview of use of technology. The book encourages the modeling of linear programs and their solutions and uses common computer software programs such as LINDO. In addition to extensive chapters on pr

  4. ORFEO, THE PLEIADES ACCOMPANIMENT PROGRAM AND ITS USERS THEMATIC COMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tinel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ORFEO, the PLEIADES Accompaniment Program, was set up by CNES, the French Space Agency, to prepare, accompany and promote the use and the exploitation of the images acquired by this Very High Resolution optical sensor. It was initiated in 2004 and will last until the end of the first year of the satellite life (launched in December 2011 . The Thematic part of the ORFEO accompaniment program covers a large range of applications, and aims at specifying and validating products and services required by users. An in-depth work of user needs assessments in eight thematic domains (sea and coastline, risks and humanitarian aid, cartography and urban planning, geophysical hazards, hydrology, forestry, agriculture and defence has given rise to a large number of feasibility studies from 2006 to 2011. The Methodological Part of the ORFEO accompaniment program aims at preparing the use and exploitation of these submetric images. CNES decided to develop Orfeo Toolbox (OTB, an open source library capitalising the methodological know-how as a set of image processing and algorithmic components. Among other, OTB provides a number of heavily documented image processing functionalities such as filtering, feature extraction, segmentation, classification, change detection, 3D extraction, GIS links,.... As a conclusion to the ORFEO program, the PLEIADES Users Thematic Commissioning (UTC started three months after the satellite launch and will last until mid 2013. It covers a large number of specific interest ORFEO sites, on which PLEIADES images are being intensively acquired and processed. These ORFEO sites have been chosen according to the expectations expressed by the users in terms of their interest for dedicated thematic, their geographic location and their multi-thematic content. This paper presents the ORFEO program achievements (thematic and methodology and the organisation of the Users Thematic Commissioning (sites, studies. The paper is illustrated with some

  5. Inner bremsstrahlung accompanying β-decay of 170Tm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundu Rao, K.S.; Venkataramaiah, P.; Gopala, K.; Sanjeeviah, H.

    1981-01-01

    Inner bremsstrahlung accompanying non-unique first-forbidden β-decay of 170 Tm has been measured employing a magnetic deflection technique with a (4.5 x 5.1 cm) NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in the energy region 200 keV to 900 keV. The raw spectrum is unfolded using the Liden and Starfelt procedure, and compared with the theories of KUB, Lewis and Ford, and Ford and Martin. The results are close to the Lewis and Ford theory over the major portion of the measured spectrum. (orig.)

  6. Hypsometry and relief analysis of the southern termination of the Calabrian arc, NE-Sicily (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavano, F.; Catalano, S.; Romagnoli, G.; Tortorici, G.

    2018-03-01

    Tectonic forcing causes the relief-building of mountain chains and enforces the surficial processes in a persistent dismantling of rock volumes, continuously modelling Earth's surface. Actually, we observe transient landscapes that have temporarily recorded tectonic forcing as a codified signal. The Late Quaternary tectonic evolution of northeastern Sicily, located along the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary at the southern termination of the Calabrian arc, has been dominated by intense Plio-Pleistocene dynamics that severely modified the Late Miocene landscape. The present work aims to investigate geomorphically northeastern Sicily, essentially focusing on the hypsometric and relief analyses of the region in order to define how the topography responds to the post-Pliocene tectonic deformation. We apply different relief morphometric indices (Hypsometric Integral, Topographic Relief and Topographic Dissection) measured for each differently sized moving window, and we use different swath topographic profiles as well. Our analysis evidences differential morphological responses between distinct morphotectonic domains of the studied area, led by the combination of earlier morphological background and Late Quaternary tectonic deformation stages of the region. In addition, in the context of a constant and uniform tectonic uplift, the results define the general space- and time-relating pathways of the landscape geomorphic metrics. This enables us to bring out the controls of the vertical scale of landscape on hypsometry, exploring their mutual relationships. Finally, we reconstruct the Late Quaternary morphotectonic evolution of the region, defining the role played by the main tectonic alignments on the present geomorphic setting.

  7. [A case of gastric cancer accompanied by disseminated carcinomatosis of bone marrow wherein long-term chemotherapy was enabled by early supportive palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Tetsuya; Amakawa, Ryuichi; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Fukuda, Akiko; Ito, Satoko; Nakayama, Shinya; Shiotani, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Go; Kita, Kenkichi; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    Here we report gastric cancer accompanied by bone marrow carcinomatosis in a patient for whom long-term chemotherapy was enabled by early pain-relief therapy. A 45-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of back pain associated with multiple spinal tumors in June 2011. Blood tests showed a trend toward disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) and gastric cancer was suspected as the primary lesion. Because pain was severe, emergency pain relief was provided by flurbiprofen axetil and a continuous subcutaneous infusion of fentanyl citrate. After bone marrow examination gave a diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, we performed sequential methotrexate(MTX)and 5-fluorouracil(5-FU)therapy. The therapy successfully decreased tumor marker levels, and alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase levels normalized. Finally, gastric cancer accompanied by bone marrow carcinomatosis was diagnosed. Because the patient had anxiety and spiritual pain from the time of admission, psychiatric care was also required. In November 2011, the tumor recurred, and we switched therapy to a combination of S-1 and cisplatin. The patient's pain was controlled by combined treatment with a fentanyl patch and etodolac, and he was discharged in December 2011. However, severe pain recurred and pain therapy was continued. DIC developed in February 2012 and transiently resolved after resuming combination therapy with MTX and 5-FU; however, it subsequently recurred, leading to the patient's death in May 2012.

  8. Pain relief at the end of life: nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A sigh of relief or a sigh to relieve: The psychological and physiological relief effect of deep breaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2016-10-15

    Both animal and human research have revealed important associations between sighs and relief. Previously we argued to conceive of sighs as resetters which temporarily induce relief. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological relief effect of sighs by instructed deep breaths and spontaneous sighs compared to a control breathing maneuver. Participants completed three blocks of 40 trials during which uncertainty cues were followed by either safety cues followed by a positive picture, or danger cues followed by a negative picture. One block was presented without breathing instructions, two subsequent blocks with breathing instructions. During the presentation of the safety and danger cues, an instruction was given to either 'take a deep breath' or 'postpone the next inhalation for 2 s (breath hold). Continuously, participants rated relief and Frontalis electromyography was recorded. Trait anxiety sensitivity was assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Self-reported relief and physiological tension were compared 5s before and after instructed deep breaths and breath holds, and before and after spontaneous deep breaths and breath holds in the respective blocks. Results show that self-reported relief following an instructed deep breath was higher than before. Physiological tension decreased following a spontaneous sigh in high anxiety sensitive persons and following a spontaneous breath hold in low anxiety sensitive persons. These results are the first to show that a deep breath relieves and, in anxiety sensitive persons, reduces physiological tension. These findings support the hypothesis that sighs are psychological and physiological resetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does Immediate Pain Relief After an Injection into the Sacroiliac Joint with Anesthetic and Corticosteroid Predict Subsequent Pain Relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Byron J; Huynh, Lisa; Levin, Josh; Rinkaekan, Pranathip; Kordi, Ramin; Kennedy, David J

    2018-02-01

    To determine if immediate pain response following an injection with local anesthetic and corticosteroid predicts subsequent relief. Prospective observational cohort. An institutional review board-approved prospective study from a single academic medical center. Patients with clinical diagnosis of sacroiliac (SIJ) pain and referred for SIJ injection were enrolled; 1 cc of 2% lidocaine and 1 cc of triamcinolone 40 mg/mL were injected into the SIJ. Pain score on 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) during provocation maneuvers was recorded immediately before injection, immediately after injection, and at two and four weeks of follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was also recorded. Various cutoffs were identified to establish positive anesthetic response and successful outcomes at follow-up. These were used to calculated likelihood ratios. Of those with 100% anesthetic response, six of 11 (54.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]+/-29.4%, +LR 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-5.9) demonstrated 50% or greater pain relief at follow-up, and four of 11 (36.5%, 95% CI+/-28.4%, +LR 3.00, 95% CI = 1.4-5.1) had 100% relief at two to four weeks. Fourteen of 14 (100%, 95% CI+/-21.5%, -LR 0.0, 95% CI = 0.0-2.1) with an initial negative block failed to achieve 100% relief at follow-up. Patients who fail to achieve initial relief after SIJ injection with anesthetic and steroid are very unlikely to achieve significant pain relief at follow-up; negative likelihood ratios (LR) in this study, based on how success is defined, range between 0 and 0.9. Clinically significant positive likelihood ratios of anesthetic response to SIJ injection are more limited and less robust, but are valuable in predicting 50% relief or 100% relief at two to four weeks. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. MRI manifestation of Wilson's disease accompanied with central pontine myelinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingsong; Huan Yi; Chang Yingjuan; Chang Yingjuan; Ge Yali; Zhang Guangyun; Han Yuedong; Zhao Haitao; Yang Chunmin; Yang Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To discuss MRI manifestation of Wilson's disease accompanied with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), and to especially detect the value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in this disease. Methods: Two cases of Wilson's disease accompanied with CPM were performed with sequent MR examination including T 1 WI, T 2 WI, FLAIR, DWI, and contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) by a 1.5 T magnetic resonance system (Philips gyroscan master). Results: Symmetric long T 1 and T 2 signals were found in central pontine region, lenticular nucleus, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. CEMRI showed no apparent enhanced lesions. DWI showed obviously high signal intensities in central pontine region with apparent diffusion coefficient values fluctuated between (100-300) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s while FLAIR images just showed slightly high signal in the same area, which suggested that cytotoxic edema did in fact exist in CPM. Meanwhile, DWI also showed high signals in bilateral lenticular nucleus with apparent diffusion coefficient values fluctuated between (300-600) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, however, FLAIR images showed heterogeneous high signals and one case presented low DWI signals in bilateral head of caudate nucleus, all these signs might be explained by mixed-changes of cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema in long period of Wilson's disease. Conclusion: Wilson's disease and CPM have characteristic MRI manifestation and DWI may be a very useful way to confirm a correct diagnosis. (authors)

  12. Terrien's marginal degeneration accompanied by latticed stromal opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Jia, Hui

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of Terrien's marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen.

  13. Terrien’s Marginal Degeneration Accompanied by Latticed Stromal Opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Jia, Hui

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We report a case of Terrien’s marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. Case Report A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. Conclusions This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen. PMID:24681833

  14. Genesis and classification of soils developed on gabbro in the high reliefs of Maroua region, North Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désiré Tsozué

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to examine the genesis, properties and classification of soils resulting from the weathering of gabbro rock in the high reliefs of Maroua in the Far North Region of Cameroon. The studied soils were ~ 2 m thick, made of four horizons which consisted of coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose loamy clayey horizon and humiferous horizon. From petrographical view point, at the bottom of the soil profile, the preservation of the bedrock structure was marked by numerous remnants of altered plagioclases shapes. The groundmass was characterized by a double spaced fine, ranging to equal, enaulic c/f related distribution pattern. It was yellowish, characterized by weakly separated granular microstructure in the fine saprolite and had a speckled and cloudy limpidity in the loose loamy clayey horizon. Secondary minerals consisted of montmorilonite, kaolinite, goethite, quartz, gibbsite, lepidocrocite, sepiolite, feldspar and calcite. Globally, Si/Al ratio ranged between 2.85 and 3.24. The chemical index of alteration ranged from 50.95 to 55.27 % while the mineralogical index of alteration values were between 1.90 and 10.54 %. Physicochemically, soil pH varied from slightly acidic to slightly above neutral. Soil organic carbon contents were low to very low. Exchangeable bases contents were high, mostly represented by Ca2+ and Mg2+. The CEC of soils and the CEC of clay were also high, ranging respectively between 53.68 and 82.88 cmol(+.kg-1, and 116.80 and 181.38 cmol(+.kg-1. The studied soils were classified as dystric haplustepts clayey isohyperthermic. They were developed in situ by the collapse of primary mineral structures from the bottom of the coarse saprolite, due to leaching as a result of bisiallitisation and monosiallitisation. This is accompanied by a progressive ferruginization of materials, confirmed by the densification under the microscope of goethitic brown veil from the base to the loamy clay horizon and the

  15. Treatment of lingual traumatic ulcer accompanied with fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sella Sella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a common form of ulceration occured in oral cavity caused by mechanical trauma, either acute or chronic, resulting in loss of the entire epithelium. Traumatic ulcer often occurs in children that are usually found on buccal mucosa, labial mucosa of upper and lower lip, lateral tongue, and a variety of areas that may be bitten. To properly diagnose the ulcer, dentists should evaluate the history and clinical description in detail. If the lesion is allegedly accompanied by other infections, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infections, microbiological or serological tests will be required. One of the initial therapy given for fungal infection is nystatin which aimed to support the recovery and repair processes of epithelial tissue in traumatic ulcer case. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the importance of microbiological examination in suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. Case: A 12-year-old girl came to the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia on June 9, 2011 accompanied with her mother. The patient who had a history of geographic tongue came with complaints of injury found in the middle of the tongue. The main diagnosis was ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection based on the results of swab examination. Case management: This traumatic ulcer case was treated with Dental Health Education, oral prophylaxis, as well as prescribing and usage instructions of nystatin. The recovery and repair processes of mucosal epithelium of the tongue then occured after the use of nystatin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that microbiological examination is important to diagnose suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. The appropriate treatment such as nystatin can be given for traumatic fungal infection.Latar belakang: Ulkus traumatic merupakan bentuk umum dari ulserasi rongga mulut yang terjadi akibat trauma

  16. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  17. Eksplorasi Pose dalam Pemotretan Model Melalui Kajian Visual Relief Karmawibhangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Latif CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Karmawibhangga Relief panel located at the foot of Borobudur is a relic of the visual artifacts that contains fragments of past life with a very high historical value. 160 Karmawibhangga panels tell the reality of people's lives at the time wrapped with a moral message plight. The relief provides a lot of visual references to be excavated and reconstructed again for the benefit of the creative industries today. This research digged one small part of the masterpieces of the past through photography. Understanding visual artists who create these reliefs will be beauty in the show gestures in building a very interesting story to be re-examined. Visual communication through gestures in relief Karmawibhangga enables new assumptions about body language dialect differences to current conditions. Through model genre photography, it is very useful in connection with the development of local nuanced scientific photography. Efforts to develop the traditions and culture through new media are expected to be creative commodity with a very strong product differentiation. 

  18. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin ... ingredient in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines that help relieve pain and reduce fever. More than 600 over-the- ...

  19. Building relations with women's organisations in relief work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, F

    1997-02-01

    An Oxfam Emergency Team arrived in Ingushetia in the Northern Caucasus region of the former Soviet Union in August 1996 to set up a program of shelter, rehabilitation, and relief in response to the large influx of people displaced by conflicts in the neighboring republics of Chechnya and North Ossetia. The team was also tasked with contacting community organizations such as women's groups and developing a relationship with them through joint relief work. The Chechen population was comprised of mainly women, children, and the elderly. The internally displaced population of 100,000 people is now scattered throughout the republic in collective centers and host families. Small committees of women were formed to help identify the most vulnerable residents and to distribute winter clothing. It was found during the relief work that fledgling women's groups are establishing themselves as vehicles for change, increasingly open to work with and learn from international organizations such as Oxfam. The Chechen branch of the Union of North Caucasian Women and the Ingushetian ALMOS played leading roles in peacemaking, human rights observance, and humanitarian relief.

  20. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.68 Complainant's temporary... by Individual Surety United States International Trade Commission Affidavit by Individual Surety 19...

  1. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  3. Pentazocine Pain Relief in Adult Patients With Acute Abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    on pain relief, diagnostic accuracy and treatment decisions in patients with acute ... With level of power at 80% and a 5% significance level, a ... 72 hours` duration and were judged by the attending physician to require surgical consultation. .... Clinically Important Differences Between Pre Injection, Post Injection and Final ...

  4. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant...

  5. Measured Maritime Responses to Disaster Relief Scenarios in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    command center. USS TORTUGA assisted the Japanese Ground Self Defense Force (JGSDF) by moving nearly 100 vehicles and 300 SDF personnel from Hokkaido to...northern Honshu and thus facilitated faster relief. Subsequently, TORTUGA became the flagship for Task Group 776.36, a port clearance group that

  6. A Closer Look: The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Mary

    2013-01-01

    School districts may be affected by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 with regard to fixed assets management and education entities. The act avoids the scheduled increases to individual income tax rates for most Americans and extends a host of expired and expiring tax provisions for both individuals and businesses. The provisions described…

  7. 78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 66(c) allows the requesting spouse to avoid liability for tax on community income of which the... is added to Sec. 1.66-4(j)(2)(ii) for claims for equitable relief from the Federal income tax... amended as follows: PART 1--INCOME TAXES 0 Paragraph 1. The authority citation for part 1 continues to...

  8. Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication? | Kritzinger | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...

  9. 108 AN ASSESSMENT OF TAX RELIEFS AND ECONOMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As advantageous as the payment of taxes to the government is, as a result of its ... Therefore, this study seeks to examine the nature of tax reliefs available to tax ... in the level of economic activity or tax payer's behaviour, then the tax policy ... The implication of this is that any tax payer that receives earned income shall be.

  10. Seismic assessment of the Pickering pressure relief duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of the study are to examine the structural response of the Pickering pressure relief duct when subjected to earthquake ground motion and to estimate the seismic withstand capacity of various components of the structural system on the basis of performance criteria consistent with the safety function of the duct. (author). 24 refs., 16 tabs., 31 figs

  11. 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2) v2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two-minute gridded global relief for both ocean and land areas are available in the ETOPO2v2 (2006) database. ETOPO2v2 replaced ETOPO2 (2001). The historic 2-minute...

  12. Pain Relief in Labor: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: This study showed that 600 mg intramuscular paracetamol provides similar and modest pain relief in labor when compared to 100 mg intramuscular tramadol. It also has fewer maternal adverse effects and favorable neonatal outcome such as tramadol. It is concluded that intramuscular paracetamol is simple, ...

  13. 27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extent of relief. 24.158 Section 24.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., until all tax is fully paid. (d) Wine vinegar plant bond. The surety will be relieved of liability for...

  14. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the inspiration for Arthur Conan

  15. Barriers to spousal contribution to childbirth pain relief in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelonye, A U; Pitkäaho, T; Aregbesola, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the barriers inhibiting the use of spousal presence for childbirth pain relief in health facilities and recommendations from three perspectives: the midwife, the woman, and the spouse. Spousal presence is a non-invasive, participatory and inexpensive technique used in pain management during childbirth. Although it contributes to a large extent in relieving childbirth pain, it is underutilized in Nigerian hospitals. Overcoming the challenges impeding spousal presence and participation during childbirth will improve maternal outcome, satisfaction and midwifery care practices. A cross-sectional survey conducted in four hospitals in Nigeria involving midwives (n = 100), women (n = 142) and their spouses (n = 142) from June to December 2014 using pretested questionnaires. Five themes were identified: poor infrastructural facility, lack of adequate pain management policy, lack of midwife pain management practices, midwives' attitudes towards spousal presence during childbirth and feelings about spousal presence during childbirth pain relief. Infrastructural defects in the health facilities resulting in the lack of privacy in maternity units for both spouses and partners negatively influence the presence of a spouse during childbirth and pain relief. Adopting effective strategies such as good infrastructural facilities, staff training and spouse-friendly hospital policies will encourage spouses to fully participate in and contribute to childbirth pain relief. This study identified poor staff attitudes towards pain relief and spousal presence during childbirth as barriers. Providing adequate policies on pain management, continuous staff education and orientation on spousal relationship will improve active spousal participation and maternal satisfaction during childbirth. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  16. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200-foot)-long mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: 1720 by 1670 kilometers (1068 by 1036 miles) Location: 14.5 degrees North latitude, 85.0 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  17. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  18. A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukabori, Takashi; Takamatsu, Hajime; Nakanishi, Yasuhiro

    1986-01-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted for headache and progressive drowsiness. In spite of negative results from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stains and cultures of tuberculosis and other bacteria, CSF findings and tuberculosis-positive sputum culture led to a tentative diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. Symptoms and neurological test results both improved remarkably during antituberculous chemotherapy. Although the brain CT scan taken on admission showed no abnormal findings, one taken two months later revealed multiple high-density areas after enhancement with a contrast medium, suggesting multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis. The size of the multiple high-density areas gradually decreased during antituberculous chemotherapy. The CT scan can clearly locate lesions, detect complications, and evaluate the effects of treatment in patients with intracranial tuberculosis. (author)

  19. Intracranial hypotension accompanied by trauma. A prospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Takeshi; Dohi, Kenji; Katayama, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the clinical characteristics of definite and non-definite diagnosis groups in intracranial hypotension accompanied by trauma (IHAT), we undertook investigations of registered patients (n=23) prospectively. The results revealed the following features of IHAT: definite diagnosis group, 4 cases; they had long periods from injury to onset (5.5±5.7 days), but these were markedly shorter than in the non-definite group; 75% of definite cases showed typical postural headache; 75% of definite cases showed dural enhancement on Gd-MRI; all 4 cases had confirmed cerebrospinal fluid (CFS) leakage based on imaging diagnosis with cervical lesions in 2 cases and cervical-thoracic lesions in 2 cases; and 6) good recovery was achieved in them by conservative therapy and blood patch, with a cure rate of 100%. These findings suggest that confirmed CFS leakage is indispensable for reaching definite diagnosis of IHAT. (author)

  20. Instability of drift Alfven wave accompanying polar magnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yoshihiro

    1974-01-01

    As the micro plasma instability due to the plasma non-uniformity in magnetosphere, there is the instability of drift Alfven wave. With the data obtained with the network of multiple observation points for geomagnetism, attempt was made to prove the hypothesis that the instability of drift Alfven wave due to the electron temperature gradient at the inner boundary of plasma sheet may be one of the causes for the geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 1) accompanying polar magnetic storm. Up to date, final conclusion is yet impossible as to the problems in it due to the discussion based on the data from widely separated observation points. The installation of economically efficient multi-point observation network is necessary for the solution. (Mori, K.)

  1. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  2. Thermal expansion accompanying the glass-liquid transition and crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Q. Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the linear thermal expansion behaviors of a Zr-based (Vitreloy 1 bulk metallic glass in its as-cast, annealed and crystallized states. Accompanying the glass-liquid transition, the as-cast Vitreloy 1 shows a continuous decrease in the thermal expansivity, whereas the annealed glass shows a sudden increase. The crystallized Vitreloy 1 exhibits an almost unchanged thermal expansivity prior to its melting. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the nucleation of crystalline phases can induce a significant thermal shrinkage of the supercooled liquid, but with the growth of these nuclei, the thermal expansion again dominates. These results are explained in the framework of the potential energy landscape, advocating that the configurational and vibrational contributions to the thermal expansion of the glass depend on both, structure and temperature.

  3. Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ju-Hee; Jung, Duk-Young; Park, Jong Bae; Lee, Hae Seong

    2008-06-01

    A new constructive method of fabricating a nanoparticle self-assembly on the patterned surface of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) relief nanostructure was demonstrated. Patterned PDMS templates with close-packed microwells were fabricated by molding against a self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene spheres. Alkanethiol-functionalized gold nanoparticles with an average particle size of 2.5 nm were selectively deposited onto a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer printed on the substrate by the micro-contact printing (μCP) of the prepared PDMS microwell, in which the patterned gold nanoparticles consisted of close-packed hexagons with an average diameter of 370 nm. In addition, two-dimensional colloidal crystals derived from PMMA microspheres with a diameter of 380 nm and a negative surface charge were successfully formed on the hemispherical microwells by electrostatic force using positively charged PAH-coated PDMS as a template to produce multidimensional nanostructures.

  4. MR imaging of edema accompanying benign and malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L.; Holscher, H.C.; Woude, H.J. van der; Reijnierse, M.; Taminiau, A.H.M.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence, quantity, and presentation of intra- and extraosseous edema accompanying benign and malignant primary bone lesions, the magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 63 consecutive patients with histologically proven primary bone tumors were reviewed. MR scans were assessed for the presence and quantity of marrow and soft tissue edema and correlated with preoperative findings, resected specimens and follow-up data. The signal intensity and enhancement of tumor and edema prior to and after intravenous administration (if any) of gadolinium-labled diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) was analyzed. Marrow edema was encountered adjacent to 8 of 39 maglinant tumors and 14 of 24 benign lesions. Soft tissue edema was found accompanying 28 of 39 malignancies and 10 of 24 benign disorders. On enhanced T1-weighted MR images tumor and edema were difficult to differentiate. Tumor inhomogeneity made this differentiation easier on T2-weighted sequences. In 36 patients the contrast medium Gd-DTPA was used. Edema was present in 27 of these patients and the respective enhancement of tumor and edema could be compared. Edema always enhanced homogeneously, and in most cases it enhanced to a similar degree as or more than tumor. Marrow and, more specifically, soft tissue edema is a frequent finding adjacent to primary bone tumors. The mere presence and quantity of marrow and soft tissue edema are unreliable indicators of the biologic potential of a lesion. Unenhanced MR scans cannot always differentiate between tumor and edema, but the administration of Gd-DTPA is of assistance in differentiating tumor from edema. Awareness of marrow and/or soft tissue edema adjacent to bone lesions is of importance because edema can be a pitfall in the diagnostic work-up and staging prior to biopsy or surgery. (orig.)

  5. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  6. Brain–Immune Interaction Accompanying Odor-Evoked Autobiographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions. PMID:23977312

  7. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  8. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  9. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Location: 42 to 51.5 degrees North latitude, 5.5 West to 8 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000

  10. Multinarasi Relief Yeh Pulu Basis Penciptaan Seni Lukis Kontemporer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Adnyana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Kajian ini merupakan skema penelitian terapan, yang bertujuan untuk mengungkap konsep multinarasi relief Yeh Pulu, Bedulu, Gianyar, Bali, sebagai basis penciptaan seni lukis kontemporer. Secara metodologis penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua tahapan: penelitian lapangan (kajian atas narasi relief berdasar perspektif ikonologi Panofsky (1971, dan berikutnya penelitian eksperimen terkait penciptaan seni lukis kontemporer berdasar perspektif ‘art practice as a research’ (Sullivan, 2005 yang menunjuk pada tiga tahapan: eksperimen medium, bahasa visual, dan penyusunan konteks yang relevan. Berdasar kajian ikonologi, terutama tahap analisis ikonografi, ditemukan bahwa narasi relief Yeh Pulu bersifat multinarasi, yakni pahatan relief yang memiliki beragam jenis tema cerita, seperti praktik pertanian, berburu, meditasi, pesta, asmara, dan lain-lain. Kemudian konsep multinarasi dalam penciptaan seni lukis kontemporer, menjadi: (a secara medium menggunakan multiteknik dan medium; (b bahasa visual, menghadirkan berbagai adegan secara berulang, terpadu dan bahkan terkesan saling berlawanan; (c konteks yang relevan, dengan memasukan ikon tokok-toko pahlawan dunia pop, seperti superman, superwomen, dan lain-lain. Secara ikonologis, bangunan visual yang mempertemukan adegan multinarasi relief Yeh Pulu dengan narasi kepahlawanan dunia pop, menjadi semakin menguatkan konsep multinarasi dalam membangun pesan kepahlawanan dunia sehari-hari dalam karya seni lukis kontemporer semakin berhasil. Penelitian ini melibatkan: Anak Agung Rai Remawa (pengumpul data, dan  Ni Luh Desi In Diana Sari (fotografi dan layout. This paper serves as an applied research scheme which aims to reveal the concept of multiple narratives of Yeh Pulu Relief, located in Bedulu, Bali, as the basis for the creation of contemporary painting. Methodologically speaking, this study was conducted in two stages: a field research (a field study on the relief narratives based on Panofsky

  11. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction... allocation of $3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program to the four FTA...

  12. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., February 1973, entitled “Relief from Customs Duty and/or Value Added Tax on United States Government... Office. (b) Specific information should be included in the request for tax relief, such as the number of...

  13. Asthma Patients in US Overuse Quick-Relief Inhalers, Underuse Control Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quick-relief inhalers, underuse control medications Share | Asthma patients in US overuse quick-relief inhalers, underuse control ... and uncontrolled asthma result in poor health outcomes. Patients with well-controlled asthma are at lower risk ...

  14. Integration of real-time mapping technology in disaster relief distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Vehicle routing for disaster relief distribution involves many challenges that distinguish this problem from those in commercial settings, given the time sensitive and resource constrained nature of relief activities. While operations research approa...

  15. Estimation of Erosion Dissection of North-Eastern Caucasus Relief for Recreational Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagir V. Ataev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The digital model of the relief (DMR of North-East Caucasus relief was used for an estimation of an erosive partition of territory. The card of usages of erosive forms and density of an erosive partition of a relief was made on basis of GIS-technology. The analysis of these parameters has allowed to estimate the potential of a relief of studied territory for such kinds of touristic and recreational activity, as foot and a cycle tourism

  16. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS... INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow? MMS will not approve your request for...

  17. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to relieve...

  18. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical current...

  20. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relief on account of loss, theft or... BILLS § 309.12 Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc. (a) Relief on account of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of...

  1. 30 CFR 204.202 - What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing Relief § 204.202 What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option? (a) The... information on Form MMS-2014 for the calendar year, the same as if it were a monthly report; and (5) Report... section until the date MMS receives it. (d) If you take relief you are not qualified for, you may be...

  2. Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Pain is fundamentally unpleasant, a feature that protects the organism by promoting motivation and learning. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. The aversiveness of pain, as well as the reward from relief of pain, is encoded by brain reward/motivational mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In this Review, we describe current knowledge of the impact of acute and chronic pain on reward/motivation circuits gained from preclinical models and from human neuroimaging. We highlight emerging clinical evidence suggesting that anatomical and functional changes in these circuits contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. We propose that assessing activity in these conserved circuits can offer new outcome measures for preclinical evaluation of analgesic efficacy to improve translation and speed drug discovery. We further suggest that targeting reward/motivation circuits may provide a path for normalizing the consequences of chronic pain to the brain, surpassing symptomatic management to promote recovery from chronic pain. PMID:25254980

  3. Pressure relief experiments on a cyclindrical carbon brick tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.; Weise, H.J.; Ennen, P.

    1978-08-01

    Pressure relief experiments have been carried out on a carbon brick tube. The outer diameter of the specimen was 580 mm, the inner diameter 280 mm, the length 800 mm. The experiments were made with helium at the temperature of the environment. The measurements were carried out in the pressure range from 15 upto 39 bar. The pressure loss was measured dependent on the initial pressure and on time at 5 positions uniformly distributed over the thickness of the tube wall and in the pressure vessel. The maximum pressure transients occurred amounted to approximately 60 bar/second. The maximum overpressure with respect to the environment which occurred in the carbon brick during the relief experiments was about 3.3 bar. The measurements distinctly showed the presence and the effects of inhomogeneities in the sample material. No damages or changes in the carbon brick, which could be regarded as a consequence of the experiments, were found. (orig./GSC) [de

  4. Safety and relief valves in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.

    1985-12-01

    Information is presented to: provide an introduction to and descriptions of various types of safety and relief valves in both PWR and BWR plants; describe anticipated operating conditions for these valves; describe the test facilities, procedures, and major results for both types of valves; present an extensive discussion of modeling and analysis of safety and relief valve performance, including the prediction of flow capacity and stability during operation; deal with the analyses related to the prediction of thermal-hydraulic loads on discharge piping and comparison against test data; discuss results of small-scale valve tests and flow visualization studies through transparent valve models; and describe an EPRI study for optimizing a typical PWR over-pressure protection system to enhance the availability and reliability of plant operation and thus reduce operation costs

  5. radiation-accompanied π0 photoproduction on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, S.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes an experiment for the radiation-accompanied π 0 photoproduction on the proton int the energy range of the Δ resonance. With the detector system from Crystal Ball (672 NaI(Tl) crystals) and the TAPS forward wall (510 BaF 2 modules) and the space-angle covering of this arrangement of nearly 4π the reaction γp→pπ 0 γ' could be studied with high statistics; furthermore the use of a both linearly and circularly polarized photon beam allowed beside the study of unpolarized cross sections also the consideration of polarization observables like the photon asymmetry of the π 0 meson or the single-spin asymmetry of the photon γ'. The experiment described hera was performed with a real photon beam, which was produced via the bremsstrahlung of the MAMI electron beam with energies of E 0 =883 MeV respectively E 0 =570 MeV on a diamond respectively iron radiator. By the momentum determination in a magnetic spectrometer (Glasgow-Mainz-Tagger) and a coincidence analysis with the product detectors Crystal Ball and TAPS this photon beam was energy-marked and allowed by this together with the liquid-hydrogen target a precise knowledge of the incident side of the photoinduced reactions. For the study of the reaction γp→pπ 0 γ' all final-state particle were detected in the detector systems with their complete energy and momentum informations. With the data analysis described in this thesis about 27,000 events of the radiation-accompanied π 0 production could be reconstructed, from which in connection with a simulation of the detector and analysis efficiency energy and angular differential cross sections of the photon γ', the π 0 meson, as well as the proton were determined in each three intervals of the beam energy (ω=325..375 MeV, ω=375..425 MeV, and ω=425..475 MeV). In the energy range between 325 MeV and 475 MeV for the total cross section values of about 60 nb to 80 nb result. Additionally the photon asymmetry (linearly polarized photons

  6. Tax reliefs in legal entities' capital gains tax

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Reducing a national corporate tax rate and introducing numerous/ ample tax reliefs may have adverse effects on a country's reputation as it is perceived as being susceptible to unfair tax competition practices and prone to allowing the subsidiaries of foreign companies to enter the national market at any cost (even at the expense of preserving its natural assets). For this reason, it is essential to find the right balance between the need to attract foreign capital (on the one hand) and the p...

  7. Multiple cutaneous leiomyomas: Pain relief with pulsed hysocine butyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyadan Feroze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient department, complaining of multiple, raised skin lesions on the forehead and back, associated with intermittent pain, especially on exposure to cold. A diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma (type 2 segmental was made, which was confirmed by skin biopsy. The patient was started on a trial of pulsed Hyoscine Butyl bromide tablets, following which the patient had significant relief from pain associated with the lesions.

  8. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K; Mathew, Supriya; Garnett, Stephen T

    2018-02-26

    Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%), 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected temperature

  9. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%, 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected

  10. Standing-up exerciser based on functional electrical stimulation and body weight relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Pavan, E E; Spadone, R; Cardini, R; Frigo, C

    2002-05-01

    The goal of the present work was to develop and test an innovative system for the training of paraplegic patients when they are standing up. The system consisted of a computer-controlled stimulator, surface electrodes for quadricep muscle stimulation, two knee angle sensors, a digital proportional-integrative-derivative (PID) controller and a mechanical device to support, partially, the body weight (weight reliever (WR)). A biomechanical model of the combined WR and patient was developed to find an optimum reference trajectory for the PID controller. The system was tested on three paraplegic patients and was shown to be reliable and safe. One patient completed a 30-session training period. Initially he was able to stand up only with 62% body weight relief, whereas, after the training period, he performed a series of 30 standing-up/sitting-down cycles with 45% body weight relief. The closed-loop controller was able to keep the patient standing upright with minimum stimulation current, to compensate automatically for muscle fatigue and to smooth the sitting-down movement. The limitations of the controller in connection with a highly non-linear system are considered.

  11. The Harmonic Walk: An Interactive Physical Environment to Learn Tonal Melody Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Mandanici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Harmonic Walk is an interactive physical environment designed for learning and practicing the accompaniment of a tonal melody. Employing a highly innovative multimedia system, the application offers to the user the possibility of getting in touch with some fundamental tonal music features in a very simple and readily available way. Notwithstanding tonal music is very common in our lives, unskilled people as well as music students and even professionals are scarcely conscious of what these features actually are. The Harmonic Walk, through the body movement in space, can provide all these users a live experience of tonal melody structure, chords progressions, melody accompaniment, and improvisation. Enactive knowledge and embodied cognition allow the user to build an inner map of these musical features, which can be acted by moving on the active surface with a simple step. Thorough assessment tests with musicians and nonmusicians high school students could prove the high communicative power and efficiency of the Harmonic Walk application both in improving musical knowledge and in accomplishing complex musical tasks.

  12. Fertility and Symptom Relief following Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Pitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine success of robot-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy (RALM measured by sustained symptom relief and fertility. Methods. This is a retrospective survey of 426 women who underwent RALM for fibroids, symptom relief, or infertility at three practice sites across the US. We examined rates of symptom recurrence and pregnancy and factors associated with these outcomes. Results. Overall, 70% of women reported being symptom-free, with 62.9% free of symptoms after three years. At >3 years, 66.7% of women who underwent surgery to treat infertility and 80% who were also symptom-free reported achieving pregnancy. Factors independently associated with symptom recurrence included greater time after surgery, preoperative dyspareunia, multiple fibroid surgeries, smoking after surgery, and preexisting diabetes. Factors positively correlated with achieving pregnancy included desiring pregnancy, prior pregnancy, greater time since surgery, and Caucasian race. Factors negatively correlated with pregnancy were advanced age and symptom recurrence. Conclusions. This paper, the first to examine symptom recurrence after RALM, demonstrates both short- and long-term effectiveness in providing symptom relief. Furthermore, RALM may have the potential to improve the chance of conception, even in a population at high risk of subfertility, with greater benefits among those who remain symptom-free. These findings require prospective validation.

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eJepma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (i the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (ii the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (iii the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory.

  14. Ophthalmic manifestations of methylmalonic aciduria accompanied with homocystinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonicaciduia(MMAaccompanied with homocystinuria is a rare autosomal-recessive with congenital metabolic disorder of Vitamin B12. There are three subtypes, cblC, cblD, cblF, in which cblC is the most common one. The diagnostic tests are tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tests for activity of enzyme in fibroblasts from skin, complementary assay and genetic analysis can be used to make the subtype clear. Early-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms before the age of 1 year, may have severe ocular involvement, including visual loss, nystagmus, strabismus, retinopathy, maculopathy, optic atrophy, abnormal electroretinography. Late-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms after the age of 4 year, rarely have ocular manifestations. The pathogenesis of the ophthalmic symptoms may be related to the high level of homocystine, oxidative stress and the abnormal development of nervous systems. The treatment for MMA accompanied with homocystinuria is mostly symptomatic based. Ophthalmic treatment is limited. Early supplement of methionine,GSH or other antioxidants may be helpful for retinopathy. There is no standard ophthalmological examination for those patients in China. It is critical to set up inter-departmental cooperation and early stage examination for the treatments and outcomes of the patients.

  15. [A case of infected subdural hematoma accompanied by cerebral infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Norio; Naito, Yuichiro; Takanashi, Shigehiko; Ueno, Toshiaki; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Infected subdural hematoma(ISH)is a rare disease caused by hematogenous infection of a preexisting subdural hematoma. We report a rare case of ISH accompanied by cerebral infarction. A 76-year-old man who had suffered a closed head injury 3 months before presented fever, headache and left hemiparesis during the medical treatment of acute cholangitis and obstructive jaundice with pancreatic cancer at the department of surgical gastroenterology. At the consultation, computed tomography(CT)scan indicated right chronic subdural hematoma. We performed a burr hole opening surgery on the same day. Abscess and hematoma was aspirated from the subdural space, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)was detected in this specimen. Thus the diagnosis of the infected subdural hematoma was confirmed. However, despite the antibiotics therapy, follow-up CT showed a low-density area close to the residual abscess, which suggested cerebral infarction. Cerebral angiography showed a vasospasm at the cortical segment of the right middle cerebral artery near the residual abscess. Eventually we carried out a small craniotomy to evacuate the abscess. Our case showed that prompt surgical treatment is required in case of ISH and the whole hematoma and abscess should be removed as soon as possible with an image diagnosis and an additional surgical operation.

  16. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  17. [A Case of Huge Colon Cancer Accompanied with Severe Hypoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Sakurao; Kanesada, Kou; Harada, Toshio; Tada, Kousuke; Fukuda, Shintaro

    2017-11-01

    We report a case of huge colon cancer accompanied with severe hypoproteinemia. A7 4-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal fullness. Blood examinations revealed anemia(hemoglobin 8.8 g/dL)and sever hypopro- teinemia(total protein 4.5 g/dL, albumin 1.1 g/dL). Computed tomography examination of abdomen revealed ascites and large tumor(12.5×10.5 cm)at the right side colon. By further examinations ascending colon cancer without distant metastasis was diagnosed, then we performed right hemicolectomy and primary intestinal anastomosis by open surgery. Ahuge type 1 tumor(18×12 cm)was observed in the excised specimen, which invaded to terminal ileum directly. The tumor was diagnosed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma without lymph node metastasis(pT3N0M0, fStage II ). Postoperative course was uneventful and serum protein concentration recovered gradually to normal range. Protein leakage from the tumor cannot be proved by this case, so we can't diagnose as protein-losing enteropathy, but we strongly doubt this etiology from postoperative course in this case.

  18. Two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazaki, Takayuki; Tobinaga, Koji; Taketomi, Katsuro; Kimino, Koji; Nakasone, Tomonari; Kishikawa, Masao.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis. Case 1 was a 53-year-old woman, who had a history of undergoing radiation therapy for a uterine cervical cancer 11 years before. She was seen at the hospital because of constipation and pointed out a IIa-like lesion on the rectum by colonoscopy. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. The surgical specimen showed the IIa-like lesion on the rectum. Pathological findings revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 showed positive cells in atrophic glands. Case 2 was a 62-year-old woman complaining of diarrhea. There was a previous history of receiving radiation therapy for a uterine cancer 20 years before. Colonoscopy showed a Borrmann type 2 cancer on the rectum. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. Histological findings revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma invading to the propria muscle. The features of radiation colitis were observed around the cancer in the two cases which provided a clue to diagnose the lesions with radiation-induced cancer. (author)

  19. Reversal deterioration of renal function accompanied with primary hypothyrodism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypothyroidism is often accompanied with decline of kidney function, or inability to maintain electrolyte balance. These changes are usually overlooked in everyday practice. Early recognition of this association eliminates unnecessary diagnostic procedures that postpone the adequate treatment. Case report. Two patients with elevated serum creatinine levels due to primary autoimmune hypothyroidism, with complete recovery of creatinine clearance after thyroid hormone substitution therapy are presented. The first patient was a young male whose laboratory tests suggested acute renal failure, and the delicate clinical presentation of reduced thyroid function. The second patient was an elderly woman with a history of a long-term signs and symptoms attributed to ageing, including the deterioration of renal function, with consequently delayed diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Serum thyrotropin and thyroxin levels measurement should be done in all cases of renal failure with undefined renal desease, even if the typical clinical presentation of hypothyroidism is absent. Thyroid hormone assays sholud also be performed in all patients with chronic kidney disease whose kidney function is rapidly worsening.

  20. Reversal deterioration of renal function accompanied with primary hypothyrodism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragović, Tamara

    2012-02-01

    Hypothyroidism is often accompanied with decline of kidney function, or inability to maintain electrolyte balance. These changes are usually overlooked in everyday practice. Early recognition of this association eliminates unnecessary diagnostic procedures that postpone the adequate treatment. Two patients with elevated serum creatinine levels due to primary autoimmune hypothyroidism, with complete recovery of creatinine clearance after thyroid hormone substitution therapy are presented. The first patient was a young male whose laboratory tests suggested acute renal failure, and the delicate clinical presentation of reduced thyroid function. The second patient was an elderly woman with a history of a long-term signs and symptoms attributed to ageing, including the deterioration of renal function, with consequently delayed diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Serum thyrotropin and thyroxin levels measurement should be done in all cases of renal failure with undefined renal desease, even if the typical clinical presentation of hypothyroidism is absent. Thyroid hormone assays sholud also be performed in all patients with chronic kidney disease whose kidney function is rapidly worsening.

  1. Change of local social economy accompanying location of power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuo; Saito, Kannosuke

    1982-01-01

    The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present. (Kako, I.)

  2. Modelling of the temperature field that accompanies friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Przemysław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal modelling of the Friction Stir Welding process allows for better recognition and understanding of phenomena occurring during the joining process of different materials. It is of particular importance considering the possibilities of process technology parameters, optimization and the mechanical properties of the joint. This work demonstrates the numerical modelling of temperature distribution accompanying the process of friction stir welding. The axisymmetric problem described by Fourier’s type equation with internal heat source is considered. In order to solve the diffusive initial value problem a fully implicit scheme of the finite difference method is applied. The example under consideration deals with the friction stir welding of a plate (0.7 cm thick made of Al 6082-T6 by use of a tool made of tungsten alloy, whereas the material subjected to welding was TiC powder. Obtained results confirm both quantitatively and qualitatively experimental observations that the superior temperature corresponds to the zone where the pin joints the shoulder.

  3. Prolonged knee pain relief by saphenous block (new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Harshe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in the knee joint can be from a variety of reasons. It can be either from the joint itself, it can be myofascial or it can be neuropathy, radicular pain. The myofascial component can be in different forms, namely, collateral ligament pain, bursitis, tendinitis, and so on. This responds well to local injections of steroids. Pain from the joint can be because of osteoarthritis (OA, rheumatoid arthritis or any other variety of arthritis. Among these osteoarthritis is the most common and naturally occurring pain. There are several modalities used for managing pain in the knee joint. They include medicines and physiotherapy, intra-articular steroid injection, intra-articular Hyalgan, Synvisc injection, prolotherapy, genicular nerve block, ablation, intra-articular pulsed radio frequency (PRF ablation, acupuncture, injection of platelet-rich plasma in the joint, total knee replacement, high tibial osteotomy, arthroscopy and lavage, and so on. All these modalities have their pros and cons. Literature and experience state that the pain relief provided may last for a few months with these modalities except in surgical interventions in advanced OA. The saphenous nerve is termination of femoral nerve and it is essentially sensory nerve. It supplies the medial compartment and some part of the anterior compartment of the knee joint. This nerve has been blocked near the knee joint by way of infiltration by surgeons and anesthetists, for relief of pain after knee surgery, with varying pain relief of postoperative pain. When we block the saphenous in the mid thigh in the sartorial canal, the fluid tends to block the medial branch of the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve also. It is hypothesized that this may give complete medial and anterior knee pain relief and as most of the knee OA patients have medial and anterior knee pain, this may prove useful. Use of ultrasonography helps to locate the nerve better, ensuring perfection. An effort has been made to

  4. Graphene growth from reduced graphene oxide by chemical vapour deposition: seeded growth accompanied by restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-Jin; Hyun, Moon Seop; Myung, Sung; Kang, Min-A.; Yoo, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyoung G.; Choi, Bong Gill; Cho, Youngji; Lee, Gaehang; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in graphene growth via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is critical for precise control of the characteristics of graphene. Despite much effort, the actual processes behind graphene synthesis still remain to be elucidated in a large number of aspects. Herein, we report the evolution of graphene properties during in-plane growth of graphene from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on copper (Cu) via methane CVD. While graphene is laterally grown from RGO flakes on Cu foils up to a few hundred nanometres during CVD process, it shows appreciable improvement in structural quality. The monotonous enhancement of the structural quality of the graphene with increasing length of the graphene growth from RGO suggests that seeded CVD growth of graphene from RGO on Cu surface is accompanied by the restoration of graphitic structure. The finding provides insight into graphene growth and defect reconstruction useful for the production of tailored carbon nanostructures with required properties.

  5. Evaluation of an International Disaster Relief Team After Participation in an ASEAN Regional Forum Disaster Relief Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Il; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Oh Hyun; Cha, Yong Sung; Hwang, Sung Oh; Kim, Hyun; Cha, Kyung Chul

    2016-10-01

    Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module. The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered "I knew my duty" (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered "I clearly knew my duty" (4.5±0.5). The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1-5).

  6. 76 FR 69738 - Revised 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying Instructions AGENCY: Federal Communications... Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and accompanying instructions that have been approved by the... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ernesto Beckford, Wireline Competition Bureau, Telecommunications Access Policy Division...

  7. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  8. Peritumoral bone marrow edema accompanying benign giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Ji Yong; Gi, Won Hee; Sung, Mi Suk; Lee, Jae Mun; Shin, Kyung Sub

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of peritumoral bone marrow(BM) edema accompanying benign giant cell tumor(GCT) of the appendicular bone by magnetic resonance(MR) imaging and to correlate MRI findings with those of plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Eighteen cases of pathologically proven benign GCT of the appendicular bone were retrospectively analyzed using MR images, plain radiographs and bone scintigrams. A plain radiography was available in 15 cases, and a scintigram in six. Marrow edema was defined as peritumoral signal changes which were of homogeneous intermediate or low signal intensity(SI) onT1WI and high SI on T2WI, relative to the SI of normal BM, and homogeneous enhancement on Gd-DTPA -enhanced T1WI. The transition zone, sclerotic margin and aggressiveness of the lesion were assessed on the basis of plain radiographs. BM edema seen on MR images was correlated with plain radiographic and scintigraphic findings. 1. Peritumoral BM edema was seen on MR images in 10 of 18 cases (55.5%). 2. In 8 of 15 cases for which plain radiographs were available, MR imaging revealed BM edema. In six of these eight, transition zone was wide, while in two it was narrow. Six of seven patients without marrow edema showed a wide transition zone, and in one this was narrow. There was significant correlation between BM edema shown by MR imaging and the transition zone seen on plain radiographs (x 2 , p<0.05). But the aggressiveness shown by plain radiographs correlated only marginally while the presence of sclerotic rim did not correlate. 3. All six cases for which a bone scintigram was available showed an extended uptake pattern. In five of the six, MR imaging revealed edema. Peritumoral BM edema was frequently seen (55.5%) in the GCTs of appendicular bone; it was more often shown in association with a wide transition zone by plain radiographs.=20

  9. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Winkler, István

    2016-11-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased - i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P.; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Winkler, István

    2017-01-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased – i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. PMID:27421185

  11. Developing the Sufficiency Perception Scale in the Area of Accompaniment with Piano for Candidate Music Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    PİJİ, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    The music teacher’s accompanying the songs by piano in music education at schoolappears to be important regarding the development of melody, rhythm and harmony feelingsof the students. The music teacher candidates receive their knowledge and skill in the areaof piano accompaniment through the Accompaniment lesson within the Music TeachingLicense Program. In this research, with the purpose of defining the perception of sufficiencyregarding the accompaniment levels of music teacher candidates a...

  12. Analysis of preservice inspection relief requests and recommendations for ASME code changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.F.

    1985-05-01

    NRC regulations require that preservice inspection (PSI) of nuclear plants be performed in accordance with referenced editions and addenda of Division 1 rules of Section XI, ''Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components'', of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code). The regulations permit applicants to request and obtain relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical. Applicant requests for relief from preservice inspection (PSI) requirements were compiled and analyzed. From this data, covering a total of 178 relief requests, common problems with examination requirements were identified. Changes to examination requirements to solve selected problems are proposed. By following later ASME Code requirements, 46 out of the 178 relief requests can be eliminated. Implementing proposed Code changes would eliminate another 25 relief requests, leaving 107 relief requests out of the original 178 relief requests covered by this survey

  13. Effects of preparation relief and flow channels on seating full coverage castings during cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E L; Murray, H V; Holland, G A; Taylor, D F

    1983-06-01

    Machined steel dies were used to study the effects of three die modifications on seating full coverage castings during cementation. The die modifications consisted of occlusal channels, occlusal surface relief, and axial channels. Fourteen specimens having one or more forms of die modification were compared with two control specimens having no die modifications. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the addition of four axial channels to the simulated preparation on the steel die produced a significant reduction in the mean marginal discrepancy during cementation. Occlusal modifications alone failed to produce significant reductions in marginal discrepancies when compared with the control specimens. Occlusal modifications in conjunction with axial channels failed to produce further significant reductions in marginal discrepancies when compared with those reductions observed in specimens having only axial channels.

  14. Pressure relief protection in cryostats: CERN’s experience on LHC and HIE Isolde

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Cryostats contain large cold surfaces, cryogenic fluids, and sometimes large stored energy (e.g. energized magnets), with the potential risk of sudden liberation of energy through thermodynamic transformations of the fluids, which can be uncontrolled and lead to a dangerous increase of pressure inside the cryostat envelopes. The consequence, in the case of a rupture of the envelopes, may be serious for personnel (injuries from deflagration, burns, and oxygen deficiency hazard) as well as for the equipment. Performing a thorough risk analysis is an essential step to identify and understand risk hazards that may cause a pressure increase and in order to assess consequences, define mitigation actions, and design adequate safety relief devices to limit pressure accordingly. Lessons learnt from real cases are essential for improving safety awareness for future projects: LHC and HIE Isolde are amongst these examples.

  15. Research and Evaluation of Relief Effect on Total Carbon Changes in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Pranskevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil is one of the major subsystems of the natural landscape of land and serves to the man as the main source of food resources for exclusive importance. One of the burning problems of mankind in the future will be the preservation of land soils, their fertility and health status under conditions of the increased pressure of human and the degradation of natural landscape conditions. As an additional negative factor taking place in nature is that the Earth will have to overcome the effects of global warming that will inevitably occur in Lithuanian agriculture. This paper examines the general evolution of carbon considering relief. Currently, the erosion of soil surface in Lithuania makes 30–50 %. Soil affected by erosion losses its fertility thus promoting further degradation of land.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Approaches to 'eternal' accompaniment regalement of nuclear energy installation decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryapachenko, Ihor; Trofimova, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The stunning rate of events after striking the push button AZ5 in April 26, 1986 while that only rises. Boundless even for the super-power world states the complex of scientific, technological, organizational, economical and social problems became in 1991 unique property of Ukraine. It has added to the operational power reactors (now 13) at practical absence of an infrastructure of a closed fuel cycle. At the same time Ukrainian economics always' will depend on nuclear power engineering. In it are very much positive aspect concerning high technological and scientifically based contents and future non-alternative of the nuclear power industry on a global scale. The errors in an estimation of separate links of such composite model are not killed mutually, but only add. Uncertainty in estimations of natural or public processes will cause to large uncertainty of general forecast. A laborious transaction of the rules production or the legitimated algorithms of the activity realization reach the foreseen controllability. On our view the following logical thesis of such concept should be comprehension that the rules of decommissioning of a nuclear-power plant should provide the controllability with matched activities not one generation of performers. The impressive achievements of scientific-technological revolution of last decades are accompanied 'non-regalement' from the point of view of life on a planet by disastrous effects. The nuclear technologies overtake in this sense with that feature, that the 'half-life' periods of these consequences often much more large than the whole written history of mankind. The most distant consequences of the long-term processing with radioactive materials bound on our view with the human factor. If for 30-100 years beforehand it is possible to count destiny of radiological contamination or green meadows but to provide behavior of the people or society, as a whole is high-gravity even per annum forward. Objectivity of laws of history

  17. Environmental relief effects through nanotechnological processes and products; Entlastungseffekte fuer die Umwelt durch nanotechnische Verfahren und Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeldt, Michael; Gleich, Armin von [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Technikgestaltung und Technologieentwicklung, FB Produktionstechnik; Petschow, Ulrich; Pade, Christian; Sprenger, Rolf-Ulrich [Institut fuer oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung gGmbH, Berlin (Germany). FB Umweltoekonomie und -politik

    2010-06-15

    The top priority of the research project ''Environmental Relief Effects through Nanotechnological Processes and Products'' was to identify and quantify, to the extent possible and by means of selected examples, the environmental and sustainability opportunities and risks associated with this rapidly developing line of technology. Environmental relief potentials are understood here to include not only environmental engineering in the narrower sense (end-of-pipe technologies), but also and specifically process, production, and product-integrated environmental protection. The project consisted of four stages: 1. Analysis of products and processes already on the market or soon to be made available and application 2. Examination and initial qualitative assessment of each of the products and processes with respect to its potential for environmental relief (or burden, as the case may be) 3. In-depth life cycle analysis and assessment of four selected processes or products as compared to conventional processes or products (Manufacture of solderable surface finishes on printed circuit boards, MW carbon nanotube application for foils in the semiconductor industry, Lithium batteries for energy, storage, Ultradur {sup registered} High Speed plastic) 4. An appraisal of nanotechnology employment effects. (orig.)

  18. Immediate pain relief by microvascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, N.U.; Ali, M.; Khan, H.M.; Ishaq, M.; Khattak, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trigeminal neuralgia is a common entity which is managed by neurosurgeons in day to day practice. Up-till now many treatment options have been adopted for it but micro-vascular decompression is much impressive in terms of pain control and recurrence rate in all of them. The objective of study was known the efficacy of micro vascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia by using muscle patch in terms of immediate pain relief. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Neurosurgery Department lady reading hospital, Peshawar from January 2010 to December 2012. All patients who underwent micro vascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia were included in the study. Patients were assessed 72 hours after the surgery by borrow neurological institute pain scale (BNIP scale) for pain relief and findings were documented on predesigned proforma. Data was analysed by SPSS-17. Results: Total 52 patients were included in this study. Among these 32 (61.53 percentage) were female and 20 (38.46 percentage) were males having age from 22-76 years (mean 49 years). Right side was involved in 36 (69.23 percentage) and left side in 16 (30.76 percentage) patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 6 months to 16 years (mean 8 years). History of dental extraction and peripheral neurectomy was present in 20 (38 percentage) and 3(5.76 percentage) patients while V3 was most commonly involved branch with 28(57.69 percentage) frequency and combined V2,V3 involvement was 1 (11.53 percentage). Superior cerebellar artery was most common offending vessel in 46(88.46 percentage) while arachnoid adhesions were in 2(3.84 percentage) patients. We assessed patient immediate postoperatively using BNIP pain scale. Conclusion: Micro-vascular decompression is most effective mode of treatment for trigeminal neuralgia in terms of immediate pain relief. (author)

  19. Vibration stress relief of DH 36 rectangle welded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqi; Fang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    Vibration stress relief (VSR) is widely used in reducing residual stress in welded structures. However, the effectiveness of this method is still instable in some circumstance. In this study, a covert negative treatment phenomenon was investigated, i.e. natural frequency of welded structures decreased after VSR but residual stress in one direction increased. When the alteration of natural frequency after VSR is significant, the residual stresses in both the longitudinal and transversal directions shall decrease. Otherwise, residual stresses may increase on one direction. Thus, sufficient power shall be applied to the welded structures to avoid negative results.

  20. Root cause evaluation of pressurizer relief valve leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Voll, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pressurizer relief valves at two pressurized water reactor units experienced unacceptable leakage during plant heatup. The leakage was suspected to be caused by excessive pipe loads on the valves. This paper describes how monitoring via hard-wired transducers and a digital data acquisition system was used to quantify the pipe loads on the valves, and assist in determining the root cause of the pipe loads and appropriate corrective actions. The selection of the parameters monitored, how the monitoring was accomplished and interpretation of the results is discussed. The corrective actions implemented based on the monitoring results are also discussed

  1. Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Silver Gratings for Optimal SERS Response.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalachyova, Y.; Mareš, D.; Lyutakov, O.; Koštejn, Martin; Lapčák, L.; Svorčík, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 17 (2015), s. 9506-9512 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : enhanced raman-scattering * metallic surface * relief gratings Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.509, year: 2015

  2. Lightning initiation: Strong pulses of VHF radiation accompany preliminary breakdown

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolmašová, Ivana; Santolík, Ondřej; Defer, E.; Rison, W.; Coquillat, S.; Pedeboy, S.; Lán, Radek; Uhlíř, Luděk; Lambert, D.; Pinty, J.P.; Prieur, S.; Pont, V.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 3650. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07027S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : controlled study * article * electromagnetic radiation * magnetic field * waveform * lightning * mapping array * discharges * ionosphere * luminosity * flashes * leaders * system Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21972-z

  3. Patellofemoral arthrodesis as pain relief in extreme patella alta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkatesan, S.; Kampen, A. van

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no golden standard management for neglected, chronic patellar tendon rupture as they are fairly rare. Nevertheless, accompanying pain can be highly debilitating. By presenting a case of patellar tendon repair, the exceptional results of a patellofemoral arthrodesis are described.

  4. Surface electrostatics: theory and computations

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, G.; Javili, A.; Steinmann, P.

    2014-01-01

    are also expressed in a consistent manner. The theory is accompanied by numerical examples on porous materials using the finite-element method, where the influence of the surface electric permittivity on the electric displacement, the polarization stress

  5. Does pain relief by CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids predict pain relief after decompression surgery for cervical nerve root compression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Alexander; Dietrich, Tobias J; Farshad, Mazda

    2016-10-01

    The relationship of pain relief from a recently presented CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids to surgical decompression as a treatment for single-level cervical radiculopathy is not clear. This retrospective study aimed to compare the immediate and 6-week post-injection effects to the short- and long-term outcomes after surgical decompression, specifically in regard to pain relief. Patients (n = 39, age 47 ± 10 years) who had undergone CT-guided indirect injection with local anesthetics and steroids as an initial treatment for single cervical nerve root radiculopathy and who subsequently needed surgical decompression were included retrospectively. Pain levels (VAS scores) were monitored before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after injection (n = 34), as well as 6 weeks (n = 38) and a mean of 25 months (SD ± 12) after surgical decompression (n = 36). Correlation analysis was performed to find potential associations of pain relief after injection and after surgery to investigate the predictive value of post-injection pain relief. There was no correlation between immediate pain relief after injection (-32 ± 27 %) and 6 weeks later (-7 ± 19 %), (r = -0.023, p = 0.900). There was an association by tendency between immediate pain relief after injection and post-surgical pain relief at 6 weeks (-82 ± 27 %), (r = 0.28, p = 0.08). Pain relief at follow-up remained high at -70 ± 21 % and was correlated with the immediate pain amelioration effect of the injection (r = 0.37, p = 0.032). Five out of seven patients who reported no pain relief from injection had a pain relief from surgery in excess of 50 %. The amount of immediate radiculopathic pain relief after indirect cervical nerve root injection is associated with the amount of pain relief achieved at long-term follow-up after surgical decompression of single-level cervical radiculopathy

  6. GIS plays key role in NYC Rescue and Relief Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    New York City, Sept. 17—The posters of missing loved ones are pasted onto New York City walls and street signs six days after 2 hijacked commercial airlines destroyed the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan on September 11. Several miles uptown from “ground zero,” heightened security hovers around the city's Office of Emergency Management rescue and relief command center, an around-the-clock operation. Police, firefighters, military, officials with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, communications technicians, and a beehive of others work in controlled chaos in this cavernous, convention center-sized hall, lined with computers and adorned with several American flags.After the original command center at 7 World Trade Center collapsed to rubble as an after-effect of the plane strikes, city officials scrambled to recreate it. Alan Leidner, director of New York's citywide geographic information systems (GIS), and who is with the Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, knew that maps would be an integral component of the rescue and relief efforts. Maps provide emergency workers and others with accurate and detailed scientific data in the form of visual aids upon which they can make informed decisions.

  7. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Joy L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress, sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.

  8. Putting Qumran, Jesus and his movement into relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After referring briefly to the fantasies regarding the origins of Christianity as elicited by the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 (Dupont-Sommer, Allegro, Thiering, the purpose of the contribution is to put the Jesus movement into relief in the context of first-century Judaism. The identity of the Qumranites is argued to be Essene scribes. The identity, ideology and practices of the latter are compared with those of Jesus of Nazareth and the movement he elicited using the following rubrics: (1 Jesus, the teacher of righteousness and the powers that be; (2 asceticism versus itinerary charismaticism; (3 caring versus lack of caring for the sick, poor and marginalised; (4 elitist priests and scribes versus lower-class peasants; (5 the interpretation of the law; (6 religious and daily practices (baptism, ritual meal, sacrifice, prayer, community of possessions, scribal activity; (7 religious views or ideology (kingdom of God, the new covenant, light and darkness, politics. The result is a picture of Jesus (with his focus on human suffering in sharp relief versus Qumran and facets of the early church.

  9. Humanitarian power : Canadian electrical techies help hurricane relief in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, N.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the emergency assistance provided to Honduras by Canada following Hurricane Mitch that struck the country with a ferocity not seen in 200 years, was described. Thousands of Hondurans were killed and three million were left homeless as vast regions of the country were literally washed away. The secondary effects of the storm - famine and disease - set in to claim even more lives. The Canadian Forces' Disaster Response Team (DART) was dispatched to conduct emergency relief operations for up to 40 days in order to bridge the gap until members of the international community arrive to provide long-term help. DART focused on providing medical care, clean drinking water, an engineering capability, and reliable communications. The medical team consisting of a small field hospital with a staff of 45 provided care for up to 500 outpatients and 30 inpatients daily, depending on the severity of injuries. The engineering team of about 40 provided a wide range of services, such as water purification, using a reverse osmosis water purification unit, fresh water distribution and power generation. The communications unit provided contact with headquarters in Honduras, and communicated with bases back in Canada. The operation was a great success, and well received by the Honduran people. This was the first deployment of DART, a team initially conceived after the Canadian Forces participated in relief efforts in Rwanda in 1994 and 1995

  10. Submarine tectonic relief off Enshunada. Enshunadaoki no hendo chikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabuchi, Y; Sasahara, N; Hamamoto, F [Maritime Safety Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, S [10th Resional Maritime Safety Headquarters, Kagoshima (Japan); Kondo, T [Maritime Safety School, Kyoto (Japan)

    1991-08-15

    This paper reports on the results of investigations on the submarine relief structure off the Enshunada (a sea area which is on the south of the Tenryu River mouth and has about 50km east and west and about 100km north and south) using a bathymetric surveying ship equipped with a narrow multibeam echo sounder. The submarine relief structure of this sea area is clarified into the following topographical districts arranged north to south (each extends roughly in the northeast-southwest direction): the Enshu trough and Tenryu submarine canyon upper valley located in the center thereof, ridges represented by No.l and No.2 Tenryu knolls, the ridge and trough zone where minor ridges and troughes appear complicatedly and repeatedly, and the Nankai trough. The paper contains causes of formation of the Tenryu submarine canyon, the Ryuyo submarine canyon which is located in the northwestern slope of No.2 Tenryu knoll and has a distinct shape, oval-shaped domes scattered in the bottom of Nankai trough, etc. and also opinions on landslide topography seen in the ridge and trough zone. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief: changing the face of defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraby, Patrick R; Bourdeaux, Margaret; Casscells, S Ward; Smith, David J; Lawry, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century. Today's challenges result from growing political, environmental, and economic instability in important areas of the globe that threaten national and global security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security and stability both for the affected country and for the United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses conflict prevention, conflict, postconflict, and natural disasters. With DOD's extensive global medical resources, it is often uniquely qualified to execute a critical role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the American military will act in FHA and disaster relief is a still evolving doctrine with three issues deserving particular attention: aligning operations with host government leadership, preserving humanitarian space, and tailoring the US military's unique resources to the specific political and medical situation at hand. The DOD's response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic decisions and operational capabilities that need further development to establish the FHA mission firmly within DOD's repertoire of security engagement activities.

  12. Pain relief in childbirth: changing historical and feminist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, G A

    2015-07-01

    Pain during human childbirth is ubiquitous and severe. Opium and its derivatives constitute the oldest effective method of pain relief and have been used in childbirth for several thousand years, along with numerous folk medicines and remedies. Interference with childbirth pain has always been criticised by doctors and clergy. The 19th century saw the introduction of three much more effective approaches to childbirth pain; diethyl ether, chloroform and nitrous oxide. Access to pain relief was demanded by the first wave of feminist activists as a woman's right. They popularised the use of 'twilight sleep', a combination of morphine and scopolamine, which fell into disrepute as its adverse effects became known. From the 1960s, as epidural analgesia became more popular, a second wave of feminists took the opposite position, calling for a return to non-medicalised, female-controlled, 'natural' childbirth and, in some cases, valorising the importance of the pain experience as empowering for women. However, from the 1990s, a third wave of feminist thought has begun to emerge, revalidating a woman's right to choose a 'technological', pain-free birth, rather than a 'natural' one, and regarding this as a legitimate feminist position.

  13. Analytical modeling of bwr safety relief valve blowdown phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J.G.; Singh, A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical, qualitative understanding of the pool pressures measured during safety relief valve discharge in boiling water reactors equipped with X-quenchers has been developed and compared to experimental data. A pressure trace typically consists of a brief 25-35 Hz. oscillation followed by longer 5-15 Hz. oscillation. In order to explain the pressure response, a discharge line vent clearing model has been coupled with a Rayleigh bubble dynamic model. The local conditions inside the safety relief valve discharge lines and inside of the X-quencher were simulated successfully with RELAP5. The simulation allows one to associate the peak pressure inside the quencher arm with the onset of air discharge into the suppression pool. Using the pressure and thermodynamic quality at quencher exit of RELAP5 calculation as input, a Rayleigh model of pool bubble dynamics has successfully explained both the higher and lower frequency pressure oscillations. The higher frequency oscillations are characteristic of an air bubble emanating from a single row of quencher holes. The lower frequency pressure oscillations are characteristic of a larger air bubble containing all the air expelled from one side of an X-quencher arm

  14. Modeling attitude towards drug treament: the role of internal motivation, external pressure, and dramatic relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Bradley T; Longshore, Douglas; Anglin, M Douglas

    2009-04-01

    Motivation for change has historically been viewed as the crucial element affecting responsiveness to drug treatment. Various external pressures, such as legal coercion, may engender motivation in an individual previously resistant to change. Dramatic relief may be the change process that is most salient as individuals internalize such external pressures. Results of structural equation modeling on data from 465 drug users (58.9% male; 21.3% Black, 34.2% Hispanic/Latino, and 35.1% White) entering drug treatment indicated that internal motivation and external pressure significantly and positively predicted dramatic relief and that dramatic relief significantly predicted attitudes towards drug treatment: chi (2) = 142.20, df = 100, p relief is also likely to be high. When dramatic relief is high, attitudes towards drug treatment are likely to be positive. The findings indicate that interventions to get individuals into drug treatment should include processes that promote Dramatic Relief. Implications for addictions health services are discussed.

  15. Crustal structure, and topographic relief in the high southern Scandes, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.; Frassetto, A.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the uplift history of southern Norway is hindered by the lack of constraint available from the geologic record. Sediments that often contain information of burial and uplift history have long since been stripped from the onshore regions in southern Norway, and geophysical, dating methods and geomorphological studies are the remaining means of unraveling uplift history. New constraints on topographic evolution and uplift in southern Norway have been added by a recent crustal scale refraction project. Magnus-Rex (Mantle investigation of Norwegian uplift Structure, refraction experiment) recorded three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the high southern Scandes Mountains. The goal of the project is to determine crustal thickness and establish whether these mountains are supported at depth by a crustal root or by other processes. The southern Scandes Mountains were formed during the Caledonian Orogeny around 440 Ma. These mountains, which reach elevations of up to ~2.5 km, are comprised of one or more palaeic (denudation) surfaces of rolling relief that are incised by fluvial and glacial erosion. Extreme vertical glacial incision of up to 1000 m cuts into the surfaces in the western fjords, while the valleys of eastern Norway are more fluvial in character. Climatic controls on topography here are the Neogene - Recent effects of rebound due to removal of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and isostatic rebound due to incisional erosion. However, unknown tectonic uplift mechanisms may also be in effect, and separating the tectonic and climate-based vertical motions is often difficult. Sediment and rock has been removed by the formation of the palaeic surfaces and uplift measurements cannot be directly related to present elevations. Estimates so far have indicated that rebound due to incisional erosion has a small effect of ~500 m on surface elevation. Results from Magnus-Rex indicate the crust beneath the high mountains is up to 40 km thick. This

  16. Intra-articular hip injection: does pain relief correlate with radiographic severity of osteoarthritis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Ajit J.; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Alizadeh, Ahmadreza; Klein, Devon A.

    2011-01-01

    Intra-articular injection is being used widely for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the hip. However, its efficacy is not always predictable in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of radiographic severity of OA was predictive of the response to intra-articular injection of local anesthetic with corticosteroid and to determine the relationship between immediate pain relief resulting from the anesthetic and delayed pain relief resulting from corticosteroid administration. This retrospective study included 217 patients (220 injections) with diagnosis of hip OA who underwent a fluoroscopically guided therapeutic hip injection of local anesthetic and corticosteroid. Hip radiographs were scored using the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Immediate and delayed pain relief was documented using a visual analog scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether age, gender or radiographic severity of OA were independent predictors of pain relief. Degree of agreement between immediate and delayed response was assessed with the kappa coefficient. Immediate pain relief was reported in 68.2% of hips and delayed relief in 71.4% of hips. A high level of agreement was observed between immediate and delayed pain relief (kappa = 0.80, p < 0.001). 94% of patients reporting immediate relief also reported relief 2 weeks later. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that neither gender nor age was related to immediate or delayed pain relief. Only severity of OA (based on radiographic analysis) was observed to be predictive of pain relief. Pain relief following intra-articular hip injection correlated with radiographic severity of OA. This intervention may be of therapeutic and prognostic value in patients awaiting hip arthroplasty. (orig.)

  17. The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom Up Approach to Disaster Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Skarbek, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Can bottom-up relief efforts lead to recovery after disasters? Conventional wisdom and contemporary public policy suggest that major crises require centralized authority to provide disaster relief goods. Using a novel set of comprehensive donation and expenditure data collected from archival records, this paper examines a bottom-up relief effort following one of the most devastating natural disasters of the nineteenth century: the Chicago Fire of 1871. Findings show that while there was no ce...

  18. Lessons from DoD Disaster Relief Efforts in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Orientation & Review,” USARPAC briefing, undated; “USARPAC OSInt Support to Cyclone nargis Relief Efforts in Burma 2008,” USARPAC briefing, undated; phone...all organizations relied, to a large extent, on the staff and national partners they already had 71 “USARPAC OSINT Support to Cyclone Nargis Relief...undated. As of September 8, 2012: http://www.kadena.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-120426-002.pdf “USARPAC OSINT Support to Cyclone Nargis Relief

  19. Double Dividend Taxation Relief: A New View From The Corporate Income Tax Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Lazar

    2010-01-01

    Double taxation of dividends is a matter of great interest in the actual context of globalization and free movement of capital and persons. As the classical system is more and more abandoned, new solutions for the relief of double taxation are put into practice as a mean to reduce the fiscal burden on shareholders. With few exceptions, all these solutions are based on dividend tax relief. The paper aims at providing alternative solutions for double dividend taxation relief by taking some acti...

  20. The pre-positioning of warehouses at regional and local levels for a humanitarian relief organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Saeyeon; Pettit, Stephen John; Harris, Irina; Beresford, Anthony Kenneth Charles

    2015-01-01

    Using pre-positioned warehouses at strategic locations around the world is an approach commonly taken by some humanitarian relief organisations to improve their capacities to deliver sufficient relief aid within a relatively short time frame, and to provide shelter and assistance to disaster victims. Although research into the facility location problem is extensive in both theory and application, such approaches have received little attention from the humanitarian relief perspective. In this ...

  1. Optimization and Simulation Modeling of Disaster Relief Supply Chain: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Keli; Bizimana, Emmanuel; Agu, Deedee D.; Issac, Tana T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent natural and man-made disasters underscore the need of a resilient and agile disaster relief supply chain to mitigate the damages and save people’s lives. Optimization and simulation modeling have become powerful and useful tools to help decision makers tackle problems related to disaster relief supply chain. This paper reviews optimization and simulation models used in the field of disaster relief supply chain. We review the literature of the facility location optimization problems of ...

  2. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan, and

  3. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Saskia; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience (“liking”) of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward (“wanting”), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief “won” in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality. PMID:26464995

  4. CCF analysis of high redundancy systems safety/relief valve data analysis and reference BWR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Bjoere, S.; Olsson, Lena

    1992-12-01

    Dependent failure analysis and modeling were developed for high redundancy systems. The study included a comprehensive data analysis of safety and relief valves at the Finnish and Swedish BWR plants, resulting in improved understanding of Common Cause Failure mechanisms in these components. The reference application on the Forsmark 1/2 reactor relief system, constituting of twelve safety/relief lines and two regulating relief lines, covered different safety criteria cases of reactor depressurization and overpressure protection function, and failure to re close sequences. For the quantification of dependencies, the Alpha Factor Model, the Binomial Probability Model and the Common Load Model were compared for applicability in high redundancy systems

  5. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J M; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation - a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  6. How Absent Negativity Relates to Affect and Motivation: An Integrative Relief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eDeutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion and motivational systems (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Gray & McNaughton, 2000; Higgins, 1997; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors (Mowrer, 1951; Ostafin & Brooks, 2011, self destructive behaviors (Favazza, 1998; Franklin, Lee, Hanna, & Prinstein, 2013, and social influence (Dolinski & Nawrat, 1998. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  7. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J. M.; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO. PMID:25806008

  8. Modeling subsurface stormflow initiation in low-relief landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Luisa; Vaché, Kellie B.; Rhett Jackson, C.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow lateral subsurface flow as a runoff generating mechanism at the hillslope scale has mostly been studied in steeper terrain with typical hillside angles of 10 - 45 degrees. These studies have shown that subsurface stormflow is often initiated at the interface between a permeable upper soil layer and a lower conductivity impeding layer, e.g. a B horizon or bedrock. Many studies have identified thresholds of event size and soil moisture states that need to be exceeded before subsurface stormflow is initiated. However, subsurface stormflow generation on low-relief hillslopes has been much less studied. Here we present a modeling study that investigates the initiation of subsurface stormflow on low-relief hillslopes in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Hillslopes in this region typically have slope angles of 2-5 degrees. Topsoils are sandy, underlain by a low-conductivity sandy clay loam Bt horizon. Subsurface stormflow has only been intercepted occasionally in a 120 m long trench, and often subsurface flow was not well correlated with stream signals, suggesting a disconnect between subsurface flow on the hillslopes and stream flow. We therefore used a hydrologic model to better understand which conditions promote the initiation of subsurface flow in this landscape, addressing following questions: Is there a threshold event size and soil moisture state for producing lateral subsurface flow? What role does the spatial pattern of depth to the impeding clay layer play for subsurface stormflow dynamics? We reproduced a section of a hillslope, for which high-resolution topographic data and depth to clay measurements were available, in the hydrologic model HYDRUS-3D. Soil hydraulic parameters were based on experimentally-derived data. The threshold analysis was first performed using hourly climate data records for 2009-2010 from the study site to drive the simulation. For this period also trench measurements of subsurface flow were available. In addition

  9. Isotope effects accompanying evaporation of water from leaky containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Chmura, Lukasz

    2008-03-01

    Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying isotope effects associated with partial evaporation of water from leaky containers have been performed under three different settings: (i) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a dynamic mode, (ii) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a static mode, and (iii) evaporation into free laboratory atmosphere. The results demonstrate that evaporative enrichment of water stored in leaky containers can be properly described in the framework of the Craig-Gordon evaporation model. The key parameter controlling the degree of isotope enrichment is the remaining fraction of water in the leaking containers. Other factors such as temperature, relative humidity, or extent of kinetic fractionation play only minor roles. Satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted isotope enrichments for both (18)O and (2)H in experiments for the case of evaporation into dry atmosphere could be obtained only when molecular diffusivity ratios of isotope water molecules as suggested recently by Cappa et al. [J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4525-4535, (2003).] were adopted. However, the observed and modelled isotope enrichments for (2)H and (18)O could be reconciled also for the ratios of molecular diffusivities obtained by Merlivat [J. Chem. Phys., 69, 2864-2871 (1978).], if non-negligible transport resistance in the viscous liquid sub-layer adjacent to the evaporating surface is considered. The evaporation experiments revealed that the loss of mass of water stored in leaky containers in the order of 1%, will lead to an increase of the heavy isotope content in this water by ca. 0.35 and 1.1 per thousand, for delta (18)O and delta (2)H, respectively.

  10. Microbiota and Metatranscriptome Changes Accompanying the Onset of Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment. Beta-diversity analysis of 16S rRNA reveals that samples cluster based on disease severity and patient but not by oral hygiene status. Significant shifts in the abundance of several genera occurred during disease transition, suggesting a dysbiosis due to development of gingivitis. Comparing taxonomic abundance with transcriptomic activity revealed concordance of bacterial diversity composition between the two quantification assays in samples originating from both healthy and diseased teeth. Metatranscriptome sequencing analysis indicates that during the early stages of transition to gingivitis, a number of virulence-related transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in individual and across pooled patient samples. Upregulated genes include those involved in proteolytic and nucleolytic processes, while expression levels of those involved in surface structure assembly and other general virulence functions leading to colonization or adaptation within the host are more dynamic. These findings help characterize the transition from health to periodontal disease and identify genes associated with early disease. PMID:29666288

  11. Microbiota and Metatranscriptome Changes Accompanying the Onset of Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Nowicki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment. Beta-diversity analysis of 16S rRNA reveals that samples cluster based on disease severity and patient but not by oral hygiene status. Significant shifts in the abundance of several genera occurred during disease transition, suggesting a dysbiosis due to development of gingivitis. Comparing taxonomic abundance with transcriptomic activity revealed concordance of bacterial diversity composition between the two quantification assays in samples originating from both healthy and diseased teeth. Metatranscriptome sequencing analysis indicates that during the early stages of transition to gingivitis, a number of virulence-related transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in individual and across pooled patient samples. Upregulated genes include those involved in proteolytic and nucleolytic processes, while expression levels of those involved in surface structure assembly and other general virulence functions leading to colonization or adaptation within the host are more dynamic. These findings help characterize the transition from health to periodontal disease and identify genes associated with early disease.

  12. Tectonically controlled relief evolution in the Northern Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau from the Eocene to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, N.; Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Kober, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Cenozoic Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau mountains developed on the southern part of the Paleozoic Altaid orogen as a far-field effect of the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. Highland terrain, active seismicity, and fast GPS-derived motions are evidence of rapid ongoing mountain growth today. Variations in relief energy, hight-to-width ratio of ranges and apatite fission track (AFT) exhumation ages suggest they rose at different times. The strong dissection of the higher ridges (heights of up to 2km), indicates an earlier onset and higher rates of uplift. At the other end of the spectrum are low, little dissected ridges. According to AFT ages, exhumation in the Junggar Range began at 9 Ma (Jolivet et al., 2010), circa 11 Ma in the central Kyrgyz Range (Sobel et al., 2006) and 10 Ma in the Terskey Alatau. An AFT age of the low Sogety range is 77 Ma, suggesting that the Cenozic exhumation of the ridge was insufficient to expose rocks from below c.3 km depth. The synclinal lows between the basement highs preserve Cenozoic strata of Eocene to Quaternary age, probably deposited in a once continuous basin (the Ili Basin) and recording the entire history of Tien Shan uplift. Facies pattern of proximal alluvial fans are strictly related to the recent higher mountain areas in the north and in the south. During Middle Miocene, a large lake developed in the basin center. Up to the Middle Miocene sedimentation was accompanied by normal faulting of small magnitude. The main Cenozoic folding and thrusting occurred after that time and before deposition of the Chorgos formation. Shortening was accommodated by reactivation of inherited basement structures, by a switch to reverse or strike-slip motion on normal faults, and the nucleation of new thrusts. The majority of faults which emplace basement rocks over upper Cenozoic sediments dip steeply at angles of 60-70˚, and some have throws of more than 200 m. They are marked by topographic steps and contrasting morphology

  13. [Safety and efficacy of ketamine for pain relief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesters, Marieke; Dahan, Albert; van Kleef, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous ketamine treatment is frequently used for the management of chronic pain, especially in those patients who do not benefit from other therapies. In this commentary we discuss the efficacy of ketamine for relief of chronic pain and ketamine's safety profile. A review of the literature indicates that only a few studies show that intravenous ketamine has analgesic effects that persist beyond the infusion period, an effect that occurs in about two-thirds of patients. Ketamine has multiple safety issues, ranging from psychotomimetic and schizotypal symptoms, sympathetic stimulation, tachycardia and hypertension, and damage to the liver and the urogenital tract. Damage to the urogenital tract seems to be restricted to individuals who chronically abuse ketamine. We indicate the need for large randomized trials in which ketamine is compared with an 'active' placebo.

  14. Acupuncture as pain relief during delivery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery...... with respect to pain intensity, birth experience, and obstetric outcome. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 607 healthy women in labor at term who received acupuncture, TENS, or traditional analgesics. Primary outcomes were the need for pharmacological and invasive methods, level of pain...... with the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Use of pharmacological and invasive methods was significantly lower in the acupuncture group (acupuncture vs traditional, p acupuncture vs TENS, p = 0.031). Pain scores were comparable. Acupuncture did not influence the duration of labor or the use of oxytocin...

  15. Human milk for neonatal pain relief during ophthalmoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiane Medeiros Ribeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmoscopy performed for the early diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is painful for preterm infants, thus necessitating interventions for minimizing pain. The present study aimed to establish the effectiveness of human milk, compared with sucrose, for pain relief in premature infants subjected to ophthalmoscopy for the early diagnosis of ROP. This investigation was a pilot, quasi-experimental study conducted with 14 premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a university hospital. Comparison between the groups did not yield a statistically significant difference relative to the crying time, salivary cortisol, or heart rate (HR. Human milk appears to be as effective as sucrose in relieving acute pain associated with ophthalmoscopy. The study’s limitations included its small sample size and lack of randomization. Experimental investigations with greater sample power should be performed to reinforce the evidence found in the present study.

  16. Numerical study of emergency cryogenics gas relief into confined spaces

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The presented work focuses on the risk analysis and the consequences of the unexpected leak to the tunnel of cryogenics gases. Formation of the gas mixture and its propagation along tunnels is an important issue for the safe operation of cryogenic machines, including superconducting accelerators or free electron lasers. As the cryogenics gas the helium and argon will be considered. A minimal numerical model will be presented and discussed. Series of numerical results related to emergency helium relief to the CERN tunnel and related to unexpected leak of the argon to an underground tunnel, will be shown. The numerical results will show temperature distribution, oxygen deficiency and gas cloud propagation in function of intensity of the leak and intensity of the ventilation.

  17. Pain Relief in Nonhuman Primate Models of Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierboom, Michel P M; Breedveld, Elia; Keehnen, Merei; Klomp, Rianne; Bakker, Jaco

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis are important in the elucidation of etiopathogenic mechanisms of the disease and for the development of promising new therapies. Species specificity of new biological compounds and their mode of action preclude safety and efficacy testing in rodent models of disease. Nonhuman primates (NHP) can fill this niche and provide the only relevant model. Over the last two decades models of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were developed in the rhesus monkey and the common marmoset. However, NHP are higher-order animals and complex sentient beings. So especially in models where pain is an intricate part of the disease, analgesia needs to be addressed because of ethical considerations. In our model, a morphine-based pain relief was used that does not interfere with the normal development of disease allowing us to evaluate important mechanistic aspects of the arthritis.

  18. Nasal Filters For Relief From Atopic Dermatitis Caused by Inhalants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal filter is a simple device consisting of a net mounted in a frame made to fit inside the nostrils. These filters thus are not visible from outside. If a person uses the nasal filters the .u particulate material from the air that the person breathes gets removed and in case the person is allergic to an inhalant antigen, he stops having the allergic symptoms. We tried nasal filters on two females patients aged 32 and 7 years respectively, having topics dermatitis the age of I year, caused by an inhalant (indicated by seasonal aggravations, and spontaneous recovery during brief visits to other towns. Unrig a follow-up of 2 1/2 and 2 years respectively, both the patients experienced almost 80-90% relief from the dermatitis and required only animal treatment.

  19. Gain-Based Relief for Invasion of Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirko Harder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many common law jurisdictions, some or all instances of invasion of privacy constitute a privacy-specific wrong either at common law (including equity or under statute. A remedy invariably available for such a wrong is compensation for loss. However, the plaintiff may instead seek to claim the profit the defendant has made from the invasion. This article examines when a plaintiff is, and should be, entitled to claim that profit, provided that invasion of privacy is actionable as such. After a brief overview of the relevant law in major common law jurisdictions, the article investigates how invasion of privacy fits into a general concept of what is called ‘restitution for wrongs’. It will be argued that the right to privacy is a right against the whole world and as such forms a proper basis of awarding gain-based relief for the unauthorised use of that right.

  20. Occupational accidents among ambulance drivers in the emergency relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Elisabete; do Carmo Cruz Robazzi, Maria Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the occurrence of occupational accidents (OA) among ambulance drivers in Emergency Relief (ER), with a view to disclosing the types of events and their causes. A quantitative-qualitative study was carried out through the interview of 22 workers in a city in São Paulo, Brazil. The subjects were male, between 36 and 40 years old (40.9%), married (81.82%), with uncompleted primary education (40.9%), individual (90.9%) and family (54.55%) income between two and four Brazilian minimum wages, not performing any other paid occupation (45.45%). The majority of the OA were typical, due to an excess of exercises and vigorous and repeated movements (42.11%) and aggression through body strength and other means (26.33%). The OA occurs mainly because drivers carry out tasks that do not suit their professional formation.

  1. Pemanfaatan Frekuensi Untuk Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penanganan kejadian yang terkait dengan Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR di Indonesia yang merupakan negara yang rawan terhadap bencana dan permasalahan sosial membutuhkan komunikasi yang intensif. Penelitian ini mengkaji mengenai kondisi pemanfaatan frekuensi PPDR di Indonesia dan strategi pengembangan ke depannya dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem komunikasi pada instansi PPDR di Indonesia tidak mendukung interoperabilitas dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang terkoordinasi. Selain itu, pita frekuensi yang digunakan merupakan pita sempit yang tidak mendukung aplikasi video dan data kecepatan tinggi yang dibutuhkan dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang lebih efektif. Oleh karena itu, dalam perencanaan alokasi frekuensi ke depannya, pemerintah perlu mengintegrasikan pita lebar ke dalam perencanaan sistem Government Radio Network (GRN.

  2. The roles of special proresolving mediators in pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan-Yu; Jia, Ming-Rui; Sun, Tao

    2018-02-08

    The resolution of acute inflammation, once thought to be a passive process, is now recognized as an active one. The productions of endogenous special proresolving mediators (SPMs) are involved in this process. SPMs, including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins, are endogenous lipid mediators generated from ω-6 arachidonic acid or ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. They have potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions in various inflammatory disorders. Due to the potent proresolving and anti-inflammatory effects, SPMs are also used for pain relief. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which SPMs act on their respective G-protein-coupled receptors in immune cells and nerve cells to normalize pain via regulating inflammatory mediators, transient receptor potential ion channels, and central sensitization. SPMs may offer novel therapeutic approaches for preventing and treating pain conditions associated with inflammation.

  3. Experimental Validation of the LHC Helium Relief System Flow Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fydrych, J; Riddone, G

    2006-01-01

    In case of simultaneous resistive transitions in a whole sector of magnets in the Large Hadron Collider, the helium would be vented from the cold masses to a dedicated recovery system. During the discharge the cold helium will eventually enter a pipe at room temperature. During the first period of the flow the helium will be heated intensely due to the pipe heat capacity. To study the changes of the helium thermodynamic and flow parameters we have simulated numerically the most critical flow cases. To verify and validate numerical results, a dedicated laboratory test rig representing the helium relief system has been designed and commissioned. Both numerical and experimental results allow us to determine the distributions of the helium parameters along the pipes as well as mechanical strains and stresses.

  4. The Americans with Disabilities Act: prescription for tax relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E D; Judice, A K; Hazelwood, A C

    1996-01-01

    As employers, healthcare organizations must comply with Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990-Employment Discrimination by Private Entities-which covers virtually all aspects of employment and prohibits employers from discriminating against otherwise qualified job applicants and workers who have disabilities or who become disabled. Further, healthcare organizations must comply with the provisions of Title III of the act-Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by Public Accommodations and in Commercial Facilities-which requires places of public accommodations and commercial facilities to be designed, constructed, and altered in compliance with the accessibility standards of the act. While compliance with the ADA can be costly, four specific sections of the Internal Revenue Code offer tax relief to organizations that meet the guidelines of Titles I and III.

  5. Microbiota and Metatranscriptome Changes Accompanying the Onset of Gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Emily M; Shroff, Raghav; Singleton, Jacqueline A; Renaud, Diane E; Wallace, Debra; Drury, Julie; Zirnheld, Jolene; Colleti, Brock; Ellington, Andrew D; Lamont, Richard J; Scott, David A; Whiteley, Marvin

    2018-04-17

    Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment. Beta-diversity analysis of 16S rRNA reveals that samples cluster based on disease severity and patient but not by oral hygiene status. Significant shifts in the abundance of several genera occurred during disease transition, suggesting a dysbiosis due to development of gingivitis. Comparing taxonomic abundance with transcriptomic activity revealed concordance of bacterial diversity composition between the two quantification assays in samples originating from both healthy and diseased teeth. Metatranscriptome sequencing analysis indicates that during the early stages of transition to gingivitis, a number of virulence-related transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in individual and across pooled patient samples. Upregulated genes include those involved in proteolytic and nucleolytic processes, while expression levels of those involved in surface structure assembly and other general virulence functions leading to colonization or adaptation within the host are more dynamic. These findings help characterize the transition from health to periodontal disease and identify genes associated with early disease. IMPORTANCE Although more than 50% of adults have some form of periodontal disease, there remains a significant gap in our understanding of its underlying cause. We initiated this study in order to

  6. Bilateral CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy for cancer pain relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegul, I.; Erhan, E.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for treating unilateral cancer pain, however, bilateral cordotomy can be required on some occasions. We evaluated the effectiveness and complications of bilateral cordotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-four patients who suffered from unilateral cancer pain underwent CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy. The procedure was repeated in 22 patients, and nine patients had bilateral cordotomy. Effectiveness and complications were recorded after each procedure. RESULTS: Of nine patents (three women and six men) having bilateral percutaneous cordotomy in our study, four patients had mirror pain after the first procedure. In the remaining five patients the contralateral pain was due to new pain sites. The pain scores before and after the first procedure were 9.3 (range 7-10) and 1.2 (range 0-3), respectively. After the first procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was achieved in all patients. The duration between the two procedures ranged from 7-243 days (mean 59.8 days). The pain scores before and after the second procedure were 8.4 (range 5-10) and 1.6 (range 0-4), respectively. After the second procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was reported in all patients. There were no complications in four patients. One patient developed transient motor deficit after the first procedure. Other complications (nausea/vomiting, headache, ipsilateral neck pain, postcordotomy dysesthesia) were mild and transient. CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for the treatment of severe unilateral cancer pain syndromes. The procedure can be repeated on the other side at least 1 week later. These results show that the success on the second side appears to be similar to the first side with low complication rate for both procedures

  7. The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain pleasant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C.; Snyder, Gregory D.; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that “it could be worse” can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the “relative relief context,” moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a “hedonic flip,” such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This “hedonic flip” was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. “Pleasant pain” also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced “hedonic flip” of pain. PMID:23352758

  8. Bilateral CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy for cancer pain relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegul, I. E-mail: iyegul@med.ege.edu.tr; Erhan, E. E-mail: elvanerhan@yahoo.com

    2003-11-01

    AIM: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for treating unilateral cancer pain, however, bilateral cordotomy can be required on some occasions. We evaluated the effectiveness and complications of bilateral cordotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-four patients who suffered from unilateral cancer pain underwent CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy. The procedure was repeated in 22 patients, and nine patients had bilateral cordotomy. Effectiveness and complications were recorded after each procedure. RESULTS: Of nine patents (three women and six men) having bilateral percutaneous cordotomy in our study, four patients had mirror pain after the first procedure. In the remaining five patients the contralateral pain was due to new pain sites. The pain scores before and after the first procedure were 9.3 (range 7-10) and 1.2 (range 0-3), respectively. After the first procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was achieved in all patients. The duration between the two procedures ranged from 7-243 days (mean 59.8 days). The pain scores before and after the second procedure were 8.4 (range 5-10) and 1.6 (range 0-4), respectively. After the second procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was reported in all patients. There were no complications in four patients. One patient developed transient motor deficit after the first procedure. Other complications (nausea/vomiting, headache, ipsilateral neck pain, postcordotomy dysesthesia) were mild and transient. CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for the treatment of severe unilateral cancer pain syndromes. The procedure can be repeated on the other side at least 1 week later. These results show that the success on the second side appears to be similar to the first side with low complication rate for both procedures.

  9. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health

  10. Evaluation of Water Quality Change of Brackish Lake in Snowy Cold Regions Accompanying Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Nakatsugawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study addresses evaluation of water quality change of brackish lake based on the estimation of hydrological quantities resulting from long-term hydrologic process accompanying climate change. For brackish lakes, such as Lake Abashiri in Eastern Hokkaido, there are concerns about water quality deterioration due to increases in water temperature and salinity. For estimating some hydrological quantities in the Abashiri River basin, including Lake Abashiri, we propose the following methods: 1) MRI-NHRCM20, a regional climate model based on the Representative Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC AR5, 2) generalized extreme value distribution for correcting bias, 3) kriging adopted variogram for downscaling and 4) Long term Hydrologic Assessment model considering Snow process (LoHAS). In addition, we calculate the discharge from Abashiri River into Lake Abashiri by using estimated hydrological quantities and a tank model, and simulate impacts on water quality of Lake Abashiri due to climate change by setting necessary conditions, including the initial conditions of water temperature and water quality, the pollution load from the inflow rivers, the duration of ice cover and salt pale boundary. The result of the simulation of water quality indicates that climate change is expected to raise the water temperature of the lake surface by approximately 4°C and increase salinity of surface of the lake by approximately 4psu, also if salt pale boundary in the lake raises by approximately 2-m, the concentration of COD, T-N and T-P in the bottom of the lake might increase. The processes leading to these results are likely to be as follows: increased river water flows in along salt pale boundary in lake, causing dynamic flow of surface water; saline bottom water is entrained upward, where it mixes with surface water; and the shear force acting at salt pale boundary helps to increase the supply of salts from bottom saline water to the surface water. In the future, we will

  11. Methane evasion and oxidation in the Big Cypress National Preserve—a low relief carbonate wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N. D.; Bianchi, T. S.; Cohen, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Quintero, C.; Brown, A.; Osborne, T.; Sawakuchi, H. O.

    2016-12-01

    The Big Cypress National Preserve is a low relief carbonate wetland characterized by unique basin patterning known as "cypress domes." Here we examine the concentration and stable isotopic composition of methane in pore waters, surface waters, and bubbles from the sediment across horizontal gradients in four domes during three sampling campaigns. The proportion of methane oxidized in surface waters was estimated based on isotopic differences between surface water and pore waters/bubbles. Rates of methane evasion from surface waters, soils, and cypress knees to the atmosphere were also measured. Surface water CH4 concentrations ranged from 170 to 4,533 ppm with the highest levels generally being observed during wet periods. Pore water CH4 concentrations ranged from 748 to 75,213 ppm. The concentration of methane in bubbles ranged from 6.5 to 71%. The stable isotopic composition of CH4 ranged from -69.2 to -43.8‰ for all samples and was generally more enriched in surface waters compared to bubbles and porewaters, particularly in the two domes that were persistently inundated throughout the year. Based on these isotopic values, the average percentage of surface water CH4 that was oxidized was 37 ± 16% (maximum of 67%) and 19 ± 4% (maximum of 47%) in the two domes that are persistently inundated versus the two domes that are not inundated during the dry season, respectively. The average rate of CH4 evasion was 3.6 ± 1.6 mmol m-2 d-1 via diffusion, 7.6 ± 4.7 mmol m-2 d-1 via ebullition, 10.9 ± 11.4 mmol m-2 d-1­ from soil surfaces, and 34.3 ± 27.4 mmol m-2 d-1 from cypress knees. These results indicate that CH4 is produced in great quantities in inundated sediments, particularly in the center of the cypress domes. Diffusive fluxes from surface waters are suppressed by microbial oxidation in the water column, whereas ebullition from sediments and evasion through cypress knees, and likely other vascular vegetation, are the primary pathways for CH4 outgassing.

  12. Relief system for limiting overpressures in nuclear power plants, especially power plants with BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnel, R.

    1977-01-01

    Here obviously an injection system is applied, which elsewhere serves for conveying purposes. One or more vent pipes of a pressure suppression system are conducted vertically from above into a suppression chamber with a cushion and terminate below the water surface. A larger pipe section below the water surface contains the installations according to the invention. From an inner pipe steam can be released into the annulus between the inner and an outer pipe and water can enter the inner pipe from the annulus. This is achieved by the injection effect if steam with high flow density, e.g. 1000 kg/m 2 xsec, flows through the vent pipe into the suppression chamber, subcooled according to its saturation pressure. The steam flow, subdivided several times, is already condensing within both pipes thanks to intensive mixing with water and expansion to the enlarged cross-section of the outer pipe. For manufacturing seasons the relief system is constructed as a separate component being pushed with its inner diameter over the vent pipe and tightly welded to it. (HP) [de

  13. Atmospheric Processes in the South Baikal Basin and Their Role in Relief Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta М. Tyumentseva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and the solar and circulation features in the Lake Baikal basin are analyzed. The relationship between the heat balance and surface temperature of slopes is shown, taking into account each features’ physical state. The dependence of the heat balance values and the underlying surface temperature were revealed. The quantitative material allowed us to reveal regional patterns of geomorphological regimes, seasonal rhythm, and the dynamics of processes. In Cisbaikalia, within the denudation cycle, semi-humid states under water erosion and aeolian processes of moderate intensity predominate. The semi-arid state manifests itself under decreasing humidification. In these years, the probability of extreme manifestations of aeolian processes is high. The humid states occur in 1% of cases, primarily in extremely wet years, when fluvial processes are dramatically activated. In Cisbaikalia, climate warming and an increase in mean annual temperature have been observed in recent years. Depending on the moisture amplitude and heat availability, the intensity and direction of water erosion and aeolian processes is changing now. The dynamics of relief-forming processes cause an increase in loose substance in the lake and the exacerbation of the ecological situation.

  14. Effect of Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief paste on the strength of adhesion of composite resin in dental pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila Rodriguez, Amanda; Sas Rosero, Cristina de

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the toothpaste Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief on the strength of adhesion was analyzed, through in vitro studies, in dental pieces that have been previously treated with a protocol that simulates dental hypersensitivity. Several dental pieces were taken as study samples and divided into groups. The Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief TM desensitizing paste was applied to the non-crown surfaces of the teeth, with the exception of the negative control group which remained without the application. Positive control protocols, prophylaxis with the use of fluorinated prophylactic paste, 400 grit sandpaper, phosphoric acid and negative control were applied. Subsequently, a Brilliant NG TM dentin photocurable resin crown was constructed for the groups to which the indicated protocols were applied. The greatest strength of adhesion was presented by the group Prophylaxis. It is assumed that a second application of orthophosphoric acid is able to de-blot even more the dental tubules and with this improve the adhesion. An improvement in the adhesion of resin on the tooth surface is provided when performing a dental prophylaxis using prophylactic paste and a rubber cup, before restoring a tooth. Sandpaper 400 prevents an improvement in the adhesion of resins. The results with the negative control group were unexpected and may be due to errors in the treatment process [es

  15. Presentation of new tectonic map (and accompanying sections) of Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1984-04-01

    The Geologic Map of Trinidad, compiled by H.G. Kugler and published in 1961, is currently out of print. While it is the most widely available geologic map, it is confined to onshore Trinidad. This map remains an important reference source, but there have been significant increases in our knowledge of Trindad and Tobago geology since its publication. In particular, there has been: (1) considerable geophysical work, on land and offshore, including 20,000 km (12,400 mi) of seismic lines; (2) approximately 1000 exploration and development wells drilled, including wells in the previously unexplored north and east coast of Trinidad; and (3) significant advances in our understanding of the tectonic evolution of the area, which has resulted largely from the development of the plate tectonic theory. The following items, which take into account many of these new data and concepts, have been compiled. (1) A geologic tectonic map of the entire territory of Trinidad and Tobago, at a scale of 1:200,000. Apart from the surface geology of the land areas, this map shows the major faults and their displacements and locations, total depths and status of exploration wells, and the positions of major petroleum fields. (2) Five accompanying geologic sections at the same scale. (3) A new stratigraphic correlation chart. These new compilations attempt to fill the gap in the published literature on the petroleum geology of Trinidad and Tobago.

  16. An audit of aspects of informed consent and pain relief in general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were asked what they knew or had been informed about their diagnosis, operation and complications of surgery. On pain relief, patients were asked about their experiences on the first post-operative day and what relief they had from analgesics. Twenty four did not know the diagnosis and 36 were not told what ...

  17. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....5870 Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a peripheral nerve... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain...

  18. 30 CFR 203.3 - Do I have to pay a fee to request royalty relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do I have to pay a fee to request royalty... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES General Provisions § 203.3 Do I have to pay a fee to request royalty relief? When you submit an application or ask for a preview assessment...

  19. 19 CFR 210.69 - Approval of complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.69 Section 210.69 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.69 Approval of...

  20. 19 CFR 210.70 - Forfeiture or return of complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relief bond. 210.70 Section 210.70 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.70... and the Commission will be guided by practice under Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure...

  1. 78 FR 8691 - Notice of Availability of Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...-competitive basis, subject to the priorities set forth below. The Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013..., reconstruct, or replace equipment and facilities of a public transportation system operating in the United... affects public transportation systems. The Emergency Relief Program allows FTA to make grants for eligible...

  2. knowledge, attitude and use of pain relief in labour among women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-01

    Jul 1, 2014 ... Objective: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice of pain relief methods during labour among ... all of which could adversely affect uterine blood flow. Pain relief in ... knowledge was low among women who did not use any form of ... Niven et al found that memories of labour pains can evoke intense ...

  3. An Engineered Resupply System for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    relevant and timely relief. Conduct Supply refers to the procurement, warehousing, and managing of relief supplies. Conduct Deployment and Distribution ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. AN ENGINEERED...Approved OMB No. 0704–0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time

  4. Counterfactually Mediated Emotions: A Developmental Study of Regret and Relief in a Probabilistic Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M.; Cassotti, M.; Borst, G.; Simon, G.; Pineau, A.; Houde, O.; Moutier, S.

    2012-01-01

    Regret and relief are related to counterfactual thinking and rely on comparison processes between what has been and what might have been. In this article, we study the development of regret and relief from late childhood to adulthood (11.2-20.2 years), and we examine how these two emotions affect individuals' willingness to retrospectively…

  5. A neurogenetic dissociation between punishment-, reward- and relief-learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ayse Yarali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available What is particularly worth remembering about a traumatic experience is what brought it about, and what made it cease. For example, fruit flies avoid an odour which during training had preceded electric shock punishment; on the other hand, if the odour had followed shock during training, it is later on approached as a signal for the relieving end of shock. We provide a neurogenetic analysis of such relief learning. Blocking, using UAS-shibirets1, the output from a particular set of dopaminergic neurons defined by the TH-Gal4 driver partially impaired punishment learning, but left relief learning intact. Thus, with respect to these particular neurons, relief learning differs from punishment learning. Targeting another set of dopaminergic/ serotonergic neurons defined by the DDC-Gal4 driver on the other hand affected neither punishment nor relief learning. As for the octopaminergic system, the tbhM18 mutation, compromising octopamine biosynthesis, partially impaired sugar-reward learning, but not relief learning. Thus, with respect to this particular mutation, relief learning and reward learning are dissociated. Finally, blocking output from the set of octopaminergic/ tyraminergic neurons defined by the TDC2-Gal4 driver affected neither reward, nor relief learning. We conclude that regarding the used genetic tools, relief learning is neurogenetically dissociated from both punishment and reward learning.

  6. Paracetamol for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weil, K.; Hooper, L.; Afzal, Z.; Esposito, M.; Worthington, H.V.; van Wijk, A.J.; Coulthard, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol has been commonly used for the relief of postoperative pain following oral surgery. In this review we investigated the optimal dose of paracetamol and the optimal time for drug administration to provide pain relief, taking into account the side effects of different doses of

  7. The Unintended Consequences of Property Tax Relief: New York's STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Ho; Duncombe, William; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yinger, John

    2014-01-01

    New York's School Tax Relief Program, STAR, provides state-funded property tax relief for homeowners. Like a matching grant, STAR changes the price of education, thereby altering the incentives of voters and school officials and leading to unintended consequences. Using data for New York State school districts before and after STAR was…

  8. Oscillatory neural representations in the sensory thalamus predict neuropathic pain relief by deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongzhi; Green, Alexander L; Hyam, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, James; Aziz, Tipu Z; Wang, Shouyan

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the function of sensory thalamic neural activity is essential for developing and improving interventions for neuropathic pain. However, there is a lack of investigation of the relationship between sensory thalamic oscillations and pain relief in patients with neuropathic pain. This study aims to identify the oscillatory neural characteristics correlated with pain relief induced by deep brain stimulation (DBS), and develop a quantitative model to predict pain relief by integrating characteristic measures of the neural oscillations. Measures of sensory thalamic local field potentials (LFPs) in thirteen patients with neuropathic pain were screened in three dimensional feature space according to the rhythm, balancing, and coupling neural behaviours, and correlated with pain relief. An integrated approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis is proposed to integrate the multiple measures and provide a predictive model. This study reveals distinct thalamic rhythms of theta, alpha, high beta and high gamma oscillations correlating with pain relief. The balancing and coupling measures between these neural oscillations were also significantly correlated with pain relief. The study enriches the series research on the function of thalamic neural oscillations in neuropathic pain and relief, and provides a quantitative approach for predicting pain relief by DBS using thalamic neural oscillations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not be...

  10. 39 CFR 320.7 - Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. 320.7 Section 320.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE RESTRICTIONS ON PRIVATE CARRIAGE OF LETTERS SUSPENSION OF THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 320.7 Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. (a) Th...

  11. The Effects of Harmonic Accompaniment on the Tonal Improvisations of Students in First through Sixth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Denise Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of harmonic accompaniment on the tonal improvisations of elementary school students. Specifically, this study was designed to (a) determine if the addition of a root melody accompaniment to song instruction affects the implied harmonic changes and harmonic rhythm in the tonal improvisations…

  12. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of visa...

  13. Accompanying therapy with melatonin at radiation therapy for uterine body cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhach, N.E.; Sorochan, P.P.; Gromakova, Yi.A.; Krugova, M.; Sukhyin, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    The results of treatment for uterine body cancer using post-operative radiation therapy (RT) accompanied by melatonin administration are analyzed. Accompanying therapy with melatonin limited negative RT influence on hematological and immune indices and prevented aggravation of quality of life.

  14. Infrasonic wave accompanying a crack opening during the 2015 Hakone eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukutake, Yohei; Ichihara, Mie; Honda, Ryou

    2018-03-01

    To understand the initial process of the phreatic eruption of the Hakone volcano from June 29 to July 01, 2015, we analyzed infrasound data using the cross-correlation between infrasound and vertical ground velocity and compared the results of our analysis to the crustal deformation detected by tiltmeters and broadband seismometers. An infrasound signal and vertical ground motion due to an infrasound wave coupled to the ground were detected simultaneously with the opening of a crack source beneath the Owakudani geothermal region during the 2-min time period after 07:32 JST on June 29, 2015 (JST = UTC + 8 h). Given that the upper end of the open crack was approximately 150 m beneath the surface, the time for the direct emission of highly pressurized fluid from the upper end of the open crack to the surface should have exceeded the duration of the inflation owing to the hydraulic diffusivity in the porous media. Therefore, the infrasound signal coincident with the opening of the crack may reflect a sudden emission of volcanic gas resulting from the rapid vaporization of pre-existing groundwater beneath Owakudani because of the transfer of the volumetric strain change from the deformation source. We also noticed a correlation pattern corresponding to discrete impulsive infrasound signals during vent formation, which occurred several hours to 2 days after the opening of the crack. In particular, we noted that the sudden emission of vapor coincided with the inflation of the shallow pressure source, whereas the eruptive burst events accompanied by the largest vent formation were delayed by approximately 2 days. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the correlation method is a useful tool in detecting small infrasound signals and provides important information regarding the initial processes of the eruption.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Studies on the visualization of the fine relief of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.; Niemann, G.; Klose, K.C.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of visualizing the fine relief of the colon was examined by studying human intestinal segments removed post mortem. The visualization depends, among other things, on the extent of expansion of the colon wall. The visualization of the fine relief structure becomes progressively poorer, the greater the extension of the wall. This might indicate that fold formation of the mucosa through a state of contraction of the tunica mucosa is done of the responsible factors for the visualization of the fine relief structures. The article discusses, apart from this factor, the course of the vessels as an anatomical basic pattern determining the manifestation of the fine relief structure; for this purpose, the course of the vessels in the intestine of the dog was visualized by intra-arterial contrast medium injection and then compared with the human fine relief. (orig.) [de

  16. Mental health risks in the local workforce engaged in disaster relief and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao L; Chan, Cecilia L W; Shi, Zhan B; Wang, Bin

    2013-02-01

    To build a sustainable workforce for long-term disaster relief and reconstruction, more effort must be made to promote local relief workers' mental health. We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with local relief officials 10 months after the 2008 earthquake in China to investigate the stress and coping experiences in their personal lives as survivors. We conducted thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Traumatic bereavement and grief, housing and financial difficulties, and work-family conflict were the three main sources of stress in the respondents' personal lives. The coping themes were finding meaning and purpose in life through relief work, colleagues' support and understanding, suppression or avoidance of grief, appreciation for life, hardiness, optimism, letting nature take its course, and making up for loss. We suggest that relief work has a double-edged-sword effect on workers' coping abilities. We discuss the implications of this effect for work-life balance measures and trauma and grief counseling services.

  17. Davenport Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Davenport Ranges of central Australia have been inferred to be among the oldest persisting landforms on Earth, founded on the belief that the interior of Australia has been tectonically stable for at least 700 million years. New rock age dating techniques indicate that substantial erosion has probably occurred over that time period and that the landforms are not nearly that old, but landscape evolution certainly occurs much slower here (at least now) than is typical across Earth's surface. Regardless of their antiquity, the Davenport Ranges exhibit a striking landform pattern as shown in this display of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Quartzites and other erosion resistant strata form ridges within anticlinal (arched up) and synclinal (arched down) ovals and zigzags. These structures, if not the landforms, likely date back at least hundreds of millions of years, to a time when tectonic forces were active. Maximum local relief is only about 60 meters (about 200 feet), which is enough to contrast greatly with the extremely low relief surrounding terrain. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (image top to bottom) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  18. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design with updated test stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2018-03-01

    Underground refuge alternatives require an air source to supply breathable air to the occupants. This requires pressure relief valves to prevent unsafe pressures from building up within the refuge alternative. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) mandates that pressure relief valves prevent pressure from exceeding 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure when a fan or compressor is used for the air supply. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tested a variety of pressure relief valves using an instrumented test fixture consisting of data acquisition equipment, a centrifugal blower, ductwork and various sensors to determine if the subject pressure relief valves meet the MSHA requirement. Relief pressures and flow characteristics, including opening pressure and flow rate, were measured for five different pressure relief valves under a variety of conditions. The subject pressure relief valves included two off-the-shelf modified check valves, two check valves used in MSHA-approved built-in-place refuge alternatives, and a commercially available valve that was designed for a steel refuge alternative and is currently being used in some built-in-place refuge alternatives. The test results showed relief pressures ranging from 0.20 to 1.53 kPa (0.03 to 0.22 psi) and flow rates up to 19.3 m 3 /min (683 scfm). As tested, some of the pressure relief valves did not meet the 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi) relief specification.

  19. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2009-04-15

    Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. The TENS unit is frequently operated by women, which may increase sense of control in labour. To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2008). Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain relief in labour versus routine care, alternative pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. The search identified 25 studies; we excluded six and included 19 studies including 1671 women. Fifteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.55). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No adverse events were reported. There is only limited evidence that TENS reduces pain in labour and it does not seem to have any impact (either positive or

  20. Surfaces Relief Profilometry of Solid Objects by Sweeping of a Laser Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Peimbert, Didia P.; Trujillo-Schiaffino, Gerardo; Mendoza-Villegas, Paloma G.; Ojeda-González, Daniel; Almazán-Cuellar, Saúl; Corral-Martínez, Luis F.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a laser system for the digitalization and three-dimensional reconstruction of solid objects. The first step consists of applying on the object a linear sweeping of a thin laser line using a laser diode with 635 nm and 5 mW, a motorized stage for linear displacement of 138 mm, and a controller with RS232 interface. The next step consists of capturing and transmitting the image of the deformed line on the object to a computer. For this step was used a monochrome camera CCD, and an image acquisition board. The last step consists of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the solid object. All the corresponding algorithms were implemented using the programming language LabVIEW.

  1. Microscopic observation of zenithal bistable switching in nematic devices with different surface relief structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uche, C; Elston, S J; Parry-Jones, L A

    2005-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals have been shown to exhibit zenithal electro-optic bistability in devices containing sinusoidal and deformed sinusoidal gratings. Recently it has been shown that zenithal bistable states can also be supported at isolated edges of square gratings. In this paper, we present microscopic observations of bistability in cells containing sinusoidal gratings and long-pitch square gratings. We have also investigated a novel display based on square wells. High frame-rate video microscopy was used to obtain time-sequenced images when the devices were switched with monopolar pulses. These show that zenithal bistable switching can occur by two different processes: (i) domain growth (observed in cells containing sinusoidal gratings) and (ii) homogenous switching (observed in cells containing isolated edges

  2. AFM study of surface relief evolution in 316L steel fatigued at low and high temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Valtr, B.; Weidner, A.; Petrenec, Martin; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 1625-1633 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Fatigue 2010. Praha, 06.06.2010-11.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2371; GA AV ČR 1QS200410502; GA ČR GA106/06/1096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fatigue crack initiation * 316L steel * Persistent slip band (PSB) * Extrusion * Intrusion * Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. Study of surface relief evolution in fatigued 316L austenitic stainless steel by AFM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 351, 1-2 (2003), s. 123-132 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2041001; GA AV ČR IAA2041201; GA ČR GA106/00/D055; GA ČR GA106/01/0376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : fatigue * atomic force microscopy * persistent slip band Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.365, year: 2003

  4. Atomic force microscopy of surface relief in individual grains of fatigued 316L austenitic stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Obrtlík, Karel; Blochwitz, C.; Polák, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 15 (2002), s. 3767-3780 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/D055; GA ČR GA106/01/0376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : fatigue * persistent slip band * atomic force microscopy Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2002

  5. Laguerre-Gauss beam generation in IR and UV by subwavelength surface-relief gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertchenko, Larissa; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Malureanu, Radu

    2017-01-01

    layerdepositions and dry etch techniques. We exploit the phenomenon of formbirefringence to give rise to the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion.We demonstrate that these plates can generate beams with high quality for theUV and IR range, allowing them to interact with high power laser sources orinside...... laser cavities....

  6. The evolution of impact basins - Viscous relaxation of topographic relief. [for lunar surface modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; Comer, R. P.; Head, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    A topographic profile of the young large lunar basin, Orientale, is presented in order to examine the effects of viscous relaxation on basin topography. Analytical models for viscous flow are considered, showing a wavelength-dependence of time constants for viscous decay on the decrease in viscosity with depth and on the extent of the isostatic compensation of the initial topography. Lunar rheological models which are developed include a half-space model for uniform Newtonian viscosity, density, and gravitational acceleration, a layer over inviscid half space model with material inviscid over geological time scales, and a layer with isostatic compensation where a uniformly viscous layer overlies an inviscid half space of higher density. Greater roughness is concluded, and has been observed, on the moon's dark side due to continued lower temperatures since the time of heavy bombardment.

  7. Leakage characterization of a piloted power operated relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Hess, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    In Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), power operated relief valves (PORVs) are used to provide overpressure protection of the Pressurizer. The valves are fail closed globe valves which means that power is required to open the valves and, on loss of power, the valves close. There are two ways to operate the PORVs. The more common way is to directly couple the disc to an actuator via a disc-stem assembly. The type of design is not the object of this paper. The other and less common way of operating a PORV is by piloting the main valve such that the opening or closing of a pilot valve opens and closes the main valve. This is the design of interest. In most plants, the PORVs are installed with a water loop seal while in some plants no water loop seals are used. It is generally accepted that loop seal installation minimizes valve seat leakage. In non-loop seal installation, the valve seat is exposed to steam which increases the potential for seat leakage. This paper describes the results of some tests performed with nitrogen and steam to characterize the leakage potential of a pilot operated PORV. The test results were compared with seat leakage tests of check valves to provide insight on the leakage testing of pilot operated valves and check valves. The paper also compares the test data with leakage estimates using the ASME/ANSI OM Code guidance on valve leakage

  8. Music therapy in relief of pain in oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Franco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the perception of oncology patients with chronic pain as to the effects of music in alleviating pain, to identify if there are changes in the vital signs of these patients before and after the musicotherapy session, and to identify whether the intensity of pain is diminished after the music session as per an analogic scale of pain. Methods: This level II, descriptive-exploratory and cross-sectional study used a quantitative and qualitative approach. The sample consisted of ten oncology patients with chronic pain. Rresults: There was a reduction in vital signs and in intensity of pain in ten patients of the sample; after the music sessions, the patients reported a sensation of relief of pain, relaxation, and a belief in the power of music as a supplementary therapy. Cconclusions: Music showed an influence in reducing vital signs and pain intensity, and the patients perceived a reduction of pain and anxiety, and began to believe in music as a form of therapy.

  9. Stress relief of austenitic weldments: microstructural and mechanical property effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Two consumables suitable for welding AISI 316 have been studied. Both contained 3-8% delta-ferrite in the as-welded state but were of different nominal compositions, namely 19Cr-12Ni-3Mo and 17Cr-8Ni-2Mo. The results of a series of uniaxial stress relaxation tests carried out over a range of temperatures from 650 to 850 0 C indicate that it was practicable to achieve acceptable residual stress levels even at the lower end of this temperature range; the inference was, therefore, that the final choice of stress relief treatment will be determined by the metallurgical changes that simultaneously occur. The isothermal transformation kinetics of the delta-ferrite were determined over the temperature range 600-800 0 C for both weld metals and the nature and morphology of the phases formed was studied. Transformation proceeded more rapidly in the 19Cr-12Ni-3Mo deposit than in the 17Cr-8Ni-2Mo deposit. Electron microscopy revealed that in both weld metals the delta-ferrite acted as a focus for a series of complex precipitation reactions involving initially the simultaneous formation of M 23 C 6 and reversion of delta to #betta# followed by precipitation of intermetallic phases chi and σ. Tensile impact and creep properties of aged material have been determined and are discussed in terms of the structural features observed. (author)

  10. Residual stress relief in MAG welded joints of dissimilar steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seodek, P.; Brozda, J.; Wang, L.; Withers, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the relief of residual stress in welded joints between austenitic and non-alloyed ferritic-pearlitic steels. A series of similar and dissimilar steel joints based on the 18G2A (ferritic-pearlitic) and 1H18N10T (austenitic) steels were produced, some of which were stress relieved by annealing and some by mechanical prestressing. For the as-welded and stress relieved test joints the residual stresses were measured by trepanning. To aid the interpretation of these results, 2D plane stress finite element analysis has been performed to simulate the residual stress relieving methods. Analysis of the results has shown that thermal stress relieving of welded joints between dissimilar steels is not effective and may even increase residual stresses, due to the considerable difference in thermal expansion of the joined steels. It was found that, for the loads imposed, the effectiveness of the mechanical stress relieving of dissimilar steel welded joints was much lower than that of similar steel joints

  11. Earthquake-relief APWR (Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Hidekazu; Oshibe, Toshihiro; Yamaura, Yoshihisa; Kokubo, Eiji

    1999-01-01

    The anti-seismic design conditions for nuclear power stations are extremely severe in Japan. Therefore, various measures, including the increase in building wall thickness and in the number of equipment supports, need to be implemented to satisfy the necessary anti-seismic design. This is one of the causes of the increase in the construction cost of power stations. Meanwhile, a seismic isolation system, which mitigates an input earthquake motion, has been attracting attention in the general construction industry since the Great Hansin Earthquake in 1995. An increasing number of buildings employing such a system have been constructed. The system is being more popular and socially accepted. At the same time, the anti-seismic nuclear power stations have already been operated in France and South Africa. Various reviews and researches are promoted in Japan to adopt the seismic isolation system in nuclear power stations. The building and equipment designs when the seismic isolation system is applied to APWR are reviewed based on the experience in Japan and overseas. Specifically, reviews were conducted on the following items and their technical and economical feasibility has been well confirmed: Earthquake-relief equipment properties. Building design. Equipment design. The reliability and economy on the building and equipment designs shall further be enhanced in order to maximize the advantages of seismic isolation system in the future. (author)

  12. CFD analysis of gas explosions vented through relief pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G

    2006-09-21

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safe locations by means of relief pipes. However, the presence of the duct increases the severity of explosion if compared to simply vented vessels (i.e. compared to cases where no duct is present). Besides, the identification of the key phenomena controlling the violence of explosion has not yet been gained. Multidimensional models coupling, mass, momentum and energy conservation equations can be valuable tools for the analysis of such complex explosion phenomena. In this work, gas explosions vented through ducts have been modelled by a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach in which the laminar, flamelet and distributed combustion models have been implemented. Numerical test have been carried out by varying ignition position, duct diameter and length. Results have evidenced that the severity of ducted explosions is mainly driven by the vigorous secondary explosion occurring in the duct (burn-up) rather than by the duct flow resistance or acoustic enhancement. Moreover, it has been found out that the burn-up affects explosion severity due to the reduction of venting rate rather than to the burning rate enhancement through turbulization.

  13. Feeling worse to feel better: pain-offset relief simultaneously stimulates positive affect and reduces negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2013-04-01

    Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.

  14. Extramedullary plasmacytoma involving perirenal space accompanied by extramedullary hematopoiesis and amyloid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Rie; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Kubota, Kanako C; Nakano, Fumihito; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao; Maruyama, Satoru; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harris, Ardene A; Haga, Hironori; Shirato, Hiroki; Terae, Satoshi

    2010-05-01

    A 62-year-old man was referred to us after unsuccessful treatment of bilateral weakness in his upper and lower extremities with paresthesia in both lower extremities. Computed tomography (CT) revealed soft tissue masses in the left kidney along the capsule and paraaortic region that were of relatively low attenuation with accompanying granular calcifications. Pathological diagnosis of the biopsy specimen was extramedullary plasmacytoma accompanied by extramedullary hematopoiesis and amyloid deposition. Although the CT findings correlated well with the pathological results, the case was extremely atypical for extramedullary plasmacytoma in respect to location and the accompaniment with extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  15. A quantitative analysis of microcirculation in sore-prone pressure areas on conventional and pressure relief hospital mattresses using laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Held, Manuel; Bender, Dominik; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Constantinescu, Mihai Adrian; Jaminet, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are associated with severe impairment for the patients and high economic load. With this study we wanted to gain more insight to the skin perfusion dynamics due to external loading. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of different types of pressure relief mattresses. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Perfusion dynamics of the sacral and the heel area were assessed using the O2C-device, which combines a laser light, to determine blood flow, and white light to determine the relative amount of hemoglobin. Three mattresses were evaluated compared to a hard surface: a standard hospital foam mattress bed, a visco-elastic foam mattress, and an air-fluidized bed. In the heel area, only the air-fluidized bed was able to maintain the blood circulation (mean blood flow of 13.6 ± 6 versus 3.9 ± 3 AU and mean relative amount of hemoglobin of 44.0 ± 14 versus 32.7 ± 12 AU.) In the sacral area, all used mattresses revealed an improvement of blood circulation compared to the hard surface. The results of this study form a more precise pattern of perfusion changes due to external loading on various pressure relief mattresses. This knowledge may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers and may be an influencing factor in pressure relief mattress selection. Copyright © 2014 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2016-01-01

    Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance.

  17. Evaluating acute pain intensity relief: challenges when using an 11-point numerical rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauny, Jean-Marc; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Marquis, Martin; Daoust, Raoul

    2016-02-01

    Percentage of pain intensity difference (PercentPID) is a recognized way of evaluating pain relief with an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) but is not without flaws. A new metric, the slope of relative pain intensity difference (SlopePID), which consists in dividing PercentPID by the time between 2 pain measurements, is proposed. This study aims to validate SlopePID with 3 measures of subjective pain relief: a 5-category relief scale (not, a little, moderate, very, complete), a 2-category relief question ("I'm relieved," "I'm not relieved"), and a single-item question, "Wanting other medication to treat pain?" (Yes/No). This prospective cohort study included 361 patients in the emergency department who had an initial acute pain NRS > 3 and a pain intensity assessment within 90 minutes after analgesic administration. Mean age was 50.2 years (SD = 19.3) and 59% were women. Area under the curves of receiver operating characteristic curves analyses revealed similar discriminative power for PercentPID (0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.88) and SlopePID (0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86). Considering the "very" category from the 5-category relief scale as a substantial relief, the average cutoff for substantial relief was a decrease of 64% (95% CI, 59-69) for PercentPID and of 49% per hour (95% CI, 44-54) for SlopePID. However, when a cutoff criterion of 50% was used as a measure of pain relief for an individual patient, PercentPID underestimated pain-relieved patients by 12.1% (P pain intensity at baseline was an odd number compared with an even number (32.9% vs 45.0%, respectively). SlopePID should be used instead of PercentPID as a metric to evaluate acute pain relief on a 0 to 10 NRS.

  18. 76 FR 6819 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ...' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas Marginal Properties... or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil and gas marginal properties... September 13, 2004 (69 FR 55076), provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal onshore or...

  19. 30 CFR 204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for accounting and auditing relief? 204.207 Section 204.207 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.207 Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a) If there is not a State concerned for your marginal property, only MMS will decide...

  20. 77 FR 71448 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ...' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas Marginal Properties... types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal onshore or Outer Continental Shelf lease production... auditing requirements. States make an annual determination of whether or not to allow relief. Two options...

  1. 75 FR 1654 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas Marginal Properties... participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil and gas marginal properties located within the... the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), to provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for...

  2. Randomized Trial of Desktop Humidifier for Dry Eye Relief in Computer Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael T M; Chan, Evon; Ea, Linda; Kam, Clifford; Lu, Yvonne; Misra, Stuti L; Craig, Jennifer P

    2017-11-01

    Dry eye is a frequently reported problem among computer users. Low relative humidity environments are recognized to exacerbate signs and symptoms of dry eye, yet are common in offices of computer operators. Desktop USB-powered humidifiers are available commercially, but their efficacy for dry eye relief has not been established. This study aims to evaluate the potential for a desktop USB-powered humidifier to improve tear-film parameters, ocular surface characteristics, and subjective comfort of computer users. Forty-four computer users were enrolled in a prospective, masked, randomized crossover study. On separate days, participants were randomized to 1 hour of continuous computer use, with and without exposure to a desktop humidifier. Lipid-layer grade, noninvasive tear-film breakup time, and tear meniscus height were measured before and after computer use. Following the 1-hour period, participants reported whether ocular comfort was greater, equal, or lesser than that at baseline. The desktop humidifier effected a relative difference in humidity between the two environments of +5.4 ± 5.0% (P .05). However, a relative increase in the median noninvasive tear-film breakup time of +4.0 seconds was observed in the humidified environment (P computer use.Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000326392.

  3. Edge enhancement improves disruptive camouflage by emphasising false edges and creating pictorial relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, John; Sharman, Rebecca J; Scott-Brown, Kenneth C; Lovell, Paul George

    2016-12-06

    Disruptive colouration is a visual camouflage composed of false edges and boundaries. Many disruptively camouflaged animals feature enhanced edges; light patches are surrounded by a lighter outline and/or a dark patches are surrounded by a darker outline. This camouflage is particularly common in amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans. We explored the role that this pattern has in creating effective camouflage. In a visual search task utilising an ultra-large display area mimicking search tasks that might be found in nature, edge enhanced disruptive camouflage increases crypsis, even on substrates that do not provide an obvious visual match. Specifically, edge enhanced camouflage is effective on backgrounds both with and without shadows; i.e. this is not solely due to background matching of the dark edge enhancement element with the shadows. Furthermore, when the dark component of the edge enhancement is omitted the camouflage still provided better crypsis than control patterns without edge enhancement. This kind of edge enhancement improved camouflage on all background types. Lastly, we show that edge enhancement can create a perception of multiple surfaces. We conclude that edge enhancement increases the effectiveness of disruptive camouflage through mechanisms that may include the improved disruption of the object outline by implying pictorial relief.

  4. Elevation-relief ratio, hypsometric integral, and geomorphic area-altitude analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R. J.; Wilson, S. E.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical proof establishes identity of hypsometric integral and elevation-relief ratio, two quantitative topographic descriptors developed independently of one another for entirely different purposes. Operationally, values of both measures are in excellent agreement for arbitrarily bounded topographic samples, as well as for low-order fluvial watersheds. By using a point-sampling technique rather than planimetry, elevation-relief ratio (defined as mean elevation minus minimum elevation divided by relief) is calculated manually in about a third of the time required for the hypsometric integral.

  5. Non-destructive Assessment of Relief Marking Parameters of Heat Shrinkable Installation Parts for Aviation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratov Aleksandr P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explains a new method of relief marking of heat-shrinkable tubing and sleeves made of polymer materials with “shape memory effect.” Method of instrument evaluation of relief marking stereometry of installation parts for aviation equipment, made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethyleneterephthalate and polystyrene was developed and the results were explained. Parameters of pin-point relief marking and compliance of point forms to the Braille font standard were determined with the use of the non-destructive method based on the color of interference pattern with precision of 0.02 mm.

  6. Examples, clarifications, and guidance on preparing requests for relief from pump and valve inservice testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, C.B.; Hartley, R.S.

    1996-02-01

    In this report, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory reviewers discuss related to requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers code requirements for inservice testing (IST) of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants. This report compiles information and examples that may be useful to licensees in developing relief requests submitted to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for their consideration and provides insights and recommendations on related IST issues. The report also gives specific guidance on relief requests acceptable and not acceptable to the NRC and advises licensees in the use of this information for application at their facilities

  7. One-way-coupling simulation of cavitation accompanied by high-speed droplet impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Tomoki; Ando, Keita, E-mail: kando@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Erosion due to high-speed droplet impact is a crucial issue in industrial applications. The erosion is caused by the water-hammer loading on material surfaces and possibly by the reloading from collapsing cavitation bubbles that appear within the droplet. Here, we simulate the dynamics of cavitation bubbles accompanied by high-speed droplet impact against a deformable wall in order to see whether the bubble collapse is violent enough to give rise to cavitation erosion on the wall. The evolution of pressure waves in a single water (or gelatin) droplet to collide with a deformable wall at speed up to 110 m/s is inferred from simulations of multicomponent Euler flow where phase changes are not permitted. Then, we examine the dynamics of cavitation bubbles nucleated from micron/submicron-sized gas bubble nuclei that are supposed to exist inside the droplet. For simplicity, we perform Rayleigh–Plesset-type calculations in a one-way-coupling manner, namely, the bubble dynamics are determined according to the pressure variation obtained from the Euler flow simulation. In the simulation, the preexisting bubble nuclei whose size is either micron or submicron show large growth to submillimeters because tension inside the droplet is obtained through interaction of the pressure waves and the droplet interface; this supports the possibility of having cavitation due to the droplet impact. It is also found, in particular, for the case of cavitation arising from very small nuclei such as nanobubbles, that radiated pressure from the cavitation bubble collapse can overwhelm the water-hammer pressure directly created by the impact. Hence, cavitation may need to be accounted for when it comes to discussing erosion in the droplet impact problem.

  8. Is otolithic vertigo accompanied by hearing loss caused by sacculocochlear endolymphatic hydrops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murofushi, Toshihisa; Komiyama, Sakurako; Hayashi, Yushi; Yoshimura, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Otolithic vertigo is sometimes accompanied by hearing loss. Otolithic vertigo accompanied by hearing loss seems to be caused by sacculocochlear endolymphatic hydrops. To clarify the lesion site and pathophysiology of otolithic vertigo (OV) accompanied by hearing loss. The clinical records of four patients (two men and two women) that had been diagnosed with OV accompanied by hearing loss according to pre-determined diagnostic criteria were reviewed. The patients' main symptoms involved a sensation of movement in the pitch plane. All of the patients had low frequency-dominant hearing loss and either exhibited decreased cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) or did not produce cVEMP. Two patients produced normal ocular VEMP (oVEMP). Caloric tests obtained normal results in all patients.

  9. Christoph Rothmann's discourse on the comet of 1585 an edition and translation with accompanying essays

    CERN Document Server

    Granada, Miguel A; Jardine, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Christoph Rothmann's Discourse on the Comet of 1585 offers the first edition of the Latin treatise after it was published in 1619. It is accompanied by an English translation and a full introduction and commentary.

  10. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  11. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kaplan, Tevfik; Turker, Hasan Bozkurt; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare en...

  12. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kaplan, Tevfik; Turker, Hasan Bozkurt; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  13. A Study on the Enrichment Practice Accompanied by Supportive Counselling for a Gifted Student

    OpenAIRE

    Cagla Gur

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine whether or not the enrichment practice accompanied by supportive counselling in education has a positive effect on a gifted student’s problematic behaviours, current state and attitudes towards setting and reaching a target. This research is based on single subject research model, and the ABAB model has been chosen as a method among all single subject research designs. The research has revealed that the enrichment practice accompanied by supportive...

  14. Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Mats G

    2002-01-01

    The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation.

  15. Stress relief treatment of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, D. van; Cragnolino, C.

    1994-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 tubing in the primary side of operating steam generators is the subject of this investigation. The objective of the program was to examine the feasibility of heat treatment to alleviate the IGSCC problem. In addition to this, tests were also performed to examine the IGSCC susceptibility of nuclear grade Alloy 600 tubing obtained from various sources. Examination of temperature-time combinations that may hold potential for improved IGSCC resistance of the transition regions of tubes expanded into tube sheet holes was done. The combinations fall in two categories. One is of short duration and relatively high temperature, where induction is the best method of heating because the treatment only lasts from some tens of seconds to a few minutes. The other is carried out in a lower temperature range and lasts for several hours. This latter combination of temperatures and times is considered for the so-called global heat treatment of entire tube sheet. To assess the effect of these treatments, reverse U-bend testing in high purity deaerated water containing an overpressure of hydrogen was employed and several heats of Alloy 600 were compared in tests at 365 degrees C, which is well above actual operating temperatures of steam generators, but provides an accelerated test procedure. Results of furnace heating in the range of 550-610 degrees C indicated improvement in IGSCC resistance, with best performance after a heat treatment at 610 degrees C for nine hours. In addition to stress relief, carbide precipitation can also occur, and their relative contributions to the improvement is discussed

  16. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  17. Pharmacological interventions for pain relief during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Aoife B; Harrison, Jayne E; Worthington, Helen V; Teague, Annabel

    2017-11-28

    Pain is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. It increases in proportion to the amount of force applied to the teeth, and the type of orthodontic appliance used can affect the intensity of the pain. Pain during orthodontic treatment has been shown to be the most common reason for people wanting to discontinue treatment, and has been ranked as the worst aspect of treatment. Although pharmacological methods of pain relief have been investigated, there remains some uncertainty among orthodontists about which painkillers are most suitable and whether pre-emptive analgesia is beneficial. We conducted this Cochrane Review to assess and summarize the international evidence relating to the effectiveness of analgesics for preventing this unwanted side effect associated with orthodontic treatment. The objectives of this review are to determine:- the effectiveness of drug interventions for pain relief during orthodontic treatment; and- whether there is a difference in the analgesic effect provided by different types, forms and doses of analgesia taken during orthodontic treatment. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Trials Register (to 19 June 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL;the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 7), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 19 June 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 19 June 2017) and CINAHL EBSCO (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; 1937 to 19 June 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched on the 19 June 2017 for ongoing studies. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) relating to pain control during orthodontic treatment. Pain could be measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS), numerical

  18. Unequal ice-sheet erosional impacts across low-relief shield terrain in northern Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Karin; Hall, Adrian M.; Kleman, Johan; Andersson, Jannike

    2015-03-01

    Much previous work on Late Cenozoic glacial erosion patterns in bedrock has focussed on mountain areas. Here we identify varying impacts of ice sheet erosion on the low-relief bedrock surface of the Fennoscandian shield, and examine the geological, topographical and glaciological controls on these patterns. We combine GIS-mapping of topographical, hydrological and weathering data with field observations. We identify and investigate areas with similar geology and general low relief that show different degrees of ice sheet erosional impact, despite similar ice cover histories. On two transects with a total area of ~ 84 000 km2 across the northern Fennoscandian shield, we first establish patterns of glacial erosion and then examine why glacially streamlined areas exist adjacent to areas of negligible glacial erosion. The northern transect includes two areas of exceptional glacial preservation, the Parkajoki area in Sweden and the so-called ice divide zone in Finland, each of which preserve tors and deep saprolite covers. The southern transect, overlapping in the northern part with the first transect, includes areas of well developed glacial streamlining, with bedrock areas stripped of loose material and barely any weathering remnants. For both areas, we firstly present contrasting indicators for ice sheet erosional impact: streamlined and non-streamlined inselbergs; parallel and dendritic/rectangular drainage patterns; and the absence and presence of Neogene weathering remnants. This is followed by an investigation of factors that possibly influence ice sheet erosional impact: ice cover history, ice cover duration and thickness, bedrock type and structure, and topography. We find that the erosional impact of the Fennoscandian ice sheet has varied across the study area. Distinct zones of ice sheet erosion are identified in which indicators of either low or high erosion coexist in the same parts of the transects. No direct impact of rock type on glacial erosion patterns

  19. GLOBATO: An enhanced global relief model at 30 arc-seconds resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, V.; Amante, C.

    2017-12-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), first developed a digital bathymetric and elevation model, ETOPO5, from publicly available data in 1993. For nearly 25 years, NCEI's ETOPO family of global relief models have supported research at a planetary scale, including tsunami forecasting, ocean circulation modeling, visualization of the seafloor, understanding geological phenomena, and aiding the development of other global and regional elevation models. GLOBATO (GLObal BAThymetry and TOpography) is now the most detailed version released by NCEI with a horizontal resolution of 30 arc-seconds and succeeds ETOPO1 with the inclusion of several new or updated data-sets for the seafloor as well as land areas. GLOBATO is a compilation of data derived from models of satellite measurements, ship depth soundings, and multibeam surveys, as well as regional models developed for Greenland and Antarctica. These data were converted from different formats, resolutions, spatial distributions, and projections into a single global model using GDAL v2.2 and MB-System v5.5. As with previous NCEI models, GLOBATO is available in two formats, "bedrock elevation" (measured as the base of major ice sheets) and "ice surface elevation" (measured as the surface of major ice sheets) which provides comprehensive topographic and bathymetric coverage between +- 90 degrees latitude and +- 180 degrees longitude. Adhering to best practices, GLOBATO, all related digital products, and any supporting documentation are available online through the NCEI data portal. These new, high resolution models will better support the variety of research ETOPO1 has made possible.

  20. 78 FR 32296 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public... disaster that affects public transportation systems. The Disaster Relief Appropriations Act provides $10.9... projected total recovery costs for the four most severely affected public transportation systems, not...

  1. 78 FR 19357 - Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Allocation of Public Transportation...) announces the allocation of $2,000,000,000 under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program... after an emergency or major disaster that affects public transportation systems. The Appropriations Act...

  2. When transcriptome meets metabolome : Fast cellular responses of yeast to sudden relief of glucose limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, J.J.; Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Knijnenburg, T.A.; Ras, C.; Ten Pierick, A.; Akmering, M.J.; Van Winden, W.A.; Kresnowati, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Within the first 5 min after a sudden relief from glucose limitation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibited fast changes of intracellular metabolite levels and a major transcriptional reprogramming. Integration of transcriptome and metabolome data revealed tight relationships between the changes at

  3. The Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (P.L. 108-189)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Velez Pollack, Estela I

    2004-01-01

    Recognizing the special burdens that members of the military may encounter in trying to meet their financial obligations while serving their country, Congress passed the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (SSCRA...

  4. Evaluating the Efficacy of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System and Danazol for Relief of Postoperative Pain in Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Ashima; Kaur, Satinder; Soni, R K; Bhanupriya; Kaur, Jaspreet; Singla, Laveen

    2017-07-01

    Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent disorder, manifests during reproductive years and is associated with pain and infertility. There is considerable debate about the effectiveness of various interventions for pain relief. To evaluate the efficacy of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) and Danazol in postoperative pain relief for patients with endometriosis. Hundred patients with diagnosis of endometriosis, who were treated laparoscopically, entered the study to receive either danazol (600 mg once daily) or LNG-IUS (inserted during immediate post operative period) postsurgery, for pain relief. Patients were analysed for pain relief according to VAS score and recurrence of disease using ultrasonography at third and sixth months of follow up. There were 50% patients in stage IV of endometriosis. Majority of them presented with complaint of infertility (49%) and pelvic pain (43%). It was observed that LNG-IUS was significantly more effective in relieving pain compared to danazol (65.2% vs 38.0%, ppain compared to danazol.

  5. Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain Share: © ... funded study found that multiple 60-minute massages per week were more effective than fewer or shorter ...

  6. Evaluation of radiation therapy for bone metastases: pain relief and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, H.A.; Kagan, A.R.; Nussbaum, H.; Rao, A.R.; Satzman, J.; Chan, P.; Allen, B.; Forsythe, A.

    1977-01-01

    The records of 158 patients irradiated for bone metastases were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of pain relief and to judge the effect of treatment on overall quality of life. Within 3 months 73% of the sites treated had pain relief, with 55 to 65% having sustained relief up to 1 year or death. Of patients surviving more than 3 months, 63% maintained a satisfactory quality of life and were able to take care of most personal needs. The median survival of all patients was 1 year from initial treatment for bone metastasis. Radiation dose and the primary tumor site do not seem to be significant prognostic factors for initial pain relief or quality of life

  7. Roller-coaster Ride to, Relief From TMJ | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a roller coaster ride, seeking relief from temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder, which causes pain and, sometimes, dysfunction in the jaw joint and muscles of the neck, head, and face. She has endured: excruciating pain ...

  8. The opium poppy as a symbol of sleep in Bertel Thorvaldsen's relief of 1815.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, Halil; Kosar, Muberra

    2016-03-01

    Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844) is one of the most remarkable representatives of Neoclassicist sculptural art in Europe, which was largely inspired by the classical art and culture of Greek and Roman antiquity. A pair of marble reliefs, Night and Day, exhibited in the Thorvaldsen Museum (Copenhagen), marks the culmination of Thorvaldsen's relief art and is of particular interest to the history of sleep medicine. In the first relief, Night, an angel with her neck bent and eyes closed has two babies in her embrace and seems to be floating down in grief, with an owl hovering behind her. Her hair is also twined with opium poppies, the symbol of sleep and death in antiquity. Our findings suggest that this relief not only indicates a mythological association between the opium poppy and sleep but also has a strong connotation with the poppy's medicinal use for inducing sleep throughout the centuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Florida and East Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  10. FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan, Tsunami Relief, and Other Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belasco, Amy; Nowels, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ... (subsequently amended to total $82.04 billion) to provide funds for ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the global war on terror, reconstruction in Afghanistan, Tsunami relief and rehabilitation, and other activities...

  11. Administrative Relief for Grantees impacted by Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 26, 2017, the Office of Management and Budget issued the attached memorandum, Administrative Relief for Grantees impacted by Hurricanes, to provide Federal agencies with flexibility to assist their grant applicants and recipients.

  12. Congestion relief by travel time minimization in near real time : Detroit area I-75 corridor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    "This document summarizes the activities concerning the project: Congestion Relief by : Travel Time Minimization in Near Real Time -- Detroit Area I-75 Corridor Study since : the inception of the project (Nov. 22, 2006 through September 30, 2008). : ...

  13. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Nonsucrose Sweet Solutions for Pain Relief in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sucrose has been demonstrated to provide analgesia for minor painful procedures in infants. However, results of trials investigating other sweet solutions for neonatal pain relief have not yet been synthesized.

  14. RELIEF JENIS-JENIS FAUNA DAN SETTING LINGKUNGANNYA PADA PAHATAN DINDING CANDI BOROBUDUR (Fauna and Environmental Setting Reliefs on Sculptured Wall of the Borobudur Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Agus Suripto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Dalam perkembangan kebudayaannya, manusia selalu akrab dengan fauna yang hidup di sekitar lingkungannya. Pada dinding gua yang pernah dihuni oleh manusia, bangunan candi, piramid, sphinx dsb. dijumpai gambaran tentang fauna. Pada dinding Candi Borobudur banyak dijumpai relief berbagai kelompok fauna tetapi belum diketahui apakah fauna itu semuanya berasal dari India atau terdapat pula kelompok yang ada atau pernah ada di Pulau Jawa. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui relief jenis-jenis fauna yang dipahat pada dinding candi Borobudur, dan mengetahui asal-usul jenis yang tergarnbar pada relief itu dari Pulau Jawa atau dari India. Informasi itu diharapkan dapat diungkapkan ada tidaknya gambaran setting lingkungan Pulau Jawa tercermin pada pahatan di dinding Candi itu. Relief fauna pada pahatan dinding langkan, dinding utama bagian atas-bawah di tingkatan Rupadhatu dipotret dan nama kelompok fauna diindentifikasi dengan buku-buku kunci identifikasi bergambar, kemudian penyebaran alami masing-masing kelompok fauna diketahui melalui kajian pustaka. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif untuk mengungkap ada atau tidaknya gambaran setting lingkungan Pulau Jawa yang tercermin pada pahatan di dinding Candi Borsbudur. Pada dinding Candi Borobudur terdapat relief paling sedikit 25 jenis anggota Osteichthyes, Reptilia, Aves dan Mammalia yang dipahat secara natural, dan terdapat paling sedikit 5 jenis hewan yang dipahat secara setilir. Semua jenis fauna itu terdapat di Asia Selatan, dan beberapa di anlaranya secara alami tidak pernah hidup di Pulau Jawa, misalnya singa Pantera leo. Setting lingkungan India Abad VII tervisualisasi dengan baik pada relief pahatan dinding Candi Borobudur, tetapi setting lingkungan Pulau Jawa sampai sebelum masa penjajahan Belanda tidak tergambar dengan baik.   ABSTRACT In the cource of culture development, human was always close to fauna in their surrounding areas. Pictures of fauna are found in

  15. Geophysical research results of buried relief and distribution groundwater runoff of the Aragats massif

    OpenAIRE

    V.P. Vardanyan; A.H. Hovhannisyan

    2017-01-01

    Based on the synthesis and reinterpretation of long-term data of geophysical studies together with the hydrology - hydrological materials it has been received new data about the buried topography and spatial distribution of groundwater runoff of the Aragats massif. First of all, it requires to determine the structure of its buried relief, which is basically a regional relief aquitard. The underground water sources are considered to be precipitation on the massif (approximately 83% of the tota...

  16. Effectiveness of Acupressure Treatment for Pain Management and Fatigue Relief in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    only one site – Cleveland Clinic Foundation. No cost extension of a 12-months of period has been submitted. Study Advertisements The online ads...other documentation. Effectiveness of Acupressure Treatment for Pain Management and Fatigue Relief in Gulf War Veterans REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effectiveness of Acupressure Treatment for Pain Management and Fatigue Relief in Gulf War Veterans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  17. The Application of Electroanalgesia Current for the Relief of Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    A-A124 939 THE APPLICATION OF ELECTRORNALGESIA CURRENT FOR THE i/1 RELIEF OF OROFACIAL PAIN (U) OREGON UNIV HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER PORTLAND BIOPHYSICS...COVERED THE APPLICATION OF ELECTROANALGESIA CURRENT FOR Fnl-Fbur 90 and evelpmen Conand September 198 THE RELIEF OF OROFACIAL PAIN Spebr18 27. PERFORMING...of a suitable animal preparation. An excellent site to initiate orofacial pain is found in the tissue vhich also has o - timal relevance, the tooth

  18. [Disaster relief through inter-professional collaboration --from the standpoint of a dietitian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined disaster relief efforts by registered and other dietitians following the Great East Japan Earthquake to identify related problems. Based on this, the study discussed what is required to develop a "disaster relief system through inter-professional collaboration" to cope with unanticipated disasters. On March 15, 2011, the Japan Dietetic Association (JDA) independently established the "Great East Japan Earthquake relief emergency headquarters". The association along with these volunteers was committed to the establishment of a system for disaster relief activities with the support of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures: the number of registered volunteers was 978; a total of 1,588 dietitians were dispatched; and 602 became involved in relief work in the disaster-stricken areas. Registered and other dietitians dispatched for disaster relief provided support and home care for evacuation centers, elderly facilities, and temporary housing, including dietary and nutrition advice and consultation, in cooperation and collaboration with administrative dietitians in disaster areas, registered and other dietitians of disaster headquarters in disaster-stricken prefectures, the Primary Care for All Teams (PCAT) of the Japan Primary Care Association, disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs), and volunteer groups. Through the course of the relief activities, the following problems were identified: difficulties in responding to varying needs in different phases, nutritional measures (population-based and high-risk approaches), nutritional disparities among evacuation centers, necessity of a section to collect ever-changing information on disaster areas in a comprehensive manner, importance of working cooperatively to establish a support system, and differences in volunteers' support skills. To facilitate disaster relief through inter-professional collaboration, it is necessary for many different organizations to understand each other's capabilities

  19. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    interface pressures and increased blood flow. This level of off-loading is achieved by postural changes during sustained reaching, leaning and other...project has been designed to fill two significant gaps in the current state of knowledge: 1) accurate measurement of dedicated pressure reliefs and other...significant gaps in the current state of knowledge: 1) accurate measurement of dedicated pressure reliefs and other weight shift activities and 2) the

  20. Rotorcraft Use in Disaster Relief and Mass Casualty Incidents - Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Disaster Relief and Mass 6. Performing Organization Code C asuallty Incidents- C ase Studies 8._P rfo minOr ani ati nR porNo 7. Author (s) 8...disaster planning process; and 3) produce a color video tape promoting the need for and the use of rotorcraft and heliports in disaster relief. 17...disaster prepaLedness ageicies for use in the integration of local helicopter assets into the disaster planning process; and 3) produce a color video tape

  1. Increased joint loads during walking--a consequence of pain relief in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjaer, T

    2006-01-01

    Joint pain is a primary symptom in knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the effect of pain and pain relief on the knee joint mechanics of walking is not clear. In this study, the effects of local knee joint analgesia on knee joint loads during walking were studied in a group of knee osteoarthritis....... Although the patients walked with less compressive knee joint forces compared to the reference group, the effects of pain relief may accelerate the degenerative changes....

  2. Trajectory of phantom limb pain relief using mirror therapy: Retrospective analysis of two studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sarah C; Curran, Sean; Chan, Annie W Y; Finn, Sacha B; Baker, Chris I; Pasquina, Paul F; Tsao, Jack W

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that mirror therapy reduces phantom limb pain (PLP). Objectives were to determine when mirror therapy works in those who respond to treatment, the relevance of baseline PLP to when pain relief occurs, and what pain symptoms respond to mirror therapy. Data from two independent cohorts with unilateral lower limb amputation were analyzed for this study (n=33). Mirror therapy consisted of 15-min sessions in which amputees performed synchronous movements of the phantom and intact legs/feet. PLP was measured using a visual analogue scale and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. The severity of PLP at the beginning of treatment predicted when pain relief occurred. Those with low baseline PLP experienced a reduction (ppain relief by session 14 of treatment, and those with high baseline PLP experienced pain relief by session 21 of treatment. Mirror therapy reduced throbbing, shooting, stabbing, sharp, cramping, aching, tender, splitting, tiring/exhausting, and punishing-cruel pain symptoms. The degree of PLP at baseline predicts when mirror therapy relieves pain. This article indicates that the degree of baseline PLP affects when mirror therapy relieves pain: relief occurs by session 7 in patients with low PLP but by session 21 in patients with high PLP. Clinicians should anticipate slower pain relief in patients who begin treatment with high levels of pain. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers:NCT00623818 and NCT00662415. Copyright © 2017 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  3. Proactive pressure relief system management of life cycle and ageing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenc, J.; Ferrar, S.

    2011-01-01

    The last major power nuclear station built in North America was built when the Altair Company introduced the first microcomputer sparking the PC frenzy. It is safe to assume that there have been a great many changes since 1977 on both accounts. As the world's aging nuclear plants continue to be challenged with maintenance and replacement issues (obsolescence), as well making improvements within their facilities, proper pressure relief system management looms as a growing concern. This problem grows more acute as new engineering best practices are promulgated across industries and regulatory standards become more rigorous with much stricter enforcements. Unlike most pieces of operating equipment in a nuclear facility, pressure relief devices demand an extra level of consideration; as they form the 'last line of defense'. Combine the on-going obsolescence issue, with today's ever increasing demands for overall plant and public safety; pressure relief safety management will require increasing 'proactive' efforts to ensure safe facilities. This paper has been written to address some global pressure relief system management issues with respect the worlds aging nuclear facilities. This paper reflects findings we have discovered while conducting engineering pressure relief system audits on various nuclear power stations. It should be noted that these finding are not atypical of similar findings in pressure relief systems in the hydrocarbon processing world. (author)

  4. Measuring Paleolandscape Relief in Alluvial River Systems from the Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, E. A.; Trampush, S. M.; Chamberlin, E.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aggradational alluvial river systems sometimes generate relief in the vicinity of their channel belts (i.e. alluvial ridges) and it has been proposed that this process may define important thresholds in river avulsion. The compensation scale can be used to estimate the maximum relief across a landscape and can be connected to the maximum scale of autogenic organization in experimental and numerical systems. Here we use the compensation scale - measured from outcrops of Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene fluvial deposits - to estimate the maximum relief that characterized ancient fluvial landscapes. In some cases, the compensation scale significantly exceeds the maximum channel depth observed in a deposit, suggesting that aggradational alluvial systems organize to sustain more relief than might be expected by looking only in the immediate vicinity of the active channel belt. Instead, these results indicate that in some systems, positive topographic relief generated by multiple alluvial ridge complexes and/or large-scale fan features may be associated with landscape-scale autogenic organization of channel networks that spans multiple cycles of channel avulsion. We compare channel and floodplain sedimentation patterns among the studied ancient fluvial systems in an effort to determine whether avulsion style, channel migration, or floodplain conditions influenced the maximum autogenic relief of ancient landscapes. Our results emphasize that alluvial channel networks may be organized at much larger spatial and temporal scales than previously realized and provide an avenue for understanding which types of river systems are likely to exhibit the largest range of autogenic dynamics.

  5. Modeling the onset and offset of dental pain relief by ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanbin; Mandema, Jaap; Wada, Russell; Jayawardena, Shyamalie; Desjardins, Paul; Doyle, Geraldine; Kellstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Onset and offset of dental pain relief by ibuprofen following third molar extraction were modeled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 8-hour study of patients receiving either a novel effervescent ibuprofen tablet (400 mg; N = 30), standard ibuprofen tablets (Nurofen(®) 2 × 200 mg; N = 22), or placebo (N = 37). An Emax model was fit to pain relief scores. Linear hazard models were used to analyze the time to first perceptible relief (TFPR), the time to meaningful pain relief (TMPR), and time to remedication (REMD). Nomograms were created to correlate TFPR, TMPR, and REMD with different ibuprofen pharmacokinetic profiles. Effervescent ibuprofen was absorbed rapidly with 95% completion within 15 minutes. Maximum pain relief score by ibuprofen was 1.8 units greater than placebo, with an EC50 (effect-site) for ibuprofen concentration of 10.2 µg·mL(-1). The likelihood to achieve TFPR and TMPR was doubled for every 10 µg·mL(-1) increase in ibuprofen plasma concentration. REMD risk decreased 40-fold as the categorical pain relief score increased from 0 to 3. Rapid absorption of ibuprofen effervescent resulted in an earlier TFPR and TMPR, and a lower REMD rate than standard ibuprofen. The nomograms may be useful in predicting the onset and offset of new faster acting ibuprofen formulations, based on pharmacokinetic profiles.

  6. Impact of radiotherapy on pain relief and recalcification in plasma cell neoplasms. Long-term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, Mario; Chiesa, Silvia; Manfrida, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of radiotherapy on pain relief and on recalcification in patients with osteolytic lesions due to plasma cell neoplasm. Patients and Methods: Pain relief was evaluated according to a 0-10 verbal numerical rating scale (NRS) and recalcification was measured using radiological imaging. Results: From 1996-2007, 52 patients were treated. Median total dose was 38 Gy (range, 16-50 Gy). Pain before radiotherapy was reported by 45 of 52 (86.5%) patients as being severe (8 ≤ NRS ≤ 10) in 5 (11%), moderate (5 ≤ NRS ≤ 7) in 27 (60%), and mild in 13 (29%). Pain relief was achieved in 41 of 45 patients (91%): complete relief was obtained in 21 (51.2%) and partial relief in 20 patients (48.8%); patients with severe pain experienced resolution and none presented an increase of pain. Drugs reduction/suspension was achieved in 7 of the 21 patients with complete response. Of 42 patients evaluable for recalcification, 21 (50%) presented a radiological response, which was identified as complete in 16 (38%). Conclusion: Our data confirm the effectiveness of radiotherapy for pain relief, including a reduction in drug intake, and on recalcification, thus, supporting its use in a multidisciplinary approach. (orig.)

  7. Residual stress measurement inside a dissimilar metal weld mock-up of the pressurizer safety and relief nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Silva, Luiz L.; Mansur, Tanius R., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvall@cdtn.br, E-mail: tanius@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Servico de Integridade Estrutural; Martins, Ketsia S., E-mail: ketshinoda@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Nelo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2015-07-01

    Residual stresses are present in materials or structural component in the absence of external loads or changes in temperatures. The most common causes of residual stresses being present are the manufacturing or assembling processes. All manufacturing processes, such as casting, welding, machining, molding, heat treatment, among others, introduces residual stresses into the manufactured object. The residual stresses effects could be beneficial or detrimental, depending on its distribution related to the component or structure, its load service and if it is compressive or tensile. In this work, the residual strains and stresses inside a mock-up that simulates the safety and relief nozzle of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant pressurizer were studied. The current paper presents a blind hole-drilling method residual stress measurements both at the inner surface of dissimilar metal welds of dissimilar metal weld nozzle mock-up. (author)

  8. Residual stress measurement inside a dissimilar metal weld mock-up of the pressurizer safety and relief nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Silva, Luiz L.; Mansur, Tanius R.; Martins, Ketsia S.

    2015-01-01

    Residual stresses are present in materials or structural component in the absence of external loads or changes in temperatures. The most common causes of residual stresses being present are the manufacturing or assembling processes. All manufacturing processes, such as casting, welding, machining, molding, heat treatment, among others, introduces residual stresses into the manufactured object. The residual stresses effects could be beneficial or detrimental, depending on its distribution related to the component or structure, its load service and if it is compressive or tensile. In this work, the residual strains and stresses inside a mock-up that simulates the safety and relief nozzle of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant pressurizer were studied. The current paper presents a blind hole-drilling method residual stress measurements both at the inner surface of dissimilar metal welds of dissimilar metal weld nozzle mock-up. (author)

  9. The auditory scene: an fMRI study on melody and accompaniment in professional pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Danilo; Verga, Laura; Iadanza, Antonella; Tettamanti, Marco; Perani, Daniela

    2014-11-15

    The auditory scene is a mental representation of individual sounds extracted from the summed sound waveform reaching the ears of the listeners. Musical contexts represent particularly complex cases of auditory scenes. In such a scenario, melody may be seen as the main object moving on a background represented by the accompaniment. Both melody and accompaniment vary in time according to harmonic rules, forming a typical texture with melody in the most prominent, salient voice. In the present sparse acquisition functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the interplay between melody and accompaniment in trained pianists, by observing the activation responses elicited by processing: (1) melody placed in the upper and lower texture voices, leading to, respectively, a higher and lower auditory salience; (2) harmonic violations occurring in either the melody, the accompaniment, or both. The results indicated that the neural activation elicited by the processing of polyphonic compositions in expert musicians depends upon the upper versus lower position of the melodic line in the texture, and showed an overall greater activation for the harmonic processing of melody over accompaniment. Both these two predominant effects were characterized by the involvement of the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, among other associative brain regions. We discuss the prominent role of the posterior medial cortex in the processing of melodic and harmonic information in the auditory stream, and propose to frame this processing in relation to the cognitive construction of complex multimodal sensory imagery scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pedagogical guidelines for educational accompaniment for grieving to adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo RODRÍGUEZ HERRERO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is needed a foundation and some orientations to act in loss and grief situations with adults with intellectual disabilities. In this article, through a relevant literature review, we based the educational accompaniment as a pedagogic methodology of support with three principal elements: a The conception of grief from its formative potential, b The prevention of disorders associated to grief complications, c The pedagogic intervention preferably from the tutorship or from the actuation of educators or professionals near to intellectual disabilities people. The educational accompaniment model is a proposal that can be placed on humanist models of grief since it considers both the characteristics of the grieving process and the formative possibilities of its elaboration. The article’s conclusions present some of the benefits of the educational accompaniment for adults with intellectual disabilities.

  11. The Godparent Plan: A Pedagogical Strategy for CS1 Accompaniment and CS2 Pedagogical Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guillermo Feijóo-García

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Courses such as CS1 and CS2 can present an interesting pedagogical challenge when it comes to the theory-practice relationship, along with aspects that involve the course's logistics, the programming language used, and the characteristics of the students involved in the process. This study presents an innovative didactic approach, oriented towards the accompaniment of CS1 students by CS2 students at Universidad El Bosque, Colombia, seeking with this Godparent Plan, to provide a personalized accompaniment to first semester students, whereby CS2 students enhance their domain over concepts and skills while accompanying, explaining and teaching younger peers. The results of this study are favorable, outlining a didactic scheme that can be adapted and replicated in other curricular scenarios.

  12. Prepositions in Use: Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Possession and Prepositions of Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Masned AlQbailat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research paper attempted at investigating the use of prepositions of standard, prepositions of possession and prepositions of accompaniment by some Jordanian learners of English. A total of 53 Jordanian English Majors participated in the study from the department of English language at Princess Alia University College. In collecting the needed data for the purpose of the study, the researchers employed fifteen items of a multiple choice test. The results of the study showed that Jordanian learners of English encountered moderate difficulty in learning the three aforesaid usages of prepositions. This difficulty is ascribed mainly to first language interference more than intralingual interference. It was also found that prepositions of standard are the most difficult to learn by the participants, followed by prepositions of accompaniment and prepositions of possession respectively.       Keywords: First language Interference, Intralingual Interference, Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Accompaniment, Prepositions of Possession

  13. Peculiarities of infectious diseases course accompanied by quinsy syndrome in children (data from children infectious hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikova T.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study morbidity dynamics for the period of 15 years and to determine clinical signs that accompany quinsy syndrome (diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, quinsy. Retrospective study analysis of annual reports and case-histories was carried out. 323 cases of infectious diseases accompanied by quinsy syndrome were examined. Clinical and epidemic signs of diseases were determined during the period of morbidity raise. The current clinical course of diseases was characterized in detail. The significant percentage of renal complications in case of pharyngonasal cavity lesion was shown

  14. TREATMENT OF ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BY THROAT IRRITATION AND PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Petrovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenetically, prescription of local action drugs containing a wide spectrum antiseptic is reasonable for the upper respiratory tract diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain. It should be noted that such drugs are very popular among parents; however, most of these drugs may have a range of side effects, which considerably complicate their use in children. That is why the right choice of local action drugs for the acute inflammatory diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain is a guarantee of treatment efficacy and high compliance. This article examines pharmacological qualities of an antiseptic-containing local action drug permitted to use in children over 4 years of age.

  15. oas electoral observations vs. unasur accompaniment in the last elections in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos PASCUAL PLANCHUELO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral observation has become an essential exercise for the development of electoral democracy. The proliferation of organizations monitoring elections makes necessary to distinguish real «election observation activities», from other similar activities, such as «electoral accompaniment». Independence is an essential element that must be respected by true electoral observation organizations. Accordingly, the lack of independence in some of these organizations transforms them into «intervened electoral observation» actors, dowgrading its credibility and reliability. Hence, the last electoral processes that have taken place in Venezuela, provide the necessary factual basis to distinguish oas election observation missions, from unasur accompaniment missions.

  16. Bas-relief map using texture analysis with application to live enhancement of ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarui; Ma, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    For ultrasound imaging, speckle is one of the most important factors in the degradation of contrast resolution because it masks meaningful texture and has the potential to interfere with diagnosis. It is expected that researchers would explore appropriate ways to reduce the speckle noise, to find the edges of structures and enhance weak borders between different organs in ultrasound imaging. Inspired by the principle of differential interference contrast microscopy, a "bas-relief map" is proposed that depicts the texture structure of ultrasound images. Based on a bas-relief map, an adaptive bas-relief filter was developed for ultrafast despeckling. Subsequently, an edge map was introduced to enhance the edges of images in real time. The holistic bas-relief map approach has been used experimentally with synthetic phantoms and digital ultrasound B-scan images of liver, kidney and gallbladder. Based on the visual inspection and the performance metrics of the despeckled images, it was found that the bas-relief map approach is capable of effectively reducing the speckle while significantly enhancing contrast and tissue boundaries for ultrasonic images, and its speckle reduction ability is comparable to that of Kuan, Lee and Frost filters. Meanwhile, the proposed technique could preserve more intra-region details compared with the popular speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion technique and more effectively enhance edges. In addition, the adaptive bas-relief filter was much less time consuming than the Kuan, Lee and Frost filter and speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion techniques. The bas-relief map strategy is effective for speckle reduction and live enhancement of ultrasound images, and can provide a valuable tool for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Women's preferences and received pain relief in childbirth - A prospective longitudinal study in a northern region of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Annika; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2015-06-01

    A range of alternatives in pain management during childbirth are available in the western countries. Women's preferences for and use of pain relief methods during labour is not fully investigated. The aim of this study was to describe what pain relief methods pregnant women preferred when asked in late pregnancy and to identify factors associated with preferred and received pain relief methods. A prospective longitudinal study in a northern region of Sweden (n = 936). Data were collected by three questionnaires. Odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval were calculated between preferred and received pain relief methods for several explanatory variables. The most preferred pain relief methods were also the most common received pain relief methods; nitrous oxide, bathing, breathing techniques, epidural analgesia and massage. The strongest factors for using different pain relief methods were primiparity and preferences. Women who used epidural analgesia, regardless of preference, were two to four times more likely to have a less positive birth experience. Women's preferences for a certain pain relief method were largely met. Greater differences were seen between background factors and preferences than the received pain relief methods. Preferences and primiparity were the most important factors for actually using pain relief. Epidural analgesia was associated with a less positive birth experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. San Andreas Fault, Southern California, Shaded relief, wrapped color as height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image vividly displays California's famous San Andreas Fault along the southwestern edge of the Mojave Desert, 75 kilometers (46 miles) north of downtown Los Angeles. The entire segment of the fault shown in this image last ruptured during the Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857. This was one of the greatest earthquakes ever recorded in the U.S., and it left an amazing surface rupture scar over 350 kilometers in length along the San Andreas. Were the Fort Tejon shock to happen today, the damage would run into billions of dollars, and the loss of life would likely be substantial, as the communities of Wrightwood, Palmdale, and Lancaster (among others) all lie upon or near the 1857 rupture area. The San Gabriel Mountains fill the lower left half of the image. At the extreme lower left is Pasadena. High resolution topographic data such as these are used by geologists to study the role of active tectonics in shaping the landscape, and to produce earthquake hazard maps.This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2400 meters (8000 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three

  19. High Pressure Hydrogen Pressure Relief Devices: Accelerated Life Testing and Application Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-06

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs ) are used to protect high pressure systems from burst failure caused by overpressurization. Codes and standards require the use of PRDs for the safe design of many pressurized systems. These systems require high reliability due to the risks associated with a burst failure. Hydrogen service can increase the risk of PRD failure due to material property degradation caused by hydrogen attack. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducted an accelerated life test on a conventional spring loaded PRD. Based on previous failures in the field, the nozzles specific to these PRDs are of particular interest. A nozzle in a PRD is a small part that directs the flow of fluid toward the sealing surface to maintain the open state of the valve once the spring force is overcome. The nozzle in this specific PRD is subjected to the full tensile force of the fluid pressure. These nozzles are made from 440C material, which is a type of hardened steel that is commonly chosen for high pressure applications because of its high strength properties. In a hydrogen environment, however, 440C is considered a worst case material since hydrogen attack results in a loss of almost all ductility and thus 440C is prone to fatigue and material failure. Accordingly, 440C is not recommended for hydrogen service. Conducting an accelerated life test on a PRD with 440C material provides information on necessary and sufficient conditions required to produce crack initiation and failure. The accelerated life test also provides information on other PRD failure modes that are somewhat statistically random in nature.

  20. Conformational variation of surface class II MHC proteins during myeloid dendritic cell differentiation accompanies structural changes in lysosomal MIIC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potolicchio, I.; Chitta, S.; Xu, X.; Fonseca, D.; Crisi, G.; Hořejší, Václav; Strominger, J. L.; Stern, L. J.; Raposo, G.; Santambrogio, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 8 (2005), s. 4935-4947 ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : MHC II * HLA-DR * dendritic cell Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.387, year: 2005